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Sample records for 11c radiolabeled methanol

  1. Nanostructured copper, chromium, and tin oxide multicomponent materials as catalysts for methanol decomposition: 11C-radiolabeling study.

    PubMed

    Tsoncheva, Tanya; Sarkadi-Priboczki, Eva; Dimitrov, Momtchil; Genova, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Copper and chromium modified tin oxide nanocomposites were obtained via incipient wetness impregnation of high surface area nanosized SnO(2) with the corresponding metal acetylacetonates and their further decomposition in air. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nitrogen physisorption, UV-Vis, and Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) with hydrogen were applied for the samples characterization. The catalytic activity of the obtained materials was tested in methanol conversion. A new approach based on the selective coverage of the surface with (11)C-methanol was used for the characterization of the catalytic sites. It was demonstrated that the products distribution could be controlled by the surface coverage with methanol and the role of different active sites was discussed. The modification of SnO(2) with copper oxide increased the activity in methanol decomposition to CO(2)via dioxymethylene intermediates, but the catalyst suffered considerable loss of activity due to the reduction transformations by the reaction medium and formation of an inactive intermetallic alloy. The modification with chromium changed the acid-basic properties of SnO(2) by the formation of Cr(2)O(3) nanoparticles as well as anchored to the support chromate species. The former particles facilitated the formation of dimethyl ether (DME), while the latter species converted methanol predominantly to hydrocarbons. The fraction of chromate species increased in Cu-Cr-Sn oxide multicomponent nanocomposites and promoted the formation of hydrocarbons over DME at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures, the activity of the copper species leading to CO(2) formation was more pronounced.

  2. Synthesis of [11C]palmitic acid for PET imaging using a single molecular sieve 13X cartridge for reagent trapping, radiolabeling and selective purification.

    PubMed

    Amor-Coarasa, Alejandro; Kelly, James M; Babich, John W

    2015-08-01

    Radiolabeled fatty acids are valuable metabolic tracers for PET imaging. Carbon-11 is widely used in clinical PET studies due to the prevalence of facile techniques enabling the incorporation of [(11)C]CO2 and [(11)C]CH3 into molecules and a short half-life (20.4 min) that translates into low patient dose. However, the short half-life considerably limits the time for radiosynthesis. Furthermore, the majority of the syntheses of [(11)C]palmitic acid in common use employ high starting [(11)C]CO2 activities and/or expensive equipment. [(11)C]CO2 was trapped with greater than 99.99% efficiency by a three stage cartridge packed with molecular sieve 13X, 100-120 mesh. The labeling of n-pentadecylmagnesium bromide took place in 5 min in the cartridge, and the [(11)C]palmitic acid product was selectively eluted in ethanol following alkaline and acidic washes of the column. The system reliably produced more than 925 MBq (25 mCi) of [(11)C]palmitic acid suitable for human use from 7.4 GBq (200 mCi) of [(11)C]CO2 in 8 min from end-of-bombardment. We have exploited the properties of the inexpensive molecular sieve 13X to develop a miniature, disposable and leak tight "gas capture" system for the rapid labeling and purification of [(11)C]fatty acids in good yield and >99% radiochemical purity. The rapidity of the synthesis and purification allows small [(11)C]CO2 starting activities to be used, and with no requirement for expensive synthesis equipment or facilities, the system can be implemented in any radiopharmaceutical center. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiolabeling of methanol extracts of yarrow (Achillea millefolium l) in rats.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Betul; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Unak, Perihan; Medine, Emin Ilker

    2012-05-01

    Current study is focused on extraction with methanol, purification, labeling with (131)I using iodogen method of the yarrow plant and investigating in vivo biological activity using biodistribution and imaging studies on healthy animal models. The aim of the study is to contribute plant extracts to discover new drugs in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. Nine female and nine male healthy Wistar albino rats, which were approximately 100-150 g in weight, were used for biodistribution studies. For imaging studies four healthy male Balb-C mice were used. Quality control studies were done utilizing thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. For biodistribution studies, (131)I radiolabeled Peak 7 ((131)I-Peak 7) was sterilized and injected into the tail veil of rats and imaging studies were obtained using Kodak FX PRO in vivo Imaging System. The radiolabeling yield of each purified the bioactive extracts of the yarrow plant, seven peaks was between 79 and 92%. The highest radiolabeling yield was calculated for (131)I radiolabeled seventh peak ((131)I-Peak 7) (92.78 ± 5.04, n=5). For this reason the biodistribution and imaging studies were done for (131)I-Peak 7. That's why; these studies with Peak 7 were carried out. Peak 7 was radiolabeled with (131)I in high yield for using imaging and therapeutic studies in nuclear medical applications.

  4. [18F]- and [11C]-Labeled N-benzyl-isatin sulfonamide analogues as PET tracers for apoptosis: synthesis, radiolabeling mechanism, and in vivo imaging of apoptosis in Fas-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dong; Chu, Wenhua; Chen, Delphine L.; Wang, Qi; Reichert, David E.; Rothfuss, Justin; D'Avignon, Andre; Welch, Michael J.; Mach, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The radiolabeled isatin sulfonamide caspase-3 inhibitor, [18F]2 (WC-II-89), is a potential PET radiotracer for noninvasive imaging of apoptosis. The radiolabeling mechanism was studied by 13C NMR, ESI/MS, and computational calculations. It was found that the high electrophilicity of the C3 carbonyl group in the isatin ring, which served as a trap for [18F]fluoride, was responsible for the failure of the radiolabeling via nucleophilic substitution of the mesylate group in 7a by [18F]fluoride. Once treated with a strong base, 7a opened the isatin ring completely to form an isatinate intermediate 16, which lost the ability to trap [18F]fluoride, thereby allowing the displacement of the mesylate group to afford the 18F-labeled isatinate 17. [18F]17 can be converted to isatin [18F]2 efficiently under acidic conditions. The ring-opening and re-closure of the isatin ring under basic and acidic conditions were confirmed by reversed phase HPLC analysis, ESI/MS and 13C NMR studies. Computational studies of model compounds also support the above proposed mechanism. Similarly, the ring-opening and re-closure method was used successfully in the synthesis of the 11C labeled isatin sulfonamide analogue [11C]4 (WC-98). A microPET imaging study using [11C]4 in the Fas liver apoptosis model demonstrated retained activity in the target organ (liver) of the treated mice. Increased caspase-3 activation in the liver was verified by the fluorometric caspase-3 enzyme assay. Therefore, this study provides a useful method for radio-synthesis of isatin derivative radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies, and [11C]4 is a potential PET radiotracer for noninvasive imaging of apoptosis. PMID:19300818

  5. Methanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methanol ; CASRN 67 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development . Sections I ( H

  6. No-carrier-added [1.sup.11 c]putrescine

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Daniel W.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a new radiolabeled imaging agent, no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine, and to the use of this very pure material as a radiotracer with positron emission tomography for imaging brain tumors. The invention further relates to the synthesis of no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine based on the Michael addition of potassium .sup.11 C-labeled cyanide to acrylonitrile followed by reduction of the .sup.11 C-labeled dinitrile. The new method is rapid and efficient and provides radiotracer with a specific activity greater than 1.4 curies per millimol and in a purity greater than 95%.

  7. 11C=O Bonds Made Easily for Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Liang, Steven H.; Placzek, Michael S.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Gee, Antony D.; Dollé, Frédéric; Wilson, Alan A.; Vasdev, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The positron-emitting radionuclide carbon-11 (11C, t1/2 = 20.3 minutes) possesses the unique potential for radiolabeling of any biological, naturally occurring, or synthetic organic molecule for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Carbon-11 is most often incorporated into small molecules by methylation of alcohol, thiol, amine or carboxylic acid precursors using [11C]methyl iodide or [11C]methyl triflate (generated from [11C]CO2). Consequently, small molecules that lack an easily substituted 11C-methyl group are often considered to have non-obvious strategies for radiolabeling and require a more customized approach. [11C]Carbon dioxide, [11C]carbon monoxide, [11C]cyanide, and [11C]phosgene represent alternative carbon-11 reactants to enable 11C-carbonylation. Methodologies developed for preparation of 11C-carbonyl groups have had a tremendous impact on the development of novel PET radiopharmaceuticals and provided key tools for clinical research. 11C-Carbonyl radiopharmaceuticals based on labeled carboxylic acids, amides, carbamates, and ureas now account for a substantial number of important imaging agents that have seen translation to higher species and clinical research of previously inaccessible targets, which is a testament to the creativity, utility, and practicality of the underlying radiochemistry. PMID:27276357

  8. PET with radiolabeled aminoacid.

    PubMed

    Crippa, F; Alessi, A; Serafini, G L

    2012-04-01

    Since the clinical introduction of FDG, neuroimaging has been the first area of PET application in oncology. Later, while FDG-PET became progressively a key imaging modality in the management of the majority of malignancies outside the brain, its neuro-oncologic indications faced some limitations because of the unfavourable characteristics of FDG as brain tumor-seeking agent. PET applications in neuro-oncology have received new effectiveness by the advent of positron-emission labelled amino acids, so that it has been coined the term "Amino acid PET" to differentiate this imaging tool from FDG-PET. Radiolabeled amino acids are a very interesting class of PET tracers with great diagnostic potential in neuro-oncology because of their low uptake in normal brain and, conversely, high uptake in most brain tumors including low-grade gliomas. The present article surveys the results obtained using L-[methyl-11C]Methionine (MET), that has been the ancestor of PET amino acid tracers and is still the most popular amino acid imaging modality in oncology, and stresses the important role that this diagnostic modality can play in the evaluation of brain tumors. However, the use of MET is restricted to PET centers with an in-house cyclotron and radiochemistry facility, because of the short half-life (20 min) of 11C. The promising results of MET have stimulated the development of 18F-labelled aminoacid tracers, particularly O-(2-18F-fluoeoethyl1)-L-tyrosine (FET), that has the same properties of MET and, thanks to the longer half-life of 18F (about 110 min), allows a distribution strategy from a production tracer site to user satellite PET centers. Considering a more widespread use of Amino acid PET, together with the recent development of integrated PET-MRI imaging systems, and the oncoming clinical validation of other interesting PET tracers, i.e. FMISO or 18F-FAZA for hypoxia imaging and FLT for tumor proliferation imaging, it can be reasonably expected that metabolic imaging

  9. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 11C-labelled docetaxel in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hendrikse, N. Harry; Smit, Egbert F.; Mooijer, Martien P. J.; Rijnders, Anneloes Y.; Gerritsen, Winald R.; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J. M.; Windhorst, Albert D.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Lubberink, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Docetaxel is an important chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of several cancer types. As radiolabelled anticancer agents provide a potential means for personalized treatment planning, docetaxel was labelled with the positron emitter 11C. Non-invasive measurements of [11C]docetaxel uptake in organs and tumours may provide additional information on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug docetaxel. The purpose of the present study was to determine the biodistribution and radiation absorbed dose of [11C]docetaxel in humans. Methods Biodistribution of [11C]docetaxel was measured in seven patients (five men and two women) with solid tumours using PET/CT. Venous blood samples were collected to measure activity in blood and plasma. Regions of interest (ROI) for various source organs were defined on PET (high [11C]docetaxel uptake) or CT (low [11C]docetaxel uptake). ROI data were used to generate time-activity curves and to calculate percentage injected dose and residence times. Radiation absorbed doses were calculated according to the MIRD method using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software. Results Gall bladder and liver demonstrated high [11C]docetaxel uptake, whilst uptake in brain and normal lung was low. The percentage injected dose at 1 h in the liver was 47 ± 9%. [11C]docetaxel was rapidly cleared from plasma and no radiolabelled metabolites were detected. [11C]docetaxel uptake in tumours was moderate and highly variable between tumours. Conclusion The effective dose of [11C]docetaxel was 4.7 µSv/MBq. As uptake in normal lung is low, [11C]docetaxel may be a promising tracer for tumours in the thoracic region. PMID:20508935

  10. A rapid and highly enantioselective C-(11)C bond formation of l-[(11)C]phenylalanine via chiral phase-transfer catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pekošak, Aleksandra; Filp, Ulrike; Škrinjar, Janja; Poot, Alex J; Windhorst, Albert D

    2017-01-18

    A rapid method for the synthesis of carbon-11 radiolabeled phenylalanine was developed using a chiral phase-transfer catalyst and a sub-nanomolar quantity of [(11)C]benzyl iodide as a radio-precursor. Based on a reported synthesis of [(11)C]benzyl iodide, a Schiff base precursor was evaluated for stereoselective [(11)C]benzylation. Extensive and interactive screening of the precursor, catalyst, base, stirring and temperature was required to achieve high stereoinduction. The result is an efficient 5-step radiolabeling method to reliably synthesize l- or d-[(11)C]phenylalanine with an excellent enantiomeric excess of >90% and almost quantitative radiochemical conversion of >95% (n > 5). Additionally, a phase-transfer catalyzed alkylation was utilized on the preparative scale using automated platform. The application resulted in high specific activity ranging from 85-135 GBq μmol(-1) of the enantiomerically pure [(11)C]phenylalanine, showing that the process is robust and amenable to broad use in PET.

  11. (11)C-Methionine uptake in secondary brain epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopci, E; Bello, L; Chiti, A

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-11 methionine ((11)C-Methionine) is a radio-labeled amino acid currently utilized in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for imaging primary and metastatic brain tumors. Its clinical use relies mostly on oncologic applications, but the tracer has the potential to investigate other non-malignant conditions. So far, very limited evidence concerns the use of (11)C-Methionine in patients suffering from seizure; however, the tracer can find a proper utilization in this setting especially as a diagnostic complement to (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). Herein we report the case of a 57-year-old patient presenting with epileptic crises secondary to a brain metastasis from bladder carcinoma, who was investigated in our institution with (11)C-Methionine PET. The scan documented the disease recurrence in the left parietal lobe associated with a diffused tracer uptake in the surrounding cerebral circumvolutions, derived from the comitial status. After surgical removal of the metastatic lesion, the patient experienced a complete recovery of symptoms and no further onset of secondary seizure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. An efficient and practical synthesis of [2-11C]indole via superfast nucleophilic [11C]cyanation and RANEY® Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization

    DOE PAGES

    So Jeong Lee; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; ...

    2015-09-21

    We developed a rapid method for the synthesis of carbon-11 radiolabeled indole using a sub-nanomolar quantity of no-carrier-added [11C]cyanide as radio-precursor. Based upon a reported synthesis of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (2), a highly reactive substrate 2-nitrobenzyl bromide (1) was evaluated for nucleophilic [11C]cyanation. Additionally, related reaction conditions were explored with the goal of obtaining of highly reactive 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-11C]acetonitrile ([11C]-2) while inhibiting its rapid conversion to 2,3-bis(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-11C]propanenitrile ([11C]-3). Next, a Raney Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization method was utilized for synthesizing the desired [2-11C]indole with hydrazinium monoformate as the active reducing agent. Extensive and iterative screening of basicity, temperature and stoichiometry was required tomore » overcome the large stoichiometry bias that favored 2-nitrobenzylbromide (1) over [11C]cyanide, which both caused further alkylation of the desired nitrile and poisoned the Raney Nickel catalyst. The result is an efficient two-step, streamlined method to reliably synthesize [2-11C]indole with an entire radiochemical yield of 21 ± 2.2% (n = 5, ranging from 18 – 24%). The radiochemical purity of the final product was > 98% and specific activity was 176 ± 24.8 GBq/μmol (n = 5, ranging from 141 – 204 GBq/μmol). The total radiosynthesis time including product purification by semi-preparative HPLC was 50 – 55 min from end of cyclotron bombardment.« less

  13. 11C Background in Liquid Scintillator Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocar, Andrea

    2005-09-01

    Cosmogenic 11C produced in muon showers is one of the main backgrounds for the detection of pep and CNO solar neutrinos in underground organic liquid scintillator detectors. Experimental data available for the effective cross section for 11C by muons indicate that 11C is in fact the dominant background for the observation of such neutrinos. 11C decays are expected to total a rate 2.5 (20) times higher than the combined rate of pep and CNO neutrinos in Borexino (KamLAND) in the energy window preferred for the pep measurement, between 0.8 and 1.3 MeV. Background from 11C in organic liquid scintillator detectors can be reduced if a neutron is emitted when the 11C nuclide is created. 11C decays can be tagged on a one-by-one basis using a three-fold coincidence with the parent muon track and the subsequent neutron capture on protons. The efficiency of such background reduction critically relies on the emission of a free neutron associated with 11C production. In order to verify the hypothesis, first suggested by Deutsch, that a neutron is in fact always emitted when 11C is produced, we perform a detailed ab initio calculation of the production of cosmogenic 11C, taking into consideration all relevant production channels. Results of the calculation are compared with the effective cross sections measured by target experiments in muon beams. "Bilnd" channels without a neutron in the final state account for only about 5% of 11C production modes. An estimation of the effectiveness of the one-by-one tagging of 11C events, in light of such "blind" channels is performed for KamLAND, Borexino, and a possible scintillator experiment at SNOLab. Both KamLAND and Borexino can significantly improve their pep and CNO solar neutrino signal and could perform a 3% mesurement of the pep solar neutrino flux in five years. At SNOLab depths the muon flux is low enough that 11C background would be much smaller than the pep and CNO neutrino signal and hence negligible.

  14. Investigation of SN2 [11C]cyanation for base-sensitive substrates: an improved radiosynthesis of L-[5-11C]-glutamine.

    PubMed

    Gleede, Tassilo; Riehl, Barbara; Shea, Colleen; Kersting, Lena; Cankaya, Aylin Sibel; Alexoff, David; Schueller, Michael; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-11 (β(+) emitter, t1/2 = 20.4 min) radiolabeled L-glutamine is a potentially useful molecular imaging agent that can be utilized with positron emission tomography for both human oncological diagnosis and plant imaging research. Based upon a previously reported [(11)C]cyanide end-capping labeling method, a systematic investigation of nucleophilic cyanation reactions and acidic hydrolysis reaction parameters, including base, metal ion source, phase transfer catalyst, solvent, reaction temperature and reaction time, was conducted. The result was a milder, more reliable, two-step method which provides L-[5-(11)C]-glutamine with a radiochemical yield of 63.8 ± 8.7% (range from 51 to 74%, n = 10) with >90% radiochemical purity and >90 % enantiomeric purity. The total synthesis time was 40-50 min from the end of bombardment. In addition, an Fmoc derivatization method was developed to measure the specific activity of this radiotracer.

  15. Design and automated production of 11C-alpha-methyl-l-tryptophan (11C-AMT).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Xiao, Xia; Gillies, Robert J; Tian, Haibin

    2016-05-01

    (11)C-alpha-methyl-l-tryptophan ([(11)C]AMT), a tryptophan metabolism PET tracer, has successfully been employed for brain serotonin pathway and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway related tumor imaging. We here report a reliable, automated procedure for routine synthesis of [(11)C]AMT based on an Eckert and Ziegler Modular-Lab system. The semi-preparative HPLC was incorporated into the system to improve chemical purity and specific activity. The 6-step radiosynthesis followed by HPLC-purification provided [(11)C]AMT in 5.3±1.2% (n=6, non-decay-corrected) overall radiochemical yield with radiochemical purity >99% and specific activity of 35-116GBq/μmol. Usually, 2.95±0.65GBq (n=6, EOS) patient ready dose was produced from about 55.5GBq [(11)C]CO2 in 50min.

  16. (-)-N-[(11)C]propyl-norapomorphine: a positron-labeled dopamine agonist for PET imaging of D(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, D R; Kegeles, L S; Laruelle, M

    2000-08-01

    Imaging neuroreceptors with radiolabeled agonists might provide valuable information on the in vivo agonist affinity states of receptors of interest. We report here the radiosynthesis, biodistribution in rodents, and imaging studies in baboons of [(11)C]-labeled (-)-N-propyl-norapomorphine [(-)-NPA]. (-)-[(11)C]NPA was prepared by reacting norapomorphine with [(11)C]propionyl chloride and a lithium aluminum hydride reduction. [(11)C]Propionyl chloride was prepared by reacting [(11)C]CO(2) with ethylmagnesium bromide, followed by reacting with phthaloyl chloride. The radiochemical yield of (-)-[(11)C]NPA was 2.5% at end of synthesis (EOS), and the synthesis time was 60 min. The specific activity was 1700+/-1900 mCi/micromol ( N=7; ranged 110-5200 mCi/micromol at EOS). Rodent biodistribution studies showed high uptake of [(11)C](-)-NPA in D(2) receptor-rich areas, and the striatum/cerebellum ratios were 1.7, 3.4, and 4.4 at 5 min, 30 min, and 60 min postinjection, respectively. Pretreating the animals with haloperidol (1 mg/kg) decreased the striatum/cerebellum ratio at 30 min postinjection to 1.3. (-)-[(11)C]NPA was also evaluated via baboon positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Under control conditions ( N=4), rapid uptake of the tracer was observed and the striatum/cerebellum ratio reached 2.86+/-0.15 at 45 min postinjection. Following haloperidol pretreatment (0.2 mg/kg IV), the striatum/cerebellum ratio was 1.29 at 45 min postinjection. The result demonstrated the existence of specific binding of this new tracer to the D(2) receptor. To our knowledge, the current finding of a striatum/cerebellum ratio of 2.8 in baboon was the highest reported with a radiolabeled D(2) agonist. (-)-[(11)C]NPA is a promising new D(2) agonist PET tracer for probing D(2) receptors in vivo using PET.

  17. Clinical application of radiolabelled platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, C. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents papers on the clinical applications of radiolabelled platelets. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection.

  18. Synthesis and positron emission tomographic (PET) baboon studies of [{sup 11}C]methadone and R-(-)-[{sup 11}C]methandone

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.S.; Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.

    1996-05-01

    Methadone (MET) maintenance has been used successfully for many years in the rehabilitation of heroin addicts. MET, a typical m{mu}-opioid receptor agonist, exists as two enantiomers and is used clinically as the racemic mixture. However, R-(-)-MET has a 10-fold higher affinity for m{mu} receptors than S-(+)-MET (IC{sub 50}: 3.0 nM and 26.4 nM, respectively) and R-(-)-MET is almost entirely responsible for the therapeutic actions of the racemate. In order to examine the pharmacokinetics and stereoselectivity of the drug, we have synthesized both [{sup 11}C]MET and R-(-)-[{sup 11}C]MET. Preparing the precursor by one-step approach to the N-demethylated methadone was precluded as other investigators cited problems with intramolecular cyclization. Therefore, a four-step synthesis using MET (or R-(-)-MET) as starting material was required to obtain the precursor, followed by a two-step radiolabeling synthesis (N-methylation followed by oxidation) to obtain [{sup 11}C]MET (or R-(-)-[{sup 11}C]MET). Comparative PET studies in the same baboon showed peak striatal uptake was 0.022%/cc at 5 minutes with a half time of clearance from peak of 100 minutes for R-(-)-[{sup 11}C]MET and a peak uptake of 0.013%/cc with a half time of 90 min for [{sup 11}C]MET. R-(-)-[{sup 11}C]MET also showed a slower disappearance in plasma. Both tracers showed higher C-11 in basal ganglia (BG), thalamus and midbrain relative to the cerebellum (CB) and occipital cortex (OC) but the BG/OC ratio was higher for R-(-)-[{sup 11}C]MET (1.3 vs 1.1). Pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, iv) increased R-(-)-[{sup 11}C]MET uptake in all brain regions whereas unlabeled MET slightly increased C-11 clearance in BG, OC and CB. These initial results show higher brain concentration and specificity of the pharmacologically active enantiomer of methadone along with significant non-specific binding.

  19. Radiolabeled antibodies in cancer. Oncology Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories through the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiolabeled antibodies--labeling and imaging techniques; Radiolabeled antibodies--carcinoembryonic antigen; Radiolabeled antibodies--alpha-fetoprotein; Radiolabeled antibodies--human chorionic gonadotropin; Radiolabeled antibodies--ferritin; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of colorectal tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of malignant melanoma; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of urogenital tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of thyroid tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--other clinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--selected preclinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--reviews.

  20. Radiolabeled oligonucleotides for antisense imaging

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Arun K; He, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Oligonucleotides radiolabeled with isotopes emitting γ-rays (for SPECT imaging) or positrons (for PET imaging) can be useful for targeting messenger RNA (mRNA) thereby serving as non-invasive imaging tools for detection of gene expression in vivo (antisense imaging). Radiolabeled oligonucleotides may also be used for monitoring their in vivo fate, thereby helping us better understand the barriers to its delivery for antisense targeting. These developments have led to a new area of molecular imaging and targeting, utilizing radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotides. However, the success of antisense imaging relies heavily on overcoming the barriers for its targeted delivery in vivo. Furthermore, the low ability of the radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide to subsequently internalize into the cell and hybridize with its target mRNA poses additional challenges in realizing its potentials. This review covers the advances in the antisense imaging probe development for PET and SPECT, with an emphasis on radiolabeling strategies, stability, delivery and in vivo targeting. PMID:21822406

  1. A mild, rapid synthesis of freebase [11C]nicotine from [11C]methyl triflate

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Youwen; Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Dohyun; ...

    2016-08-29

    Here a rapid, mild radiosynthesis of freebase [11C]nicotine was developed by the methylation of freebase nornicotine with [11C]methyl triflate in acetone (5 min, 45 ºC). A basic (pH 10.5-11.0) HPLC system reproducibly yielded freebase [11C]nicotine as a well-defined single peak. The freebase [11C]nicotine was concentrated by solid phase extraction and formulated in 50 μL ethanol (370 MBq/50 μL) without evaporative loss suitable for a cigarette spiking study. A radiochemical yield of 60.4 ± 4.7 % (n = 3), radiochemical purity ≥ 99.9 % and specific activity of 648 GBq/μmol at EOB for 5 min beams were achieved.

  2. Washout allometric reference method (WARM) for parametric analysis of [(11)C]PIB in human brains.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Anders; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Rapid clearance and disappearance of a tracer from the circulation challenges the determination of the tracer's binding potentials in brain (BP ND) by positron emission tomography (PET). This is the case for the analysis of the binding of radiolabeled [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound B ([(11)C]PIB) to amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To resolve the issue of rapid clearance from the circulation, we here introduce the flow-independent Washout Allometric Reference Method (WARM) for the analysis of washout and binding of [(11)C]PIB in two groups of human subjects, healthy aged control subjects (HC), and patients suffering from AD, and we compare the results to the outcome of two conventional analysis methods. We also use the rapid initial clearance to obtain a surrogate measure of the rate of cerebral blood flow (CBF), as well as a method of identifying a suitable reference region directly from the [(11)C]PIB signal. The difference of average absolute CBF values between the AD and HC groups was highly significant (P < 0.003). The CBF measures were not significantly different between the groups when normalized to cerebellar gray matter flow. Thus, when flow differences confound conventional measures of [(11)C]PIB binding, the separate estimates of CBF and BP ND provide additional information about possible AD. The results demonstrate the importance of data-driven estimation of CBF and BP ND, as well as reference region detection from the [(11)C]PIB signal. We conclude that the WARM method yields stable measures of BP ND with relative ease, using only integration for noise reduction and no model regression. The method accounts for relative flow differences in the brain tissue and yields a calibrated measure of absolute CBF directly from the [(11)C]PIB signal. Compared to conventional methods, WARM optimizes the Aβ plaque load discrimination between patients with AD and healthy controls (P = 0.009).

  3. 1-/sup 11/C-D-glucose and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shiue, C.Y.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-26

    The novel compounds 1-/sup 11/C-D-glucose, 1-/sup 11/C-D-mannose, 1-/sup 11/C-D-galactose, 2-/sup 11/C-D-glucose, 2-/sup 11/C-D-mannose and 2-/sup 11/C-D-galactose which can be used in nuclear medicine to monitor the metabolism of glucose and galactose can be rapidly prepared by reaction of the appropriate aldose substrate with an alkali metal /sup 11/C-labeled cyanide followed by reduction with a Raney alloy in formic acid.

  4. 1-.sup.11 C-D-Glucose and related compounds

    DOEpatents

    Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1984-03-27

    The novel compounds 1-.sup.11 C-D-glucose, 1-.sup.11 C-D-mannose, 1-.sup.11 C-D-galactose, 2-.sup.11 C-D-glucose, 2-.sup.11 C-D-mannose and 2-.sup.11 C-D-galactose which can be used in nuclear medicine to monitor the metabolism of glucose and galactose can be rapidly prepared by reaction of the appropriate aldose substrate with an alkali metal .sup.11 C-labeled cyanide followed by reduction with a Raney alloy in formic acid.

  5. Radiosynthesis of [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene using [(11)C]phosgene for PET.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yuuki; Ogawa, Masanao; Suzuki, Hisashi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu

    2010-09-01

    Automated radiosynthesis of [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene, the substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), was performed for the first time through a multi-step/one-pot labeling sequence that started with ethyl 2-{2-[5-(4-nitrophenyl)furfurylidene]hydrazino}acetate and used [(11)C]phosgene as a labeling agent. After optimization of the automated synthesis conditions and parameters, [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene was obtained at a radiochemical yield of 34.0+/-8.4% (decay-corrected). The radiochemical purity was greater than 98% and the specific activity was 46.8+/-15.2GBq/micromol at the end of the synthesis.

  6. Synthesis of (2-11C)5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione for studies with positron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ginos, J.Z.; Tilbury, R.S.; Haber, M.T.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1982-03-01

    We have developed a method for the synthesis of (2-11C)5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione ((2-11C)DMO) for use with positron emission tomography to measure regional tissue pH in vivo in man. (2-11C)Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was prepared from (C-11)phosgene and excess of sodium methoxide in methanol containing dimethyl carbonate as added carrier. The (2-11C)DMC solution was then reacted with 2-hydroxyisobutyramide at 150 degrees C for 10 min to yield, after HPLC separation, (2-11C)DMO with a radiochemical yield of 20-56%. Chemical yields were 78-92%, and specific activity ranged as high as 830 mCi/millimol.

  7. [(11)C]MADAM, a new serotonin transporter radioligand characterized in the monkey brain by PET.

    PubMed

    Halldin, Christer; Lundberg, Johan; Sóvágó, Judit; Gulyás, Balázs; Guilloteau, Denis; Vercouillie, Johnny; Emond, Patrick; Chalon, Sylvie; Tarkiainen, Jari; Hiltunen, Jukka; Farde, Lars

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a new selective serotonin transporter (5-HTT) inhibitor, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-methylphenylthio)benzylamine (MADAM, K(i)=1.65 nM), as a PET radioligand for examination of 5-HTT in the nonhuman primate brain. MADAM was radiolabeled by an N-methylation reaction using [(11)C]methyl triflate and the binding was characterized by PET in four cynomolgus monkeys. Metabolite levels in plasma were measured by gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The radiochemical incorporation yield of [(11)C]MADAM was 75-80% and the specific radioactivity at the time of administration was 34-652 GBq/micromol (n=8). The highest uptake of radioactivity was observed in striatum, thalamus, mesencephalon, and the lower brainstem. Lower binding was detected in neocortex and the lowest radioactive uptake was found in the cerebellum. This distribution is in accordance with the known expression of 5-HTT in vitro. The fraction of the total radioactivity in monkey plasma representing unchanged [(11)C]MADAM was 20% at 45 min after injection, as measured by gradient HPLC. Pretreatment measurements, using unlabeled citalopram, GBR 12909, and maprotiline, as well as a displacement measurement, using unlabeled MADAM, confirmed that [(11)C]MADAM binds selectively and reversibly to 5-HTT, and support the use of the cerebellum as reference region. The present characterization of binding in the monkey brain suggests that [(11)C]MADAM is a potential PET radioligand for quantitative studies of 5-HTT binding in the human brain.

  8. Synthesis of [11C]CX-6258 as a new PET tracer for imaging of Pim kinases in cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Tzintzun, Reynaldo; Gao, Mingzhang; Xu, Zhidong; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2015-09-15

    The reference standard CX-6258 {(E)-5-chloro-3-((5-(3-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepane-1-carbonyl)phenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene)indolin-2-one, 4a} and its desmethylated precursor N-desmethyl-CX-6258 {(E)-3-((5-(3-(1,4-diazepane-1-carbonyl)phenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene)-5-chloroindolin-2-one, 5} for radiolabeling were synthesized from 5-bromo-2-furaldehyde and 3-carboxybenzeneboronic acid in 3 and 4 steps with 29-49% and 24-32% overall chemical yield, respectively. The target tracer [(11)C]CX-6258 {(E)-5-chloro-3-((5-(3-(4-[(11)C]methyl-1,4-diazepane-1-carbonyl)phenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene)indolin-2-one, [(11)C]4a} was prepared from N-desmethyl-CX-6258 (5) with [(11)C]CH3OTf under basic condition (2N NaOH) through N-[(11)C]methylation and isolated by HPLC combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) in 40-50% radiochemical yield based on [(11)C]CO2 and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB) with 370-1110GBq/μmol specific activity at EOB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of [11C]EMPA as a potential PET tracer for orexin 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changning; Moseley, Christian K; Carlin, Stephen M; Wilson, Colin M; Neelamegam, Ramesh; Hooker, Jacob M

    2013-06-01

    EMPA is a selective antagonist of orexin 2 (OX2) receptors. Previous literature with [(3)H]-EMPA suggest that it may be used as an imaging agent for OX2 receptors; however, brain penetration is known to be modest. To evaluate the potential of EMPA as a PET radiotracer in non-human primate (as a step to imaging in man), we radiolabeled EMPA with carbon-11. Radiosynthesis of [(11)C]N-ethyl-2-(N-(6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-methylphenylsulfonamido)-N-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)acetamide ([(11)C]EMPA), and evaluation as a potential PET tracer for OX2 receptors is described. Synthesis of an appropriate non-radioactive O-desmethyl precursor was achieved from EMPA with sodium iodide and chlorotrimethylsilane. Selective O-methylation using [(11)C]CH3I in the presence of cesium carbonate in DMSO at room temp afforded [(11)C]EMPA in 1.5-2.5% yield (non-decay corrected relative to trapped [(11)C]CH3I at EOS) with ≥95% chemical and radiochemical purities. The total synthesis time was 34-36min from EOB. Studies in rodent suggested that uptake in tissue was dominated by nonspecific binding. However, [(11)C]EMPA also showed poor uptake in both rats and baboon as measured with PET imaging.

  10. Functional imaging of pharmacological action of SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin via PET imaging using (11)C-MDG.

    PubMed

    Mitsuoka, Keisuke; Hayashizaki, Yuka; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Yokono, Masanori; Umeda, Nobuhiro; Takakura, Shoji; Noda, Akihiro; Miyoshi, Sosuke

    2016-08-01

    Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is a pharmacological target of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to noninvasively visualize the pharmacological action of a selective SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin in the kidney using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methyl-d-glucoside ((11)C-MDG), an SGLT-specific radio-labeled substrate. PET imaging with (11)C-MDG in vehicle-treated rats demonstrated that intravenously injected (11)C-MDG substantially accumulated in the renal cortex, reflecting that the compound was reabsorbed by SGLTs. In contrast, ipragliflozin-treated rats showed significantly lower uptake of (11)C-MDG in renal cortex in a dose-related manner, suggesting that ipragliflozin inhibited the renal reabsorption of (11)C-MDG. This method of visualizing the mode of action of an SGLT2 inhibitor in vivo has demonstrated the drug's mechanism in reducing renal glucose reabsorption in kidney in living animals.

  11. 11C-Methionine PET of Myocardial Inflammation in a Rat Model of Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Maya, Yoshifumi; Werner, Rudolf A; Schütz, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Samnick, Samuel; Lapa, Constantin; Zechmeister, Christina; Jahns, Roland; Jahns, Valérie; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2016-12-01

    Myocarditis represents a major cause of dilated cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death in younger adults. Currently, definitive diagnosis of myocarditis requires endomyocardial biopsy, which is highly invasive and has the drawback of variable sensitivity due to inherent sampling error. Therefore, reliable noninvasive methods to detect and monitor cardiac inflammation are clinically relevant. In this study, we explored the potential of radiolabeled methionine to assess myocardial inflammatory activity in a rat model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Autoimmune myocarditis was induced by immunizing Lewis rats twice with porcine cardiac myosin and Freund complete adjuvant. Control animals were treated with adjuvant alone. Dual-tracer autoradiography was performed to assess (14)C-methionine uptake and to compare the distributions of (14)C-methionine versus (18)F-FDG. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and anti-CD68 macrophage staining were performed for histologic analysis. Additionally, cardiac (11)C-methionine PET was performed to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo imaging. (18)F-FDG PET was also conducted to compare the in vivo uptake of (11)C-methionine and (18)F-FDG. Multiple focal cardiac inflammatory lesions were histologically identified in myosin-immunized rats, whereas no cardiac lesions were observed in the controls. Autoradiographic images clearly showed a high-density accumulation of (14)C-methionine in inflammatory lesions of EAM rats, whereas no significant uptake was observed in the control animals. (14)C-methionine uptake was significantly higher in inflammatory lesions than in remote noninflammatory areas and control rat hearts. The distribution of (14)C-methionine correlated well with that of (18)F-FDG and with macrophage density. The contrast between inflammatory and noninflammatory areas was higher for (18)F-FDG than for (14)C-methionine (3.45 ± 0.68 vs. 2.07 ± 0.21, respectively; P < 0.05). In the PET imaging study, the regional (11)C

  12. Synthesis of oncological [11C]radiopharmaceuticals for clinical PET.

    PubMed

    Lodi, Filippo; Malizia, Claudio; Castellucci, Paolo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Fanti, Stefano; Boschi, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine modality which provides quantitative images of biological processes in vivo at the molecular level. Several PET radiopharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived isotopes such as (18)F and (11)C were developed in order to trace specific cellular and molecular pathways with the aim of enhancing clinical applications. Among these [(11)C]radiopharmaceuticals are N-[(11)C]methyl-choline ([(11)C]choline), l-(S-methyl-[(11)C])methionine ([(11)C]methionine) and 1-[(11)C]acetate ([(11)C]acetate), which have gained an important role in oncology where the application of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) is suboptimal. Nevertheless, the production of these radiopharmaceuticals did not reach the same level of standardization as for [(18)F]FDG synthesis. This review describes the most recent developments in the synthesis of the above-mentioned [(11)C]radiopharmaceuticals aiming to increase the availability and hence the use of [(11)C]choline, [(11)C]methionine and [(11)C]acetate in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated radiosynthesis of [(11)C]L-deprenyl-D2 and [(11)C]D-deprenyl using a commercial platform.

    PubMed

    Buccino, Pablo; Kreimerman, Ingrid; Zirbesegger, Kevin; Porcal, Williams; Savio, Eduardo; Engler, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Two (11)C-labelled PET tracers, (R)-N-[(11)C]methyl-N-(3,3-dideuteropropargyl)-1-phenylpropan-2-amine ([(11)C]L-deprenyl-D2, [(11)C]DED) and (S)-N-[(11)C]methyl-N-propargyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine ([(11)C]D-deprenyl, [(11)C]DDE) were synthesised. One step N-alkylation with [(11)C]MeI or [(11)C]MeOTf was performed using the automated platform TRACERlab® FX-C Pro. The labelled products were obtained with (37±15)% (n=10) (end of synthesis, decay corrected from [(11)C]MeI) radiochemical yields from [(11)C]MeI after 38±3min synthesis time. In all cases, radiochemical purity was over 99% when [(11)C]MeOTf was used. This synthesis using a commercial platform makes these tracers more accessible for clinical research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dopamine receptors in pituitary adenomas: PET visualization with 11C-N-methylspiperone

    SciTech Connect

    Muhr, C.; Bergstroem, M.L.; Lundberg, P.O.; Bergstroem, K.H.; Hartvig, P.; Lundqvist, H.; Antoni, G.; Langstroem B2

    1986-03-01

    Two patients with pituitary tumors were examined with positron emission tomography (PET) after intravenous administration of 11C-N-methylspiperone. In repeat studies the patients were given 1 mg of intravenous haloperidol prior to the administration of the radioligand to block the dopamine receptors. High uptakes of the radiolabeled ligand were seen in one of the tumors. With haloperidol pretreatment the uptake was lower, probably mainly showing the remaining unspecific binding. The most marked uptake and the largest effect of haloperidol pretreatment was seen in a patient with a hormonally active prolactinoma. Dopamine receptor binding in pituitary tumors can be demonstrated in vivo with PET, and quantification of this binding is possible using a compartmental model. This technique may be useful in improving our understanding of the variable response to medical treatment of prolactinomas with dopamine agonists as well as in the prediction of the effect of such treatment.

  15. Enzymatic syntheses of carbamyl phosphate, L-citrulline, and N-carbamyl L-aspartate labeled with either 13N or 11C.

    PubMed

    Gelbard, A S; Kaseman, D S; Rosenspire, K C; Meister, A

    1985-01-01

    [13N]- and [11C]carbamyl phosphate, L-[omega-13N]citrulline, L-[ureido-11C]citrulline, [carbamyl-13N]- and [carbamyl-11C]carbamyl-L-aspartate were synthesized using carbamyl phosphate synthetase co-immobilized with either aspartate transcarbamylase or ornithine transcarbamylase. Carbamyl L-[13N]aspartate was enzymatically prepared from carbamyl phosphate and L-[13N]aspartate. The tissue distribution of radioactivity in mice after injection of radiolabeled ammonia, carbamyl phosphate or citrulline was studied. The tissue distribution of isotope derived from [13N]carbamyl phosphate and [13N]ammonia were similar, with the exception of liver, brain and pancreas, in which 13NH3 uptake was higher after retroorbital injection. The distribution of label derived from L-[omega-13N]- and L-[ureido-11C]citrulline was similar. Substantial tumor (Sarcoma-180) uptake of label from L-citrulline was observed.

  16. [11C]acetate PET Imaging is not Always Associated with Increased Lipogenesis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Che, Li; Wang, Chunmei; Blecha, Joseph E.; Li, Xiaolei; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Calvisi, Diego F.; Puchowicz, Michelle; Chen, Xin; Seo, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Altered metabolism, including increased glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis, is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Radiolabeled nutrients, including glucose and acetate, are extensively used for the detection of various tumors, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). High signal of [11C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET) in tumors is often considered to be associated with increased expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) and increased de novo lipogenesis in tumor tissues. Defining a subset of tumors with increased [11C]acetate PET signal and thus increased lipogenesis was suggested to help select a group of patients, who may benefit from lipogenesis-targeting therapies. Procedures To investigate whether [11C]acetate PET imaging is truly associated with increased de novo lipogenesis along with hepatocarcinogenesis, we performed [11C]acetate PET imaging in wildtype mice as well as two mouse HCC models, induced by myrAKT/RasV12 (AKT/Ras) and PIK3CA1047R/c-Met (PI3K/Met) oncogene combinations. In addition, we analyzed FASN expression and de novo lipogenesis rate in these mouse liver tissues. Results We found that while HCCs induced by AKT/Ras co-expression showed high levels of [11C]acetate PET signal compared to normal liver, HCCs induced by PI3K/Met overexpression did not. Intriguingly, elevated FASN expression and increased de novo lipogenesis rate were observed in both AKT/Ras and PI3K/Met HCCs. Conclusion Altogether, our study suggests that [11C]acetate PET imaging can be a useful tool for imaging of a subset of HCCs. However, at molecular level, the increased [11C]acetate PET imaging is not always associated with increased FASN expression or de novo lipogenesis. PMID:26567114

  17. Validation of quantitation of regional myocardial blood flow in vivo with /sup 11/C-labeled human albumin microspheres and positron emission tomography. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.A.; Shea, M.J.; De Landsheere, C.M.; Turton, D.; Brady, F.; Deanfield, J.E.; Selwyn, A.P.

    1984-10-01

    Use of radiolabeled microspheres is a standard method to measure regional myocardial perfusion in animals. Human albumin microspheres have been given safely to patients, but positron-emitting /sup 67/Ga-labeled human albumin microspheres are characterized by an unstable radiolabel. A new labeling procedure that covalently binds /sup 11/C to human albumin microspheres via /sup 11/CH/sub 3/I was developed. Seven open-chest and two closed-chest dogs were studied. Reference and /sup 11/C-labeled human albumin microspheres (2 to 25 mCi) were both injected into the left atrium. Positron tomographic images were obtained of the myocardial distribution of the /sup 11/C-labeled microspheres. Timed arterial withdrawal was used for both reference gamma-labeled microspheres and /sup 11/C-labeled human albumin microspheres. Regional myocardial perfusion calculated by this technique correlated well with values obtained with reference microspheres over a range of 0.2 to 3.5 ml/min/g. Thus, /sup 11/C human albumin microspheres are stable radiochemically and can be used as a quantitative measure of regional myocardial perfusion.

  18. Binding of radiolabeled misonidazole in cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Rasey, J.S.; Hoffman, J.; Spence, A.M.; Krohn, K.A.

    1985-05-01

    The metabolic trapping of the radiolabeled nitroimidazole, misonidazole, in viable hypoxic tissue may form the basis for the nuclear imaging of ischemia in cerebral infarction. Misonidazole congeners could be labeled with /sup 75/Br, /sup 18/F, or /sup 11/C and detected with PET. Infarction was induced in male Mongolian gerbils by ligation of the right common carotid artery. Severity of the lesions was determined by scoring neurological symptoms with a stroke index, in which scores >10, out of a possible 25, indicate presence of a severe infarct. Gerbils with scores ranging from 0 (asymptomatic) to 13 as well as control (unligated) animals received 3 injections (50 ..mu..Moles/kg) of /sup 3/H-misonidazole in 2 hours and % injected dose/g (% I.D./g) was determined 2 hours after the final injection. Uptake into whole brain of control animals averaged 0.137 +- 0.0168 % I.D./g. The cerebral hemispheres of ligated gerbils were divided into 7, 2 mm-thick coronal sections which were then bisected. In the right half of slide number3 (midparietal region) the % I.D./g increased with increasing stroke index. For animals with a stroke index = 0, uptake was 0.159 % I.D./g, and right/left R/L ratio was 1.07. For 2 animals with a score = 13, uptake in the same region ws 0.752 and 0.717 and I.D./g with R/L ratios of 3.29 and 2.3l, respectively. Animals with intermediate scores had moderately elevated uptake. The authors conclude that the uptake of /sup 3/H-misonidazole in the right hemisphere positively correlates with the severity of infarction. Studies are underway to determine whether the regions of highest uptake correlate with histological evidence of infarction and reduced oxygen availability.

  19. Clinical uses of radiolabeled platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Christian, P.E.; Baker, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    Platelets were first successfully radiolabeled in 1953. At that time, investigators were primarily interested in developing a technique to accurately measure platelet life span in both normal and thrombocytopenic patients. Studies using platelets labeled with /sup 51/Cr have shown shortened platelet survival times in a number of diseases including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. More recently, labels such as /sup 111/In have been developed that allow in vivo imaging of platelets. Indium-111 platelets are being used to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism and clotting disorders, and to improve the clinical diagnosis of these diseases.

  20. Direct fixation of [(11)C]-CO(2) by amines: formation of [(11)C-carbonyl]-methylcarbamates.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan A; Garcia, Armando; Houle, Sylvain; Vasdev, Neil

    2010-01-21

    [(11)C-Carbonyl]-methylcarbamates can be synthesised directly from [(11)C]-CO(2) and primary or secondary amines in a one-pot, two-step reaction. The use of either diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) or 2-tert-butylimino-2-diethylamino-1,3-dimethyl-perhydro-1,3,2-diazaphosphorine (BEMP) enables efficient trapping of [(11)C]-CO(2) in small volumes of DMF as [(11)C]-carbamate salts. Subsequent reaction with a variety of methylating agents rapidly generates the desired [(11)C-carbonyl]-methylcarbamates in high radiochemical yields. The usefulness of the method is illustrated by the efficient radiosynthesis of a kappa opioid receptor imaging radiotracer, useful in positron emission tomography (PET).

  1. The clinical use of PET with 11C-acetate

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Ilaria; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Morigi, Joshua James; Montini, Gian Carlo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate clinical applications of 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET). Acetate is quickly metabolized into acetyl-CoA in human cells. In this form it can either enter into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, thus producing energy, as happens in the myocardium, or participate in cell membrane lipid synthesis, as happens in tumor cells. 11C-acetate PET was originally employed in cardiology, to study myocardial oxygen metabolism. More recently it has also been used to evaluate myocardial perfusion, as well as in oncology. The first studies of 11C-acetate focused on its use in prostate cancer. Subsequently, 11C-acetate was studied in other urological malignancies, as well as renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer. Well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma represents an 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET pitfall, so many authors have proposed to use 11C-acetate in addition to 18F-FDG in studying this tumor. 11C-acetate PET has also been used in other malignancies, such as brain tumors and lung carcinoma. Some authors reported a few cases in which 11C-acetate PET incidentally found multiple myeloma or rare tumors, such as thymoma, multicentric angiomyolipoma of the kidney and cerebellopontine angle schwannoma. Lastly, 11C-acetate PET was also employed in a differential diagnosis case between glioma and encephalitis. The numerous studies on 11C-acetate have demonstrated that it can be used in cardiology and oncology with no contraindications apart from pregnancy and the necessity of a rapid scan. Despite its limited availability, this tracer can surely be considered to be a promising one, because of its versatility and capacity to even detect non 18F-FDG-avid neoplasm, such as differentiated lung cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23133801

  2. Rapid radiosynthesis of [11C] and [14C]azelaic, suberic, and sebacic acids for in vivo mechanistic studies of systemic acquired resistance in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Best M.; Fowler J.; Best, M.; Gifford, A.N.; Kim, S.W.; Babst, B.; Piel, M.; Roesch, F.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-11-25

    A recent report that the aliphatic dicarboxylic acid, azelaic acid (1,9-nonanedioic acid) but not related acids, suberic acid (1,8-octanedioic acid) or sebacic (1,10-decanedioic acid) acid induces systemic acquired resistance to invading pathogens in plants stimulated the development of a rapid method for labeling these dicarboxylic acids with {sup 11}C and {sup 14}C for in vivo mechanistic studies in whole plants. {sup 11}C-labeling was performed by reaction of ammonium [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the corresponding bromonitrile precursor followed by hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. Total synthesis time was 60 min. Median decay-corrected radiochemical yield for [{sup 11}C]azelaic acid was 40% relative to trapped [{sup 11}C]cyanide, and specific activity was 15 GBq/{micro}mol. Yields for [{sup 11}C]suberic and sebacic acids were similar. The {sup 14}C-labeled version of azelaic acid was prepared from potassium [{sup 14}C]cyanide in 45% overall radiochemical yield. Radiolabeling procedures were verified using {sup 13}C-labeling coupled with {sup 13}C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The {sup 11}C and {sup 14}C-labeled azelaic acid and related dicarboxylic acids are expected to be of value in understanding the mode-of-action, transport, and fate of this putative signaling molecule in plants.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of 1-[2-(4-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)phenyl]piperazine for imaging of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Yui, Joji; Xie, Lin; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Ogawa, Masanao; Nengaki, Nobuki; Kumata, Katsushi; Hatori, Akiko; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2013-09-01

    1-[2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)phenyl]piperazine (4) is a potent serotonin 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (Ki=2.6nM) with a low binding affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor (Ki=476nM). As a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for the 5-HT7 receptor, [(11)C]4 was synthesized at high radiochemical yield and specific activity, by O-[(11)C]methylation of 2'-(piperazin-1-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-ol (6) with [(11)C]methyl iodide. Autoradiography revealed that [(11)C]4 showed in vitro specific binding with 5-HT7 in the rat brain regions, such as the thalamus which is a region with high 5-HT7 expression. Metabolite analysis indicated that intact [(11)C]4 in the brain exceeded 90% of the radioactive components at 15min after the radiotracer injection, although two radiolabeled metabolites were found in the rat plasma. The PET study of rats showed moderated uptake of [(11)C]4 in the brain (1.2SUV), but no significant regional difference in radioactivity in the brain. Pretreatment with 5-HT7-selective antagonist SB269970 (3) did not decrease the uptake of [(11)C]4 in the rat brain. Further studies are warranted that focus on the development of PET ligand candidates with higher binding affinity for 5-HT7 and higher in vivo stability in brain than 4.

  4. Synthesis, isolation and purification of [11C]-choline

    PubMed Central

    Jadwiński, Michał; Chmura, Agnieszka; Gorczewski, Kamil; Sokół, Maria

    2016-01-01

    [11C]-choline is an effective PET tracer used for imaging of neoplastic lesions and metastases of the prostate cancer. However, its production can be a challenge for manufacturers, as it has not yet been described in Polish or European pharmacopoeia. In this study the technical aspects of [11C]-choline production are described and detailed process parameters are provided. The quality control procedures for releasing [11C]-choline as solutio iniectabilis are also presented. The purity and quality of the radiopharmaceutical obtained according to the proposed method were find to be high enough to safely administrate the radiopharmaceutical to patients. Application of an automated synthesizer makes it possible to carry out the entire process of [11C]-choline production, isolation and purification within 20 minutes. It is crucial to maintain all aspects of the process as short as possible, since the decay half-time of carbon-11 is 20.4 minutes. The resulting radiopharmaceutical is sterile and pyrogen-free and of a high chemical, radiochemical, and radionuclide purity proved by chromatographic techniques. The yield of the process is up to 20%. [11C]-choline PET scanning can be used as accurate and effective diagnostic tool in all centers equipped with [11C]-target containing cyclotron. PMID:27660552

  5. Synthesis, isolation and purification of [(11)C]-choline.

    PubMed

    Szydło, Marcin; Jadwiński, Michał; Chmura, Agnieszka; Gorczewski, Kamil; Sokół, Maria

    2016-01-01

    [(11)C]-choline is an effective PET tracer used for imaging of neoplastic lesions and metastases of the prostate cancer. However, its production can be a challenge for manufacturers, as it has not yet been described in Polish or European pharmacopoeia. In this study the technical aspects of [(11)C]-choline production are described and detailed process parameters are provided. The quality control procedures for releasing [(11)C]-choline as solutio iniectabilis are also presented. The purity and quality of the radiopharmaceutical obtained according to the proposed method were find to be high enough to safely administrate the radiopharmaceutical to patients. Application of an automated synthesizer makes it possible to carry out the entire process of [(11)C]-choline production, isolation and purification within 20 minutes. It is crucial to maintain all aspects of the process as short as possible, since the decay half-time of carbon-11 is 20.4 minutes. The resulting radiopharmaceutical is sterile and pyrogen-free and of a high chemical, radiochemical, and radionuclide purity proved by chromatographic techniques. The yield of the process is up to 20%. [(11)C]-choline PET scanning can be used as accurate and effective diagnostic tool in all centers equipped with [(11)C]-target containing cyclotron.

  6. Intrinsically Radiolabeled Nanoparticles: An Emerging Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shreya; Ehlerding, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    Although chelator-based radiolabeling techniques have been used for decades, concerns about the complexity of coordination chemistry, possible altering of pharmacokinetics of carriers, and potential detachment of radioisotopes during imaging have driven the need for developing a simple yet better technique for future radiolabeling. Here, the emerging concept of intrinsically radiolabeled nanoparticles, which could be synthesized using methods such as hot-plus-cold precursors, specific trapping, cation exchange, and proton beam activation, is introduced. Representative examples of using these multifunctional nanoparticles for multimodality molecular imaging are highlighted together with current challenges and future research directions. Although still in the early stages, design and synthesis of intrinsically radiolabeled nanoparticles has shown attractive potential to offer easier, faster, and more specific radiolabeling possibilities for the next generation of molecular imaging. PMID:24978934

  7. Comparison of the indirect immunobead, radiolabeled, and immunofluorescence assays for immunoglobulin G serum antibodies to human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, G.G. Jr.; D'Cruz, O.J.; DeBault, L.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The relative sensitivities of the indirect immunobead test, the indirect flo cytometric immunofluorescence assay, and an indirect radiolabeled antiglobulin assay were compared. Eighteen immunobead test positive sera and 18 negative sera were used as the standard for the other two assays. Of the 18 positive sera, 14 (77%) and 5 (27%) were positive in the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay, respectively. Four (22%) of the low titer immunobead test positive sera were negative by both the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the results of the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay (r = 0.73) and between the results of the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the titer of the immunobead test (r = 0.82). The use of an unselected sperm population in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the classical indirect immunofluorescence method using methanol-fixed sperm gave false-positive results in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the immunofluorescence assay. These results suggested that immunoglobulin G antisperm antibody positive sera may be reactive both to sperm surface and internalized sperm antigens.

  8. Synthesis of [11C]Bexarotene by Cu-Mediated [11C]Carbon Dioxide Fixation and Preliminary PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bexarotene (Targretin) is a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist that has applications for treatment of T cell lymphoma and proposed mechanisms of action in Alzheimer’s disease that have been the subject of recent controversy. Carbon-11 labeled bexarotene ([11C-carbonyl]4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyltetralin-2-yl)ethenyl]benzoic acid) was synthesized using a Cu-mediated cross-coupling reaction employing an arylboronate precursor 1 and [11C]carbon dioxide under atmospheric pressure in 15 ± 2% uncorrected radiochemical yield (n = 3), based on [11C]CO2. Judicious choice of solvents, catalysts, and additives, as well as precursor concentration and purity of [11C]CO2, enabled the preparation of this 11C-labeled carboxylic acid. Formulated [11C]bexarotene was isolated (>37 mCi) with >99% radiochemical purity in 32 min. Preliminary positron emission tomography–magnetic resonance imaging revealed rapid brain uptake in nonhuman primate in the first 75 s following intravenous administration of the radiotracer (specific activity >0.3 Ci/μmol at time of injection), followed by slow clearance (Δ = −43%) over 60 min. Modest uptake (SUVmax = 0.8) was observed in whole brain and regions with high RXR expression. PMID:24944741

  9. Reference region automatic extraction in dynamic [(11)C]PIB.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Yoko; Edison, Paul; Ramlackhansingh, Anil; Brooks, David J; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2013-11-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) is a marker of amyloid plaque deposition in brain, and binding potential is usually quantified using the cerebellum as a reference where the specific binding is negligible. The use of the cerebellum as a reference, however, has been questioned by the reported cerebellar [(11)C]PIB retention in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects. In this work, we developed a supervised clustering procedure for the automatic extraction of a reference region in [(11)C]PIB studies. Supervised clustering models each gray matter voxel as the linear combination of three predefined kinetic classes, normal and lesion gray matter, and blood pool, and extract reference voxels in which the contribution of the normal gray matter class is high. In the validation with idiopathic AD subjects, supervised clustering extracted reference voxels mostly in the cerebellum that indicated little specific [(11)C]PIB binding, and total distribution volumes of the extracted region were lower than those of the cerebellum. Next, the methodology was applied to the familial AD cohort where the cerebellar amyloid load had been demonstrated previously, resulting in higher binding potential compared with that obtained with the cerebellar reference. The supervised clustering method is a useful tool for the accurate quantification of [(11)C]PIB studies.

  10. General method for the (11)C-labeling of 2-arylpropionic acids and their esters: construction of a PET tracer library for a study of biological events involved in COXs expression.

    PubMed

    Takashima-Hirano, Misato; Shukuri, Miho; Takashima, Tadayuki; Goto, Miki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Doi, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masaaki

    2010-04-12

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a critical enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis that modulates a wide range of biological functions, such as pain, fever, and so on. To perform in vivo COX imaging by positron emission tomography (PET), we developed a method to incorporate (11)C radionuclide into various 2-arylpropionic acids that have a common methylated structure, particularly among nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Thus, we developed a novel (11)C-radiolabeling methodology based on rapid C-[(11)C]methylation by the reaction of [(11)C]CH(3)I with enolate intermediates generated from the corresponding esters under basic conditions. One-pot hydrolysis of the above [(11)C]methylation products also allows the synthesis of desired (11)C-incorporated acids. We demonstrated the utility of this method in the syntheses of six PET tracers, [(11)C]Ibuprofen, [(11)C]Naproxen, [(11)C]Flurbiprofen, [(11)C]Fenoprofen, [(11)C]Ketoprofen, and [(11)C]Loxoprofen. Notably, we found that their methyl esters were particularly useful as proradiotracers for a study of neuroinflammation. The microPET studies of rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation clearly showed that the radioactivity of PET tracers accumulated in the inflamed region. Among these PET tracers, the specificity of [(11)C]Ketoprofen methyl ester was demonstrated by a blocking study. Metabolite analysis in the rat brain revealed that the methyl esters were initially taken up in the brain and then underwent hydrolysis to form pharmacologically active forms of the corresponding acids. Thus, we succeeded in general (11)C-labeling of 2-arylpropionic acids and their methyl esters as PET tracers of NSAIDs to construct a potentially useful PET tracer library for in vivo imaging of inflammation involved in COXs expression.

  11. Radiolabeled Dendrimers for Nuclear Medicine Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingzhou; Zhu, Meilin; Li, Yujie; Xing, Yan; Zhao, Jinhua

    2017-08-25

    Recent advances in nuclear medicine have explored nanoscale carriers for targeted delivery of various radionuclides in specific manners to improve the effect of diagnosis and therapy of diseases. Due to the unique molecular architecture allowing facile attachment of targeting ligands and radionuclides, dendrimers provide versatile platforms in this filed to build abundant multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles for nuclear medicine applications. This review gives special focus to recent advances in dendrimer-based nuclear medicine agents for the imaging and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases. Radiolabeling strategies for different radionuclides and several challenges involved in clinical translation of radiolabeled dendrimers are extensively discussed.

  12. Targeting telomerase with radiolabeled inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, Philip A; Jackson, Mark R; Gouverneur, Veronique; Vallis, Katherine A

    2017-01-05

    The expression of telomerase in approximately 85% of cancers and its absence in the majority of normal cells makes it an attractive target for cancer therapy. However the lag period between initiation of telomerase inhibition and growth arrest makes direct inhibition alone an insufficient method of treatment. However, telomerase inhibition has been shown to enhance cancer cell radiosensitivity. To investigate the strategy of simultaneously inhibiting telomerase while delivering targeted radionuclide therapy to cancer cells, (123)I-radiolabeled inhibitors of telomerase were synthesized and their effects on cancer cell survival studied. An (123)I-labeled analogue of the telomerase inhibitor MST-312 inhibited telomerase with an IC50 of 1.58 μM (MST-312 IC50: 0.23 μM). Clonogenic assays showed a dose dependant effect of (123)I-MST-312 on cell survival in a telomerase positive cell line, MDA-MB-435. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. Carbon-11 radiolabeling of iron-oxide nanoparticles for dual-modality PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Xu, Youwen; Kim, Sung Won; Schueller, Michael J.; Alexoff, David; Smith, S. David; Wang, Wei; Schlyer, David

    2013-07-01

    Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled SPIO NPs was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment.Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled

  15. Comparison of [11C]diprenorphine and [11C]carfentanil in vivo binding to opiate receptors in man using a dual detector system.

    PubMed

    Villemagne, V L; Frost, J J; Dannals, R F; Lever, J R; Tanada, S; Natarajan, T K; Wilson, A A; Ravert, H T; Wagner, H N

    1994-05-12

    A simple dual detector coincidence system was used to measure the binding of [11C]carfentanil and [11C]diprenorphine to opiate receptors in normal volunteers before and after the administration of naloxone. Total radioactivity without naloxone and the ratio of total/non-specific radioactivity was 2 times greater for [11C]diprenorphine than [11C]carfentanil. The dose of naloxone required to maximally block specific [11C]diprenorphine binding was 10 times that for [11C]carfentanil, indicating that [11C]diprenorphine labels opiate receptor subtypes in addition to mu opiate receptors.

  16. Positron Emission Tomography as a Method for Measuring Drug Delivery to Tumors in vivo: The Example of [11C]docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    van der Veldt, Astrid A. M.; Smit, Egbert F.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic anticancer treatments fail in a substantial number of patients. This may be caused by inadequate uptake and penetration of drugs in malignant tumors. Consequently, improvement of drug delivery to solid tumors may enhance its efficacy. Before evaluating strategies to enhance drug uptake in tumors, better understanding of drug delivery to human tumors is needed. Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging technique that can be used to monitor drug pharmacokinetics non-invasively in patients, based on radiolabeling these drugs with short-lived positron emitters. In this mini review, principles and potential applications of PET using radiolabeled anticancer drugs will be discussed with respect to personalized treatment planning in oncology. In particular, it will be discussed how these radiolabeled anticancer drugs could help to develop strategies for improved drug delivery to solid tumors. The development and clinical implementation of PET using radiolabeled anticancer drugs will be illustrated by validation studies of carbon-11 labeled docetaxel ([11C]docetaxel) in lung cancer patients. PMID:23986880

  17. Direct Measurement of the ^11C(,)^14N Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Kume, N.; Miura, Y.; Teranishi, T.; He, J. J.; Kwon, Y. K.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Wanajo, S.

    2009-10-01

    A recent simulation of the rp-process in neutrino-driven winds in type II supernovae (νp-process) suggests that the ^11C(,)^14N reaction could be an important breakout pass from the pp-chain region to the CNO region. However, there are only very limited experimental information of the reaction cross section available from the time-reverse reaction studies. In order to determine the reaction rate of ^11C(,)^14N, a direct measurement by means of the thick-target inverse-kinematics method has recently been performed using low-energy ^11C beams from the CNS Radioactive Ion Beam (CRIB) separator, a ^4He gas target and δE-E position-sensitive silicon telescopes at three downstream angles. The experiment covered ECM = 0.5-5 MeV corresponding to the stellar temperature of 1.5-7GK. The obtained reaction cross section including some resonances and transitions to the excited states of ^14N will be reported.

  18. Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Multimodality Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhao, Jinhua; Conti, Peter S.; Chen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Each imaging modality has its own unique strengths. Multimodality imaging, taking advantages of strengths from two or more imaging modalities, can provide overall structural, functional, and molecular information, offering the prospect of improved diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring abilities. The devices of molecular imaging with multimodality and multifunction are of great value for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and greatly accelerate the development of radionuclide-based multimodal molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles bearing intrinsic properties have gained great interest in multimodality tumor imaging over the past decade. Significant breakthrough has been made toward the development of various radiolabeled nanoparticles, which can be used as novel cancer diagnostic tools in multimodality imaging systems. It is expected that quantitative multimodality imaging with multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles will afford accurate and precise assessment of biological signatures in cancer in a real-time manner and thus, pave the path towards personalized cancer medicine. This review addresses advantages and challenges in developing multimodality imaging probes by using different types of nanoparticles, and summarizes the recent advances in the applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodal imaging of tumor. The key issues involved in the translation of radiolabeled nanoparticles to the clinic are also discussed. PMID:24505237

  19. Study of the 11C(p,gamma) reaction via the indirect d(11C,12N)ntransfer reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongwon; Powell, James; Perajarvi, Kari; Guo, Fanqing; Moltz, Dennis; Cerny, Joseph

    2008-01-07

    The {sup 11}C(p,{gamma}){sup 12}N reaction is expected to be an important branch point in supermassive low-metallicity stars because it could produce CNO seed nuclei before the traditional triple-alpha process turns on. In the present work, the d({sup 11}C, {sup 12}N)n transfer reaction was employed to evaluate this reaction using a radioactive ion beam of 150 MeV {sup 11}C with 6 x 10{sup 5} ions/s on target from the BEARS project at the 88-inch cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental cross sections ({theta}{sub c.m.} = 10.9{sup o} to 71.5{sup o}) and DWBA calculations. The asymptotic normalization coefficient was deduced to be (C{sub eff}{sup 12N}){sup 2} = (C{sub p1/2}{sup 12N}){sup 2} + (C{sub p3/2}{sup 12N}){sup 2} = 1.83 {+-} 0.27 fm{sup -1}.

  20. HER2-positive tumors imaged within 1 hour using a site-specifically 11C-labeled Sel-tagged affibody molecule.

    PubMed

    Wållberg, Helena; Grafström, Jonas; Cheng, Qing; Lu, Li; Martinsson Ahlzén, Hanna-Stina; Samén, Erik; Thorell, Jan-Olov; Johansson, Katarina; Dunås, Finn; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Arnér, Elias S J; Ståhl, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    A rapid, reliable method for distinguishing tumors or metastases that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) from those that do not is highly desired for individualizing therapy and predicting prognoses. In vivo imaging methods are available but not yet in clinical practice; new methodologies improving speed, sensitivity, and specificity are required. A HER2-binding Affibody molecule, Z(HER2:342), was recombinantly fused with a C-terminal selenocysteine-containing tetrapeptide Sel-tag, allowing site-specific labeling with either (11)C or (68)Ga, followed by biodistribution studies with small-animal PET. Dosimetry data for the 2 radiotracers were compared. Imaging of HER2-expressing human tumor xenografts was performed using the (11)C-labeled Affibody molecule. Both the (11)C- and (68)Ga-labeled tracers initially cleared rapidly from the blood, followed by a slower decrease to 4-5 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue at 1 h. Final retention in the kidneys was much lower (>5-fold) for the (11)C-labeled protein, and its overall absorbed dose was considerably lower. (11)C-Z(HER2:342) showed excellent tumor-targeting capability, with almost 10 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue in HER2-expressing tumors within 1 h. Specificity was demonstrated by preblocking binding sites with excess ligand, yielding significantly reduced radiotracer uptake (P = 0.002), comparable to uptake in tumors with low HER2 expression. To our knowledge, the Sel-tagging technique is the first that enables site-specific (11)C-radiolabeling of proteins. Here we present the finding that, in a favorable combination between radionuclide half-life and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the Affibody molecules, (11)C-labeled Sel-tagged Z(HER2:342) can successfully be used for rapid and repeated PET studies of HER2 expression in tumors.

  1. Positron emission tomography ligand [11C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan can be used as a surrogate marker for the human endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Olof; Espes, Daniel; Selvaraju, Ram K; Jansson, Emma; Antoni, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Biglarnia, Ali-Reza; Eriksson, Jan W; Sundin, Anders; Ahlström, Håkan; Eriksson, Barbro; Johansson, Lars; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Korsgren, Olle

    2014-10-01

    In humans, a well-developed serotonin system is localized to the pancreatic islets while being absent in exocrine pancreas. Assessment of pancreatic serotonin biosynthesis could therefore be used to estimate the human endocrine pancreas. Proof of concept was tested in a prospective clinical trial by comparisons of type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, with extensive reduction of β-cells, with healthy volunteers (HVs). C-peptide-negative (i.e., insulin-deficient) T1D subjects (n = 10) and HVs (n = 9) underwent dynamic positron emission tomography with the radiolabeled serotonin precursor [(11)C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP). A significant accumulation of [(11)C]5-HTP was obtained in the pancreas of the HVs, with large interindividual variation. A substantial and highly significant reduction (66%) in the pancreatic uptake of [(11)C]5-HTP in T1D subjects was observed, and this was most evident in the corpus and caudal regions of the pancreas where β-cells normally are the major constituent of the islets. [(11)C]5-HTP retention in the pancreas was reduced in T1D compared with nondiabetic subjects. Accumulation of [(11)C]5-HTP in the pancreas of both HVs and subjects with T1D was in agreement with previously reported morphological observations on the β-cell volume, implying that [(11)C]5-HTP retention is a useful noninvasive surrogate marker for the human endocrine pancreas. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Regional brain [(11)C]carfentanil binding following tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Domino, Edward F; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Ni, Lisong; Guthrie, Sally K; Zubieta, Jon Kar

    2015-06-03

    To determine if overnight tobacco abstinent carriers of the AG or GG (*G) vs. the AA variant of the human mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) differ in [(11)C]carfentanil binding after tobacco smoking. Twenty healthy American male smokers who abstained from tobacco overnight were genotyped and completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mu opioid receptor agonist, [(11)C]carfentanil. They smoked deniconized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) cigarettes during the PET scans. Smoking avnic cigarette decreased the binding potential (BPND) of [(11)C]carfentanil in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPfc; 6, 56, 18), left anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPfc; -2, 46, 44), right ventral striatum (vStr; 16, 3, -10), left insula (Ins; -42, 10, -12), right hippocampus (Hippo; 18, -6, -14) and left cerebellum (Cbl; -10, -88, -34), and increased the BPND in left amygdala (Amy; -20, 0, -22), left putamen (Put; -22, 10, -6) and left nucleus accumbens (NAcc; -10, 12, -8). In the AA allele carriers, avnic cigarette smoking significantly changed the BPND compared to after denic smoking in most brain areas listed above. However in the *G carriers the significant BPND changes were confirmed in only amPfc and vStr. Free mu opioid receptor availability was significantly less in the *G than the AA carriers in the Amy and NAcc. The present study demonstrates that BPND changes induced by avnic smoking in OPRM1 *G carriers were blunted compared to the AA carriers. Also *G smokers had less free mu opioid receptor availability in Amy and NAcc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional Brain [11C]carfentanil Binding Following Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Edward F; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Ni, Lisong; Guthrie, Sally K; Zubieta, Jon Kar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if overnight tobacco abstinent carriers of the AG or GG (*G) vs. the AA variant of the human mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) differ in [11C]carfentanil binding after tobacco smoking. Methods Twenty healthy American male smokers who abstained from tobacco overnight were genotyped and completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mu opioid receptor agonist, [11C]carfentanil. They smoked deniconized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) cigarettes during the PET scans. Results Smoking avnic cigarette decreased the binding potential (BPND) of [11C]carfentanil in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPfc; 6,56,18), left anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPfc; −2,46,44), right ventral striatum (vStr; 16, 3, −10), left insula (Ins; −42,10, −12), right hippocampus (Hippo; 18, −6, −14) and left cerebellum (Cbl; −10, −88, −34), and increased the BPND in left amygdala (Amy; −20,0, −22), left putamen (Put; −22, 10, −6) and left nucleus accumbens (NAcc; −10,12, −8). In the AA allele carriers, avnic cigarette smoking significantly changed the BPND compared to after denic smoking in most brain areas listed above. However in the *G carriers the significant BPND changes were confirmed in only amPfc and vStr. Free mu opioid receptor availability was significantly less in the *G than the AA carriers in the Amy and NAcc. Conclusion The present study demonstrates BPND changes induced by avnic smoking in OPRM1 *G carriers were blunted compared to the AA carriers. Also *G smokers had less free mu opioid receptor availability in Amy and NAcc. PMID:25598501

  4. Analysis of plasma metabolites during human PET-studies with three receptor ligands, [11C]YM-09151-2, [11C]doxepin and [11C]pyrilamine.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, K; Yanai, K; Iwata, R; Takahashi, T; Hatazawa, J; Itoh, M; Watabe, K; Watanabe, T; Ido, T

    1996-02-01

    Carbon-11 labeled metabolites in human plasma were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography during positron emission tomography (PET) studies using the dopamine D2 ligand [11C]YM-09151-2 as well as the histamine H1 ligands [11C]doxepin and [11C]pyrilamine. For all the three tracers, blood clearance of the radioactivity was extremely rapid after an i.v. injection. The plasma protein-binding of [11C]YM-09151-2 and [11C]doxepin had protective effects upon the metabolic alteration of the ligands, whereas [11C]pyrilamine was free from the protein-binding and immediately degraded. The degradation of [11C]doxepin was more rapid in epileptic patients on medication than in normal subjects. These results indicate that analysis of metabolites in the plasma is necessary to determine the accurate arterial input function for quantitative PET measurement.

  5. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of a Low-Molecular-Weight (11)C-Labeled Tetrazine for Pretargeted PET Imaging Applying Bioorthogonal in Vivo Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Denk, Christoph; Svatunek, Dennis; Mairinger, Severin; Stanek, Johann; Filip, Thomas; Matscheko, Dominik; Kuntner, Claudia; Wanek, Thomas; Mikula, Hannes

    2016-07-20

    A low-molecular-weight tetrazine labeled with the short-lived positron emitter carbon-11 was developed as a bioorthogonal PET probe for pretargeted imaging. A method for efficient and fast synthesis of this imaging agent is presented using radiolabeling of a readily available precursor. High reactivity with trans-cyclooctenes was observed and in vivo investigations including PET/MR scanning showed homogeneous biodistribution, good metabolic stability, and rapid excretion in naive mice. These properties are key to the success of bioorthogonal (11)C-PET imaging, which has been shown in a simple pretargeting experiment using TCO-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Overall, this (11)C-labeled tetrazine represents a highly versatile and advantageous chemical tool for bioorthogonal PET imaging and enables pretargeting approaches using carbon-11 for the first time.

  6. Radiosynthesis and Evaluation of [11C-Carbonyl]-Labeled Carbamates as Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Radiotracers for Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a key role in regulating the tone of the endocannabinoid system. Radiotracers are required to image and quantify FAAH activity in vivo. We have synthesized a series of potent FAAH inhibitors encompassing two classes of N-alkyl-O-arylcarbamates and radiolabeled eight of them with carbon-11. The [11C-carbonyl]-radiotracers were evaluated in vitro and ex vivo in rats as potential FAAH imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). Both sets of [11C]O-arylcarbamates showed good to excellent brain penetration and an appropriate regional distribution. Pretreatments with a FAAH inhibitor demonstrated that 80–95% of brain uptake of radioactivity constituted binding of the radiotracers to FAAH. Brain extraction measurements showed that binding to FAAH was irreversible and kinetically different for the two classes of carbamates. These promising results are discussed in terms of the requirements of a suitable radiotracer for the in vivo imaging of FAAH using PET. PMID:23214511

  7. Synthesis and preliminary PET imaging of 11C and 18F isotopologues of the ROS1/ALK inhibitor lorlatinib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Thomas Lee; Normandin, Marc D.; Stephenson, Nickeisha A.; Livni, Eli; Liang, Steven H.; Wooten, Dustin W.; Esfahani, Shadi A.; Stabin, Michael G.; Mahmood, Umar; Chen, Jianqing; Wang, Wei; Maresca, Kevin; Waterhouse, Rikki N.; El Fakhri, Georges; Richardson, Paul; Vasdev, Neil

    2017-06-01

    Lorlatinib (PF-06463922) is a next-generation small-molecule inhibitor of the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1), which has a kinase domain that is physiologically related to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and is undergoing Phase I/II clinical trial investigations for non-small cell lung cancers. An early goal is to measure the concentrations of this drug in brain tumour lesions of lung cancer patients, as penetration of the blood-brain barrier is important for optimal therapeutic outcomes. Here we prepare both 11C- and 18F-isotopologues of lorlatinib to determine the biodistribution and whole-body dosimetry assessments by positron emission tomography (PET). Non-traditional radiolabelling strategies are employed to enable an automated multistep 11C-labelling process and an iodonium ylide-based radiofluorination. Carbon-11-labelled lorlatinib is routinely prepared with good radiochemical yields and shows reasonable tumour uptake in rodents. PET imaging in non-human primates confirms that this radiotracer has high brain permeability.

  8. Cu(I)-catalyzed (11)C carboxylation of boronic acid esters: a rapid and convenient entry to (11)C-labeled carboxylic acids, esters, and amides.

    PubMed

    Riss, Patrick J; Lu, Shuiyu; Telu, Sanjay; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Pike, Victor W

    2012-03-12

    Rapid and direct: the carboxylation of boronic acid esters with (11)CO(2) provides [(11)C]carboxylic acids as a convenient entry into [(11)C]esters and [(11)C]amides. This conversion of boronates is tolerant to diverse functional groups (e.g., halo, nitro, or carbonyl).

  9. Cryogenic molecular separation system for radioactive (11)C ion acceleration.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, K; Noda, A; Suzuki, K; Nagatsu, K; Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Nakao, M; Hojo, S; Wakui, T; Noda, K

    2015-12-01

    A (11)C molecular production/separation system (CMPS) has been developed as part of an isotope separation on line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive (11)C ion beams. In the ISOL system, (11)CH4 molecules will be produced by proton irradiation and separated from residual air impurities and impurities produced during the irradiation. The CMPS includes two cryogenic traps to separate specific molecules selectively from impurities by using vapor pressure differences among the molecular species. To investigate the fundamental performance of the CMPS, we performed separation experiments with non-radioactive (12)CH4 gases, which can simulate the chemical characteristics of (11)CH4 gases. We investigated the separation of CH4 molecules from impurities, which will be present as residual gases and are expected to be difficult to separate because the vapor pressure of air molecules is close to that of CH4. We determined the collection/separation efficiencies of the CMPS for various amounts of air impurities and found desirable operating conditions for the CMPS to be used as a molecular separation device in our ISOL system.

  10. Kinetics of 11C-labeled opiates in the brain of rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Hartvig, P.; Bergstroem, K.; Lindberg, B.; Lundberg, P.O.; Lundqvist, H.; Langstroem, B.; Svaerd, H.; Rane, A.

    1984-07-01

    The regional uptake in the brain of Rhesus monkeys of i.v. administered 11C-labeled morphine, codeine, heroin and pethidine was studied by means of positron emission tomography. The technique measures the sum of parent drug and radiolabeled metabolites. (For the sake of simplicity the drug derived radioactivity is denoted by the drug name.) Morphine had a limited uptake to discrete areas of the brain. The maximum normalized uptake, with respect to dose per kilogram body weight, was about 0.2, i.e., 20% of the calculated activity if the drug had been evenly distributed throughout the body of the monkey. Maximum radioactivity appeared 30 to 45 min after injection. Morphine left the brain slowly with an estimated half-life of more than 2 hr. An area with a normalized uptake of about 1.0 was detected centrally in the lowest horizontal transsection of the skull. The origin of this area was identified as the pituitary. Codeine, heroin and pethidine were taken up to the brain to a larger extent than morphine, with maximum normalized uptakes of 2.6, 4.6 and 6.3, respectively. Maximum radioactivities of these drugs were achieved earlier and the elimination rates were faster than for morphine. Differences in the uptake of these drugs to the brain, as well as differences in time to maximal normalized uptake and rate of disappearance are considered to reflect differences in the lipophilic character between the drugs. Pethidine had the most rapid and extensive uptake followed by heroin, codeine and morphine in order of decreasing lipophilicity.

  11. Comparison of [11C]diprenorphine and [11C]carfentanil binding to opiate receptors in humans by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Frost, J J; Mayberg, H S; Sadzot, B; Dannals, R F; Lever, J R; Ravert, H T; Wilson, A A; Wagner, H N; Links, J M

    1990-07-01

    The kinetics and regional distribution of [11C]carfentanil, a mu-selective opiate receptor agonist, and [11C]diprenorphine, a nonselective opiate receptor antagonist, were compared using paired positron emission tomography studies in two normal volunteers. Kinetics of total radioactivity (counts/mCi/pixel) was greater for [11C]diprenorphine than [11C]carfentanil in all regions. [11C]Carfentanil binding (expressed as the total/nonspecific ratio) reached near equilibrium at approximately 40 min, whereas [11C]diprenorphine showed a linear increase until approximately 60 min. Kinetics of specific binding demonstrated significant dissociation of [11C]carfentanil from opiate receptors, whereas little dissociation of [11C]diprenorphine was observed during the 90-min scan session. Regional distributions of [11C]carfentanil and [11C]diprenorphine were qualitatively and quantitatively different: Relative to the thalamus (a region with known predominance of mu-receptors), [11C]diprenorphine displayed greater binding in the striatum and cingulate and frontal cortex compared to [11C]carfentanil, consistent with labeling of additional, non-mu sites by [11C]diprenorphine. We conclude from these studies that [11C]diprenorphine labels other opiate receptor subtypes in addition to the mu sites selectively labeled by [11C]carfentanil. The nonselective nature of diprenorphine potentially limits its usefulness in defining abnormalities of specific opiate receptor subtypes in various diseases. Development of selective tracers for the delta- and kappa-opiate receptor sites, or alternatively use of unlabeled inhibitors to differentially displace mu, delta, and kappa subtypes, will help offset these limitations.

  12. Solid scintillation counting: a new technique for measuring radiolabeled compounds.

    PubMed

    Wunderly, S W

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the theory and practice of anew solid scintillator technique for measurement of radiolabeled compounds useful in bioresearch. Solid scintillation counting is expected to replace liquid scintillation counting in certain applications involving non-volatile radiolabeled substrates.

  13. Method for making methanol

    DOEpatents

    Mednick, R. Lawrence; Blum, David B.

    1986-01-01

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  14. Method for making methanol

    DOEpatents

    Mednick, R. Lawrence; Blum, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  15. Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dexing; Desai, Amit V.; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Reichert, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. Methods The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both 64Cu and 68Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Results Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with 64Cu/68Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. Conclusions A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions. PMID:23078875

  16. Generation and characterization of radiolabeled diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, J S; Sun, J D; Lopez, J A; Wolf, I; Wolff, R K; McClellan, R O

    1984-07-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks associated with increased use of diesel engines, information is needed on the biological fate of inhaled diesel exhaust components. Appropriately radiolabeled exhaust produced by burning radiolabeled fuel could be used to gain this information. The purpose of this study was to characterize different radiolabeled diesel exhausts with respect to their potential use in studies of the biological fate of exhaust carbon particles and particle-associated organic compounds (particle extracts). A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to burn diesel fuel containing trace amounts of 14C-labeled hexadecane, dotriacontane, benzene, phenanthrene or benzo(a)pyrene. Greater than 98% of the 14C in all additives was converted to volatile materials upon combustion. The remainder was distributed in varying amounts between the carbon particles and particle extracts. Aromatic additives labeled carbon particles more efficiently than aliphatic additives. Column chromatography of the particle extracts showed that, in most cases, the majority of the radioactivity eluted in fractions identical to the specific fuel additive employed, suggesting that a large amount of the particle-associated organic compounds consisted of uncombusted fuel constituents. Applying an electrical load to the engine-electrical generator increased carbon particle radioactivity, but had variable effects on the amount of radioactivity in the particle extracts. 67Ga-tetramethylheptanedione was also studied as a fuel additive to label carbon particles. 67Ga was incorporated into the exhaust particles and lung deposition of particles in rats was found to be approximately 10%. However, the 67Ga-radiolabel was found to separate from the particles in vivo, making it an unsuitable radiolabel for studying the long-term lung retention of diesel exhaust carbonaceous particles.

  17. A simple modification of GE tracerlab FX C Pro for rapid sequential preparation of [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xia; Kilbourn, Michael R

    2009-04-01

    A simple modification of the GE Tracerlab FX C Pro system which enabled performance of both solvent capture (loop method) and conventional solution phase [(11)C]methylation in the same module is described. By the quick setup and automated method, [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride could be prepared in rapid succession without opening the hot cell. The radiochemical yields were over 40% and 30% (decay-corrected and based on [(11)C]methyl iodide) for [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride, respectively. The radiochemical purities were greater than 95% and specific activities over 5 Ci/mmol for both tracers. The modification is extremely easy and can be utilized for multiple syntheses of other (11)C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in a fast and reliable manner.

  18. Receptor binding and selectivity of three 11C-labelled dopamine receptor antagonists in the brain of rhesus monkeys studied with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Hartvig, P; Eckernäs, S A; Ekblom, B; Lindström, L; Lundqvist, H; Axelsson, S; Fasth, K J; Gullberg, P; Långström, B

    1988-04-01

    The regional distribution of 3 11C-labelled dopamine receptor antagonists, N-methyl spiperone, raclopride and clozapine, in the brain of Rhesus monkeys was studied by positron emission tomography (PET). The measured radioactivities in the striatal area were similar for the 3 antagonists, although the highest selectivity as compared to cerebellum was found for 11C-raclopride 60 min after administration. The selectivity of the radiotracers for the serotonin and D2-dopamine receptors was evaluated after pretreatment of the monkeys with serotonin and dopamine receptor antagonists. 11C-N-methylspiperone and 11C-clozapine both bound to serotonin receptors in the frontal cortex and to D2-dopamine receptors in the striatal area. Raclopride was selectively bound to the D2-dopamine receptors. The radioactivities measured in the striatal area with cerebellum as reference were fitted to a 3-compartment model which made possible evaluation of receptor binding characteristics. The rate proportional to the association rate constant for the receptor, kon and number of receptors, Bmax, varied from 0.02-0.07 min-1 between the studied radiolabelled drugs, whereas the apparent dissociation rate was highest for clozapine. This means that clozapine had the lowest affinity for the receptors in the striatum, assuming that the Bmax values are identical. The observed difference in selective receptor binding and binding characteristics of the 3 tracers may have an influence both on the clinical efficacy and side effects of the studied dopamine receptor antagonists.

  19. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of [(11)C]Granisetron and [(18)F]Fluoropalonosetron as PET Probes for 5-HT3 Receptor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Mu, Linjing; Müller Herde, Adrienne; Rüefli, Pascal M; Sladojevich, Filippo; Milicevic Sephton, Selena; Krämer, Stefanie D; Thompson, Andrew J; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M; Lochner, Martin

    2016-11-16

    Serotonin-gated ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors are the major pharmacological targets for antiemetic compounds. Furthermore, they have become a focus for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and there is some evidence that pharmacological modulation of 5-HT3 receptors might alleviate symptoms of other neurological disorders. Highly selective, high-affinity antagonists, such as granisetron (Kytril) and palonosetron (Aloxi), belong to a family of drugs (the "setrons") that are well established for clinical use. To enable us to better understand the actions of these drugs in vivo, we report the synthesis of 8-fluoropalonosetron (15) that has a binding affinity (Ki = 0.26 ± 0.05 nM) similar to the parent drug (Ki = 0.21 ± 0.03 nM). We radiolabeled 15 by nucleophilic (18)F-fluorination of an unsymmetrical diaryliodonium palonosetron precursor and achieved the radiosynthesis of 1-(methyl-(11)C)-N-granisetron ([(11)C]2) through N-alkylation with [(11)C]CH3I, respectively. Both compounds [(18)F]15 (chemical and radiochemical purity >95%, specific activity 41 GBq/μmol) and [(11)C]2 (chemical and radiochemical purity ≥99%, specific activity 170 GBq/μmol) were evaluated for their utility as positron emission tomography (PET) probes. Using mouse and rat brain slices, in vitro autoradiography with both [(18)F]15 and [(11)C]2 revealed a heterogeneous and displaceable binding in cortical and hippocampal regions that are known to express 5-HT3 receptors at significant levels. Subsequent PET experiments suggested that [(18)F]15 and [(11)C]2 are of limited utility for the PET imaging of brain 5-HT3 receptors in vivo.

  20. Within-subject comparison of [11C]-(+)-PHNO and [11C]raclopride sensitivity to acute amphetamine challenge in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Shotbolt, Paul; Tziortzi, Andri C; Searle, Graham E; Colasanti, Alessandro; van der Aart, Jasper; Abanades, Sergio; Plisson, Christophe; Miller, Sam R; Huiban, Mickael; Beaver, John D; Gunn, Roger N; Laruelle, Marc; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-01-01

    [11C]PHNO is a D2/D3 agonist positron emission tomography radiotracer, with higher in vivo affinity for D3 than for D2 receptors. As [11C]-(+)-PHNO is an agonist, its in vivo binding is expected to be more affected by acute fluctuations in synaptic dopamine than that of antagonist radiotracers such as [11C]raclopride. In this study, the authors compared the effects of an oral dose of the dopamine releaser amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) on in vivo binding of [11C]-(+)-PHNO and [11C]raclopride in healthy subjects, using a within-subjects, counterbalanced, open-label design. In the dorsal striatum, where the density of D3 receptors is negligible and both tracers predominantly bind to D2 receptors, the reduction of [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding potential (BPND) was 1.5 times larger than that of [11C]raclopride. The gain in sensitivity associated with the agonist [11C]-(+)-PHNO implies that ∼65% of D2 receptors are in the high-affinity state in vivo. In extrastriatal regions, where [11C]-(+)-PHNO predominantly binds to D3 receptors, the amphetamine effect on [11C]-(+)-PHNO BPND was even larger, consistent with the higher affinity of dopamine for D3. This study indicates that [11C]-(+)-PHNO is superior to [11C]raclopride for studying acute fluctuations in synaptic dopamine in the human striatum. [11C]-(+)-PHNO also enables measurement of synaptic dopamine in D3 regions. PMID:21878947

  1. Within-subject comparison of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO and [(11)C]raclopride sensitivity to acute amphetamine challenge in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Shotbolt, Paul; Tziortzi, Andri C; Searle, Graham E; Colasanti, Alessandro; van der Aart, Jasper; Abanades, Sergio; Plisson, Christophe; Miller, Sam R; Huiban, Mickael; Beaver, John D; Gunn, Roger N; Laruelle, Marc; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-01-01

    [(11)C]PHNO is a D(2)/D(3) agonist positron emission tomography radiotracer, with higher in vivo affinity for D(3) than for D(2) receptors. As [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO is an agonist, its in vivo binding is expected to be more affected by acute fluctuations in synaptic dopamine than that of antagonist radiotracers such as [(11)C]raclopride. In this study, the authors compared the effects of an oral dose of the dopamine releaser amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) on in vivo binding of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO and [(11)C]raclopride in healthy subjects, using a within-subjects, counterbalanced, open-label design. In the dorsal striatum, where the density of D(3) receptors is negligible and both tracers predominantly bind to D(2) receptors, the reduction of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding potential (BP(ND)) was 1.5 times larger than that of [(11)C]raclopride. The gain in sensitivity associated with the agonist [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO implies that ∼65% of D(2) receptors are in the high-affinity state in vivo. In extrastriatal regions, where [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO predominantly binds to D(3) receptors, the amphetamine effect on [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO BP(ND) was even larger, consistent with the higher affinity of dopamine for D(3). This study indicates that [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO is superior to [(11)C]raclopride for studying acute fluctuations in synaptic dopamine in the human striatum. [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO also enables measurement of synaptic dopamine in D(3) regions.

  2. Development of a modular system for the synthesis of PET [(11)C]labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Stefano; Lodi, Filippo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Raul Ledesma, Jorge; Knopp, Roger; Rizzello, Anna; Di Pierro, Donato; Trespidi, Silvia; Marengo, Mario

    2009-10-01

    [((11))C]labelled radiopharmaceuticals as N-[(11)C]methyl-choline ([(11)C]choline), l-(S-methyl-[(11)C])methionine ([(11)C]methionine) and [(11)C]acetate have gained increasing importance in clinical PET and for the routine production of these radiopharmaceuticals, simple and reliable modules are needed to produce clinically relevant radioactivity. On the other hand, flexible devices are needed not only for the routine synthesis but also for more complex applications as the development of new tracers. The aim of this work was the adaptation of an Eckert Ziegler modular system for easy routine synthesis of [(11)C]choline, [(11)C]methionine and [(11)C]acetate using components that account for straightforward scaling up and upgrades.

  3. Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

  4. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled verruculogen by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-03-01

    In surface culture of Penicillium simplicissimum, verruculogen was shown to be biosynthesized from the intact carbon skeletons of tryptophan and proline, isoprenoid derivatives of mevalonic acid, and a methyl group donated by methionine. Selected radiolabeled precursors (1 mCi) pulse-fed at the optimum stage of fermentation yielded verruculogen (specific activity, 5.89 X 10(2) microCi mmol-1) labeled in the prolyl and isoprenyl regions of the molecule and suitable for metabolic studies.

  5. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled verruculogen by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-01-01

    In surface culture of Penicillium simplicissimum, verruculogen was shown to be biosynthesized from the intact carbon skeletons of tryptophan and proline, isoprenoid derivatives of mevalonic acid, and a methyl group donated by methionine. Selected radiolabeled precursors (1 mCi) pulse-fed at the optimum stage of fermentation yielded verruculogen (specific activity, 5.89 X 10(2) microCi mmol-1) labeled in the prolyl and isoprenyl regions of the molecule and suitable for metabolic studies. PMID:7041819

  6. Radiolabeled Metaiodobenzylguanidine for the Treatment of Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Steven G.; Matthay, Katherine K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric extracranial solid cancer. This tumor is characterized by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity in 90% of cases, prompting the use of radiolabeled MIBG for targeted radiotherapy in these tumors. Methods The available English language literature was reviewed for original research investigating in vitro, in vivo, and clinical applications of radiolabeled MIBG for neuroblastoma. Results MIBG is actively transported into neuroblastoma cells by the norepinephrine transporter. Preclinical studies demonstrate substantial activity of radiolabeled MIBG in neuroblastoma models, with 131I-MIBG showing enhanced activity in larger tumors compared to 125I-MIBG. Clinical studies of 131I-MIBG in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma have identified myelosuppression as the main dose-limiting toxicity, necessitating stem cell reinfusion at higher doses. Most studies report a response rate of 30–40% with 131I-MIBG in this population. More recent studies have focused on the use of 131I-MIBG in combination with chemotherapy or myeloablative regimens. Conclusions 131I-MIBG is an active agent for the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma. Future studies will need to define the optimal role of this targeted radiopharmaceutical in the therapy of this disease. PMID:18707633

  7. In vivo vulnerability to competition by endogenous dopamine: comparison of the D2 receptor agonist radiotracer (-)-N-[11C]propyl-norapomorphine ([11C]NPA) with the D2 receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]-raclopride.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Slifstein, Mark; Talbot, Peter S; Erritzoe, David; Huang, Yiyun; Cooper, Thomas B; Martinez, Diana; Kegeles, Lawrence S; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc

    2004-06-01

    (-)-N-Propyl-norapomorphine (NPA) is a full dopamine (DA) D2 receptor agonist and [11C]NPA is a suitable radiotracer to image D2 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for agonists with positron emission tomography (PET). In this study the vulnerability of the in vivo binding of [11C]NPA to acute fluctuation in synaptic DA was assessed with PET in baboons and compared to that of the reference D2 receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]raclopride. Three male baboons were studied with [11C]raclopride and [11C]NPA under baseline conditions and following administration of the potent DA releaser amphetamine (0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) i.v.). Kinetic modeling with an arterial input function was used to derive the striatal specific-to-nonspecific equilibrium partition coefficient (V3"). [11C]Raclopride V3" was reduced by 24 +/- 10%, 32 +/- 6%, and 44 +/- 9% following amphetamine doses of 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. [11C]NPA V3" was reduced by 32 +/- 2%, 45 +/- 3%, and 53 +/- 9% following amphetamine doses of 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. Thus, endogenous DA was more effective at competing with [11C]NPA binding compared to [11C]raclopride binding, a finding consistent with the pharmacology of these tracers (agonist vs. antagonist). These results also suggest that 71% of D2 receptors are configured in a state of high affinity for agonists in vivo. In conclusion, [11C]NPA might provide a superior radiotracer to probe presynaptic DA function with PET in health and disease.

  8. [11C]CURB: Evaluation of a novel radiotracer for imaging fatty acid amide hydrolase by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan A; Garcia, Armando; Parkes, Jun; Houle, Sylvain; Tong, Junchao; Vasdev, Neil

    2011-02-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the enzyme responsible for metabolising the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, and thus represents an important target for molecular imaging. To date, no radiotracer has been shown to be useful for imaging of FAAH using either positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We here determine the suitability of a novel carbon-11-labeled inhibitor of FAAH via ex vivo biodistribution studies in rat brain in conjunction with pharmacological challenges. A potent irreversible inhibitor of FAAH, URB694, radiolabeled with carbon-11 in the carbonyl position ([(11)C]CURB), was administered to male rats via tail-vein injection. Rats were sacrificed at various time points postinjection, and tissue samples were dissected, counted and weighed. Specific binding to FAAH was investigated by pretreatment of animals with URB694 or URB597. For metabolism and mechanism of binding studies, whole brains were excised post-radiotracer injection, homogenised and extracted exhaustively with 80% aq. acetonitrile to determine the time course and fraction of radioactivity that was irreversibly bound to brain parenchyma. Upon intravenous injection into rats, [(11)C]CURB showed high brain uptake [standard uptake value (SUV) of 1.6-2.4 at 5 min] with little washout over time, which is characteristic of irreversible binding. Highest uptake of radioactivity was seen in the cortex, intermediate in the cerebellum and lowest in the hypothalamus, reflecting the reported distribution of FAAH. Brain uptake of radioactivity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with increasing amounts of URB694, demonstrating that binding was saturable. Pretreatment with the well-characterised FAAH inhibitor, URB597, reduced binding in all brain regions by 70-80%. Homogenised brain extraction experiments demonstrated unequivocally that [(11)C]CURB was irreversibly bound to FAAH. The title radiotracer demonstrates favourable

  9. Tracking deposition of a 14C-radiolabeled kudzu hairy root-derived isoflavone-rich fraction into bone.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jonathan G; Grannan, Michael D; Lachcik, Pamela J; Rogers, Randy B; Yousef, Gad G; Grace, Mary H; Janle, Elsa M; Wu, Qing Li; Simon, James E; Weaver, Connie M; Lila, Mary Ann

    2010-10-01

    Hairy roots were induced in four genotypes from three kudzu species (Pueraria montana var. lobata, P. lobata and P. phaseoloides) in vitro using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to stimulate rapid secondary metabolite synthesis. Hairy roots from P. montana var. lobata (United States Department of Agriculture no. PI 434246) yielded the highest puerarin and total isoflavone content and the greatest new biomass per growth cycle among the genotypes evaluated. Hairy roots from this genotype were selected for radiolabeling using (14)C-sucrose as a carbon source. Isoflavones from radiolabeled kudzu hairy root cultures were extracted with 80% methanol, partitioned by solvent extraction, and then subfractionated by Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration. Radiolabeled isoflavones were isolated in a highly enriched fraction, which contained predominantly puerarin, daidzin and malonyl-daidzin and had an average radioactivity of 8.614 MBq/g (232.8 μCi/g) dry fraction. The (14)C-radiolabeled, isoflavone-rich fraction was orally administered at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight to male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with a jugular catheter, a subcutaneous ultrafiltrate probe and a brain microdialysate probe. Serum, interstitial fluid, brain microdialysate, urine and feces were collected using a Culex(®) Automated Blood Collection System for 24 h. At the end of this period, rats were sacrificed and major tissues were collected. Analysis by a scintillation counter confirmed that a bolus dose of (14)C-radiolabeled, isoflavone-rich kudzu fraction reached bone tissues, which accumulated 0.011%, 0.09% and 0.003% of the administered dose in femur, tibia and vertebrae, respectively. Femurs extracted with 80% methanol were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and were found to contain trace quantities of puerarin, daidzein and puerarin glucuronide. This study demonstrates that kudzu isoflavones and metabolites are capable of reaching bone tissues

  10. Accumulation of (11)C-methionine in the normal pituitary gland on (11)C-methionine PET.

    PubMed

    Tomura, Noriaki; Saginoya, Toshiyuiki; Mizuno, Yasuaki; Goto, Hiromi

    2017-03-01

    Background For pituitary tumors, positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-methonine (MET) has been reported as feasible to facilitate diagnosis. MET is well-known to accumulate in the normal pituitary glands, but almost no studies have examined the degree of MET accumulation in the normal pituitary gland. Purpose To investigate accumulation of MET in normal pituitary gland on PET/CT. Material and Methods Among patients who underwent PET/CT using MET over the past 7 years, 77 patients who fulfilled our criteria for normal pituitary glands were retrospectively selected. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for the pituitary gland was measured. Results SUVmax of MET in the pituitary gland was in the range of 0.9-6.6 (mean ± standard deviation = 2.60 ± 1.04). A negative correlation between SUVmax and patient age (y = -0.032 × + 4.29, n = 77, r = 0.55) was found by linear regression analysis. SUVmax of the pituitary gland did not differ significantly between women and men. Conclusion MET shows strong accumulation in normal pituitary gland. PET/CT would thus be feasible to differentiate between normal and abnormal pituitary glands.

  11. Inhibition of radical reactions for an improved potassium tert-butoxide-promoted (11) C-methylation strategy for the synthesis of α-(11) C-methyl amino acids.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chie; Kato, Koichi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Arano, Yasushi; Saga, Tsuneo

    2015-03-01

    α-(11) C-Methyl amino acids are useful tools for biological imaging studies. However, a robust procedure for the labeling of amino acids has not yet been established. In this study, the (11) C-methylation of Schiff-base-activated α-amino acid derivatives has been optimized for the radiosynthesis of various α-(11) C-methyl amino acids. The benzophenone imine analog of methyl 2-amino butyrate was (11) C-methylated with [(11) C]methyl iodide following its initial deprotonation with potassium tert-butoxide (KOtBu). The use of an alternative base such as tetrabutylammonium fluoride, triethylamine, and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene did not result in the (11) C-methylated product. Furthermore, the KOtBu-promoted (11) C-methylation of the Schiff-base-activated amino acid analog was enhanced by the addition of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and inhibited by the addition of 1,10-phenanthroline. These results suggest that inhibition of radical generation induced by KOtBu improves the α-(11) C-methylation of the Schiff-base-activated amino acids. The addition of a mixture of KOtBu and TEMPO to a solution of Schiff-base-activated amino acid ester and [(11) C]methyl iodide provided optimal results, and the tert-butyl ester and benzophenone imine groups could be readily hydrolyzed to give the desired α-(11) C-methyl amino acids with a high radiochemical conversion. This strategy could be readily applied to the synthesis of other α-(11) C-methyl amino acids. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Further evaluation of [11C]MP-10 as a radiotracer for phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A): PET imaging study in rhesus monkeys and brain tissue metabolite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-fei; Labaree, David; Chen, Ming-Kai; Holden, Daniel; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Kapinos, Michael; Teng, Jo-Ku; Najafzadeh, Soheila; Plisson, Christophe; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Gunn, Roger N.; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    [11C]MP-10 is a potent and specific PET tracer previously shown to be suitable for imaging the PDE10A in baboons with reversible kinetics and high specific binding. However, another report indicated that [11C]MP-10 displayed seemingly irreversible kinetics in rhesus monkeys, potentially due to the presence of a radiolabeled metabolite capable of penetrating the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into the brain. This study was designed to address the discrepancies between the species by re-evaluating [11C]MP-10 in vivo in rhesus monkey with baseline scans to assess tissue uptake kinetics and self-blocking scans with unlabeled MP-10 to determine binding specificity. Ex vivo studies with one rhesus monkey and 4 Sprague-Dawley rats were also performed to investigate the presence of radiolabeled metabolites in the brain. Our results indicated that [11C]MP-10 displayed reversible uptake kinetics in rhesus monkeys, albeit slower than in baboons. Administration of unlabeled MP-10 reduced the binding of [11C]MP-10 in a dose-dependent manner in all brain regions including the cerebellum. Consequently, the cerebellum appeared not to be a suitable reference tissue in rhesus monkeys. Regional volume of distribution (VT) was mostly reliably derived with the multilinear analysis (MA1) method. In ex vivo studies in the monkey and rats only negligible (< 2.7%) amount of radiometabolites was seen in the brain of either species. In summary, results from the present study strongly support the suitability of [11C]MP-10 as a radiotracer for PET imaging and quantification of PDE10A in non-human primates. PMID:25450608

  13. PET imaging and optical imaging with D-luciferin [11C]methyl ester and D-luciferin [11C]methyl ether of luciferase gene expression in tumor xenografts of living mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Quan; Pollok, Karen E; Cai, Shanbao; Stantz, Keith M; Hutchins, Gary D; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2006-01-15

    New carbon-11 labeled D-luciferin analogs D-luciferin [(11)C]methyl ester ([(11)C]LMEster, [(11)C]1) and D-luciferin [(11)C]methyl ether ([(11)C]LMEther, [(11)C]2) were synthesized in 25-55% radiochemical yield. PET studies with [(11)C]LMEster and [(11)C]LMEther demonstrate a lower retention of the C-11 label at 45 min post-injection in luciferase expression tumor. Optical imaging with unlabeled substrate D-luciferin and radiotracers [(11)C]LMEster and [(11)C]LMEther gave tumor luciferase images within a few minutes of photon counting.

  14. Microglia, amyloid, and cognition in Alzheimer's disease: An [11C](R)PK11195-PET and [11C]PIB-PET study.

    PubMed

    Edison, Paul; Archer, Hilary A; Gerhard, Alexander; Hinz, Rainer; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E; Hammers, Alexander; Tai, Yen Fong; Fox, Nick; Kennedy, Angus; Rossor, Martin; Brooks, David J

    2008-12-01

    [11C](R)PK11195-PET is a marker of activated microglia while [11C]PIB-PET detects raised amyloid load. Here we studied in vivo the distributions of amyloid load and microglial activation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their relationship with cognitive status. Thirteen AD subjects had [11C](R)PK11195-PET and [11C]PIB-PET scans. Ten healthy controls had [11C](R)PK11195-PET and 14 controls had [11C]PIB-PET scans. Region-of-interest analysis of [11C](R)PK11195-PET detected significant 20-35% increases in microglial activation in frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and cingulate cortices (p<0.05) of the AD subjects. [11C]PIB-PET revealed significant two-fold increases in amyloid load in these same cortical areas (p<0.0001) and SPM (statistical parametric mapping) analysis confirmed the localisation of these increases to association areas. MMSE scores in AD subjects correlated with levels of cortical microglial activation but not with amyloid load. The inverse correlation between MMSE and microglial activation is compatible with a role of microglia in neuronal damage.

  15. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.3 General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. Section 11(c) provides in general that no person shall discharge or in...

  16. Amino acid distribution and metabolism in pituitary adenomas using positron emission tomography with D-(/sup 11/C)methionine and L-(/sup 11/C)methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, M.M.; Muhr, C.; Lundberg, P.O.; Bergstroem, K.L.; Lundqvist, H.; Antoni, G.; Fasth, K.J.; Langstroem B3

    1987-05-01

    Four patients with hormonally inactive pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography (PET) after injection, during different examinations, of L-(methyl-/sup 11/C)methionine and D-(methyl-/sup 11/C)methionine, respectively. After the rapid distribution phase, the enantiomer L-(/sup 11/C)methionine, which is metabolically active, showed a considerable continuous irreversible trapping attributed to amino acid metabolism. The stereoisomer D-(/sup 11/C)methionine, which does not participate in protein synthesis, showed a rapid distribution within the whole adenoma tissue, with a distribution space on the order of 100%. A minimal irreversible trapping was observed which could be explained by technical factors. It is concluded that PET using the two enantiomers allows a separation of passive distribution and metabolism, and that L-(/sup 11/C)methionine can be used for in vivo quantitative studies of amino acid metabolism of pituitary adenomas.

  17. Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Sulfonamido-based [11C-Carbonyl]-Carbamates and Ureas for Imaging Monoacylglycerol Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Mori, Wakana; Cheng, Ran; Yui, Joji; Hatori, Akiko; Ma, Longle; Zhang, Yiding; Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Shimoda, Yoko; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Xie, Lin; Nagai, Yuji; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Vasdev, Neil; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Liang, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a 33 kDa member of the serine hydrolase superfamily that preferentially degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to arachidonic acid in the endocannabinoid system. Inhibition of MAGL is not only of interest for probing the cannabinoid pathway but also as a therapeutic and diagnostic target for neuroinflammation. Limited attempts have been made to image MAGL in vivo and a suitable PET ligand for this target has yet to be identified and is urgently sought to guide small molecule drug development in this pathway. Herein we synthesized and evaluated the physiochemical properties of an array of eleven sulfonamido-based carbamates and ureas with a series of terminal aryl moieties, linkers and leaving groups. The most potent compounds were a novel MAGL inhibitor, N-((1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carbonyl)piperidin-4-yl) methyl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (TZPU; IC50 = 35.9 nM), and the known inhibitor 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl 4-(((4-chlorophenyl)sulfonamido) methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (SAR127303; IC50 = 39.3 nM), which were also shown to be selective for MAGL over fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and cannabinoid receptors (CB1 & CB2). Both of these compounds were radiolabeled with carbon-11 via [11C]COCl2, followed by comprehensive ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo PET imaging studies in normal rats to determine their brain permeability, specificity, clearance and metabolism. Whereas TZPU did not show adequate specificity to warrant further evaluation, [11C]SAR127303 was advanced for preliminary PET neuroimaging studies in nonhuman primate. The tracer showed good brain permeability (ca. 1 SUV) and heterogeneous regional brain distribution which is consistent with the distribution of MAGL. PMID:27279908

  18. Comparison of two PET radioligands, [(11)C]FPEB and [(11)C]SP203, for quantification of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in human brain.

    PubMed

    Lohith, Talakad G; Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Siméon, Fabrice G; Veronese, Mattia; Zoghbi, Sami S; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Morse, Cheryl L; Pike, Victor W; Fujita, Masahiro; Innis, Robert B

    2017-07-01

    Of the two (18)F-labeled PET ligands currently available to image metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), [(18)F]FPEB is reportedly superior because [(18)F]SP203 undergoes glutathionlyation, generating [(18)F]-fluoride ion that accumulates in brain and skull. To allow multiple PET studies on the same day with lower radiation exposure, we prepared [(11)C]FPEB and [(11)C]SP203 from [(11)C]hydrogen cyanide and compared their abilities to accurately quantify mGluR5 in human brain, especially as regards radiometabolite accumulation. Genomic plot was used to estimate the ratio of specific-to-nondisplaceable uptake ( BPND) without using a receptor blocking drug. Both tracers quantified mGluR5; however [(11)C]SP203, like [(18)F]SP203, had radiometabolite accumulation in brain, as evidenced by increased distribution volume ( VT) over the scan period. Absolute VT values were ∼30% lower for (11)C-labeled compared with (18)F-labeled radioligands, likely caused by the lower specific activities (and high receptor occupancies) of the (11)C radioligands. The genomic plot indicated ∼60% specific binding in cerebellum, which makes it inappropriate as a reference region. Whole-body scans performed in healthy subjects demonstrated a low radiation burden typical for (11)C-ligands. Thus, the evidence suggests that [(11)C]FPEB is superior to [(11)C]SP203. If prepared in higher specific activity, [(11)C]FPEB would presumably be as effective as [(18)F]FPEB for quantifying mGluR5 in human brain.

  19. Comparison of Early-Phase 11C-Deuterium-l-Deprenyl and 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B PET for Assessing Brain Perfusion in Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Carter, Stephen F; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Leuzy, Antoine; Schöll, Michael; Almkvist, Ove; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-07-01

    The PET tracer (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl ((11)C-DED) has been used to visualize activated astrocytes in vivo in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). In this multitracer PET study, early-phase (11)C-DED and (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) (eDED and ePiB, respectively) were compared as surrogate markers of brain perfusion, and the extent to which (11)C-DED binding is influenced by brain perfusion was investigated. (11)C-DED, (11)C-PiB, and (18)F-FDG dynamic PET scans were obtained in age-matched groups comprising AD patients (n = 8), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 16). A modified reference Patlak model was used to quantify (11)C-DED binding. A simplified reference tissue model was applied to both (11)C-DED and (11)C-PiB to measure brain perfusion relative to the cerebellar gray matter (R1) and binding potentials. (11)C-PiB retention and (18)F-FDG uptake were also quantified as target-to-pons SUV ratios in 12 regions of interest (ROIs). The strongest within-subject correlations with the corresponding R1 values (R1,DED and R1,PiB, respectively) and with (18)F-FDG uptake were obtained when the eDED and ePiB PET data were measured 1-4 min after injection. The optimum eDED/ePiB intervals also showed strong, significant ROI-based intersubject Pearson correlations with R1,DED/R1,PiB and with (18)F-FDG uptake, whereas (11)C-DED binding was largely independent of brain perfusion, as measured by eDED. Corresponding voxelwise correlations confirmed the ROI-based results. Temporoparietal eDED or ePiB brain perfusion measurements were highly discriminative between patient and control groups, with discriminative ability statistically comparable to that of temporoparietal (18)F-FDG glucose metabolism. Hypometabolism extended over wider regions than hypoperfusion in patient groups compared with controls. The 1- to 4-min early-frame intervals of (11)C-DED or (11)C-PiB are suitable surrogate measures for brain perfusion. (11)C

  20. Characterization of (11)C-GSK1482160 for Targeting the P2X7 Receptor as a Biomarker for Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Territo, Paul R; Meyer, Jill A; Peters, Jonathan S; Riley, Amanda A; McCarthy, Brian P; Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Green, Mark A; Zheng, Qi-Huang; Hutchins, Gary D

    2017-03-01

    The purinergic receptor subtype 7 (P2X7R) represents a novel molecular target for imaging neuroinflammation via PET. GSK1482160, a potent P2X7R antagonist, has high receptor affinity, high blood-brain barrier penetration, and the ability to be radiolabeled with (11)C. We report the initial physical and biologic characterization of this novel ligand. Methods:(11)C-GSK1482160 was synthesized according to published methods. Cell density studies were performed on human embryonic kidney cell lines expressing human P2X7R (HEK293-hP2X7R) and underwent Western blotting, an immunofluorescence assay, and radioimmunohistochemistry analysis using P2X7R polyclonal antibodies. Receptor density and binding potential were determined by saturation and association-disassociation kinetics, respectively. Peak immune response to lipopolysaccharide treatment in mice was determined in time course studies and analyzed via Iba1 and P2X7R Western blotting and Iba1 immunohistochemistry. Whole-animal biodistribution studies were performed on saline- or lipopolysaccharide-treated mice at 15, 30, and 60 min after radiotracer administration. Dynamic in vivo PET/CT was performed on the mice at 72 h after administration of saline, lipopolysaccharide, or lipopolysaccharide + blocking, and 2-compartment, 5-parameter tracer kinetic modeling of brain regions was performed. Results: P2X7R changed linearly with concentrations or cell numbers. For high-specific-activity (11)C-GSK1482160, receptor density and Kd were 1.15 ± 0.12 nM and 3.03 ± 0.10 pmol/mg, respectively, in HEK293-hP2X7R membranes. Association constant kon, dissociation constant koff, and binding potential (kon/koff) in HEK293-hP2X7R cells were 0.2312 ± 0.01542 min(-1)⋅nM(-1), 0.2547 ± 0.0155 min(-1), and 1.0277 ± 0.207, respectively. Whole-brain Iba1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice peaked by 72 h on immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis of P2X7R for saline- and lipopolysaccharide-treated brain sections

  1. Tumor detection using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Moldofsky, P.J.; Powe, J.; Hammond, N.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope conjugated to monoclonal antibody products has been used for imaging tumors targeted by the antibody. As imaging progresses, new sets of procedural and technical questions arise. In this chapter, we discuss several current problems in imaging tumor with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody. These include (1) methods for selection of specific antibody and, once the particular antibody is selected, which fragment form is to be used; (2) imaging procedures: what are the optimum imaging parameters, such as optimum time for imaging after administration of tracer and considerations regarding background subtraction; and (3) noninvasive quantitative techniques: quantitation of localization of antibody indirectly from quantitative information in the images.100 references.

  2. Target design considerations for high specific activity [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Alexoff, D.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; McDonald, K.; Wolf, A.P.

    1993-12-31

    In the routine preparation of {sup 11}C-labeled compounds through N-[{sup 11}C]-methylation using [{sup 11}C]H{sub 3}I, total masses are always higher than synthesis mass contribution, suggesting that the target system contributes carrier carbon to the final product mass. This conclusion prompted this evaluation of target materials and target design for [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2} production. Ultimately, one is faced with the sprospect of compromising between [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2} specific activity and the amount that can be extracted from the target after a reasonable irradiation time.

  3. In vivo binding of [11C]SKF 75670 and [11C]SKF 82957 in rat brain: two dopamine D-1 receptor agonist ligands.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, J N; Wilson, A A; Valente, C M; Hussey, D; Wilson, D; Houle, S

    1996-01-01

    The high affinity benzazepine D1 agonists SKF 75670 and SKF 82957 labeled with C-11 were evaluated in vivo in rats as potential radioligands for imaging dopamine D1 receptors with positron emission tomography (PET). Their in vivo pharmacological profile revealed selective binding for both tracers in rat brain regions rich in D1 receptors such as the caudate-putamen. The more lipophilic [11C]SKF 82957 (6-chloro-[11C]SKF 75670) showed a higher brain uptake (more than 2-fold up to 30 min), higher specific uptake in the striatum and higher signal-to-noise ratio (striatum-to-cerebellum = 3.2 +/- 0.4 for [11C]SKF 75670 and 9.7 +/- 2.5 for [11C]SKF 82957 at 60 min post-injection) as compared to [11C]SKF 75670. Both radiotracers exhibited high specificity and selectivity for D1 receptors, since only D1 competitors but not the D2 antagonist sulpiride or the 5-HT2 antagonist ritanserin reduced significantly their binding the striatum with [11C]SKF 75670 or the striatum and olfactory tubercles with [11C]SKF 82957. Previous reports have shown that only D1 agonists can recognize the functional high-affinity state from the low-affinity state of D1 receptors. [11C]SKF 75670 and especially [11C]SKF 82957 are D1 agonist radioligands that can potentially be used to study in vivo the functional high-affinity state of D1 receptors using PET.

  4. Radiolabeled bombesin derivatives for preclinical oncological imaging

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar Ferreira, Carolina; Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Rubello, Domenico; de Barros, André Luís Branco

    2017-01-01

    Despite efforts, cancer is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths each year, according to the World Health Organization. Among the strategies to reduce cancer progression and improving its management, implementing early detection technologies is crucial. Based on the fact that several types of cancer cells overexpress surface receptors, small molecule ligands, such as peptides, have been developed to allow tumor identification at earlier stages. Allied with imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT, radiolabeled peptides play a pivotal role in nuclear medicine. Bombesin, a peptide of 14 amino acids, is an amphibian homolog to the mammalian gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), that has been extensively studied as a targeting ligand for diagnosis and therapy of GRP positive tumors, such as breast, pancreas, lungs and prostate cancers. In this context, herein we provide a review of reported bombesin derivatives radiolabeled with a multitude of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic purposes in the preclinical setting. Moreover, since animal models are highly relevant for assessing the potential of clinical translation of this radiopeptides, a brief report of the currently used GRP-positive tumor-bearing animal models is described. PMID:28040598

  5. 11C-Labeling of Aryl Ketones as Candidate Histamine Subtype-3 Receptor PET Radioligands through Pd(0)-Mediated 11C-Carbonylative Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Siméon, Fabrice G.; Culligan, William J.; Lu, Shuiyu; Pike, Victor W.

    2017-01-01

    Pd(0)-mediated coupling between iodoarenes, [11C]carbon monoxide and aryltributylstannanes has been used to prepare simple model [11C]aryl ketones. Here, we aimed to label four 2-aminoethylbenzofuran chemotype based molecules ([11C]1–4) in the carbonyl position, as prospective positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for the histamine subtype 3 receptor (H3R) by adapting this methodology with use of aryltrimethylstannanes. Radiosynthesis was successfully performed on a platform equipped with a mini-autoclave and a liquid handling robotic arm, within a lead-shielded hot-cell. Candidate radioligands were readily formulated in saline containing ethanol (10%, v/v) and ascorbic acid (0.5 mg/10 mL). Yields for preclinical use were in the range of 5–9%, decay-corrected from cyclotron-produced [11C]CO2 and molar activities were >115 GBq/μmol at end of synthesis. Radiochemical purities exceeded >97%. PMID:28498336

  6. (11)C-Labeling of Aryl Ketones as Candidate Histamine Subtype-3 Receptor PET Radioligands through Pd(0)-Mediated (11)C-Carbonylative Coupling.

    PubMed

    Siméon, Fabrice G; Culligan, William J; Lu, Shuiyu; Pike, Victor W

    2017-05-12

    Pd(0)-mediated coupling between iodoarenes, [(11)C]carbon monoxide and aryltributylstannanes has been used to prepare simple model [(11)C]aryl ketones. Here, we aimed to label four 2-aminoethylbenzofuran chemotype based molecules ([(11)C]1-4) in the carbonyl position, as prospective positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for the histamine subtype 3 receptor (H3R) by adapting this methodology with use of aryltrimethylstannanes. Radiosynthesis was successfully performed on a platform equipped with a mini-autoclave and a liquid handling robotic arm, within a lead-shielded hot-cell. Candidate radioligands were readily formulated in saline containing ethanol (10%, v/v) and ascorbic acid (0.5 mg/10 mL). Yields for preclinical use were in the range of 5-9%, decay-corrected from cyclotron-produced [(11)C]CO₂ and molar activities were >115 GBq/µmol at end of synthesis. Radiochemical purities exceeded >97%.

  7. [11C]PR04.MZ, a promising DAT ligand for low concentration imaging: synthesis, efficient 11C-0-methylation and initial small animal PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Riss, P.J.; Hooker, J.; Alexoff, D.; Kim, Sung-Won; Fowler, J.S.; Roesch, F.

    2009-05-01

    PR04.MZ was designed as a highly selective dopamine transporter inhibitor, derived from natural cocaine. Its binding profile indicates that [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ may be suited as a PET radioligand for the non-invasive exploration of striatal and extrastriatal DAT populations. As a key feature, its structural design facilitates both, labelling with fluorine-18 at its terminally fluorinated butynyl moiety and carbon-11 at its methyl ester function. The present report concerns the efficient [{sup 11}C]MeI mediated synthesis of [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ from an O-desmethyl precursor trifluoroacetic acid salt with Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in DMF in up to 95 {+-} 5% labelling yield. A preliminary {mu}PET-experiment demonstrates the reversible, highly specific binding of [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ in the brain of a male Sprague-Dawley rat.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of [11C]PyrATP-1, a novel radiotracer for PET imaging of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Erin L.; Shao, Xia; Sherman, Phillip; Quesada, Carole; Fawaz, Maria V.; Desmond, Timothy J.; Scott, Peter J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The dysfunction of glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β) has been implicated in a number of diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The ability to non-invasively quantify GSK-3βactivity in vivo is therefore of critical importance, and this work is focused upon development of inhibitors of GSK-3βradiolabeled with carbon-11 to examine quantification of the enzyme using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Methods [11C]PyrATP-1 was prepared from the corresponding desmethyl-piperazine precursor in an automated synthesis module. In vivo rodent and primate imaging studies were conducted on a Concorde MicroPET P4 scanner to evaluate imaging properties, and in vitro autoradiography studies with rat brain samples were carried out to examine specific binding. Results 2035 ± 518 MBq (55 ± 14 mCi) of [11C]PyrATP-1 were obtained (1–2% noncorrected radiochemical yield at end-of-synthesis based upon [11C]CO2) with high chemical (>95%) and radiochemical (>99%) purities, and good specific activities (143 ± 52 GBq/µmol (3874 ± 1424 Ci/mmol)), n = 5. In vivo microPET imaging studies revealed poor brain uptake in rodents and non-human primates. Pretreatment of rodents with cyclosporin A resulted in moderately increased brain uptake suggesting Pgp transporter involvement. Autoradiography demonstrated high levels of specific binding in areas of the rodent brain known to be rich in GSK-3β. Conclusion [11C]PyrATP-1 is readily synthesized using standard carbon-11 radiochemistry. However, the poor brain uptake in rodents and non-human primates indicates that the radiotracer is not suitable for the purposes of quantifying GSK-3βin neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24768148

  9. Temporal changes in allocation and partitioning of new carbon as (11)C elicited by simulated herbivory suggest that roots shape aboveground responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ferrieri, Abigail P; Agtuca, Beverly; Appel, Heidi M; Ferrieri, Richard A; Schultz, Jack C

    2013-02-01

    Using the short-lived isotope (11)C (t(1/2) = 20.4 min) as (11)CO(2), we captured temporal changes in whole-plant carbon movement and partitioning of recently fixed carbon into primary and secondary metabolites in a time course (2, 6, and 24 h) following simulated herbivory with the well-known defense elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to young leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Both (11)CO(2) fixation and (11)C-photosynthate export from the labeled source leaf increased rapidly (2 h) following MeJA treatment relative to controls, with preferential allocation of radiolabeled resources belowground. At the same time, (11)C-photosynthate remaining in the aboveground sink tissues showed preferential allocation to MeJA-treated, young leaves, where it was incorporated into (11)C-cinnamic acid. By 24 h, resource allocation toward roots returned to control levels, while allocation to the young leaves increased. This corresponded to an increase in invertase activity and the accumulation of phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, in young leaves. Induction of phenolics was suppressed in sucrose transporter mutant plants (suc2-1), indicating that this phenomenon may be controlled, in part, by phloem loading at source leaves. However, when plant roots were chilled to 5°C to disrupt carbon flow between above- and belowground tissues, source leaves failed to allocate resources belowground or toward damaged leaves following wounding and MeJA treatment to young leaves, suggesting that roots may play an integral role in controlling how plants respond defensively aboveground.

  10. Synthesis of 11C‐labeled Sulfonyl Carbamates through a Multicomponent Reaction Employing Sulfonyl Azides, Alcohols, and [11C]CO

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Marc Y.; Chow, Shiao Y.; Estrada, Sergio; Eriksson, Jonas; Asplund, Veronika; Orlova, Anna; Mitran, Bogdan; Antoni, Gunnar; Larhed, Mats; Åberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe the development of a new methodology focusing on 11C‐labeling of sulfonyl carbamates in a multicomponent reaction comprised of a sulfonyl azide, an alkyl alcohol, and [11C]CO. A number of 11C‐labeled sulfonyl carbamates were synthesized and isolated, and the developed methodology was then applied in the preparation of a biologically active molecule. The target compound was obtained in 24±10 % isolated radiochemical yield and was evaluated for binding properties in a tumor cell assay; in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies were also performed. This represents the first successful radiolabeling of a non‐peptide angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 agonist, C21, currently in clinical trials for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:28032026

  11. Studies toward labeling cytisine with [11C]phosgene: rapid synthesis of a delta-lactam involving a new chemoselective lithiation-annulation method.

    PubMed

    Rouden, Jacques; Seitz, Thomas; Lemoucheux, Laurent; Lasne, Marie-Claire

    2004-05-28

    With the aim of the radiolabeling of cytisine, a potent agonist of nicotinic receptors, with [(11)C]phosgene, the rapid synthesis of a lactam model of our target has been studied. The key step of the delta-lactam formation is a new chemoselective lithiation-annulation method, under high dilution, of a suitable piperidinylcarbamoyl chloride. This precursor was obtained from (2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine in a linear synthetic sequence involving a Corey-Fuchs olefination of the corresponding aldehyde, followed by a selective reduction, using a diimide equivalent, of an iodoalkyne into a (Z)-iodopropene piperidine. This alkene served as main precursor to study the cyclization according to several procedures using phosgene as the required carbonylating reagent.

  12. Rapid Room-Temperature 11C-Methylation of Arylamines with [11C]Methyl Iodide Promoted by Solid Inorganic Bases in DMF

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lisheng; Xu, Rong; Guo, Xuelei; Pike, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    11[C]Methyl iodide is the most widely used reagent for labeling radiotracers with carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min) for molecular imaging with positron emission tomography. However, some substrates for labeling, especially primary arylamines and pyrroles, are sluggishly reactive towards [11C]methyl iodide. We found that insoluble inorganic bases, especially Li3N or Li2O, are effective in promoting rapid reactions (≤ 10 min) of such substrates with no-carrier-added [11C]methyl iodide in DMF at room temperature to give 11C-methylated products in useful radiochemical yields. In particular, we discovered that some primary arylamines in Li3N-DMF were converted into their formanilides, and that these were readily N-methylated with [11C]methyl iodide, preceding easy basic hydrolysis to the desired [11C]N-methyl secondary arylamines. Use of a solid base permitted selective reaction at an arylamino group and in some cases also avoided undesirable side reaction, such as ester group hydrolysis. An ultrasound device proved useful to provide remote and constant agitation of the radioactive heterogeneous reaction mixtures, but imparted no ‘ultrasound-specific’ chemical effect. PMID:24659907

  13. Exploration of the labeling of [11C]Tubastatin A at the hydroxamic acid site with [11C]carbon monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuiyu; Zhang, Yi; Kalin, Jay; Cai, Lisheng; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Pike, Victor W.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to label tubastatin A (1) with carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min) in the hydroxamic acid site to provide a potential radiotracer for imaging histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Initial attempts at a one-pot Pd-mediated insertion of [11C]carbon monoxide between the aryl iodide (2) and hydroxylamine gave low radiochemical yields (< 5%) of [11C]1. Labeling was achieved in useful radiochemical yields (16.1 ± 5.6%, n = 4) through a two-step process based on Pd-mediated insertion of [11C]carbon monoxide between the aryl iodide (2) and p-nitrophenol to give the [11C]p-nitrophenyl ester ([11C]5), followed by ultrasound-assisted hydroxyaminolysis of the activated ester with excess hydroxylamine in DMSO/THF mixture in the presence of a strong phosphazene base P1-t-Bu. However, the success in labeling the hydroxamic acid group of [11C]tubastatin A was not transferable to the labeling of three other model hydroxamic acids. PMID:26647018

  14. The 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger’s Disorder: a PET study with [11C]MDL 100907 and [11C]DASB

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Ragy R.; Slifstein, Mark; Xu, Xiaoyan; Frankle, W. Gordon; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Wasserman, Stacey; Pepa, Lauren; Kolevzon, Alexander; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc; Hollander, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from biochemical, imaging, and treatment studies suggest abnormalities of the serotonin system in autism spectrum disorders, in particular in frontolimbic areas of the brain. We used the radiotracers [11C]MDL 100907 and [11C]DASB to characterize the 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger’s Disorder. 17 individuals with Asperger’s Disorder (age = 34.3 ± 11.1 yr) and 17 healthy controls (age = 33.0 ± 9.6 yr) were scanned with [11C]MDL 100907. Of the 17 patients, eight (age = 29.7 ± 7.0 yr) were also scanned with [11C]DASB, as were eight healthy controls (age = 28.7 ± 7.0 yr). Patients with Asperger’s Disorder and healthy control subjects were matched for age, gender, and ethnicity, and all had normal intelligence. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma inputs were collected and data analyzed by 2 tissue-compartment modeling. The primary outcome measure was regional binding potential BPND. Neither regional [11C]MDL 100907 BPND nor [11C]DASB BPND were statistically different between the Asperger’s and healthy subjects. This study failed to find significant alterations in binding parameters of 5-HT2A receptors and serotonin transporters in adult subjects with Asperger’s Disorder. PMID:22079057

  15. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.; Kirsch, Gilbert

    1988-08-16

    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  16. Acquisition with (11)C-choline and (18)F-fluorocholine PET/CT for patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    von Eyben, Finn E; Kairemo, Kalevi

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate whether the choice between two radiotracers, (11)C-choline ((11)C-cho) and (18)F-fluorocholine ((18)F-FCH) for PET/CT, and different acquisition protocols contributed to detect metastases for patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. We searched in January 2016 in Pubmed and Embase for articles that had used radiolabeled choline PET/CT in restaging. The meta-analysis evaluated technical and clinical aspects. Across 18 articles 1 219 of 2 213 patients (54.9 %) had a positive radiolabeled PET/CT image. Mean of the mean/median restaging PSA levels was 3.6 ± 2.7 ng/mL (range 0.5-10.7 ng/mL). Six articles with (11)C-cho PET/CT had a radiation activity of 561 ± 122 MBq and it was 293 ± 47 MBq in 12 articles with (18)F-FCH PET/CT. The difference was significant (P = 0.007, t test). Uptake time was 5 min in articles with (11)C-cho PET/CT and it was 29 ± 24 min in articles with (18)F-FCH PET/CT. The difference was significant (P = 0.02, t test). Thereby the detection rates of metastatic sites in articles with (11)C-cho (30 ± 5 %) and (18)F-FCH (39 ± 5 %) did not differ significantly (P = 0.26, t test). In linear regression analyses of the articles, the radiation activity of (11)C-cho and (18)F-FCH was not significantly associated with the detection rate of metastatic sites (P = 0.75 and P = 0.60). Restaging with radiolabeled choline PET/CT detected metastatic sites for patients with biochemical recurrence and PSA levels of 1-10 ng/mL at clinically relevant level. The choice between the two choline radiotracers and different acquisition protocols had no significant impact on detection.

  17. Enzymatic method for radiolabelling vertebrate vitellogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, L.; Wiley, H.S.

    1984-08-01

    Phosphoprotein kinases from Xenopus and chicken liver have been purified and these enzymes have been used to label Xenopus vitellogenin, a phosphoprotein, to high specific activity with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The enzymes were isolated by (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ fractionation followed by chromatography on DE-52 cellulose and phosphocellulose. This procedure resulted in greater than 20,000-fold enrichment for the enzymes. Both enzyme preparations were used to selectively label vitellogenin in the serum of estrogen-treated animals. Thus, isolation of the vitellogenin prior to radiolabeling was not necessary. The (/sup 32/P)vitellogenin labeled in situ was incorporated by oocytes at a rate similar to (/sup 32/P)vitellogenin labeled in vivo, was translocated to the yolk platelets, and was correctly processed into the yolk proteins.

  18. A simple synthesis of [11C]carfentanil using an extraction disk instead of HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jewett, D M

    2001-08-01

    [11C]Carfentanil was prepared without the need for purification by HPLC. The tetrabutylammonium salt of the precursor carboxylate was reacted with [11C]methyl triflate in DMSO. The resulting [11C]carfentanil was trapped on an Empore extraction disk and washed to remove precursor and most radioactive contaminants. The product was eluted by a small volume of ethanol, mixed with water and passed through a small column containing fibrous anion exchanger to remove remaining radioactive contaminants.

  19. Radiolabeled theranostics: magnetic and gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Same, Saeideh; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Akbari Nakhjavani, Sattar; Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Growing advances in nanotechnology have facilitated the applications of newly emerged nanomaterials in the field of biomedical/pharmaceutical sciences. Following this trend, the multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) play a significant role in development of advanced drug delivery systems (DDSs) such as diapeutics/theranostics used for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy. Multifunctional radiolabeled NPs with capability of detecting, visualizing and destroying diseased cells with least side effects have been considered as an emerging filed in presentation of the best choice in solving the therapeutic problems. Functionalized magnetic and gold NPs (MNPs and GNPs, respectively) have produced the potential of nanoparticles as sensitive multifunctional probes for molecular imaging, photothermal therapy and drug delivery and targeting. Methods: In this study, we review the most recent works on the improvement of various techniques for development of radiolabeled magnetic and gold nanoprobes, and discuss the methods for targeted imaging and therapies. Results: The receptor-specific radiopharmaceuticals have been developed to localized radiotherapy in disease sites. Application of advanced multimodal imaging methods and related modality imaging agents labeled with various radioisotopes (e.g., 125I, 111In, 64Cu, 68Ga, 99mTc) and MNPs/GNPs have significant effects on treatment and prognosis of cancer therapy. In addition, the surface modification with biocompatible polymer such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) have resulted in development of stealth NPs that can evade the opsonization and immune clearance. These long-circulating agents can be decorated with homing agents as well as radioisotopes for targeted imaging and therapy purposes. Conclusion: The modified MNPs or GNPs have wide applications in concurrent diagnosis and therapy of various malignancies. Once armed with radioisotopes, these nanosystems (NSs) can be exploited for combined multimodality imaging with

  20. The potential of (-)-o-[11C]methylvesamicol for diagnosing cholinergic deficit dementia.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kawamura, Kazunori; Ogawa, Kazuma; Mori, Hirofumi

    2009-02-01

    (-)-o-Methylvesamicol ((-)-OMV) exhibited in vitro a high affinity for a vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) (Ki, 6.7 nM), and (-)-o-[(11)C]methylvesamicol [(-)-[(11)C]OMV] exhibited appropriate kinetics and bound mainly to VAChTs in the rat brain. In this study, the in vivo distribution and kinetics of (-)-[(11)C]OMV were evaluated in comparison with [(11)C]SA4503 in disability model monkeys produced by selectively destroying the p75NTR-positive cells in the right hemisphere of the brain using positron emission tomography. Time-activity curves of (-)-[(11)C]OMV showed peaks within 20 min in regions rich in acetylcholine transporters (AchT). (-)-[(11)C]OMV binding in the ipsilateral cortex to the lesion was significantly reduced by 22.0% +/- 6.7% when compared with that in the contralateral region. The decrease (19.3% +/- 2.2%) in (-)-[(11)C]OMV binding in the ipsilateral temporal cortex to the lesion was greater than that (7.4% +/- 4.6%) of [(11)C]SA4503. These results suggested that (-)-[(11)C]OMV may be useful in the study of dementia characterized by degeneration of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Comparison of (68)Ga-labelled PSMA-11 and (11)C-choline in the detection of prostate cancer metastases by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, Johannes; Rempp, Hansjoerg; Reischl, Gerald; Kruck, Stephan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Pfannenberg, Christina; la Fougère, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed ubiquitously on the membrane of most prostate tumors and its metastasis. While PET/CT using (11)C-choline was considered as the gold standard in the staging of prostate cancer, PET with radiolabelled PSMA ligands was introduced into the clinic in recent years. Our aim was to compare the PSMA ligand (68)Ga-PSMA-11 with (11)C-choline in patients with primary and recurrent prostate cancer. 123 patients underwent a whole-body PET/CT examination using (68)Ga-PSMA-11 and (11)C-choline. Suspicious lesions were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively (SUVavg). Out of these, 103 suffered from a confirmed biochemical relapse after prostatectomy and/or radiotherapy (mean PSA level of 4.5 ng/ml), while 20 patients underwent primary staging. In 67 patients with biochemical relapse, we detected 458 lymph nodes suspicious for metastasis. PET using (68)Ga-PSMA-11 showed a significantly higher uptake and detection rate than (11)C-choline PET. Also (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET identified significantly more patients with suspicious lymph nodes as well as affected lymph nodes regions especially at low PSA levels. Bone lesions suspicious for prostate cancer metastasis were revealed in 36 patients' biochemical relapse. Significantly more bone lesions were detected by (68)Ga-PSMA-11, but only 3 patients had only PSMA-positive bone lesions. Nevertheless, we detected also 29 suspicious lymph nodes and 8 bone lesions, which were only positive as per (11)C-choline PET. These findings led to crucial differences in the TNM classification and the identification of oligometastatic patients. In the patients who underwent initial staging, all primary tumors showed uptake of both tracers. Although significantly more suspicious lymph nodes and bone lesions were identified, only 2 patients presented with bone lesions only detected by (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET. Thus, PET using (68)Ga-PSMA-11 showed a higher detection rate than (11)C-choline PET for lymph nodes

  2. Synthesis and biodistribution of (11)C-GW7845, a positron-emitting agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}.

    PubMed

    Mathews, William B; Foss, Catherine A; Stoermer, Doris; Ravert, Hayden T; Dannals, Robert F; Henke, Brad R; Pomper, Martin G

    2005-10-01

    The goal of this study was to synthesize and evaluate in vivo the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist (11)C-GW7845 ((S)-2-(1-carboxy-2-{4-[2-(5-methyl-2-phenyloxazol-4-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}ethylamino)benzoic acid methyl ester) ((11)C-compound 1). PPARgamma is a member of a family of nuclear receptors that plays a central role in the control of lipid and glucose metabolism. Compound 1 is an analog of tyrosine (inhibitor constant, 3.7 nmol/L), which is an inhibitor of experimental mammary carcinogenesis. Protection of the carboxylic acid moiety of compound 1 was effected by treatment with N,N-dimethylformamide di-tert-butyl acetal to provide compound 2. Hydrolysis of the carbomethoxy group of compound 2 provided the benzoic acid (compound 3) that served as an immediate precursor to radiolabeling. Compound 3 underwent treatment with (11)C-methyl iodide followed by high-performance liquid chromatography to produce a radioactive peak sample that coeluted with a standard sample of compound 1. Analysis of biodistribution was undertaken by injecting male CD-1 mice via the tail vein with 6.03 MBq (163 microCi, 2.55 microg/kg) of (11)C-compound 1. To determine the tumor uptake of the radiotracer, 6 female SCID mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts were injected via the tail vein with 10.5 MBq (283 microCi, 0.235 microg/kg) of (11)C-compound 1. (11)C-Compound 1 was synthesized at an 8% radiochemical yield in 29 min with an average specific radioactivity of 1,222 GBq/micromol (33,024 mCi/micromol; n = 6) at the end of synthesis. Spleen (target)-to-muscle uptake and tumor-to-muscle uptake ratios were 3.1 and 1.5, respectively, but this uptake could not be blocked with unlabeled compound 1 at 2 mg/kg. Further structural modification, perhaps to generate a less lipophilic tyrosine analog, will be necessary to enable receptor-mediated PPARgamma imaging by this class of agents.

  3. Imaging the impact of cyclosporin A and dipyridamole on P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) function at the blood-brain barrier: A [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide PET study in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Damont, Annelaure; Goutal, Sébastien; Auvity, Sylvain; Valette, Héric; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Saba, Wadad; Tournier, Nicolas

    2016-08-25

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) and dipyridamole (DPy) are potent inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) in vitro. Their efficacy at inhibiting P-gp at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is difficult to predict. Efficient and readily available (i.e. marketed) P-gp inhibitors are needed as probes to investigate the role of P-gp at the human BBB. In this study, the P-gp inhibition potency at the BBB of therapeutic doses of CsA or DPy was evaluated in baboons using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide ([(11)C]dLop), a radiolabeled P-gp substrate. The preparation of dLop as authentic standard and [(11)C]dLop as radiotracer were revisited so as to improve their production yields. [(11)C]dLop PET imaging was performed in the absence (n=3, baseline condition) and the presence of CsA (15mg/kg/h i.v., n=3). Three animals were injected with i.v. DPy at either 0.56 or 0.96 or 2mg/kg (n=1), corresponding to the usual, maximal and twice the maximal dose in patients, respectively, administered immediately before PET. [(11)C]dLop brain kinetics as well as [(11)C]dLop kinetics and radiometabolites in arterial plasma were measured to calculate [(11)C]dLop area-under the time-activity curve from 10 to 30min in the brain (AUCbrain) and in plasma (AUCplasma). [(11)C]dLop brain uptake was described by AUCR=AUCbrain/AUCplasma. CsA as well as DPy did not measurably influence [(11)C]dLop plasma kinetics and metabolism. Baseline AUCR (0.85±0.29) was significantly enhanced in the presence of CsA (AUCR=10.8±3.6). Injection of pharmacologic dose of DPy did not enhance [(11)C]dLop brain distribution with AUCR being 1.2, 0.9 and 1.1 after administration of 0.56, 0.96 and 2mg/kg DPy doses, respectively. We used [(11)C]dLop PET imaging in baboons, a relevant in vivo model of P-gp function at the BBB, to show the P-gp inhibition potency of therapeutic dose CsA. Despite in vitro P-gp inhibition potency, usual doses DPy are not likely to inhibit P-gp function at

  4. Development of additive [11C]CO2 target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [11C]radiopharmaceutical production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin; Lee, Won Kyung; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [11C]CO2, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [11C]CO2 production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [11C]CO2 production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [11C]CO2 production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [11C]PIB, [11C]DASB, [11C]PBR28, [11C]Methionine and [11C]Clozapine, the radiochemical yields were shown to be 25-38% (decay corrected) with over 166 GBq/μmol of

  5. N-[11C]methylspiperone PET, in contrast to [11C]raclopride, fails to detect D2 receptor occupancy by an atypical neuroleptic.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, G; Gefvert, O; Bergström, M; Wieselgren, I M; Lindström, L; Wiesel, F A; Långström, B

    1998-06-30

    The occupancy of the atypical neuroleptic quetiapine (Seroquel) at the D2 dopamine receptor was investigated using the PET tracers [11C]raclopride and N-[11C]methylspiperone in a group of five schizophrenic patients. A steady-state treatment condition was ensured by dosing the patients with 750 mg quetiapine daily during 3 weeks followed by a period of tapering off the dose. For each patient, PET examinations were performed with both tracers at two of the following doses: 750, 450, 300 and/or 150 mg. As control, a group of six healthy untreated volunteers was investigated. The D2 binding potential in the putamen and the caudate nucleus was determined by using an evaluation method based on the method proposed by Patlak and Blasberg. The receptor occupancy was determined by assuming that the group of healthy volunteers is representative of untreated drug-naive schizophrenic patients. While a significant linear trend of increasing occupancy with increasing quetiapine dose (reaching 51% +/- 10% occupancy at the 750 mg dose) was detected with [11C]raclopride (P < 0.01), no such trend was apparent for N-[11C]methylspiperone (P > 0.09, maximal occupancy values were 2% +/- 3%, measured for the group of three patients on 450 mg). The study suggests that N-[11C]methylspiperone cannot be used for the assessment of D2 receptor occupancy induced by quetiapine. The result is discussed in terms of endogenous dopamine, tracer kinetics and equilibrium dissociation constants.

  6. An asymmetric approach to the radiosynthesis of both enantiomers of α-[11C]methyldopa and α-[11C]methyltyrosine for positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkov, A.; Nádvorník, M.; Jirman, J.; Kružberská, P.; Lyčka, A.; Weidlich, T.; Kožíšek, J.; Breza, M.; Lehel, S.; Gillings, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    In PET, α-methyl amino acids can play a dual role: a) precursors of neurotransmitters analogues for the study of neurodegenerative diseases; b) non-metabolised analogues of proteinogenic amino acids for the study of amino acids uptake into normal and cancer cells. The difference in the uptake rates during a PET scan could visualise cancer cells in a human body. Clinical applications of such amino acids are strongly limited due to their poor availability. For the synthesis of α-[11C]methyl-tryptohan, an industrial procedure was adopted. All attempts to prepare enantiomerically pure α-[11C]methylated tyrosine failed. We carried out [11C]methylation of metalocomplex synthons derived from protected DOPA or tyrosine. Individual diastereomers were successfully separated by preparative HPLC, diluted with excess of water and extracted on C18 cartridges. Optimisation of the procedure followed by hydrolysis of the complexes and purification of the enantiomers of α-[11C]methylDOPA and α-[11C]methyltyrosine is underway.

  7. Synthesis of [3-N-(11) C-methyl]temozolomide via in situ activation of 3-N-hydroxymethyl temozolomide and alkylation with [(11) C]methyl iodide.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jonas; Van Kooij, Rolph; Schuit, Robert C; Froklage, Femke E; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Hendrikse, N Harry; Windhorst, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Temozolomide is a chemotherapeutic drug that is mainly used in the treatment of primary glioblastoma multiforme and recurrent high-grade glioma. Here, we report an efficient good manufacturing practice compliant method for the synthesis of [3-N-(11) C-methyl]temozolomide from 3-N-hydroxymethyl temozolomide that cleaves off formaldehyde in situ and becomes activated towards alkylation with [(11) C]methyl iodide. The labelling method was developed for an on-going patient study in which the predictive value of [3-N-(11) C-methyl]temozolomide and positron emission tomography on the outcome of temozolomide treatment is being investigated. The precursor was reacted with [(11) C]methyl iodide in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene in acetonitrile, heated at stepwise increasing temperature. Purification by semipreparative HPLC with pharmaceutical grade eluent and filtration gave approximately 10 mL sterile product solution ready for injection containing 1.55 ± 0.38 GBq (n = 5), the specific activity was 88 ± 25 GBq/µmol and the radiochemical purity was 98.5 ± 1.9%. (13) C-NMR spectroscopy confirmed the labelled position after colabelling with (11) C and (13) C.

  8. Preparation and biodistribution of radiolabeled fullerene C60 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Nadežda; Vranješ-Ðurić, Sanja; Janković, Drina; Ðokić, Divna; Mirković, Marija; Bibić, Nataša; Trajković, Vladimir

    2009-09-01

    The present study describes for the first time a procedure for the radiolabeling of fullerene (C60) nanocrystals (nanoC60) with Na 125I, as well as the biodistribution of radiolabeled nanoC60 (125I-nanoC60). The solvent exchange method with tetrahydrofuran was used to make colloidal water suspensions of radiolabeled nanoC60 particles. The radiolabeling procedure with the addition of Na 125I to tetrahydrofuran during dissolution of C60 gave a higher radiochemical yield of radiolabeled nanoC60 particles in comparison to the second option, in which Na 125I was added after C60 was dissolved. Using photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, 125I-nanoC60 particles were found to have a crystalline structure and a mean diameter of 200-250 nm. The 125I-nanoC60 had a particularly high affinity for human serum albumin, displaying 95% binding efficiency after 1 h. Biodistribution studies of 125I-nanoC60 in rats indicated significant differences in tissue accumulation of 125I-nanoC60 and the radioactive tracer Na 125I. The higher accumulation of radiolabeled nanoC60 was observed in liver and spleen, while accumulation in thyroid, stomach, lungs and intestines was significantly lower in comparison to Na 125I. In addition to being useful for testing the biological distribution of nanoC60, the described radiolabeling procedure might have possible applications in cancer radiotherapy.

  9. [Utility of 11C-methionine PET/CT in neuro-oncology].

    PubMed

    Casas Parera, Ignacio; Igirio Gamero, Jorge L; Blumenkrantz, Yamila; Bruno, Gabriel; Báez, Alejandra; Tafur Canabal, José G; Báez, Mariana; Kuchkaryan, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-methionine (11C-methionine PET/CT) is a new technique used to evaluate primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We describe our experience regarding the first 4 patients with glial tumors and 11C-methionine PET/CT. This is a descriptive, observational and prospective study of 4 patients between 38-50 years of age, with different gliomas (WHO classification). MRI and 11C-methionine PET/CT were performed in all cases. Case 1, gliomatosis cerebri grade II post-radiotherapy. Case 2, oligodendroglioma grade II diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy in 1993. Case 3, glioblastoma grade IV post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. Case 4, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma grade III post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. The pattern of 11C-methionine uptake compared with MRI showed tumor progression in cases 1, 3 and 4, and in case 2 showed uptake although the final diagnosis was pseudoprogression. Unlike 18fluordeoxiglucose PET/TC, 11C-methionine uptake in normal brain tissue and pseudoprogression is low, and gliomas are displayed as metabolically active areas. The 11C-methionine PET/CT provided valuable information on the tumoral behavior and extension, although in one case presented did not differentiate tumor progression from pseudoprogression. 11C-methionine PET/CT could be a useful tool in the study and follow-up to patients with gliomas.

  10. A simplified and improved synthesis of [11C]phosgene with iron and iron (III) oxide.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Kuge, Yuji; Seki, Koh-ichi; Ohkura, Kazue; Motoki, Noriko; Nagatsu, Kotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2002-04-01

    [11C]Phosgene ([11C]COCl2), a useful precursor for labeling several radiopharmaceuticals, is generally produced by catalytic oxidation of [11C]carbon tetrachloride over Fe granules, although in low yields or with poor reproducibility. In order to develop am improved synthesis of [11C]phosgene, two oxidizing agents, Fe2O3 and CuO, were examined. The yield of [11C]phosgene was significantly increased using Fe2O3 powder mixed with Fe granules, while the use of CuO alone, or CuO powder mixed with Fe granules resulted in an insignificant yield. The yield and specific activity of S- (-) [11C]CGP-12177 synthesized using Fe2O3 powder mixed with Fe granules were markedly higher than those synthesized by the previous methods using Fe granules alone or Fe granules mixed with Fe powder. Thus, in the present study, we developed a simple and practical method for the synthesis of [11C]phosgene, which provided an improved yield of S- (-) [11C]CGP-12177.

  11. Soil pH regulates the abundance and diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Lehtovirta, Laura E; Prosser, James I; Nicol, Graeme W

    2009-12-01

    Archaeal communities in many acidic forest soil systems are dominated by a distinct crenarchaeal lineage Group 1.1c. In addition, they are found consistently in other acidic soils including grassland pasture, moorland and alpine soils. To determine whether soil pH is a major factor in determining their presence and abundance, Group 1.1c community size and composition were investigated across a pH gradient from 4.5 to 7.5 that has been maintained for > 40 years. The abundances of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota, total Crenarchaeota and total bacteria were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes and the diversity of Group 1.1c crenarchaeal community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. The abundance of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota declined as the pH increased, whereas total Crenarchaeota and Bacteria showed no clear trend. Community diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota was also influenced with different DGGE bands dominating at different pH. Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota were also quantified in 13 other soils representing a range of habitats, soil types and pH. These results exhibited the same trend as that shown across the pH gradient with Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota representing a greater proportion of total Crenarchaeota in the most acidic soils.

  12. 1-/sup 11/C-2-deoxy-D-glucose and process for the preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Shiue, C.Y.; Wan, C.N.

    1980-02-08

    The novel labelled compound 1-/sup 11/C-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and a process for its preparation from 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-D-arabinitol derivatives of relatively high reactivity are disclosed. 1-/sup 11/C-2-deoxy-D-glucose is useful for measuring regional brain glucose metabolism in vivo.

  13. Targeting of human glioma xenografts in vivo utilizing radiolabeled antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.A.; Wessels, B.W.; Wharam, M.D.; Order, S.E.; Wanek, P.M.; Poggenburg, J.K.; Klein, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies provide a potential basis for selective radiotherapy of human gliomas. We have measured tumor targeting by radiolabeled monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against neuroectodermal and tumor-associated antigens in nude mice bearing human glioma xenografts. Monoclonal P96.5, a mouse IgG2a immunoglobulin, defines an epitope of a human melanoma cell surface protein, and specifically binds the U-251 human glioma as measured by immunoperoxidase histochemistry. 111In-radiolabeled P96.5 specifically targets the U-251 human glioma xenograft and yields 87.0 microCuries (microCi) of tumor activity per gram per 100 microCi injected activity compared to 4.5 microCi following administration of radiolabeled irrelevant monoclonal antibody. Calculations of targeting ratios demonstrate deposited dose to be 11.6 times greater with radiolabeled P96.5 administration compared to irrelevant monoclonal antibody. The proportion of tumor dose found in normal organs is less than 10%, further supporting specific targeting of the human glioma xenograft by this antibody. Monoclonal antibody ZME018, which defines a second melanoma-associated antigen, and polyclonal rabbit antiferritin, which defines a tumor-associated antigen, demonstrate positive immunoperoxidase staining of the tumor, but comparatively decreased targeting. When compared to the 111In-radiolabeled antibody, 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5 demonstrates comparable tumor targeting and percentages of tumor dose found in normal organs. To test the therapeutic potential of 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5, tumors and normal sites were implanted with miniature thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Seven days following administration of 100 microCi 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5, average absorbed doses of 3770, 980, 353, and 274 cGy were observed in tumor, liver, contralateral control site, and total body, respectively.

  14. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  15. Molecular imaging and therapy of cancer with radiolabeled nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Sun, Jiangtao; Cai, Weibo

    2009-01-01

    Summary This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art of radiolabeled nanoparticles for molecular imaging and internal radiotherapy applications targeting cancer. With the capacity to provide enormous flexibility, radiolabeled nanoparticles have the potential to profoundly impact disease diagnosis and patient management in the near future. Currently, the major challenges facing the research on radiolabeled nanoparticles are desirable (tumor) targeting efficacy, robust chemistry for both radionuclide encapsulation/incorporation and targeting ligand conjugation, favorable safety profile, as well as certain commercial and regulatory hurdles. PMID:20161038

  16. Patterns of 11C-PIB cerebral retention in mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Banzo, I; Jiménez-Bonilla, J F; Martínez-Rodríguez, I; Quirce, R; de Arcocha-Torres, M; Bravo-Ferrer, Z; Lavado-Pérez, C; Sánchez-Juan, P; Rodríguez, E; Jiménez-Alonso, M; López-Defilló, J; Carril, J M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the patterns of cerebral cortical distribution of (11)C-PIB in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The study included 69 patients (37 male, age range 42-79 years) with MCI, sub-classified as 53 with amnestic-MCI (A-MCI), and 16 with non-amnestic-MCI (NA-MCI). Patients underwent (11)C-PIB PET/CT scan 60min after intravenous injection of the radiotracer. A visual analysis of the images was performed by 2 experienced physicians. (11)C-PIB-positive studies were considered when gray matter uptake was equal to or greater than white matter. According to the regions involved, (11)C-PIB-positive studies were classified into A-pattern (predominant retention in frontal, anterior cingulate, lateral temporal, and basal ganglia) and B-pattern (generalized retention). Thirty-nine of the 69 (56%) patients with MCI showed (11)C-PIB retention. Of the 53 A-MCI patients, 36 (68%) showed (11)C-PIB retention. Eleven out of 36 (30%) positive scans in A-MCI patients showed A-pattern, and 25 out of 36 (70%) patients had a B-pattern. Positive (11)C-PIB was observed in 3 out of 16 (19%) patients with NA-MCI. Regional distribution in these 3 patients showed A-pattern in 1, and B-pattern in 2 patients. Cortical retention of (11)C-PIB was more frequent in A-MCI than in NA-MCI patients, and also B-pattern than A-pattern in the (11)C-PIB positive group. The recognition of (11)C-PIB distribution patterns allows MCI patients to be classified, and the A-pattern may offer a therapeutic window for potential future treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. 11C-acetate PET imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kazushiro; Kato, Hiroki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Okuno, Tatsusada; Koda, Toru; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Mochizuki, Hideki; Hatazawa, Jun; Nakatsuji, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Activation of glial cells is a cardinal feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology, and acetate has been reported to be selectively uptaken by astrocytes in the CNS. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PET with (11)C-acetate for MS diagnosis. Six patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 6 healthy volunteers (HV) were enrolled. The (11)C-acetate brain uptake on PET was measured in patients with MS and HV. Volume-of-interest analysis of cerebral gray and white matter based on the segmentation technique for co-registered MRI and voxel-based statistical parametric analysis were performed. Correlation between 11C-acetate uptake and the lesion number in T1- and T2- weighted MR images were also assessed. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 11C-acetate was increased in both white and gray matter in MS patients compared to HV. Voxel-based statistical analysis revealed a significantly increased SUV relative to that in the bilateral thalami (SUVt) in a broad area of white matter, particularly in the subcortical white matter of MS patients. The numbers of T2 lesions and T1 black holes were significantly correlated with SUV of (11)C-acetate in white and gray matter. The 11C-acetate uptake significantly increased in MS patients and correlated to the number of MRI lesions. These preliminary data suggest that (11)C-acetate PET can be a useful clinical examination for MS patients.

  18. CD11c controls herpes simplex virus 1 responses to limit virus replication during primary infection.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sariah J; Mott, Kevin R; Chentoufi, Aziz A; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Wechsler, Steven L; Ballantyne, Christie M; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-10-01

    CD11c is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and is one of the main markers for identification of DCs. DCs are the effectors of central innate immune responses, but they also affect acquired immune responses to infection. However, how DCs influence the efficacy of adaptive immunity is poorly understood. Here, we show that CD11c(+) DCs negatively orchestrate both adaptive and innate immunity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular infection. The effectiveness and quantity of virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses are increased in CD11c-deficient animals. In addition, the levels of CD83, CD11b, alpha interferon (IFN-α), and IFN-β, but not IFN-γ, were significantly increased in CD11c-deficient animals. Higher levels of IFN-α, IFN-β, and CD8(+) T cells in the CD11c-deficient mice may have contributed to lower virus replication in the eye and trigeminal ganglia (TG) during the early period of infection than in wild-type mice. However, the absence of CD11c did not influence survival, severity of eye disease, or latency. Our studies provide for the first time evidence that CD11c expression may abrogate the ability to reduce primary virus replication in the eye and TG via higher activities of type 1 interferon and CD8(+) T cell responses.

  19. Expression of CD11c in periprosthetic tissues from failed total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Chamaon, Kathrin; Barber, Henriette; Awiszus, Friedemann; Feuerstein, Bernd; Lohmann, Christoph H

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we characterize integrin CD11c (αXß2) expression in periprosthetic tissues of 45 hip revisions. Tissues were retrieved from 23 ceramic-on-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), 20 metal-on-UHMWPE, and 2 metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties (THAs). Capsular tissue retrieved during primary THA from 19 patients served as controls. We identified a system to identify important immunohistochemical markers that are expressed in aseptic loosening. We focused on CD11c, CD68 and CD14. We observed that the CD11c molecule possesses four different cellular patterns in the periprosthetic tissues. Three of them are associated with the occurrence of UHMWPE abrasive material. Double staining with CD14 and CD68 was used for a more detailed analysis of the CD11c expressing cells. We observed that all forms of CD11c positive cells are CD68 positive however, only two forms of CD11c expressing cells are positive for CD14. Providing cellular diversity of CD11c expression in periprosthetic tissue, our results provide a contribution toward the further understanding of different cellular mechanisms to foreign body material. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  5. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of S-11C-methyl-D-cysteine as a new amino acid PET tracer for cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tingting; Tang, Ganghua; Wang, Hongliang; Nie, Dahong; Tang, Xiaolan; Liang, Xiang; Hu, Kongzhen; Yi, Chang; Yao, Baoguo; Tang, Caihua

    2015-04-01

    S-(11)C-methyl-L-cysteine (LMCYS) is an attractive amino acid tracer for clinical tumor positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. D-isomers of some radiolabeled amino acids are potential PET tracers for tumor imaging. In this work, S-(11)C-methyl-D-cysteine (DMCYS), a D-amino acid isomer of S-(11)C-methyl-cysteine for tumor imaging was developed and evaluated. DMCYS was prepared by (11)C-methylation of the precursor D-cysteine, with an uncorrected radiochemical yield over 50 % from (11)CH3I within a total synthesis time from (11)CO2 about 12 min. In vitro competitive inhibition studies showed that DMCYS uptake was primarily transported through the Na(+)-independent system L, and also the Na(+)-dependent system B(0,+) and system ASC, with almost no system A. In vitro incorporation experiments indicated that almost no protein incorporation was found in Hepa 1-6 hepatoma cell lines. Biodistribution studies demonstrated higher uptake of DMCYS in pancreas and liver at 5 min post-injection, relatively lower uptake in brain and muscle, and faster radioactivity clearance from most tissues than those of L-isomer during the entire observation time. In the PET imaging of S180 fibrosarcoma-bearing mice and turpentine-induced inflammatory model mice, 2-(18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) exhibited significantly high accumulation in both tumor and inflammatory lesion with low tumor-to-inflammation ratio of 1.40, and LMCYS showed low tumor-to-inflammation ratio of 1.64 at 60 min post-injection. By contrast, DMCYS showed moderate accumulation in tumor and very low uptake in inflammatory lesion, leading to relatively higher tumor-to-inflammation ratio of 2.25 than (11)C-methyl-L-methionine (MET) (1.85) at 60 min post-injection. Also, PET images of orthotopic transplanted glioma models demonstrated that low uptake of DMCYS in normal brain tissue and high uptake in brain glioma tissue were observed. The results suggest that DMCYS is a little better than the corresponding L

  6. In vitro radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca microfilariae

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, H.L.; Wakeman, J.M.; Crouch, R.K.; James, E.R.

    1989-02-01

    A radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca cervicalis using (/sup 3/H)2-deoxy-D-glucose in Hanks' balanced salt solution, pH 7.5, at 30 C is described and compared to the traditional visual motility assay. A correlation of r = 0.92 between the assays was found, with the radiolabel uptake method apparently a more sensitive indicator of microfilarial viability.

  7. Initial evaluation of 11C-DPA-713, a novel TSPO PET ligand, in humans.

    PubMed

    Endres, Christopher J; Pomper, Martin G; James, Michelle; Uzuner, Ovsev; Hammoud, Dima A; Watkins, Crystal C; Reynolds, Aaron; Hilton, John; Dannals, Robert F; Kassiou, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO) is upregulated in activated microglia and thus can serve as a marker of neuroinflammation. Recently, a novel radioligand, (11)C-N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]-acetamide ((11)C-DPA-713), has been described that binds to TSPO with high affinity. Here, we report the first examination of (11)C-DPA-713 in human subjects using PET. Five healthy controls were studied with PET for 90 min after a bolus injection of high-specific-activity (11)C-DPA-713. For comparison, 2 additional healthy controls were studied with (11)C-R-PK11195. Arterial blood sampling and metabolite analysis were performed to allow the accurate quantification of tracer kinetics. Tracer uptake was evaluated for several brain regions. Tissue time-activity curves were fitted using 1- and 2-tissue-compartment models, with goodness-of-fit tests showing a preference for the 2-tissue model. In the healthy brain, the average plasma-to-tissue clearance and the total volume of distribution were an order of magnitude larger than measured for (11)C-R-PK11195. Accordingly, dose-normalized time-activity curves showed that (11)C-DPA-713 gives a larger brain signal. Studies in patient populations will help determine whether (11)C-DPA-713 provides better sensitivity for evaluating increased TSPO expression. This initial study in humans shows that (11)C-DPA-713 is a promising ligand for evaluating TSPO binding with PET.

  8. Initial Evaluation of 11C-DPA-713, a Novel TSPO PET Ligand, in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Christopher J.; Pomper, Martin G.; James, Michelle; Uzuner, Ovsev; Hammoud, Dima A.; Watkins, Crystal C.; Reynolds, Aaron; Hilton, John; Dannals, Robert F.; Kassiou, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO) is upregulated in activated microglia and thus can serve as a marker of neuroinflammation. Recently, a novel radioligand, 11C-N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]-acetamide (11C-DPA-713), has been described that binds to TSPO with high affinity. Here, we report the first examination of 11C-DPA-713 in human subjects using PET. Methods Five healthy controls were studied with PET for 90 min after a bolus injection of high-specific-activity 11C-DPA-713. For comparison, 2 additional healthy controls were studied with 11C-R-PK11195. Arterial blood sampling and metabolite analysis were performed to allow the accurate quantification of tracer kinetics. Tracer uptake was evaluated for several brain regions. Tissue time–activity curves were fitted using 1- and 2-tissue-compartment models, with goodness-of-fit tests showing a preference for the 2-tissue model. Results In the healthy brain, the average plasma-to-tissue clearance and the total volume of distribution were an order of magnitude larger than measured for 11C-R-PK11195. Accordingly, dose-normalized time–activity curves showed that 11C-DPA-713 gives a larger brain signal. Conclusion Studies in patient populations will help determine whether 11C-DPA-713 provides better sensitivity for evaluating increased TSPO expression. This initial study in humans shows that 11C-DPA-713 is a promising ligand for evaluating TSPO binding with PET. PMID:19617321

  9. Lack of age-dependent decrease in dopamine D3 receptor availability: a [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO and [(11)C]-raclopride positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Boileau, Isabelle; Chung, Jun K; Plitman, Eric; Gerretsen, Philip; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Mamo, David C; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Positron emission tomography with antagonist radiotracers has showed that striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability decreases with age. However, no study has specifically assessed whether D2/3R availability decreases with age in healthy persons as measured with agonist radiotracers. Moreover, it is unknown whether D3R availability changes with age in healthy humans. Thus, we explored the relationship between age and D2/3R availability in healthy humans using the D3 receptor (D3R)-preferential agonist radiotracer [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO (n=72, mean±s.d. age=40±15, range=18 to 73) and the antagonist [(11)C]-Raclopride (n=70, mean±s.d. age =40±14, range=18 to 73) (both, n=33). The contribution of D3R to the [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO signal varies across regions of interest; the substantia nigra and hypothalamus represent D3R-specific regions, the ventral pallidum, globus pallidus, and ventral striatum represent D2/3R-mixed regions, and the caudate and putamen represent D2 receptor (D2R)-specific regions. With [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO, a negative correlation was observed between age and nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) in the caudate (r(70)=-0.32, P=0.005). No correlations were observed in the other regions. With [(11)C]-Raclopride, negative correlations were observed between age and BPND in the caudate (r(68)=-0.50, P<0.001), putamen (r(68)=-0.41, P<0.001), and ventral striatum (r(68)=-0.43, P<0.001). In conclusion, in contrast with the age-dependent decrease in D2R availability, these findings suggest that D3R availability does not change with age.

  10. Virtually Instantaneous, Room-temperature [11C]-Cyanation Using Biaryl Phosphine Pd(0) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Geun; Milner, Phillip J.; Placzek, Michael S.; Buchwald, Stephen L.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2015-01-01

    A new radiosynthetic protocol for the preparation of [11C]aryl nitriles has been developed. This process is based on the direct reaction of in situ prepared L•Pd(Ar)X complexes (L=biaryl phosphine) with [11C]HCN. The strategy is operationally simple, exhibits a remarkably wide substrate scope with short reaction times, and demonstrates superior reactivity compared to previously reported systems. With this procedure, a variety of [11C]nitrile-containing pharmaceuticals were prepared with high radiochemical efficiency. PMID:25565277

  11. Radiolabeled D-Penicillamine Magnetic Nanocarriers for Targeted Purposes.

    PubMed

    Özyüncü, Seniha Yolcular; Teksöz, Serap; Içhedef, Çiğdem; Medinel, E Ilker; Avci, Çiğir Biray; Gündüz, Cumhur; Ünak, Perihan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize D-Penicillamine (D-PA) conjugated magnetic nanocarriers for targeted purposes. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by partial reduction method and surface modification was done with an amino silane coupling agent's (structural properties), AEAPS, the particles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). After that D-PA was linked with the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and has been radiolabeled with [99mTc(CO)3]+ core. Quality controls of [99mTc(CO)3-MNP-D-PA] were established by Cd(Te) detector. The radiolabeling efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles ([99mTc(CO)3-MNP-D-PA]) was about 97.05% with good in vitro stability during the 24 hour period. As a parallel study, radiolabeled D-PA complex ([99mTc(CO)3-D-PA]) was prepared with a radiolabeling yield of 97.93%. At the end, biologic activities of binding complexes were investigated on MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Our results show that, radiolabeled magnetic nanoparticles with core [99mTc(CO)3]+ ([99mTc(CO)3-MNP-D-PA]) showed the highest uptake on MCF7 cells which were applied magnetic field in the wells. In that case, result of this study emphasizes that radiolabeled magnetic nanoparticles with core [99mTc(CO)3]+ would support new occurrences of new agents.

  12. Targeted Radiolabeled Compounds in Glioma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Dominik; Krolicki, Leszek; Morgenstern, Alfred; Merlo, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Malignant gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grades II-IV represent the largest entity within the group of intrinsic brain tumors and are graded according to their pathophysiological features with survival times between more than 10 years (WHO II) and only several months (WHO IV). Gliomas arise from astrocytic or oligodendrocytic precursor cells and exhibit an infiltrative growth pattern lacking a clearly identifiable tumor border. The development of effective treatment strategies of the invasive tumor cell front represents the main challenge in glioma therapy. The therapeutic standard consists of surgical resection and, depending on the extent of resection and WHO grade, adjuvant external beam radiotherapy or systemic chemotherapy. Within the last decades, there has been no major improvement of the prognosis of patients with glioma. The consistent overexpression of neurokinin type 1 receptors in gliomas WHO grades II-IV has been used to develop a therapeutic substance P-based targeting system. A substance P-analogue conjugated to the DOTA or DOTAGA chelator has been labeled with different alpha-particle or beta-particle emitting radionuclides for targeted glioma therapy. The radiopharmaceutical has been locally injected into the tumors or the resection cavity. In several clinical studies, the methodology has been examined in adjuvant and neoadjuvant clinical settings. Although no large controlled series have so far been generated, the results of radiolabeled substance P-based targeted glioma therapy compare favorably with standard therapy. Recently, labeling with the alpha particle emitting Bi-213 has been found to be promising due to the high linear energy transfer and the very short tissue range of 0.08 mm. Further development needs to focus on the improvement of the stability of the compound and the application by dedicated catheter systems to improve the intratumoral distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the prognostically critical

  13. Dietary methanol and autism.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  14. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....” The Act does not define the term “employ.” However, the broad remedial nature of this legislation... section 11(c), is to be based upon economic realities rather than upon common law doctrines and...

  15. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....” The Act does not define the term “employ.” However, the broad remedial nature of this legislation... section 11(c), is to be based upon economic realities rather than upon common law doctrines and...

  16. Production of [11C]CO2 with gas target at low proton energies.

    PubMed

    Sansaloni, Francesc; Lagares, Juan Ignacio; Llop, Jordi; Arce, Pedro; Díaz, Carlos; Pérez-Morales, José Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays the demand and the installation of self-shielded low-energy cyclotrons is growing, allowing the use of (11)C in many more centers. The aim of this study was the design of a new target and the evaluation of the production of (11)C as [(11)C]CO2 at low proton energies. The target was coupled to an IBA Cyclone-18/9 and the energy was decreased to 4-16 MeV. The newly designed target allowed the production of [(11)C]CO2 at different proton energies, and the results suggest that the cyclotron energy of Cyclone-18/9 is slightly higher than the nominal 18 MeV.

  17. (11)C-labeling and preliminary evaluation of vortioxetine as a PET radioligand.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Valdemar L; Hansen, Hanne D; Herth, Matthias M; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2014-06-01

    Vortioxetine is a new multi-modal drug against major depressive disorder with high affinity for a range of different serotonergic targets in the CNS. We report the (11)C-labeling of vortioxetine with [(11)C]MeI using a Suzuki-protocol that allows for the presence of an unprotected amine. Preliminary evaluation of [(11)C]vortioxetine in a Danish Landrace pig showed rapid brain uptake and brain distribution in accordance with the pharmacological profile, all though an unexpected high binding in cerebellum was also observed. [(11)C]vortioxetine displayed slow tracer kinetics with peak uptake after 60 min and with limited wash-out from the brain. Further studies are needed but this radioligand may prove to be a valuable tool in unraveling the clinical effects of vortioxetine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrin CD11c/CD18 α-chain phosphorylation is functionally important.

    PubMed

    Uotila, Liisa M; Aatonen, Maria; Gahmberg, Carl G

    2013-11-15

    CD11c/CD18 (αXβ2, p150/95, or complement receptor 4, CR4) is a monocyte/macrophage-enriched integrin that has been reported to bind to a variety of ligands. These include cell surface proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, and soluble ligands. The regulation of ligand binding to CD11c/CD18 has remained poorly understood. Previous work has shown that both α-chain and β-chain phosphorylations of CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 are needed for activity, but no corresponding studies on CD11c/CD18 have been performed. In this study, we have identified the phosphorylation site of CD11c as Ser-1158 and show that it is pivotal for adherence and phagocytosis.

  19. Integrin CD11c/CD18 α-Chain Phosphorylation Is Functionally Important*

    PubMed Central

    Uotila, Liisa M.; Aatonen, Maria; Gahmberg, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    CD11c/CD18 (αXβ2, p150/95, or complement receptor 4, CR4) is a monocyte/macrophage-enriched integrin that has been reported to bind to a variety of ligands. These include cell surface proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, and soluble ligands. The regulation of ligand binding to CD11c/CD18 has remained poorly understood. Previous work has shown that both α-chain and β-chain phosphorylations of CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 are needed for activity, but no corresponding studies on CD11c/CD18 have been performed. In this study, we have identified the phosphorylation site of CD11c as Ser-1158 and show that it is pivotal for adherence and phagocytosis. PMID:24129562

  20. PET amyloid ligand [11C]PIB uptake shows predominantly striatal increase in variant Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, J; Verkkoniemi, A; Aalto, S; Paetau, A; Ahonen, J-P; Viitanen, M; Någren, K; Rokka, J; Haaparanta, M; Kalimo, H; Rinne, J O

    2008-07-01

    Variant Alzheimer's disease (VarAD) with spastic paraparesis and presenile dementia is associated with certain mutations of the presenilin 1 (PS-1) gene, particularly those leading to deletion of exon 9 (PS-1Delta E9). VarAD is neuropathologically characterized by the presence of unusually large, Abeta42 positive, non-cored 'cotton wool' plaques (CWPs), also devoid of dystrophic neurites. The aim of the present study was to find out whether [(11)C]PIB would show increased uptake and serve as an in vivo biomarker of amyloid accumulation in VarAD. A further aim was to assess the correspondence of the [(11)C]PIB binding to the amount and type of Abeta deposits in another group of deceased VarAD patients' brains. We studied four patients with VarAD and eight healthy controls with PET using [(11)C]PIB as tracer. Parametric images were computed by calculating the region-to-cerebellum and region-to-pons ratio in each voxel over 60-90 min. Group differences in [(11)C]PIB uptake were analysed with automated region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. [(11)C]PIB uptake was compared to the immunohistochemically demonstrated deposition of Abeta in the brains of another group of four deceased VarAD patients. Patients with VarAD had significantly higher [(11)C] PIB uptake than the control group in the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, occipital cortex and thalamus. In the caudate and putamen [(11)C]PIB uptake, expressed as region-to-cerebellum ratio, was on the average 43% greater than the mean of the control group. The increases in the anterior (28%) and posterior (27%) cingulate gyrus, occipital cortex (21%) and thalamus (14%) were smaller. All VarAD patients showed this similar topographical pattern of increased [(11)C]PIB uptake. The results were essentially similar when the uptake was expressed as region-to-pons ratios. [(11)C]PIB imaging shows increased uptake in patients with VarAD especially in the striatum, and it can be used to

  1. Production and suppression of {sup 11}C in the solar neutrino experiment Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Meindl, Quirin; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Kerret, H. de; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.

    2011-04-27

    Cosmogenic {sup 11}C is produced in-situ by atmospheric muons and forms the main background for the measurement of solar pep- and CNO-neutrinos. However, FLUKA simulations show that the majority of {sup 11}C is accompanied by a free neutron in the final state, thus allowing for an efficient tagging method, the so-called Three-Fold Coincidence technique. The technique and its first applications on Borexino data are presented.

  2. 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography after radiofrequency ablation of neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Norlén, Olov; Nilsson, Anders; Krause, Johan; Stålberg, Peter; Hellman, Per; Sundin, Anders

    2012-08-01

    The aim was to assess the feasibility of (11)C-5-hydroxy-tryptophan positron emission tomography ((11)C-5-HTP-PET) in the follow-up after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are commonly used to evaluate the liver after RFA of NETs. In general, (11)C-5-HTP-PET is more sensitive in the visualization of NETs, but no studies have investigated its role after RFA. Six consecutive patients with liver metastases from NETs were subjected to RFA treatment. All patients underwent baseline imaging before RFA and on two occasions (1-2 and 6-11 months) after RFA. The imaging consisted of (11)C-5-HTP-PET, CEUS and CECT on all three occasions. Thirty RFA areas were evaluated, and residual tumors (RTs) were depicted in eight areas (22%). (11)C-5-HTP-PET depicted RTs after RFA with maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%), using radiological follow-up as the gold standard. (11)C-5-HTP-PET detected five out of eight RTs earlier than CECT or CEUS. In general, the sensitivity of (11)C-5-HTP-PET exceeded that of CECT and CEUS for early visualization of NET liver metastases. (11)C-5-HTP-PET can be used in the follow-up after RFA for the purpose of detecting RT, and it provides additional information to CEUS and CECT by detecting new lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [(11)C]-Acetoacetate PET imaging: a potential early marker for cardiac heart failure.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Etienne; Tremblay, Sébastien; Gascon, Suzanne; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Labbé, Sébastien M; Rousseau, Jacques A; Cunnane, Stephen C; Carpentier, André C; Bénard, François; Lecomte, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The ketone body acetoacetate could be used as an alternate nutrient for the heart, and it also has the potential to improve cardiac function in an ischemic-reperfusion model or reduce the mitochondrial production of oxidative stress involved in cardiotoxicity. In this study, [(11)C]-acetoacetate was investigated as an early marker of intracellular damage in heart failure. A rat cardiotoxicity heart failure model was induced by doxorubicin, Dox(+). [(14)C]-Acetoacetate, a non-positron (β-) emitting radiotracer, was used to characterize the arterial blood input function and myocardial mitochondrial uptake. Afterward, [(11)C]-acetoacetate (β+) myocardial PET images were obtained for kinetic analysis and heart function assessment in control Dox(-) (n=15) and treated Dox(+) (n=6) rats. The uptake rate (K1) and myocardial clearance rate (k2or kmono) were extracted. [(14)C]-Acetoacetate in the blood was increased in Dox(+), from 2 min post-injection until the last withdrawal point when the heart was harvested, as well as the uptake in the heart and myocardial mitochondria (unpaired t-test, p <0.05). PET kinetic analysis of [(11)C]-acetoacetate showed that rate constants K1, k2 and kmono were decreased in Dox(+) (p <0.05) combined with a reduction of 24% of the left ventricular ejection fraction (p <0.001). Radioactive acetoacetate ex vivo analysis [(14)C], and in vivo kinetic [(11)C] studies provided evidence that [(11)C]-acetoacetate can assess heart failure Dox(+). Contrary to myocardial flow reserve (rest-stress protocol), [(11)C]-acetoacetate can be used to assess reduced kinetic rate constants without requirement of hyperemic stress response. The proposed [(11)C]-acetoacetate cardiac radiotracer in the investigation of heart disease is novel and paves the way to a potential role for [(11)C]-acetoacetate in cardiac pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Pathogenic Cardiac CD11c+ Macrophages in Nod1-Mediated Acute Coronary Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Yoshitomo; Kanno, Shunsuke; Asano, Kenichi; Tanaka, Masato; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Katagiri, Hideki; Saito, Takashi; Hara, Hiromitsu; Nishio, Hisanori; Hara, Toshiro; Yamasaki, Sho

    2015-06-01

    Nod1 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan fragments. We previously reported that a synthetic Nod1 ligand, FK565, induced acute coronary arteritis in mice similar to that of Kawasaki disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this characteristic inflammation have remained elusive. We found that CD11c(+)MHC class II(+) cells accumulated in the heart of FK565-treated mice before arteritis development. Morphological features and gene expression signatures of the cardiac CD11c(+)MHC class II(+) cells suggested that this population is closely related to macrophages, and thus, we designated them cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages. Nod1 in nonhematopoietic cells, rather than hematopoietic cells, was required for the increase of cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages and arteritis development. Among nonhematopoietic cells, cardiac endothelial cells produced a large amount of chemokines in response to FK565. Endothelial cell-specific blockade of Nod1 signaling suppressed FK565-induced expression of these chemokines, accumulation of cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages, and subsequent coronary arteritis development. We also found that CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes in peripheral blood supplied precursors of cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages. CCR2-deficient mice or pertussis toxin-treated mice exhibited decreased numbers of cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages and reduced arteritis. These results suggest that Ly6C(hi) monocytes are recruited to FK565-activated endothelial cells to generate cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages, which play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acute coronary arteritis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Quantification of [11C]yohimbine binding to α2 adrenoceptors in rat brain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Jenny-Ann; Landau, Anne M; Wong, Dean F; Jakobsen, Steen; Nahimi, Adjmal; Doudet, Doris J; Gjedde, Albert

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the binding potentials (BPND) of [11C]yohimbine binding in rat brain to alpha-2 adrenoceptors to evaluate [11C]yohimbine as an in vivo marker of noradrenergic neurotransmission and to examine its sensitivity to the level of noradrenaline. Dual [11C]yohimbine dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) recordings were applied to five Sprague Dawley rats at baseline, followed by acute amphetamine administration (2 mg/kg) to induce elevation of the endogenous level of noradrenaline. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]yohimbine was obtained using Logan plot with arterial plasma input. Because alpha-2 adrenoceptors are distributed throughout the brain, the estimation of the BPND is complicated by the absence of an anatomic region of no displaceable binding. We used the Inhibition plot to acquire the reference volume, VND, from which we calculated the BPND. Acute pharmacological challenge with amphetamine induced a significant decline of [11C]yohimbine BPND of ~38% in all volumes of interest. The BPND was greatest in the thalamus and striatum, followed in descending order by, frontal cortex, pons, and cerebellum. The experimental data demonstrate that [11C]yohimbine binding is sensitive to a challenge known to increase the extracellular level of noradrenaline, which can benefit future PET investigations of pathologic conditions related to disrupted noradrenergic neurotransmission. PMID:25564241

  6. Quantification of [(11)C]yohimbine binding to α2 adrenoceptors in rat brain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jenny-Ann; Landau, Anne M; Wong, Dean F; Jakobsen, Steen; Nahimi, Adjmal; Doudet, Doris J; Gjedde, Albert

    2015-03-01

    We quantified the binding potentials (BPND) of [(11)C]yohimbine binding in rat brain to alpha-2 adrenoceptors to evaluate [(11)C]yohimbine as an in vivo marker of noradrenergic neurotransmission and to examine its sensitivity to the level of noradrenaline. Dual [(11)C]yohimbine dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) recordings were applied to five Sprague Dawley rats at baseline, followed by acute amphetamine administration (2 mg/kg) to induce elevation of the endogenous level of noradrenaline. The volume of distribution (VT) of [(11)C]yohimbine was obtained using Logan plot with arterial plasma input. Because alpha-2 adrenoceptors are distributed throughout the brain, the estimation of the BPND is complicated by the absence of an anatomic region of no displaceable binding. We used the Inhibition plot to acquire the reference volume, VND, from which we calculated the BPND. Acute pharmacological challenge with amphetamine induced a significant decline of [(11)C]yohimbine BPND of ~38% in all volumes of interest. The BPND was greatest in the thalamus and striatum, followed in descending order by, frontal cortex, pons, and cerebellum. The experimental data demonstrate that [(11)C]yohimbine binding is sensitive to a challenge known to increase the extracellular level of noradrenaline, which can benefit future PET investigations of pathologic conditions related to disrupted noradrenergic neurotransmission.

  7. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia monocytes uniformly display a population of monocytes with CD11c underexpression.

    PubMed

    Sojitra, Payal; Gandhi, Pranav; Fitting, Priscilla; Kini, Ameet R; Alkan, Serhan; Velankar, Milind M; Venkataraman, Girish

    2013-11-01

    To examine the utility of CD11c expression on monocytes in normal controls and patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) (n = 23) with flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Twenty-three CMML samples and 10 control bone marrows submitted for lymphoma staging without evidence of disease were examined. Monocytes in CMML samples ranged from 4% to 35%. Expression of at least one aberrant monocytic marker was found on the monocytes in 18 (82%) of 22 evaluable cases. The most common aberrancy was underexpression of CD11c (n = 15), while none of the bone marrow controls showed underexpression of CD11c. A distinct heterogeneous population of monocytic cells with underexpression of CD11c was identified in all these cases. CD11c underexpression was independent of other aberrancies, including HLA-DR underexpression (n = 14), aberrant CD56 expression (n = 11), and underexpression of CD33, CD38, and CD14 (n = 6, 5, and 5, respectively), supporting the utility of CD11c expression status on monocytes in establishing a CMML diagnosis.

  8. Functionally relevant neutrophilia in CD11c diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tittel, André P; Heuser, Christoph; Ohliger, Christina; Llanto, Chrystel; Yona, Simon; Hämmerling, Günter J; Engel, Daniel R; Garbi, Natalio; Kurts, Christian

    2012-02-26

    Transgenic mice expressing the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) in specific cell types are key tools for functional studies in several biological systems. B6.FVB-Tg(Itgax-DTR/EGFP)57Lan/J (CD11c.DTR) and B6.Cg-Tg(Itgax-DTR/OVA/EGFP)1Gjh/Crl (CD11c.DOG) mice express the DTR in CD11c(+) cells, allowing conditional depletion of dendritic cells. We report that dendritic-cell depletion in these models caused polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) release from the bone marrow, which caused chemokine-dependent neutrophilia after 6-24 h and increased bacterial clearance in a mouse pyelonephritis model. We present a transgenic mouse line, B6.Cg-Tg(Itgax-EGFP-CRE-DTR-LUC)2Gjh/Crl (CD11c.LuciDTR), which is unaffected by early neutrophilia. However, CD11c.LuciDTR and CD11c.DTR mice showed late neutrophilia 72 h after dendritic cell depletion, which was independent of PMN release and possibly resulted from increased granulopoiesis. Thus, the time point of dendritic cell depletion and the choice of DTR transgenic mouse line must be considered in experimental settings where neutrophils may be involved.

  9. The Methanol Multibeam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James A.; Cohen, R. J.; Caswell, J. L.; Fuller, G. A.; Brooks, K.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.; Diamond, P. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Gray, M. D.; Hoare, M. G.; Masheder, M. R. W.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; Pestalozzi, M.; Phillips, C.; Quinn, L.; Thompson, M. A.; Voronkov, M.; Walsh, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Wong-McSweeney, D.; Yates, J. A.; Cox, J.

    2007-03-01

    A new 7-beam methanol multibeam receiver is being used to survey the Galaxy for newly forming massive stars, that are pinpointed by strong methanol maser emission at 6.668 GHz. The receiver, jointly constructed by Jodrell Bank Observatory (JBO) and the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), was successfully commissioned at Parkes in January 2006. The Parkes-Jodrell survey of the Milky Way for methanol masers is two orders of magnitude faster than previous systematic surveys using 30-m class dishes, and is the first systematic survey of the entire Galactic plane. The first 53 days of observations with the Parkes telescope have yielded 518 methanol sources, of which 218 are new discoveries. We present the survey methodology as well as preliminary results and analysis.

  10. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  11. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  12. The Asian methanol market

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-12-31

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future.

  13. ATP11C mutation is responsible for the defect in phosphatidylserine uptake in UPS-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Naoto; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-01-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. We and others previously showed that ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPases, translocates phosphatidylserine (PS) at the plasma membrane. Twenty years ago, the UPS-1 (uptake of fluorescent PS analogs) cell line was isolated from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with a defect in nonendocytic uptake of nitrobenzoxadiazole PS. Due to its defect in PS uptake, the UPS-1 cell line has been used in an assay for PS-flipping activity; however, the gene(s) responsible for the defect have not been identified to date. Here, we found that the mRNA level of ATP11C was dramatically reduced in UPS-1 cells relative to parental CHO-K1 cells. By contrast, the level of ATP11A, another PS-flipping P4-ATPase at the plasma membrane, or CDC50A, which is essential for delivery of most P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane, was not affected in UPS-1 cells. Importantly, we identified a nonsense mutation in the ATP11C gene in UPS-1 cells, indicating that the intact ATP11C protein is not expressed. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP11C can restore PS uptake in UPS-1 cells. These results indicate that lack of the functional ATP11C protein is responsible for the defect in PS uptake in UPS-1 cells and ATP11C is crucial for PS flipping in CHO-K1 cells. PMID:26420878

  14. ATP11C mutation is responsible for the defect in phosphatidylserine uptake in UPS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Takada, Naoto; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-11-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. We and others previously showed that ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPases, translocates phosphatidylserine (PS) at the plasma membrane. Twenty years ago, the UPS-1 (uptake of fluorescent PS analogs) cell line was isolated from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with a defect in nonendocytic uptake of nitrobenzoxadiazole PS. Due to its defect in PS uptake, the UPS-1 cell line has been used in an assay for PS-flipping activity; however, the gene(s) responsible for the defect have not been identified to date. Here, we found that the mRNA level of ATP11C was dramatically reduced in UPS-1 cells relative to parental CHO-K1 cells. By contrast, the level of ATP11A, another PS-flipping P4-ATPase at the plasma membrane, or CDC50A, which is essential for delivery of most P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane, was not affected in UPS-1 cells. Importantly, we identified a nonsense mutation in the ATP11C gene in UPS-1 cells, indicating that the intact ATP11C protein is not expressed. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP11C can restore PS uptake in UPS-1 cells. These results indicate that lack of the functional ATP11C protein is responsible for the defect in PS uptake in UPS-1 cells and ATP11C is crucial for PS flipping in CHO-K1 cells. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Synthesis and radiolabeling of a somatostatin analog for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, W. Barry; Liang, Kexian; Xu, Baogang; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2006-02-01

    A new multimodal imaging agent for imaging the somatostatin receptor has been synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A somatostatin analog, conjugated to both 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaceticacid (DOTA) and cypate (BS-296), was synthesized entirely on the solid phase (Fmoc) and purified by RP-HPLC. DOTA was added as a ligand for radiometals such as 64Cu or 177Lu for either radio-imaging or radiotherapy respectively. Cytate, a cypatesomatostatin analog conjugate, has previously demonstrated the ability to visualize somatostatin receptor rich tumor xenografts and natural organs by optical imaging techniques. BS-296 exhibited low nanomolar inhibitory capacity toward the binding of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs in cell membranes enriched in the somatostatin receptor, demonstrating the high affinity of this multimodal imaging peptide and indicating its potential as a molecular imaging agent. 64Cu, an isotope for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy, was selected as the isotope for radiolabeling BS-296. BS-296 was radiolabeled with 64Cu in high specific activity (200 μCi/μg) in 90% radiochemical yield. Addition of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid) prevented radiolysis of the sample, allowing for study of the 64Cu -BS-296 the day following radiolabeling. Furthermore, inclusion of DMSO at a level of 20% was found not to interfere with radiolabeling yields and prevented the adherence of 64Cu -BS-296 to the walls of the reaction vessel.

  16. Bio-Distribution, Imaging Protocols and Diagnostic Accuracy of PET with Tracers of Lipogenesis in Imaging Prostate Cancer: a Comparison between 11C-Choline, 18FFluoroethylcholine and 18F-Methylcholine.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Gallo, Gianpasquale; Schillaci, Orazio; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio

    2015-01-01

    PET/CT with choline is a diagnostic tool useful for imaging prostate cancer patients. The overall published papers in this field are referred to three variants of the same radiopharmaceutical: 11C-Choline, 18FMethylcholine and 18F-Ethylcholine. As no data has been reported on the theoretical differences between these three variants of radiolabeled choline, this study aims to explore the knowledge on the physiological distribution of these three tracers, to compare data of imaging acquisition protocols and to verify the theoretical equivalence in terms of diagnostic accuracy and potential false positive cases that can occur in clinical practice. A literature research about published papers was conducted regarding the physiological distribution, imaging acquisition protocols and diagnostic performance of 11C-choline, 18F-methylcholine and 18F-ethylcholine PET/CT. Minimal differences of the "in vivo" bio-distribution of the variants of radiolabeled choline were registered. Several imaging acquisition protocols were utilized, considering the different half-decay of 11C and 18F and the early urinary excretion of 18F-FECH. The diagnostic accuracy resulted similar for all the tracers, despite an insignificant amount of data for 18F-FECH; however, some pitfalls were documented for all the variants, related to the intrinsic properties of choline as a non-tumour specific tracer. Finally, our clinical experience with the two fluorinated kinds of choline has also been reported describing the "in vivo" bio-distribution with semi-quantitative measurement of Standardised Uptake Value in target organs. The literature suggests these three variants of choline equally useful to be considered for prostate cancer imaging. A standardisation of acquisition protocols for fluorinated choline PET/CT has also been proposed.

  17. Radiation Dosimetry and Biodistribution of the TSPO Ligand 11C-DPA-713 in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Christopher J.; Coughlin, Jennifer M.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Watkins, Crystal C.; Kassiou, Michael; Pomper, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body PET/CT was used to characterize the radiation dosimetry of 11C-DPA-713, a specific PET ligand for the assessment of translocator protein. Methods: Six healthy control subjects, 3 men and 3 women, underwent whole-body dynamic PET scans after bolus injection of 11C-DPA-713. Subjects were scanned from head to mid thigh with 7 passes performed, with a total PET acquisition of approximately 100 min. Time-activity curves were generated in organs with visible tracer uptake, and tissue residence times were calculated. Whole-body dosimetry was calculated using OLINDA 1.1 software, assuming no voiding. Results: The absorbed dose is highest in the lungs, spleen, kidney, and pancreas. The lungs were determined to be the dose-limiting organ, with an average absorbed dose of 2.01 × 10−2 mSv/MBq (7.43 × 10−2 rem/mCi). On the basis of exposure limits outlined in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR361.1), the single-dose limit for 11C-DPA-713 radiotracer injection is 2,487.6 MBq (67.3 mCi). Conclusion: 11C-DPA-713 has an uptake pattern that is consistent with the biodistribution of translocator protein and yields a dose burden that is comparable to that of other 11C-labeled PET tracers. PMID:22241913

  18. PET Imaging of the AT1 receptor with [11C]KR31173

    PubMed Central

    Zober, Tamas G.; Mathews, William B.; Seckin, Esen; Yoo, Sung E.; Hilton, John; Xia, Jinsong; Sandberg, Kathryn; Ravert, Hayden T.; Dannals, Robert F.; Szabo, Zsolt

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the binding characteristics of [11C]KR31173 and its applicability for PET studies of the AT1 receptor (AT1R). Methods Ex vivo biodistribution and pharmacology were tested in mice. PET imaging was performed in mice, beagle dogs, and a baboon. To assess nonspecific binding, PET imaging was performed both before and after pretreatment with a potent AT1R antagonist. In the baboon, PET imaging was also performed with the previously developed radioligand [11C]L-159,884 for comparison. Results Ex vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed specific binding rates of 80-90% in the adrenals, kidneys, lungs, and heart. Specific binding was confirmed in mice using small animal PET. In dogs, renal cortex tissue concentration at 75-95 min post-injection was 63 nCi/mL/mCi at a specific binding rate of 95%. In the baboon renal cortex, tissue activity at 55-75 min post injection was 345 nCi/mL/mCi. The specific binding of [11C]KR31173 was higher (81%) in the baboon than the specific binding of [11C]L-159,884 (34%). Conclusion [11C]KR31173 shows accumulation and significant specific binding to the AT1R in the kidneys of mice, dogs, and baboon. These findings suggest that this radioligand is suited for imaging the renal cortical AT1R in multiple species. PMID:16459253

  19. Circulating classical monocytes are associated with CD11c+ macrophages in human visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Kristiaan; Gaens, Katrien; Bijnen, Mitchell; Verboven, Kenneth; Jocken, Johan; Wetzels, Suzan; Wijnands, Erwin; Hansen, Dominique; van Greevenbroek, Marleen; Duijvestijn, Adriaan; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.

    2017-01-01

    Immune cell accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) is associated with the development of AT inflammation, resulting in metabolic dysfunction. Circulating immune cell patterns may reflect immune cell accumulation in expanding AT. However, data linking human leukocytes in blood and AT is lacking. We investigated whether blood immune cell populations are associated with their counterparts in subcutaneous (scAT) or visceral AT (vAT). Flow cytometry was performed on blood, scAT and vAT from 16 lean and 29 obese men. Circulating natural killer (NK)-cells, classical monocytes and nonclassical monocytes were higher in obese individuals. vAT, but not scAT, of obese individuals contained more inflammatory CD11c+ “M1” macrophages and NK cells compared to lean individuals. Blood classical monocytes were associated with CD11c+ macrophages in vAT but not scAT. This association was unrelated to expression of the adhesion molecules CD11b and CD11c or of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on these monocytes. Other AT immune cells were not associated with their respective counterparts in blood. Finally, CD11c+ macrophages and CD4+ T-cells in vAT were associated with their counterparts in scAT. In conclusion, blood classical monocytes reflect CD11c+ macrophages in vAT. PMID:28198418

  20. Combination of dynamic (11)C-PIB PET and structural MRI improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linwen; Fu, Liping; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Baixuan; Tian, Jiahe; Fan, Yong

    2015-08-30

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is an established technique for measuring brain atrophy, and dynamic positron emission tomography with (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB PET) has the potential to provide both perfusion and amyloid deposition information. It remains unclear, however, how to better combine perfusion, amyloid deposition and morphological information extracted from dynamic (11)C-PIB PET and sMRI with the goal of improving the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We adopted a linear sparse support vector machine to build classifiers for distinguishing AD and MCI subjects from cognitively normal (CN) subjects based on different combinations of regional measures extracted from imaging data, including perfusion and amyloid deposition information extracted from early and late frames of (11)C-PIB separately, and gray matter volumetric information extracted from sMRI data. The experimental results demonstrated that the classifier built upon the combination of imaging measures extracted from early and late frames of (11)C-PIB as well as sMRI achieved the highest classification accuracy in both classification studies of AD (100%) and MCI (85%), indicating that multimodality information could aid in the diagnosis of AD and MCI.

  1. Therapeutic effect of curcumin on experimental colitis mediated by inhibiting CD8+CD11c+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Han, Fei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Xu, Han-Lin; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2017-01-01

    AIM To verify whether curcumin (Cur) can treat inflammatory bowel disease by regulating CD8+CD11c+ cells. METHODS We evaluated the suppressive effect of Cur on CD8+CD11c+ cells in spleen and Peyer’s patches (PPs) in colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Mice with colitis were treated by 200 mg/kg Cur for 7 d. On day 8, the therapeutic effect of Cur was evaluated by visual assessment and histological examination, while co-stimulatory molecules of CD8+CD11c+ cells in the spleen and PPs were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in spleen and colonic mucosa were determined by ELISA. RESULTS The disease activity index, colon weight, weight index of colon and histological score of experimental colitis were obviously decreased after Cur treatment, while the body weight and colon length recovered. After treatment with Cur, CD8+CD11c+ cells were decreased in the spleen and PPs, and the expression of major histocompatibility complex II, CD205, CD40, CD40L and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited. IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared with those in mice with untreated colitis. CONCLUSION Cur can effectively treat experimental colitis, which is realized by inhibiting CD8+CD11c+ cells. PMID:28348486

  2. Gatekeeper role of brain antigen-presenting CD11c+ cells in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Paterka, Magdalena; Siffrin, Volker; Voss, Jan O; Werr, Johannes; Hoppmann, Nicola; Gollan, René; Belikan, Patrick; Bruttger, Julia; Birkenstock, Jérôme; Jung, Steffen; Esplugues, Enric; Yogev, Nir; Flavell, Richard A; Bopp, Tobias; Zipp, Frauke

    2016-01-04

    Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS. The entry and survival of pathogenic T cells in the CNS are crucial for the initiation and persistence of autoimmune neuroinflammation. In this respect, contradictory evidence exists on the role of the most potent type of antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells. Applying intravital two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate the gatekeeper function of CNS professional antigen-presenting CD11c(+) cells, which preferentially interact with Th17 cells. IL-17 expression correlates with expression of GM-CSF by T cells and with accumulation of CNS CD11c(+) cells. These CD11c(+) cells are organized in perivascular clusters, targeted by T cells, and strongly express the inflammatory chemokines Ccl5, Cxcl9, and Cxcl10. Our findings demonstrate a fundamental role of CNS CD11c(+) cells in the attraction of pathogenic T cells into and their survival within the CNS. Depletion of CD11c(+) cells markedly reduced disease severity due to impaired enrichment of pathogenic T cells within the CNS. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Therapeutic effect of curcumin on experimental colitis mediated by inhibiting CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Han, Fei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Xu, Han-Lin; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2017-03-14

    To verify whether curcumin (Cur) can treat inflammatory bowel disease by regulating CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells. We evaluated the suppressive effect of Cur on CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells in spleen and Peyer's patches (PPs) in colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Mice with colitis were treated by 200 mg/kg Cur for 7 d. On day 8, the therapeutic effect of Cur was evaluated by visual assessment and histological examination, while co-stimulatory molecules of CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells in the spleen and PPs were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in spleen and colonic mucosa were determined by ELISA. The disease activity index, colon weight, weight index of colon and histological score of experimental colitis were obviously decreased after Cur treatment, while the body weight and colon length recovered. After treatment with Cur, CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells were decreased in the spleen and PPs, and the expression of major histocompatibility complex II, CD205, CD40, CD40L and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited. IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared with those in mice with untreated colitis. Cur can effectively treat experimental colitis, which is realized by inhibiting CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells.

  4. Emerging role of radiolabeled nanoparticles as an effective diagnostic technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is emerging as a promising approach for diagnostic applications. Nanoparticles are structures in the nanometer size range, which can present different shapes, compositions, charges, surface modifications, in vitro and in vivo stabilities, and in vivo performances. Nanoparticles can be made of materials of diverse chemical nature, the most common being metals, metal oxides, silicates, polymers, carbon, lipids, and biomolecules. Nanoparticles exist in various morphologies, such as spheres, cylinders, platelets, and tubes. Radiolabeled nanoparticles represent a new class of agent with great potential for clinical applications. This is partly due to their long blood circulation time and plasma stability. In addition, because of the high sensitivity of imaging with radiolabeled compounds, their use has promise of achieving accurate and early diagnosis. This review article focuses on the application of radiolabeled nanoparticles in detecting diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases and also presents an overview about the formulation, stability, and biological properties of the nanoparticles used for diagnostic purposes. PMID:22809406

  5. 2-Year Natural Decline of Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation in Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Studied with 11C-Hydroxyephedrine PET.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka Kit; Raffel, David M; Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Altinok, Gulcin; Gilman, Sid; Frey, Kirk A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to detect regional patterns of cardiac sympathetic denervation in idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) using (11)C-hydroxyephedrine ((11)C-HED) PET and determine the denervation rate over 2 y.

  6. Production of the PET isotope (11)C in hadron therapy via neutron knockout.

    PubMed

    Simpson, E C

    2016-12-01

    Positron emitting isotopes such as (11)C and (10)C can be used for vital dose verification in hadron therapy. These isotopes are produced when the high energy (12)C primary beam particles undergo nuclear reactions within the patient. We discuss a model for calculating cross sections for the production (11)C in (12)C+(12)C collisions, applicable at hadron therapy energies. Good agreement with the available cross section measurements is found for (12)C(-1n), though more detailed, systematic measurements would be very valuable. Nuclear structure plays a crucial role in the reactions of light nuclei, particularly when those reactions are peripheral and involve only a few nucleons. For such reactions, nuclear structure has a strong influence on the energy and angular distribution of the cross section, and is an important consideration for reliable dose verification using (11)C in hadron therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Dosimetry of D- and L-enantiomers of /sup 11/C-labeled tryptophan and valine

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, L.C.; Byrd, B.L.; Sun, T.T.; Crook, J.E.; Hubner, K.F.; Coffey, J.L.; Watson, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported the radiation dosimetry of /sup 11/C-labeled DL-tryptophan and DL-valine, as well as clinical pancreatic imaging studies with these agents. Because of significant uptake in both normal pancreas and in pancreatic tumors (thought to be due to the presence of the D-enantiomer), differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma was not feasible. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed for rapid resolution of /sup 11/C-labeled DL-tryptophan and DL-valine. Radiation dose estimates to the various organs in man were calculated for the D- and L-enantiomers of /sup 11/C-labeled tryptophan and valine, based on tissue distribution data in rats. The dose estimates were sufficiently low that 20-mCi doses of each of the enantiomeric amino acids were approved by the FDA for intravenous administration to humans. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Using Radiolabeled Inorganic Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaolian; Cai, Weibo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radionuclide imaging technology that plays an important role in preclinical and clinical research. With administration of a small amount of radiotracer, PET imaging can provide a noninvasive, highly sensitive, and quantitative readout of its organ/tissue targeting efficiency and pharmacokinetics. Various radiotracers have been designed to target specific molecular events. Compared with antibodies, proteins, peptides, and other biologically relevant molecules, nanoparticles represent a new frontier in molecular imaging probe design, enabling the attachment of different imaging modalities, targeting ligands, and therapeutic payloads in a single vector. We introduce the radiolabeled nanoparticle platforms that we and others have developed. Due to the fundamental differences in the various nanoparticles and radioisotopes, most radiolabeling methods are designed case-by-case. We focus on some general rules about selecting appropriate isotopes for given types of nanoparticles, as well as adjusting the labeling strategies according to specific applications. We classified these radiolabeling methods into four categories: (1) complexation reaction of radiometal ions with chelators via coordination chemistry; (2) direct bombardment of nanoparticles via hadronic projectiles; (3) synthesis of nanoparticles using a mixture of radioactive and nonradioactive precursors; (4) chelator-free postsynthetic radiolabeling. Method 1 is generally applicable to different nanomaterials as long as the surface chemistry is well-designed. However, the addition of chelators brings concerns of possible changes to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and detachment of the radiometal. Methods 2 and 3 have improved radiochemical stability. The applications are, however, limited by the possible damage to the nanocomponent caused by the proton beams (method 2) and harsh synthetic conditions (method 3). Method 4 is still in its infancy

  9. Positron emission tomography imaging using radiolabeled inorganic nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolian; Cai, Weibo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radionuclide imaging technology that plays an important role in preclinical and clinical research. With administration of a small amount of radiotracer, PET imaging can provide a noninvasive, highly sensitive, and quantitative readout of its organ/tissue targeting efficiency and pharmacokinetics. Various radiotracers have been designed to target specific molecular events. Compared with antibodies, proteins, peptides, and other biologically relevant molecules, nanoparticles represent a new frontier in molecular imaging probe design, enabling the attachment of different imaging modalities, targeting ligands, and therapeutic payloads in a single vector. We introduce the radiolabeled nanoparticle platforms that we and others have developed. Due to the fundamental differences in the various nanoparticles and radioisotopes, most radiolabeling methods are designed case-by-case. We focus on some general rules about selecting appropriate isotopes for given types of nanoparticles, as well as adjusting the labeling strategies according to specific applications. We classified these radiolabeling methods into four categories: (1) complexation reaction of radiometal ions with chelators via coordination chemistry; (2) direct bombardment of nanoparticles via hadronic projectiles; (3) synthesis of nanoparticles using a mixture of radioactive and nonradioactive precursors; (4) chelator-free postsynthetic radiolabeling. Method 1 is generally applicable to different nanomaterials as long as the surface chemistry is well-designed. However, the addition of chelators brings concerns of possible changes to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and detachment of the radiometal. Methods 2 and 3 have improved radiochemical stability. The applications are, however, limited by the possible damage to the nanocomponent caused by the proton beams (method 2) and harsh synthetic conditions (method 3). Method 4 is still in its infancy

  10. Image-Derived Input Function for Human Brain Using High Resolution PET Imaging with [11C](R)-rolipram and [11C]PBR28

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Liow, Jeih-San; Fujita, Masahiro; Dusch, Elodie; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Luong, Elise; Boellaard, Ronald; Pike, Victor W.; Comtat, Claude; Innis, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to test seven previously published image-input methods in state-of-the-art high resolution PET brain images. Images were obtained with a High Resolution Research Tomograph plus a resolution-recovery reconstruction algorithm using two different radioligands with different radiometabolite fractions. Three of the methods required arterial blood samples to scale the image-input, and four were blood-free methods. Methods All seven methods were tested on twelve scans with [11C](R)-rolipram, which has a low radiometabolite fraction, and on nineteen scans with [11C]PBR28 (high radiometabolite fraction). Logan VT values for both blood and image inputs were calculated using the metabolite-corrected input functions. The agreement of image-derived Logan VT values with the reference blood-derived Logan VT values was quantified using a scoring system. Using the image input methods that gave the most accurate results with Logan analysis, we also performed kinetic modelling with a two-tissue compartment model. Results For both radioligands the highest scores were obtained with two blood-based methods, while the blood-free methods generally performed poorly. All methods gave higher scores with [11C](R)-rolipram, which has a lower metabolite fraction. Compartment modeling gave less reliable results, especially for the estimation of individual rate constants. Conclusion Our study shows that: 1) Image input methods that are validated for a specific tracer and a specific machine may not perform equally well in a different setting; 2) despite the use of high resolution PET images, blood samples are still necessary to obtain a reliable image input function; 3) the accuracy of image input may also vary between radioligands depending on the magnitude of the radiometabolite fraction: the higher the metabolite fraction of a given tracer (e.g., [11C]PBR28), the more difficult it is to obtain a reliable image-derived input function; and 4) in association

  11. (/sup 11/C)clorgyline and (/sup 11/C)-L-deprenyl and their use in measuring functional monoamine oxidase activity in the brain using positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1986-04-17

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase in the living body by using /sup 11/C-labeled enzyme inhibitors which bind irreversibly to an enzyme as a result of catalysis. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  12. Synthesis and application of isocyanates radiolabeled with carbon-11.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan A; Garcia, Armando; Houle, Sylvain; Sadovski, Oleg; Vasdev, Neil

    2011-01-03

    Carbon-11 labeled isocyanates are efficiently prepared by dehydration of [(11) C]carbamate salts, which in turn are easily formed from cyclotron-produced [(11) C]CO(2) and amines in the presence of a CO(2) fixation agent. The [(11) C]isocyanates are useful radiosynthons for the synthesis of a variety of [carbonyl-(11) C]-labeled asymmetrical ureas and carbamate esters. The method is well suited to incorporate any isotope of carbon, and is especially useful for positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers for in vivo imaging. This is demonstrated by using the method to make [carbonyl-(11) C]-6-hydroxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate which is a novel radiotracer for PET imaging of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Comparison of dosimetry between PET/CT and PET alone using (11)C-ITMM.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kimiteru; Sakata, Muneyuki; Oda, Keiichi; Wagatsuma, Kei; Toyohara, Jun; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ishii, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2016-03-01

    We used a new tracer, N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino) pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ((11)C-ITMM), to compare radiation doses from positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with previously published doses from PET alone. Twelve healthy volunteers [six males (mean age ± SD, 27.7 ± 6.7 years) and six females (31.8 ± 14.5 years)] in 12 examinations were recruited. Dose estimations from PET/CT were compared with those from PET alone. Regions of interest (ROIs) in PET/CT were delineated on the basis of low-dose CT (LD-CT) images acquired during PET/CT. Internal and external radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 and CT-Expo software. The effective dose (ED) for (11)C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT was estimated to be 4.7 ± 0.5 μSv/MBq for the male subjects and 4.1 ± 0.7 μSv/MBq for the female subjects. The mean ED for (11)C-ITMM calculated from PET alone in a previous report was estimated to be 4.6 ± 0.3 μSv/MBq (males, n = 3). The ED values for (11)C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT in the male subjects were almost identical to those from PET alone. The absorbed doses (ADs) of the gallbladder, stomach, red bone marrow, and spleen calculated from PET/CT were significantly different from those calculated from PET alone. The EDs of (11)C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT were almost identical to those calculated from PET alone. The ADs in several organs calculated from PET/CT differed from those from PET alone. LD-CT images acquired during PET/CT may facilitate organ identification.

  14. Bone Marrow CD11c+ Cell-Derived Amphiregulin Promotes Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; Liu, Tianju; Wu, Zhe; Hu, Biao; Nakashima, Taku; Ullenbruch, Matthew; De Los Santos, Francina Gonzalez; Phan, Sem H.

    2016-01-01

    Amphiregulin (AREG), an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, is implicated in tissue repair and fibrosis but its cellular source and role in regeneration vs. fibrosis remain unclear. In this study we hypothesize that AREG induced in bone marrow derived CD11c+ cells is essential for pulmonary fibrosis. Thus the objectives were to evaluate the importance and role of AREG in pulmonary fibrosis, identify the cellular source of AREG induction and analyze its regulation of fibroblast function and activation. The results showed that lung AREG expression was significantly induced in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. AREG deficiency in knockout (KO) mice significantly diminished pulmonary fibrosis. Analysis of AREG expression in major lung cell types revealed induction in fibrotic lungs predominantly occurred in CD11c+ cells. Moreover depletion of bone marrow derived CD11c+ cells suppressed both induction of lung AREG expression and pulmonary fibrosis. Conversely, adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived CD11c+ cells from BLM-treated donor mice exacerbated pulmonary fibrosis but not if the donor cells were made AREG-deficient prior to transfer. CD11c+ cell conditioned media or co-culture stimulated fibroblast proliferation, activation and myofibroblast differentiation in an AREG dependent manner. Furthermore recombinant AREG induced telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) which appeared to be essential for the proliferative effect. Finally AREG significantly enhanced fibroblast motility, which was associated with increased expression of α6 integrin. These findings suggested that induced AREG specifically in recruited bone marrow-derived CD11c+ cells promoted bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis by activation of fibroblast TERT dependent proliferation, motility and indirectly, myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:27206766

  15. [(11)C]PiB PET in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

    PubMed

    Deters, Kacie D; Risacher, Shannon L; Yoder, Karmen K; Oblak, Adrian L; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Murrell, Jill R; Epperson, Francine; Tallman, Eileen F; Quaid, Kimberly A; Farlow, Martin R; Saykin, Andrew J; Ghetti, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease (GSS) is a familial neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by ataxia, parkinsonism, and dementia, and neuropathologically by deposition of diffuse and amyloid plaques composed of prion protein (PrP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) is capable of detecting PrP-amyloid in PRNP gene carriers. Six individuals at risk for GSS and eight controls underwent [(11)C]PiB PET scans using standard methods. Approximately one year after the initial scan, each of the three asymptomatic carriers (two with PRNP P102L mutation, one with PRNP F198S mutation) underwent a second [(11)C]PiB PET scan. Three P102L carriers, one F198S carrier, and one non-carrier of the F198S mutation were cognitively normal, while one F198S carrier was cognitively impaired during the course of this study. No [(11)C]PiB uptake was observed in any subject at baseline or at follow-up. Neuropathologic study of the symptomatic individual revealed PrP-immunopositive plaques and tau-immunopositive neurofibrillary tangles in cerebral cortex, subcortical nuclei, and brainstem. PrP deposits were also numerous in the cerebellar cortex. This is the first study to investigate the ability of [(11)C]PiB PET to bind to PrP-amyloid in GSS F198S subjects. This finding suggests that [(11)C]PiB PET is not suitable for in vivo assessment of PrP-amyloid plaques in patients with GSS.

  16. Bone Marrow CD11c+ Cell-Derived Amphiregulin Promotes Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Liu, Tianju; Wu, Zhe; Hu, Biao; Nakashima, Taku; Ullenbruch, Matthew; Gonzalez De Los Santos, Francina; Phan, Sem H

    2016-07-01

    Amphiregulin (AREG), an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, is implicated in tissue repair and fibrosis, but its cellular source and role in regeneration versus fibrosis remain unclear. In this study, we hypothesize that AREG induced in bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells is essential for pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, the objectives were to evaluate the importance and role of AREG in pulmonary fibrosis, identify the cellular source of AREG induction, and analyze its regulation of fibroblast function and activation. The results showed that lung AREG expression was significantly induced in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. AREG deficiency in knockout mice significantly diminished pulmonary fibrosis. Analysis of AREG expression in major lung cell types revealed induction in fibrotic lungs predominantly occurred in CD11c(+) cells. Moreover, depletion of bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells suppressed both induction of lung AREG expression and pulmonary fibrosis. Conversely, adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells from bleomycin-treated donor mice exacerbated pulmonary fibrosis, but not if the donor cells were made AREG deficient prior to transfer. CD11c(+) cell-conditioned media or coculture stimulated fibroblast proliferation, activation, and myofibroblast differentiation in an AREG-dependent manner. Furthermore, recombinant AREG induced telomerase reverse transcriptase, which appeared to be essential for the proliferative effect. Finally, AREG significantly enhanced fibroblast motility, which was associated with increased expression of α6 integrin. These findings suggested that induced AREG specifically in recruited bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells promoted bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by activation of fibroblast telomerase reverse transcriptase-dependent proliferation, motility, and indirectly, myofibroblast differentiation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. New developments of 11C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, R. S.; Mendonca, T. M.; Wenander, F.; Penescu, L.; Orecchia, R.; Parodi, K.; Ferrari, A.; Stora, T.

    2016-06-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on 12C could be combined or fully replaced with 11C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of 11C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production using compact PET cyclotrons with 10-20 MeV protons via 14N(p,α)11C reactions following an approach developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [2]. A second route exploits spallation reactions 19F(p,X)11C and 23Na(p,X)11C on a molten fluoride salt target using the ISOL (isotope separation on-line) technique [3]. This approach can be seriously envisaged at CERN-ISOLDE following recent progresses made on 11C+ production [4] and proven post-acceleration of pure 10C3/6+ beams in the REX-ISOLDE linac [5]. Part of the required components is operational in radioactive ion beam facilities or commercial medical PET cyclotrons. The driver could be a 70 MeV, 1.2 mA proton commercial cyclotron, which would lead to 8.1 × 10711C6+ per spill. This intensity is appropriate using 11C ions alone for both imaging and treatment. Here we report on the ongoing feasibility studies of such approach, using the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA [6,7] to simulate

  18. Simple and effective method for producing [11C]phosgene using an environmental CCl4 gas detection tube.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masanao; Takada, Yuuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Nemoto, Kazuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled phosgene is an important labeling precursor for PET molecular probes. Despite the usefulness of [(11)C]phosgene, some difficulties, especially in the formation of [(11)C]phosgene process from [(11)C]CCl(4), hamper its use. The present article shows a simple preparation method for [(11)C]phosgene. [(11)C]CCl(4) was obtained using the conventional method by passing a mixture of [(11)C]CH(4) and Cl(2) through a heated quartz tube. The [(11)C]CCl(4) was transformed to [(11)C]phosgene simply by passing through a pretreatment tube of a Kitagawa gas detection system for the working-environmental CCl(4) concentration measurement at room temperature with a flow rate of 50 ml/min. This tube successfully transformed [(11)C]CCl(4) to [(11)C]phosgene at room temperature. [(11)C]Phosgene was obtained at nearly 80% radiochemical yield (EOB) in a short synthesis time with high reproducibility. A high yield and reliable [(11)C]phosgene production method using a gas detector tube system for working-environmental CCl(4) concentration measurement was developed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of tracer metabolism on PET measurement of [11C]pyrilamine binding to histamine H1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kim, S E; Szabo, Z; Seki, C; Ravert, H T; Scheffel, U; Dannals, R F; Wagner, H N

    1999-04-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the time course of [11C]pyrilamine metabolism and the degree of entry of metabolites into the brain. PET studies were performed in seven healthy volunteers and arterial plasma concentrations of [11C]pyrilamine and its labeled metabolites were determined. After intravenous injection, [11C]pyrilamine metabolized gradually in the human body, with less than 10% of plasma activity being original radioligand at 60 min. Tracer metabolism markedly affected the input function and the calculated impulse response function of the brain. Rat experiments demonstrated that although metabolites of [11C]pyrilamine might enter the brain, they were not retained for prolonged periods of time. At 30-90 min after injection of [11C]pyrilamine, less than 1% of the radioactivity in the brain was originating from metabolites of [11C]pyrilamine. Based on the rat data, the contribution of 11C-labeled metabolites to total [11C]pyrilamine radioactivity in the human brain was estimated and found to be negligible. These results suggest that the metabolites of [11C]pyrilamine do not accumulate within the cerebral extravascular space and that there is minimal metabolism of [11C]pyrilamine by brain tissue itself. Therefore, [11C]pyrilamine metabolites can be neglected in kinetic analysis, using either a compartmental or a noncompartmental model, of the [11C]pyrilamine binding to histamine H1 receptors.

  20. CD11c expression in adipose tissue and blood and its role in diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To examine CD11c, a beta(2)-integrin, on adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes, and blood monocytes and its role in diet-induced obesity. High-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice, CD11c-deficient mice, and obese humans were studied. CD11c, leukocytes, and chemokines/cytokines were examined in AT and/or blo...

  1. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  2. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  3. PET and PET/CT with radiolabeled choline in prostate cancer: a critical reappraisal of 20 years of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Leoncini, Rossella; Riondato, Mattia; Ciarmiello, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    We here aim to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the literature concerning the clinical applications of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). We will initially briefly summarize the historical context that brought to the synthesis of [(11)C]choline, which occurred exactly 20 years ago. We have arbitrarily grouped the clinical studies in three different periods, according to the year in which they were published and according to their relation with their applications in urology, radiotherapy and oncology. Studies at initial staging and, more extensively, studies in patients with biochemical failure, as well as factors predicting positive PET/CT will be reviewed. The capability of PET/CT with radiolabeled choline to provide prognostic information on PCa-specific survival will also be examined. The last sections will be devoted to the use of radiolabeled choline for monitoring the response to androgen deprivation therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The accuracy and the limits of the technique will be discussed according to the information available from standard validation processes, including biopsy or histology. The clinical impact of the technique will be discussed on the basis of changes induced in the management of patients and in the evaluation of the response to therapy. Current indications to PET/CT, as officially endorsed by guidelines, or as routinely performed in the clinical practice will be illustrated. Emphasis will be made on methodological factors that might have influenced the results of the studies or their interpretation. Finally, we will briefly highlight the potential role of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance and of new radiotracers for PCa imaging.

  4. High expression of CD11c indicates favorable prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Hu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Lu-Jun; Wu, Chang-Ping; Lu, Bin-Feng; Shen, Yue-Ping; Jiang, Jing-Ting

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the relationship between CD11c expression level and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: This retrospective survival study was performed from July 31, 2008 to June 30, 2014. Our study inclusion criteria included all the patients with GC who underwent surgical resection between January 1998 and December 2009 in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. CD11c expression levels in 140 patients with GC at different UICC stages were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, and GC tissues from 16 cases were further verified by qRT-PCR. The χ2 test was used to compare the patient- and disease-related factors between the low CD11c expression group and the high expression group. Univariate probabilities of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to compare survival curves. Different multivariate COX models were used to estimate the association between CD11c expression and both death and recurrence risk in GC patients. RESULTS: The average CD11c expression level was 5.1 ± 1.8/high power field (HPF) in 10 gastritis samples, 4.5 ± 2.3/HPF in 10 gastric polyp samples and 9.7 ± 6.3/HPF in 140 gastric cancer samples, respectively. The CD11c expression level was significantly decreased from UICC stage I to stage IV (stage I: 16.0 ± 7.4, stage II: 10.4 ± 5.5, stage III: 9.4 ± 6.1, stage IV: 5.3 ± 3.2, P < 0.001). Patients in the high CD11c expression group had a greater 3- and 5-year OS probability and longer median survival time compared with the low CD11c expression group, (67.7% vs 39.2%; 51.4% vs 29.0%; 67.0 mo vs 28.0 mo; χ2 = 6.80, P = 0.009), and had a greater 3- and 5-year DFS probability and longer median DFS time (63.7% vs 24.0%; 49.1% vs 11.9%; 64.0 mo vs 18.0 mo; χ2 = 15.39, P < 0.001). Patients with high CD11c high expression had a reduced risk of death (HR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.98, P < 0.05) and relapse (HR = 0.39, 95%CI

  5. High expression of CD11c indicates favorable prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Hu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Lu-Jun; Wu, Chang-Ping; Lu, Bin-Feng; Shen, Yue-Ping; Jiang, Jing-Ting

    2015-08-21

    To determine the relationship between CD11c expression level and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer (GC). This retrospective survival study was performed from July 31, 2008 to June 30, 2014. Our study inclusion criteria included all the patients with GC who underwent surgical resection between January 1998 and December 2009 in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. CD11c expression levels in 140 patients with GC at different UICC stages were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, and GC tissues from 16 cases were further verified by qRT-PCR. The χ (2) test was used to compare the patient- and disease-related factors between the low CD11c expression group and the high expression group. Univariate probabilities of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to compare survival curves. Different multivariate COX models were used to estimate the association between CD11c expression and both death and recurrence risk in GC patients. The average CD11c expression level was 5.1 ± 1.8/high power field (HPF) in 10 gastritis samples, 4.5 ± 2.3/HPF in 10 gastric polyp samples and 9.7 ± 6.3/HPF in 140 gastric cancer samples, respectively. The CD11c expression level was significantly decreased from UICC stage I to stage IV (stage I: 16.0 ± 7.4, stage II: 10.4 ± 5.5, stage III: 9.4 ± 6.1, stage IV: 5.3 ± 3.2, P < 0.001). Patients in the high CD11c expression group had a greater 3- and 5-year OS probability and longer median survival time compared with the low CD11c expression group, (67.7% vs 39.2%; 51.4% vs 29.0%; 67.0 mo vs 28.0 mo; χ(2) = 6.80, P = 0.009), and had a greater 3- and 5-year DFS probability and longer median DFS time (63.7% vs 24.0%; 49.1% vs 11.9%; 64.0 mo vs 18.0 mo; χ (2) = 15.39, P < 0.001). Patients with high CD11c high expression had a reduced risk of death (HR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.98, P < 0.05) and relapse (HR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.23-0.67, P

  6. Time-course of change in [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride binding potential after a nonpharmacological challenge.

    PubMed

    Scott, David J; Stohler, Christian S; Koeppe, Robert A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2007-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with appropriate radiotracers and quantification methods allows the detection of changes in endogenous neurotransmission by determine the reduction in the binding potential (BP) of receptors before and after experimental challenges. These have typically employed psychostimulants and PET with dopamine (DA) receptor radiotracers. However, reductions in BP persist far beyond the increases in the release of the endogenous neurotransmitter, an effect ascribed to receptor internalization and recycling, a possible confound in repeated studies. Here we examined the time-course of changes in BP during a nonpharmacological challenge, moderate levels of sustained pain, shown to induce robust reductions in micro-opioid and DA D2 BP, as measured with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride. It was hypothesized that, contrary to pharmacological probes, the use of a more "physiological" stimulus would not be associated with persistent changes in the BP measures. The pain challenge was associated with reductions in micro-opioid receptor BP in several cortical and subcortical regions. These did not persist in a subsequent scan. Similar results were obtained for DA D2 receptor BP, where the pain challenge induced significant reductions in the caudate nucleus. These data demonstrate that changes in receptor BP induced by a nonpharmacological challenge did not persist into subsequent scans. They further suggest differences in the effect of pharmacological and nonpharmacological probes on PET BP measures. These may reflect varying levels of change in receptor affinity, receptor internalization, and recycling depending on the type of challenge employed.

  7. 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding during the menstrual cycle in healthy women examined with [(11)C] WAY100635 and [(11)C] MADAM PET.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Hristina; Karlsson, Per; Cerin, Asta; Halldin, Christer; Nordström, Anna-Lena

    2009-04-30

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of the menstrual cycle phases on 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding potentials (BPs) in healthy women by using positron emission tomography (PET). Women were investigated in the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle with radioligands [(11)C]WAY10035 (n=13) and [(11)C]MADAM (n=8) to study 5-HT(1A) and 5-HTT BPs. The BPs values were quantified using the simplified reference tissue model. The phases of the menstrual cycle were characterized by transvaginal ultrasound (TSV) and plasma levels of hormones estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).The 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT BPs did not significantly differ between follicular and luteal phases in any of the investigated regions. There were no significant correlations between the change in E(2) or P(4) values with the change in 5-HT(1A) receptor or 5-HTT BPs. The results provide principally a new in vivo finding in human female biology, suggesting the absence of influence of menstrual cycle phase on 5-HT(1A) receptors or 5-HTT. The finding however does not preclude that gonadal hormones differentially influence central serotonin system inwomen and men, which might contribute to gender differences in serotonin-associated disorders.

  8. Comparative cellular catabolism and retention of astatine-, bismuth-, and lead-radiolabeled internalizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z; Garmestani, K; Wong, K J; Park, L S; Dadachova, E; Yordanov, A; Waldmann, T A; Eckelman, W C; Paik, C H; Carrasquillo, J A

    2001-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) labeled with alpha-emitting radionuclides such as (211)At, (212)Bi, (213)Bi, and (212)Pb (which decays by beta-emission to its alpha-emitting daughter, (212)Bi) are being evaluated for their potential applications for cancer therapy. The fate of these radionuclides after cells are targeted with mAbs is important in terms of dosimetry and tumor detection. In this study, we attached various radionuclides that result in alpha-emissions to T101, a rapidly internalizing anti-CD5 mAb. We then evaluated the catabolism and cellular retention and compared them with those of (125)I- and (111)In-labeled T101. T101 was labeled with (211)At, (125)I, (205,6)Bi, (111)In, and (203)Pb. CD5 antigen-positive cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC), and MOLT-4 leukemia cells were used. The labeled T101 was incubated with the cells for 1 h at 4 degrees C for surface labeling. Unbound activity was removed and 1 mL medium added. The cells were then incubated at 37 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. The activity on the cell surface that internalized and the activity on the cell surface remaining in the supernatant were determined. The protein in the supernatant was further precipitated by methanol for determining protein-bound and non-protein-bound radioactivity. Sites of internal cellular localization of radioactivity were determined by Percoll gradient centrifugation. All radiolabeled antibodies bound to the cells were internalized rapidly. After internalization, (205,6)Bi, (203)Pb, and (111)In radiolabels were retained in the cell, with little decrease of cell-associated radioactivity. However, (211)At and (125)I were released from cells rapidly ((211)At < (125)I) and most of the radioactivity in the supernatant was in a non-protein-bound form. Intracellular distribution of radioactivity revealed a transit of the radiolabel from the cell surface to the lysosome. The catabolism patterns of MOLT-4 cells and PBMNC were similar. (211)At catabolism

  9. Utilization of [11C]phosgene for radiosynthesis of N-(2-{3-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)]phenyl[11C]ureido}ethyl)glycyrrhetinamide, an inhibitory agent for proteasome and kinase in tumors.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Chiharu; Ogawa, Masanao; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Kumata, Katsushi; Xie, Lin; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Yui, Joji; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2012-06-01

    N-(2-{3-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)]phenylureido}ethyl)glycyrrhetinamide (2), an ureido-substituted derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid (1), has been reported to display potent inhibitory activity for proteasome and kinase, which are overexpressed in tumors. In this study, we labeled this unsymmetrical urea 2 using [(11)C]phosgene ([(11)C]COCl(2)) as a labeling agent with the expectation that [(11)C]2 could become a positron emission tomography ligand for the imaging of proteasome and kinase in tumors. The strategy for the radiosynthesis of [(11)C]2 was to react hydrochloride of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)aniline (4·HCl) with [(11)C]COCl(2) to possibly give isocyanate [(11)C]6, followed by the reaction of [(11)C]6 with N-(2-aminoethyl)glycyrrhetinamide (3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Test-retest reliability of the SERT imaging agent [(11)C]HOMADAM in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Adhikarla, Vikram; Dunlop, Boadie W; Jarkas, Nachwa; Goodman, Mark; Mayberg, Helen; Owens, Michael J; Nye, Jonathon A

    2017-09-21

    The aim of this study was to measure the test-retest reliability of (11)C-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-hydroxymethylphenylthio)benzylamine ([(11)C]HOMADAM) imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) density in healthy control subjects. Methods: Two female and two male volunteers participated in the study and underwent three [(11)C]HOMADAM Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans each of 90 min in duration. Time-activity curves were derived from SERT rich structures and fit to two models: 1) a simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) and 2) a multi-linear graphical model (MRTM). Binding potential (BPND), the ratio of specifically bound to nondisplaceable uptake at equilibrium, was calculated from the model parameter estimates. Ninety-five percent (95%) confidence intervals and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated and adjusted for repeated measures. Results: The ICC values ranged from -0.13 in the dorsal raphe to 0.88 in the caudate nucleus. The highest average ICC values were in the striatum but other regions were sensitive to measurement outliers. Conclusion: Good to excellent test/retest reliability of SERT binding was observed in striatum. The dorsal raphe ICC value was sensitive to a measurement outlier. [(11)C]HOMADAM BPND calculated from the SRTM and MRTM models were robust and in good agreement. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. Functional role of CD11c+ monocytes in atherogenesis associated with hypercholesterolemia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monocyte activation and migration into the arterial wall are key events in atherogenesis associated with hypercholesterolemia. CD11c/CD18, a beta2 integrin expressed on human monocytes and a subset of mouse monocytes, has been shown to play a distinct role in human monocyte adhesion on endothelial c...

  12. ATP11C Facilitates Phospholipid Translocation across the Plasma Membrane of All Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Yabas, Mehmet; Jing, Weidong; Shafik, Sarah; Bröer, Stefan; Enders, Anselm

    2016-01-01

    Organization of the plasma membrane into specialized substructures in different blood lineages facilitates important biological functions including proper localization of receptors at the plasma membrane as well as the initiation of crucial intracellular signaling cascades. The eukaryotic plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer that consists of asymmetrically distributed phospholipids. This asymmetry is actively maintained by membrane-embedded lipid transporters, but there is only limited data available about the molecular identity of the predominantly active transporters and their substrate specificity in different leukocyte subsets. We demonstrate here that the P4-type ATPase ATP11C mediates significant flippase activity in all murine leukocyte subsets. Loss of ATP11C resulted in a defective internalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in comparison to control cells. The diminished flippase activity caused increased PS exposure on 7-aminoactinomycin D- (7-AAD-) viable pro-B cells freshly isolated from the bone marrow of ATP11C-deficient mice, which was corrected upon a 2-hour resting period in vitro. Despite the impaired flippase activity in all immune cell subsets, the only other blood cell type with an accumulation of PS on the surface were viable 7-AAD- developing T cells but this did not result in any discernable effect on their development in the thymus. These findings show that all leukocyte lineages exhibit flippase activity, and identify ATP11C as an aminophospholipid translocase in immune cells.

  13. ATP11C Facilitates Phospholipid Translocation across the Plasma Membrane of All Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yabas, Mehmet; Jing, Weidong; Shafik, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Organization of the plasma membrane into specialized substructures in different blood lineages facilitates important biological functions including proper localization of receptors at the plasma membrane as well as the initiation of crucial intracellular signaling cascades. The eukaryotic plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer that consists of asymmetrically distributed phospholipids. This asymmetry is actively maintained by membrane-embedded lipid transporters, but there is only limited data available about the molecular identity of the predominantly active transporters and their substrate specificity in different leukocyte subsets. We demonstrate here that the P4-type ATPase ATP11C mediates significant flippase activity in all murine leukocyte subsets. Loss of ATP11C resulted in a defective internalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in comparison to control cells. The diminished flippase activity caused increased PS exposure on 7-aminoactinomycin D− (7-AAD−) viable pro-B cells freshly isolated from the bone marrow of ATP11C-deficient mice, which was corrected upon a 2-hour resting period in vitro. Despite the impaired flippase activity in all immune cell subsets, the only other blood cell type with an accumulation of PS on the surface were viable 7-AAD− developing T cells but this did not result in any discernable effect on their development in the thymus. These findings show that all leukocyte lineages exhibit flippase activity, and identify ATP11C as an aminophospholipid translocase in immune cells. PMID:26799398

  14. 16 CFR 1611.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments under section 11(c) of the act. 1611.39 Section 1611.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations § 1611.39...

  15. 16 CFR 1611.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments under section 11(c) of the act. 1611.39 Section 1611.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations § 1611.39...

  16. 16 CFR 1611.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments under section 11(c) of the act. 1611.39 Section 1611.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations § 1611.39...

  17. 16 CFR 1611.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shipments under section 11(c) of the act. 1611.39 Section 1611.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations § 1611.39...

  18. 16 CFR 1611.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipments under section 11(c) of the act. 1611.39 Section 1611.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations § 1611.39...

  19. Charge topology of the coherent dissociation of relativistic {sup 11}C and {sup 12}N nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I. Zarubina, I. G.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.

    2015-09-15

    The charge topology of coherent-dissociation events is presented for {sup 11}C and {sup 12}N nuclei of energy 1.2 GeV per nucleon bombarding nuclear track emulsions. This topology is compared with respective data for {sup 7}Be, {sup 8,10}B, {sup 9,10}C, and {sup 14}N nuclei.

  20. Development of a (11)C-labeled tetrazine for rapid tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation.

    PubMed

    Herth, Matthias M; Andersen, Valdemar L; Lehel, Szabolcs; Madsen, Jacob; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2013-05-08

    Tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligations are remarkably fast and selective reactions even at low micro-molar concentrations. In bioorthogonal radiochemistry, tools that enable conjugation of radioactive probes to pre-targeted vectors are of great interest. Herein, we describe the successful development of the first (11)C-labelled tetrazine and its reaction with trans-cyclooctenol.

  1. Lack of association between prior depressive episodes and cerebral [11C]PiB binding.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Karine; Hasselbalch, Bo J; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Haahr, Mette E; Gade, Anders; Law, Ian; Price, Julie C; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kessing, Lars V; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2012-10-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is controversial whether depression is a risk factor for AD. This study measured for the first time cortical amyloid-β (Aβ) levels using [(11)C] Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) in a group of nondemented patients with prior depressive episodes. Twenty-eight elderly patients (mean age 61 years, range 51-75, 18 women) with onset of first depressive episode more than 6 years ago but now remitted from depression and 18 healthy subjects (mean age 61 years, range 50-76, 12 women) were included. All subjects were investigated with cognitive testing, 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [(11)C]PiB high resolution research tomography (HRRT) positron emission tomography scan. There was no between-groups difference in [(11)C]PiB binding (p = 0.5) and no associations to number of depressive episodes, cognitive performance, or antidepressant treatment. Patients with late onset of depression had increased severity of white matter lesions (p = 0.04). In this study depressive episodes were not associated with increased levels of [(11)C]PiB. Thus, our results do not support the notion that depressive episodes previously in life are a risk factor for developing AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 16 CFR 1610.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act. 1610.39 Section 1610.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.39 Shipments...

  3. 16 CFR 1610.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act. 1610.39 Section 1610.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.39 Shipments...

  4. 16 CFR 1610.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act. 1610.39 Section 1610.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.39 Shipments...

  5. PET evaluation of spinal cord tumor using sup 11 C-methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Higano, S.; Shishido, F.; Nagashima, M.; Tomura, N.; Murakami, M.; Inugami, A.; Fujita, H.; Tabata, K.; Yasui, N.; Uemura, K. )

    1990-03-01

    A cervical cord tumor was examined with positron emission tomography using L-methyl-({sup 11}C)methionine. The radioactive tracer accumulated in the solid parts (but not in the associated cysts) of the neoplasm, which at histology was found to be an ependymoma.

  6. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Radiolabeling of Cramoll 1,4: Evaluation of the Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira de Carvalho Patricio, Beatriz; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; dos Anjos Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; Barboza, Thiago; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The cramoll 1,4 is a well-studied lectin. However, few studies about its biodistribution have been done before. In this study, we radiolabeled the cramol 1,4 with Tc-99m and analyzed the biodistribution. The results showed that the cramol has an abnormal uptake by the bowel with reflections on its clearance mechanism. PMID:21760823

  8. Synthesis, Radiolabeling, and Bioevaluation of Bis(Trifluoromethanesulfonyl) Imide.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Onur Alp; Soylu, Hale Melis; Er, Ozge; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Yilmaz, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Imidazolium salts have antitumor potential and toxicological effects on various microorganisms. The authors' aim is to synthesize a new imidazolium salt and to assess its pharmacokinetic and antitumor potentials by in vitro and in vivo studies. In this study, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (ITFSI) was synthesized and labeled with (131)I using the iodogen method. The efficiency of radiolabeling was determined with high yield (95.5% ± 3.7%). Pharmacokinetic properties of the compound were investigated in albino Wistar rats using radiolabeled compound. The radiolabeled compound ((131)I-ITFSI) has been stable during a period of 3 hours in human serum. The uptake of (131)I-ITFSI reached maximum in the spleen, liver, and blood at 60 minutes, large intestine and heart at 30 minutes, and ovary at 120 minutes. It is observed that intracellular uptake of the radiolabeled compound is higher in the CaCo-2 (colon adenocarcinoma tumor) cell line than HEK-293 (human epithelial kidney) cell line. In further study, antitumor potential of ITFSI on a colon adenocarcinoma tumor-bearing animal model may be investigated.

  9. Molecular imaging of brain tumors with radiolabeled choline PET.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Ferdinando Franco; Barbarisi, Manlio; Gangemi, Vincenzo; Grillea, Giovanni; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio

    2016-05-26

    Several positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been emerged in the last decade as feasible in the management of brain lesions, due to the low performance in this field of the 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG), for its high physiological gradient of distribution in the brain. Beyond its usefulness in prostate cancer imaging, the radiolabeled choline is becoming a promising tool in diagnosing benign and malignant lesions of the brain, due to a very low rate of distribution in normal white and grey matters. The aim of our review was to assess the real impact of the radiolabeled choline PET/CT in the management of brain benign lesions, brain tumors, and metastases. Furthermore, emphasis was given to the comparison between the radiolabeled choline and the other radiopharmaceuticals in this field. A literature review was performed. The radiolabeled choline is useful in the management of patients with suspected brain tumor relapse, especially in association with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with caution regarding its intrinsic characteristic of non-tumor-specific tracer. For the same reason, it is not useful in the early evaluation of brain lesions. Similar results are reported for other radiopharmaceuticals. The inclusion of the head in the whole-body scans for somatic tumors is necessary to ensure metastases in the brain or choline-avid benign lesions.

  10. Cognitively unimpaired HIV-positive subjects do not have increased 11C-PiB

    PubMed Central

    Ances, B.M.; Christensen, J.J.; Teshome, M.; Taylor, J.; Xiong, C.; Aldea, P.; Fagan, A.M.; Holtzman, D.M.; Morris, J.C.; Mintun, M.A.; Clifford, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Diagnostic challenges exist for differentiating HIV dementia from Alzheimer disease (AD) in older HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals. Similar abnormalities in brain amyloid-β42 (Αβ42) metabolism may be involved in HIV-associated neuropathology and AD. We evaluated the amyloid-binding agent 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB), a biomarker for Αβ42 deposition, in cognitively unimpaired HIV+ (n = 10) participants and matched community controls without dementia (n = 20). Methods: In this case-control study, all participants had an 11C-PiB scan within 2 years of concomitant CSF studies and neuropsychometric testing. Statistical differences between HIV+ and community controls for demographic and clinical values were assessed by χ2 tests. Participants were further divided into either low (<500 pg/mL) or normal (≥500 pg/mL) CSF Αβ42 groups with Student t tests performed to determine if regional differences in fibrillar amyloid plaque deposition varied with CSF Αβ42. Results: Regardless of CSF Αβ42 level, none of the HIV+ participants had fibrillar amyloid plaques as assessed by increased 11C-PiB mean cortical binding potential (MCBP) or binding potential within 4 cortical regions. In contrast, some community controls with low CSF Αβ42 (<500 pg/mL) had high 11C-PiB MCBP with elevated binding potentials (>0.18 arbitrary units) within cortical regions. Conclusions: Cognitively unimpaired HIV+ participants, even with low CSF Αβ42 (<500 pg/mL), do not have 11C-PiB parameters suggesting brain fibrillar amyloid deposition. The dissimilarity between unimpaired HIV+ and preclinical AD may reflect differences in Aβ42 production and/or formation of diffuse plaques. Future longitudinal studies of HIV+ participants with low CSF Aβ42 and normal 11C-PiB are required. GLOSSARY Αβ42 = amyloid-β42; AD = Alzheimer disease; ART = antiretroviral therapy; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating; CHARTER = CNS Highly Activated Retroviral Therapy Effects Research; GDS

  11. [11C]5-HTP and microPET are not suitable for pharmacodynamic studies in the rodent brain

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Anniek KD; Ramakrishnan, Nisha K; Willemsen, Antoon TM; Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; de Vries, Erik FJ; Kema, Ido P; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; van Waarde, Aren

    2014-01-01

    The PET tracer [11C]5-hydroxytryptophan ([11C]5-HTP), which is converted to [11C]5-hydroxytryptamine ([11C]5-HT) by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), is thought to measure 5-HT synthesis rates. But can we measure these synthesis rates by kinetic modeling of [11C]5-HTP in rat? Male rats were scanned with [11C]5-HTP (60 minutes) after different treatments. Scans included arterial blood sampling and metabolite analysis. 5-HT synthesis rates were calculated by a two-tissue compartment model (2TCM) with irreversible tracer trapping or Patlak analysis. Carbidopa (inhibitor peripheral AADC) dose-dependently increased [11C]5-HTP brain uptake, but did not influence 2TCM parameters. Therefore, 10 mg/kg carbidopa was applied in all subsequent study groups. These groups included treatment with NSD 1015 (general AADC inhibitor) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, TPH). In addition, the effect of a low-tryptophan (Trp) diet was investigated. NSD 1015 or Trp depletion did not affect any model parameters, but PCPA reduced [11C]5-HTP uptake, and the k3. This was unexpected as NSD 1015 directly inhibits the enzyme converting [11C]5-HTP to [11C]5-HT, suggesting that trapping of radioactivity does not distinguish between parent tracer and its metabolites. As different results have been acquired in monkeys and humans, [11C]5-HTP-PET may be suitable for measuring 5-HT synthesis in primates, but not in rodents. PMID:24084697

  12. [(11)C]5-HTP and microPET are not suitable for pharmacodynamic studies in the rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Visser, Anniek K D; Ramakrishnan, Nisha K; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; de Vries, Erik F J; Kema, Ido P; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; van Waarde, Aren

    2014-01-01

    The PET tracer [(11)C]5-hydroxytryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP), which is converted to [(11)C]5-hydroxytryptamine ([(11)C]5-HT) by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), is thought to measure 5-HT synthesis rates. But can we measure these synthesis rates by kinetic modeling of [(11)C]5-HTP in rat? Male rats were scanned with [(11)C]5-HTP (60 minutes) after different treatments. Scans included arterial blood sampling and metabolite analysis. 5-HT synthesis rates were calculated by a two-tissue compartment model (2TCM) with irreversible tracer trapping or Patlak analysis. Carbidopa (inhibitor peripheral AADC) dose-dependently increased [(11)C]5-HTP brain uptake, but did not influence 2TCM parameters. Therefore, 10 mg/kg carbidopa was applied in all subsequent study groups. These groups included treatment with NSD 1015 (general AADC inhibitor) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, TPH). In addition, the effect of a low-tryptophan (Trp) diet was investigated. NSD 1015 or Trp depletion did not affect any model parameters, but PCPA reduced [(11)C]5-HTP uptake, and the k3. This was unexpected as NSD 1015 directly inhibits the enzyme converting [(11)C]5-HTP to [(11)C]5-HT, suggesting that trapping of radioactivity does not distinguish between parent tracer and its metabolites. As different results have been acquired in monkeys and humans, [(11)C]5-HTP-PET may be suitable for measuring 5-HT synthesis in primates, but not in rodents.

  13. Differentiation of CD11c+ CX3CR1+ cells in the small intestine requires Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Ishifune, Chieko; Maruyama, Satoshi; Sasaki, Yuki; Yagita, Hideo; Hozumi, Katsuto; Tomita, Taisuke; Kishihara, Kenji; Yasutomo, Koji

    2014-04-22

    The gastrointestinal tract comes into direct contact with environmental agents, including bacteria, viruses, and foods. Intestine-specific subsets of immune cells maintain gut homeostasis by continuously sampling luminal antigens and maintaining immune tolerance. CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells sample luminal antigens in the small intestine and contribute to the trafficking of bacteria to lymph nodes under dysbiotic conditions. The molecular mechanisms crucial for the differentiation of CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Notch1- or Notch2-Rbpj axis is essential for the development of CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells. In mice in which Rbpj or Notch1 and Notch2 were deleted from CD11c(+) cells, there was a deficit of CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells and an accumulation of CD11c(low)CX3CR1(+) cells. The CD11c(low)CX3CR1(+) cells could not differentiate to CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells, suggesting that CD11c(low)CX3CR1(+) cells represent a lineage distinct from CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells. These data indicate that Notch signaling is essential for lineage fixation of intestinal CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells.

  14. Expression of CD11c Is Associated with Unconventional Activated T Cell Subsets with High Migratory Potential.

    PubMed

    Qualai, Jamal; Li, Lin-Xi; Cantero, Jon; Tarrats, Antoni; Fernández, Marco Antonio; Sumoy, Lauro; Rodolosse, Annie; McSorley, Stephen J; Genescà, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    CD11c is an α integrin classically employed to define myeloid dendritic cells. Although there is little information about CD11c expression on human T cells, mouse models have shown an association of CD11c expression with functionally relevant T cell subsets. In the context of genital tract infection, we have previously observed increased expression of CD11c in circulating T cells from mice and women. Microarray analyses of activated effector T cells expressing CD11c derived from naïve mice demonstrated enrichment for natural killer (NK) associated genes. Here we find that murine CD11c+ T cells analyzed by flow cytometry display markers associated with non-conventional T cell subsets, including γδ T cells and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. However, in women, only γδ T cells and CD8+ T cells were enriched within the CD11c fraction of blood and cervical tissue. These CD11c+ cells were highly activated and had greater interferon (IFN)-γ secretory capacity than CD11c- T cells. Furthermore, circulating CD11c+ T cells were associated with the expression of multiple adhesion molecules in women, suggesting that these cells have high tissue homing potential. These data suggest that CD11c expression distinguishes a population of circulating T cells during bacterial infection with innate capacity and mucosal homing potential.

  15. Methanol fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, D.A.; Greiner, L.; Cooper, G.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a fuel composition. It comprises: a major portion of fuel comprising 85 to 95% by volume of methanol; demineralized water, from 3 to 15% of the fuel; a fluorosurfactant for increasing the lubricity of the fuel, comprising approximately 0.01 to 0.05 weight percent of the fuel.

  16. Methanol from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Economic feasibility of methanol or methyl fuel produced from coal using existing technology is discussed. Other factors considered include environmental, safety, toxicity, transportation, so storage, ease of burning, and retrofitting of present boilers. Demonstrations of its uses as a boiler fuel and as a turbine fuel are cited.

  17. Localization of viable, ischemic myocardium by positron-emission tomography with /sup 11/C-palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, R.A.; Ambos, H.D.; Bergmann, S.R.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1981-10-01

    A study was performed to determine whether viable, but ischemic, tissue could be detected and localized in vivo based on external detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, regional clearance of /sup 11/C-palmitate was assessed by sequential PET in 15 anesthetized dogs. Clearance was consistently monoexponential from 5-15 minutes after administration of the tracer. In the absence of coronary stenosis (n = 7), clearance was homogeneous throughout the heart, with an average rate constant (k) of -0.060 +/- 0.005 min/sup -1/ (+/- SEM) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 11.1 +/- 2.1% in each heart. Homogeneity persisted when the heart rate was increased from 84.4 +/- 6.0 to 202.7 +/- 11.5 beats/min with atropine (CV 13.2 +/- 3.5%). With left circumflex coronary stenosis (less than or equal to70% reduction in vessel diameter), homogeneity of /sup 11/C-clearance under control conditions and with tachycardia did not differ from clearance in hearts without coronary stenosis. However, with stenosis >70% sufficient to induce ischemia without gross infarction, regional clearance of /sup 11/C became markedly heterogeneous under control conditions (CV 28.1 +/- 5.5%, p <0.01 compared with normal hearts) and with tachycardia (CV 34.8 +/- 5.4%, p <0.01). The heterogeneity resulted from reduced clearance of /sup 11/C in regions supplied by the stenotic vessel (k = -0.044 +/- 0.011 min/sup -1/) compared with clearance in well perfused regions (k = -0.064 +/- 0.011 min/sup -1/, p <0.025), a difference accentuated by tachycardia. Thus, sequential PET after i.v. injection of /sup 11/C-palmitate delineates zones of viable, ischemic myocardium that characteristically exhibit impaired oxidation of extracted fatty acid.

  18. Imaging features of Paget's disease on (11)C choline PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Cameron E; Goenka, Ajit H; Howe, Benjamin M; Broski, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the appearance of Paget's disease (PD) on (11)C choline PET/CT and correlate these findings to serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level and skeletal scintigraphy. With IRB approval, our institutional (11)C choline PET/CT database (9/2005-6/2015) was searched for patients with PD. Site of osseous involvement, CT appearance, and multiple semi-quantitative measures were measured and correlated with ALP and degree of uptake on bone scan. Our search identified 10 males (mean age 79.6 ± 7.8 years). Four had polyostotic disease and seven had more than one (11)C choline PET/CT. In total, 58 affected bones were evaluated on 25 PET/CTs. Mean lesion SUVmax was 2.6 ± 0.89 (range 1.0-4.4), SUVmax/Liver SUVmean 0.33 ± 0.13 (0.12-0.61), SUVmax/Liver SUVmax 0.29 ± 0.11 (0.10-0.52), SUVmax/BP SUVmean 2.47 ± 0.86 (0.91-4.22), and SUVmax/BP SUVmax 1.92 ± 0.71 (0.68-3.45). There was no correlation between ALP and any semiquantitative measure. Bone scan uptake was marked in 41 bones, moderate in nine, and mild in six. There was no correlation between lesion SUVmax and bone scan uptake (P = 0.26). Paget's disease on (11)C choline PET/CT demonstrates mild to moderate activity, which does not correlate with bone scan uptake or ALP level. It is important to recognize Paget's disease as a potential pitfall on (11)C choline PET/CT. However, the characteristic appearance on the CT portion of PET/CT examinations should allow confident diagnosis and differentiation from prostate cancer osseous metastases.

  19. Exceptional Agulhas leakage prolonged interglacial warmth during MIS 11c in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Pross, Jörg; Zahn, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    The transport of warm and saline surface water from the Indo-Pacific Ocean into the South Atlantic ("Agulhas leakage") influences the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which in turn exerts control on European climate. Paleoceanographic data document a remarkably strong Agulhas leakage at the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 11c interglacial (~400 ka B.P.), which is one of the best orbital analogues for the Holocene. Here we assess the potential influence of this exceptional Agulhas leakage on North Atlantic climate based on a compilation of marine and terrestrial proxy records from the Iberian margin and continental Europe. We show that a ~5 ka long warm period persisted across Europe beyond the MIS 11c climatic optimum. This warm period is testified by increases in foraminifer-derived sea surface temperatures on the Iberian margin, a spread of temperate trees on Iberia, and the expansion both of evergreen trees and thermophilous diatom taxa in Central European lowlands. Paradoxically, this warming coincides with an insolation minimum, implying that orbital forcing can be excluded as the underlying cause. We conclude that persistent warmth during weak insolation at the end of MIS 11c in Europe may have been triggered by strengthened Agulhas leakage, which stimulated a vigorous AMOC and increased the northward transport of warm surface waters to higher latitudes via the North Atlantic Current. The close analogy of the present and MIS 11c orbital forcing underlines the possibility that the present-day increase of the Agulhas leakage, although driven by different forcing than MIS 11c, may considerably affect future climates across Europe.

  20. Unique Distribution of Aromatase in the Human Brain: In Vivo Studies With PET and [N-Methyl-11C]Vorozole

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.W.; Alexoff, D.; Millard, J.; Carter, P.; Hubbard, B.; King, P.; Logan, J.; Muench, L.; Pareto, D.; Schlyer, D.; Shea, C.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Xu, Y.; Fowler, J.

    2010-10-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition, and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, three men and three women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5 mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90-min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (V{sub T}) values in both men and women followed the following rank order: thalamus > amygdala = preoptic area > medulla (inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum, and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced VT in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region-dependent, ranging from {approx}70% blocking in thalamus andpreoptic area to {approx}10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the noninvasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain.

  1. Unique distribution of aromatase in the human brain: in vivo studies with PET and [N-methyl-11C]vorozole

    PubMed Central

    Biegon, Anat; Kim, Sung Won; Alexoff, David L.; Jayne, Millard; Carter, Pauline; Hubbard, Barbara; King, Payton; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Xu, Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2010-01-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-11C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, 3 men and 3 women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90 min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (VT) values in both men and women followed the rank order: thalamus>amygdala=preoptic area>medulla(inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced VT in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region dependent; ranging from ~70% blocking in thalamus and preoptic area to ~10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the non-invasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain. PMID:20842717

  2. A Kinome-Wide Selective Radiolabeled TrkB/C Inhibitor for in Vitro and in Vivo Neuroimaging: Synthesis, Preclinical Evaluation, and First-in-Human.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Gauthier, Vadim; Bailey, Justin J; Mossine, Andrew V; Lindner, Simon; Vomacka, Lena; Aliaga, Arturo; Shao, Xia; Quesada, Carole A; Sherman, Phillip; Mahringer, Anne; Kostikov, Alexey; Grand'Maison, Marilyn; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Thiel, Alexander; Kaplan, David R; Fricker, Gert; Wängler, Björn; Bartenstein, Peter; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Scott, Peter J H

    2017-08-24

    The proto-oncogenes NTRK1/2/3 encode the tropomyosin receptor kinases TrkA/B/C which play pivotal roles in neurobiology and cancer. We describe herein the discovery of [(11)C]-(R)-3 ([(11)C]-(R)-IPMICF16), a first-in-class positron emission tomography (PET) TrkB/C-targeting radiolabeled kinase inhibitor lead. Relying on extensive human kinome vetting, we show that (R)-3 is the most potent and most selective TrkB/C inhibitor characterized to date. It is demonstrated that [(11)C]-(R)-3 readily crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rodents and selectively binds to TrkB/C receptors in vivo, as evidenced by entrectinib blocking studies. Substantial TrkB/C-specific binding in human brain tissue is observed in vitro, with specific reduction in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus healthy brains. We additionally provide preliminary translational data regarding the brain disposition of [(11)C]-(R)-3 in primates including first-in-human assessment. These results illustrate for the first time the use of a kinome-wide selective radioactive chemical probe for endogenous kinase PET neuroimaging in human.

  3. Prospective head-to-head comparison of (11)C-choline-PET/MR and (11)C-choline-PET/CT for restaging of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Eiber, Matthias; Rauscher, Isabel; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Maurer, Tobias; Schwaiger, Markus; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Beer, Ambros J

    2017-08-12

    Whole-body integrated (11)C-choline PET/MR might provide advantages compared to (11)C-choline PET/CT for restaging of prostate cancer (PC) due to the high soft-tissue contrast and the use of multiparametric MRI, especially for detection of local recurrence and bone metastases. Ninety-four patients with recurrent PC underwent a single-injection/dual-imaging protocol with contrast-enhanced PET/CT followed by fully diagnostic PET/MR. Imaging datasets were read separately by two reader teams (team 1 and 2) assessing the presence of local recurrence, lymph node and bone metastases in predefined regions using a five-point scale. Detection rates were calculated. The diagnostic performance of PET/CT vs. PET/MR was compared using ROC analysis. Inter-observer and inter-modality variability, radiation exposure, and mean imaging time were evaluated. Clinical follow-up, imaging, and/or histopathology served as standard of reference (SOR). Seventy-five patients qualified for the final image analysis. A total of 188 regions were regarded as positive: local recurrence in 37 patients, 87 regions with lymph node metastases, and 64 regions with bone metastases. Mean detection rate between both readers teams for PET/MR was 84.7% compared to 77.3% for PET/CT (p > 0.05). Local recurrence was identified significantly more often in PET/MR compared to PET/CT by team 1. Lymph node and bone metastases were identified significantly more often in PET/CT compared to PET/MR by both teams. However, this difference was not present in the subgroup of patients with PSA values ≤2 ng/ml. Inter-modality and inter-observer agreement (K > 0.6) was moderate to substantial for nearly all categories. Mean reduction of radiation exposure for PET/MR compared to PET/CT was 79.7% (range, 72.6-86.2%). Mean imaging time for PET/CT was substantially lower (18.4 ± 0.7 min) compared to PET/MR (50.4 ± 7.9 min). (11)C-choline PET/MR is a robust imaging modality for restaging biochemical recurrent PC and

  4. Plasma pharmacokinetic evaluation of cytotoxic agents radiolabelled with positron emitting radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Saleem, A; Aboagye, E O; Matthews, J C; Price, P M

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the utility of plasma pharmacokinetic analyses of anti-cancer agents from data obtained during positron emission tomography (PET) oncology studies of radiolabelled anti-cancer agents. Thirteen patients were administered fluorine-18 radiolabelled 5-FU ([(18)F]5-FU) admixed with 5-FU, corresponding to a total 5-FU dose of 380-407 mg/m2 (eight patients) and 1 mg/m2 (five patients). Nine patients received 2.2-19.2 microg/m2 of carbon-11 radiolabelled N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide ([11C]DACA) at 1/1,000th of phase I dose, as part of phase 0 microdosing study. Radioactivity of parent drug obtained from arterial blood samples, the injected activity of the radiolabelled drug, and the total dose of injected drug were used to obtain plasma drug concentrations. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using model-dependent and model-independent methods. 5-FU plasma concentrations at therapeutic doses were above the Km and a single compartment kinetic model was best used to fit the kinetics, with a mean half-life of 8.6 min. Clearance and volumes of distribution (Vd) obtained using both model-dependent and model-independent methods were similar. Mean (SE) clearance was 1,421(144), ml min(-1) and 1,319 (119) ml min(-1) and the mean (SE) Vd was 17.3 (1.8) l and 16.3 (1.9) l by the model-independent method and model-dependent methods, respectively. In contrast, with 1 mg/m2, plasma concentrations of 5-FU were less than the Km and a two-compartment model was used to best fit the kinetics, with the mean 5-FU half-life of 6.5 min. The mean (SE) clearances obtained by the model-independent method and model-dependent methods were 3,089 (314) ml min(-1) and 2,225 (200) ml min(-1), respectively and the mean (SE) Vd were 27.9 (7.0) l and 2.3 (0.4) l, by the model independent and dependent methods, respectively. Extrapolation of AUC0-Clast to AUC0-infinity was less than 3% in both these cohort of patients. A two-compartment model

  5. The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C.

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

  6. Synthesis of radiolabeled chiral probes for binding and receptor studies: Radiolabeled juvenoids and inositol phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This study is composed of two parts. Part I describes the synthesis of seven high specific activity radioligands for the characterization of macromolecular receptors for juvenile hormone analog-type labeled insect growth regulators. These radioligands include (1) ({sup 125}I)-radioiodinated iodovinyl methoprenol and iodovinyl methoprene (2000 Ci/mmol), (2) ({sup 3}H)-labeled (7S)-methoprene and (7S)-hydroprene (>60 Ci/mmol), potent dodecadienoate insect growth regulators, (3) ({sup 3}H)-labeled fenoxycarb (Maag) and S-31183 Sumitomo, phenoxyphenyl ether IGRs, and (4) ({sup 3}H)-methoprene diazoketone, a photoaffinity label for characterizing receptor sites. The attempted synthesis of high specific activity tritium labeled JH III is also described. Biological studies utilizing these radioligands show separate nuclear receptor proteins for JH homologs and juvenoids. Part II describes the preparation of enantiomerically enriched radiolabeled myo-inositol-1,3,4-trisphosphate (myo-Ins(1,3,4)P{sub 3}) and fluorinated analogs of myo-Ins(1,3,4)P{sub 3} for examining receptors for myo-Ins(1,3,4)P{sub 3}. Three compounds have been synthesized. These include 2-fluoro- and 2,2-difluoro-2-deoxy analogs of DL-myo-Ins(1,3,4)P{sub 3}, D- and L-myo-Ins(1,3,4)P{sub 3} at >95% enantiomeric excess and, D-and L-({sup 3}H)-myo-Ins(1,3,4)P{sub 3} enantiomers with specific activities of 15 Ci/mmol.

  7. Synthesis and PET studies of [11C-cyano]letrozole (Femara), an aromatase inhibitor drug

    SciTech Connect

    kil K. E.; Biegon A.; Kil, K.-E.; Biegon, A.; Ding, Y.-S.; Fischer, A.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Kim, S.-W.; Pareto, D.; Schueller, M.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    2008-11-10

    Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family, converts androgens such as androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol respectively. Letrozole (1-[bis-(4-cyanophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole, Femara{reg_sign}) is a high affinity aromatase inhibitor (K{sub i}=11.5 nM) which has FDA approval for breast cancer treatment. Here we report the synthesis of carbon-11 labeled letrozole and its assessment as a radiotracer for brain aromatase in the baboon. Letrozole and its precursor (4-[(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]benzonitrile, 3) were prepared in two-step syntheses from 4-cyanobenzyl bromide and 4-bromobenzyl bromide, respectively. The [{sup 11}C]cyano group was introduced via the tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) catalyzed coupling of [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the bromo-precursor (3). PET studies in the baboon brain were carried out to assess regional distribution and kinetics, reproducibility of repeated measures and saturability. The free fraction of letrozole in the plasma, log D, and the [{sup 11}C-cyano]letrozole fraction in the arterial plasma were also measured. [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole was synthesized in 60 min with a radiochemical yield of 79-80%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% and a specific activity of 4.16 {+-} 2.21 Ci/{micro}mol at the end of bombardment (n=4). PET studies in the baboon revealed initial rapid and high uptake and initial rapid clearance followed by slow clearance of carbon-11 from the brain with no difference between brain regions. The brain kinetics was not affected by co-injection of unlabeled letrozole (0.1 mg/kg). The free fraction of letrozole in plasma was 48.9% and log D was 1.84. [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole is readily synthesized via a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction with [{sup 11}C]cyanide. Although it is unsuitable as a PET radiotracer for brain aromatase as revealed by the absence of regional specificity and saturability in brain regions, such as amygdala, which are known

  8. ATP11c is critical for phosphatidylserine internalization and B lymphocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yabas, Mehmet; Teh, Charis E.; Frankenreiter, Sandra; Lal, Dennis; Roots, Carla M.; Whittle, Belinda; Andrews, Daniel T.; Zhang, Yafei; Teoh, Narci C.; Sprent, Jonathan; Tze, Lina E.; Kucharska, Edyta M.; Kofler, Jennifer; Farell, Geoffrey C.; Bröer, Stefan; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Enders, Anselm

    2011-01-01

    Subcompartments of the plasma membrane are believed to be critical for lymphocyte responses but few genetic tools exist to test their function. Here we describe a new X-linked B cell deficiency syndrome in mice caused by mutations in Atp11c, a member of the P4 ATPase family thought to serve as flippases concentrating aminophospholipids in the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes. Defective ATP11c decreased the rate of phosphatidylserine translocation in pro-B cells, greatly reduced pre-B and B cell numbers independent of Bcl2-inhibited apoptosis or immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and abolished pre-B cell expansion in response to an Il7 transgene. The only other abnormalities noted were anemia, hyperbilirubinemia and hepatocellular carcinoma. These results identify an intimate connection between phospholipid transport and B lymphocyte function. PMID:21423173

  9. Two new methanol converters

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Bodewes, T.N.; Vrijiand, M.S.A.; Kuczynski, M. )

    1988-11-01

    Two novel converter systems were developed for the manufacture of methanol from synthesis gas: the Gas-Solid-Solid Trickle Flow Reactor (GSSTFR) and the Reactor System with Interstage Product Removal (RSIPR). In the GSSTFR version, the product formed at the catalyst surface is directly removed from the reaction zone by means of a solid adsorbent. This adsorbent continuously trickles over the catalyst bed. High reactant conversions up to 100% can be achieved in a single pass so that the usual recycle loop for the unconverted reactants is absent or greatly reduced in size. In the RSIPR version, high conversions per pass are achieved in a series of adiabatic or isothermal fixed bed reactors with selective product removal in absorbers between the reactor stages. The feasibility and economics of the two systems are discussed on the basis of 1,000 tpd methanol plants compared with a low-pressure Lurgi system.

  10. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  11. [11C]-dimethylamine as a labeling agent for PET biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Orit; Mishani, Eyal

    2008-02-01

    The dimethylamine functional group is a common component of the chemical structure of numerous drugs. The most commonly used synthetic route for carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals which contain the dimethylamine group is via C-11 methylation of the monomethyl amine precursors. Here we describe the radiosynthesis of [11C]dimethylamine (1) and its application in the direct labeling of several positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents by-passing the preparation of the monomethyl amine precursors.

  12. One-pot, direct incorporation of [11C]CO2 into carbamates.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Jacob M; Reibel, Achim T; Hill, Sidney M; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S

    2009-01-01

    Why beat about the bush? An operationally simple and mild reaction based on the direct fixation of (11)CO(2) with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) has been developed for the synthesis of (11)C-labeled carbamates at 75 degrees C within 10 minutes in radiochemical yields above 70% (see scheme). This strategy should be immediately useful for the construction of new radiotracers for positron emission tomography and other applications.

  13. Dosimetry of 11C-carfentanil, a micro-opioid receptor imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Newberg, Andrew B; Ray, Riju; Scheuermann, Joshua; Wintering, Nancy; Saffer, Janet; Schmitz, Alexander; Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel; Lerman, Caryn; Divgi, Chaitanya

    2009-04-01

    11C-carfentanil is a radiopharmaceutical that selectively binds the mu-opiate receptor of the central nervous system. However, its dosimetry throughout the body and other organs has never been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to measure the radiation dosimetry of 11C-carfentanil in healthy human volunteers. The study was conducted within a regulatory framework that required its pharmacological safety to be assessed simultaneously. The sample included two male and three female participants ranging in age from 28 to 49 years. Three to four scans were obtained over approximately 2 h starting immediately after the intravenous administration of 0.03 microg/kg of [C]carfentanil injected as a slow bolus (mean activity injected was 280+/-68 MBq). The fraction of the administered dose in 10 regions of interest was quantified from the attenuation-corrected counts obtained on the axial images. Monoexponential functions were fit to each time-activity curve using a nonlinear, least-squares regression algorithm. These curves were numerically integrated to yield the number of disintegrations per unit activity administered in source organs. Sex-specific radiation doses were then estimated with the medical internal radiation dose technique. A few participants reported mild pharmacological effects of the radiotracer, primarily mild drowsiness, which is an expected side effect. The dose-limiting organ was the bladder wall, which received a mean of 3.65E-02 mGy/MBq. The mean effective dose equivalent and effective dose for 11C-carfentanil were 5.38E-03 and 4.59E-03 mSv/MBq, respectively. The observed dosimetry values for 11C-carfentanil indicate that it is safe for imaging micro-opiate receptors in the central nervous system and periphery.

  14. Novel synthesis of [11C]GVG (Vigabatgrin) for pharmacokinetic studies of addiction treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.S.; Studenov, A.R.; Zhang, Z.; Gerasimov, M.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.L.; Telang, F.

    2001-06-10

    We report here a novel synthetic route to prepare the precursor and to efficiently label GVG with C-11. 5-Bromo-3-(carbobenzyloxy)amino-1-pentene was synthesized in five steps from homoserine lactone. This was used in a two step radiosynthesis, displacement with [{sup 11}C]cyanide followed by acid hydrolysis to afford [{sup 11}C]GVG with high radiochemical yields (> 35%, not optimized) and high specific activity (2-5 Ci/{micro}mol). The [{sup 11}C]cyanide trapping was achieved at {minus}5 C with a mixture of Kryptofix and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} without using conventional aqueous trapping procedure [7]. At this temperature, the excess NH{sub 3} from the target that may interfere with the synthesis would not be trapped [8]. This procedure would be advantageous to any moisture sensitive radiosynthetic steps, as it was the case for our displacement reaction. When conventional aqueous trapping procedure was used, any trace amount of water left, even after prolonged heating, resulted in either no reaction or extremely low yields for the displacement reaction. The entire synthetic procedure should be extendible to the labeling of the pharmacologically active S- form of GVG when using S-homoserine lactone.

  15. Synthesis and biologic evaluation of 1-(/sup 11/C)-3,3-dimethylheptadecanoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.S. Jr.; Livni, E.; Strauss, H.W.; Hanson, R.N.; Elmaleh, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    1-(/sup 11/C)-3,3-dimethylheptadecanoic acid ((/sup 11/C)DMHDA) has been prepared for evaluation as a potential myocardial metabolism indicator based on an expected intrinsic stability toward beta-oxidative metabolic processes. Synthesis of this novel branched-chain fatty acid was accomplished by copper-catalyzed addition of tetradecylmagnesium bromide to diethylisopropylidenemalonate. Subsequent saponification and decarboxylation afforded 3,3-dimethylheptadecanoic acid (DMHDA) that was converted to the corresponding alkyl bromide by means of a modified Hunsdiecker reaction. Carboxylation of 2,2-dimethylhexadecylmagnesium bromide with /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ gave (/sup 11/C)DMHDA. Carbon-11 DMHDA showed moderate myocardial uptake in fasted rats, albeit lower than that reported for the 3-monomethyl analog. Considerable washout of radioactivity from the heart was also observed over the first 30 min postinjection. Imaging in dogs likewise showed disappointing heart uptake with much higher localization in the lung. These data suggest that gem-dimethyl substitution of the beta-position in long chain fatty acids is not only insufficient for enhanced myocardial uptake and retention, but also, may be deleterious when compared with beta-monomethylation.

  16. PET study of 11C-acetoacetate kinetics in rat brain during dietary treatments affecting ketosis.

    PubMed

    Bentourkia, M'hamed; Tremblay, Sébastien; Pifferi, Fabien; Rousseau, Jacques; Lecomte, Roger; Cunnane, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    Normally, the brain's fuel is glucose, but during fasting it increasingly relies on ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone) produced in liver mitochondria from fatty acid beta-oxidation. Although moderately raised blood ketones produced on a very high fat ketogenic diet have important clinical effects on the brain, including reducing seizures, ketone metabolism by the brain is still poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to assess brain uptake of carbon-11-labeled acetoacetate (11C-acetoacetate) by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the intact, living rat. To vary plasma ketones, we used three dietary conditions: high carbohydrate control diet (low plasma ketones), fat-rich ketogenic diet (raised plasma ketones), and 48-h fasting (raised plasma ketones). 11C-acetoacetate metabolism was measured in the brain, heart, and tissue in the mouth area. Using 11C-acetoacetate and small animal PET imaging, we have noninvasively quantified an approximately seven- to eightfold enhanced brain uptake of ketones on a ketogenic diet or during fasting. This opens up an opportunity to study brain ketone metabolism in humans.

  17. [11C]PBR28 PET imaging is sensitive to neuroinflammation in the aged rat

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Matthew D; Dinelle, Katherine; Kornelsen, Rick; Lee, Nathan V; Miao, Qing; Adam, Mike; Takhar, Christine; Mak, Edwin; Schulzer, Michael; Farrer, Matthew J; Sossi, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation in the aging rat brain was investigated using [11C]PBR28 microPET (positron emission tomography) imaging. Normal rats were studied alongside LRRK2 p.G2019S transgenic rats; this mutation increases the risk of Parkinson's disease in humans. Seventy [11C]PBR28 PET scans were acquired. Arterial blood sampling enabled tracer kinetic modeling and estimation of VT. In vitro autoradiography was also performed. PBR28 uptake increased with age, without differences between nontransgenic and transgenic rats. In 12 months of aging (4 to 16 months), standard uptake value (SUV) increased by 56% from 0.44 to 0.69 g/mL, whereas VT increased by 91% from 30 to 57 mL/cm3. Standard uptake value and VT were strongly correlated (r=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.31 to 0.69, n=37). The plasma free fraction, fp, was 0.21±0.03 (mean±standard deviation, n=53). In vitro binding increased by 19% in 16 months of aging (4 to 20 months). The SUV was less variable across rats than VT; coefficients of variation were 13% (n=27) and 29% (n=12). The intraclass correlation coefficient for SUV was 0.53, but was effectively zero for VT. These data show that [11C]PBR28 brain uptake increases with age, implying increased microglial activation in the aged brain. PMID:25833342

  18. CD11c-mediated deletion of Flip promotes autoreactivity and inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Quan; Perlman, Harris; Birkett, Robert; Doyle, Renee; Fang, Deyu; Haines, G Kenneth; Robinson, William; Datta, Syamal; Huang, Zan; Li, Quan-Zhen; Phee, Hyewon; Pope, Richard M

    2015-05-12

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for immune homeostasis. To target DCs, we generated a mouse line with Flip deficiency in cells that express cre under the CD11c promoter (CD11c-Flip-KO). CD11c-Flip-KO mice spontaneously develop erosive, inflammatory arthritis, resembling rheumatoid arthritis, which is dramatically reduced when these mice are crossed with Rag(-/-) mice. The CD8α(+) DC subset is significantly reduced, along with alterations in NK cells and macrophages. Autoreactive CD4(+) T cells and autoantibodies specific for joint tissue are present, and arthritis severity correlates with the number of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells and plasmablasts in the joint-draining lymph nodes. Reduced T regulatory cells (Tregs) inversely correlate with arthritis severity, and the transfer of Tregs ameliorates arthritis. This KO line identifies a model that will permit in depth interrogation of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including the role of CD8α(+) DCs and other cells of the immune system.

  19. Varenicline-Induced Elevation of Dopamine in Smokers: A Preliminary [11C]-(+)-PHNO PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Guranda, Mihail; Lagzdins, Dina; Tyndale, Rachel F; Gamaleddin, Islam; Selby, Peter; Boileau, Isabelle; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Varenicline, a nicotinic partial agonist, is the most effective treatment for tobacco use disorder. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear and may involve stimulating dopaminergic transmission. Here we used PET imaging with [11C]-(+)-PHNO to explore for the first time the impact of varenicline on dopamine transmission in the D2-rich striatum and D3-rich extra-striatal regions and its relationship with craving, withdrawal and smoking. Eleven treatment-seeking smokers underwent two PET scans with [11C]-(+)-PHNO, each following 12-h overnight smoking abstinence both prior to receiving varenicline and following 10–11 days of varenicline treatment (ie, at steady-state drug levels). Subjective measures of craving and urges to smoke were also assessed on the days of the PET scans. Varenicline treatment significantly reduced [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding in the dorsal caudate (p=0.008) and reduced some craving measures. These findings provide the first evidence that varenicline is able to increase DA levels in the human brain, a factor that may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26442600

  20. Kinetic Analysis of [(11)C]Vorozole Binding in the Human Brain with Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jean; Kim, Sung Won; Pareto, Deborah; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S; Biegon, Anat

    2014-05-01

    Using positron emission tomography, we investigated the kinetics of [(11)C]vorozole ([(11)C]VOR), a radiotracer for the enzyme aromatase that catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Six subjects were scanned under baseline conditions followed by retest 2 weeks later. The retest was followed by a blocking study with 2.5 mg of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. The binding potential (BPAd) was estimated from a Lassen plot using the total tissue distribution volume ( VT) for baseline and blocked. BP(A)ND for the thalamus was found to be 15 times higher than that for the cerebellum. From the letrozole studies, we found that [(11)C]VOR exhibits a slow binding compartment (small k4) that has a nonspecific and a blockable component. Because of the sensitivity of VT to variations in k4, a common value was used for the four highest binding regions. We also considered the tissue uptake to plasma ratio for 60 to 90 minutes as an outcome measure. Using the ratio method, the difference between the highest and lowest was 2.4 compared to 3.5 for the VT. The ratio method underestimates the high regions but is less variable and may be more suitable for patient studies. Because of its kinetics and distribution, this tracer is not a candidate for a bolus infusion or reference tissue methods.

  1. CD11c-mediated deletion of Flip promotes autoreactivity and inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi-Quan; Perlman, Harris; Birkett, Robert; Doyle, Renee; Fang, Deyu; Haines, G. Kenneth; Robinson, William; Datta, Syamal; Huang, Zan; Li, Quan-Zhen; Phee, Hyewon; Pope, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for immune homeostasis. To target DCs, we generated a mouse line with Flip deficiency in cells that express cre under the CD11c promoter (CD11c-Flip-KO). CD11c-Flip-KO mice spontaneously develop erosive, inflammatory arthritis, resembling rheumatoid arthritis, which is dramatically reduced when these mice are crossed with Rag−/− mice. The CD8α+ DC subset is significantly reduced, along with alterations in NK cells and macrophages. Autoreactive CD4+ T cells and autoantibodies specific for joint tissue are present, and arthritis severity correlates with the number of autoreactive CD4+ T cells and plasmablasts in the joint-draining lymph nodes. Reduced T regulatory cells (Tregs) inversely correlate with arthritis severity, and the transfer of Tregs ameliorates arthritis. This KO line identifies a model that will permit in depth interrogation of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including the role of CD8α+ DCs and other cells of the immune system. PMID:25963626

  2. CD11c+ Dendritic Cells Accelerate the Rejection of Older Cardiac Transplants via Interleukin-17A.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Rupert; Heinbokel, Timm; Cetina Biefer, Hector Rodriguez; Boenisch, Olaf; Hock, Karin; Bronson, Roderick T; Wilhelm, Markus J; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Edtinger, Karoline; Uehara, Hirofumi; Quante, Markus; Voskuil, Floris; Krenzien, Felix; Slegtenhorst, Bendix; Abdi, Reza; Pratschke, Johann; Elkhal, Abdallah; Tullius, Stefan G

    2015-07-14

    Organ transplantation has seen an increased use of organs from older donors over the past decades in an attempt to meet the globally growing shortage of donor organs. However, inferior transplantation outcomes when older donor organs are used represent a growing challenge. Here, we characterize the impact of donor age on solid-organ transplantation using a murine cardiac transplantation model. We found a compromised graft survival when older hearts were used. Shorter graft survival of older hearts was independent of organ age per se, because chimeric young or old organs repopulated with young passenger leukocytes showed comparable survival times. Transplantation of older organs triggered more potent alloimmune responses via intragraft CD11c+ dendritic cells augmenting CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production, particularly that of interleukin-17A. Of note, depletion of donor CD11c+ dendritic cells before engraftment, neutralization of interleukin-17A, or transplantation of older hearts into IL-17A(-/-) mice delayed rejection and reduced alloimmune responses to levels observed when young hearts were transplanted. These results demonstrate a critical role of old donor CD11c+ dendritic cells in mounting age-dependent alloimmune responses with an augmented interleukin-17A response in recipient animals. Targeting interleukin-17A may serve as a novel therapeutic approach when older organs are transplanted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Depletion of alveolar macrophages in CD11c diphtheria toxin receptor mice produces an inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lydia M; Ledvina, Hannah E; Tuladhar, Shraddha; Rana, Deepa; Steele, Shaun P; Sempowski, Gregory D; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    Alveolar macrophages play a critical role in initiating the immune response to inhaled pathogens and have been shown to be the first cell type infected following intranasal inoculation with several pathogens, including Francisella tularensis. In an attempt to further dissect the role of alveolar macrophages in the immune response to Francisella, we selectively depleted alveolar macrophages using CD11c.DOG mice. CD11c.DOG mice express the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) under control of the full CD11c promoter. Because mice do not express DTR, tissue restricted expression of the primate DTR followed by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) has been widely used as a tool in immunology to examine the effect of acute depletion of a specific immune subset following normal development. We successfully depleted alveolar macrophages via intranasal administration of DT. However, alveolar macrophage depletion was accompanied by many other changes to the cellular composition and cytokine/chemokine milieu in the lung that potentially impact innate and adaptive immune responses. Importantly, we observed a transient influx of neutrophils in the lung and spleen. Our experience serves as a cautionary note to other researchers using DTR mice given the complex changes that occur following DT treatment that must be taken into account when analyzing data.

  4. Depletion of alveolar macrophages in CD11c diphtheria toxin receptor mice produces an inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lydia M; Ledvina, Hannah E; Tuladhar, Shraddha; Rana, Deepa; Steele, Shaun P; Sempowski, Gregory D; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages play a critical role in initiating the immune response to inhaled pathogens and have been shown to be the first cell type infected following intranasal inoculation with several pathogens, including Francisella tularensis. In an attempt to further dissect the role of alveolar macrophages in the immune response to Francisella, we selectively depleted alveolar macrophages using CD11c.DOG mice. CD11c.DOG mice express the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) under control of the full CD11c promoter. Because mice do not express DTR, tissue restricted expression of the primate DTR followed by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) has been widely used as a tool in immunology to examine the effect of acute depletion of a specific immune subset following normal development. We successfully depleted alveolar macrophages via intranasal administration of DT. However, alveolar macrophage depletion was accompanied by many other changes to the cellular composition and cytokine/chemokine milieu in the lung that potentially impact innate and adaptive immune responses. Importantly, we observed a transient influx of neutrophils in the lung and spleen. Our experience serves as a cautionary note to other researchers using DTR mice given the complex changes that occur following DT treatment that must be taken into account when analyzing data. PMID:26029367

  5. The toxicity of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tephly, T.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Methanol toxicity in humans and monkeys is characterized by a latent period of many hours followed by a metabolic acidosis and ocular toxicity. This is not observed in most lower animals. The metabolic acidosis and blindness is apparently due to formic acid accumulation in humans and monkeys, a feature not seen in lower animals. The accumulation of formate is due to a deficiency in formate metabolism which is, in turn, related, in part, to low hepatic tetrahydrofolate (H{sub 4}folate). An excellent correlation between hepatic H{sub 4} folate and formate oxidation rates has been shown within and across species. Thus, humans and monkeys possess low hepatic H{sub 4}folate levels, low rates of formate oxidation and accumulation of formate after methanol. Formate, itself, produces blindness in monkeys in the absence of metabolic acidosis. In addition to low hepatic H{sub 4}folate concentrations, monkeys and humans also have low hepatic 10-formyl H{sub 4}folate dehydrogenase levels, the enzyme which is the ultimate catalyst for conversion of formate to carbon dioxide. This review presents the basis for the role of folic acid-dependent reactions in the regulation of methanol toxicity.

  6. Imaging Spectrum and Pitfalls of 11C-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography in a Series of Patients with Intracranial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kazoo

    2016-01-01

    11C-methionine (Met) positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most commonly used PET tracers for evaluating brain tumors. However, few reports have described tips and pitfalls of 11C-Met PET for general practitioners. Physiological 11C-Met uptake, anatomical variations, vascular disorders, non-tumorous lesions such as inflammation or dysplasia, benign brain tumors and patient condition during 11C-Met PET examination can potentially affect the image interpretation and cause false positives and negatives. These pitfalls in the interpretation of 11C-Met PET images are important for not only nuclear medicine physicians but also general radiologists. Familiarity with the spectrum and pitfalls of 11C-Met images could help prevent unfavorable clinical results caused by misdiagnoses. PMID:27134530

  7. California methanol assessment. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R.; Dutzi, E.; Gershman, R.; Heft, R.; Kalema, W.; Maynard, D.

    1983-01-01

    Energy feedstock sources for methanol; methanol and other synfuels; transport, storage, and distribution; air quality impact of methanol use in vehicles, chemical methanol production and use; methanol utilization in vehicles; methanol utilization in stationary applications; and environmental and regulatory constraints are discussed.

  8. Radiolabeled Sugars Used for PET and SPECT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Bergstrom, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are new efforts to develop "sugar" probes for molecular imaging focusing on human clinical studies. Radiolabeled carbohydrates are used as substrate probes for studying specific processes in tissues and organisms. The best application case is 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG), which is incorporated by cancer cells. The introduction of ltF-FDG has advanced enormously human Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This review focuses on the importance of 18FFDG and other sugars as imaging probes in PET and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging. In conclusion, new radiolabeled molecules that can be used as radiopharmaceuticals also would possibly help in the treatment of cancer cells in human patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Multistep synthesis of a radiolabeled imaging probe using integrated microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Shu, Chengyi Jenny; Shin, Young-Shik; Dooley, Alek N; Huang, Jiang; Daridon, Antoine; Wyatt, Paul; Stout, David; Kolb, Hartmuth C; Witte, Owen N; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Heath, James R; Phelps, Michael E; Quake, Stephen R; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2005-12-16

    Microreactor technology has shown potential for optimizing synthetic efficiency, particularly in preparing sensitive compounds. We achieved the synthesis of an [(18)F]fluoride-radiolabeled molecular imaging probe, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG), in an integrated microfluidic device. Five sequential processes-[18F]fluoride concentration, water evaporation, radiofluorination, solvent exchange, and hydrolytic deprotection-proceeded with high radio-chemical yield and purity and with shorter synthesis time relative to conventional automated synthesis. Multiple doses of [18F]FDG for positron emission tomography imaging studies in mice were prepared. These results, which constitute a proof of principle for automated multistep syntheses at the nanogram to microgram scale, could be generalized to a range of radiolabeled substrates.

  10. Dosimetric aspects of radiolabeled antibodies for tumor therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Humm, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is rapidly attracting interest as a potential new weapon in the arsenal for cancer therapy. This article concentrates on some of the dosimetric aspects affecting the potential success of RIT, and examines factors which influence the choice of a radiolabel for RIT. No radionuclide is likely to give an optimum tumor/nontumor insult for all tumor types; therefore, the concept of matching the source to tumor morphology is introduced. Lists of candidate radionuclides are given, classified according to the type of decay, range, and energy of the emission. The article examines how the choice of radionuclide for radiolabeling the antibody affects the local energy deposition in the tumor. Both the effect of tumor size on the energy absorbed fraction and the problem of antibody binding heterogeneity are discussed. The approach to RIT is to relate the choice of radionuclide to the physical properties of the tumor. 26 references.

  11. Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  12. CD11c expression in adipose tissue and blood and its role in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huaizhu; Perrard, Xiaoyuan Dai; Wang, Qun; Perrard, Jerry L; Polsani, Venkateshwar R; Jones, Peter H; Smith, C Wayne; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2010-02-01

    To examine CD11c, a beta(2)-integrin, on adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes and blood monocytes and its role in diet-induced obesity. High-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice, CD11c-deficient mice, and obese humans were studied. CD11c, leukocytes, and chemokines/cytokines were examined in AT and/or blood by flow cytometry, RNase protection assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Obese C57BL/6 mice had increased CD11c in AT and blood compared with lean controls. CD11c messenger RNA positively correlated with monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human visceral AT. Obese humans with metabolic syndrome had a higher CD11c level on blood monocytes compared with lean humans. Low-fat diet-induced weight loss reduced blood monocyte CD11c in obese mice and humans. Mouse and human monocyte CD11c levels and mouse AT CD11c messenger RNA correlated with insulin resistance. CD11c deficiency in mice did not alter weight gain but decreased inflammation, evidenced by a lower T-cell number and reduced levels of major histocompatibility complex class II, C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL5), CCL4, and interferon gamma in AT, and ameliorated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance associated with diet-induced obesity. Diet-induced obesity increased CD11c in both AT and blood in mice and humans. CD11c plays an important role in T-cell accumulation and activation in AT, and contributes to insulin resistance associated with obesity.

  13. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1994-05-03

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form. No Drawings

  14. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  15. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  16. [11C]Carfentanil Binds Preferentially to μ-Opioid Receptor Subtype 1 Compared to Subtype 2.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Olof; Antoni, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [(11)C]carfentanil is a selective agonist for μ-opioid receptors and has been used for studying μ-opioid receptors in the human brain. However, it is unknown if [(11)C]carfentanil binding differentiates between subtype receptors μ1 and μ2. In this study, we investigated whether μ1 and μ2 can be studied separately through receptor subtype-selective inhibition of [(11)C]carfentanil by pharmacologic intervention. [(11)C]Carfentanil binding characteristics on rat brain sections were assessed either alone or in the presence of the μ-receptor inhibitor cyprodime or the μ1-specific inhibitor naloxonazine. [(11)C]Carfentanil binding in the living rat brain was similarly studied by small animal PET/computed tomography during baseline conditions or following displacement by cyprodime or naloxonazine. Autoradiography binding studies on rat brain sections demonstrated that [(11)C]carfentanil has higher affinity and binding potential for μ1 than for μ2. [(11)C]Carfentanil binding to μ2 in vivo could not be detected following specific blocking of μ1, as predicted from the low binding potential for μ2 as measured in vitro. [(11)C]Carfentanil binding is preferential for μ1 compared to μ2 in vitro and in vivo. Clinical studies employing [(11)C]carfentanil are therefore likely biased to measure μ1 rather than μ2.

  17. [(11)C]Carfentanil Binds Preferentially to μ-Opioid Receptor Subtype 1 Compared to Subtype 2.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Olof; Antoni, Gunnar

    2015-09-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [(11)C]carfentanil is a selective agonist for μ-opioid receptors and has been used for studying μ-opioid receptors in the human brain. However, it is unknown if [(11)C]carfentanil binding differentiates between subtype receptors μ1 and μ2. In this study, we investigated whether μ1 and μ2 can be studied separately through receptor subtype-selective inhibition of [(11)C]carfentanil by pharmacologic intervention. [(11)C]Carfentanil binding characteristics on rat brain sections were assessed either alone or in the presence of the μ-receptor inhibitor cyprodime or the μ1-specific inhibitor naloxonazine. [(11)C]Carfentanil binding in the living rat brain was similarly studied by small animal PET/computed tomography during baseline conditions or following displacement by cyprodime or naloxonazine. Autoradiography binding studies on rat brain sections demonstrated that [(11)C]carfentanil has higher affinity and binding potential for μ1 than for μ2. [(11)C]Carfentanil binding to μ2 in vivo could not be detected following specific blocking of μ1, as predicted from the low binding potential for μ2 as measured in vitro. [(11)C]Carfentanil binding is preferential for μ1 compared to μ2 in vitro and in vivo. Clinical studies employing [(11)C]carfentanil are therefore likely biased to measure μ1 rather than μ2.

  18. CD11c is upregulated in CD8+ T cells of patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Joon; Park, Mi Jin; Park, Sun; Lee, Eun-So

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms of CD11a and CD11c have been suggested as susceptibility loci in Korean patients with Behçet's disease (BD). As immunoregulatory roles of CD11c+CD8+T cells were previously observed in multiple autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, we aimed to investigate CD11a and CD11c in CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulation of BD patients. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 21 patients with active BD, 26 patients with inactive BD, 20 patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU), and 23 healthy controls (HCs). The surface expression of CD11a and CD11c in CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations was analyzed by flow cytometry, and CD11a and CD11c mRNA and protein levels from puri ed CD8(+) T cells were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The frequencies of CD11a+ and CD11c+ cells were significantly increased in the CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations of active-BD patients, respectively, than that in the HCs. Additionally, both CD11a and CD11c mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in the CD8+ T cells of active-BD patients than that in the HCs. The CD8+ T cells of BD patients exhibited increased CD11c expression levels. Upregulation of CD11c in CD8+ cells may contribute to BD pathogenesis.

  19. Can diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) identify epileptogenic tubers in tuberous sclerosis complex? Correlation with α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ([11C] AMT) positron emission tomography (PET).

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vijay Narayan; Kumar, Ajay; Chakraborty, Pulak K; Chugani, Harry T

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we determined whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a more widely available imaging modality, is as effective as α-[(11)C]methyl-l-tryptophan (AMT)-positron emission tomography (PET) in localizing epileptogenic tubers in tuberous sclerosis complex. Following that, coregistration of AMT-PET and diffusion tensor imaging scans apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in all tubers using a region-of-interest approach and were compared with AMT-PET tuber/cortex uptake ratios, which were used to differentiate between epileptogenic and nonepileptogenic tubers. Forty-three tubers, out of a total of 320 tubers, had AMT-PET uptake ratios greater than 1 and hence were classified as potentially epileptogenic. FA in epileptogenic tubers was reduced compared with the other tubers (P = .03). A significant negative correlation was observed between AMT-PET uptake ratio of epileptogenic tubers and FA values (r = -.45; P = .003). Tubers with higher AMT-PET uptake ratios corresponded well with lower FA values in tuberous sclerosis complex patients.

  20. Increased intrapulmonary retention of radiolabeled neutrophils in early oxygen toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo, J.E.; English, D.; Levine, J.; Stiller, R.; Henson, J.

    1988-02-01

    Sequential lung injuries, such as oxygen toxicity followed by septicemia, are common during the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As these forms of vascular injury may be mediated in part by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), aberrant interactions between PMN and previously injured pulmonary endothelium are of both theoretical interest and clinical importance. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that early oxygen toxicity at a dose that injuries pulmonary endothelium relatively selectively alters intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics. Unanesthetized rats breathing 1.0 atmospheres oxygen for 36 h showed ultrastructural endothelial damage but no edema, injury, or neutrophilic inflammation by histologic criteria. However, in these oxygen-toxic animals, whereas initial accumulation of radiolabeled PMN in lungs was normal, washout of PMN was abnormal at 120 min after infusion, at which point the pulmonary retention of radiolabeled PMN in the lungs of oxygen-treated animals was significantly higher than in control animals (139% of control, p less than 0.0096). Features of our methodology, including avoidance of osmotic stress and use of paired control animals, appear to have greatly enhanced the sensitivity of radiolabeled neutrophils for detecting a subtle abnormality of neutrophil-endothelial interactions. Our studies in the oxygen toxicity model provide the first demonstration in vivo of abnormal intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics in early oxygen toxicity prior to the onset of histologic evidence of lung injury or inflammation.

  1. Intracavitary use of two radiolabeled tumor-associated monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Malamitsi, J.; Skarlos, D.; Fotiou, S.; Papakostas, P.; Aravantinos, G.; Vassilarou, D.; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J.; Koutoulidis, K.; Hooker, G.; Snook, D.

    1988-12-01

    Six patients with metastatic breast cancer and malignant pleural effusions and 13 patients with known or suspected ovarian cancer, underwent immunoscintigraphy after intracavitary (intrapleural or intraperitoneal) administration of iodine-131-(131I) or indium-111-(111In) labeled tumor associated monoclonal antibodies HMFG2 and H17E2. This method proved to be sensitive and specific with a true-positive result in 13 out of 14 patients with tumor and a true-negative result in five out of five patients without tumor. At any one time, 65%-80% of the whole-body radioactivity was closely associated with the cavity into which the radiolabeled antibody was administered while the radioactivity in the blood was always low, (approximately 4 X 10(-3) of administered dose/ml of blood). Concentrations of radiolabeled antibody (per gram of tumor tissue) ranged from 0.02%-0.1% of the injected dose in intracavitary tumors, but only 0.002% in a retroperitoneal metastasis. The specificity of this approach was documented in four control patients with benign ovarian cysts and in two patients who were imaged using both specific and nonspecific radiolabeled antibody. We conclude that the intracavitary administration of 131I- or 111In-labeled HMFG2 and H17E2 is a favorable route of administration and offers significant advantages over previously reported intravenous administration for the localization of breast or ovarian metastases confined to the pleural or peritoneal cavities.

  2. Immunolocalization of neuroblastoma using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody UJ13A

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.; Vivian, G.; Gordon, I.; Pritchard, J.; Kemshead, J.

    1984-08-01

    The monoclonal antibody UJ13A, raised after immunization of mice with human fetal brain, recognized an antigen expressed on human neuroblastoma cell lines and fresh tumors. Antibody was purified and radiolabeled with iodine isotopes using chloramine-T. In preclinical studies, 125I-labeled UJ13A was injected intravenously into nude mice bearing xenografts of human neuroblastoma. Radiolabeled UJ13A uptake by the tumors was four to 23 times greater than that by blood. In control animals, injected with a similar quantity of a monoclonal antibody known not to bind to neuroblastoma cells in vitro (FD44), there was no selective tumor uptake. Nine patients with histologically confirmed neuroblastoma each received 100 to 300 micrograms UJ13A radiolabeled with 1 to 2.8 mCi 123I or 131I. Sixteen positive sites were visible on gamma scans 1 to 7 days after injection: 15 were primary or secondary tumor sites, and one was a false positive; there were two false negatives. In two of the 15 positive sites, tumor had not been demonstrated by other imaging techniques; these were later confirmed as areas of malignant infiltration. No toxicity was encountered.

  3. CD11c+ Cells Partially Mediate the Renoprotective Effect Induced by Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Gyu; Kim, Su Hee; Noh, Hyunjin; Ko, Yoon Sook; Lee, Hee Young; Jo, Sang-Kyung; Cho, Won Yong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of immune tolerance by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is partially mediated via monocytes or dendritic cells (DCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the role of CD11c+ cells in MSC-induced effects on ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). IRI was induced in wildtype (WT) mice and CD11c+-depleted mice following pretreatment with or without MSCs. In the in-vitro experiments, the MSC-treated CD11c+ cells acquired regulatory phenotype with increased intracellular IL-10 production. Although splenocytes cocultured with MSCs showed reduced T cell proliferation and expansion of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), depletion of CD11c+ cells was associated with partial loss of MSCs effect on T cells. In in-vivo experiment, MSCs’ renoprotective effect was also associated with induction of more immature CD11c+ cells and increased FoxP3 expression in I/R kidneys. However all these effects induced by the MSCs were partially abrogated when CD11c+ cells were depleted in the CD11c+-DTR transgenic mice. In addition, the observation that adoptive transfer of WT CD11c+ cells partially restored the beneficial effect of the MSCs, while transferring IL-10 deficient CD11c+ cells did not, strongly suggest the important contribution of IL-10 producing CD11c+ cells in attenuating kidney injury by MSCs. Our results suggest that the CD11c+ cell-Tregs play critical role in mediating renoprotective effect of MSCs. PMID:23940814

  4. Triptolide regulates T cell-mediated immunity via induction of CD11c(low) dendritic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-hong; Shang, Pei-zhong; Lu, Qing-jun; Wu, Xu

    2012-07-01

    Triptolide(TPT) isolated from one of the Chinese herbs, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. (TWHF), are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory activities. This study was performed to investigate the effect of TPT on the differentiation of splenic DCs and its influence on T cell-mediated immunity regarding to DC subsets CD11c(low)I-a/e(low)CD45RB(+)(CD11c(low) DCs) and CD11c(high)I-a/e(high)CD45RB(-) (CD11c(high) DCs) in male C57BL/6 mice spleens in vitro. The percentage of CD11c(low) DCs was significantly increased after treatment with TPT compared to their counterparts (CD11c(high) DCs). It was found that unlike the gradually decreasing interleukin (IL)-12 secretion of CD11c(high) DCs induced by TPT, CD11c(low) DCs showed a obvious dose-dependent response between the increasing of IL-10 production and TPT stimulation. After treatment with anti-IL-12R or anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody in CD4(+) T cells+CD11c(high) DCs or CD11c(low) DCs mixed lymphocyte reaction, the induction of these DCs on T cells was inhibited dramatically. These data demonstrated that TPT might induce the differentiation of splenic DCs to CD11c(low) DCs followed by shifting of Th1 to Th2 with enhancement of T lymphocyte immune function in vitro. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A PET imaging agent with fast kinetics: synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the serotonin transporter ligand [11C]2-[2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)]-5-fluorophenylamine ([11C]AFA).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiyun; Narendran, Raj; Bae, Sung-A; Erritzoe, David; Guo, Ningning; Zhu, Zhihong; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Laruelle, Marc

    2004-08-01

    A new serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand, [11C]2-[2-(dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)]-5-fluorophenylamine (10, [11C]AFA), was synthesized and evaluated as a candidate PET radioligand in pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies. As a PET radioligand, AFA (8) can be labeled with either C-11 or F-18. In vitro, AFA displayed high affinity for SERT (Ki 1.46 +/- 0.15 nM) and lower affinity for norepinephrine transporter (NET, Ki 141.7 +/- 47.4 nM) or dopamine transporter (DAT, Ki > 10,000 nM). [11C]AFA (10) was prepared from its monomethylamino precursor 9 by reaction with high specific activity [11C]methyl iodide. Radiochemical yield was 43 +/- 20% based on [11C]methyl iodide at end of bombardment (EOB, n = 10) and specific activity was 2,129 +/- 1,369 Ci/mmol at end of synthesis (EOS, n = 10). Biodistribution studies in rats indicated that [11C]AFA accumulated in brain regions known to contain high concentrations of SERT. Binding in SERT-rich brain regions was reduced significantly by pretreatment with either the cold compound 8 or with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, but not by the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor nisoxetine, thus underlining its in vivo binding selectivity and specificity for SERT. Imaging experiments in baboons demonstrated that the uptake pattern of [11C]AFA in the baboon brain is consistent with the known distribution of SERT, with highest activity levels in the midbrain and thalamus, followed by striatum, hippocampus, and cortical regions. Activity levels in the baboon brain peaked at 15-40 min after radioligand injection, indicating a fast uptake kinetics for [11C]AFA. Pretreatment of the baboon with citalopram (4 mg/kg) significantly reduced the specific binding of [11C]AFA in all SERT-containing brain regions. Kinetic analysis revealed that the regional equilibrium specific to non-specific partition coefficients (V3") of [11C]AFA are similar to those of [11C]McN5652, but lower than those of [11C

  6. Formaldehyde, methanol and hydrocarbon emissions from methanol-fueled cars

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.L.; Lipari, F.; Potter, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions tests were conducted on several methanol- and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Separate samples for chromatographic analysis of formaldehyde, methanol, and individual hydrocarbons were collected in each of the three phases of the driving cycle and in each of the two portions of the evaporative emissions test. One vehicle, equipped with an experimental variable-fuel engine, was tested using methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures of 100, 85, 50, 15, and 0 percent methanol. Combustion-generated hydrocarbons were lowest using methanol fuel, and increased several-fold as the gasoline fraction was increased. Gasoline components in the exhaust increased from zero as the gasoline fraction of the fuel was increased. On the other hand, formaldehyde emissions were several times higher using methanol fuel than they were using gasoline. A dedicated methanol car and the variable-fuel car gave similar emissions patterns when they both were tested using methanol fuel. The organic-carbon composition of the exhaust was 85-90 percent methanol, 5-7 percent formaldehyde, and 3-9 percent hydrocarbons. Several cars that were tested using gasoline emitted similar distributions of hydrocarbons, even through the vehicles represented a broad range of current and developmental engine families and emissions control systems.

  7. Methanol-Air Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Cells charged with 120 ml of anolyte , consisting of 6 M methanol in 11 M KOH, have operated for 2,230 hours under cyclic load drains of 50 mA for 13...minutes and 2 A for 1 second. One cell operated for more than 8,000 hours with periodic refilling of fresh anolyte , demonstrating the long serviceable...life of the electrode components. Fuel utilization efficiencies as high as 84% have been obtained from cells charged with an anolyte solution of

  8. Improving production of 11C to achieve high specific labelled radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savio, E.; García, O.; Trindade, V.; Buccino, P.; Giglio, J.; Balter, H.; Engler, H.

    2012-12-01

    Molecular imaging is usually based on the recognition by the radiopharmaceuticals of specific sites which are present in limited number or density in the cells or biological tissues. Thus is of high importance to label the radiopharmaceuticals with high specific activity to be able to achieve a high target to non target ratio. The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air containing 98,88% of 12C and 1,12% 13C compete with 11CO2 produced at the cyclotron. In order to minimize the presence of these isotopes along the process of irradiation, transferring and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 11C, we applied this method: previous to the irradiation the target was 3-4 times flushed with He (5.7) as a cold cleaning, followed by a similar conditioning of the line, from the target up to the module, and finally a hot cleaning in order to desorb 12CO2 and 13CO2, this was performed by irradiation during 1 min at 5 uA (3 times). In addition, with the aim of improving quality of gases in the target and in the modules, water traps (Agilent) were incorporated in the inlet lines of the target and modules. Target conditioning process (cold and hot flushings) as well as line cleaning, allowing the desorption of unlabelled CO2, together with the increasing of gas purity in the irradiation and in the synthesis, were critical parameters that enable to achieve 11C-radiopharamaceuticals with high specific activity, mainly in the case of 11C-PIB.

  9. 11C-PET imaging reveals transport dynamics and sectorial plasticity of oak phloem after girdling

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Veerle; Bühler, Jonas; Thorpe, Michael; Roeb, Gerhard; Huber, Gregor; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Jahnke, Siegfried; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Carbon transport processes in plants can be followed non-invasively by repeated application of the short-lived positron-emitting radioisotope 11C, a technique which has rarely been used with trees. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) allowing 3D visualization has been adapted for use with plants. To investigate the effects of stem girdling on the flow of assimilates, leaves on first order branches of two-year-old oak (Quercus robur L.) trees were labeled with 11C by supplying 11CO2-gas to a leaf cuvette. Magnetic resonance imaging gave an indication of the plant structure, while PET registered the tracer flow in a stem region downstream from the labeled branches. After repeated pulse labeling, phloem translocation was shown to be sectorial in the stem: leaf orthostichy determined the position of the phloem sieve tubes containing labeled 11C. The observed pathway remained unchanged for days. Tracer time-series derived from each pulse and analysed with a mechanistic model showed for two adjacent heights in the stem a similar velocity but different loss of recent assimilates. With either complete or partial girdling of bark within the monitored region, transport immediately stopped and then resumed in a new location in the stem cross-section, demonstrating the plasticity of sectoriality. One day after partial girdling, the loss of tracer along the interrupted transport pathway increased, while the velocity was enhanced in a non-girdled sector for several days. These findings suggest that lateral sugar transport was enhanced after wounding by a change in the lateral sugar transport path and the axial transport resumed with the development of new conductive tissue. PMID:23785380

  10. [11C]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, So Yeon; Seo, Seongho; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Jung, Ye-Ha; Song, Man-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Kim, Yong Chul; Kwon, Hyun Woo; Im, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by severe and chronic pain, but the pathophysiology of this disease are not clearly understood. The primary aim of our case–control study was to explore neuroinflammation in patients with CRPS using positron emission tomography (PET), with an 18-kDa translocator protein specific radioligand [11C]-(R)-PK11195. [11C]-(R)-PK11195 PET scans were acquired for 11 patients with CRPS (30–55 years) and 12 control subjects (30–52 years). Parametric image of distribution volume ratio (DVR) for each participant was generated by applying a relative equilibrium-based graphical analysis. The DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the caudate nucleus (t(21) = −3.209, P = 0.004), putamen (t(21) = −2.492, P = 0.022), nucleus accumbens (t(21) = −2.218, P = 0.040), and thalamus (t(21) = −2.395, P = 0.026) were significantly higher in CRPS patients than in healthy controls. Those of globus pallidus (t(21) = −2.045, P = 0.054) tended to be higher in CRPS patients than in healthy controls. In patients with CRPS, there was a positive correlation between the DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the caudate nucleus and the pain score, the visual analog scale (r = 0.661, P = 0.026, R2 = 0.408) and affective subscales of McGill Pain Questionnaire (r = 0.604, P = 0.049, R2 = 0.364). We demonstrated that neuroinflammation of CRPS patients in basal ganglia. Our results suggest that microglial pathology can be an important pathophysiology of CRPS. Association between the level of caudate nucleus and pain severity indicated that neuroinflammation in this region might play a key role. These results may be essential for developing effective medical treatments. PMID:28072713

  11. Kinetic evaluation of [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine by dynamic PET: measurement of vesicular monoamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Koeppe, R A; Frey, K A; Vander Borght, T M; Karlamangla, A; Jewett, D M; Lee, L C; Kilbourn, M R; Kuhl, D E

    1996-11-01

    (+)-alpha-[11C]Dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binds to the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) located in presynaptic vesicles. The purpose of this work was to evaluate various model configurations for analysis of [11C]DTBZ with the aim of providing the optimal measure of monoamine vesicular transporter density obtainable from a single dynamic PET study. PET studies on seven young normal volunteer subjects, ages 20-35, were performed following i.v. injection of 666 +/- 37 MBq (18 +/- 1 mCi) of (+)-alpha-[11C]DTBZ. Dynamic acquisition consisted of a 15-frame sequence over 1 h. Analysis methods included both creation of pixel-by-pixel functional images of transport (K1) and binding (DVtot) and nonlinear least-squares analysis of volume-of-interest data. Pixel-by-pixel calculations were performed for both two-compartment weighted integral calculations and slope-intercept estimations from Logan plots. Nonlinear least-squares analysis was performed applying model configurations with both two-compartments, estimating K1 and DVtot and three compartments, estimating K1-k4. For the more complex configuration, we examined the stability of various binding-related parameters including k3 (konBmax'), k3/k4 (Bmax'/Kd), DVsp[(K1/k2)(k3/k4)], and DVtot [K1/k2(1 + k3/k4)]. The three-compartment model provided significantly improved goodness-of-fit compared to the two-compartment model, yet did not increase the uncertainty in the estimate of the DVtot. Without constraining parameters in the three-compartment model fits, DVtot was found to provide a more stable estimate of binding density than either k3, k3/k4, or DVsp. The two-compartment least-squares analysis yielded approximately 10% underestimations of the total distribution. However, this bias was found to be very consistent from region to region as well as across subjects as indicated by the correlation between two- and three-compartment DVtot estimates of 0.997. We conclude that (+)-alpha-[11C]DTBZ and PET can provide

  12. Differentiation of CD11c+CX3CR1+ cells in the small intestine requires Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ishifune, Chieko; Maruyama, Satoshi; Sasaki, Yuki; Yagita, Hideo; Hozumi, Katsuto; Tomita, Taisuke; Kishihara, Kenji; Yasutomo, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract comes into direct contact with environmental agents, including bacteria, viruses, and foods. Intestine-specific subsets of immune cells maintain gut homeostasis by continuously sampling luminal antigens and maintaining immune tolerance. CD11c+CX3CR1+ cells sample luminal antigens in the small intestine and contribute to the trafficking of bacteria to lymph nodes under dysbiotic conditions. The molecular mechanisms crucial for the differentiation of CD11c+CX3CR1+ cells remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Notch1– or Notch2–Rbpj axis is essential for the development of CD11c+CX3CR1+ cells. In mice in which Rbpj or Notch1 and Notch2 were deleted from CD11c+ cells, there was a deficit of CD11c+CX3CR1+ cells and an accumulation of CD11clowCX3CR1+ cells. The CD11clowCX3CR1+ cells could not differentiate to CD11c+CX3CR1+ cells, suggesting that CD11clowCX3CR1+ cells represent a lineage distinct from CD11c+CX3CR1+ cells. These data indicate that Notch signaling is essential for lineage fixation of intestinal CD11c+CX3CR1+ cells. PMID:24711412

  13. NO2 inhalation induces maturation of pulmonary CD11c+ cells that promote antigenspecific CD4+ T cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an air pollutant associated with poor respiratory health, asthma exacerbation, and an increased likelihood of inhalational allergies. NO2 is also produced endogenously in the lung during acute inflammatory responses. NO2 can function as an adjuvant, allowing for allergic sensitization to an innocuous inhaled antigen and the generation of an antigen-specific Th2 immune response manifesting in an allergic asthma phenotype. As CD11c+ antigen presenting cells are considered critical for naïve T cell activation, we investigated the role of CD11c+ cells in NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. Methods We systemically depleted CD11c+ cells from transgenic mice expressing a simian diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor under of control of the CD11c promoter by administration of DT. Mice were then exposed to 15 ppm NO2 followed by aerosolized ovalbumin to promote allergic sensitization to ovalbumin and were studied after subsequent inhaled ovalbumin challenges for manifestation of allergic airway disease. In addition, pulmonary CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice were studied after exposure to NO2 and ovalbumin for cellular phenotype by flow cytometry and in vitro cytokine production. Results Transient depletion of CD11c+ cells during sensitization attenuated airway eosinophilia during allergen challenge and reduced Th2 and Th17 cytokine production. Lung CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice exhibited a significant increase in MHCII, CD40, and OX40L expression 2 hours following NO2 exposure. By 48 hours, CD11c+MHCII+ DCs within the mediastinal lymph node (MLN) expressed maturation markers, including CD80, CD86, and OX40L. CD11c+CD11b- and CD11c+CD11b+ pulmonary cells exposed to NO2 in vivo increased uptake of antigen 2 hours post exposure, with increased ova-Alexa 647+ CD11c+MHCII+ DCs present in MLN from NO2-exposed mice by 48 hours. Co-cultures of ova-specific CD4+ T cells from naïve mice and CD11c+ pulmonary cells from NO2-exposed mice produced IL-1

  14. NO2 inhalation induces maturation of pulmonary CD11c+ cells that promote antigenspecific CD4+ T cell polarization.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Samantha R; Ather, Jennifer L; Paveglio, Sara A; Allard, Jenna L; LeClair, Laurie A Whittaker; Suratt, Benjamin T; Boyson, Jonathan E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2010-07-26

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an air pollutant associated with poor respiratory health, asthma exacerbation, and an increased likelihood of inhalational allergies. NO2 is also produced endogenously in the lung during acute inflammatory responses. NO2 can function as an adjuvant, allowing for allergic sensitization to an innocuous inhaled antigen and the generation of an antigen-specific Th2 immune response manifesting in an allergic asthma phenotype. As CD11c+ antigen presenting cells are considered critical for naïve T cell activation, we investigated the role of CD11c+ cells in NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. We systemically depleted CD11c+ cells from transgenic mice expressing a simian diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor under of control of the CD11c promoter by administration of DT. Mice were then exposed to 15 ppm NO2 followed by aerosolized ovalbumin to promote allergic sensitization to ovalbumin and were studied after subsequent inhaled ovalbumin challenges for manifestation of allergic airway disease. In addition, pulmonary CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice were studied after exposure to NO2 and ovalbumin for cellular phenotype by flow cytometry and in vitro cytokine production. Transient depletion of CD11c+ cells during sensitization attenuated airway eosinophilia during allergen challenge and reduced Th2 and Th17 cytokine production. Lung CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice exhibited a significant increase in MHCII, CD40, and OX40L expression 2 hours following NO2 exposure. By 48 hours, CD11c+MHCII+ DCs within the mediastinal lymph node (MLN) expressed maturation markers, including CD80, CD86, and OX40L. CD11c+CD11b- and CD11c+CD11b+ pulmonary cells exposed to NO2 in vivo increased uptake of antigen 2 hours post exposure, with increased ova-Alexa 647+ CD11c+MHCII+ DCs present in MLN from NO2-exposed mice by 48 hours. Co-cultures of ova-specific CD4+ T cells from naïve mice and CD11c+ pulmonary cells from NO2-exposed mice produced IL-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6 in vitro

  15. An updated synthesis of [(11) C]carfentanil for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the μ-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Blecha, Joseph E; Henderson, Bradford D; Hockley, Brian G; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; DaSilva, Alexandre F; Kilbourn, Michael R; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J H; Shao, Xia

    2017-06-30

    [(11) C]Carfentanil ([(11) C]CFN) is a selective radiotracer for in vivo positron emission tomography imaging studies of the μ-opioid system that, in our laboratories, is synthesized by methylation of the corresponding carboxylate precursor with [(11) C]MeOTf, and purified using a C2 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Changes in the commercial availability of common C2 cartridges have necessitated future proofing the synthesis of [(11) C]CFN to maintain reliable delivery of the radiotracer for clinical imaging studies. An updated synthesis of [(11) C]CFN is reported that replaces a now obsolete purification cartridge with a new commercially available version and also substitutes the organic solvents used in traditional production methods with ethanol. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 11C-PiB PET ABri imaging in Worster-Drought syndrome (familial British dementia): a case report.

    PubMed

    Villemagne, Victor L; Pike, Kerryn; Pejoska, Svetlana; Boyd, Alison; Power, Margaret; Jones, Gareth; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C

    2010-01-01

    Brain amyloid imaging is becoming an essential tool for the pre-mortem evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study explores the pattern of 11C-PiB retention in a subject with Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS). A 55 year-old male carrier of the WDS gene mutation with mild signs of ataxia and subtle cognitive impairment underwent MRI and 11C-PiB-PET studies.Brain PiB regional distribution was compared to those from cohorts of healthy controls and AD patients. While no significant cortical 11C-PiB retention was present, a high degree of cerebellar 11C-PiB retention was observed in a genetically confirmed carrier of the WDS gene. We speculate that the sparsity of ABri plaques in the neocortex together with its high deposition in the cerebellum, might explain the observed pattern of 11C-PiB retention.

  17. Transport of methanol by pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This report examines and evaluates the problems and considerations that could affect the feasibility of transporting methanol by pipeline. The following are the major conclusions: Though technical problems, such as methanol water contamination and materials incompatibility, remain to be solved, none appears insolvable. Methanol appears to be less toxic, and therefore to represent less of a health hazard, than gasoline, the fuel for which methanol is expected to substitute. The primary safety hazards of methanol, fire and explosion, are no worse than those of gasoline. The environmental hazards that can be associated with methanol are not as significant as those of petroleum. Provided quantities of throughput sufficient to justify pipeline transport are available, there appear to be no economic impediments to the transport of methanol by pipeline. Based on these, it appears that it can be concluded that the pipelining of methanol, whether via an existing petroleum pipeline or a new methanol-dedicated pipeline, is indeed feasible. 66 refs., 3 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. )

    1993-03-01

    The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

  19. Convenient preparation of /sup 11/C-methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide (MTP) for PET imaging of regional myocardial blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, D.V.; Dannals, R.F.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstrom, B.; Wong, D.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize and evaluate /sup 11/C-MTP for use as a potential regional myocardial perfusion agent in positron emission tomography. The synthesis of /sup 11/C-MTP was accomplished by reacting triphenylphosphine with /sup 11/C- methyliodide. Triphenylphosphine was dissolved in benzene and cooled to O/sup 0/C in a septum sealed reaction vessel. /sup 11/C-methyliodide was synthesized from /sup 11/C-carbon dioxide, and bubbled through the reaction vessel in a stream of carrier nitrogen gas. When trapping of the /sup 11/C- methyliodide was complete, the vessel was placed in a block heater at 140/sup 0/C for 5 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in absolute ethanol and then re-evaporated to dryness. The final product was dissolved in saline and passed through a 0.2 micron filter which removed excess unreacted tiphenylphosphine. The specific activity of the /sup 11/C-MTP was determined to be at least 10 mCi/..mu..mole using UV spectroscopy. PET imaging was performed on anesthetized dogs (normal and surgically infarcted hearts) and monkeys which were injected i.v. with a solution of 20 mCi of /sup 11/C-MTP. Scans of the heart were acquired using the authors' neuro ECAT. The myocardium was clearly visualized in both the dog and monkey. In dogs with myocardial infarctions, images showed an absence of radiotracer in regions corresponding to the infarcted zone. These studies indicate that /sup 11/C-MTP can be conveniently prepared to provide tomographic imaging of the heart using PET. Moreover, the uptake of /sup 11/C-MTP in the heart may be useful in determining regional myocardial blood flow.

  20. Cryogenic molecular separation system for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Suzuki, K.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.; Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.

    2015-12-15

    A {sup 11}C molecular production/separation system (CMPS) has been developed as part of an isotope separation on line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. In the ISOL system, {sup 11}CH{sub 4} molecules will be produced by proton irradiation and separated from residual air impurities and impurities produced during the irradiation. The CMPS includes two cryogenic traps to separate specific molecules selectively from impurities by using vapor pressure differences among the molecular species. To investigate the fundamental performance of the CMPS, we performed separation experiments with non-radioactive {sup 12}CH{sub 4} gases, which can simulate the chemical characteristics of {sup 11}CH{sub 4} gases. We investigated the separation of CH{sub 4} molecules from impurities, which will be present as residual gases and are expected to be difficult to separate because the vapor pressure of air molecules is close to that of CH{sub 4}. We determined the collection/separation efficiencies of the CMPS for various amounts of air impurities and found desirable operating conditions for the CMPS to be used as a molecular separation device in our ISOL system.

  1. Washout studies of 11C in rabbit thigh muscle implanted by secondary beams of HIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomitani, T.; Pawelke, J.; Kanazawa, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yoshida, K.; Sato, M.; Takami, A.; Koga, M.; Futami, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Urakabe, E.; Suda, M.; Mizuno, H.; Kanai, T.; Matsuura, H.; Shinoda, I.; Takizawa, S.

    2003-04-01

    Heavy ion therapy has two definite advantages: good dose localization and higher biological effect. Range calculation of the heavy ions is an important factor in treatment planning. X-ray CT numbers are used to estimate the heavy ion range by looking up values in a conversion table which relates empirically photon attenuation in tissues to particle stopping power; this is one source of uncertainty in the treatment planning. Use of positron emitting radioactive beams along with a positron emission tomograph or a positron camera gives range information and may be used as a means of checking in heavy ion treatment planning. However, the metabolism of the implanted positron emitters in a living object is unpredictable because the chemical forms of these emitters are unknown and the metabolism is dependent on the organ species and may be influenced by many factors such as blood flow rate and fluid components present. In this paper, the washout rate of 11C activity implanted by injecting energetic 11C beams into thigh muscle of a rear leg of a rabbit is presented. The washout was found to consist of two components, the shorter one was about 4.2 +/- 1.1 min and the longer one ranged from 91 to 124 min. About one third of the implanted β+ activity can be used for imaging and the rest was washed out of the target area.

  2. L-(1-/sup 11/C)leucine: routine synthesis by enzymatic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barrio, J.R.; Keen, R.E.; Ropchan, J.R.; MacDonald, N.S.; Baumgartner, F.J.; Padgett, H.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1983-06-01

    L-(1-/sup 11/C)leucine, suitable for the determination of cerebal protein synthesis rates in man using positron emission tomography, has been synthesized using a modified Bucherer-Strecker reaction sequence. The isolation of the pure L-amino acid isomer from the enantiomeric mixture, initially obtained using either an open or closed reaction vessel, was achieved using a D-amino acid oxidase/catalase enzyme complex immobilized on a Sepharose support. The O/sub 2/ required by the D-amino acid oxidase as the hydrogen acceptor was supplied by catalase. The L-(1-/sup 11/C)leucine was obtained with a radiochemical purity of >99% and with a radiochemical yield of 25%. Using a remote, semiautomated synthesis system, typical production time was 30 to 40 min after preparation of H/sup 11/CN. The use of immobilized enzymes for rapid and effective resolution of amino acid enantiomers eliminates the possibility of protein contamination and assures the production of a sterile, pyrogen-free product.

  3. Characterization of in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist DAR-0100A in nonhuman primates using PET with [11C] NNC112 and [11C] raclopride

    PubMed Central

    Slifstein, Mark; Suckow, Raymond F; Javitch, Jonathan A; Cooper, Thomas; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2011-01-01

    DAR-0100A, the active enantiomer of dihydrexidine, is a potent dopamine D1 agonist under investigation for treatment of cognitive impairment and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We measured the dose–occupancy relationship for DAR-0100A at D1 receptors using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in baboons with [11C] NNC112 and its binding to D2 with [11C] raclopride. Two baboons were scanned with [11C] NNC112 at baseline and after three different doses of DAR-0100A. Two baboons were scanned with [11C] raclopride at baseline and after one dose of DAR-0100A. Occupancy (ΔBPND) was computed in the striatum and cortex. A clear relationship was observed between plasma concentration of DAR-0100A and ΔBPND. ΔBPND was larger in the striatum than in the cortex, consistent with reports showing that 25% of [11C] NNC112 BPND in the cortex is attributed to 5-HT2A. Plasma EC50 estimates ranged from 150 to 550 ng/mL according to the constraints on the model. There was no detectable effect of DAR-0100A on [11C] raclopride BPND. These data suggest that at doses likely to be administered to patients, occupancy will not be detectable with [11C] NNC112 PET and binding of DAR-0100A to D2 will be negligible. This is the first demonstration with PET of a significant occupancy by a full D1 agonist in vivo. PMID:20571519

  4. Radiolabeled peptides in oncology: role in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Ronald E; Thakur, Mathew L

    2005-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in the development of radiolabeled peptides for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the last decade. The automated means of synthesizing these compounds in large quantities and the simplified methods of purifying, characterizing, and optimizing them have kindled attention to peptides as carrier molecules. These new techniques have accelerated the commercial development of radiolabelled peptides, which has provided additional radiopharmaceuticals for the nuclear medicine community. Peptides have many key properties including fast clearance, rapid tissue penetration, and low antigenicity, and can be produced easily and inexpensively. However, there may be problems with in vivo catabolism, unwanted physiologic effects, and chelate attachment. Radiolabeled peptides have made their greatest impact in the management of relatively rare neuroendocrine malignancies. Indeed, Indium-111 ((111)In)-pentetreotide ((111)In-DTPA-octreotide, Octreoscan), which binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), has become the diagnostic 'gold standard' in these diseases. However, (111)In-pentetreotide has been less successful in the diagnosis of other more prevalent diseases in which SSTRs are upregulated. Technetium-99m (99mTc)-depreotide (NeoTect), a 99mTc-labeled SSTR-analog, could have wider impact since it has high sensitivity and specificity for lung cancer lesion detection. However, this impact may be minimized by the increased availability of positron emission tomography imaging with Fluorine-18 (18F)-flourodeoxyglucose, which has similar sensitivity and specificity for lesion identification in this disease, and is currently more widely used. The receptors for bombesin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, neurotensin, and the integrin alpha(v)beta3, are under active investigation as targets for radiolabelled peptides, but are still in the pre-clinical stage. Compounds directed at the cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor have shown promising

  5. A comparative evaluation of the dopamine D(2/3) agonist radiotracer [11C](-)-N-propyl-norapomorphine and antagonist [11C]raclopride to measure amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the human striatum.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, N Scott; Laymon, Charles M; Lopresti, Brian J; Velasquez, Natalie D; May, Maureen A; Kendro, Steve; Martinez, Diana; Mathis, Chester A; Frankle, W Gordon

    2010-05-01

    (-)-N-Propyl-norapomorphine (NPA) is a full dopamine D(2/3) receptor agonist, and [(11)C]NPA is a suitable radiotracer to image D(2/3) receptors configured in a state of high affinity for agonists with positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, the vulnerability of the in vivo binding of [11C]NPA to acute fluctuation in synaptic dopamine was assessed with PET in healthy humans and compared with that of the reference D(2/3) receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]raclopride. Ten subjects (eight females and two males) were studied on two separate days, a minimum of 1 week apart, both with [11C]raclopride and [11C]NPA at baseline and after the administration of 0.5 mg x kg(-1) oral d-amphetamine. Kinetic modeling with an arterial input function was used to derive the binding potential relative to nonspecific uptake (BPND) in the ventral striatum (VST), caudate (CAD), and putamen (PUT). [11C]Raclopride BPND was significantly reduced by 9.7 +/- 4.4, 8.4 +/- 4.2, and 14.7 +/- 4.8% after amphetamine administration in the VST, CAD, and PUT. [11C]NPA BPND was also reduced significantly, by 16.0 +/- 7.0, 16.1 +/- 6.1, and 21.9 +/- 4.9% after the same dose of amphetamine in the VST, CAD, and PUT. Although these results suggest that [11C]NPA is more vulnerable to endogenous competition by dopamine compared with [11C]raclopride by a factor of 1.49 to 1.90, the same data for a related outcome measure, binding potential relative to plasma concentration, was not significant. Nevertheless, these data add to the growing literature that suggests D(2/3) agonist radiotracers are more vulnerable to endogenous competition by dopamine than existing D(2/3) antagonist radiotracers.

  6. Effect of amphetamine on dopamine D2 receptor binding in nonhuman primate brain: a comparison of the agonist radioligand [11C]MNPA and antagonist [11C]raclopride.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Nicholas; Finnema, Sjoerd J; Farde, Lars; Gulyás, Balázs; Wikström, Håkan V; Halldin, Christer; Innis, Robert B

    2006-04-01

    PET measurements of stimulant-induced dopamine (DA) release are typically performed with antagonist radioligands that bind to both the high- and low-affinity state of the receptor. In contrast, an agonist radioligand binds preferentially to the high-affinity state and is expected to have greater sensitivity to DA, which is the endogenous agonist. [(11)C]MNPA, (R)-2-CH(3)O-N-n-propylnorapomorphine (MNPA), is a D(2) agonist radioligand with subnanomolar affinity to the D(2) receptor. The aim of the present study is to assess and compare the sensitivity of the agonist radioligand [(11)C]MNPA and antagonist radioligand [(11)C]raclopride to synaptic DA levels. Four cynomolgus monkeys were examined with [(11)C]MNPA and [(11)C]raclopride (16 PET measurements with each tracer) at baseline and after pretreatment with various doses of amphetamine. The effect of amphetamine was calculated by the change in binding potential (BP) analyzed with the multilinear reference tissue model (MRTM2). Amphetamine caused a reduction in [(11)C]MNPA BP of 4% at 0.1, 23% at 0.2, 25% at 0.5, and 46% at 1.0 mg/kg. [(11)C]Raclopride BP was reduced to a lesser extent by 2% at 0.1, 16% at 0.2, 15% at 0.5, and 23% at 1.0 mg/kg. The data were used to estimate the in vivo percentage of high-affinity state receptors to be approximately 60%. These results demonstrate that [(11)C]MNPA is more sensitive than [(11)C]raclopride to displacement by endogenous DA, and that it may provide additional information about the functional state of the D(2) receptor in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

  7. Effects of methanol on a methanol-tolerant bacterial lipase.

    PubMed

    Santambrogio, Carlo; Sasso, Francesco; Natalello, Antonino; Brocca, Stefania; Grandori, Rita; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Lotti, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Methanol is often employed in biocatalysis with the purpose of increasing substrates solubility or as the acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, but inhibitory effects are observed in several cases. We have studied the influence of methanol on the catalytic activity and on the conformation of the lipase from Burkholderia glumae, which is reported to be highly methanol tolerant if compared with other lipases. We detected highest activity in the presence of 50-70 % methanol. Under these conditions, however, the enzyme stability is perturbed, leading to gradual protein unfolding and finally to aggregation. These results surmise that, for this lipase, methanol-induced deactivation does not depend on inhibition of catalytic activity but rather on negative effects on the conformational stability of the catalyst.

  8. 4'-[Methyl-11C]-thiothymidine PET/CT for proliferation imaging in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Toyohara, Jun; Seike, Ayako; Ito, Hideyuki; Endo, Hisako; Morooka, Miyako; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Mitsumoto, Takuya; Ito, Kimiteru; Okasaki, Momoko; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kubota, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    A new tracer, 4'-[methyl-(11)C]-thiothymidine ((11)C-4DST), has been developed as an in vivo cell proliferation marker based on the DNA incorporation method. This study evaluated the potential of (11)C-4DST PET/CT for imaging proliferation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), compared with (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Eighteen patients with lung lesions were examined by PET/CT using (11)C-4DST and (18)F-FDG. We constructed decay-corrected time-activity curves of 9 major regions as the mean standardized uptake value. We then compared the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of lung tumors on both (11)C-4DST and (18)F-FDG PET/CT with the Ki-67 index of cellular proliferation and with CD31-positive vessels as a marker of angiogenesis in surgical pathology. NSCLC was pathologically confirmed in 19 lesions of 18 patients. Physiologic accumulation of (11)C-4DST was high in liver, kidney, and bone marrow and low in aorta, brain, lung, and myocardium. Biodistribution of (11)C-4DST was almost stable by 20 min after injection of (11)C-4DST. Mean (11)C-4DST SUVmax for lung cancer was 2.9 ± 1.0 (range, 1.5-4.7), significantly different from mean (18)F-FDG SUVmax, which was 6.2 ± 4.5 (range, 0.9-17.3; P < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between SUVmax and Ki-67 index was higher with (11)C-4DST (r = 0.82) than with (18)F-FDG (r = 0.71). The correlation coefficient between SUVmax and CD31 was low with both (11)C-4DST (r = 0.21) and (18)F-FDG (r = 0.21), showing no significant difference between the tracers. A higher correlation with proliferation of lung tumors was seen for (11)C-4DST than for (18)F-FDG. (11)C-4DST PET/CT may allow noninvasive imaging of DNA synthesis in NSCLC.

  9. Short-lived effector CD8 T cells induced by genetically attenuated malaria parasite vaccination express CD11c.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Laura A; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J; Kappe, Stefan H I; Wang, Ruobing

    2013-11-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8(+) T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8(+) T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8(+) T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3(+) CD8b(+) T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are predominantly CD11a(hi) CD44(hi) CD62L(-), indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c(-) CD8(+) T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8(+) T cells. Coculture of CD11c(+), but not CD11c(-), CD8(+) T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8(+) T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8(+) T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are primarily KLRG1(+) CD127(-) terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1(-) CD127(+) memory precursor effector cells are CD11c(-) CD8(+) T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, short-lived, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected

  10. (7)Be-recoil radiolabelling of industrially manufactured silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Holzwarth, Uwe; Bellido, Elena; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Kozempel, Jan; Cotogno, Giulio; Gibson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabelling of industrially manufactured nanoparticles is useful for nanoparticle dosimetry in biodistribution or cellular uptake studies for hazard and risk assessment. Ideally for such purposes, any chemical processing post production should be avoided as it may change the physico-chemical characteristics of the industrially manufactured species. In many cases, proton irradiation of nanoparticles allows radiolabelling by transmutation of a tiny fraction of their constituent atoms into radionuclides. However, not all types of nanoparticles offer nuclear reactions leading to radionuclides with adequate radiotracer properties. We describe here a process whereby in such cases nanoparticles can be labelled with (7)Be, which exhibits a physical half-life of 53.29 days and emits γ-rays of 478 keV energy, and is suitable for most radiotracer studies. (7)Be is produced via the proton-induced nuclear reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be in a fine-grained lithium compound with which the nanoparticles are mixed. The high recoil energy of (7)Be atoms gives them a range that allows the (7)Be-recoils to be transferred from the lithium compound into the nanoparticles by recoil implantation. The nanoparticles can be recovered from the mixture by dissolving the lithium compound and subsequent filtration or centrifugation. The method has been applied to radiolabel industrially manufactured SiO2 nanoparticles. The process can be controlled in such a way that no alterations of the (7)Be-labelled nanoparticles are detectable by dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Moreover, cyclotrons with maximum proton energies of 17-18 MeV that are available in most medical research centres could be used for this purpose.

  11. Purification of radiolabeled RNA products using denaturing gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Hironori; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This unit discusses a basic method for purification of radiolabeled RNAs using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The method consists of a number of experimental procedures, including total RNA preparation from yeast cells, isolation of a specific RNA from total yeast RNA, RNA 3' terminal labeling using nucleotide (5’[32P]pCp) addition (via ligation), denaturing (8 M urea) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and RNA extraction from the gel slice. Key points for achieving good electrophoretic separation of RNA are also discussed. PMID:24510465

  12. Localisation of malignant glioma by a radiolabelled human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J; Alderson, T; Sikora, K; Watson, J

    1983-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies were produced by fusing intratumoral lymphocytes from patients with malignant gliomas with a human myeloma line. One antibody was selected for further study after screening for binding activity to glioma cell lines. The patient from whom it was derived developed recurrent glioma. 1 mg of antibody was purified, radiolabelled with 131I, and administered intravenously. The distribution of antibody was determined in the blood, CSF and tumour cyst fluid and compared with that of a control human monoclonal immunoglobulin. Antibody localisation in the tumour was observed and confirmed by external scintiscanning. Images PMID:6101173

  13. Reduction of [11C](+)3-MPB Binding in Brain of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome with Serum Autoantibody against Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Nakatsuka, Daisaku; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Kei; Tajima, Seiki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Tsukada, Hideo; Iwase, Masao; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous associations between brain-reactive antibodies and neurological or psychiatric symptoms have been proposed. Serum autoantibody against the muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) was increased in some patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or psychiatric disease. We examined whether serum autoantibody against mAChR affected the central cholinergic system by measuring brain mAChR binding and acetylcholinesterase activity using positron emission tomography (PET) in CFS patients with positive [CFS(+)] and negative [CFS(−)] autoantibodies. Methodology Five CFS(+) and six CFS(−) patients, as well as 11 normal control subjects underwent a series of PET measurements with N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate [11C](+)3-MPB for the mAChR binding and N-[11C]methyl-4-piperidyl acetate [11C]MP4A for acetylcholinesterase activity. Cognitive function of all subjects was assessed by neuropsychological tests. Although the brain [11C](+)3-MPB binding in CFS(−) patients did not differ from normal controls, CFS(+) patients showed significantly lower [11C](+)3-MPB binding than CFS(−) patients and normal controls. In contrast, the [11C]MP4A index showed no significant differences among these three groups. Neuropsychological measures were similar among groups. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that serum autoantibody against the mAChR can affect the brain mAChR without altering acetylcholinesterase activity and cognitive functions in CFS patients. PMID:23240035

  14. CD11c/CD18 expression is upregulated on blood monocytes during hypertriglyceridemia and enhances adhesion to VCAM-1

    PubMed Central

    Gower, R. Michael; Wu, Huaizhu; Foster, Greg A.; Devaraj, Sridevi; Jialal, Ishwarlal; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Knowlton, Anne A.; Simon, Scott I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is associated with monocyte adhesion to the arterial wall that involves integrin activation and emigration across inflamed endothelium. Involvement of β2-integrin CD11c/CD18 in atherogenesis was recently shown in dyslipidemic mice, which motivates our study of its inflammatory function during hypertriglyceridemia in humans. Methods and Results Flow cytometry of blood from healthy subjects fed a standardized high fat meal revealed that at 3.5 hours postprandial, monocyte CD11c surface expression was elevated and the extent of upregulation correlated with blood triglycerides. Monocytes from postprandial blood exhibited an increased light scatter profile, which correlated with elevated CD11c expression and uptake of lipid particles. Purified monocytes internalized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins isolated from postprandial blood through LRP-1, and this also elicited CD11c upregulation. Lab-on-a-chip analysis of whole blood showed that monocyte arrest on a VCAM-1 substrate under shear flow was elevated at 3.5 hours and correlated with blood triglyceride and CD11c expression. At 7 hours postprandial, blood triglycerides decreased and monocyte CD11c expression and arrest on VCAM-1 returned to fasting levels. Conclusions During hypertriglyceridemia, monocytes internalize lipid, upregulate CD11c, and increase adhesion to VCAM-1. These data suggest that analysis of monocyte inflammation may provide additional framework for evaluating individual susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PMID:21030716

  15. Evaluation of Prostate Cancer with 11C- and 18F-Choline PET/CT: Diagnosis and Initial Staging.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Sascha; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Heuschkel, Martin; Dräger, Desiree; Hildebrandt, Guido; Krause, Bernd J; Schwarzenböck, Sarah M

    2016-10-01

    Early diagnosis and adequate staging are crucial for the choice of adequate treatment in prostate cancer (PC). Morphologic and functional imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI, have had limited accuracy in the diagnosis and nodal staging of PC. Molecular PET/CT imaging with (11)C- or (18)F-choline-labeled derivatives is increasingly being used, but its role in the diagnosis and initial staging of PC is controversial because of limitations in sensitivity and specificity for the detection of primary PC. For T staging, functional MRI is superior to (11)C- or (18)F-choline PET/CT. For N staging, (11)C- or (18)F-choline PET/CT can provide potentially useful information that may influence treatment planning. For the detection of bone metastases, (11)C- or (18)F-choline PET/CT has had promising results; however, in terms of cost-effectiveness, the routine use of (11)C- or (18)F-choline PET/CT is still debatable. (11)C- or (18)F-choline PET/CT might be used in high-risk PC before radiation treatment planning, potentially affecting this planning (e.g., regarding dose escalation). This review provides an overview of the diagnostic accuracy and limitations of (11)C- or (18)F-choline PET/CT in the diagnosis and staging of PC.

  16. Dopamine D1 agonist R-[11C]SKF 82957: synthesis and in vivo characterization in rats.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, J N; Schwartz, R A; Greenwald, E R; Lourenco, C M; Wilson, A A; Houle, S

    1999-07-01

    The active enantiomer R-SKF 82957 was labeled with 11C by N-[11C]methylation of the full dopamine (D1) agonist R-SKF 81297, using [11C]methyl iodide in the presence of N-ethyldiisopropylamine, in high specific activity, radiochemical purity and yields. Compared with the D1 agonist R/S-[11C]SKF 82957, R-[11C]SKF 82957 showed higher binding in the D1 rich regions, such as striatum and olfactory tubercles (approximately 1.7 times), thereby improving the tissue contrast. R-[11C]SKF 82957 exhibited high in vivo binding selectivity for D1 receptors in rats, because only high doses of D1 competitors, but not D2 or serotonin (5-HT2) blockers, significantly reduced the radioactivity levels in all brain areas. No labeled metabolites were detected in rat brain. These results indicate that R-[11C]SKF 82957 will provide more sensitive measurements of D1 receptors in in vivo studies than the racemic mixture.

  17. CD11c Controls Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Responses To Limit Virus Replication during Primary Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Sariah J.; Mott, Kevin R.; Chentoufi, Aziz A.; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Wechsler, Steven L.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-01-01

    CD11c is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and is one of the main markers for identification of DCs. DCs are the effectors of central innate immune responses, but they also affect acquired immune responses to infection. However, how DCs influence the efficacy of adaptive immunity is poorly understood. Here, we show that CD11c+ DCs negatively orchestrate both adaptive and innate immunity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular infection. The effectiveness and quantity of virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses are increased in CD11c-deficient animals. In addition, the levels of CD83, CD11b, alpha interferon (IFN-α), and IFN-β, but not IFN-γ, were significantly increased in CD11c-deficient animals. Higher levels of IFN-α, IFN-β, and CD8+ T cells in the CD11c-deficient mice may have contributed to lower virus replication in the eye and trigeminal ganglia (TG) during the early period of infection than in wild-type mice. However, the absence of CD11c did not influence survival, severity of eye disease, or latency. Our studies provide for the first time evidence that CD11c expression may abrogate the ability to reduce primary virus replication in the eye and TG via higher activities of type 1 interferon and CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:21775452

  18. Production of radiohalogens and [11C]-methane at high specific activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Jonathon Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The halogens, occupying Group VII of the periodic table, play an important role in the biochemical processes underlying health and disease. A variety of positron emitters covering a broad range of half-lives permit the imaging of the body's physiochemical behavior using PET. Neutron deficient isotopes of the halogen group can be produced by (p,n) reactions from enriched targets with low energy (<13MeV) biomedical cyclotrons. These cyclotrons are distributed relatively evenly throughout the United States at research institutions and commercial distribution sites (i.e., 100+ CTI RDS 11MeV proton cyclotrons). However, these sites concentrate on the core group of positron emitters: 15O, 13N, 11C, and primarily 18F-fluoride. The simplicity of the production process insures their role in the clinical/research environment, labeling H215 O, 13NH3, CH3-compounds and 18F-FDG. Halogens with half-lives longer than 18F have been avoided due to a combination of several factors, such as complexity of the target systems, expense of the enriched substrate, low reaction yields, and extensive post-processing to reclaim the target material. PET research over the last decade has forced a match between drug development and emerging small animal instrumentation, shifting focus to agents labeled with high specific activity 11CH3I and the long-lived radiohalogens, 76Br and 124I. A steady local supply of 18F-fluoride, 11C-methane, 76B-bromide, and 124I-iodide is essential to seize today's research opportunities or for limited distribution outside of our local area. To keep pace, new targetry developments are implemented to reliably produce these isotopes on a batch basis. The research presented details improvements on existing production methods for 18F-fluoride intended for nucleophilic substitution and high specific activity 11C-methane (→CH3I) for the N-methylation of a half-dozen neuroligands. A significant effort is placed on the novel use of low energy cyclotrons for the production

  19. The neuronal component of gray matter damage in multiple sclerosis: A [(11) C]flumazenil positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Léorah; Garcia-Lorenzo, Daniel; Bottin, Laure; Leroy, Claire; Louapre, Céline; Bodini, Benedetta; Papeix, Caroline; Assouad, Rana; Granger, Benjamin; Tourbah, Ayman; Dollé, Frédéric; Lubetzki, Catherine; Bottlaender, Michel; Stankoff, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11) C]flumazenil ([(11) C]FMZ), an antagonist of the central benzodiazepine site located within the GABAA receptor, we quantified and mapped neuronal damage in the gray matter (GM) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) at distinct disease stages. We investigated the relationship between neuronal damage and white matter (WM) lesions and evaluated the clinical relevance of this neuronal PET metric. A cohort of 18 MS patients (9 progressive and 9 relapsing-remitting) was compared to healthy controls and underwent neurological and cognitive evaluations, high-resolution dynamic [(11) C]FMZ PET imaging and brain magnetic resonance imaging. [(11) C]FMZ binding was estimated using the partial saturation protocol providing voxel-wise absolute quantification of GABAA receptor concentration. PET data were evaluated using a region of interest (ROI) approach as well as on a vertex-by-vertex basis. [(11) C]FMZ binding was significantly decreased in the cortical GM of MS patients, compared to controls (-10%). Cortical mapping of benzodiazepine receptor concentration ([(11) C]FMZ Bmax) revealed significant intergroup differences in the bilateral parietal cortices and right frontal areas. ROI analyses taking into account GM volume changes showed extensive decrease in [(11) C]FMZ binding in bilateral parietal, cingulate, and insular cortices as well as in the thalami, amygdalae, and hippocampi. These changes were significant in both progressive and relapsing-remitting forms of the disease and correlated with WM T2-weighted lesion load. [(11) C]FMZ cortical binding correlated with cognitive performance. This pilot study showed that PET with [(11) C]FMZ could be a promising and sensitive quantitative marker to assess and map the neuronal substrate of GM pathology in MS. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  20. OTEC energy via methanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, W.H.; Richards, D.; Niemeyer, W.G.; Shoemaker, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of an 160 MW/sub e/ OTEC plantship has been documented; it is designed to produce 1000 tonne/day of fuel-grade methanol from coal slurry shipped to the plantship, using oxygen and hydrogen from the on-board electrolysis of water. Data and components are used that were derived by Brown and Root Development, Inc. (BARDI) in designing a barge-mounted plant to make methanol from natural gas for Litton Industries and in the design and construction of a coal-to-ammonia demonstration plant in operation at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The OTEC-methanol plant design is based on the use of the Texaco gasifier and Lurgi synthesis units. The sale price of OTEC methanol delivered to port from this first-of-a-kind plant is estimated to be marginally competitive with methanol from other sources at current market prices.

  1. Application of Methyl Bisphosphine-Ligated Palladium Complexes for Low Pressure N-(11) C-Acetylation of Peptides.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Thomas L; Nordeman, Patrik; Christoffersen, Heidi F; Audrain, Hélène; Antoni, Gunnar; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2017-03-16

    A mild and effective method is described for (11) C-labeling of peptides selectively at the N-terminal nitrogen or at internal lysine positions. The presented method relies on the use of specific biphosphine palladium-methyl complexes and their high reactivity towards amino-carbonylation of amine groups in the presence [(11) C]carbon monoxide. The protocol facilitates the production of native N-(11) C-acetylated peptides, without any structural modifications and has been applied to a selection of bioactive peptides.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of vesamicol analog (-)-O-[11C]methylvesamicol as a PET ligand for vesicular acetylcholine transporter.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazunori; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Tsukada, Hideo; Nishiyama, Shingo; Mori, Hirofumi; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2006-07-01

    (-)-O-Methylvesamicol ((-)-OMV) exhibited in vitro a high affinity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) (Ki, 6.7 nM) and a relatively low affinity for sigmal receptor (Ki, 33.7 nM). We prepared (-)-[11C]OMV by a palladium-promoted cross-coupling reaction using [11C]methyl iodide, in a radiochemical yield of 38 +/- 6.9% (n=3), a radiochemical purity of 98 +/- 2.3% (n = 5), and a specific activity of 11 +/- 7.0 TBq/mmol at 30 minutes after EOB (n=5). Then, we evaluated in vivo whether (-)-[11C]OMV has properties as a PET radioligand for mapping VAChT. In rats, the brain uptake of (-)-[11C]OMV was 1.1%ID/g at 5 minutes postinjection, and was retained of a high level for 60 minutes. The brain uptake was significantly inhibited by the co-injection (500 nmol/kg) of cold (-)-OMV (58-66%), (-)-vesamicol (57-65%), and two sigma receptor ligands with modulate affinities for VAChTs: SA4503 (56-71%) and haloperidol (39-64%) in all of the brain regions, including the cerebellum with a low density of VAChTs, but not of sigmal-selective ligand (+)-pentazocine. However, the pretreatment with a large excess amount of (+/-)-pentazocine (50 micromol/kg) reduced the uptake in a different manner in the brain regions: 25% reduction in the striatum with a high density of VAChTs, and a 50-55% reduction in the other regions with a lower density of VAChTs. Ex vivo autoradiography using (-)-[11C]OMV showed a similar regional brain distribution of [3H](-)-vesamicol. In the PET study of the monkey brain, the regional brain distribution pattern of (-)-[11C]OMV was different from that of [11C]SA4503. The uptake of (-)-[11C]OMV was relatively higher in the striatum, was reversible, and an apparent equilibrium state was found at 20-40 minutes. In conclusion, (-)-[11C]OMV exhibited appropriate brain kinetics during the time frame of 11C-labeled tracers and bound mainly to VAChTs; however, the binding to sigmal receptors was not disregarded. Therefore, (-)-[11C]OMV-PET together with help

  3. Reaction mechanism of the /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. )/sup 11/C reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Y.

    1982-11-01

    The mechanism of the reactions /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He, ..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C leading to the (3/2)/sup -/ ground state and (5/2)/sup -/ second excited state of /sup 11/C is studied using finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation with all one-step direct and exchange processes. By taking into account in detail the cluster structure of /sup 11/C and /sup 12/C, the transition to the (5/2)/sup -/ state which is a j forbidden direct process can be explained well by the exchange process.

  4. Relative 11C-PiB Delivery as a Proxy of Relative CBF: Quantitative Evaluation Using Single-Session 15O-Water and 11C-PiB PET

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin J.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Laymon, Charles M.; Lu, Xueling; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.; Lopresti, Brian J.; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the suitability of 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB) blood–brain barrier delivery (K1) and relative delivery (R1) parameters as surrogate indices of cerebral blood flow (CBF), with a secondary goal of directly examining the extent to which simplified uptake measures of 11C-PiB retention (amyloid-β load) may be influenced by CBF, in a cohort of controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Nineteen participants (6 controls, 5 AD, 8 MCI) underwent MR imaging, 15O-water PET, and 11C-PiB PET in a single session. Fourteen regions of interest (including cerebellar reference region) were defined on MR imaging and applied to dynamic coregistered PET to generate time–activity curves. Multiple analysis approaches provided regional 15O-water and 11C-PiB measures of delivery and 11C-PiB retention that included compartmental modeling distribution volume ratio (DVR), arterial- and reference-based Logan DVR, simplified reference tissue modeling 2 (SRTM2) DVR, and standardized uptake value ratios. Spearman correlation was performed among delivery measures (i.e., 15O-water K1 and 11C-PiB K1, relative K1 normalized to cerebellum [Rel-K1-Water and Rel-K1-PiB], and 11C-PiB SRTM2-R1) and between delivery measures and 11C-PiB retention, using the Bonferroni method for multiple-comparison correction. Results Primary analysis showed positive correlations (ρ ≈0.2–0.5) between 15O-water K1 and 11C-PiB K1 that did not survive Bonferroni adjustment. Significant positive correlations were found between Rel-K1-Water and Rel-K1-PiB and between Rel-K1-Water and 11C-PiB SRTM2-R1 (ρ ≈0.5–0.8, P < 0.0036) across primary cortical regions. Secondary analysis showed few significant correlations between 11C-PiB retention and relative 11C-PiB delivery measures (but not 15O-water delivery measures) in primary cortical areas that arose only after accounting for cerebrospinal fluid dilution

  5. Comparison of 4'-[methyl-(11)C]thiothymidine ((11)C-4DST) and 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) PET/CT in human brain glioma imaging.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Yasunori; Miyake, Keisuke; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuka; Toyohara, Jun; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Tamiya, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) has been used to evaluate tumor malignancy and cell proliferation in human brain gliomas. However, (18)F-FLT has several limitations in clinical use. Recently, (11)C-labeled thymidine analogue, 4'-[methyl-(11)C]thiothymidine ((11)C-4DST), became available as an in vivo cell proliferation positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. The present study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of (11)C-4DST PET in the diagnosis of human brain gliomas by comparing with the images of (18)F-FLT PET. Twenty patients with primary and recurrent brain gliomas underwent (18)F-FLT and (11)C-4DST PET scans. The uptake values in the tumors were evaluated using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), the tumor-to-normal tissue uptake (T/N) ratio, and the tumor-to-blood uptake (T/B) ratio. These values were compared among different glioma grades. Correlation between the Ki-67 labeling index and the uptake values of (11)C-4DST and (18)F-FLT in the tumor was evaluated using linear regression analysis. The relationship between the individual (18)F-FLT and (11)C-4DST uptake values in the tumors was also examined. (11)C-4DST uptake was significantly higher than that of (18)F-FLT in the normal brain. The uptake values of (11)C-4DST in the tumor were similar to those of (18)F-FLT resulting in better visualization with (18)F-FLT. No significant differences in the uptake values of (18)F-FLT and (11)C-4DST were noted among different glioma grades. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the Ki-67 labeling index and the T/N ratio of (11)C-4DST (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) and (18)F-FLT (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Significant correlations were also found between the Ki-67 labeling index and the T/B ratio of (11)C-4DST (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) and (18)F-FLT (r = 0.55, P < 0.05). A highly significant correlation was observed between the individual T/N ratio of (11)C-4DST and (18)F-FLT in the tumor (r

  6. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  7. A singly charged ion source for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-15

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  8. Solid-phase reversible trap for [11C]carbon dioxide using carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Mock, B H; Vavrek, M T; Mulholland, G K

    1995-07-01

    A simple, maintenance-free trapping technique which concentrates and purifies no-carrier-added 11CO2 from gas targets is described. The trap requires no liquid nitrogen cooling and has no moving parts besides solenoid valves. It employs carbon molecular sieves to adsorb 11CO2 selectively from gas targets at room temperature. Nitrogen, O2, CO, NO and moisture in the target gas which could interfere with subsequent radiochemical steps are not retained. Trapping efficiency of 1 g of sieve for 11CO2 from a 240 cm3 target gas dump and helium flush cycle is > 99%, and the adsorbed 11CO2 is recovered quantitatively as a small concentrated bolus from the carbon sieve trap by thermal desorption. This durable trap has performed reliably for more than 1 y with a single charge of carbon sieve. It has simplified the production, and improved the yields of several 11C-radiochemicals at this laboratory.

  9. A Combined [11C]diprenorphine PET Study and fMRI Study of Acupuncture Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Darin D.; Kong, Jian; Webb, Megan; Bonab, Ali A.; Fischman, Alan J.; Gollub, Randy L.

    2008-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that a lateral network in the brain is associated with the sensory aspects of pain perception while a medial network is associated with affective aspects. The highest concentration of opioid receptors is in the medial network. There is significant evidence that endogenous opioids are central to the experience of pain and analgesia. We applied an integrative multimodal imaging approach during acupuncture. We found functional magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in the orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and pons and [11C]diprenorphine positron emission tomography signal changes in the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings include brain regions within both the lateral and medial pain networks. PMID:18562019

  10. Quantification of brain mu-opioid receptors with [11C]carfentanil: reference-tissue methods.

    PubMed

    Endres, Christopher J; Bencherif, Badreddine; Hilton, John; Madar, Igal; Frost, J James

    2003-02-01

    [(11)C]Carfentanil (CFN) is a mu-opioid agonist used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies of mu-opioid receptors. Previously, a tissue-ratio method was validated for the quantification of CFN binding. However, since that initial validation, several other blood independent (reference-tissue) methods have become available. To evaluate these methods, CFN PET studies with arterial blood sampling were acquired in six healthy male control subjects. Specific binding estimates obtained from reference-tissue methods were compared to those obtained with a more rigorous blood input modeling technique. It was determined that both a graphical method, and a simplified reference tissue model, were more accurate than the tissue-ratio method for quantification of CFN binding.

  11. Comparison of [11C]-(R)-PK 11195 and [11C]PBR28, Two Radioligands for Translocator Protein (18 kDa) in Human and Monkey: Implications for Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging of this Inflammation Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Kreisl, William C.; Fujita, Masahiro; Fujimura, Yota; Kimura, Nobuyo; Jenko, Kimberly J.; Kannan, Pavitra; Hong, Jinsoo; Morse, Cheryl L.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Gladding, Robert L.; Jacobson, Steven; Oh, Unsong; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Ten percent of humans lack specific binding of [11C]PBR28 to 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker for inflammation. “Non-binders” have not been reported using another TSPO radioligand, [11C]-(R)-PK 11195, despite its use for more than two decades. This study asked two questions: 1) What is the cause of non-binding to PBR28? 2) Why has this phenomenon not been reported using [11C]-(R)-PK 11195? Methods Five binders and five non-binders received whole-body imaging with both [11C]-(R)-PK 11195 and [11C]PBR28. In vitro binding was performed using leukocyte membranes from binders and non-binders and the tritiated versions of the ligand. Rhesus monkeys were imaged with [11C]-(R)-PK 11195 at baseline and after blockade of TSPOs. Results Using [11C]PBR28, uptake in all five organs with high densities of TSPO (lung, heart, brain, kidney, and spleen) was 50% to 75% lower in non-binders than in binders. In contrast, [11C]-(R)-PK 11195 distinguished binders and non-binders in only heart and lung. For the in vitro assay, [3H]PBR28 had more than ten-fold lower affinity to TSPO in non-binders than in binders. The in vivo specific binding of [11C]-(R)-PK 11195 in monkey brain was ∼80-fold lower than that reported for [11C]PBR28. Conclusions Based on binding of [3H]PK 11195 to leukocyte membranes, both binders and non-binders express TSPO. Non-binding to PBR28 is caused by its low affinity for TSPO in non-binders. Non-binding may be differentially expressed in organs of the body. The relatively low in vivo specific binding of [11C]-(R)-PK 11195 may have obscured its detection of non-binding in peripheral organs. PMID:19948230

  12. Alzheimer's disease detection using 11C-PiB with improved partial volume effect correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raniga, Parnesh; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Ourselin, Sebastien; Rowe, Christopher; Villemagne, Victor L.; Salvado, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of 11C-PiB in research into Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are few standardized analysis procedures that have been reported or published. This is especially true with regards to partial volume effects (PVE) and partial volume correction. Due to the nature of PET physics and acquisition, PET images exhibit relatively low spatial resolution compared to other modalities, resulting in bias of quantitative results. Although previous studies have applied PVE correction techniques on 11C-PiB data, the results have not been quantitatively evaluated and compared against uncorrected data. The aim of this study is threefold. Firstly, a realistic synthetic phantom was created to quantify PVE. Secondly, MRI partial volume estimate segmentations were used to improve voxel-based PVE correction instead of using hard segmentations. Thirdly, quantification of PVE correction was evaluated on 34 subjects (AD=10, Normal Controls (NC)=24), including 12 PiB positive NC. Regional analysis was performed using the Anatomical Automatic Labeling (AAL) template, which was registered to each patient. Regions of interest were restricted to the gray matter (GM) defined by the MR segmentation. Average normalized intensity of the neocortex and selected regions were used to evaluate the discrimination power between AD and NC both with and without PVE correction. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were computed for the binary discrimination task. The phantom study revealed signal losses due to PVE between 10 to 40 % which were mostly recovered to within 5% after correction. Better classification was achieved after PVE correction, resulting in higher areas under ROC curves.

  13. Radiolabeling and in vivo distribution of nanobacteria in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, Kari K.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Bergstroem, Kim A.; Kuronen, Ilpo; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1997-07-01

    Nanobacteria are minute bacteria recently isolated from mammalian blood. They encapsulate themselves with apatite mineral. Cultured nanobacteria were radiolabeled with (superscript 99m)Tc, using a method which has been previously used for labeling red blood cells with (superscript 99m)Tc, and in vivo distribution of nanobacteria was followed with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging. The labeling yield was over 30%. Two rabbits were studied using dynamic planar imaging performed in the AP-position immediately after injection. Serial SPECT scans were acquired up to 24 h and one planar image was taken at 45 h. A control study was performed administering a similar dose of [(superscript 99m)Tc] labeled albumin nanocolloids. Regional nanobacteria-to- nanocolloid ratios were calculated along with time and tissues (45 h) were analyzed for radioactivity and for nanobacteria. The main finding was that radiolabeled nanobacteria remained intact and showed a tissue specific distribution with a high accumulation in the kidneys and also in urine. Spleen, stomach, heart and intestine also showed increased uptake. Excretion into urine started 10 - 15 min after injection. These were live nanobacteria in the urine, which had better capabilities to penetrate into cells in vitro. The nanobacteria accessed the urine via tubular cells since nanobacteria were found in their cytoplasm and tubular surfaces. The results suggest that nanobacteria utilize endocytic transport of tubular cells and may be involved in the pathogenesis of mineral formation in mammalian kidney stones.

  14. Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashish; Shao, Xia; Rajian, Justin R.; Zhang, Huanan; Chamberland, David L.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Wang, Xueding

    2011-01-01

    Many nanoparticle contrast agents have difficulties with deep tissue and near-bone imaging due to limited penetration of visible photons in the body and mineralized tissues. We are looking into the possibility of mediating this problem while retaining the capabilities of the high spatial resolution associated with optical imaging. As such, the potential combination of emerging photoacoustic imaging and nuclear imaging in monitoring of antirheumatic drug delivery by using a newly developed dual-modality contrast agent is investigated. The contrast agent is composed of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) antibody and is subsequently radiolabeled by 125I. ELISA experiments designed to test TNF-α binding are performed to prove the specificity and biological activity of the radiolabeled conjugated contrast agent. Photoacoustic and nuclear imaging are performed to visualize the distribution of GNRs in articular tissues of the rat tail joints in situ. Findings from the two imaging modalities correspond well with each other in all experiments. Our system can image GNRs down to a concentration of 10 pM in biological tissues and with a radioactive label of 5 μCi. This study demonstrates the potential of combining photoacoustic and nuclear imaging modalities through one targeted contrast agent for noninvasive monitoring of drug delivery as well as deep and mineralized tissue imaging. PMID:21639567

  15. Gallium-68: chemistry and radiolabeled peptides exploring different oncogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Morgat, Clément; Hindié, Elif; Mishra, Anil K; Allard, Michèle; Fernandez, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Early and specific tumor detection and also therapy selection and response evaluation are some challenges of personalized medicine. This calls for high sensitive and specific molecular imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET). The use of peptides for PET molecular imaging has undeniable advantages: possibility of targeting through peptide-receptor interaction, small size and low-molecular weight conferring good penetration in the tissue or at cellular level, low toxicity, no antigenicity, and possibility of wide choice for radiolabeling. Among β(+)-emitter radioelements, Gallium-68 is a very attractive positron-emitter compared with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 taking into account its easy production via a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator and well established radiochemistry. Gallium-68 chemistry is based on well-defined coordination complexes with macrocycle or chelates having strong binding properties, particularly suitable for linking peptides that allow resistance to in vivo transchelation of the metal ion. Understanding specific and nonspecific molecular mechanisms involved in oncogenesis is one major key to develop new molecular imaging tools. The present review focuses on peptide signaling involved in different oncogenic pathways. This peptide signalization might be common for tumoral and non-tumoral processes or could be specific of an oncological process. This review describes gallium chemistry and different (68)Ga-radiolabeled peptides already in use or under development aiming at developing molecular PET imaging of different oncological processes.

  16. California methanol assessment. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R.; Dutzi, E.; Gershman, R.; Heft, R.; Kalema, W.; Maynard, D.

    1983-01-01

    The near term methanol industry, the competitive environment, long term methanol market, the transition period, air quality impacts of methanol, roles of the public and private sectors are considered.

  17. Differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules with positron emission tomography using (/sup 11/C)L-methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Abe, Y.; Ito, M.; Hatazawa, J.; Ido, T.; Ishiwata, K.; Watanuki, S.

    1988-09-01

    Two patients with solitary pulmonary nodules, 1.5-2.0 cm in diameter, were studied by positron emission tomography using (/sup 11/C-Methyl)L-methionine (/sup 11/C-Met). Case 1 showed high accumulation of /sup 11/C-Met in the tumor, and a tumor/muscle ratio of 6.0 suggesting malignancy. Tissue obtained by biopsy revealed a squamous cell carcinoma. Case 2 showed nonspecific isotope accumulation in the tumor, and a tumor/muscle ratio of 1.2 suggesting a benign lesion. Lung biopsy demonstrated granuloma. Positron emission tomography with /sup 11/C-Met seems to be useful for the differential diagnosis of solitary lung nodules.

  18. In Vivo Evaluation of 11C-labeled Three Radioligands for Glycine Transporter 1 in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-chun; Toyohara, Jun; Wu, Jin; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2012-01-01

    Objective Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) is one of the most attractive therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. There is great interest in developing radioligands for in vivo imaging of GlyT-1 in the brain using positron emission tomography. Here, we report the properties of three novel non-sarcosine-based radioligands [11C]CHIBA-3007, [11C]CHIBA-3009, and [11C]CHIBA-3011, for GlyT-1 imaging in the mouse brain in vivo. Methods The three radioligands were synthesized by N-[11C] methylation of the corresponding desmethyl precursor. A pharmacological characterization of these radioligands for in vivo imaging of GlyT-1 in the brain was conducted using male ddY mice. Results [11C]CHIBA-3009 and [11C]CHIBA-3011 were scarcely incorporated into the brain, whereas [11C]CHIBA-3007 showed slight but considerable brain uptake. Regional brain uptake of [11C]CHIBA-3007 (medulla oblongata>cerebellum>cortex) was similar to the distribution of the GlyT-1 protein. However, pretreatment with CHIBA-3007 (1 mg/kg) or the GlyT-1 selective inhibitor ALX5407 (N-[(3R)-3-([1,1'-Biphenyl]-4-yloxy)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)propyl]-N-methylglycine) (30 mg/kg) did not significantly decrease brain uptake of [11C]CHIBA-3007, suggesting low specific binding to GlyT-1. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A significantly increased brain uptake of [11C]CHIBA-3009 and [11C]CHIBA-3011, suggesting a role for P-glycoprotein in the brain uptake of these ligands. All three radioligands were rapidly degraded intact forms were 3-18% in plasma and 15-74% in the brain at 15 min after injection. Conclusion The results suggest that these three radioligands are not suitable for in vivo imaging of GlyT-1 in the brain because of low brain uptake and rapid metabolism. Further structural refinement is necessary to enhance brain uptake. PMID:23429671

  19. Transcriptional profiling of CD11c-positive microglia accumulating around amyloid plaques in a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Willem; Kooijman, Lieneke; Schetters, Sjoerd; Orre, Marie; Hol, Elly M

    2016-10-01

    Amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice are surrounded by activated microglia. The functional role of microglia activation in AD is not well understood; both detrimental and beneficial effects on AD progression have been reported. Here we show that the population of activated microglia in the cortex of the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse AD model is divided into a CD11c-positive and a CD11c-negative subpopulation. Cd11c transcript levels and number of CD11c-positive microglia increase sharply when plaques start to occur and both parameters continue to rise in parallel with the age-related increasing plaque load. CD11c cells are localized near plaques at all stages of the disease development and constitute 23% of all activated microglia. No differences between these two populations were found in terms of proliferation, immunostaining intensity of Iba1, MHC class II, CD45, or immunoproteasome subunit LMP7/β5i. Comparison of the transcriptome of isolated CD11c-positive and CD11c-negative microglia from the cortex of aged APPswe/PS1dE9 with WT microglia showed that gene expression changes had a similar general pattern. However, a differential expression was found for genes involved in immune signaling (Il6, S100a8/Mrp8, S100a9/Mrp14, Spp1, Igf1), lysosome activation, and carbohydrate- and cholesterol/lipid-metabolism (Apoe). In addition, the increased expression of Gpnmb/DC-HIL, Tm7sf4/DC-STAMP, and Gp49a/Lilrb4, suggests a suppressive/tolerizing influence of CD11c cells. We show that amyloid plaques in the APP/PS1 model are associated with two distinct populations of activated microglia: CD11c-positive and CD11c-negative cells. Our findings imply that CD11c-positive microglia can potentially counteract amyloid deposition via increased Aβ-uptake and degradation, and by containing the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Targeted delivery of tumor antigens to activated dendritic cells via CD11c molecules induces potent antitumor immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huafeng; Wang, Suhui; Zhang, Dapeng; Hou, Sheng; Qian, Weizhu; Li, Bohua; Guo, Huaizu; Kou, Geng; He, Jinqiu; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun

    2009-07-15

    CD11c is an antigen receptor predominantly expressed on dendritic cells (DC), to which antigen targeting has been shown to induce robust antigen-specific immune responses. To facilitate targeted delivery of tumor antigens to DCs, we generated fusion proteins consisting of the extracellular domain of human HER or its rat homologue neu, fused to the single-chain fragment variable specific for CD11c (scFv(CD11c)-HER2/neu). Induction of cellular and humoral immune responses and antitumoral activity of the fusion proteins admixed with DC-activating CpG oligonucleotides (scFv(CD11c)-HER2/neu(CpG)) were tested in transplantable HER2/neu-expressing murine tumor models and in transgenic BALB-neuT mice developing spontaneous neu-driven mammary carcinomas. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with scFv(CD11c)-HER2(CpG) protected mice from subsequent challenge with HER2-positive, but not HER2-negative, murine breast tumor cells, accompanied by induction of strong HER2-specific T-cell and antibody responses. In a therapeutic setting, injection of scFv(CD11c)-HER2(CpG) caused rejection of established HER2-positive tumors. Importantly, antitumoral activity of such a fusion protein vaccine could be reproduced in immunotolerant BALB-neuT mice, where scFv(CD11c)-neu(CpG) vaccination significantly protected against a subsequent challenge with neu-expressing murine breast tumor cells and markedly delayed the onset of spontaneous mammary carcinomas. CD11c-targeted protein vaccines for in vivo delivery of tumor antigens to DCs induce potent immune responses and antitumoral activities and provide a rationale for further development of this approach for cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Type 2 innate immunity in helminth infection is induced redundantly and acts autonomously following CD11c(+) cell depletion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine A; Harcus, Yvonne; Garbi, Natalio; Hämmerling, Günter J; MacDonald, Andrew S; Maizels, Rick M

    2012-10-01

    Infection with gastrointestinal helminths generates a dominant type 2 response among both adaptive (Th2) and innate (macrophage, eosinophil, and innate lymphoid) immune cell types. Two additional innate cell types, CD11c(high) dendritic cells (DCs) and basophils, have been implicated in the genesis of type 2 immunity. Investigating the type 2 response to intestinal nematode parasites, including Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, we first confirmed the requirement for DCs in stimulating Th2 adaptive immunity against these helminths through depletion of CD11c(high) cells by administration of diphtheria toxin to CD11c.DOG mice. In contrast, responsiveness was intact in mice depleted of basophils by antibody treatment. Th2 responses can be induced by adoptive transfer of DCs, but not basophils, exposed to soluble excretory-secretory products from these helminths. However, innate type 2 responses arose equally strongly in the presence or absence of CD11c(high) cells or basophils; thus, in CD11c.DOG mice, the alternative activation of macrophages, as measured by expression of arginase-1, RELM-α, and Ym-1 (Chi3L3) in the intestine following H. polygyrus infection or in the lung following N. brasiliensis infection, was unaltered by depletion of CD11c-expressing DCs and alveolar macrophages or by antibody-mediated basophil depletion. Similarly, goblet cell-associated RELM-β in lung and intestinal tissues, lung eosinophilia, and expansion of innate lymphoid ("nuocyte") populations all proceeded irrespective of depletion of CD11c(high) cells or basophils. Thus, while CD11c(high) DCs initiate helminth-specific adaptive immunity, innate type 2 cells are able to mount an autonomous response to the challenge of parasite infection.

  2. Regulation of development of CD56 bright CD11c + NK-like cells with helper function by IL-18.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Okuda, Akico; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yamanishi, Kyosuke; Terada, Nobuyuki; Yamanishi, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Okamura, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    Human γδ T cells augment host defense against tumors and infections, and might have a therapeutic potential in immunotherapy. However, mechanism of γδ T cell proliferation is unclear, and therefore it is difficult to prepare sufficient numbers of γδ T cells for clinical immunotherapy. Recently, natural killer (NK)-like CD56(bright)CD11c(+) cells were shown to promote the proliferation of γδ T cells in an IL-18-dependent manner. In this study, we demonstrated that the NK-like CD56(bright)CD11c(+) cells could directly interact with γδ T cells to promote their sustained expansion, while conventional dendritic cells (DCs), IFN-α-induced DCs, plasmacytoid DCs or monocytes did not. We also examined the cellular mechanism underlying the regulation of CD56(bright)CD11c(+) cells. CD14(+) monocytes pre-incubated with IL-2/IL-18 formed intensive interactions with CD56(int)CD11c(+) cells to promote their differentiation to CD56(bright)CD11c(+) cells with helper function. The development of CD56(bright)CD11c(+) cells was suppressed in an IFN-α dependent manner. These results indicate that CD14(+) monocytes pretreated with IL-2/IL-18, but neither DCs nor monocytes, play a determining role on the development and proliferation of CD56(bright)CD11c(+) cells, which in turn modulate the expansion of γδ T cells. CD56(bright)CD11c(+) NK-like cells may be a novel target for immunotherapy utilizing γδ T cells, by overcoming the limitation of γδ T cells proliferation.

  3. Comparison of imaging using (11)C-ITMM and (18)F-FDG for the detection of cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kenji; Miura, Yoshiharu; Toyohara, Jun; Ishii, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2017-04-15

    Objective Newly developed methods for imaging type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) have the potential use for estimating cerebellar function. We aimed to compare mGluR1 imaging using N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ((11)C-ITMM) with the existing marker, fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) imaging, in the cerebellum.

  4. Synthesis of two potential NK1-receptor ligands using [1-11C]ethyl iodide and [1-11C]propyl iodide and initial PET-imaging.

    PubMed

    Syvänen, Stina; Eriksson, Jonas; Genchel, Tove; Lindhe, Orjan; Antoni, Gunnar; Långström, Bengt

    2007-07-30

    The previously validated NK1-receptor ligand [O-methyl-11C]GR205171 binds with a high affinity to the NK1-receptor and displays a slow dissociation from the receptor. Hence, it cannot be used in vivo for detecting concentration changes in substance P, the endogenous ligand for the NK1-receptor. A radioligand used for monitoring these changes has to enable displacement by the endogenous ligand and thus bind reversibly to the receptor. Small changes in the structure of a receptor ligand can lead to changes in binding characteristics and also in the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to use carbon-11 labelled ethyl and propyl iodide with high specific radioactivity in the synthesis of two new and potentially reversible NK1-receptor ligands with chemical structures based on [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. [1-11C]Ethyl and [1-11C]propyl iodide with specific radioactivities of 90 GBq/mumol and 270 GBq/mumol, respectively, were used in the synthesis of [O-methyl-11C]GR205171 analogues by alkylation of O-desmethyl GR205171. The brain uptake of the obtained (2S,3S)-N-(1-(2- [1-11C]ethoxy-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)ethyl)-2-phenylpiperidin-3-amine (I) and (2S,3S)-2-phenyl-N-(1-(2- [1-11C]propoxy-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidin-3-amine (II) was studied with PET in guinea pigs and rhesus monkeys and compared to the uptake of [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. All ligands had similar uptake distribution in the guinea pig brain. The PET-studies in rhesus monkeys showed that (II) had no specific binding in striatum. Ligand (I) had moderate specific binding compared to the [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. The ethyl analogue (I) displayed reversible binding characteristics contrary to the slow dissociation rate shown by [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. The propyl-analogue (II) cannot be used for detecting changes in NK1-ligand levels, while further studies should be performed with the ethyl-analogue (I).

  5. Synthesis of two potential NK1-receptor ligands using [1-11C]ethyl iodide and [1-11C]propyl iodide and initial PET-imaging

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Stina; Eriksson, Jonas; Genchel, Tove; Lindhe, Örjan; Antoni, Gunnar; Långström, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Background The previously validated NK1-receptor ligand [O-methyl-11C]GR205171 binds with a high affinity to the NK1-receptor and displays a slow dissociation from the receptor. Hence, it cannot be used in vivo for detecting concentration changes in substance P, the endogenous ligand for the NK1-receptor. A radioligand used for monitoring these changes has to enable displacement by the endogenous ligand and thus bind reversibly to the receptor. Small changes in the structure of a receptor ligand can lead to changes in binding characteristics and also in the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to use carbon-11 labelled ethyl and propyl iodide with high specific radioactivity in the synthesis of two new and potentially reversible NK1-receptor ligands with chemical structures based on [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. Methods [1-11C]Ethyl and [1-11C]propyl iodide with specific radioactivities of 90 GBq/μmol and 270 GBq/μmol, respectively, were used in the synthesis of [O-methyl-11C]GR205171 analogues by alkylation of O-desmethyl GR205171. The brain uptake of the obtained (2S,3S)-N-(1-(2- [1-11C]ethoxy-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)ethyl)-2-phenylpiperidin-3-amine (I) and (2S,3S)-2-phenyl-N-(1-(2- [1-11C]propoxy-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidin-3-amine (II) was studied with PET in guinea pigs and rhesus monkeys and compared to the uptake of [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. Results All ligands had similar uptake distribution in the guinea pig brain. The PET-studies in rhesus monkeys showed that (II) had no specific binding in striatum. Ligand (I) had moderate specific binding compared to the [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. The ethyl analogue (I) displayed reversible binding characteristics contrary to the slow dissociation rate shown by [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. Conclusion The propyl-analogue (II) cannot be used for detecting changes in NK1-ligand levels, while further studies should be performed with the

  6. Single passive direct methanol fuel cell supplied with pure methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ligang; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Weiwei; Liang, Liang; Xing, Wei; Liu, Changpeng

    2011-03-01

    A new single passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) supplied with pure methanol is designed, assembled and tested using a pervaporation membrane (PM) to control the methanol transport. The effect of the PM size on the fuel cell performances and the constant current discharge of the fuel cell with one-fueling are studied. The results show that the fuel cell with PM 9 cm2 can yield a maximum power density of about 21 mW cm-2, and a stable performances at a discharge current of 100 mA can last about 45 h. Compared with DMFC supplied with 3 M methanol solution, the energy density provided by this new DMFC has increased about 6 times.

  7. [11C]Cyclopropyl-FLB 457: a PET radioligand for low densities of dopamine D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Airaksinen, Anu J.; Nag, Sangram; Finnema, Sjoerd J.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Gulyás, Balázs; Farde, Lars; Halldin, Christer

    2008-01-01

    (S)-5-Bromo-N-[(1-cyclopropylmethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (4) has pico-molar in vitro binding affinity to D2 receptor (Ki(D2) = 0.003 nM) with lower affinity to D3 receptor (Ki (D3)= 0.22 nM). In this study, we describe radiosynthesis of [11C]4 and evaluation of its binding characteristics in post mortem human brain autoradiography and with PET in cynomolgus monkeys. The 11C labelled 4 was synthesized by using [11C]methyltriflate in a methylation reaction with its phenolic precursor with good incorporation yield (64 ± 11 %, DCY) and high specific radioactivity >370 GBq/μmol (> 10 000 Ci/mmol). In post mortem human brain autoradiography [11C]4 exhibited high specific binding in brain regions enriched with dopamine D2/D3 receptors and low level of non-specific binding. In cynomolgus monkeys [11C]4 exhibited high brain uptake reaching 4.4% ID at 7.5 minutes. The binding in the extrastriatal low density D2-receptor regions; thalamus and frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex, was clearly visible. Pretreatment with raclopride (1mg/kg as tartrate) caused high reduction of binding in extrastriatal regions, including cerebellum. [11C]4 is a promising radioligand for imaging D2 receptors in low density regions in brain. PMID:18534857

  8. In vivo variation in metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 binding using positron emission tomography and [11C]ABP688

    PubMed Central

    DeLorenzo, Christine; Kumar, J S Dileep; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2011-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Recently, a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer exhibiting high selectivity and specificity for mGluR5, 3-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-ylethynyl)-cyclohex-2-enone-O-11C-methyl-oxime ([11C]ABP688), was developed. In this work, eight healthy adult male humans were imaged twice to assess within-subject [11C]ABP688 binding variability using PET. In seven of the eight subjects, significantly higher binding was observed during the second (retest) scan. This binding increase could not be definitively explained by differences in ligand injected mass or dose, or changes in metabolism between scans. In addition, this type of systematic binding increase was not observed in a [11C]ABP688 test–retest study performed by our group on anaesthetized baboons. It is therefore possible that the increased binding was because of physiological changes occurring between scans, such as changes in endogenous glutamate levels. If PET imaging with [11C]ABP688 could detect such differences, as preliminary evidence suggests, it could be used to help uncover the role of glutamate in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. However, regardless of its ability to detect endogenous glutamate differences, [11C]ABP688 binding variability could make accurate assessments of drug occupancy or group differences using this ligand difficult. PMID:21792244

  9. The effect of nicotine on striatal dopamine release in man: A [11C]raclopride PET study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Andrew J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Egerton, Alice; Nutt, David J; Grasby, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    In common with many addictive substances and behaviors nicotine activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Brain microdialysis studies in rodents have consistently shown increases in extrasynaptic DA levels in the striatum after administration of nicotine but PET experiments in primates have given contradicting results. A recent PET study assessing the effect of smoking in humans showed no change in [(11)C]raclopride binding in the brain, but did find that "hedonia" correlated with a reduction in [(11)C]raclopride binding suggesting that DA may mediate the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine. In this experiment we measured the effect of nicotine, administered via a nasal spray, on DA release using [(11)C]raclopride PET, in 10 regular smokers. There was no overall change in [(11)C]raclopride binding after nicotine administration in any of the striatal regions examined. However, the individual change in [(11)C]raclopride binding correlated with change in subjective measures of "amused" and "happiness" in the associative striatum (AST) and sensorimotor striatum (SMST). Nicotine concentration correlated negatively with change in BP in the limbic striatum. Nicotine had significant effects on cardiovascular measures including pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (BPr), and diastolic BPr. Baseline [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP) in the AST correlated negatively with the Fagerström score, an index of nicotine dependence. These results support a role for the DA system in nicotine addiction, but reveal a more complex relationship than suggested by studies in animals.

  10. Brain serotonin synthesis in MDMA (ecstasy) polydrug users: an alpha-[(11) C]methyl-l-tryptophan study.

    PubMed

    Booij, Linda; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Young, Simon N; Regoli, Martine; Gravel, Paul; Diksic, Mirko; Leyton, Marco; Pihl, Robert O; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2014-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) use may have long-term neurotoxic effects. In this study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11) C]methyl-l-tryptophan ((11) C-AMT) was used to compare human brain serotonin (5-HT) synthesis capacity in 17 currently drug-free MDMA polydrug users with that in 18 healthy matched controls. Gender differences and associations between regional (11) C-AMT trapping and characteristics of MDMA use were also examined. MDMA polydrug users exhibited lower normalized (11) C-AMT trapping in pre-frontal, orbitofrontal, and parietal regions, relative to controls. These differences were more widespread in males than in females. Increased normalized (11) C-AMT trapping in MDMA users was also observed, mainly in the brainstem and in frontal and temporal areas. Normalized (11) C-AMT trapping in the brainstem and pre-frontal regions correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with greater lifetime accumulated MDMA use, longer durations of MDMA use, and shorter time elapsed since the last MDMA use. Although the possibility of pre-existing 5-HT alterations pre-disposing people to use MDMA cannot be ruled out, regionally decreased 5-HT synthesis capacity in the forebrain could be interpreted as neurotoxicity of MDMA on distal (frontal) brain regions. On the other hand, increased 5-HT synthesis capacity in the raphe and adjacent areas could be due to compensatory mechanisms.

  11. Tracer kinetic modeling of [11C]AFM, a new PET imaging agent for the serotonin transporter

    PubMed Central

    Naganawa, Mika; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Planeta, Beata; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Lin, Shu-Fei; Najafzadeh, Soheila; Williams, Wendol; Ropchan, Jim; Labaree, David; Neumeister, Alexander; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    [11C]AFM, or [11C]2-[2-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenylthio]-5-fluoromethylphenylamine, is a new positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand with high affinity and selectivity for the serotonin transporter (SERT). The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate kinetic model to quantify [11C]AFM binding in the healthy human brain. Positron emission tomography data and arterial input functions were acquired from 10 subjects. Compartmental modeling and the multilinear analysis-1(MA1) method were tested using the arterial input functions. The one-tissue model showed a lack of fit in low-binding regions, and the two-tissue model failed to estimate parameters reliably. Regional time–activity curves were well described by MA1. The rank order of [11C]AFM binding potential (BPND) matched well with the known regional SERT densities. For routine use of [11C]AFM, several noninvasive methods for quantification of regional binding were evaluated, including simplified reference tissue models (SRTM and SRTM2), and multilinear reference tissue models (MRTM and MRTM2). The best methods for region of interest (ROI) analysis were MA1, MRTM2, and SRTM2, with fixed population kinetic values ( or b′) for the reference methods. The MA1 and MRTM2 methods were best for parametric imaging. These results showed that [11C]AFM is a suitable PET radioligand to image and quantify SERT in humans. PMID:23921898

  12. Density of CD163+ CD11c+ dendritic cells increases and CD103+ dendritic cells decreases in the coeliac lesion.

    PubMed

    Beitnes, A-C R; Ráki, M; Lundin, K E A; Jahnsen, J; Sollid, L M; Jahnsen, F L

    2011-08-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa controlled by gluten-specific T cells restricted by disease-associated HLA-DQ molecules. We have previously reported that mucosal CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are responsible for activation of gluten-reactive T cells within the coeliac lesion. In mice, intestinal CD11c(+) DCs comprise several functionally distinct subsets. Here, we report that HLA-DQ(+) antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in normal human duodenal mucosa can be divided into four subsets with striking similarities to those described in mice: CD163(+) CD11c(-) macrophages (74%), and CD11c(+) cells expressing either CD163 (7%), CD103 (11%) or CD1c (13%). CD103(+) and CD1c(+) DCs belonged to partly overlapping populations, whereas CD163(+) CD11c(+) APCs appeared to be a distinct population. In the coeliac lesion, we found increased density of CD163(+) CD11c(+) APCs, whereas the density of CD103(+) and CD1c(+) DCs was decreased, suggesting that distinct subpopulations of APCs in coeliac disease may exert different functions in the pathogenesis. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. CD11c.DTR mice develop a fatal fulminant myocarditis after local or systemic treatment with diphtheria toxin.

    PubMed

    Männ, Linda; Kochupurakkal, Nora; Martin, Christian; Verjans, Eva; Klingberg, Anika; Sody, Simon; Kraus, Andreas; Dalimot, Jill; Bergmüller, Eileen; Jung, Steffen; Voortman, Sylvia; Winterhager, Elke; Brandau, Sven; Garbi, Natalio; Kurrer, Michael; Eriksson, Urs; Gunzer, Matthias; Hasenberg, Mike

    2016-08-01

    To assess the role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) during a pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection AMs were depleted by intratracheal application of diphtheria toxin (DTX) to transgenic CD11c.DTR mice prior to fungal infection. Unexpectedly, all CD11c.DTR mice treated with DTX died within 4-5 days, whether being infected with A. fumigatus or not. Despite measurable impact of DTX on lung functional parameters, these constrictions could not explain the high mortality rate. Instead, DTX-treated CD11c.DTR animals developed fulminant myocarditis (FM) characterized by massive leukocyte infiltration and myocardial cell destruction, including central parts of the heart's stimulus transmission system. In fact, standard limb lead ECG recordings of diseased but not healthy mice showed a "Brugada"-like pattern with an abnormally high ST segment pointing to enhanced susceptibility for potential lethal arrhythmias. While CD11c.DTR mice are extensively used for the characterization of CD11c(+) cells, including dendritic cells, several studies have already mentioned adverse side effects following DTX treatment. Our results demonstrate that this limitation is based on severe myocarditis but not on the expected lung constrictions, and has to be taken into consideration if this animal model is used. Based on these properties, however, the CD11c.DTR mouse might serve as useful animal model for FM. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. CD11c+ cells are required for antigen-induced increase of mast cells in the lung.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Feinstein, Ricardo; Cui, Yue; Heyman, Birgitta; Hallgren, Jenny

    2012-10-15

    Patients with allergic asthma have more lung mast cells, which likely worsens the symptoms. In experimental asthma, CD11c(+) cells have to be present during the challenge phase for several features of allergic inflammation to occur. Whether CD11c(+) cells play a role for Ag-induced increases of lung mast cells is unknown. In this study, we used diphtheria toxin treatment of sensitized CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice to deplete CD11c(+) cells. We demonstrate that recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung is substantially reduced when CD11c(+) cells are depleted during the challenge phase. This correlated with an impaired induction of endothelial VCAM-1 and led to a significantly reduced number of mature mast cells 1 wk after challenge. Collectively, these data suggest that Ag challenge stimulates CD11c(+) cells to produce cytokines and/or chemokines required for VCAM-1 upregulation on the lung endothelium, which in turn is crucial for the Ag-induced mast cell progenitor recruitment and the increase in mast cell numbers.

  15. Methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cell systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, B. S.; Bender, G.; Davey, J. R.; Zelenay, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are currently being investigated for a number of different applications from several milliwatts to near kilowatt size scales (cell phones, laptops, auxiliary power units, etc .). Because methanol has a very high energy density, over 6000 W hr/kg, a DMFC can possibly have greatly extended lifetimes compared to the batteries, doesn't present the storage problems associated with hydrogen fuel cells and can possibly operate more efficiently and cleanly than internal combustion engines.

  16. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    1984-12-18

    A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel.

  17. Comparison of autologous 111In-leukocytes, 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate for diagnostic nuclear imaging in a juvenile porcine haematogenous staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis model

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ole L; Afzelius, Pia; Bender, Dirk; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Leifsson, Páll S; Nielsen, Karin M; Larsen, Jytte O; Jensen, Svend B; Alstrup, Aage KO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 111In-labeled leukocyte single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve detection of osteomyelitis. We chose 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate and validated their diagnostic utility in a porcine haematogenous osteomyelitis model. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus using a sequential scan protocol with 18F-FDG, 68Ga-citrate, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, 99mTc-Nanocoll and 111In-labelled autologous leukocytes. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs developed a total of five osteomyelitis lesions, five lesions characterized as abscesses/cellulitis, arthritis in three joints and five enlarged lymph nodes. None of the tracers accumulated in joints with arthritis. By comparing the 10 infectious lesions, 18F-FDG accumulated in nine, 111In-leukocytes in eight, 11C-methionine in six, 68Ga-citrate in four and 11C-PK11195 accumulated in only one lesion. Overall, 18F-FDG PET was superior to 111In-leukocyte SPECT in marking infectious and proliferative, i.e. hyperplastic, lesions. However, leukocyte SPECT was performed as early scans, approximately 6 h after injection of the leukocytes, to match the requirements of the 18 h long scan protocol. 11C-methionine and possibly 68Ga-citrate may be useful for diagnosis of soft issue lesions. PMID:25973338

  18. MR-less surface-based amyloid assessment based on 11C PiB PET.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luping; Salvado, Olivier; Dore, Vincent; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Raniga, Parnesh; Macaulay, S Lance; Ames, David; Masters, Colin L; Ellis, Kathryn A; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Fripp, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in brain's grey matter (GM) are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and can be imaged in vivo using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (11)C or (18)F radiotracers. Estimating Aβ burden in cortical GM has been shown to improve diagnosis and monitoring of AD. However, lacking structural information in PET images requires such assessments to be performed with anatomical MRI scans, which may not be available at different clinical settings or being contraindicated for particular reasons. This study aimed to develop an MR-less Aβ imaging quantification method that requires only PET images for reliable Aβ burden estimations. The proposed method has been developed using a multi-atlas based approach on (11)C-PiB scans from 143 subjects (75 PiB+ and 68 PiB- subjects) in AIBL study. A subset of 20 subjects (PET and MRI) were used as atlases: 1) MRI images were co-registered with tissue segmentation; 2) 3D surface at the GM-WM interfacing was extracted and registered to a canonical space; 3) Mean PiB retention within GM was estimated and mapped to the surface. For other participants, each atlas PET image (and surface) was registered to the subject's PET image for PiB estimation within GM. The results are combined by subject-specific atlas selection and Bayesian fusion to generate estimated surface values. All PiB+ subjects (N = 75) were highly correlated between the MR-dependent and the PET-only methods with Intraclass Correlation (ICC) of 0.94, and an average relative difference error of 13% (or 0.23 SUVR) per surface vertex. All PiB- subjects (N = 68) revealed visually akin patterns with a relative difference error of 16% (or 0.19 SUVR) per surface vertex. The demonstrated accuracy suggests that the proposed method could be an effective clinical inspection tool for Aβ imaging scans when MRI images are unavailable.

  19. Methanol Oxidation on Pt3Sn(111) for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Methanol Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Zhigang; Guo, Chen; Wang, Weili; Wei, Shuxian; Ng, Siu-Pang; Chen, Xiangfeng; Ding, Ning; Guo, Wenyue; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2016-05-18

    PtSn alloy, which is a potential material for use in direct methanol fuel cells, can efficiently promote methanol oxidation and alleviate the CO poisoning problem. Herein, methanol decomposition on Pt3Sn(111) was systematically investigated using periodic density functional theory and microkinetic modeling. The geometries and energies of all of the involved species were analyzed, and the decomposition network was mapped out to elaborate the reaction mechanisms. Our results indicated that methanol and formaldehyde were weakly adsorbed, and the other derivatives (CHxOHy, x = 1-3, y = 0-1) were strongly adsorbed and preferred decomposition rather than desorption on Pt3Sn(111). The competitive methanol decomposition started with the initial O-H bond scission followed by successive C-H bond scissions, (i.e., CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO). The Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations and energy barrier decomposition analyses identified the C-H and O-H bond scissions as being more competitive than the C-O bond scission. Microkinetic modeling confirmed that the vast majority of the intermediates and products from methanol decomposition would escape from the Pt3Sn(111) surface at a relatively low temperature, and the coverage of the CO residue decreased with an increase in the temperature and decrease in partial methanol pressure.

  20. An Improved Antagonist Radiotracer for the Kappa Opioid Receptor: Synthesis and Characterization of 11C-LY2459989

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Kim, Su Jin; Holden, Daniel; Lin, Shu-fei; Need, Anne; Rash, Karen; Barth, Vanessa; Mitch, Charles; Navarro, Antonio; Kapinos, Michael; Maloney, Kathleen; Ropchan, Jim; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2016-01-01

    The kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases and addictive disorders. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with radioligands provides a means to image the KOR in vivo and investigate its function in health and disease. The purpose of this study was to develop the selective KOR antagonist 11C-LY2459989 as a PET radioligand and characterize its imaging performance in non-human primates. Methods LY2459989 was synthesized and assayed for in vitro binding to opioid receptors. Ex vivo studies in rodents were conducted to assess its potential as a tracer candidate. 11C-LY2459989 was synthesized by reaction of its iodophenyl precursor with 11C-cyanide followed by partial hydrolysis of the resulting 11C-cyanophenyl intermediate. Imaging experiments with 11C-LY2459989 were carried out in rhesus monkeys with arterial input function measurement. Imaging data were analyzed with kinetic models to derive in vivo binding parameters. Results LY2459989 is a full antagonist with high binding affinity and selectivity for KOR (Ki = 0.18, 7.68, and 91.3 nM, respectively, for κ, μ, and δ receptors). Ex vivo studies in rats indicated LY2459989 as an appropriate tracer candidate with high specific binding signals, and confirmed its KOR binding selectivity in vivo. 11C-LY2459989 was synthesized in high radiochemical purity and good specific activity. In rhesus monkeys, 11C-LY2459989 displayed a fast rate of peripheral metabolism. Similarly, 11C-LY2459989 displayed fast uptake kinetics in the brain and an uptake pattern consistent with the distribution of KOR in primates. Pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.v.) resulted in a uniform distribution of radioactivity in the brain. Further, specific binding of 11C-LY2459989 was dose-dependently reduced by the selective KOR antagonist LY2456302 and the unlabeled LY2459989. Regional binding potential (BPND) values derived from the multilinear analysis method (MA1), as a measure of in vivo specific

  1. In Vivo Imaging of Human 11C-Metformin in Peripheral Organs: Dosimetry, Biodistribution, and Kinetic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Gormsen, Lars C; Sundelin, Elias Immanuel; Jensen, Jonas Brorson; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Jakobsen, Steen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Hougaard Christensen, Mette Marie; Brøsen, Kim; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Jessen, Niels

    2016-12-01

    Metformin is the most widely prescribed oral antiglycemic drug, with few adverse effects. However, surprisingly little is known about its human biodistribution and target tissue metabolism. In animal experiments, we have shown that metformin can be labeled by (11)C and that (11)C-metformin PET can be used to measure renal function. Here, we extend these preclinical findings by a first-in-human (11)C-metformin PET dosimetry, biodistribution, and tissue kinetics study. Nine subjects (3 women and 6 men) participated in 2 studies: in the first study, human radiation dosimetry and biodistribution of (11)C-metformin were estimated in 4 subjects (2 women and 2 men) by whole-body PET. In the second study, (11)C-metformin tissue kinetics were measured in response to both intravenous and oral radiotracer administration. A dynamic PET scan with a field of view covering target tissues of metformin (liver, kidneys, intestines, and skeletal muscle) was obtained for 90 (intravenous) and 120 (oral) min. Radiation dosimetry was acceptable, with effective doses of 9.5 μSv/MBq (intravenous administration) and 18.1 μSv/MBq (oral administration). Whole-body PET revealed that (11)C-metformin was primarily taken up by the kidneys, urinary bladder, and liver but also to a lesser extent in salivary glands, skeletal muscle, and intestines. Reversible 2-tissue-compartment kinetics was observed in the liver, and volume of distribution was calculated to be 2.45 mL/mL (arterial input) or 2.66 mL/mL (portal and arterial input). In the kidneys, compartmental models did not adequately fit the experimental data, and volume of distribution was therefore estimated by a linear approach to be 6.83 mL/mL. Skeletal muscle and intestinal tissue kinetics were best described by 2-tissue-compartment kinetics and showed only discrete tracer uptake. Liver (11)C-metformin uptake was pronounced after oral administration of the tracer, with tissue-to-blood ratio double what was observed after intravenous

  2. Short-Lived Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L−, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c− CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c−, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127− terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1− CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c− CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, short-lived, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes. PMID:23980113

  3. 11C-Acetate PET/CT Imaging in Localized Prostate Cancer: A study with MRI and Histopathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Mena, Esther; Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Adler, Stephen; Valera, Vladimir A.; Bernardo, Marcelino; Shah, Vijay; Pohida, Thomas; McKinney, Yolanda; Kwarteng, Gideon; Daar, Dagane; Lindenberg, Maria L.; Eclarinal, Philip; Wade, Revia; Linehan, W. Marston; Merino, Maria J.; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter L.; Kurdziel, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    This work characterizes the uptake of 11C-Acetate in prostate cancer (PCa), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and normal prostate tissue in comparison with multi-parametric MRI, whole mount histopathology and clinical markers, to evaluate its potential utility for delineating intra-prostatic tumors in a population of patients with localized PCa. METHODS 39 men with presumed localized PCa underwent dynamic/static abdomen-pelvic 11C-Acetate PET/CT for 30-minutes and 3T multi-parametric (MP) MRI prior to prostatectomy. PET/CT images were registered to MRI using pelvic bones for initial rotation-translation, followed by manual adjustments to account for prostate motion and deformation from the MRI endorectal coil. Whole-mount pathology specimens were sectioned using an MRI-based patient specific mold resulting in improved registration between the MRI, PET and pathology. 11C-Acetate PET standardized uptake values were compared with MP-MRI and pathology. RESULTS 11C-Acetate uptake was rapid but reversible, peaking at 3–5 minutes post-injection and reaching a relative plateau at ~10 minutes. The average SUVmax(10–12min) of tumors was significantly higher than that of normal prostate tissue (4.4±2.05, range 1.8–9.2 vs. 2.1±0.94, range 0.7–3.4; p<0.001); however it was not significantly different from benign prostatic hyperplasia (4.8±2.01; range 1.8–8.8). A sector-based comparison with histopathology, including all tumors > 0.5 cm, revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 61.6 % and 80.0 % for 11C-Acetate PET/CT, and 82.3% and 95.1% for MRI, respectively. Considering only tumors >0.9 cm the 11C-Acetate accuracy was comparable to that of MRI. In a small cohort (n=9), 11C-Acetate uptake was independent of fatty acid synthase expression based on immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION 11C-Acetate PET/CT demonstrates higher uptake in tumor foci than normal prostate tissue; however 11C-Acetate uptake in tumors is similar to BPH nodules. While 11C-Acetate PET/CT is not

  4. T-bet(+)CD11c(+) B cells are critical for antichromatin immunoglobulin G production in the development of lupus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Zhou, Shiyu; Qian, Jie; Wang, Yan; Yu, Xiang; Dai, Dai; Dai, Min; Wu, Lingling; Liao, Zhuojun; Xue, Zhixin; Wang, Jiehua; Hou, Goujun; Ma, Jianyang; Harley, John B; Tang, Yuanjia; Shen, Nan

    2017-10-05

    A hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus is high titers of circulating autoantibodies. Recently, a novel CD11c(+) B-cell subset has been identified that is critical for the development of autoimmunity. However, the role of CD11c(+) B cells in the development of lupus is unclear. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a lupus-like syndrome with high autoantibody production. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of CD11c(+) B cells in the pathogenesis of lupus in cGVHD mice. cGVHD was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 5 × 10(7) Bm12 splenocytes into B6 mice. Flow cytometry was used to analyze mice splenocytes and human samples. Magnetic beads were used to isolate mice B cells. Gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies in serum and supernatants. The percentage and absolute number of CD11c(+) B cells was increased in cGVHD-induced lupus, with elevated levels of antichromatin immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgG2a in sera. CD11c(+) plasma cells from cGVHD mice produced large amounts of antichromatin IgG2a upon stimulation. Depletion of CD11c(+) B cells reduced antichromatin IgG and IgG2a production. T-bet was upregulated in CD11c(+) B cells. Knockout of T-bet in B cells alleviated cGVHD-induced lupus. Importantly, the percentage of T-bet(+)CD11c(+) B cells increased in lupus patients and positively correlated with serum antichromatin levels. T-bet(+)CD11c(+) B cells promoted high antichromatin IgG production in the lupus-like disease model cGVHD. In lupus patients, the percentage of T-bet(+)CD11c(+) B cells was elevated and positively correlated with antichromatin antibodies. The findings provide potential therapeutic insight into lupus disease treatment.

  5. [{sup 11}C]d-threo-Methylphenidate, a new radiotracer for the dopamine transporter. Characterization in baboon and human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.

    1995-05-01

    dl-threo Methylphenidate (MP, Ritalin) is a psychostimulant drug which binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT). We evaluated [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate ([{sup 11}C]d-MP), the more active enantiomer, as a radiotracer for the DAT in baboons and human brain. Stereoselectivity, saturability and pharmacological specificity and reproducibility were examined. Stereoselectivity was examined in baboons by comparing [{sup 11C}]d-MP,[{sup 11}C]l-MP and [{sup 11}C]dl-MP. Unlabeled MP was used to assess the reversibility and saturability of the binding. GBR 12909,{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester ({beta}-CIT), tomoxetine and citalopram were used to assess the specificity of the binding. The ratios between the radioactivity in the striatum to that in cerebellum (ST/CB) were 3.3,2.2 and 1.1 for [{sup 11}C]d-MP,[{sup 11}C]dl-MP and [{sup 11}C]l-MP respectively. Most of the striatal binding of [{sup 11}C]d-threo-MP was displaced by injection of nonradioactive MP demonstrating reversibility. Pretreatment with MP (0.5 mg/kg), GBR12909 (1.5 mg/kg) or {beta}-CIT (0.3 mg/kg) reduced ST/CB by about 60% and the ratios of distribution volumes at the steady-state for the triatum to cerebellum (DV{sub st/}DV{sub cb}) by about 50%. Pretreatment with tomoxetine (3.0 mg/kg) or citalopram (2.0 mg/kg), inhibitors of the norepinephrine and serotonin transporter, had no effect. Studies of [{sup 11}C]d-MP in the human brain showed highest uptake in basal ganglia with a half clearance time of about 60 minutes. Repeated studies in 6 normal human subjects showed differences in DV{sub st/}DV{sub cb} between -7% and 8%. MP pretreatment decreased BG but no cortical or cerebellar binding and reduced Bmax/Kd by 91%.

  6. 4-(11)C-Methoxy N-(2-Diethylaminoethyl) Benzamide: A Novel Probe to Selectively Target Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pradeep K; Nazih, Rachid; Wu, Yanjun; Singh, Ravi; Garg, Sudha

    2017-05-01

    We report the synthesis and preclinical evaluation of a (11)C-labeled probe to target melanoma using PET. Methods: The target compound 4-(11)C-methoxy N-(2-diethylaminoethyl) benzamide (4-(11)C-MBZA) was prepared via the (11)C-methylation of 4-hydroxy N-(2-diethylaminoethyl) benzamide (4-HBZA). The in vitro binding was performed using B16F1 (melanoma cells), MCF-10A (breast epithelial cells), and MDA-MB 231 (breast cancer cells). The internalization studies were conducted using B16F1 cells. In vivo biodistribution and small-animal PET imaging were performed in mice bearing B16F1 melanoma tumor xenografts. Results: The target compound 4-(11)C-MBZA was prepared in 46% ± 7% radiochemical yields by reacting (11)C-methyltriflate with 4-HBZA followed by high-performance liquid chromatography purification. The specific activity of this compound was 853 ± 29.6 GBq/μmol (23 ± 0.8 Ci/μmol). The binding of 4-(11)C-MBZA to B16F1, MCF-10A, and MDA-MB-231 cells was 6.41% ± 1.28%, 1.51% ± 0.17%, and 0.30% ± 0.17%, respectively. Internalization studies using B16F1 melanoma cells show 60.7% of the cell-bound activity was internalized. Results from biodistribution studies show a rapid and high uptake of radioactivity in the tumor, with uptake levels reaching 5.85 ± 0.79 and 8.13 ± 1.46 percentage injected dose per gram at 10 and 60 min, respectively. Low uptake in normal tissues in conjunction with high tumor uptake resulted in high tumor-to-tissue ratios. On small-animal PET images, the tumor was clearly delineated soon after 4-(11)C-MBZA injection and tumor uptake reached 4.2 percentage injected dose per gram by 20 min. These preclinical evaluations show a high propensity of 4-(11)C-MBZA toward melanoma tumor. Conclusion: We successfully developed 4-(11)C-MBZA as a PET imaging probe, displaying properties advantageous over those for its (18)F analogs. These preclinical evaluation results demonstrate the clinical potential of this probe to selectively target melanoma.

  7. Comparison of microglia and infiltrating CD11c+ cells as antigen presenting cells for T cell proliferation and cytokine response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tissue-resident antigen-presenting cells (APC) exert a major influence on the local immune environment. Microglia are resident myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS), deriving from early post-embryonic precursors, distinct from adult hematopoietic lineages. Dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages infiltrate the CNS during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Microglia are not considered to be as effective APC as DC or macrophages. Methods In this work we compared the antigen presenting capacity of CD11c+ and CD11c− microglia subsets with infiltrating CD11c+ APC, which include DC. The microglial subpopulations (CD11c− CD45dim CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD45dim CD11b+) as well as infiltrating CD11c+ CD45high cells were sorted from CNS of C57BL/6 mice with EAE. Sorted cells were characterised by flow cytometry for surface phenotype and by quantitative real-time PCR for cytokine expression. They were co-cultured with primed T cells to measure induction of T cell proliferation and cytokine response. Results The number of CD11c+ microglia cells increased dramatically in EAE. They expressed equivalent levels of major histocompatibility complex and co-stimulatory ligands CD80 and CD86 as those expressed by CD11c+ cells infiltrating from blood. CD11c+ microglia differed significantly from blood-derived CD11c+ cells in their cytokine profile, expressing no detectable IL-6, IL-12 or IL-23, and low levels of IL-1β. By contrast, CD11c− microglia expressed low but detectable levels of all these cytokines. Transforming growth factor β expression was similar in all three populations. Although CNS-resident and blood-derived CD11c+ cells showed equivalent ability to induce proliferation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-immunised CD4+ T cells, CD11c+ microglia induced lower levels of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cytokines, and did not induce Th2 cytokines. Conclusions Our findings show distinct subtypes of APC in the inflamed CNS, with a hierarchy of

  8. Methanol unity frays, discounting returns

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1997-02-05

    This article reviews the price variation in methanol for February 1997 and how the company Methanex compares to other producers. The discrepancy between posting prices and transaction prices is noted.

  9. Aspects of monitoring and quality assurance for radiolabeled antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E. . School of Public Health)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides an informational resource and guide for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees who produce or use radiolabeled antibodies (RABs). Components of quality assurance programs related to the production and use of RABs are reviewed and evaluated, and recommendations are made on dosage calibrations, exposure control, monitoring, and personnel requirements. Special emphasis is placed on dose calibrators because these instruments are used extensively to measure the dosage of radiopharmaceuticals to be administered to patients. The difficulties of using dose calibrators to quantify dosages of beta- and alpha-emitters are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using other instruments are examined, and recommendations are made on the types of instruments to be used for different applications. 46 refs., 8 tabs.

  10. Isolation of radiolabeled isoflavones from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-09-10

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled (14)C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 microCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 microCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently (14)C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies.

  11. Isolation of Radiolabeled Isoflavones from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 μCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 μCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently 14C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies PMID:18690681

  12. Radiolabeling of Nanoparticles and Polymers for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stockhofe, Katharina; Postema, Johannes M.; Schieferstein, Hanno; Ross, Tobias L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine has become an emerging field in imaging and therapy of malignancies. Nanodimensional drug delivery systems have already been used in the clinic, as carriers for sensitive chemotherapeutics or highly toxic substances. In addition, those nanodimensional structures are further able to carry and deliver radionuclides. In the development process, non-invasive imaging by means of positron emission tomography (PET) represents an ideal tool for investigations of pharmacological profiles and to find the optimal nanodimensional architecture of the aimed-at drug delivery system. Furthermore, in a personalized therapy approach, molecular imaging modalities are essential for patient screening/selection and monitoring. Hence, labeling methods for potential drug delivery systems are an indispensable need to provide the radiolabeled analog. In this review, we describe and discuss various approaches and methods for the labeling of potential drug delivery systems using positron emitters. PMID:24699244

  13. Investigating expectation and reward in human opioid addiction with [(11) C]raclopride PET.

    PubMed

    Watson, Ben J; Taylor, Lindsay G; Reid, Alastair G; Wilson, Sue J; Stokes, Paul R; Brooks, David J; Myers, James F; Turkheimer, Federico E; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2014-11-01

    The rewarding properties of some abused drugs are thought to reside in their ability to increase striatal dopamine levels. Similar increases have been shown in response to expectation of a positive drug effect. The actions of opioid drugs on striatal dopamine release are less well characterized. We examined whether heroin and the expectation of heroin reward increases striatal dopamine levels in human opioid addiction. Ten opioid-dependent participants maintained on either methadone or buprenorphine underwent [(11) C]raclopride positron emission tomography imaging. Opioid-dependent participants were scanned three times, receiving reward from 50-mg intravenous heroin (diamorphine; pharmaceutical heroin) during the first scan to generate expectation of the same reward at the second scan, during which they only received 0.1-mg intravenous heroin. There was no heroin injection during the third scan. Intravenous 50-mg heroin during the first scan induced pronounced effects leading to high levels of expectation at the second scan. There was no detectable increase in striatal dopamine levels to either heroin reward or expectation of reward. We believe this is the first human study to examine whether expectation of heroin reward increases striatal dopamine levels in opioid addiction. The absence of detectable increased dopamine levels to both the expectation and delivery of a heroin-related reward may have been due to the impact of substitute medication. It does however contrast with the changes seen in abstinent stimulant users, suggesting that striatal dopamine release alone may not play such a pivotal role in opioid-maintained individuals.

  14. Cortical thinning in subcortical vascular dementia with negative 11C-PiB PET.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Hun; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Geon Ha; Shin, Ji Soo; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Kim, Suk-Hui; Kim, Min Ji; Jeon, Seun; Yoon, Uicheul; Lee, Jong-Min; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jae-Hong; Na, Duk L

    2012-01-01

    To determine the existence of cortical thinning in subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) with a negative 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography scan and to compare the topography of cortical thinning between PiB-negative SVaD and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we enrolled 24 patients with PiB(-) SVaD, 81 clinically probable AD individuals, and 72 normal cognitive controls. Compared with controls, cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD was most profound in the perisylvian area, medial prefrontal area, and posterior cingulate gyri, while the precuneus and medial temporal lobes were relatively spared. When the cortical thickness of AD and PiB(-) SVaD were directly compared, PiB(-) SVaD demonstrated significant cortical thinning in the bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal gyri, and right medial frontal and orbitofrontal lobes, while AD showed significant cortical thinning in the right medial temporal region. SVaD without amyloid burden may lead to substantial cortical atrophy. Moreover, characteristic topography of cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD suggests different mechanisms of cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD and AD.

  15. In vivo Biodistribution of Radiolabeled Acoustic Protein Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Le Floc'h, Johann; Zlitni, Aimen; Bilton, Holly A; Yin, Melissa; Farhadi, Arash; Janzen, Nancy R; Shapiro, Mikhail G; Valliant, John F; Foster, F Stuart

    2017-09-27

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound plays an expanding role in oncology, but its applicability to molecular imaging is hindered by a lack of nanoscale contrast agents that can reach targets outside the vasculature. Gas vesicles (GVs)-a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures-have recently been introduced as a promising new class of ultrasound contrast agents that can potentially access the extravascular space and be modified for molecular targeting. The purpose of the present study is to determine the quantitative biodistribution of GVs, which is critical for their development as imaging agents. We use a novel bioorthogonal radiolabeling strategy to prepare technetium-99m-radiolabeled ([(99m)Tc])GVs in high radiochemical purity. We use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and tissue counting to quantitatively assess GV biodistribution in mice. Twenty minutes following administration to mice, the SPECT biodistribution shows that 84 % of [(99m)Tc]GVs are taken up by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and 13 % are found in the gall bladder and duodenum. Quantitative tissue counting shows that the uptake (mean ± SEM % of injected dose/organ) is 0.6 ± 0.2 for the gall bladder, 46.2 ± 3.1 for the liver, 1.91 ± 0.16 for the lungs, and 1.3 ± 0.3 for the spleen. Fluorescence imaging confirmed the presence of GVs in RES. These results provide essential information for the development of GVs as targeted nanoscale imaging agents for ultrasound.

  16. Intravesical administration of radiolabeled antitumor monoclonal antibody in bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bamias, A.; Keane, P.; Krausz, T.; Williams, G.; Epenetos, A.A. )

    1991-01-15

    Tumor associated AUA1 monoclonal antibody and 11.4.1. nonspecific monoclonal antibody, which does not react with human tissues, were radiolabeled with 111In and administered intravesically to 23 patients undergoing cystoscopy for bladder carcinoma. The antibody solution remained in the bladder for 1 h and then was washed out prior to cystoscopy. Tumor and nontumor samples were obtained during cystoscopy and were counted in a gamma counter. Conventional and immunoperoxidase staining with both antibodies were also performed. AUA1 reacted with all bladder carcinomas while 11.4.1. was negative in all cases. The mean uptake of AUA1 at 2, 24, and 48 h after the instillation (expressed as 10(3) x percentage of injected dose/g of tissue) was: 6.12 +/- 5.50 (SD), 1.70 +/- 2.57, 0.30 +/- 0.17 in the tumors and 0.32 +/- 0.50, 0.22 +/- 0.30, 0 in the nontumor areas, and for 11.4.1. it was: 0.075 +/- 0.075, 0.025 +/- 0.025 in the tumors and 0.30 +/- 0.42, 0.15 +/- 0.26 in the nontumor areas. The uptake of AUA1 by the tumors correlated with the tumor grade. There was no radioactivity in the blood at 2 h, and at 1, 2, and 3 days after the instillation. Our results indicate that intravesical administration of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody AUA1 targets selectively to tumor tissue without any significant normal tissue uptake. This finding might allow the development of a nontoxic and specific therapeutic approach for superficial bladder carcinoma.

  17. Further insights into brevetoxin metabolism by de novo radiolabeling.

    PubMed

    Calabro, Kevin; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhänsli, François; Goudour, Jean-Pierre; Warnau, Michel; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Thomas, Olivier P

    2014-06-10

    The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, responsible for early harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico, produces many secondary metabolites, including potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins (PbTx). These compounds have been identified as toxic agents for humans, and they are also responsible for the deaths of several marine organisms. The overall biosynthesis of these highly complex metabolites has not been fully ascertained, even if there is little doubt on a polyketide origin. In addition to gaining some insights into the metabolic events involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds, feeding studies with labeled precursors helps to discriminate between the de novo biosynthesis of toxins and conversion of stored intermediates into final toxic products in the response to environmental stresses. In this context, the use of radiolabeled precursors is well suited as it allows working with the highest sensitive techniques and consequently with a minor amount of cultured dinoflagellates. We were then able to incorporate [U-¹⁴C]-acetate, the renowned precursor of the polyketide pathway, in several PbTx produced by K. brevis. The specific activities of PbTx-1, -2, -3, and -7, identified by High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HRESIMS), were assessed by HPLC-UV and highly sensitive Radio-TLC counting. We demonstrated that working at close to natural concentrations of acetate is a requirement for biosynthetic studies, highlighting the importance of highly sensitive radiolabeling feeding experiments. Quantification of the specific activity of the four, targeted toxins led us to propose that PbTx-1 and PbTx-2 aldehydes originate from oxidation of the primary alcohols of PbTx-7 and PbTx-3, respectively. This approach will open the way for a better comprehension of the metabolic pathways leading to PbTx but also to a better understanding of their regulation by environmental factors.

  18. Interaction of a radiolabeled agonist with cardiac muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Harden, T.K.; Meeker, R.B.; Martin, M.W.

    1983-12-01

    The interaction of a radiolabeled muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, (methyl-/sup 3/H)oxotremorine acetate ((/sup 3/H)OXO), with a washed membrane preparation derived from rat heart, has been studied. In binding assays at 4 degrees C, the rate constants for association and dissociation of (/sup 3/H)OXO were 2 X 10(7) M-1 min-1 and 5 X 10(-3) min-1, respectively, Saturation binding isotherms indicated that binding was to a single population of sites with a Kd of approximately 300 pM. The density of (/sup 3/H)OXO binding sites (90-100 fmol/mg of protein) was approximately 75% of that determined for the radiolabeled receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate. Both muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)OXO with high affinity and Hill slopes of approximately one. Guanine nucleotides completely inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)OXO. This effect was on the maximum binding (Bmax) of (/sup 3/H)OXO with no change occurring in the Kd; the order of potency for five nucleotides was guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio-triphosphate) greater than 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate greater than GTP greater than or equal to guanosine/diphosphate greater than GMP. The (/sup 3/H)OXO-induced interaction of muscarinic receptors with a guanine nucleotide binding protein was stable to solubilization. That is, membrane receptors that were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)OXO could be solubilized with digitonin, and the addition of guanine nucleotides to the soluble, (/sup 3/H)OXO-labeled complex resulted in dissociation of (/sup 3/H)OXO from the receptor. Pretreatment of membranes with relatively low concentrations of N-ethylmaleimide inhibited (/sup 3/H)OXO binding by 85% with no change in the Kd of (/sup 3/H)OXO, and with no effect on (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding.

  19. Use of radiolabeled acetate to evaluate the rate of clearance of cerebral oxidative metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, J.L.; Kasliwal, R.; Duryea, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    Radiolabel derived from glucose (GLC) has been shown to have different cerebral retention kinetics than radiolabel derived from deoxyglucose (DG). In particular, activated structures with high metabolic rates have more rapid loss of GLC-derived radiolabel than DG-derived radiolabel. Because GLC-derived radiolabel can be lost from the brain glycolytically through lactate or oxidatively through CO{sub 2}, the cause of the difference between GLC and FDG is uncertain. We investigated the isolated oxidative pathway using radiolabeled acetate, which is only metabolized through the Krebs cycle. Male albino rats were anesthetized with halothane and femoral vein and artery catheters were placed. The rats were allowed to awaken for two hours prior to the studies. 100 uCi of {sup 14}C-acetate was administered as a 30 second IV infusion to each rat. Arterial samples were obtained at regular intervals. Groups of rats were killed at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Brains were rapidly removed, sectioned, and used to produce autoradiograms. The extracted and retained radiolabel was calculated as the brain concentration at time of death divided by the integral of the arterial tracer concentration. No detectable loss of radiolabel was found over the initial 10 minutes. Thereafter the rate of loss gradually increased reaching a maximum of 1.2% per minute by 60 minutes. This corresponds to a k4 rate constant of 0.012 min{sup -1}. The rate of loss of oxidative metabolites from rat brain was found to be very slow. This probably results from exchange of radiolabel with amino acid pools as the tracer is metabolized through the Krebs cycle. Therefore in conditions were glycolysis is increased out of proportion to oxidation and cerebral lactate concentration rises, radiolabel loss through lactate efflux can be a substantial fraction of overall loss.

  20. Synthesis of PET probe O(6)-[(3-[(11)C]methyl)benzyl]guanine by Pd(0)-mediated rapid C-[(11)C]methylation toward imaging DNA repair protein O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hiroko; Ikenuma, Hiroshi; Toda, Hiroshi; Kondo, Goro; Hirano, Masaki; Kato, Masaya; Abe, Junichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Ito, Kengo; Natsume, Atsushi; Suzuki, Masaaki

    2017-03-18

    O(6)-Benzylguanine (O(6)-BG) is a substrate of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which is involved in drug resistance of chemotherapy in the majority of glioblastoma multiform. For clinical diagnosis, it is hoped that the MGMT expression level could be determined by a noninvasive method to understand the detailed biological properties of MGMT-specific tumors. We synthesized (11)C-labeled O(6)-[(3-methyl)benzyl]guanine ([(11)C]mMeBG) as a positron emission tomography probe. Thus, a mixed amine-protected stannyl precursor, N(9)-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-O(6)-[3-(tributylstannyl)benzyl]-N(2)-(trifluoroacetyl)guanine, was subjected to rapid C-[(11)C]methylation under [(11)C]CH3I/[Pd2(dba)3]/P(o-CH3C6H4)3/CuCl/K2CO3 in NMP, followed by quick deprotection with LiOH/H2O, giving [(11)C]mMeBG with total radioactivity of 1.34GBq and ≥99% radiochemical and chemical purities.

  1. Depletion of CD11c+ cells in the CD11c.DTR model drives expansion of unique CD64+ Ly6C+ monocytes that are poised to release TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Henderson, Stephen; Ward, Sophie; Santos E Sousa, Pedro; Manzo, Teresa; Zhang, Lei; Conlan, Thomas; Means, Terry K; D'Aveni, Maud; Hermine, Olivier; Rubio, Marie-Thérèse; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Bennett, Clare L

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a vital role in innate and adaptive immunities. Inducible depletion of CD11c+ DCs engineered to express a high-affinity diphtheria toxin receptor has been a powerful tool to dissect DC function in vivo. However, despite reports showing that loss of DCs induces transient monocytosis, the monocyte population that emerges and the potential impact of monocytes on studies of DC function have not been investigated. We found that depletion of CD11c+ cells from CD11c.DTR mice induced the expansion of a variant CD64+ Ly6C+ monocyte population in the spleen and blood that was distinct from conventional monocytes. Expansion of CD64+ Ly6C+ monocytes was independent of mobilization from the BM via CCR2 but required the cytokine, G-CSF. Indeed, this population was also expanded upon exposure to exogenous G-CSF in the absence of DC depletion. CD64+ Ly6C+ monocytes were characterized by upregulation of innate signaling apparatus despite the absence of inflammation, and an increased capacity to produce TNF-α following LPS stimulation. Thus, depletion of CD11c+ cells induces expansion of a unique CD64+ Ly6C+ monocyte population poised to synthesize TNF-α. This finding will require consideration in experiments using depletion strategies to test the role of CD11c+ DCs in immunity. PMID:26464217

  2. Performance of 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B PET Binding Potential Images in the Detection of Amyloid Deposits on Equivocal Static Images.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Chisa; Ishii, Kazunari; Kimura, Yuichi; Hyodo, Tomoko; Hosono, Makoto; Sakaguchi, Kenta; Usami, Kimio; Shimamoto, Kenji; Yamazoe, Yuzuru; Murakami, Takamichi

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify whether binding potential (BP) images using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) and dynamic PET can reliably detect cortical amyloid deposits for patients whose (11)C-PiB PET static images are ambiguous and whether visual ratings are affected by white matter retention. Static and BP images were constructed for 85 consecutive patients with cognitive impairment after (11)C-PiB dynamic PET. Cortical uptake was visually assessed as positive, negative, or equivocal for both types of images. Quantitatively, the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) from the static image, the nondisplaceable BP from the dynamic image for mean gray matter uptake, and the ratio of gray matter uptake to white matter retention were compared among (11)C-PiB-positive, (11)C-PiB-equivocal, and (11)C-PiB-negative groups. Forty-three scans were visually assessed as (11)C-PiB-positive in both the static and the BP images. Ten scans were (11)C-PiB-equivocal in the static images. In 8 of them, the BP images were (11)C-PiB-positive, whereas the other 2 were (11)C-PiB-equivocal. Thirty-two scans were assessed as (11)C-PiB-negative in the static images. In the BP images, 4 were (11)C-PiB-positive and 2 were (11)C-PiB-equivocal. The mean gray matter uptake of (11)C-PiB in SUVR and nondisplaceable BP, respectively, showed statistically significant differences among the (11)C-PiB-positive, (11)C-PiB-equivocal, and (11)C-PiB-negative groups. The ratio of gray matter uptake to white matter retention was lower in the BP images than static images from the (11)C-PiB-negative and (11)C-PiB-equivocal groups, whereas it was higher in the (11)C-PiB-positive group. (11)C-PiB PET BP images can clarify visual interpretation of clinical static (11)C-PiB-equivocal images by reducing the interference of nonspecific white matter retention. We conclude that (11)C-PiB-equivocal PET findings on static images reflect cortical amyloid deposits, which can be verified using BP images

  3. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  4. Indonesia to build methanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-08-05

    P.T. Kaltim Methanol Industri (Jakarta), a company set up to build a new methanol plant in Indonesia, expects to award contracts for the construction of a new plant, Indonesia's second methanol unit, by the end of this year. P.T. Kaltim Methanol is a private company owned by P.T. Humpuss, an industrial group active in transport, airlines, and shipping of LNG and methanol. The 2,000-m.t./day plant will be built at Bontang, Kalimantan Island, close to the fertilizer producer P.T. Pupuk Kaltim and near the country's largest natural gas reserves. The site is also a deepsea port, handy for transportation of ready product. Three groups are in discussions with the investor on plant supply as well as methanol offtake deals. They are H G/Kockner; John Brown/Davy/Lucky Goldstar, offering the ICI process independently; and Lurgi/Metallgesellschaft (MG), proposing the Lurgi process. At least 60% of the output is expected to be exported, and both ICI and MG are understood to be interested in selling product from the future plant. Japan, Southeast Asia, and the US are targeted.

  5. Imaging dopamine release with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and (11)C-raclopride in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinal D; Lee, Dianne E; Alexoff, David L; Dewey, Stephen L; Schiffer, Wynne K

    2008-07-01

    We investigated an imaging strategy that provides simultaneous measurements of radiotracer binding and behavior in awake, freely moving animals. In this strategy, animals are injected intravenously (i.v.) through a catheterized line and permitted to move freely for 30 min during uptake of the imaging agent, in this case 11C-raclopride. After this Awake Uptake period, animals are anesthetized and scanned for 25 min. We tested the utility of this strategy for measuring changes in striatal 11C-raclopride binding under control conditions (awake and freely moving in the home cage) and with several drug challenges: a loading dose of unlabeled raclopride, pretreatment with methamphetamine (METH) or pretreatment with gamma-vinyl-GABA [S+-GVG] followed by METH. An additional group of animals underwent a stress paradigm that we have previously shown increases brain dopamine. For drug challenge experiments, the change in 11C-raclopride binding was compared to data from animals that were anesthetized for the uptake period ("Anesthetized Uptake") and full time activity curves were used to calculate 11C-raclopride binding. Regardless of the drug treatment protocol, there was no difference in 11C-raclopride striatum to cerebellum ratio between the Awake versus the Anesthetized Uptake conditions. Awake and Anesthetized groups demonstrated over 90% occupancy of dopamine receptors with a loading dose of cold raclopride, both groups demonstrated approximately 30% reduction in 11C-raclopride binding from METH pretreatment and this effect was modulated to the same degree by GVG under both uptake conditions. Restraint during Awake Uptake decreased 11C-raclopride binding by 29%. These studies support a unique molecular imaging strategy in which radiotracer uptake occurs in freely moving animals, after which they are anesthetized and scanned. This imaging strategy extends the applicability of small animal PET to include functional neurotransmitter imaging and the neurochemical correlates

  6. In vivo ketamine-induced changes in [11C]ABP688 binding to metabotropic glutamate receptors subtype 5

    PubMed Central

    DeLorenzo, Christine; DellaGioia, Nicole; Bloch, Michael; Sanacora, Gerard; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Abdallah, Chadi; Yang, Jie; Wen, Ruofeng; Mann, J. John; Krystal, John H.; Parsey, Ramin V.; Carson, Richard E.; Esterlis, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Background At subanesthetic doses, ketamine, an N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, increases glutamate release. Here, we imaged the acute effect of ketamine on brain metabotropic glutamatergic receptors subtype 5 (mGluR5) with a high affinity PET ligand [11C]ABP688 ((E)-3-((6-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethynyl)-cyclohex-2-enone-O-11C-methyl-oxime), a negative allosteric modulator of mGluR5. Methods Ten healthy nonsmoking human volunteers (34±13 years old) received two [11C]ABP688 PET scans on the same day – before (scan 1) and during i.v. ketamine administration (0.23mg/kg over 1min, then 0.58mg/kg over 1h; scan 2). PET data were acquired for 90 min immediately following [11C]ABP688 bolus injection. Input functions were obtained through arterial blood sampling with metabolite analysis. Results A significant reduction in [11C]ABP688 volume of distribution (VT) was observed in scan 2 relative to scan 1 of 21.3 ± 21.4%, on average, in the anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, parietal lobe, dorsal putamen, dorsal caudate, amygdala, and hippocampus. There was a significant increase in measurements of dissociative state after ketamine initiation (p<0.05) that resolved after completion of the scan. Discussion This study provides first evidence that ketamine administration decreases [11C]ABP688 binding in vivo in human subjects. Results suggest that [11C]ABP688 binding is sensitive to ketamine-induced effects, although the high individual variation in ketamine response requires further examination. PMID:25156701

  7. Small intestine CD11c+ CD8+ T cells suppress CD4+ T cell-induced immune colitis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Chen, Ling; Wei, Bo; Braun, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    The large (LI) and small intestine (SI) differ in patterns of susceptibility to chronic mucosal inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether this might, in part, reflect differences in resident mucosal CD11c(+) T cells. These cells comprised 39-48% (SI) and 12-17% (LI) of the intraepithelial compartment, most of which were T-cell receptor-αβ(+). In the SI, the majority of these cells were CD103(+) CD8(+) NK1.1(-), whereas the opposite phenotype prevailed in the LI. In transfer models of CD4(+) T cell-induced colitis, small numbers (2.5 × 10(5)) of SI CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells suppressed proinflammatory cytokine-producing CD4(+) T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and mucosa-associated lymphoid compartments (SI and LI) and protected mice from chronic inflammation. On a per-cell basis, the regulatory function of SI CD11c(+) T cells in CD4(+) T cell colitis was potent compared with other reported regulatory CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, neither LI CD11c(+) T cells nor SI CD11c(-) T cells were effective in such immunoregulation. SI CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells were similarly effective in suppressing CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cell colitis, as evidenced by inhibition of intracellular proinflammatory cytokine expression and histological inflammation. These findings indicate that SI CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are a distinct intestinal T cell population that plays an immunoregulatory role in control of proinflammatory CD4(+) T cells and maintenance of intestinal mucosal homeostasis.

  8. Pro-Inflammatory CD11c+CD206+ Adipose Tissue Macrophages Are Associated With Insulin Resistance in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wentworth, John M.; Naselli, Gaetano; Brown, Wendy A.; Doyle, Lisa; Phipson, Belinda; Smyth, Gordon K.; Wabitsch, Martin; O'Brien, Paul E.; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome have been causally linked to adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in mice with diet-induced obesity. We aimed to characterize macrophage phenotype and function in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in relation to insulin resistance in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adipose tissue was obtained from lean and obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. Metabolic markers were measured in fasting serum and ATMs characterized by immunohistology, flow cytometry, and tissue culture studies. RESULTS ATMs comprised CD11c+CD206+ cells in “crown” aggregates and solitary CD11c−CD206+ cells at adipocyte junctions. In obese women, CD11c+ ATM density was greater in subcutaneous than omental adipose tissue and correlated with markers of insulin resistance. CD11c+ ATMs were distinguished by high expression of integrins and antigen presentation molecules; interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -8, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α; and CC chemokine ligand-3, indicative of an activated, proinflammatory state. In addition, CD11c+ ATMs were enriched for mitochondria and for RNA transcripts encoding mitochondrial, proteasomal, and lysosomal proteins, fatty acid metabolism enzymes, and T-cell chemoattractants, whereas CD11c− ATMs were enriched for transcripts involved in tissue maintenance and repair. Tissue culture medium conditioned by CD11c+ ATMs, but not CD11c− ATMs or other stromovascular cells, impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by human adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS These findings identify proinflammatory CD11c+ ATMs as markers of insulin resistance in human obesity. In addition, the machinery of CD11c+ ATMs indicates they metabolize lipid and may initiate adaptive immune responses. PMID:20357360

  9. Methanol suppression of trichloroethylene degradation by Methylosinus trichosporium (OB3b) and methane-oxidizing mixed cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, W.; Palumbo, A.V.; Strandberg, G.W.; Sriharan, S.

    1991-12-31

    The effect of methanol on trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by mixed and pure methylotrophic cultures was examined in batch culture experiments. Methanol was found to relieve growth inhibition of Methylosinus trichosporium (OB3b) at high (14 mg/L) TCE concentrations. Degradation of TCE was determined by both radiolabeling and gas chromatography techniques. When cultures were grown on methanol over 10 to 14 d with 0.3 mg/L TCE, OB3b degraded 16.89 {+-} 0.82% (mean {+-} SD) of the TCE, and a mixed culture (DT type II) degraded 4.55 {+-} 0.11%. Mixed culture (JS type I) degraded 4.34 {+-} 0.06% of the TCE. When grown on methane with 0.3 mg/L TCE, 32.93 {+-} 2.01% of the TCE was degraded by OB3b, whereas the JS culture degraded 24.3 {+-} 1.38% of the TCE, and the DT culture degraded 34.3 {+-} 2.97% of the TCE. The addition of methanol to cultures grown on methane reduced TCE degradation to 16.21 {+-} 1.17% for OB3b and to 5.08 {+-} 0.56% for JS. Although methanol reduces the toxicity of TCE to the cultures, biodegradation of TCE cannot be sustained in methanol-grown cultures. Since high TCE concentrations appear to inhibit methane uptake and growth, we suggest the primary toxicity of TCE is directed towards the methane monooxygenase.

  10. Imaging human brown adipose tissue under room temperature conditions with 11C-MRB, a selective norepinephrine transporter PET ligand

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Janice J.; Yeckel, Catherine W.; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Aguiar, Renata Belfort-De; Ersahin, Devrim; Gao, Hong; Kapinos, Michael; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Huang, Yiyun; Cheng, David; Carson, Richard E.; Sherwin, Robert; Ding, Yu-Shin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a critical role in adaptive thermogenesis and is tightly regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, current BAT imaging modalities require cold stimulation and are often unreliable to detect BAT in the basal state, at room temperature (RT). We have shown previously that BAT can be detected in rodents under both RT and cold conditions with 11C-MRB ((S,S)-11C-O-methylreboxetine), a highly selective ligand for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Here, we evaluate this novel approach for BAT detection in adult humans under RT conditions. Methods Ten healthy, Caucasian subjects (5 M: age 24.6±2.6, BMI 21.6±2.7 kg/m2; 5 F: age 25.4±2.1, BMI 22.1±1.0 kg/m2) underwent 11C-MRB PET-CT imaging for cervical/supraclavicular BAT under RT and cold-stimulated conditions (RPCM Cool vest; enthalpy 15°C) compared to 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging. Uptake of 11C-MRB, was quantified as the distribution volume ratio (DVR) using the occipital cortex as a low NET density reference region. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results As expected, 18F-FDG uptake in BAT was difficult to identify at RT but easily detected with cold stimulation (p=0.01). In contrast, BAT 11C-MRB uptake (also normalized for muscle) was equally evident under both RT and cold conditions (BAT DVR: RT 1.0±0.3 vs. cold 1.1±0.3, p=0.31; BAT/muscle DVR: RT 2.3±0.7 vs. cold 2.5±0.5, p=0.61). Importantly, BAT DVR and BAT/muscle DVR of 11C-MRB at RT correlated positively with core body temperature (r=0.76, p=0.05 and r=0.92, p=0.004, respectively), a relationship not observed with 18F-FDG (p=0.63). Furthermore, there were gender differences in 11C-MRB uptake in response to cold (p=0.03), which reflected significant differences in the change in 11C-MRB as a function of both body composition and body temperature. Conclusions Unlike 18F-FDG, the uptake of 11C-MRB in BAT offers a unique opportunity to

  11. Salvage radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Planning, treatment response and prognosis using (11)C-choline PET/CT.

    PubMed

    García, J R; Cozar, M; Soler, M; Bassa, P; Riera, E; Ferrer, J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of the therapeutic response by (11)C-choline PET/CT in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence in which (11)C-choline PET/CT indicated radio-guided radiotherapy. The study included 37 patients initially treated with prostatectomy, who were treated due to biochemical recurrence. (11)C-choline PE/CT detected infra-diaphragmatic lymph-node involvement. All were selected for intensity modulated radiation therapy, escalating the dose according to the PET findings. One year after treatment patients underwent PSA and (11)C-choline PET/CT categorizing response (complete/partial/progression). Clinical/biochemical/image monitoring was performed until appearance of second relapse or 36 months in disease-free patients. (11)C-choline PET/CT could detect lymph nodes in all 37 patients. They were 18 (48.6%) of more than a centimetre in size and 19 (51.3%) with no pathological CT morphology: 9 (24.3%) with positive lymph nodes of around one centimetre and 10 (27.0%) only less than a centimetre in size. The response by (11)C-choline PET/CT was categorised one year after radiotherapy: 16 patients (43.2%) complete response; 15 (40.5%) partial response, and 6 (16.2%) progression. The response was concordant between the PSA result and (11)C-choline PET/CT in 32 patients (86.5%), and discordant in five (13.5%). New recurrence was detected in 12 patients (80%) with partial response, and 5 (31.2%) with complete response. The mean time to recurrence was 9 months after partial response, and 18 months after complete response (significant difference, p<.0001). (11)C-choline PET/CT allows the selection of patients with recurrent prostate cancer candidates for radiotherapy and to plan the technique. The evaluation of therapeutic response by (11)C-choline PET/CT has prognostic significance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging human brown adipose tissue under room temperature conditions with (11)C-MRB, a selective norepinephrine transporter PET ligand.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Janice J; Yeckel, Catherine W; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Aguiar, Renata Belfort-De; Ersahin, Devrim; Gao, Hong; Kapinos, Michael; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Huang, Yiyun; Cheng, David; Carson, Richard E; Sherwin, Robert; Ding, Yu-Shin

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a critical role in adaptive thermogenesis and is tightly regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, current BAT imaging modalities require cold stimulation and are often unreliable to detect BAT in the basal state, at room temperature (RT). We have shown previously that BAT can be detected in rodents under both RT and cold conditions with (11)C-MRB ((S,S)-(11)C-O-methylreboxetine), a highly selective ligand for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Here, we evaluate this novel approach for BAT detection in adult humans under RT conditions. Ten healthy, Caucasian subjects (5 M: age 24.6±2.6, BMI 21.6±2.7kg/m(2); 5 F: age 25.4±2.1, BMI 22.1±1.0kg/m(2)) underwent (11)C-MRB PET-CT imaging for cervical/supraclavicular BAT under RT and cold-stimulated conditions (RPCM Cool vest; enthalpy 15°C) compared to (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging. Uptake of (11)C-MRB, was quantified as the distribution volume ratio (DVR) using the occipital cortex as a low NET density reference region. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis. As expected, (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT was difficult to identify at RT but easily detected with cold stimulation (p=0.01). In contrast, BAT (11)C-MRB uptake (also normalized for muscle) was equally evident under both RT and cold conditions (BAT DVR: RT 1.0±0.3 vs. cold 1.1±0.3, p=0.31; BAT/muscle DVR: RT 2.3±0.7 vs. cold 2.5±0.5, p=0.61). Importantly, BAT DVR and BAT/muscle DVR of (11)C-MRB at RT correlated positively with core body temperature (r=0.76, p=0.05 and r=0.92, p=0.004, respectively), a relationship not observed with (18)F-FDG (p=0.63). Furthermore, there were gender differences in (11)C-MRB uptake in response to cold (p=0.03), which reflected significant differences in the change in (11)C-MRB as a function of both body composition and body temperature. Unlike (18)F-FDG, the uptake of (11)C-MRB in BAT offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of

  13. Ammonia oxidation is not required for growth of Group 1.1c soil Thaumarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Eva B.; Lehtovirta-Morley, Laura E.; Prosser, James I.; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Thaumarchaeota are among the most abundant organisms on Earth and are ubiquitous. Within this phylum, all cultivated representatives of Group 1.1a and Group 1.1b Thaumarchaeota are ammonia oxidizers, and play a key role in the nitrogen cycle. While Group 1.1c is phylogenetically closely related to the ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and is abundant in acidic forest soils, nothing is known about its physiology or ecosystem function. The goal of this study was to perform in situ physiological characterization of Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota by determining conditions that favour their growth in soil. Several acidic grassland, birch and pine tree forest soils were sampled and those with the highest Group 1.1c 16S rRNA gene abundance were incubated in microcosms to determine optimal growth temperature, ammonia oxidation and growth on several organic compounds. Growth of Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota, assessed by qPCR of Group 1.1c 16S rRNA genes, occurred in soil, optimally at 30°C, but was not associated with ammonia oxidation and the functional gene amoA could not be detected. Growth was also stimulated by addition of organic nitrogen compounds (glutamate and casamino acids) but not when supplemented with organic carbon alone. This is the first evidence for non-ammonia oxidation associated growth of Thaumarchaeota in soil. PMID:25764563

  14. Novel monoclonal antibody against alphaX subunit from horse CD11c/CD18 integrin.

    PubMed

    Espino-Solis, Gerardo Pavel; Quintero-Hernandez, Veronica; Olvera-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Calderon-Amador, Juana; Pedraza-Escalona, Martha; Licea-Navarro, Alexei; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Possani, Lourival Domingos

    2015-04-15

    The αX I-domain of the horse integrin CD11c was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, biochemically characterized and used as immunogen to generate murine monoclonal antibodies against horse CD11c, which are not yet commercially available. One monoclonal antibody mAb-1C4 against the αX I-domain, is an IgG2a able to interact with the recombinant I-domain, showing an EC50=2.4ng according to ELISA assays. By western blot with horse PBMCs lysates the mAb-1C4 recognized a protein of 150kDa which corresponds well with the CD11c molecule. Using immunohistochemistry in horse lymph node tissue sections, mAb-1C4 marked cells in situ, some with apparent dendritic morphology. Thus the mAb generated to a recombinant epitope from horse CD11c identified the molecule in intact cells within horse lymphoid tissue. By the labelling intensity, the histological location (paracortical and interfollicular areas) and the apparent morphology of the marked cells, we can say that these are putative horse dendritic cells (DCs). The development of a mAb to horse CD11c provides a new tool to better study the horse DC biology and opens other biotechnological avenues, such as DC targeting-based vaccines.

  15. Oxidative metabolism of astrocytes is not reduced in hepatic encephalopathy: a PET study with [11C]acetate in humans

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Peter; Mouridsen, Kim; Hansen, Mikkel B.; Jensen, Svend B.; Sørensen, Michael; Bak, Lasse K.; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Schousboe, Arne; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Keiding, Susanne; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In patients with impaired liver function and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), consistent elevations of blood ammonia concentration suggest a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HE. Ammonia and acetate are metabolized in brain both primarily in astrocytes. Here, we used dynamic [11C]acetate PET of the brain to measure the contribution of astrocytes to the previously observed reduction of brain oxidative metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis and HE, compared to patients with cirrhosis without HE, and to healthy subjects. We used a new kinetic model to estimate uptake from blood to astrocytes and astrocyte metabolism of [11C]acetate. No significant differences of the rate constant of oxidation of [11C]acetate (k3) were found among the three groups of subjects. The net metabolic clearance of [11C]acetate from blood was lower in the group of patients with cirrhosis and HE than in the group of healthy subjects (P < 0.05), which we interpret to be an effect of reduced cerebral blood flow rather than a reflection of low [11C]acetate metabolism. We conclude that the characteristic decline of whole-brain oxidative metabolism in patients with cirrhosis with HE is not due to malfunction of oxidative metabolism in astrocytes. Thus, the observed decline of brain oxidative metabolism implicates changes of neurons and their energy turnover in patients with HE. PMID:25404890

  16. Kinetic modeling of the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor radioligand [11C]P943 in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Neumeister, Alexander; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Williams, Wendol A; Singhal, Tarun; Kim, Sunhee; Maguire, R Paul; McCarthy, Timothy; Frost, J James; Huang, Yiyun; Ding, Yu-Shin; Carson, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    [11C]P943 is a new radioligand recently developed to image and quantify serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptors with positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to evaluate [11C]P943 for this application in humans, and to determine the most suitable quantification method. Positron emission tomography data and arterial input function measurements were acquired in a cohort of 32 human subjects. Using arterial input functions, compartmental modeling, the Logan graphical analysis, and the multilinear method MA1 were tested. Both the two tissue-compartment model and MA1 provided good fits of the PET data and reliable distribution volume estimates. Using the cerebellum as a reference region, BPND binding potential estimates were computed. [11C]P943 BPND estimates were significantly correlated with in vitro measurements of the density of 5-HT1B receptors, with highest values in the occipital cortex and pallidum. To evaluate noninvasive methods, two- and three-parameter graphical analyses, Simplified Reference Tissue Models (SRTM and SRTM2), and Multilinear Reference Tissue Models (MRTM and MRTM2) were tested. The MRTM2 model provided the best correlation with MA1 binding-potential estimates. Parametric images of the volume of distribution or binding potential of [11C]P943 could be computed using both MA1 and MRTM2. The results show that [11C]P943 provides quantitative measurements of 5-HT1B binding potential. PMID:19773803

  17. Kinetic modeling without accounting for the vascular component impairs the quantification of [11C]PBR28 brain PET data

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Gaia; Veronese, Mattia; Tonietto, Matteo; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The positron emission tomography radioligand [11C]PBR28 targets translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) and is a potential marker of neuroinflammation. [11C]PBR28 binding is commonly quantified using a two-tissue compartment model and an arterial input function. Previous studies with [11C]-(R)-PK11195 demonstrated a slow irreversible binding component to the TSPO proteins localized in the endothelium of brain vessels, such as venous sinuses and arteries. However, the impact of this component on the quantification of [11C]PBR28 data has never been investigated. In this work we propose a novel kinetic model for [11C]PBR28. This model hypothesizes the existence of an additional irreversible component from the blood to the endothelium. The model was tested on a data set of 19 healthy subjects. A simulation was also performed to quantify the error generated by the standard two-tissue compartmental model when the presence of the irreversible component is not taken into account. Our results show that when the vascular component is included in the model the estimates that include the vascular component (2TCM-1K) are more than three-fold smaller, have a higher time stability and are better correlated to brain mRNA TSPO expression than those that do not include the model (2TCM). PMID:24667911

  18. Kinetic modeling without accounting for the vascular component impairs the quantification of [(11)C]PBR28 brain PET data.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Gaia; Veronese, Mattia; Tonietto, Matteo; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2014-06-01

    The positron emission tomography radioligand [(11)C]PBR28 targets translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) and is a potential marker of neuroinflammation. [(11)C]PBR28 binding is commonly quantified using a two-tissue compartment model and an arterial input function. Previous studies with [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195 demonstrated a slow irreversible binding component to the TSPO proteins localized in the endothelium of brain vessels, such as venous sinuses and arteries. However, the impact of this component on the quantification of [(11)C]PBR28 data has never been investigated. In this work we propose a novel kinetic model for [(11)C]PBR28. This model hypothesizes the existence of an additional irreversible component from the blood to the endothelium. The model was tested on a data set of 19 healthy subjects. A simulation was also performed to quantify the error generated by the standard two-tissue compartmental model when the presence of the irreversible component is not taken into account. Our results show that when the vascular component is included in the model the estimates that include the vascular component (2TCM-1K) are more than three-fold smaller, have a higher time stability and are better correlated to brain mRNA TSPO expression than those that do not include the model (2TCM).

  19. Automated reference region extraction and population-based input function for brain [11C]TMSX PET image analyses

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Eero; Tuisku, Jouni; Luoto, Pauliina; Arponen, Eveliina; Johansson, Jarkko; Oikonen, Vesa; Parkkola, Riitta; Airas, Laura; Rinne, Juha O

    2015-01-01

    [11C]TMSX ([7-N-methyl-11C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a selective adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) radioligand. In the central nervous system (CNS), A2AR are linked to dopamine D2 receptor function in striatum, but they are also important modulators of inflammation. The golden standard for kinetic modeling of brain [11C]TMSX positron emission tomography (PET) is to obtain arterial input function via arterial blood sampling. However, this method is laborious, prone to errors and unpleasant for study subjects. The aim of this work was to evaluate alternative input function acquisition methods for brain [11C]TMSX PET imaging. First, a noninvasive, automated method for the extraction of gray matter reference region using supervised clustering (SCgm) was developed. Second, a method for obtaining a population-based arterial input function (PBIF) was implemented. These methods were created using data from 28 study subjects (7 healthy controls, 12 multiple sclerosis patients, and 9 patients with Parkinson's disease). The results with PBIF correlated well with original plasma input, and the SCgm yielded similar results compared with cerebellum as a reference region. The clustering method for extracting reference region and the population-based approach for acquiring input for dynamic [11C]TMSX brain PET image analyses appear to be feasible and robust methods, that can be applied in patients with CNS pathology. PMID:25370856

  20. CD11c+ Cells Are Required to Prevent Progression from Local Acute Lung Injury to Multiple Organ Failure and Death

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Jami E.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Chen, Gwo-Hsiao; Osuchowski, Marcin F.; McDonald, Roderick; Chensue, Stephen W.; Toews, Galen B.; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Olszewski, Michal A.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the role of CD11c+ cells in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury, wild-type or CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice were treated with intraperitoneal diphtheria toxin (5 ng/g b.wt.) in the presence or absence of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (51 μg). Lipopolysaccharide treatment resulted in 100% mortality in CD11c-depleted animals but not in control animals. Analysis of local lung tissue revealed no differences in acute lung injury severity; however, analysis of distal tissues revealed severe damage and necrosis to multiple organs (liver, spleen, and kidneys) in CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor mice but not in wild-type mice. In addition, dramatic increases in systemic levels of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, 657 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase, 1401 U/L), blood urea (53 mg/dl), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, a marker of oxidative stress (350 pg/ml), were observed. These data demonstrate that CD11c+ cells play a critical role in protecting the organs from systemic injury caused by a pulmonary endotoxin challenge. PMID:19948830

  1. Cutting Edge: Origins, Recruitment, and Regulation of CD11c(+) Cells in Inflamed Islets of Autoimmune Diabetes Mice.

    PubMed

    Klementowicz, Joanna E; Mahne, Ashley E; Spence, Allyson; Nguyen, Vinh; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Murphy, Kenneth M; Tang, Qizhi

    2017-07-01

    In NOD mice, CD11c(+) cells increase greatly with islet inflammation and contribute to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. In this study, we investigated their origin and mechanism of recruitment. CD11c(+) cells in inflamed islets resembled classical dendritic cells based on their transcriptional profile. However, the majority of these cells were not from the Zbtb46-dependent dendritic-cell lineage. Instead, monocyte precursors could give rise to CD11c(+) cells in inflamed islets. Chemokines Ccl5 and Ccl8 were persistently elevated in inflamed islets and the influx of CD11c(+) cells was partially dependent on their receptor Ccr5. Treatment with islet Ag-specific regulatory T cells led to a marked decrease of Ccl5 and Ccl8, and a reduction of monocyte recruitment. These results implicate a monocytic origin of CD11c(+) cells in inflamed islets and suggest that therapeutic regulatory T cells directly or indirectly regulate their influx by altering the chemotactic milieu in the islets. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. [11C] methionine and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose PET in the follow-up of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Pötzi, Christian; Becherer, Alexander; Marosi, Christine; Karanikas, Georgios; Szabo, Monika; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt; Asenbaum, Susanne

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of [11C] methionine (MET) and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in the follow-up of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). After surgical and/or conservative treatment, 28 patients (pts) with GBM underwent FDG and MET PET on average 12.7 months after the diagnosis had been established. Scans were evaluated visually and by calculating the maximal tumor SUV as well as the ratio of tumor vs. contralateral region (RTu). The degree of tracer uptake was compared with survival time, disease duration and MRI findings. The mean overall duration of survival was 12.7 months. The patients were divided into two groups: those that survived less than 12 months and those that survived longer than 12 months. Focally increased uptake was revealed by MET PET in 24 patients and by FDG PET in 2 patients. On MRI scans, viable tumor tissue was suspected in 18 patients. No correlations were registered between FDG/MET uptake and survival time or disease duration respectively; Kaplan-Meier calculations were negative in this regard. Similarly, negative results were obtained in subgroups of patients who had undergone microsurgical resection and whose disease was at least of 6 months' duration, and additionally in a subgroup who had undergone their last treatment longer than 6 months ago. With respect to survival groups, a positive MET PET was associated with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 8%. SUV and RTu values did not differ between patients with positive or negative MRI results. In this study FDG PET seems to be of limited value in the work-up of recurrent GBM because of its lower sensitivity than MET PET and the fact that it allows no prediction of the outcome. MET PET visualizes viable tumor tissue without adding any prognostic information and appears to be in no way superior to conventional imaging.

  3. Lack of endogenous opioid release during sustained visceral pain: a [11C]carfentanil PET study.

    PubMed

    Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; Geeraerts, Brecht; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen; Tack, Jan; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2013-10-01

    Opioidergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system is involved in somatic pain, but its role in visceral pain remains unknown. We aimed to quantify endogenous opioid release in the brain during sustained painful gastric distension. Therefore, 2 dynamic [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography scans were performed in 20 healthy subjects during 2 conditions: sustained (20 minutes) painful proximal gastric balloon distension at predetermined individual discomfort threshold (PAIN) and no distension (NO PAIN), in counterbalanced order. Pain levels were assessed during scanning using visual analogue scales and after scanning using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Emotional state was rated after scanning using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Distribution volume ratios in 21 volumes of interest in the pain matrix were used to quantify endogenous opioid release. During the PAIN compared to the NO PAIN condition, volunteers reported a significantly higher increase in negative affect (5.50±1.29 versus 0.10±1.08, P=.0147) as well as higher pain ratings (sensory: 74.05±9.23 versus 1.50±0.95, P<.0001; affective: 91.42±8.13 versus 4.33±6.56, P<.0001). No difference in endogenous opioid release was demonstrated in any of the volumes of interest. Thus, contrary to its somatic counterpart, no opioid release is detected in the brain during sustained visceral pain, despite similar pain intensities. Endogenous opioids may play a less important role in visceral compared to somatic pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. BS69/ZMYND11 C-Terminal Domains Bind and Inhibit EBNA2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Xu, Muyu; Martinez, Ernest; Peng, Chih-Wen; Song, Jikui

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) plays an important role in driving immortalization of EBV-infected B cells through regulating the expression of many viral and cellular genes. We report a structural study of the tumor suppressor BS69/ZMYND11 C-terminal region, comprised of tandem coiled-coil-MYND domains (BS69CC-MYND), in complex with an EBNA2 peptide containing a PXLXP motif. The coiled-coil domain of BS69 self-associates to bring two separate MYND domains in close proximity, thereby enhancing the BS69 MYND-EBNA2 interaction. ITC analysis of BS69CC-MYND with a C-terminal fragment of EBNA2 further suggests that the BS69CC-MYND homodimer synergistically binds to the two EBNA2 PXLXP motifs that are respectively located in the conserved regions CR7 and CR8. Furthermore, we showed that EBNA2 interacts with BS69 and down-regulates its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in EBV-infected B cells. Ectopic BS69CC-MYND is recruited to viral target promoters through interactions with EBNA2, inhibits EBNA2-mediated transcription activation, and impairs proliferation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Substitution of critical residues in the MYND domain impairs the BS69-EBNA2 interaction and abolishes the BS69 inhibition of the EBNA2-mediated transactivation and LCL proliferation. This study identifies the BS69 C-terminal domains as an inhibitor of EBNA2, which may have important implications in development of novel therapeutic strategies against EBV infection. PMID:26845565

  5. Levodopa effects on [ 11C]raclopride binding in the resting human brain

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Piccirillo, Marilyn L.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Hseih, Tiffany; Wang, Lei; Mintun, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Synaptic dopamine (DA) release induced by amphetamine or other experimental manipulations can displace [ 11C]raclopride (RAC*) from dopamine D2-like receptors. We hypothesized that exogenous levodopa might increase dopamine release at striatal synapses under some conditions but not others, allowing a more naturalistic assessment of presynaptic dopaminergic function. Presynaptic dopaminergic abnormalities have been reported in Tourette syndrome (TS). Objective: Test whether levodopa induces measurable synaptic DA release in healthy people at rest, and gather pilot data in TS. Methods: This double-blind crossover study used RAC* and positron emission tomography (PET) to measure synaptic dopamine release 4 times in each of 10 carbidopa-pretreated, neuroleptic-naïve adults: before and during an infusion of levodopa on one day and placebo on another (in random order). Five subjects had TS and 5 were matched controls. RAC* binding potential (BP ND) was quantified in predefined anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs). A separate analysis compared BP ND voxel by voxel over the entire brain. Results: DA release declined between the first and second scan of each day (p=0.012), including on the placebo day. Levodopa did not significantly reduce striatal RAC* binding and striatal binding did not differ significantly between TS and control groups. However, levodopa’s effect on DA release differed significantly in a right midbrain region (p=0.002, corrected), where levodopa displaced RAC* by 59% in control subjects but increased BP ND by 74% in TS subjects. Discussion: Decreased DA release on the second scan of the day is consistent with the few previous studies with a similar design, and may indicate habituation to study procedures. We hypothesize that mesostriatal DA neurons fire relatively little while subjects rest, possibly explaining the non-significant effect of levodopa on striatal RAC* binding. The modest sample size argues for caution in interpreting the

  6. Plasma Based Markers of [11C] PiB-PET Brain Amyloid Burden

    PubMed Central

    Kiddle, Steven John; Thambisetty, Madhav; Simmons, Andrew; Riddoch-Contreras, Joanna; Hye, Abdul; Westman, Eric; Pike, Ian; Ward, Malcolm; Johnston, Caroline; Lupton, Michelle Katharine; Lunnon, Katie; Soininen, Hilkka; Kloszewska, Iwona; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Mecocci, Patrizia; Lovestone, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Changes in brain amyloid burden have been shown to relate to Alzheimer's disease pathology, and are believed to precede the development of cognitive decline. There is thus a need for inexpensive and non-invasive screening methods that are able to accurately estimate brain amyloid burden as a marker of Alzheimer's disease. One potential method would involve using demographic information and measurements on plasma samples to establish biomarkers of brain amyloid burden; in this study data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative was used to explore this possibility. Sixteen of the analytes on the Rules Based Medicine Human Discovery Multi-Analyte Profile 1.0 panel were found to associate with [11C]-PiB PET measurements. Some of these markers of brain amyloid burden were also found to associate with other AD related phenotypes. Thirteen of these markers of brain amyloid burden – c-peptide, fibrinogen, alpha-1-antitrypsin, pancreatic polypeptide, complement C3, vitronectin, cortisol, AXL receptor kinase, interleukin-3, interleukin-13, matrix metalloproteinase-9 total, apolipoprotein E and immunoglobulin E – were used along with co-variates in multiple linear regression, and were shown by cross-validation to explain >30% of the variance of brain amyloid burden. When a threshold was used to classify subjects as PiB positive, the regression model was found to predict actual PiB positive individuals with a sensitivity of 0.918 and a specificity of 0.545. The number of APOE ϵ 4 alleles and plasma apolipoprotein E level were found to contribute most to this model, and the relationship between these variables and brain amyloid burden was explored. PMID:23028511

  7. [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Hennings, Joakim; Lindhe, Orjan; Bergström, Mats; Långström, Bengt; Sundin, Anders; Hellman, Per

    2006-04-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are common findings necessitating extensive laboratory work-up and repetitive radiological examinations. Positron emission tomography (PET) using (11)C-labeled metomidate (MTO) has previously been described as a tool for specific adrenocortical imaging. We evaluated 212 MTO-PET examinations in 173 patients to identify its role in the management of adrenal tumors. Seventy-five histopathological examinations from 73 patients were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at a referral center. Patients who were operated or biopsied due to adrenal tumors had histopathological diagnoses of adrenocortical adenoma (n = 26), adrenocortical cancer (ACC; n = 13), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n = 8), pheochromocytoma (n = 6), metastasis (n = 3), and tumors of nonadrenal origin (n = 19). The main outcome measures were statistical analyses and findings while scrutinizing images. The hypothesis that MTO-PET is of value in the management of adrenal tumors, especially incidentaloma, was stated before data collection. Sensitivity was 0.89 and specificity was 0.96 for MTO-PET in proving adrenocortical origin of the lesions. Pheochromocytomas, metastases to the adrenal gland, and nonadrenal masses were all MTO negative. PET measurements using standardized uptake values (SUV) in pathological adrenocortical tissue could differentiate lesions larger than 1-1.5 cm from normal adrenocortical tissue. SUV was higher in aldosterone-hypersecreting adenomas, and the SUV ratio between the tumor and the contralateral gland was significantly higher in all hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in ACC. MTO-PET is a specific and sensitive method for diagnosing adrenocortical tumors. MTO-PET is useful in the imaging work-up of adrenal incidentalomas and may be beneficial for the examination of patients with primary aldosteronism or ACC.

  8. 11C-Methionine-PET in Multiple Myeloma: Correlation with Clinical Parameters and Bone Marrow Involvement.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Constantin; Knop, Stefan; Schreder, Martin; Rudelius, Martina; Knott, Markus; Jörg, Gerhard; Samnick, Samuel; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K; Einsele, Hermann; Lückerath, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an essentially incurable hematologic malignancy originating from clonal plasma cells. This study evaluated the usefulness of the radiotracers (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-2`-deoxy-2`-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for staging and re-staging in MM. 43 patients with MM underwent both MET- and FDG-PET/CT for staging or re-staging within 3±2 days. Scans were compared on a patient and on a lesion basis. Tracer uptake was correlated with the degree of bone marrow (BM) involvement and standard clinical parameters of disease activity. Additionally, BM samples were stained for L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) expression in 15 patients. MET-PET detected focal lesions (FL) in 39/43 subjects (90.7%), whereas 10 patients were missed in FDG-PET/CT (detection rate, 33/43; 76.7%; p<0.05). MET depicted more FL in 28/43 patients (65.1%; p<0.001), whereas in the remainder (34.9%, n=15) both tracers yielded comparable results. LAT1 was highly expressed on the cell surface of myeloma cells. Both FDG and MET uptake correlated significantly with biopsy-proven BM involvement (p<0.001), with MET demonstrating a stronger correlation (SUVmean, r=0.9 vs r=0.6; SUVmax, r=0.88 vs r=0.58). Abnormal beta-2-microglobulin and free light chain levels correlated with the presence of focal intramedullary lesions detected in MET- or FDG-PET/CT (MET, p=0.006 and p=0.01, respectively; FDG, p=0.02 and p=0.01). MET appears to be superior to FDG for staging and re-staging of both intra- and extramedullary MM lesions. Tracer uptake correlates with BM involvement, β2m and FLC levels and appears to be a more accurate marker of tumor burden and disease activity.

  9. 11C-Methionine-PET in Multiple Myeloma: Correlation with Clinical Parameters and Bone Marrow Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Lapa, Constantin; Knop, Stefan; Schreder, Martin; Rudelius, Martina; Knott, Markus; Jörg, Gerhard; Samnick, Samuel; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K.; Einsele, Hermann; Lückerath, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an essentially incurable hematologic malignancy originating from clonal plasma cells. This study evaluated the usefulness of the radiotracers 11C-methionine (MET) and 18F-2`-deoxy-2`-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for staging and re-staging in MM. 43 patients with MM underwent both MET- and FDG-PET/CT for staging or re-staging within 3±2 days. Scans were compared on a patient and on a lesion basis. Tracer uptake was correlated with the degree of bone marrow (BM) involvement and standard clinical parameters of disease activity. Additionally, BM samples were stained for L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) expression in 15 patients. MET-PET detected focal lesions (FL) in 39/43 subjects (90.7%), whereas 10 patients were missed in FDG-PET/CT (detection rate, 33/43; 76.7%; p<0.05). MET depicted more FL in 28/43 patients (65.1%; p<0.001), whereas in the remainder (34.9%, n=15) both tracers yielded comparable results. LAT1 was highly expressed on the cell surface of myeloma cells. Both FDG and MET uptake correlated significantly with biopsy-proven BM involvement (p<0.001), with MET demonstrating a stronger correlation (SUVmean, r=0.9 vs r=0.6; SUVmax, r=0.88 vs r=0.58). Abnormal beta-2-microglobulin and free light chain levels correlated with the presence of focal intramedullary lesions detected in MET- or FDG-PET/CT (MET, p=0.006 and p=0.01, respectively; FDG, p=0.02 and p=0.01). MET appears to be superior to FDG for staging and re-staging of both intra- and extramedullary MM lesions. Tracer uptake correlates with BM involvement, β2m and FLC levels and appears to be a more accurate marker of tumor burden and disease activity. PMID:26877783

  10. Radiosynthesis of N-(4-chloro-3-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)-2-picolinamide ([(11)C]ML128) as a PET radiotracer for metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGlu4).

    PubMed

    Kil, Kun-Eek; Zhang, Zhaoda; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Gong, Chunyu; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Kura, Sreekanth; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2013-10-01

    N-(Chloro-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-picolinamide (3, ML128, VU0361737) is an mGlu4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), which is potent and centrally penetrating. 3 is also the first mGlu4 PAM to show efficacy in a preclinical Parkinson disease model upon systemic dosing. As a noninvasive medical imaging technique and a powerful tool in neurological research, positron emission tomography (PET) offers a possibility to investigate mGlu4 expression in vivo under physiologic and pathological conditions. We synthesized a carbon-11 labeled ML128 ([(11)C]3) as a PET radiotracer for mGlu4, and characterized its biological properties in Sprague Dawley rats. [(11)C]3 was synthesized from N-(4-chloro-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-picolinamide (2) using [(11)C]CH3I. Total synthesis time was 38±2.2min (n=7) from the end of bombardment to the formulation. The radioligand [(11)C]3 was obtained in 27.7±5.3% (n=5) decay corrected radiochemical yield based on the radioactivity of [(11)C]CO2. The radiochemical purity of [(11)C]3 was >99%. Specific activity was 188.7±88.8GBq/mol (n=4) at the end of synthesis (EOS). PET images were conducted in 20 normal male Sprague Dawley rats including 11 control studies, 6 studies blocking with an mGlu4 modulator (4) to investigate specificity and 3 studies blocking with an mGlu5 modulator (MTEP) to investigate selectivity. These studies showed fast accumulation of [(11)C]3 (peak activity between 1-3min) in several brain areas including striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb following with fast washout. Blocking studies with the mGlu4 modulator 4 showed 22-28% decrease of [(11)C]3 accumulation while studies of selectivity showed only minor decrease supporting good selectivity over mGlu5. Biodistribution studies and blood analyses support fast metabolism. Altogether this is the first PET imaging ligand for mGlu4, in which the labeled ML128 was used for imaging its in vivo distribution and pharmacokinetics in brain. Copyright © 2013

  11. Radiosynthesis of N-(4-chloro-3-[11C]methoxyphenyl)-2-picolinamide ([11C]ML128) as a PET radiotracer for metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGlu4)

    PubMed Central

    Kil, Kun-Eek; Zhang, Zhaoda; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Gong, Chunyu; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Kura, Sreekanth; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2013-01-01

    N-(Chloro-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-picolinamide (3, ML128, VU0361737) is an mGlu4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), which is potent and centrally penetrating. 3 is also the first mGlu4 PAM to show efficacy in a preclinical Parkinson disease model upon systemic dosing. As a noninvasive medical imaging technique and a powerful tool in neurological research, positron emission tomography (PET) offers a possibility to investigate mGlu4 expression in vivo under physiologic and pathological conditions. We synthesized a carbon-11 labeled ML128 ([11C]3) as a PET radiotracer for mGlu4, and characterized its biological properties in Sprague Dawley rats. [11C]3 was synthesized from N-(4-chloro-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-picolinamide (2) using [11C]CH3I. Total synthesis time was 38±2.2 min (n = 7) from the end of bombardment to the formulation. The radioligand [11C]3 was obtained in 27.7±5.3% (n = 5) decay corrected radiochemical yield based on the radioactivity of [11C]CO2. The radiochemical purity of [11C]3 was >99%. Specific activity was 188.7±88.8 GBq/μmol (n = 4) at the end of synthesis (EOS). PET images were conducted in 20 normal male Sprague Dawley rats including 11 control studies, 6 studies blocking with an mGlu4 modulator (4) to investigate specificity and 3 studies blocking with an mGlu5 modulator (MTEP) to investigate selectivity. These studies showed fast accumulation of [11C]3 (peak activity between 1-3 min) in several brain areas including striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb following with fast washout. Blocking studies with the mGlu4 modulator 4 showed 22-28 % decrease of [11C]3 accumulation while studies of selectivity showed only minor decrease supporting good selectivity over mGlu5. Biodistribution studies and blood analyses support fast metabolism. Altogether this is the first PET imaging ligand for mGlu4, in which the labeled ML128 was used for imaging its in vivo distribution and pharmacokinetics in brain. PMID:23978356

  12. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. . Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. . Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  13. 11C-Choline-Pet Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lymph Node Metastases in Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Ciro; Lopci, Egesta; Di Brina, Lucia; D'Agostino, Giuseppe Roberto; Navarria, Pierina; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Chiti, Arturo; Scorsetti, Marta

    2017-10-05

    aim is outcome of 11C-Choline-PET guided SBRT on lymph node metastases. patients with 1 - 4 lymph node metastases detected by 11C-choline-PET were treated with SBRT. Toxicity, treated metastases control and Progression Free Survival were computed. twenty-six patients, 38 lymph node metastases were irradiated. No grade ≥ 2 toxicity. Median PSA-nadir after RT was 1.02 ng/mL. Post-treatment 11C-Choline-PET showed metabolic complete response in 17 metastases (44,7%), partial response in 9 metastases (38%). SBRT is effective and safe for lymph node metastases. PET is important in identification of gross tumor and evaluation of the response.

  14. Mice deficient in the putative phospholipid flippase ATP11C exhibit altered erythrocyte shape, anemia, and reduced erythrocyte life span.

    PubMed

    Yabas, Mehmet; Coupland, Lucy A; Cromer, Deborah; Winterberg, Markus; Teoh, Narci C; D'Rozario, James; Kirk, Kiaran; Bröer, Stefan; Parish, Christopher R; Enders, Anselm

    2014-07-11

    Transmembrane lipid transporters are believed to establish and maintain phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes; however, little is known about the in vivo function of the specific transporters involved. Here, we report that developing erythrocytes from mice lacking the putative phosphatidylserine flippase ATP11C showed a lower rate of PS translocation in vitro compared with erythrocytes from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the mutant mice had an elevated percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing mature erythrocytes in the periphery. Although erythrocyte development in ATP11C-deficient mice was normal, the mature erythrocytes had an abnormal shape (stomatocytosis), and the life span of mature erythrocytes was shortened relative to that in control littermates, resulting in anemia in the mutant mice. Thus, our findings uncover an essential role for ATP11C in erythrocyte morphology and survival and provide a new candidate for the rare inherited blood disorder stomatocytosis with uncompensated anemia. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Imaging of sigma1 receptors in the human brain using PET and [11C]SA4503.

    PubMed

    Toyohara, Jun; Sakata, Muneyuki; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2009-09-01

    Sigma(1) receptors were imaged in living human brain by positron emission tomography (PET) using [(11)C] SA4503. A dynamic 90-min scan and kinetic analysis enabled quantification of receptor density in the brain. The sigma(1) receptors were distributed throughout the brain in normal subjects, but decreased in the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes, cerebellum and thalamus in patients with early Alzheimer's disease and in the putamen in patients with Parkinson's disease. In addition, rates of receptor occupancy by the neuroleptic haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine were evaluated by [(11)C]SA4503-PET and found to be high. [(11)C]SA4503-PET is useful for studying the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and for evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of psychiatric drugs.

  16. Local triggering of the ICOS coreceptor by CD11c+ myeloid cells drives organ inflammation in lupus

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Lino L.; Cullen, Jaime L.; Kashgarian, Michael; Dong, Chen; Craft, Joe; Shlomchik, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    The inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) is a potent promoter of organ inflammation in murine lupus. ICOS stimulates T follicular helper cell differentiation in lymphoid tissue, suggesting that it might drive autoimmunity by enhancing autoantibody production. Yet, the pathogenic relevance of this mechanism remains unclear. It is also unknown whether other ICOS-induced processes might contribute to lupus pathology. Here we show that selective ablation of ICOS ligand (ICOSL) in CD11c+ cells but not in B cells dramatically ameliorates kidney and lung inflammation in lupus-prone MRL. Faslpr mice. Autoantibody formation was largely unaffected by ICOSL deficiency in CD11c+ cells. However, ICOSL display by CD11c+ cells in inflamed organs had a nonredundant role in protecting invading T cells from apoptosis by elevating activity of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, thereby facilitating T cell accrual. These findings reveal a mechanism that locally sustains organ inflammation in lupus. PMID:25786178

  17. Development of a NiO target for the production of 11C at ISAC/TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricault, Pierre G.; Ames, Friedhelm; Dombsky, Marik; Kunz, Peter; Lassen, Jens; Mjøs, Anders; Wong, John

    2016-01-01

    High intensity 11C beams are necessary for the investigation of the formation of 12C via the nuclear reaction 11C(p, γ)12N → 12C + e+ + ν. The production of intense carbon beams on-line is quite challenging due to the thermodynamic properties and chemical reactivity of carbon at high temperatures. A previous attempt, using a medical isotope cyclotron production method in batch mode, was not conclusive. The intensity obtained was at least one order of magnitude too low for a direct proton capture experiment using the DRAGON facility at ISAC/TRIUMF. Producing a 11C beams using the ISOL method requires a target capable of efficiently releasing the carbon isotopes. NiO has been selected as a target material because most of the nickel carbides are not stable at high temperature. The development of carbon beams using a composite NiO/Ni target on-line is described.

  18. Radiosynthesis and quality control of [(11)C]TASP457 as a clinically useful PET ligand for imaging of histamine H3 receptors in human brain.

    PubMed

    Hanyu, Masayuki; Kawamura, Kazunori; Takei, Makoto; Furutsuka, Kenji; Shiomi, Satoshi; Fujishiro, Tomoya; Ogawa, Masanao; Nengaki, Nobuki; Hashimoto, Hiroki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2016-11-01

    Recently, 6-[(1-cyclobutylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy]-1-(6-[(11)C]methoxypyridin-3-yl)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one ([(11)C]TASP457, [(11)C]2) has been developed as a novel PET ligand for histamine H3 receptors in brain. [(11)C]2 is potentially suitable for imaging H3 receptors in rat and monkey brains, which has motivated us to perform first-in-human study of [(11)C]2 for qualifying H3 receptors in human brain. In this paper, we report an efficient radiosynthesis of [(11)C]2 to obtain sufficient radioactivity and high quality for clinical application. In manual synthesis, we optimized the reaction conditions of desmethyl precursor 1, which contains a 2-hydroxypyridine moiety, with [(11)C]MeI or [(11)C]MeOTf. After optimization, we performed automated synthesis and quality control of [(11)C]2. Bubbling [(11)C]MeOTf into a heated mixture of precursor 1 and cesium carbonate in DMF at 100°C for 90s produced [(11)C]2 with decay-corrected radiochemical yields of (based on [(11)C]CO2) 7.9±1.8% (n=78). The specific activity of [(11)C]2 was 156±52GBq/μmol (n=78) at the end of synthesis. The total synthesis time was approximately 35min from the end of bombardment. All the quality control results of [(11)C]2 were in compliance with our in-house quality control/assurance specifications. We radiosynthesized [(11)C]TASP457 ([(11)C]2) with sufficient amounts of radioactivity and high quality for clinical usefulness. This radioligand is being used for PET assessment of H3 receptors in human brain in our facility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimising the radiolabelling properties of technetium tricarbonyl and His-tagged proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, the majority of protein-based radiopharmaceuticals have been radiolabelled using non-site-specific conjugation methods, with little or no control to ensure retained protein function post-labelling. The incorporation of a hexahistidine sequence (His-tag) in a recombinant protein can be used to site-specifically radiolabel with 99mTc-tricarbonyl ([99mTc(CO)3]+). This chemistry has been made accessible via a technetium tricarbonyl kit; however, reports of radiolabelling efficiencies and specific activities have varied greatly from one protein to another. Here, we aim to optimise the technetium tricarbonyl radiolabelling method to produce consistently >95% radiolabelling efficiencies with high specific activities suitable for in vivo imaging. Methods Four different recombinant His-tagged proteins (recombinant complement receptor 2 (rCR2) and three single chain antibodies, α-CD33 scFv, α-VCAM-1 scFv and α-PSMA scFv), were used to study the effect of kit volume, ionic strength, pH and temperature on radiolabelling of four proteins. Results We used 260 and 350 μL [99mTc(CO)3]+ kits enabling us to radiolabel at higher [99mTc(CO)3]+ and protein concentrations in a smaller volume and thus increase the rate at which maximum labelling efficiency and specific activity were reached. We also demonstrated that increasing the ionic strength of the reaction medium by increasing [Na+] from 0.25 to 0.63 M significantly increases the rate at which all four proteins reach a >95% labelling efficiency by at least fourfold, as compared to the conventional IsoLink® kit (Covidien, Petten, The Netherlands) and 0.25 M [Na+]. Conclusion We have found optimised kit and protein radiolabelling conditions suitable for the reproducible, fast, efficient radiolabelling of proteins without the need for post-labelling purification. PMID:24606843

  20. SPM analysis of parametric (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding images: plasma input versus reference tissue parametric methods.

    PubMed

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van Berckel, Bart N M; Kropholler, Marc A; Veltman, Dick J; Scheltens, Philip; Jonker, Cees; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2007-05-01

    (R)-[11C]PK11195 has been used for quantifying cerebral microglial activation in vivo. In previous studies, both plasma input and reference tissue methods have been used, usually in combination with a region of interest (ROI) approach. Definition of ROIs, however, can be labourious and prone to interobserver variation. In addition, results are only obtained for predefined areas and (unexpected) signals in undefined areas may be missed. On the other hand, standard pharmacokinetic models are too sensitive to noise to calculate (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Linearised versions of both plasma input and reference tissue models have been described, and these are more suitable for parametric imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of these plasma input and reference tissue parametric methods on the outcome of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding. Dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were performed in 7 younger and 11 elderly healthy subjects. Parametric images of volume of distribution (Vd) and binding potential (BP) were generated using linearised versions of plasma input (Logan) and reference tissue (Reference Parametric Mapping) models. Images were compared at the group level using SPM with a two-sample t-test per voxel, both with and without proportional scaling. Parametric BP images without scaling provided the most sensitive framework for determining differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding between younger and elderly subjects. Vd images could only demonstrate differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding when analysed with proportional scaling due to intersubject variation in K1/k2 (blood-brain barrier transport and non-specific binding).

  1. Sleep Deprivation Decreases [11C]Raclopride’s Binding to Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher; Ma, Jim; Pradhan, Kith; Tomasi, Dardo; Thanos, Peter K.; Ferré, Sergi; Jayne, Millard

    2009-01-01

    Sleep deprivation can markedly impair human performance contributing to accidents and poor productivity. The mechanisms underlying this impairment are not well understood but brain dopamine systems have been implicated. Here we test whether one night of sleep deprivation changes dopamine brain activity. We studied fifteen healthy subjects using positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (dopamine D2/3 receptor radioligand) and [11C]cocaine (dopamine transporter radioligand). Subjects were tested twice; after one night of rested sleep and after on night of sleep deprivation. [11C]Raclopride’s specific binding in striatum and thalamus were significantly reduced after sleep deprivation and the magnitude of this reduction correlated with increases in fatigue (tiredness and sleepiness) and with deterioration in cognitive performance (visual attention and working memory). In contrast sleep deprivation did not affect the specific binding of [11C]cocaine in striatum. Since [11C]raclopride competes with endogenous dopamine for binding to D2/D3 receptors, we interpret the decreases in binding to reflect dopamine increases with sleep deprivation. However, we can not rule out the possibility that decreased [11C]raclopride binding reflects decreases in receptor levels or affinity. Sleep deprivation did not affect dopamine transporters (target for most wake-promoting medications) and thus dopamine increases are likely to reflect increases in dopamine cell firing and/or release rather than decreases in dopamine reuptake. Inasmuch as dopamine-enhancing drugs increase wakefulness we postulate that dopamine increases after sleep deprivation is a mechanism by which the brain maintains arousal as the drive to sleep increases but one that is insufficient to counteract behavioral and cognitive impairment. PMID:18716203

  2. Strategies for the generation of parametric images of [11C]PIB with plasma input functions considering discriminations and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Edison, Paul; Brooks, David J; Turkheimer, Federico E; Archer, Hilary A; Hinz, Rainer

    2009-11-01

    Pittsburgh compound B or [11C]PIB is an amyloid imaging agent which shows a clear differentiation between subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls. However the observed signal difference in other forms of dementia such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is smaller, and mild cognitively impaired (MCI) subjects and some healthy elderly normals may show intermediate levels of [11C]PIB binding. The cerebellum, a commonly used reference region for non-specific tracer uptake in [11C]PIB studies in AD may not be valid in Prion disorders or monogenic forms of AD. The aim of this work was to: 1-compare methods for generating parametric maps of [11C]PIB retention in tissue using a plasma input function in respect of their ability to discriminate between AD subjects and controls and 2-estimate the test-retest reproducibility in AD subjects. 12 AD subjects (5 of which underwent a repeat scan within 6 weeks) and 10 control subjects had 90 minute [11C]PIB dynamic PET scans, and arterial plasma input functions were measured. Parametric maps were generated with graphical analysis of reversible binding (Logan plot), irreversible binding (Patlak plot), and spectral analysis. Between group differentiation was calculated using Student's t-test and comparisons between different methods were made using p values. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). We found that the 75 min value of the impulse response function showed the best group differentiation and had a higher ICC than volume of distribution maps generated from Logan and spectral analysis. Patlak analysis of [11C]PIB binding was the least reproducible.

  3. Elevation of Dopamine Induced by Cigarette Smoking: Novel Insights from a [11C]-(+)-PHNO PET Study in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Le Foll, Bernard; Guranda, Mihail; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo M; Wing, Victoria C; Zawertailo, Laurie; Busto, Usoa; Selby, Peter; Brody, Arthur L; George, Tony P; Boileau, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has convincingly provided in vivo evidence that psychoactive drugs increase dopamine (DA) levels in human brain, a feature thought critical to their reinforcing properties. Some controversy still exists concerning the role of DA in reinforcing smoking behavior and no study has explored whether smoking increases DA concentrations at the D3 receptor, speculated to have a role in nicotine's addictive potential. Here, we used PET and [11C]-(+)-PHNO ([11C]-(+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4]oxazin-9-ol) to test the hypothesis that smoking increases DA release (decreases [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding) in D2-rich striatum and D3-rich extra-striatal regions and is related to craving, withdrawal and smoking behavior. Ten participants underwent [11C]-(+)-PHNO scans after overnight abstinence and after smoking a cigarette. Motivation to smoke (smoking topography), mood, and craving were recorded. Smoking significantly decreased self-reported craving, withdrawal, and [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding in D2 and D3-rich areas (−12.0 and −15.3%, respectively). We found that motivation to smoke (puff rate) predicted magnitude of DA release in limbic striatum, and the latter was correlated with decreased craving and withdrawal symptoms. This is the first report suggesting that, in humans, DA release is increased in D3-rich areas in response to smoking. Results also support the preferential involvement of the limbic striatum in motivation to smoke, anticipation of pleasure from cigarettes and relief of withdrawal symptoms. We propose that due to the robust effect of smoking on [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding, this radiotracer represents an ideal translational tool to investigate novel therapeutic strategies targeting DA transmission. PMID:23954846

  4. Kinetic brain analysis and whole-body imaging in monkey of [11C]MNPA: a dopamine agonist radioligand.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Nicholas; Skinbjerg, Mette; Zoghbi, Sami S; Liow, Jeih-San; Gladding, Robert L; Hong, Jinsoo; Kannan, Pavitra; Tuan, Edward; Sibley, David R; Halldin, Christer; Pike, Victor W; Innis, Robert B

    2008-09-01

    With a view to future extension of the use of the agonist radioligand [(11)C]MNPA ([O-methyl-(11)C]2-methoxy-N-propylnorapomorphine) from animals to humans, we performed two positron emission tomography (PET) studies in monkeys. First, we assessed the ability to quantify the brain uptake of [(11)C]MNPA with compartmental modeling. Second, we estimated the radiation exposure of [(11)C]MNPA to human subjects based on whole-body imaging in monkeys. Brain PET scans were acquired for 90 min and included concurrent measurements of the plasma concentration of unchanged radioligand. Time-activity data from striatum and cerebellum were quantified with two methods, a reference tissue model and distribution volume. Whole-body PET scans were acquired for 120 min using four bed positions from head to mid thigh. Regions of interest were drawn on compressed planar whole-body images to identify organs with the highest radiation exposures. After injection of [(11)C]MNPA, the highest concentration of radioactivity in brain was in striatum, with lowest levels in cerebellum. Distribution volume was well identified with a two-tissue compartmental model and was quite stable from 60 to 90 min. Whole-body PET scans showed the organ with the highest radiation burden (muSv/MBq) was the urinary bladder wall (26.0), followed by lungs (22.5), gallbladder wall (21.9), and heart wall (16.1). With a 2.4-h voiding interval, the effective dose was 6.4 muSv/MBq (23.5 mrem/mCi). In conclusion, brain uptake of [(11)C]MNPA reflected the density of D(2/3) receptors, quantified relative to serial arterial measurements, and caused moderate to low radiation exposure.

  5. Small intestine CD11c+ CD8+ T cells suppress CD4+ T cell-induced immune colitis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Chen, Ling; Wei, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The large (LI) and small intestine (SI) differ in patterns of susceptibility to chronic mucosal inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether this might, in part, reflect differences in resident mucosal CD11c+ T cells. These cells comprised 39–48% (SI) and 12–17% (LI) of the intraepithelial compartment, most of which were T-cell receptor-αβ+. In the SI, the majority of these cells were CD103+ CD8+ NK1.1−, whereas the opposite phenotype prevailed in the LI. In transfer models of CD4+ T cell-induced colitis, small numbers (2.5 × 105) of SI CD11c+ CD8+ T cells suppressed proinflammatory cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and mucosa-associated lymphoid compartments (SI and LI) and protected mice from chronic inflammation. On a per-cell basis, the regulatory function of SI CD11c+ T cells in CD4+ T cell colitis was potent compared with other reported regulatory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. In contrast, neither LI CD11c+ T cells nor SI CD11c− T cells were effective in such immunoregulation. SI CD11c+ CD8+ T cells were similarly effective in suppressing CD4+CD45RBhi T cell colitis, as evidenced by inhibition of intracellular proinflammatory cytokine expression and histological inflammation. These findings indicate that SI CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are a distinct intestinal T cell population that plays an immunoregulatory role in control of proinflammatory CD4+ T cells and maintenance of intestinal mucosal homeostasis. PMID:21436315

  6. CD11c+ cells are significantly decreased in the duodenum, ileum and colon of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kathrani, A; Schmitz, S; Priestnall, S L; Smith, K C; Werling, D; Garden, O A; Allenspach, K

    2011-11-01

    CD11c serves as a marker for human and murine dendritic cells (DCs) and cells expressing this marker have been shown to have similar morphological and functional characteristics in the canine immune system. The aim of this study was to quantify CD11c(+) cells in the duodenum, ileum and colon of healthy dogs and dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopic biopsies from the duodenum (n=12 cases), ileum (n=8 cases) and colon (n=12 cases) were obtained from dogs diagnosed with IBD. Intestinal tissue from 10 healthy beagle dogs was used as control. Immunofluorescence microscopy was carried out using an anti-canine CD11c monoclonal antibody. Labelled cells were recorded as cells per 120,000 μm(2). The canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) was calculated for all dogs with IBD. In addition, sections from all dogs with IBD were evaluated according to the guidelines of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association Gastrointestinal Standardization Group. The number of CD11c(+) cells in the duodenum, ileum and colon of dogs with IBD was significantly reduced compared with controls (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation between the number of CD11c(+) cells in the colon of dogs with IBD and the CCECAI (P=0.044, r(2)=-0.558). Chronic inflammation in canine IBD appears to involve an imbalance in the intestinal DC population. Future studies will determine whether reduced expression of CD11c could be a useful marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of canine IBD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The hematopoietic cell-specific transcription factor PU.1 is critical for expression of CD11c.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Takuya; Kasakura, Kazumi; Oda, Yoshihito; Kitamura, Nao; Inoue, Akihito; Nakamura, Shusuke; Yokoyama, Hokuto; Fukuyama, Kanako; Hara, Mutsuko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Nishiyama, Makoto; Nishiyama, Chiharu

    2017-02-01

    PU.1 is a hematopoietic cell-specific transcription factor belonging to the Ets family, which plays an important role in the development of dendritic cells (DCs). CD11c (encoded by Itgax) is well established as a characteristic marker of hematopoietic lineages including DCs. In the present study, we analyzed the role of PU.1 (encoded by Spi-1) in the expression of CD11c. When small interfering RNA (siRNA) for Spi-1 was introduced into bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), the mRNA level and cell surface expression of CD11c were dramatically reduced. Using reporter assays, the TTCC sequence at -56/-53 was identified to be critical for PU.1-mediated activation of the promoter. An EMSA showed that PU.1 directly bound to this region. ChIP assays demonstrated that a significant amount of PU.1 bound to this region on chromosomal DNA in BMDCs, which was decreased in LPS-stimulated BMDCs in accordance with the reduced levels of mRNAs of Itgax and Spi-1, and the histone acetylation degree. Enforced expression of exogenous PU.1 induced the expression of the CD11c protein on the cell surface of mast cells, whereas control transfectants rarely expressed CD11c. Quantitative RT-PCR also showed that the expression of a transcription factor Irf4, which is a partner molecule of PU.1, was reduced in PU.1-knocked down BMDCs. IRF4 transactivated the Itgax gene in a synergistic manner with PU.1. Taken together, these results indicate that PU.1 functions as a positive regulator of CD11c gene expression by directly binding to the Itgax promoter and through transactivation of the Irf4 gene. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Graphical analysis of reversible radioligand binding from time-activity measurements applied to (N- sup 11 C-methyl)-(-)-cocaine PET studies in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.; Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; MacGregor, R.R.; Hitzemann, R.; Bendriem, B.; Gatley, S.J. )

    1990-09-01

    A graphical method of analysis applicable to ligands that bind reversibly to receptors or enzymes requiring the simultaneous measurement of plasma and tissue radioactivities for multiple times after the injection of a radiolabeled tracer is presented. It is shown that there is a time t after which a plot of integral of t0ROI(t')dt'/ROI(t) versus integral of t0Cp(t')dt'/ROI(t) (where ROI and Cp are functions of time describing the variation of tissue radioactivity and plasma radioactivity, respectively) is linear with a slope that corresponds to the steady-state space of the ligand plus the plasma volume,.Vp. For a two-compartment model, the slope is given by lambda + Vp, where lambda is the partition coefficient and the intercept is -1/(kappa 2(1 + Vp/lambda)). For a three-compartment model, the slope is lambda(1 + Bmax/Kd) + Vp and the intercept is -(1 + Bmax/Kd)/k2 + (koff(1 + Kd/Bmax))-1 (1 + Vp/lambda(1 + Bmax/Kd))-1 (where Bmax represents the concentration of ligand binding sites and Kd the equilibrium dissociation constant of the ligand-binding site complex, koff (k4) the ligand-binding site dissociation constant, and k2 is the transfer constant from tissue to plasma). This graphical method provides the ratio Bmax/Kd from the slope for comparison with in vitro measures of the same parameter. It also provides an easy, rapid method for comparison of the reproducibility of repeated measures in a single subject, for longitudinal or drug intervention protocols, or for comparing experimental results between subjects. Although the linearity of this plot holds when ROI/Cp is constant, it can be shown that, for many systems, linearity is effectively reached some time before this. This analysis has been applied to data from (N-methyl-11C)-(-)-cocaine studies in normal human volunteers and the results are compared to the standard nonlinear least-squares analysis.

  9. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  10. Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

  11. **-Postprandial pancreatic [(11)C]methionine uptake after pancreaticoduodenectomy mirrors basal beta cell function and insulin release.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Emanuel; Kazianka, Lukas; Breuer, Robert; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Stimpfl, Thomas; Reiter, Birgit; Karanikas, Georgios; Miholic, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    [S-methyl-(11)C]-L-methionine ([(11)C]MET) uptake in the pancreas might be a central indicator of beta cell function. Since gastric emptying was recently shown to influence glycemic control in subjects after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, the surgical treatment of neoplasms of the pancreas head), we looked for imaginable relationships between gastric emptying, pre- and postprandial insulin concentrations, and [(11)C]MET uptake. Nineteen tumor-free survivors after PD (age mean ± SD: 61 ± 8.7 yrs.; 10 male, 9 female) and 10 healthy controls (age: 27 ± 8.7 yrs.; 7 male, 3 female) were given a mixed test meal. One gram of paracetamol was ingested with the meal to evaluate the speed of gastric emptying. Insulin, glucose, and paracetamol plasma concentrations were measured before and over 180 minutes after ingestion. Beta cell function was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin plasma concentrations. Simultaneously, 800 MBq of [(11)C]MET were administered and the activity (maximum tissue standardized uptake values [SUVmax]) over the pancreas was measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after injection. Total integrated SUVmax (area under the curve [AUC]) and incremental SUVmax were calculated. The uptake of [(11)C]MET in the pancreas was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in controls compared to the PD group. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in controls compared to pancreatectomy subjects (p < 0.0001). Paracetamol AUC30 correlated with the SUVmax increment between 15 and 30 minutes (R(2) = 0.27, p = 0.0263), suggesting a relationship between gastric emptying and the uptake of [(11)C]MET. Total integrated SUVmax correlated with insulin AUC60 (R(2) = 0.66,p < 0.0001) in patients after PD. Multivariate regression analysis revealed insulin AUC60 and beta cell function, calculated from the fasting insulin to glucose ratio, as independent predictors of (11)C-methionine uptake, i.e. total integrated SUVmax, in patients after PD (R

  12. Synthesis and Evaluation of [11C]LY2795050 as a Novel Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist Radiotracer for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Kim, Su Jin; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Lin, Shu-fei; Mitch, Charles; Quimby, Steven; Barth, Vanessa; Rash, Karen; Masters, John; Navarro, Antonio; Seest, Eric; Morris, Evan E.; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety disorders, drug abuse and alcoholism. To date, only one tracer, the kappa opioid receptor agonist [11C]GR103545, has been reported to be able to image KOR in primates. The goal of the present study was to synthesize the selective KOR antagonist [11C]LY2795050 and evaluate its potential as a PET tracer to image KOR in vivo. METHODS In vitro binding affinity of LY2795050 was measured in radioligand competition binding assays. Ex vivo experiments were conducted using microdosing of the unlabelled ligand in Sprague-Dawley rats, as well as wild-type and KOR knock-out mice, to assess the ligand’s potential as a tracer candidate. Imaging experiments with [11C]LY2795050 in monkeys were carried out on the Focus-220 PET scanner with arterial blood input function measurement. Binding parameters were determined with kinetic modeling analysis. RESULTS LY2795050 displays full antagonist activity and high binding affinity and selectivity for KOR. Microdosing studies in rodents and ex vivo analysis of tissue concentrations with LC/MS/MS identified LY2795050 as an appropriate tracer candidate able to provide specific binding signals in vivo. [11C]LY2795050 was prepared in an average yield of 12% and >99% radiochemical purity. In rhesus monkeys, [11C]LY2795050 displayed a moderate rate of peripheral metabolism, with ∼40% of parent compound remaining at 30 min postinjection. In the brain, [11C]LY2795050 displayed fast uptake kinetics (regional activity peak times < 20 min) and an uptake pattern consistent with the distribution of KOR in primates. Pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, iv) resulted in a uniform distribution of radioactivity. Further, specific binding of [11C]LY2795050 was reduced by the selective KOR antagonist LY2456302 in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION [11C]LY2795050 displayed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and binding profiles in vivo, and therefore

  13. Direct radiolabeling of antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for diagnostic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Buck A.

    1994-01-01

    Antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 is radiolabeled by direct means with a radionuclide for use in detection of occult abscess and inflammation. Radiolabeling is accomplished by partial reduction of the disulfide bonds of the antibody using Sn(II), or using other reducing agents followed by the addition of Sn(II), removal of excess reducing agent and reduction by-products, and addition of a specified amount of radionuclide reducing agent, such as stannous tartrate. The resulting product may be store frozen or lyophilized, with radiolabeling accomplished by the addition of the radionuclide.

  14. Direct radiolabeling of antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for diagnostic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, B.A.

    1994-09-13

    Antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 is radiolabeled by direct means with a radionuclide for use in detection of occult abscess and inflammation. Radiolabeling is accomplished by partial reduction of the disulfide bonds of the antibody using Sn(II), or using other reducing agents followed by the addition of Sn(II), removal of excess reducing agent and reduction by-products, and addition of a specified amount of radionuclide reducing agent, such as stannous tartrate. The resulting product may be stored frozen or lyophilized, with radiolabeling accomplished by the addition of the radionuclide. No Drawings

  15. Quantitative ex vivo and in vitro receptor autoradiography using 11C-labeled ligands and an imaging plate: a study with a dopamine D2-like receptor ligand [11C]nemonapride.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, K; Ogi, N; Tanaka, A; Senda, M

    1999-04-01

    Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography (ARG) with radioluminography is a useful technique to characterize newly developed 11C-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers and to apply them to biological and pharmacological studies. In this report, we have described a method of evaluating the radioactivity distribution quantitatively in ex vivo and in vitro ARG using imaging plates and a dopamine D2-like receptor ligand [11C]nemonapride as a model compound. The photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) values of the rat brain section provided by the imaging plates showed an excellent linear relationship with the radioactivity in a wide range under constant slice-thickness, although the PSL values slightly decreased with increasing slice-thickness both in ex vivo and in vitro ARG. The injection dose of 11C-tracers for ex vivo ARG was also discussed. We found saturable binding sites of [11C]nemonapride in the cortex besides the striatum both ex vivo and in vitro.

  16. The automated radiosynthesis and purification of the opioid receptor antagonist, [6-O-methyl-11C]diprenorphine on the GE TRACERlab FXFE radiochemistry module.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Michael; Prenant, Christian; Brown, Gavin; McMahon, Adam; Lowe, Jonathan; Jones, Anthony

    2014-05-15

    [6-O-Methyl-(11)C]diprenorphine ([(11)C]diprenorphine) is a positron emission tomography ligand used to probe the endogenous opioid system in vivo. Diprenorphine acts as an antagonist at all of the opioid receptor subtypes, that is, μ (mu), κ (kappa) and δ (delta). The radiosynthesis of [(11)C]diprenorphine using [(11)C]methyl iodide produced via the 'wet' method on a home-built automated radiosynthesis set-up has been described previously. Here, we describe a modified synthetic method to [(11)C]diprenorphine performed using [(11)C]methyl iodide produced via the gas phase method on a GE TRACERlab FXFE radiochemistry module. Also described is the use of [(11)C]methyl triflate as the carbon-11 methylating agent for the [(11)C]diprenorphine syntheses. [(11)C]Diprenorphine was produced to good manufacturing practice standards for use in a clinical setting. In comparison to previously reported [(11)C]diprenorphine radiosyntheisis, the method described herein gives a higher specific activity product which is advantageous for receptor occupancy studies. The radiochemical purity of [(11)C]diprenorphine is similar to what has been reported previously, although the radiochemical yield produced in the method described herein is reduced, an issue that is inherent in the gas phase radiosynthesis of [(11)C]methyl iodide. The yields of [(11)C]diprenorphine are nonetheless sufficient for clinical research applications. Other advantages of the method described herein are an improvement to both reproducibility and reliability of the production as well as simplification of the purification and formulation steps. We suggest that our automated radiochemistry route to [(11)C]diprenorphine should be the method of choice for routine [(11)C]diprenorphine productions for positron emission tomography studies, and the production process could easily be transferred to other radiochemistry modules such as the TRACERlab FX C pro.

  17. Photoionization of methanol and formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warneck, P.

    1971-01-01

    Photoions produced in methanol and formaldehyde by radiation in the spectral region 450-1150 A were analyzed mass spectrometrically, and their relative yields were determined as a function of wavelength. First ionization potentials were determined, and the ion yield curves were interpreted in terms of ionization processes in conjunction with other data. Fragment ions were detected on mass numbers of 31, 30, 29, 15, and 14 for methanol, and 29, 2, and 1 for formaldehyde. The associated appearance potentials were determined and were used to calculate heats of formation of the ions CH2OH(+) and HCO(+), and the radicals CH3, CH2, and HCO.

  18. Comparison of [(11)C]Choline ([(11)C]CHO) and [(18)F]Bombesin (BAY 86-4367) as Imaging Probes for Prostate Cancer in a PC-3 Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenböck, Sarah Marie; Schmeja, Philipp; Kurth, Jens; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Nawroth, Roman; Treiber, Uwe; Kundt, Guenther; Berndt, Sandra; Graham, Keith; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schwaiger, Markus; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Dinkelborg, Ludger; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Carbon-11- and fluorine-18-labeled choline derivatives are commonly used in prostate cancer imaging in the clinical setting for staging and re-staging of prostate cancer. Due to a limited detection rate of established positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, there is a clinical need for innovative tumor-specific PET compounds addressing new imaging targets. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of [(18)F]Bombesin (BAY 86-4367) as an innovative biomarker for prostate cancer imaging targeting the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor and [(11)C]Choline ([(11)C]CHO) in a human prostate tumor mouse xenograft model by small animal PET/X-ray computed tomography (CT). We carried out a dual-tracer small animal PET/CT study comparing [(18)F]Bombesin and [(11)C]CHO. The androgen-independent human prostate tumor cell line PC-3 was implanted subcutaneously in the flanks of nu/nu NMRI mice (n = 10) (PET/CT measurements of two [(11)C]Choline mice could not be analyzed due to technical reasons). [(18)F]Bombesin and [(11)C]CHO PET/CT imaging was performed about 3-4 weeks after the implantation of PC-3 cells on two separate days. After the intravenous tail vein injection of 14 MBq [(18)F]Bombesin and 37 MBq [(11)C]CHO, respectively, a dynamic study over 60 min was acquired in list mode using an Inveon animal PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions). The sequence of [(18)F]Bombesin and [(11)C]CHO was randomized. Image analysis was performed using summed images as well as dynamic data. To calculate static and dynamic tumor-to-muscle (T/M), tumor-to-blood (T/B), liver-to-blood (L/B), and kidney-to-blood (K/B) ratios, 4 × 4 × 4 mm(3) volumes of interest (VOIs) of tumor, muscle (thigh), liver, kidney, and blood derived from transversal slices were used. The mean T/M ratio of [(18)F]Bombesin and [(11)C]CHO was 6.54 ± 2.49 and 1.35 ± 0.30, respectively. The mean T/B ratio was 1.83 ± 0.79 for [(18)F]Bombesin and 0.55 ± 0.10 for [(11)C

  19. Direct radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies with rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors--a review of radiolabeling characteristics, quality control and in vitro stability studies.

    PubMed

    Iznaga-Escobar, N

    2001-03-01

    188Re is one of the radioisotopes expected to emerge as useful for therapy. Development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re depends on the radiolabeling methods used, which would give stable complexes having predefined radiochemical properties and in vitro and in vivo stability. This paper has attempted to provide a perspective of 188Re-labeled monoclonal antibodies, their radiolabeling characteristics, methods for quality control of radioimmunoconjugates and in vitro stability for radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors. The direct method of 188Re radiolabeling of antibodies by reductive attachment of 188Re in which free sulfhydryl groups have been generated by reduction of the intramolecular S-S disulfide bonds has been shown to be a promising approach in particular. Moreover, excellent methods have been developed to test the radionuclide, radiochemical purity and stability of 188Re-radioimmunoconjugates using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paper chromatography.

  20. Uptake of radiolabeled leukocytes in prosthetic graft infection

    SciTech Connect

    Serota, A.I.; Williams, R.A.; Rose, J.G.; Wilson, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of radionuclide labeled leukocytes in the demonstration of infection within vascular prostheses was examined. The infrarenal aorta was replaced with a 3 cm Dacron graft in 12 dogs. On the third postoperative day, six of the animals received an intravenous injection of 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus. Labeled leukocyte scans were performed at postoperative days one and three, and then weekly for 8 weeks with indium-111 and technetium-99 labeled autologous leukocytes. When scans showed focal uptake of isotope in the area of prosthetic material, the grafts were aseptically excised and cultured on mannitol-salt agar. Both control and infected animals had retroperitoneal isotope activity in the immediate postoperative period that disappeared by the end of the first week. By the eighth postoperative week, all of the animals that received the bacteremic challenge had both radionuclide concentration in the region of the vascular prosthesis and S. aureus cultured subsequently from the perigraft tissues. None of the control animals had either radionuclide or bacteriologic evidence of infection at the eighth postoperative week. The radiolabeled leukocyte scan is a highly sensitive and specific technique, clinically applicable for the diagnosis of vascular prosthetic infections.

  1. Separation of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hampson, I N; Gallagher, J T

    1984-08-01

    Glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides generated by treatment of biosynthetically radiolabelled dermatan sulphate and hyaluronic acid with chondroitin AC lyase or testicular hyaluronidase may be resolved into a series of discrete bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Bands were identified by fixation in glacial acetic acid containing 20% (w/v) 2,5-diphenyloxazole followed by fluorography. The bands represented glycans which differed in size by one disaccharide unit. For the larger oligosaccharides (decasaccharides and above) of similar charge: mass ratio, there was a linear relationship between electrophoretic mobility and log Mr. However, the smaller species showed anomalous migration patterns. Consideration of the structures of the fragments produced by the different enzyme treatments suggests that copolymeric and homopolymeric oligosaccharides may be separated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. There are many potential applications of this technique, foremost amongst them being studies on the molecular size heterogeneity and patterns of enzyme-mediated depolymerization of native glycosaminoglycan chains and investigations into rates of polymer chain elongation and post-polymerization modification reactions so essential to glycosaminoglycan function.

  2. Radiolabeled probes targeting tyrosine-kinase receptors for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Altai, Mohamed; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are transmembrane receptors regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, motility and recruitment of the vasculature. Aberrant expression and/or function of RTK have been detected in many malignant tumors and are considered to be a part of the transformed phenotype. The action of several classes of anti-cancer drugs is based on specific recognition of RTK. Monoclonal antibodies target extracellular binding domains, while tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) bind to intracellular kinase domains to suppress RTK signaling. The issues regarding the efficient use of RTK targeting are the inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity of RTK expression and the changes of expression levels during the course of disease and in response to therapy. Radionuclide molecular imaging of RTK expression may aid in selecting patients who would benefit from RTK-targeting therapy and in identifying non-responders. Therefore, the therapy would be more personalized. Currently, radiolabeled proteins (monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, natural peptides ligands to RTK and de novo selected affinity proteins) and TKI and their analogues are under development for the visualization of RTK. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches.

  3. A radiolabeled antiglobulin test for crossmatching platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Kickler, T S; Braine, H G; Ness, P M; Koester, A; Bias, W

    1983-02-01

    Despite the use of HLA-matched platelets for alloimmunized recipients, transfusion failures occur. In order to reduce these failures, we investigated the use of a radiolabeled antiglobulin technique for platelet crossmatching. The principle of the test is that of an indirect Coombs test using 125I labeled goat anti-human IgG. Incompatibility is determined by calculating a radioactivity antiglobulin test (RAGT) index. Using this technique, we performed 89 crossmatches on 19 leukemic or aplastic patients who were refractory to random donor platelets and receiving varying degrees of HLA-matched platelets. Effectiveness of the transfusion was assessed from the posttransfusion corrected platelet count increment (CCI) determined at 1 and 20 hr. When the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI at 1 lhr was 17,570 +/- 7003/cu mm, n = 55. When the RAGT index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 4237 +/- 4100/cu mm, n = 34. At 20 hr when the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI was 8722 +/- 3143/cu mm, n = 33, and when the index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 571 +/- 1286/cu mm, n = 23. Using this technique, one false negative resulted. Nine positive crossmatches with good increments at 1 hr were found; at 20 hr, however, the survival of these units was zero. These data suggest that this method is a useful adjunct in the selection of platelets in the refractory patient.

  4. A radiolabeled antiglobulin test for crossmatching platelet transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Kickler, T.S.; Braine, H.G.; Ness, P.M.; Koester, A.; Bias, W.

    1983-02-01

    Despite the use of HLA-matched platelets for alloimmunized recipients, transfusion failures occur. In order to reduce these failures, researchers investigated the use of a radiolabeled antiglobulin technique for platelet crossmatching. The principle of the test is that of an indirect Coombs test using /sup 125/I labeled goat anti-human IgG. Incompatibility is determined by calculating a radioactivity antiglobulin test (RAGT) index. Using this technique, researchers performed 89 crossmatches on 19 leukemic or aplastic patients who were refractory to random donor platelets and receiving varying degrees of HLA-matched platelets. Effectiveness of the transfusion was assessed from the posttransfusion corrected platelet count increment (CCI) determined at 1 and 20 hr. When the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI at 1 lhr was 17,570 +/- 7003/cu mm, n . 55. When the RAGT index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 4237 +/- 4100/cu mm, n . 34. At 20 hr when the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI was 8722 +/- 3143/cu mm, n . 33, and when the index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 571 +/- 1286/cu mm, n . 23. Using this technique, one false negative resulted. Nine positive crossmatches with good increments at 1 hr were found; at 20 hr, however, the survival of these units was zero. These data suggest that this method is a useful adjunct in the selection of platelets in the refractory patient.

  5. The 11C Project:Measurement of Root Exudation at Elevated CO2 Levels in Low and High Nutrient Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leandre, Verida; Howell, Calvin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the plant kingdom's mechanisms of resource management in variable environments is integral to predicting how plants will respond to an increase in atmospheric CO2 . The goal of this study is to determine the effects of changing nutrient conditions on the root exudation of barley plants at elevated CO2 levels. The 11 C group at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) tags various species of plants with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes in order to analyze metabolite transport in response to changes in the environment. 11 C is produced at TUNL using a tandem Van de Graaff particle accelerator, then transported from TUNL to the Duke Univ. Phytotron (100m) where plants are labeled with 11 C in a growth chamber. The chamber allows researchers to control the light intensity, air temperature, humidity and concentration of CO2 in the air. The plant absorbs 11 CO2 in a leaf that is placed inside a cuvette through which radioactive 11 CO2 gas flows. The sugars in the labeling leaf are tagged with 11 C and translocated throughout the plant similar to 12 C. Scintillation detectors are used to track the tagged sugars as they are translocated through the plant and exudated from the root into the nutrient solution or 11 CO2 gas is respired by the root. The labeling system, detector arrangement, electronics and data analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  6. NK cells are necessary for recovery of corneal CD11c+ dendritic cells after epithelial abrasion injury

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanisms controlling CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs during corneal epithelial wound healing were investigated in a murine model of corneal abrasion. Selective depletion of NKp46(+) CD3- NK cells that normally migrate into the cornea after epithelial abrasion resulted in >85% reduction of the epithelial CD1...

  7. Design of Infusion Schemes for Neuroreceptor Imaging: Application to [11C]Flumazenil-PET Steady-State Study

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ling; Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karine; Ziebell, Morten; Dyssegaard, Agnete; Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Hanne Demant; Lehel, Szabolcs; Yndgaard, Stig; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Pinborg, Lars Hageman

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing a simulation system that predicts the optimal study design for attaining tracer steady-state conditions in brain and blood rapidly. Tracer kinetics was determined from bolus studies and used to construct the system. Subsequently, the system was used to design inputs for bolus infusion (BI) or programmed infusion (PI) experiments. Steady-state quantitative measurements can be made with one short scan and venous blood samples. The GABAA receptor ligand [11C]Flumazenil (FMZ) was chosen for this purpose, as it lacks a suitable reference region. Methods. Five bolus [11C]FMZ-PET scans were conducted, based on which population-based PI and BI schemes were designed and tested in five additional healthy subjects. The design of a PI was assisted by an offline feedback controller. Results. The system could reproduce the measurements in blood and brain. With PI, [11C]FMZ steady state was attained within 40 min, which was 8 min earlier than the optimal BI (B/I ratio = 55 min). Conclusions. The system can design both BI and PI schemes to attain steady state rapidly. For example, subjects can be [11C]FMZ-PET scanned after 40 min of tracer infusion for 40 min with venous sampling and a straight-forward quantification. This simulation toolbox is available for other PET-tracers. PMID:27123457

  8. Multi-Scale hierarchical generation of PET parametric maps: application and testing on a [11C]DPN study.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Turkheimer, F E; Keihaninejad, S; Bose, S K; Hammers, A; Bertoldo, A

    2012-02-01

    We propose a general approach to generate parametric maps. It consists in a multi-stage hierarchical scheme where, starting from the kinetic analysis of the whole brain, we then cascade the kinetic information to anatomical systems that are akin in terms of receptor densities, and then down to the voxel level. A-priori classes of voxels are generated either by anatomical atlas segmentation or by functional segmentation using unsupervised clustering. Kinetic properties are transmitted to the voxels in each class using maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation method. We validate the novel method on a [11C]diprenorphine (DPN) test-retest data-set that represents a challenge to estimation given [11C]DPN's slow equilibration in tissue. T