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Sample records for 11c-labelled pittsburgh compound

  1. Dosimetry of D- and L-enantiomers of /sup 11/C-labeled tryptophan and valine

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, L.C.; Byrd, B.L.; Sun, T.T.; Crook, J.E.; Hubner, K.F.; Coffey, J.L.; Watson, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported the radiation dosimetry of /sup 11/C-labeled DL-tryptophan and DL-valine, as well as clinical pancreatic imaging studies with these agents. Because of significant uptake in both normal pancreas and in pancreatic tumors (thought to be due to the presence of the D-enantiomer), differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma was not feasible. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed for rapid resolution of /sup 11/C-labeled DL-tryptophan and DL-valine. Radiation dose estimates to the various organs in man were calculated for the D- and L-enantiomers of /sup 11/C-labeled tryptophan and valine, based on tissue distribution data in rats. The dose estimates were sufficiently low that 20-mCi doses of each of the enantiomeric amino acids were approved by the FDA for intravenous administration to humans. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Development of a (11)C-labeled tetrazine for rapid tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation.

    PubMed

    Herth, Matthias M; Andersen, Valdemar L; Lehel, Szabolcs; Madsen, Jacob; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2013-05-01

    Tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligations are remarkably fast and selective reactions even at low micro-molar concentrations. In bioorthogonal radiochemistry, tools that enable conjugation of radioactive probes to pre-targeted vectors are of great interest. Herein, we describe the successful development of the first (11)C-labelled tetrazine and its reaction with trans-cyclooctenol.

  3. A Distinct Subfraction of Aβ is Responsible for the High-Affinity Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) Binding Site in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain

    PubMed Central

    Matveev, Sergey V.; Spielmann, H. Peter; Metts, Brittney M.; Chen, Jing; Onono, Fredrick; Zhu, Haining; Scheff, Stephen W.; Walker, Lary C.; LeVine, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The positron emitting (PET) 11C-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) ligand is used to image β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brains of living subjects with the intent of detecting early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, deposits of human-sequence Aβ in APP transgenic mice and nonhuman primates bind very little PIB. The high stoichiometry of PIB:Aβ binding in human AD suggests that the PIB binding site may represent a particularly pathogenic entity and/or report local pathologic conditions. In this study, 3H-PIB was employed to track purification of the PIB binding site in > 90% yield from frontal cortical tissue of autopsy-diagnosed AD subjects. The purified PIB binding site comprises a distinct, highly insoluble subfraction of the Aβ in AD brain with low buoyant density due to an SDS-resistant association with a limited subset of brain proteins and lipids with physical properties similar to lipid rafts and to a ganglioside:Aβ complex in AD and Down Syndrome brain. Both the protein and lipid components are required for PIB binding. Elucidation of human-specific biological components and pathways will be important in guiding improvement of the animal models for AD and in identifying new potential therapeutic avenues. PMID:24995708

  4. Kinetics of 11C-labeled opiates in the brain of rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Hartvig, P.; Bergstroem, K.; Lindberg, B.; Lundberg, P.O.; Lundqvist, H.; Langstroem, B.; Svaerd, H.; Rane, A.

    1984-07-01

    The regional uptake in the brain of Rhesus monkeys of i.v. administered 11C-labeled morphine, codeine, heroin and pethidine was studied by means of positron emission tomography. The technique measures the sum of parent drug and radiolabeled metabolites. (For the sake of simplicity the drug derived radioactivity is denoted by the drug name.) Morphine had a limited uptake to discrete areas of the brain. The maximum normalized uptake, with respect to dose per kilogram body weight, was about 0.2, i.e., 20% of the calculated activity if the drug had been evenly distributed throughout the body of the monkey. Maximum radioactivity appeared 30 to 45 min after injection. Morphine left the brain slowly with an estimated half-life of more than 2 hr. An area with a normalized uptake of about 1.0 was detected centrally in the lowest horizontal transsection of the skull. The origin of this area was identified as the pituitary. Codeine, heroin and pethidine were taken up to the brain to a larger extent than morphine, with maximum normalized uptakes of 2.6, 4.6 and 6.3, respectively. Maximum radioactivities of these drugs were achieved earlier and the elimination rates were faster than for morphine. Differences in the uptake of these drugs to the brain, as well as differences in time to maximal normalized uptake and rate of disappearance are considered to reflect differences in the lipophilic character between the drugs. Pethidine had the most rapid and extensive uptake followed by heroin, codeine and morphine in order of decreasing lipophilicity.

  5. Using Pittsburgh Compound B for In Vivo PET Imaging of Fibrillar Amyloid-Beta

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ann D.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Mathis, Chester A.; Jagust, William J.; Klunk, William E.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.

    2012-01-01

    The development of Aβ-PET imaging agents has allowed for detection of fibrillar Aβ deposition in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Imaging Aβ thus has many potential clinical benefits: early or perhaps preclinical detection of disease and accurately distinguishing AD from dementias of other non-Aβ causes in patients presenting with mild or atypical symptoms or confounding comorbidities (in which the distinction is difficult to make clinically). From a research perspective, imaging Aβ allows us to study relationships between amyloid pathology and changes in cognition, brain structure, and function across the continuum from normal aging to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD; and to monitor the effectiveness of anti-Aβ drugs and relate them to neurodegeneration and clinical symptoms. Here, we will discuss the application of one of the most broadly studied and widely used Aβ imaging agents, Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB). PMID:22840744

  6. Pittsburgh compound B imaging and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β in a multicentre European memory clinic study

    PubMed Central

    Leuzy, Antoine; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Hasselbalch, Steen G.; Rinne, Juha O.; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Otto, Markus; Lleó, Alberto; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Santana, Isabel; Johansson, Jarkko; Anderl-Straub, Sarah; von Arnim, Christine A. F.; Beer, Ambros; Blesa, Rafael; Fortea, Juan; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Portelius, Erik; Pannee, Josef; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data on cerebral amyloidosis, derived using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography and (i) multi-laboratory INNOTEST enzyme linked immunosorbent assay derived cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-β42; (ii) centrally measured cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 using a Meso Scale Discovery enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 centrally measured using an antibody-independent mass spectrometry-based reference method. Moreover, we examined the hypothesis that discordance between amyloid biomarker measurements may be due to interindividual differences in total amyloid-β production, by using the ratio of amyloid-β42 to amyloid-β40. Our study population consisted of 243 subjects from seven centres belonging to the Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease Initiative, and included subjects with normal cognition and patients with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. All had Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography data, cerebrospinal fluid INNOTEST amyloid-β42 values, and cerebrospinal fluid samples available for reanalysis. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were reanalysed (amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β40) using Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technology, and a novel, antibody-independent, mass spectrometry reference method. Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratio results were scaled using the Centiloid method. Concordance between Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings and Pittsburgh compound B was high in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, while more variable results were observed for cognitively normal and non-Alzheimer’s disease groups. Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B classification and Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry

  7. Pittsburgh compound B imaging and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β in a multicentre European memory clinic study.

    PubMed

    Leuzy, Antoine; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rinne, Juha O; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Otto, Markus; Lleó, Alberto; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Santana, Isabel; Johansson, Jarkko; Anderl-Straub, Sarah; von Arnim, Christine A F; Beer, Ambros; Blesa, Rafael; Fortea, Juan; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Portelius, Erik; Pannee, Josef; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data on cerebral amyloidosis, derived using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography and (i) multi-laboratory INNOTEST enzyme linked immunosorbent assay derived cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-β42; (ii) centrally measured cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 using a Meso Scale Discovery enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 centrally measured using an antibody-independent mass spectrometry-based reference method. Moreover, we examined the hypothesis that discordance between amyloid biomarker measurements may be due to interindividual differences in total amyloid-β production, by using the ratio of amyloid-β42 to amyloid-β40 Our study population consisted of 243 subjects from seven centres belonging to the Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Initiative, and included subjects with normal cognition and patients with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. All had Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography data, cerebrospinal fluid INNOTEST amyloid-β42 values, and cerebrospinal fluid samples available for reanalysis. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were reanalysed (amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β40) using Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technology, and a novel, antibody-independent, mass spectrometry reference method. Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratio results were scaled using the Centiloid method. Concordance between Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings and Pittsburgh compound B was high in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, while more variable results were observed for cognitively normal and non-Alzheimer's disease groups. Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B classification and Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference

  8. Clinicopathologic and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B implications of Thal amyloid phase across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Murray, Melissa E; Lowe, Val J; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Liesinger, Amanda M; Cannon, Ashley; Przybelski, Scott A; Rawal, Bhupendra; Parisi, Joseph E; Petersen, Ronald C; Kantarci, Kejal; Ross, Owen A; Duara, Ranjan; Knopman, David S; Jack, Clifford R; Dickson, Dennis W

    2015-05-01

    Thal amyloid phase, which describes the pattern of progressive amyloid-β plaque deposition in Alzheimer's disease, was incorporated into the latest National Institute of Ageing - Alzheimer's Association neuropathologic assessment guidelines. Amyloid biomarkers (positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid) were included in clinical diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease dementia published by the National Institute of Ageing - Alzheimer's Association and the International Work group. Our first goal was to evaluate the correspondence of Thal amyloid phase to Braak tangle stage and ante-mortem clinical characteristics in a large autopsy cohort. Second, we examined the relevance of Thal amyloid phase in a prospectively-followed autopsied cohort who underwent ante-mortem (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B imaging; using the large autopsy cohort to broaden our perspective of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B results. The Mayo Clinic Jacksonville Brain Bank case series (n = 3618) was selected regardless of ante-mortem clinical diagnosis and neuropathologic co-morbidities, and all assigned Thal amyloid phase and Braak tangle stage using thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy. (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B studies from Mayo Clinic Rochester were available for 35 participants scanned within 2 years of death. Cortical (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B values were calculated as a standard uptake value ratio normalized to cerebellum grey/white matter. In the high likelihood Alzheimer's disease brain bank cohort (n = 1375), cases with lower Thal amyloid phases were older at death, had a lower Braak tangle stage, and were less frequently APOE-ε4 positive. Regression modelling in these Alzheimer's disease cases, showed that Braak tangle stage, but not Thal amyloid phase predicted age at onset, disease duration, and final Mini-Mental State Examination score. In contrast, Thal amyloid phase, but not Braak tangle stage or cerebral amyloid angiopathy predicted (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B

  9. Clinicopathologic and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B implications of Thal amyloid phase across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Murray, Melissa E; Lowe, Val J; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Liesinger, Amanda M; Cannon, Ashley; Przybelski, Scott A; Rawal, Bhupendra; Parisi, Joseph E; Petersen, Ronald C; Kantarci, Kejal; Ross, Owen A; Duara, Ranjan; Knopman, David S; Jack, Clifford R; Dickson, Dennis W

    2015-05-01

    Thal amyloid phase, which describes the pattern of progressive amyloid-β plaque deposition in Alzheimer's disease, was incorporated into the latest National Institute of Ageing - Alzheimer's Association neuropathologic assessment guidelines. Amyloid biomarkers (positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid) were included in clinical diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease dementia published by the National Institute of Ageing - Alzheimer's Association and the International Work group. Our first goal was to evaluate the correspondence of Thal amyloid phase to Braak tangle stage and ante-mortem clinical characteristics in a large autopsy cohort. Second, we examined the relevance of Thal amyloid phase in a prospectively-followed autopsied cohort who underwent ante-mortem (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B imaging; using the large autopsy cohort to broaden our perspective of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B results. The Mayo Clinic Jacksonville Brain Bank case series (n = 3618) was selected regardless of ante-mortem clinical diagnosis and neuropathologic co-morbidities, and all assigned Thal amyloid phase and Braak tangle stage using thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy. (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B studies from Mayo Clinic Rochester were available for 35 participants scanned within 2 years of death. Cortical (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B values were calculated as a standard uptake value ratio normalized to cerebellum grey/white matter. In the high likelihood Alzheimer's disease brain bank cohort (n = 1375), cases with lower Thal amyloid phases were older at death, had a lower Braak tangle stage, and were less frequently APOE-ε4 positive. Regression modelling in these Alzheimer's disease cases, showed that Braak tangle stage, but not Thal amyloid phase predicted age at onset, disease duration, and final Mini-Mental State Examination score. In contrast, Thal amyloid phase, but not Braak tangle stage or cerebral amyloid angiopathy predicted (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B

  10. Pittsburgh Compound B and the Postmortem Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Niedowicz, Dana M.; Beckett, Tina L.; Matveev, Sergey; Weidner, Adam M.; Baig, Irfan; Kryscio, Richard J.; Mendiondo, Marta S.; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Murphy, M. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective Deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in neuritic plaques is a requirement for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although the continued development of in vivo imaging agents such as Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) is promising, the diagnosis of AD is still challenging. This can be partially attributed to our lack of a detailed understanding of the interrelationship between the various pools and species of Aβ and other common indices of AD pathology. We hypothesized that recent advances in our ability to accurately measure Aβ postmortem (for example, using PiB), could form the basis of a simple means to deliver an accurate AD diagnosis. Methods We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the amount of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in increasingly insoluble fractions, oligomeric Aβ, and fibrillar Aβ (as defined by PiB binding), as well as plaques (diffuse and neuritic), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in autopsy specimens from age-matched, cognitively normal controls (N=23) and AD (N=22) cases, across multiple brain regions. Results Both PiB binding and the amount of SDS soluble Aβ were able to predict disease status; however, SDS soluble Aβ was a better measure. Oligomeric Aβ was not a predictor of disease status. PiB binding was strongly related to plaque count, although diffuse plaques were a stronger correlate than neuritic plaques. Interpretation Although postmortem PiB binding was somewhat useful in distinguishing AD from control cases, SDS soluble Aβ measured by standard immunoassay was substantially better. These findings have important implications for the development of imaging based biomarkers of AD. PMID:23109151

  11. Postmortem Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) Binding Increases with Alzheimer's Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Tina L.; Webb, Robin L.; Niedowicz, Dana M.; Holler, Christopher J.; Matveev, Sergey; Baig, Irfan; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Murphy, M. Paul

    2013-01-01

    The development of imaging reagents is of considerable interest in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) field. Some of these, such as Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), were designed to bind to the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the major component of amyloid deposits in the AD brain. Although these agents were designed for imaging amyloid deposits in vivo, a major avenue of evaluation relies on postmortem cross validation with established indices of AD pathology. In this study, we evaluated changes in the postmortem binding of PiB and its relationship to other aspects of Aβ-related pathology in a series of AD cases and age-matched controls. We also examined cases of preclinical AD (PCAD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), both considered early points in the AD continuum. PiB binding was found to increase with the progression of the disease, and paralleled increases in the less soluble forms of Aβ, including SDS-stable Aβ oligomers. Increased PiB binding and its relationship to Aβ was only significant in a brain region vulnerable to the development of AD pathology (the superior and middle temporal gyri) but not in an unaffected region (cerebellum). This implies that the amyloid deposited in disease affected regions may possess fundamental, brain region specific characteristics that may not as yet be fully appreciated. These data support the idea that PiB is a useful diagnostic tool for AD, particularly in the early stage of the disease, and also show that PiB could be a useful agent for the discovery of novel disease-related properties of amyloid. PMID:22766739

  12. (11) C-labeled and (18) F-labeled PET ligands for subtype-specific imaging of histamine receptors in the brain.

    PubMed

    Funke, Uta; Vugts, Danielle J; Janssen, Bieneke; Spaans, Arnold; Kruijer, Perry S; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Perk, Lars R; Windhorst, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    The signaling molecule histamine plays a key role in the mediation of immune reactions, in gastric secretion, and in the sensory system. In addition, it has an important function as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, acting in pituitary hormone secretion, wakefulness, motor and cognitive functions, as well as in itch and nociception. This has raised interest in the role of the histaminergic system for the treatment and diagnosis of various pathologies such as allergy, sleeping and eating disorders, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, mood disorders, and pruritus. In the past 20 years, several ligands targeting the four different histamine receptor subtypes have been explored as potential radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET). This contribution provides an overview of the developments of subtype-selective carbon-11-labeled and fluorine-18-labeled compounds for imaging in the brain. Using specific radioligands, the H1 R expression in human brain could be examined in diseases such as schizophrenia, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In addition, the sedative effects of antihistamines could be investigated in terms of H1 R occupancy. The H3 R is of special interest because of its regulatory role in the release of various other neurotransmitters, and initial H3 R PET imaging studies in humans have been reported. The H4 R is the youngest member of the histamine receptor family and is involved in neuroinflammation and various sensory pathways. To date, two H4 R-specific (11) C-labeled ligands have been synthesized, and the imaging of the H4 R in vivo is in the early stage.

  13. Evaluation of myocardial metabolism, with /sup 13/N- and /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids and positron computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Barrio, J.R.; Egbert, J.E.; Hansen, H.W.; MacDonald, N.S.; Phelps, M.E.

    1982-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of labeled L-amino acids (AA) for imaging regional myocardial AA metabolism by positron computed tomography (PCT), the myocardial uptake and clearance of Ala,* Glu, Gln, Asp, Leu tagged with /sup 13/N, and of /sup 11/C-tagged Asp, and oxaloacetate (Oxal), were examined in 44 experiments at control, during ischemia, and after transaminase inhibition. The myocardial time-activity curves recorded after intracoronary tracer injection had two clearance phases (an early and a late) for all /sup 13/N AA, and three (early, intermediate, late) for the two /sup 11/C compounds, with significantly different clearance half-times of 18.7 +/- 8.0 (s.d.) sec for the early phase, 141.7 +/- 56.5 sec for the intermediate, and 61.2 +/- 43.5 min for the late phase. The residual fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.23 in normal myocardium, and consistently increased with ischemia by 0.01-0.07 for /sup 13/N-labeled Ala, Glu, Asp, and Leu, but not for /sup 13/N Gln and /sup 11/C compounds. Transaminase inhibition shortened the half-times of the late phases of /sup 13/N-labeled Ala, Glu, Asp, and Leu; had no effect on t1/2 of /sup 13/N Gln and /sup 11/C Oxal; and resulted in a loss of /sup 11/C CO/sub 2/ production and of the intermediate phase for /sup 11/C Asp. On the PCT images, /sup 13/N activity from labeled Ala and Glu was not decreased in an ischemic segment despite a significant flow reduction, as demonstrated by /sup 13/N NH/sub 3/ imaging and labeled microspheres. From the results, a three-compartment tracer kinetic model is proposed for the noninvasive quantification of Krebscycle activity, protein synthesis, and metabolic derangements related to ischemia.

  14. Synthesis of (11)C-Labeled Thiamine and Fursultiamine for in Vivo Molecular Imaging of Vitamin B1 and Its Prodrug Using Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hisashi; Mawatari, Aya; Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Nozaki, Satoshi; Nomura, Yukihiro; Kitayoshi, Takahito; Akimoto, Kouji; Suzuki, Masaaki; Ninomiya, Shinji; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-06-19

    To enable in vivo analysis of the kinetics of vitamin B1 (thiamine) and its derivatives by positron emission tomography (PET), (11)C-labeled thiamine ([(11)C]-1) has been synthesized. This was carried out via a rapid, multistep synthesis consisting of Pd(0)-mediated C-[(11)C]methylation of a thiazole ring for 3 min and benzylation with 5-(bromomethyl)pyrimidine for 7 min. The [(11)C]-1 was also converted to (11)C-labeled fursultiamine ([(11)C]-2), a prodrug of vitamin B1, by disulfide formation with S-tetrahydrofurfurylthiosulfuric acid sodium salt. Characterization of [(11)C]-1 and [(11)C]-2 showed them to be suitable for use as PET probes for in vivo pharmacokinetic and medical studies. The total durations of the preparations of [(11)C]-1 and [(11)C]-2 were shorter than 60 and 70 min, respectively. The [(11)C]CH3I-based decay-corrected radiochemical yields of [(11)C]-1 and [(11)C]-2 were 9-16% and 4-10%, respectively. The radioactivities of the final injectable solutions of [(11)C]-1 and [(11)C]-2 were 400-700 and 100-250 MBq, respectively. The radiochemical purity of both [(11)C]-1 and [(11)C]-2 was 99%, and the chemical purities of [(11)C]-1 and [(11)C]-2 were 99% and 97-99%, respectively. In vivo PET imaging of normal rats was illustrated by the distribution of [(11)C]-1 and [(11)C]-2 following intravenous injection. PMID:25984933

  15. Atmospheric volatile organic compound measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study: Results, interpretation, and quantification of primary and secondary contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, Dylan B.; Donahue, Neil M.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Polidori, Andrea; Stanier, Charles O.; Turpin, Barbara J.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2005-04-01

    Primary and secondary contributions to ambient levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosol organic carbon (OC) are determined using measurements at the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during January-February and July-August 2002. Primary emission ratios for gas and aerosol species are defined by correlation with species of known origin, and contributions from primary and secondary/biogenic sources and from the regional background are then determined. Primary anthropogenic contributions to ambient levels of acetone, methylethylketone, and acetaldehyde were found to be 12-23% in winter and 2-10% in summer. Secondary production plus biogenic emissions accounted for 12-27% of the total mixing ratios for these compounds in winter and 26-34% in summer, with background concentrations accounting for the remainder. Using the same method, we determined that on average 16% of aerosol OC was secondary in origin during winter versus 37% during summer. Factor analysis of the VOC and aerosol data is used to define the dominant source types in the region for both seasons. Local automotive emissions were the strongest contributor to changes in atmospheric VOC concentrations; however, they did not significantly impact the aerosol species included in the factor analysis. We conclude that longer-range transport and industrial emissions were more important sources of aerosol during the study period. The VOC data are also used to characterize the photochemical state of the atmosphere in the region. The total measured OH loss rate was dominated by nonmethane hydrocarbons and CO (76% of the total) in winter and by isoprene, its oxidation products, and oxygenated VOCs (79% of the total) in summer, when production of secondary organic aerosol was highest.

  16. Associating a negatively charged GdDOTA-derivative to the Pittsburgh compound B for targeting Aβ amyloid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Martins, André F; Oliveira, Alexandre C; Morfin, Jean-François; Laurents, Douglas V; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2016-03-01

    We have conjugated the tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetate (DOTA) chelator to Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) forming negatively charged lanthanide complexes, Ln(L4), with targeting capabilities towards aggregated amyloid peptides. The amphiphilic Gd(L4) chelate undergoes micellar aggregation in aqueous solution, with a critical micellar concentration of 0.68 mM, lower than those for the neutral complexes of similar structure. A variable temperature (17)O NMR and NMRD study allowed the assessment of the water exchange rate, k ex (298) = 9.7 × 10(6) s(-1), about the double of GdDOTA, and for the description of the rotational dynamics for both the monomeric and the micellar forms of Gd(L4). With respect to the analogous neutral complexes, the negative charge induces a significant rigidity of the micelles formed, which is reflected by slower and more restricted local motion of the Gd(3+) centers as evidenced by higher relaxivities at 20-60 MHz. Surface Plasmon Resonance results indicate that the charge does not affect significantly the binding strength to Aβ1-40 [K d = 194 ± 11 μM for La(L4)], but it does enhance the affinity constant to human serum albumin [K a = 6530 ± 68 M(-1) for Gd(L4)], as compared to neutral counterparts. Protein-based NMR points to interaction of Gd(L4) with Aβ1-40 in the monomer state as well, in contrast to neutral complexes interacting only with the aggregated form. Circular dichroism spectroscopy monitored time- and temperature-dependent changes of the Aβ1-40 secondary structure, indicating that Gd(L4) stabilizes the random coil relative to the α-helix and β-sheet. TEM images confirm that the Gd(L4) complex reduces the formation of aggregated fibrils. PMID:26613605

  17. Associating a negatively charged GdDOTA-derivative to the Pittsburgh compound B for targeting Aβ amyloid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Martins, André F; Oliveira, Alexandre C; Morfin, Jean-François; Laurents, Douglas V; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2016-03-01

    We have conjugated the tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetate (DOTA) chelator to Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) forming negatively charged lanthanide complexes, Ln(L4), with targeting capabilities towards aggregated amyloid peptides. The amphiphilic Gd(L4) chelate undergoes micellar aggregation in aqueous solution, with a critical micellar concentration of 0.68 mM, lower than those for the neutral complexes of similar structure. A variable temperature (17)O NMR and NMRD study allowed the assessment of the water exchange rate, k ex (298) = 9.7 × 10(6) s(-1), about the double of GdDOTA, and for the description of the rotational dynamics for both the monomeric and the micellar forms of Gd(L4). With respect to the analogous neutral complexes, the negative charge induces a significant rigidity of the micelles formed, which is reflected by slower and more restricted local motion of the Gd(3+) centers as evidenced by higher relaxivities at 20-60 MHz. Surface Plasmon Resonance results indicate that the charge does not affect significantly the binding strength to Aβ1-40 [K d = 194 ± 11 μM for La(L4)], but it does enhance the affinity constant to human serum albumin [K a = 6530 ± 68 M(-1) for Gd(L4)], as compared to neutral counterparts. Protein-based NMR points to interaction of Gd(L4) with Aβ1-40 in the monomer state as well, in contrast to neutral complexes interacting only with the aggregated form. Circular dichroism spectroscopy monitored time- and temperature-dependent changes of the Aβ1-40 secondary structure, indicating that Gd(L4) stabilizes the random coil relative to the α-helix and β-sheet. TEM images confirm that the Gd(L4) complex reduces the formation of aggregated fibrils.

  18. Striatal and frontal cortex binding of 11-C-labelled clozapine visualized by positron emission tomography (PET) in drug-free schizophrenics and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, T; Lindström, L H; Hartvig, P; Eckernâs, S A; Ekblom, B; Lundqvist, H; Fasth, K J; Gullberg, P; Långström, B

    1989-01-01

    The binding of 11C-labelled clozapine in the brain was studied in three drug-free schizophrenic patients and in three healthy volunteers. High radioactivities were found in the striatum and in the frontal cortex. The rate constant k3, which is proportional to receptor association rate and the number of receptors, was lower in the frontal cortex compared to the striatum. No obvious difference between the two brain areas was seen for the dissociation rate constant from the receptors (k4). Two schizophrenic patients were reexamined after pretreatment with haloperidol, one after 6 weeks of treatment with a low oral dose, the other one after an IV injection 1 h before 11C-clozapine was given. After haloperidol pretreatment, the binding of 11C-clozapine in striatum and frontal cortex was reduced, more pronounced in the striatum, indicating competition for D-2 dopamine binding sites. Our finding indicates that clozapine has an affinity for a receptor population in the frontal cortex that is predominantly not of the dopamine-D2 type. This feature might be of importance for the unique clinical profile of the drug.

  19. Increase of 20-HETE synthase after brain ischemia in rats revealed by PET study with 11C-labeled 20-HETE synthase-specific inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Marumo, Toshiyuki; Shirakami, Keiko; Mori, Tomoko; Doi, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Nakazato, Atsuro; Ago, Yukio; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Baba, Akemichi; Onoe, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), an arachidonic acid metabolite known to be produced after cerebral ischemia, has been implicated in ischemic and reperfusion injury by mediating vasoconstriction. To develop a positron emission tomography (PET) probe for 20-HETE synthase imaging, which might be useful for monitoring vasoconstrictive processes in patients with brain ischemia, we synthesized a 11C-labeled specific 20-HETE synthase inhibitor, N′(4-dimethylaminohexyloxy)phenyl imidazole ([11C]TROA). Autoradiographic study showed that [11C]TROA has high-specific binding in the kidney and liver consistent with the previously reported distribution of 20-HETE synthase. Using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, PET study showed significant increases in the binding of [11C]TROA in the ipsilateral hemisphere of rat brains after 7 and 10 days, which was blocked by co-injection of excess amounts of TROA (10 mg/kg). The increased [11C]TROA binding on the ipsilateral side returned to basal levels within 14 days. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR revealed that increased expression of 20-HETE synthase was only shown on the ipsilateral side on day 7. These results indicate that [11C]TROA might be a useful PET probe for imaging of 20-HETE synthase in patients with cerebral ischemia. PMID:22669478

  20. [11C]-Labeled Metformin Distribution in the Liver and Small Intestine Using Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography in Mice Demonstrates Tissue-Specific Transporter Dependency.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jonas B; Sundelin, Elias I; Jakobsen, Steen; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole L; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Jessen, Niels

    2016-06-01

    Metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic drug, with well-documented beneficial preventive effects on diabetic complications. Despite being in clinical use for almost 60 years, the underlying mechanisms for metformin action remain elusive. Organic cation transporters (OCT), including multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATE), are essential for transport of metformin across membranes, but tissue-specific activity of these transporters in vivo is incompletely understood. Here, we use dynamic positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-labeled metformin ([(11)C]-metformin) in mice to investigate the role of OCT and MATE in a well-established target tissue, the liver, and a putative target of metformin, the small intestine. Ablation of OCT1 and OCT2 significantly reduced the distribution of metformin in the liver and small intestine. In contrast, inhibition of MATE1 with pyrimethamine caused accumulation of metformin in the liver but did not affect distribution in the small intestine. The demonstration of OCT-mediated transport into the small intestine provides evidence of direct effects of metformin in this tissue. OCT and MATE have important but separate roles in uptake and elimination of metformin in the liver, but this is not due to changes in biliary secretion. [(11)C]-Metformin holds great potential as a tool to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of metformin in clinical studies.

  1. [18F]- and [11C]-Labeled N-benzyl-isatin sulfonamide analogues as PET tracers for apoptosis: synthesis, radiolabeling mechanism, and in vivo imaging of apoptosis in Fas-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dong; Chu, Wenhua; Chen, Delphine L.; Wang, Qi; Reichert, David E.; Rothfuss, Justin; D'Avignon, Andre; Welch, Michael J.; Mach, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The radiolabeled isatin sulfonamide caspase-3 inhibitor, [18F]2 (WC-II-89), is a potential PET radiotracer for noninvasive imaging of apoptosis. The radiolabeling mechanism was studied by 13C NMR, ESI/MS, and computational calculations. It was found that the high electrophilicity of the C3 carbonyl group in the isatin ring, which served as a trap for [18F]fluoride, was responsible for the failure of the radiolabeling via nucleophilic substitution of the mesylate group in 7a by [18F]fluoride. Once treated with a strong base, 7a opened the isatin ring completely to form an isatinate intermediate 16, which lost the ability to trap [18F]fluoride, thereby allowing the displacement of the mesylate group to afford the 18F-labeled isatinate 17. [18F]17 can be converted to isatin [18F]2 efficiently under acidic conditions. The ring-opening and re-closure of the isatin ring under basic and acidic conditions were confirmed by reversed phase HPLC analysis, ESI/MS and 13C NMR studies. Computational studies of model compounds also support the above proposed mechanism. Similarly, the ring-opening and re-closure method was used successfully in the synthesis of the 11C labeled isatin sulfonamide analogue [11C]4 (WC-98). A microPET imaging study using [11C]4 in the Fas liver apoptosis model demonstrated retained activity in the target organ (liver) of the treated mice. Increased caspase-3 activation in the liver was verified by the fluorometric caspase-3 enzyme assay. Therefore, this study provides a useful method for radio-synthesis of isatin derivative radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies, and [11C]4 is a potential PET radiotracer for noninvasive imaging of apoptosis. PMID:19300818

  2. Pittsburgh compound B-negative dementia: a possibility of misdiagnosis of patients with non-alzheimer disease-type dementia as having AD.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Suzuka; Takeuchi, Jun; Mori, Hiroshi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Miki, Takami

    2011-09-01

    Amyloid imaging has been used to detect amyloid deposition in the brain. We performed Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography on 63 patients with dementia having cognitive decline or memory disturbance. In addition, we measured the patients' apolipoprotein E4 (apo E4) status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)1-42, tau, and P-tau. Finally, the patients were diagnosed as having probable Alzheimer disease (AD) on the basis of their neuropsychological findings and because they met the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Among the patients diagnosed with probable AD, 10 patients were PiB negative. The CSF levels of P-tau and tau in PiB-negative patients were significantly lower than those in the PiB-positive patients. In addition, the CSF levels of Aβ1-42 in the PiB-negative patients were significantly higher than those in the PiB-positive patients. None of the PiB-negative patients were apo E4 carriers. These results suggest that the PiB-negative patient group included not only AD patients but also non-AD-type dementia patients. However, our finding is based on a relatively small number of patients and therefore should be replicated in a larger cohort. In addition, it will be necessary to categorize these participants by longitudinal follow-up and postmortem pathological examinations.

  3. Pittsburgh School Gets Energized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Willliam W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project designed to create an energy efficient high school in the diocese of Pittsburgh. The project will save over $850,000 in energy, operations, and maintenance costs over fifteen years. The design improves the physical premises as well by adding windows and eliminating fluorescent lighting. Offers tips for developing similar…

  4. Our Pittsburgh Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnshek, Diane

    2015-08-01

    Riding on the Pittsburgh mayor’s keen interest in astronomy and the ongoing change of 40,000 city lights from mercury and sodium vapor to shielded LEDs, we organized a series of city-wide celestial art projects to bring attention to the skies over Pittsburgh. Light pollution public talks were held at the University of Pittsburgh’s Allegheny Observatory and other colleges. Earth Hour celebrations kicked off an intensive year of astronomy outreach in the city. Lights went out on March 28, 2015 from 8:30 to 9:30 pm in over fifty buildings downtown and in Oakland (the “Eds and Meds” center, where many Pittsburgh universities and hospitals are located). Our art contest was announced at the De-Light Pittsburgh celebration at the Carnegie Science Center during Astronomy Weekend. “Our Pittsburgh Constellation” is an interactive Google map of all things astronomical in the city. Different colored stars mark locations of planetariums, star parties, classes, observatories, lecture series, museums, telescope manufacturers and participating art galleries. Contest entrants submitted artwork depicting their vision of the constellation figure that incorporates and connects all the “stars” in our custom city map. Throughout the year, over a dozen artists ran workshops on painting star clusters, galaxies, nebulae, comets, planets and aurorae with discussions of light pollution solutions and scientific explanations of what the patrons were painting, including demonstrations with emission tubes and diffraction grating glasses. We will display the celestial art created in this International Year of Light at an art gallery as part of the City’s Department of Innovation & Performance March 2016 Earth Hour gala. We are thankful for the Astronomical Footprint grant from the Heinz Endowments, which allowed us to bring the worlds of science and art together to enact social change.

  5. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Reynolds CF, 3. d.; Kupfer, D. J.; Buysse, D. J.; Coble, P. A.; Hayes, A. J.; Machen, M. A.; Petrie, S. R.; Ritenour, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12-31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n = 39, P < 0.001).

  6. View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, inbound from Pittsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, inbound from Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, outbound from Pittsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, outbound from Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Pittsburgh Adapts to Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    States, Deidre

    1985-01-01

    The Samuel F. B. Morse School, built in 1874 and closed in 1980, is a historic landmark in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Now the building serves as low-income housing for 70 elderly tenants and is praised as being an imaginative and creative use of an old school structure. (MLF)

  9. 49 CFR 372.211 - Pittsburgh, PA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pittsburgh, PA. 372.211 Section 372.211... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.211 Pittsburgh, PA. The zone adjacent to, and... and is comprised of all points as follows: (a) The municipality of Pittsburgh, Pa., itself; (b)...

  10. 75 FR 81469 - Safety Zone; Allegheny River, Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allegheny River, Pittsburgh, PA AGENCY... First Night Pittsburgh fireworks display that will occur in the city of Pittsburgh, PA. Under 5 U.S.C... First Night Pittsburgh fireworks display that will occur in the city of Pittsburgh, PA. Background...

  11. NARSTO EPA SS PITTSBURGH RAPID SPMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS PITTSBURGH RAPID SPMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Parameters:  Particulates Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool:   Order Data Guide Documents:  ... Earth Related Data:  Environmental Protection Agency Supersites Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SCAR-B ...

  12. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF PITTSBURGH HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF PITTSBURGH HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE CREATIVE AND PERFORMING ARTS, BUILT 2003 BY THE FIRM OF MACLACHLAN CORNELIUS AND FILONI. - Pittsburgh High School for the Creative & Performing Arts, 111 Ninth Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) conducted December 7--11, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PETC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PETC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site Survey activities at PETC. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the Plan's results will be incorporated into the PETC Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 64 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  14. NARSTO EPA SS PITTSBURGH PM COMPOSITION DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    ... Transmission ICP - MS - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer Ion Chromatograph Location:  Pittsburgh, ... Readme Files:  EPA Sites Get Google Earth Related Data:  Environmental Protection Agency ...

  15. Fulfilling The Pittsburgh Promise[R]: Early Progress of Pittsburgh's Postsecondary Scholarship Program. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Phillips, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a detailed assessment of the extent to which "The Pittsburgh Promise"--a postsecondary education scholarship intended to remedy the area's population decline, foster high school completion and college readiness among Pittsburgh district students, and prepare a capable and energetic workforce for the city--has met its goals to…

  16. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST WITH OPEN HEARTH TO THE LEFT, PITTSBURGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST WITH OPEN HEARTH TO THE LEFT, PITTSBURGH & LAKE ERIE RAILROAD TRACKS CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN THE PITTSBURGH PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAUWALDER, DONALD D.

    THE ECONOMY, THE EMPLOYMENT-UNEMPLOYMENT RATIO, AND THE AMOUNT, TYPE, AND LEVEL OF AVAILABLE EDUCATION HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE GENERAL ECONOMIC DECLINE OF THE PITTSBURGH STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (SMSA). A SURVEY WAS MADE TO ASSIST IN OVERCOMING THE SITUATION. THE PRESENT AND FUTURE STUDENT POPULATION NEED WAS EXAMINED AGAINST THE…

  18. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Pittsburgh, PA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  19. 75 FR 56866 - Special Local Regulation; Monongahela River, Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... special local regulation is needed to safeguard participants of the Pittsburgh Dragon Boat Festival from... because immediate action is needed to safeguard participants during the Pittsburgh Dragon Boat Festival... immediate action is needed to safeguard participants during the Pittsburgh Dragon Boat Festival from...

  20. 76 FR 47993 - Safety Zone; Allegheny River; Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allegheny River; Pittsburgh, PA AGENCY... that will occur in the city of Pittsburgh, PA on August 6, 2011 (rain date August 7, 2011). Under 5 U.S... occur in the city of Pittsburgh, PA on August 6, 2011 (rain date August 7, 2011). Basis and Purpose...

  1. 3. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department of Public Works, (n.d.). DRAWING NO. 1963: STRESS AND SECTION SHEET FOR 531' STEEL SPANS. - North Side Point Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Point of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 75 FR 71721 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their application for membership, to the... Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating to establish Area Maritime...

  3. 76 FR 27892 - Special Local Regulation; Allegheny River, Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ..., PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a... Pittsburgh, PA. The date of the Venture Outdoors Festival is tied to numerous other events and cannot be... in the city of Pittsburgh, PA. Persons or vessels shall not enter into, depart from, or move...

  4. University-Urban Interface Program. Pittsburgh Goals: Some Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehnevajsa, Jiri

    The Pittsburgh Goals Study about which this speech centers is SO 004 019. Issues identified by the leaders questioned which seem particularly crucial for the next five years in the development of Pittsburgh are: pollution control; public welfare system; drug problem; health services; low cost housing; rapid transit. Two more issues, Metropolitan…

  5. Pittsburgh and the Arts or How My Eye Was Formed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschwalb, Susanne A.

    The way the author's experiences of the city of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) shaped her visual literacy are explored. Along with the imagery of the steel mills, she experienced some artistic opportunities that helped shape the foundation of her life in art. Although no American city was as extensively industrialized as Pittsburgh, it was the artistic…

  6. 75 FR 24961 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to... Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295) added section 70112 to Title 46 of the U.S. Code,...

  7. 1-.sup.11 C-D-Glucose and related compounds

    DOEpatents

    Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1984-03-27

    The novel compounds 1-.sup.11 C-D-glucose, 1-.sup.11 C-D-mannose, 1-.sup.11 C-D-galactose, 2-.sup.11 C-D-glucose, 2-.sup.11 C-D-mannose and 2-.sup.11 C-D-galactose which can be used in nuclear medicine to monitor the metabolism of glucose and galactose can be rapidly prepared by reaction of the appropriate aldose substrate with an alkali metal .sup.11 C-labeled cyanide followed by reduction with a Raney alloy in formic acid.

  8. 1-/sup 11/C-D-glucose and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shiue, C.Y.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-26

    The novel compounds 1-/sup 11/C-D-glucose, 1-/sup 11/C-D-mannose, 1-/sup 11/C-D-galactose, 2-/sup 11/C-D-glucose, 2-/sup 11/C-D-mannose and 2-/sup 11/C-D-galactose which can be used in nuclear medicine to monitor the metabolism of glucose and galactose can be rapidly prepared by reaction of the appropriate aldose substrate with an alkali metal /sup 11/C-labeled cyanide followed by reduction with a Raney alloy in formic acid.

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS PITTSBURGH ENGINEER WAREHOUSE AND REPAIR STATION AND EMSWORTH LOCKS AND DAMS PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Pittsburgh Engineering Warehouse and Repair Station (PEWARS) and Emsworth Locks and Dams in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Reduction...

  10. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Kathryn; Abrahams, Leslie; Hegglin, Miriam; Klima, Kelly

    2015-10-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare data sets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought.

  11. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Kathryn; Abrahams, Leslie; Hegglin, Miriam; Klima, Kelly

    2015-10-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare data sets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought. PMID:26333158

  12. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Abrahams, L.; Bradford, K.; Hegglin, M.

    2015-12-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/ Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare datasets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought.

  13. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted. PMID:21874580

  14. Preparing for Local Adaptation: Understanding Flood Risk Perceptions in Pittsburgh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Pittsburgh experiences numerous floods every year. Aging and insufficient infrastructure contribute to flash floods and to over 20 billion gallons of combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating Pittsburgh's streets, basements, and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme precipitation events in Western Pennsylvania. For a stormwater adaptation plan to be implemented effectively, the City will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop these communications effectively, the city and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. Here we seek to (1) identify Pittsburgh residents' knowledge level, risk perception and attitudes towards flooding and storm water management, and (2) pre-test communications meant to inform and empower Pittsburghers about flood risks and adaptation strategies. We conduct a city-wide survey of 10,000 Pittsburgh renters and homeowners from four life situations: high risk, above poverty; high-risk, below poverty; low risk, above poverty; and low-risk, below poverty. Mixed media recruitment strategies (online and paper-based solicitations guided/organized by community organizations) assist in reaching all subpopulations. Preliminary results suggest participants know what stormwater runoff is, but have a weak understanding of how stormwater interacts with natural and built systems. Furthermore, although participants have a good understanding of the difference between green and gray infrastructure, this does not translate into a change in their willingness to pay for green infrastructure adaptation. This suggests additional communications about flood risks and adaptation strategies.

  15. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted.

  16. Pathways to Sustainability for Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Like many U.S. public libraries, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh faces financial uncertainty. CLP asked RAND to identify critical factors that affect the library's financial stability and to develop a framework to assess how these factors can be managed to provide a more stable financial base. RAND researchers reviewed the literature and…

  17. The Pittsburgh Girls Study: Overview and Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community-based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current article, we summarize the…

  18. 75 FR 9867 - University of Pittsburgh, et al

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    .... Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: JEOL, Ltd., Japan. Intended Use: See notice at 75 FR 3895...: JEM-1400 Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: JEOL Ltd., Japan. Intended Use: See notice at 75 FR 3895... International Trade Administration University of Pittsburgh, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision...

  19. The "Pittsburgh Courier's" Double V Campaign in 1942.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Pat

    In February 1942, a letter to the editor of the Pittsburgh "Courier," the nation's largest black owned newspaper, started the "Double V" (for victory at home and victory abroad) campaign, which stressed the right of blacks to have equality in the United States since they were fighting inequality abroad. As the "Courier" devoted a great deal of…

  20. The Pittsburgh Promise: A Community's Commitment to Its Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghubril, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The nonprofit community-based organization Pittsburgh Promise aims to help revitalize Pittsburgh and its public school system by offering college scholarships to any Pittsburgh Public School graduate who meets the academic requirements. Executive director Saleem Ghubril spoke with "Voices in Urban Education" guest editor Jacob Mishook…

  1. Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. Bettis-Pittsburgh Site environmental summary report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    This summary report provides a description of the nature and environmental aspects of work and facilities at the Bettis-Pittsburgh site, an historical perspective of Bettis-Pittsburgh operations that is not provided by the annual reports, and background information pertinent to understanding the environmental aspects of Bettis-Pittsburgh operations.

  2. The upper pennsylvanian pittsburgh coal bed: Resources and mine models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, W.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Bragg, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a digital coal resource assessment model of the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed, which indicates that after subtracting minedout coal, 16 billion short tons (14 billion tonnes) remain of the original 34 billion short tons (31 billion tonnes) of coal. When technical, environmental, and social restrictions are applied to the remaining Pittsburgh coal model, only 12 billion short tons (11 billion tonnes) are available for mining. Our assessment models estimate that up to 0.61 billion short tons (0.55 billion tonnes), 2.7 billion short tons (2.4 billion tonnes), and 8.5 billion short tons (7.7 billion tonnes) could be available for surface mining, continuous mining, and longwall mining, respectively. This analysis is an example of a second-generation regional coal availability study designed to model recoverability characteristics for all the major coal beds in the United States. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 2005 Pittsburgh Conference

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Peter B.

    2005-01-01

    To attend or not to attend, that is the question. The Pittsburgh Conference continues to pose this conundrum to conferees and exhibitors alike. This year's conference was the first to be presented without a set of paper abstracts—a good thing some would say but this old codger always used the paper abstracts to select papers of interest to our readership and to seek a full publication. The exhibit took its usual format but it seemed that there were less manufacturers present. The information presented to the attendees was also lacking and many companies' details were missing from the final program book, an omission no doubt on their behalf—my company was one of these—however I feel sure that past Pittcon organizers would have been more persistent in getting the required details for the audience. As is now the norm, many of the presentations take the form of posters displayed within the exhibition area. Without a driver to get the audience there, the traffic was slow, to say the least. Lecture presentations were also attended in a mixed fashion. So the Pittsburgh Conference show moves on, and again next year it will be held in Orlando from 12 March to 17 March 2006. No doubt I will be there making it a straight 31 in a row; in Pittsburgh Conference terms I am just a beginner with many of the attendees making more shows in a run than that. Selected abstracts dealing with topics of interest to the readers of this journal follow—hopefully many of these groups will be willing to publish their work either within this journal or elsewhere. PMID:18924631

  4. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  5. Forging a New Partnership: The Story of Teacher Union and School District Collaboration in Pittsburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Sean D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents Pittsburgh's transformation from a typical, adversarial district-union dynamic to one of deep, substantive collaboration over the course of several years. This work has catapulted Pittsburgh to the vanguard of efforts to improve teacher effectiveness, and helped secure more than $80 million in philanthropic and federal grants.…

  6. 75 FR 38146 - Pittsburgh Coatings, Inc., Ambridge, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Register on May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28301). The workers were engaged in employment related to the production of... Employment and Training Administration Pittsburgh Coatings, Inc., Ambridge, PA; Notice of Revised... facts obtained on reconsideration, I determine that workers of Pittsburgh Coatings, Inc.,...

  7. Improving School Leadership through Support, Evaluation, and Incentives: The Pittsburgh Principal Incentive Program. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Engberg, John; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Nelson, Catherine Awsumb; Yuan, Kun

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) received funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) program to implement the Pittsburgh Urban Leadership System for Excellence (PULSE), a set of reforms designed to improve the quality of school leadership throughout the district. A major component of PULSE is the…

  8. Estimating Teacher and School Effectiveness in Pittsburgh: Value-Added Modeling and Results. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Johnson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    At the request of Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) and the Pittsburgh Federation of Teachers (PFT), Mathematica is developing value-added models (VAMs) that aim to estimate the contributions of individual teachers, teams of teachers, and schools to the achievement growth of their students. The analyses described in this report are intended as an…

  9. Guide to Historic Hungarian Places in Greater Pittsburgh. Educational Curriculum Kit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros-Kazai, Andrew

    This booklet is a guide to buildings and other sites which have played a significant role in the history of the Hungarian community in Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). A brief summary of the significance or present use is provided for: (1) the Hungarian Nationality room at the University of Pittsburgh's Cathedral of Learning; (2) special collections of…

  10. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture''; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  11. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of ``culture``; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  12. Aging and space flight: findings from the University of Pittsburgh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.

    1999-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Sleep and Chronobiology Center (SCC) at the University of Pittsburgh has received funding from the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in order to study the sleep and circadian rhythms of healthy older people, as well as the sleep and circadian rhythms of astronauts and cosmonauts. We have always been struck by the strong synergism between the two endeavors. What happens to the sleep and circadian rhythms of people removed from the terrestrial time cues of Earth is in many ways similar to what happens to people who are advancing in years. Most obviously, sleep is shorter and sleep depth is reduced, but there are also more subtle similarities between the two situations, both in circadian rhythms and in sleep, and in the adaptive strategies needed to enhance 24h zeitgebers.

  13. Lighting retrofits at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aviary

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Pittsburgh Zoo occupies approximately 52 acres in the City`s Highland Park. Thirty structures serve as animal holding facilities, public display buildings, classrooms, food service facilities, offices, warehouses, a veterinary hospital, and gift shops. The cost of energy for heating, cooling, lighting, pumping, food service, etc. is approximately $280,000 a year. Of this, about 79 percent, or $220,000, is spent for electricity. About 20 percent ($44,000) of that electricity cost is spent directly on lighting. In mid-1992 a series of retrofits to the lighting systems in the Zoo`s buildings was begun. These were completed in mid-1994. These improvements cost $127,690, and they are expected to reduce electricity costs by $24,500 a year. The most interesting projects were carried out in the Tropical Forest Building, the Aqua Zoo, and the Niches of the World Building.

  14. Pneumonia caused by Pittsburgh pneumonia agent: radiologic manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Muder, R.R.; Reddy, S.C.; Yu, V.L.; Kroboth, F.J.

    1984-03-01

    Using an objective scoring system, chest radiographs were reviewed in 23 cases of pneumonia due to the Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (PPA, Tatlockia micdadei, Legionella micdadei), including six cases of pneumonia with simultaneous isolation of PPA and L pneumophila (Legionnaires' disease). Infiltrates were typically segmental to lobar; nodular infiltrates were noted in three cases. Spread to additional lobes after presentation occurred in four of 17 PPA infections. Pneumonia caused by both PPA and L pneumophila was unusually severe, with involvement of all lobes occurring in four of six cases, compared with one of 17 cases of PPA infection (p>0.02). Radiographic severity did not correlate with underlying disease, immune status, or outcome. The majority of patients receiving erythromycin demonstrated objective radiologic improvement. In a patients, population that included nonimmunosuppressed patient, nodule formation and rapid radiologic progression were not found to be characteristic of PPA pneumonia.

  15. Lighting retrofits at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aviary

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, E.C.

    1995-06-01

    Energy bills for the Pittsburgh Zoo typically total $280,000 a year, of which about $220,000 are spent on electricity. Until recently, lighting accounted for 20 percent of this electricity use. This translated into an annual cost of $44,000. Recent advances in lighting technology have made it possible to perform lighting retrofits in Zoo facilities that reduce energy costs while also providing improved light quality and better lit and more natural looking exhibits and animal holding areas. Through an investment of $127,690 in these projects from mid-1992 through mid-1994, the Zoo expects to realize an annual savings in electricity costs of $24,500 and further savings from a reduction in maintenance and plant replacement costs. Retrofits to the lighting systems in the Tropical Forest Building, the Aquarium, and the Niches of the World Building were the most interesting and are described in detail. Providing a sufficient amount of ultraviolet light to maintain the health of reptiles was a particular challenge in the Niches of the World Building. Lack of separate meters and additions to the Zoo have made the determination of the actual performance of these retrofit projects impossible. A similar retrofit project at the Pittsburgh Aviary (now the National Aviary) in 1989 through 1990 provides savings figures that should be comparable to those expected at the Zoo, however. This project cost $100,000 and saved $21,008 in electricity costs during the first year of operation. Maintenance costs were reduced by approximately $5000 a year.

  16. Health hazard evaluation report No. HETA 90-010-2170, LTV Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.; Letts, D.

    1991-12-01

    In response to a request from the United Steelworkers of America, an investigation was made of possible causative agents for allergic contact dermatitis in workers who clean the coke oven gas inlets at the LTV Steel Company (SIC-3312), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The LTV Steel coke oven facility consists of five batteries, with a total of 315 by-product ovens. Almost 3 years ago a skin problem of potential occupational origin was identified among the heaters, helpers and patchers. A list of 26 workers with skin problems was developed by the union and management and provided to NIOSH investigators. The suspected causative agent was a condensate from coke oven underfiring gas which collected on gas nozzle seats in the gas heating pipes of specific batteries. The nine employees diagnosed as having occupational allergic contact dermatitis tested positive to at least one of the coke oven gas condensate fractions. Many compounds were identified in the condensate sample. The authors conclude that the dermatitis in some workers was probably caused by contact with the coke oven gas condensates. The authors recommend measures intended to prevent contact with the condensates.

  17. Smoky ol' town: the significance of Pittsburgh in U.S. air pollution history

    SciTech Connect

    James Longhurst

    2007-06-15

    Pittsburgh came to be - and came to be dirtybecause of location, location, and location. Two navigable rivers met in the middle of a forest, and combined to form a third river. This was an irresistible meeting point for settlement, trade, and industry. It was an added bonus that this meeting point was at the center of the 'Pittsburgh seam' of coal. While the natural advantages of geography and geology initiated development, Pittsburgh's growth soon attracted man-made transportation networks to import resources from its hinterland and spread finished materials through the Midwest. As the city boomed into an industrial metropolis - the Iron City, the Steel City - through the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the smoke only became worse, and Pittsburgh became known, nationally and even internationally, for its dirt, grime, and filth. For many of the city's workers and businessmen, smoke was a sign of progress and economic success. From small-scale iron production, to the process of refining coal into 'coke,' to the Bessemer steel process, to J.P. Morgan and Andrew Carnegie's creation of the vertically-integrated U.S. Steel corporation, to the pioneering use of 'byproduct' coke ovens, Pittsburgh was home to successive technologies for transforming raw materials into finished or refined goods. Pittsburgh is both singular and representative; its story is at the forefront of pollution history, but the forces, trends, and events the city witnessed were the same in many cities across the nation. So while it is true that A&WMA's headquarters are in Pittsburgh for a reason, it is also true that its membership is spread across the nation and the world. That membership will most likely find something in these four themes from Pittsburgh's history that is representative of their own study. 7 refs., 3 photos.

  18. Synthesis of Diverse (11)C-Labeled PET Radiotracers via Direct Incorporation of [(11)C]CO2.

    PubMed

    Mossine, Andrew V; Brooks, Allen F; Jackson, Isaac M; Quesada, Carole A; Sherman, Phillip; Cole, Erin L; Donnelly, David J; Scott, Peter J H; Shao, Xia

    2016-05-18

    Three new positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers of interest to our functional neuroimaging and translational oncology programs have been prepared through new developments in [(11)C]CO2 fixation chemistry. [(11)C]QZ (glutaminyl cyclase) was prepared via a tandem trapping of [(11)C]CO2/intramolecular cyclization; [(11)C]tideglusib (glycogen synthase kinase-3) was synthesized through a tandem trapping of [(11)C]CO2 followed by an intermolecular cycloaddition between a [(11)C]isocyanate and an isothiocyanate to form the 1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione core; [(11)C]ibrutinib (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) was synthesized through a HATU peptide coupling of an amino precursor with [(11)C]acrylic acid (generated from [(11)C]CO2 fixation with vinylmagnesium bromide). All radiochemical syntheses are fully automated on commercial radiochemical synthesis modules and provide radiotracers in 1-5% radiochemical yield (noncorrected, based upon [(11)C]CO2). All three radiotracers have advanced to rodent imaging studies and preliminary PET imaging results are also reported. PMID:27043721

  19. Synthesis of 11C labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF 3 catalysed esterification—a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Blanc, Paul; Falzon, Cheryl L.; Issa, William; White, Jonathan; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; Sachinidis, John I.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    C-11 labelled methyl esters have been synthesized via the transesterification of enol esters in the presence of C-11 methanol and 1,3 dichlorodibutylstannoxane as catalyst. This method leaves functional groups intact and allows access to a wider variety of C-11 labelled methyl esters compared to the BF 3 catalysed ester formation, which uses carboxylic acids and C-11 methanol as starting materials.

  20. Synthesis of Diverse (11)C-Labeled PET Radiotracers via Direct Incorporation of [(11)C]CO2.

    PubMed

    Mossine, Andrew V; Brooks, Allen F; Jackson, Isaac M; Quesada, Carole A; Sherman, Phillip; Cole, Erin L; Donnelly, David J; Scott, Peter J H; Shao, Xia

    2016-05-18

    Three new positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers of interest to our functional neuroimaging and translational oncology programs have been prepared through new developments in [(11)C]CO2 fixation chemistry. [(11)C]QZ (glutaminyl cyclase) was prepared via a tandem trapping of [(11)C]CO2/intramolecular cyclization; [(11)C]tideglusib (glycogen synthase kinase-3) was synthesized through a tandem trapping of [(11)C]CO2 followed by an intermolecular cycloaddition between a [(11)C]isocyanate and an isothiocyanate to form the 1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione core; [(11)C]ibrutinib (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) was synthesized through a HATU peptide coupling of an amino precursor with [(11)C]acrylic acid (generated from [(11)C]CO2 fixation with vinylmagnesium bromide). All radiochemical syntheses are fully automated on commercial radiochemical synthesis modules and provide radiotracers in 1-5% radiochemical yield (noncorrected, based upon [(11)C]CO2). All three radiotracers have advanced to rodent imaging studies and preliminary PET imaging results are also reported.

  1. The Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Fisher, Stephen N.; Balogh, Paula; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Luketich, James D.; Siegfried, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The role of computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer is controversial, currently under study, and not yet fully elucidated. Objectives: To report findings from initial and 1-year repeat screening low-radiation-dose CT of the chest and 3-year outcomes for 50- to 79-year-old current and ex-smokers in the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS). Methods: Notified of findings on screening CT, subjects received diagnostic advice from both study and personal physicians. Tracking subjects for up to three years since initial screening, we obtained medical records to document diagnostic procedures, lung cancer diagnoses, and deaths. Measurements and Main Results: 3,642 and 3,423 subjects had initial and repeat screening. A total of 1,477 (40.6% of 3,624) were told about noncalcified lung nodules on the initial screening and, before repeat screening, 821 (55.6% of 1,477, 22.5% of 3,642) obtained one or more subsequent diagnostic imaging studies (CT, positron emission tomography [PET], or PET-CT). Tracking identified 80 subjects with lung cancer, including 53 subjects with tumor seen at initial screening. In all, 36 subjects (1.0% of the 3,642 screened), referred for abnormalities on either the initial or repeat screening, had a major thoracic surgical procedure (thoracotomy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery [VATS], median sternotomy, or mediastinoscopy) leading to a noncancer final diagnosis. Out of 82 subjects with thoracotomy or VATS to exclude malignancy in a lung nodule, 28 (34.1%) received a noncancer final diagnosis. Forty of 69 (58%) subjects with non–small cell lung cancer had stage I disease at diagnosis. Conclusions: Though leading to the discovery of early stage lung cancer, CT screening also led to many diagnostic follow-up procedures, including major thoracic surgical procedures with noncancer outcomes. PMID:18635890

  2. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  3. Promoting positive pediatric experiences for nursing students at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC.

    PubMed

    Bagay, Joann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Challenges in professional nursing education today can be astonishing. Cognizant of the commitment to provide the most valuable learning experiences for our future nurses, academia and service organizations strive to meet this challenge. The escalation in nursing school enrollment, along with the increase in patient acuity and ongoing health care changes, requires hospitals and schools to continually review their practices to ensure positive outcomes. Providing pediatric nursing experiences to over 1,300 students annually, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) implemented a process to meet this need. A Faculty Advisory Council was established to provide a venue for representative nursing instructors to meet with the Nursing Education Department at the hospital. The commonality of focus by nursing faculty and Children's Hospital continues to strengthen both academia and service. This well-defined process supports positive pediatric experiences for nursing students at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPCM.

  4. Promoting positive pediatric experiences for nursing students at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC.

    PubMed

    Bagay, Joann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Challenges in professional nursing education today can be astonishing. Cognizant of the commitment to provide the most valuable learning experiences for our future nurses, academia and service organizations strive to meet this challenge. The escalation in nursing school enrollment, along with the increase in patient acuity and ongoing health care changes, requires hospitals and schools to continually review their practices to ensure positive outcomes. Providing pediatric nursing experiences to over 1,300 students annually, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) implemented a process to meet this need. A Faculty Advisory Council was established to provide a venue for representative nursing instructors to meet with the Nursing Education Department at the hospital. The commonality of focus by nursing faculty and Children's Hospital continues to strengthen both academia and service. This well-defined process supports positive pediatric experiences for nursing students at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPCM. PMID:25134230

  5. Mass size distributions and size resolved chemical composition of fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh supersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabada, Juan C.; Rees, Sarah; Takahama, Satoshi; Khlystov, Andrey; Pandis, Spyros N.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Robinson, Allen L.

    Size-resolved aerosol mass and chemical composition were measured during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Daily samples were collected for 12 months from July 2001 to June 2002. Micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) were used to collect aerosol samples of fine particulate matter smaller than 10 μm. Measurements of PM 0.056, PM 0.10, PM 0.18, PM 0.32, PM 0.56, PM 1.0, PM 1.8 and PM 2.5 with the MOUDI are available for the full study period. Seasonal variations in the concentrations are observed for all size cuts. Higher concentrations are observed during the summer and lower during the winter. Comparison between the PM 2.5 measurements by the MOUDI and other integrated PM samplers reveals good agreement. Good correlation is observed for PM 10 between the MOUDI and an integrated sampler but the MOUDI underestimates PM 10 by 20%. Bouncing of particles from higher stages of the MOUDI (>PM 2.5) is not a major problem because of the low concentrations of coarse particles in the area. The main cause of coarse particle losses appears to be losses to the wall of the MOUDI. Samples were collected on aluminum foils for analysis of carbonaceous material and on Teflon filters for analysis of particle mass and inorganic anions and cations. Daily samples were analyzed during the summer (July 2001) and the winter intensives (January 2002). During the summer around 50% of the organic material is lost from the aluminum foils as compared to a filter-based sampler. These losses are due to volatilization and bounce-off from the MOUDI stages. High nitrate losses from the MOUDI are also observed during the summer (above 70%). Good agreement between the gravimetrically determined mass and the sum of the masses of the individual compounds is obtained, if the lost mass from organics and the aerosol water content are included for the summer. For the winter no significant losses of material are detected and there exists reasonable agreement between the gravimetrical mass and the

  6. How Roebling did it: Building the world's first wire-rope suspension aqueduct in 1840s Pittsburgh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbon, Donald L.

    2006-05-01

    The noted bridge designed John Roebling introduced his wire-rope suspension concept in Pittsburgh on a wooden aqueduct. His design was later implemented in bridges in Pittsburgh and elsewhere, including New York's Brooklyn Bridge. This article describes Roebling's work based on reviews of his notes and other historical documents.

  7. The Nonprofit Clinic at the University of Pittsburgh: Preparing Students for Transition to Professional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    The Nonprofit Clinic at the University of Pittsburgh gives graduate students the opportunity to serve as management consultants to nonprofit organizations. This article describes the learning objectives, logistics, and outcomes of the Nonprofit Clinic. Bloom's 1956 taxonomy of learning objectives is employed to assess learning outcomes.

  8. Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in Pittsburgh Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Angel; Kumar, Sudipti; Waymack, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Public Schools study is the 12th district study since the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) began studying districts in-depth in 2009. The intent of these studies is to give select communities a comprehensive look at what is happening in their local school districts that may be either helping or hurting teacher quality, and…

  9. The Use of Research Libraries: A Comment about the Pittsburgh Study and Its Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, W. Leslie

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the controversy surrounding the Pittsburgh study of library circulation and collection usage and proposes the use of citation analysis techniques as an acceptable method for measuring research use of a research library which will complement circulation studies. Five references are listed. (RAA)

  10. Higher Education Sustainability in Pittsburgh: Highlights from the AASHE 2011 Campus Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasamohan, Ashwini; Walton, Judy; Wagner, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This quote by ecologist, "Silent Spring" author and Chatham University alum Rachel Carson reminds us of the everyday tenacity needed in working to advance a sustainable and just world. This publication celebrates that tenacity in the higher education sector, specifically among institutions in the Pittsburgh area. Historically known for its steel…

  11. The Effect of World War I on Black Occupational and Residential Segregation: The Case of Pittsburgh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Joe T.

    1988-01-01

    Study of census figures for Pittsburgh between 1900 and 1920 reveals that World War I had only a small measurable effect on reducing occupational segregation of Black men and White men and residential segregation by race. The war had no effect on reducing occupational segregation of Black women and White women. (BJV)

  12. Pittsburgh Area Preschool Association Publication: Selected Articles (Volume 8, No. 1-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    This compilation of short reports distributed to preschool teachers in the Pittsburgh area covers four main topics: (1) Adoption (2) Expressive Art Therapy, (3) The Infant, and (4) Learning Disorders in Young Children. The adoption section includes reports pertaining to the adoption process in Pennsylvania, adoptive parents' legal rights, medical…

  13. Pittsburgh Board of Public Education Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting: Minority Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaleida, Phillip; And Others

    This minority report is a rebuttal to the recommendations made by the Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting of the Pittsburgh Board of Public Education. It takes issue with the way in which decisions were made and especially with the recommendation to establish school-based clinics (SBCs) in or near high risk schools. This minority…

  14. Newest Members of the Net Set: Pittsburgh's Carnegie Cashes in on Community Info.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Bette Ann; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Electronic Information Network, a project created by the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh in conjunction with public libraries in Pennsylvania's Allegheny County. The project uses the library's vision, funding, and librarian expertise to provide public access to community information on the Internet. Sidebars present steps and issues…

  15. Processing the CONSOL Energy, Inc. Mine Maps and Records Collection at the University of Pittsburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rougeux, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of archivists and student assistants at the University of Pittsburgh's Archives Service Center to organize, describe, store, and provide timely and efficient access to over 8,000 maps of underground coal mines in southwestern Pennsylvania, as well the records that accompanied them, donated by CONSOL Energy, Inc.…

  16. 77 FR 77016 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33 - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Notification of Proposed Export Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Export Production Activity Tsudis Chocolate Company (Chocolate Confectionery Bars) Pittsburgh, PA Tsudis Chocolate Company (Tsudis), an operator of FTZ 33, submitted a notification of proposed export production... production of chocolate confectionery bars for export (no shipments for U.S. consumption would occur)....

  17. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 77016, 12-31-2012). The... Production Activity, Tsudis Chocolate Company (Chocolate Confectionery Bars), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania On December 4, 2012, Tsudis Chocolate Company, submitted a notification of proposed export production...

  18. The Center on Race and Social Problems at the University of Pittsburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Larry E.; Bangs, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the School of Social Work at the University of Pittsburgh established the Center on Race and Social Problems (CRSP). CRSP, which is the first race research center to be housed in a school of social work, has six foci: economic disparities; educational disparities; interracial group relations; mental health; youth, families, and elderly;…

  19. 76 FR 55471 - Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad-Abandonment Exemption-in Allegheny County, PA; Wheeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... County, PA; Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway Company-- Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Allegheny County, PA Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad (PWV) and Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway Company (WLE... Corp.--Acquisition & Operation Exemption--Lines of Norfolk & Western Railway, FD 31591 et al....

  20. 77 FR 62147 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... (hereafter referred to as ``the Pittsburgh Area'' or ``the Area''). First, EPA determines that the Area has... standard''), based on a 3-year average of annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations (62 FR 38652, July 18, 1997... annual PM 2.5 NAAQS based upon air quality monitoring data for calendar years 2001-2003 (70 FR...

  1. 77 FR 69591 - Expansion and Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 33 Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Register (76 FR 72673-72674, 11/25/11) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion and Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 33 Pittsburgh, PA Pursuant...

  2. 75 FR 13488 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 33: Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...); Whereas, notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (74 FR 17453, 4/15/09), and the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 33: Pittsburgh, PA Pursuant to its...

  3. Deconvolution and Quantification of Primary and Oxygenated Organic Aerosols: Technique Development and Applications to the Pittsburgh AMS Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Jimenez, J.; Alfarra, R.; Allan, J.; Coe, H.; Worsnop, D.; Canagaratna, M.

    2004-12-01

    A new technique has been developed to deconvolve and quantify the mass concentrations of primary and oxygenated organic aerosol (POA and OOA) using highly time-resolved organic mass spectral data obtained with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). OOA may comprise secondary organic aerosol (SOA) as well as oxidized POA. This technique involves a series of multivariate linear regressions that use mass-to-charge ratios (m/z's) 57 (mostly C4H9+) and 44 (mostly CO2+), the identified AMS mass spectral tracers for POA and OOA, respectively, as the initial principal components followed by an iterative algorithm to evaluate and "purify" POA and OOA mass spectral tracers. We have applied this technique to the AMS organic aerosol data acquired at the EPA Pittsburgh Supersite during September 2002 and have observed excellent agreement between the reconstructed organic concentrations (= POA + OOA) and the measured values (r2 = 0.997, slope = 0.998). The reconstructed organic data matrix (size = 3199 time steps x 300 m/z's) explains 99% of the variance in the measured time series. The extracted mass spectrum of POA shows high similarity to those of diesel exhaust sampled during a chase study, lab-measured lubricating oil, and freshly emitted traffic aerosols measured in urban environments. The spectrum of OOA closely resembles those of aged organic aerosols sampled in remote areas and also shows similarity with the spectrum of fulvic acid-a humic-like substance that is ubiquitous in the environment and has previously been used as an analogue to represent polyacid compounds found in highly processed and oxidized atmospheric organic aerosols. Organic aerosols in Pittsburgh during Sept. 2002 are mainly oxygenated, on average consisting of ~ 70% OOA (likely mainly secondary in nature). Pronounced diurnal variations in the POA/OOA contributions to organic mass have been observed, with the contribution of POA peaking in the morning rush hours while that of OOA is largest in

  4. Pittsburgh as a High Risk Population: The Potential Savings of a Personalized Dental Care Plan.

    PubMed

    Ng, Andrew J; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Little evidence exists for the current standard of two annual preventative care visits. The purpose of this study was investigate this claim by modeling the potential savings of implementing a personalized care plan for high risk individuals in the Pittsburgh region. Methods. Using radiographs from 39 patients in the University of Pittsburgh Dental Registry and DNA Repository database, two models were created to analyse the direct savings of implementing a more aggressive preventative treatment plan and to view the longitudinal cost of increased annual yearly visits. Results. There is a significant decrease (p < 0.001) between original and modeled treatment cost when treatment severity is reduced. In addition, there is a significant decrease in adult lifetime treatment cost (p < 0.001) for up to four annual visits. Conclusions. Patients in high risk populations may see significant cost benefits in treatment cost when a personalized care plan, or higher annual preventative care visits, is implemented. PMID:27006657

  5. Changing fuel use behavior: the Pittsburgh smoke control movement, 1940-1950

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Local policy development in Pittsburgh brought about cleaner air by influencing change in the household use of fuel and combustion equipment. By a combination of media campaigns, voluntary organizations, technical advisers, and business and labor leaders, the public was convinced of the necessity to reduce air pollution. The unique aspect is that the public accepted the costs of a long-range policy decision through education and persuasion. 20 refs.

  6. COMPREHENSIVE INDEX TO THE MERRIMAN SCRAPBOOK COLLECTION OF MATERIALS ON PITTSBURGH AND NEW YORK THEATRE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWMAN, NED A.

    THIS INDEX TO A COLLECTION OF 10,800 ITEMS OF EPHEMERAL NATURE ON PITTSBURGH AND NEW YORK THEATRE FROM APPROXIMATELY 1880 TO THE SECOND WORLD WAR PROVIDES ENTRY INTO THE COLLECTION IN FIVE WAYS--(1) BY NAME OF ACTOR OR PERSON CONNECTED WITH THE THEATRE, (2) BY NAME OR PLAY, (3) BY NAME OF PRODUCING GROUP, (4) BY NAME OF THEATRE, AND (5) BY…

  7. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  8. Air Quality from Early Pittsburgh to the Present: The Science of Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Cliff

    2009-03-01

    Throughout Pittsburgh's history over the past 250 years, coal reserves in the city and nearby have influenced its economy, demographics, and environmental quality. They have also played a major role in determining air quality in the region. For example, Pittsburgh became famous for its high particle loadings as early as the beginning of the nineteenth century, when the first complaints about air quality in the city were recorded. Nevertheless, residents tolerated the high coal smoke levels since jobs depended on the iron works, steel mills, and other industries. When natural gas was discovered just east of the city in the 1870's and replaced coal for some applications, particle concentrations decreased. But the local supplies of natural gas ran short several years later, and as industry continued to expand in the 1890's the city went back to the use of coal as its primary fuel. The return to smoky air was met with resistance that marked the beginning of sustained public outcry and initiation of several air pollution studies. The next half century was marked by periods of occasional high and low concentration, the latter due to events such as the financial panic of 1907 and the depression of the 1930's. It was not until the 1940's that effective regulations were passed to reduce smoky conditions. Particle levels fell throughout the 1950's and 1960's, and eventually the decline of heavy industry in Pittsburgh led to relatively clean air in many parts of the city. Over the past few decades, airborne particle concentrations averaged across the Pittsburgh region have remained below their earlier levels. However, there are still ``hot spots'' of high concentration resulting from regional background coming from upwind areas and emissions of some large sources that have continued to operate in the Pittsburgh region. Furthermore, the composition of airborne particles in the city has changed from earlier times. Such particles are now the result of emissions from sources in

  9. The relationship between the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center--a profile in synergy.

    PubMed

    Levine, Arthur S; Detre, Thomas P; McDonald, Margaret C; Roth, Loren H; Huber, George A; Brignano, Mary Germann; Danoff, Sandra N; Farner, David M; Masnick, Jeffrey L; Romoff, Jeffrey A

    2008-09-01

    In the synergistic evolution of their research, educational, and clinical programs, the University of Pittsburgh (Pitt) School of Medicine (SOM) and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) have followed one core principle: What is good for one is good for both. The collaboration is underpinned by UPMC's commitment to its community mission, including support for the academic and research objectives of the SOM. UPMC's conceptual origin was fostered by its experience with Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic in the 1970s. Over time, UPMC acquired other hospitals through merger and negotiation and, by 2008, had grown into a $7 billion global health enterprise. From the outset, the senior leaders of both UPMC and Pitt committed to collaborative decision making on all key issues. Under this coordinated decision-making model, UPMC oversees all clinical activity, including that from a consolidated physicians' practice plan. Pitt remains the guardian of all academic priorities, particularly faculty-based research. UPMC's steady financial success underpins the model. A series of interrelated agreements formally defines the relationship between Pitt and UPMC, including shared board seats and UPMC's committed ongoing financial support of the SOM. In addition, the two institutions have jointly made research growth a priority. The payoff from this dynamic has been a steadily growing Pitt research portfolio; enhanced growth, visibility, and stature for UPMC, the SOM, and Pitt as a whole; and the sustained success of UPMC's clinical enterprise, which now has an international scope. Given the current stagnation in the National Institutes of Health budget, the Pitt-UPMC experience may be instructive to other academic health centers. PMID:18728434

  10. Time of travel of water in the Ohio River, Pittsburgh to Cincinnati

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steacy, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    This report presents a procedure for estimating the time of travel of water in the Ohio River from Pittsburgh, Pa., to Cincinnati, Ohio, under various river stage conditions. This information is primarily for use by civil defense officials and by others concerned with problems involving travel time of river water. Tables and charts are presented to show, for a particular stage or discharge at Cincinnati, the average time it would take for water to travel through the entire reach from Pittsburgh, or through successive intermediate segments of the reach. For example, when the discharge at Cincinnati is 200,000 cfs, travel time from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati, a distance of 470 miles, averages about 7 days; and for discharges of more than 200,000 cfs, the travel time decreases very slowly with increasing discharge. When the discharge is 30,000 cfs, travel time is about 28 days; and for discharges of less than 30,000 cfs, the travel time increases very rapidly with decreasing discharge. Estimates of travel time at low discharge are subject to large errors. Statistical analysis of the possible variations of upstream discharge for a given discharge at Cincinnati indicates that the shortest probable travel time from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati ranges from 56 percent of that under average conditions when the discharge at Cincinnati is 15,000 cfs to 93 percent of that under average conditions when the discharge at Cincinnati is 894,000 cfs. A chart showing the time distribution of flow at Cincinnati is presented so that the probable travel time of Ohio River water can be determined for any time of the year. This chart provides information which, when applied to the time-of-travel chart, shows that the most probable travel time of water from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati ranges from 160 hours in February to 1,250 hours in September. Also presented is a flow-duration curve that can be used to predict future discharges and, subsequently, times of travel, for use in long-range planning

  11. Indoor allergen sensitization and the risk of asthma and eczema in children in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brook M; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sensitization to cockroach and mouse allergens is correlated with presence and severity of asthma, especially among children living in inner cities. This study evaluated the prevalence of positive skin testing to indoor allergens in the Pittsburgh area and the association with asthma and eczema. A retrospective analysis was performed of 540 children from the Pittsburgh area who underwent skin testing to indoor allergens. Presence of asthma and eczema were determined by parent and/or physician report. Asthma and eczema are not significantly more frequent among children who had positive skin testing to cockroaches or mice. However, asthma was more common among children who had positive skin testing to dogs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), cats (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58), and dust mites (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). Eczema was more common in children who had positive skin testing to cats (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02). Both asthma (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58) and eczema (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92) were more prevalent among children with any positive skin test. We did not find that sensitization to cockroaches or mice was correlated with the diagnosis or asthma or eczema in the Pittsburgh area. However, sensitization to any allergen, and to cats and/or dogs specifically, was associated with diagnosis of both asthma and eczema. Our result suggests that allergic sensitization is associated with these diseases, but the implicated allergens may vary.

  12. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  13. Reclaim Northside: An Environmental Justice Approach to Address Vacant Land in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Samantha; Sing, Evaine

    2016-01-01

    Urban decline, disinvestment, and blight have not traditionally been addressed by the environmental conservation movement. In this article, we describe an environmental justice-focused intervention located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that aimed to increase community empowerment to address urban environmental injustices by training residents to reclaim vacant land. We use a case study approach to illustrate resident perceptions of the impact of vacant land and urban decay. The results suggest that these residents viewed vacancy as an important indicator of community well-being and social inequality. We use a social and environmental justice framework to describe results and implications for practitioners and researchers.

  14. Elements related to attrition of women faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Pooja

    Recent studies have shown that the number of women faculty in academic medicine is much lesser than the number of women that are graduating from medical schools. Many academic institutes face the challenge of retaining talented faculty and this attrition from academic medicine prevents career advancement of women faculty. This case study attempts to identify some of the reasons for dissatisfaction that may be related to the attrition of women medical faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine. Data was collected using a job satisfaction survey, which consisted of various constructs that are part of a faculty's job and proxy measures to gather the faculty's intent to leave their current position at the University of Pittsburgh or academic medicine in general. The survey results showed that although women faculty were satisfied with their job at the University of Pittsburgh, there are some important factors that influenced their decision of potentially dropping out. The main reasons cited by the women faculty were related to funding pressures, work-life balance, mentoring of junior faculty and the amount of time spent on clinical responsibilities. The analysis of proxy measures showed that if women faculty decided to leave University of Pittsburgh, it would most probably be due to better opportunity elsewhere followed by pressure to get funding. The results of this study aim to provide the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh with information related to attrition of its women faculty and provide suggestions for implications for policy to retain their women faculty.

  15. Validation of the French version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Aoudia, Malik; Levy, Pierre P.; Bui, Eric; Insana, Salvatore; de Fouchier, Capucine; Germain, Anne; Jehel, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are one of the main complaints of patients with trauma-related disorders. The original Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A) is self-report instrument developed to evaluate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-specific sleep disturbances in trauma-exposed individuals. However, to date, the PSQI-A has not yet been translated nor validated in French. Objective The present study aims to: a) translate the PSQI-A into French, and b) examine its psychometric properties. Method Seventy-three adult patients (mean age=40.3 [SD=15.0], 75% females) evaluated in a specialized psychotraumatology unit completed the French versions of the PSQI-A, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results The French version of the PSQI-A showed satisfactory internal consistency, inter-item correlations, item correlations with the total score, convergent validity with PTSD and anxiety measures, and divergent validity with a depression measure. Conclusion Our findings support the use of the French version of the PSQI-A for both clinical care and research. The French version of the PSQI-A is an important addition to the currently available instruments that can be used to examine trauma-related sleep disturbances among French-speaking individuals. PMID:24044071

  16. Using a Merit-Based Scholarship Program to Increase Rates of College Enrollment in an Urban School District: The Case of the Pittsburgh Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozick, Robert; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Engberg, John

    2015-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Promise is a scholarship program that provides $5,000 per year toward college tuition for public high school graduates in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who earned a 2.5 GPA and a 90% attendance record. This study used a difference-in-difference design to assess whether the introduction of the Promise scholarship program directly…

  17. Partners in Pittsburgh Public Schools' Excellence for All Initiative: Findings from the First Year of Implementation. Documented Briefing. DB-544-FFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Nelson, Catherine Awsumb; Dembosky, Jacob W.; Gill, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Public School District asked the RAND Corporation to monitor the first year's implementation (2006-2007) of Excellence for All (EFA) and provide feedback to district staff, the board, and other stakeholders. The Pittsburgh Public School District leadership developed EFA with the aim of increasing student achievement by improving…

  18. 2003 Environmental Monitoring Report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The 2003 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 2003 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the U.S. Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that any potential risk posed by these residues in much less than the risks encountered in normal everyday life.

  19. Innovative approaches to interprofessional care at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Julia; Bellon, Johanna E; Stevans, Joel; James, A Everette; Minnier, Tami; Reynolds, Benjamin R; Zhang, Yuting

    2015-01-01

    The enactment of the Affordable Care Act expands coverage to millions of uninsured Americans and creates a new workforce landscape. Interprofessional Collaborative Practice (ICP) is no longer a choice but a necessity. In this paper, we describe four innovative approaches to interprofessional practice at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. These models demonstrate innovative applications of ICP to inpatient and outpatient care, relying on non-physician providers, training programs, and technology to deliver more appropriate care to specific patient groups. We also discuss the ongoing evaluation plans to assess the effects of these interprofessional practices on patient health, quality of care, and healthcare costs. We conclude that successful implementation of interprofessional teams involves more than just a reassignment of tasks, but also depends on structuring the environment and workflow in a way that facilitates team-based care.

  20. 1992 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1992 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1992 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that operation of the Laboratory continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Laboratory operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy.

  1. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in uncooked ground meat products from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Curry, Scott R; Marsh, Jane W; Schlackman, Jessica L; Harrison, Lee H

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile in retail meat samples has varied widely. The food supply may be a source for C. difficile infections. A total of 102 ground meat and sausage samples from 3 grocers in Pittsburgh, PA, were cultured for C. difficile. Brand A pork sausages were resampled between May 2011 and January 2012. Two out of 102 (2.0%) meat products initially sampled were positive for C. difficile; both were pork sausage from brand A from the same processing facility (facility A). On subsequent sampling of brand A products, 10/19 samples from processing facility A and 1/10 samples from 3 other facilities were positive for C. difficile. The isolates recovered were inferred ribotype 078, comprising 6 genotypes. The prevalence of C. difficile in retail meat may not be as high as previously reported in North America. When contamination occurs, it may be related to events at processing facilities.

  2. 1993 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1993 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1993 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that the current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy.

  3. 1997 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The 1997 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 1997 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates tat current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the US Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that these residues do not pose any significant risk to human health or the environment.

  4. The Pittsburgh Reference Laboratory Alliance: a model for laboratory medicine in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, J; Mango, P; McLinden, S; Becich, M J; Triulzi, D

    1997-04-01

    The Pittsburgh Reference Library Alliance (RLA) represents a successful response by hospital laboratories to the new realities of medical economics and practice. By using informatics technology to integrate the laboratory resources of community hospitals and academic medical centers across western Pennsylvania, the RLA has created a large virtual laboratory that can compete for price with large national referral laboratories. More significantly, the combination of medical expertise, the ties to academic and community centers, and the regional medical database of the RLAs allows laboratory medicine to be practiced in a new proactive way. This should provide better and more cost-effective patient care. The success of the RLA is a model for regional cooperation in pathology and potentially in other medical specialties and demonstrates the importance of informatics in the future of medical practice. PMID:9124206

  5. 1999 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The 1999 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 1999 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the US Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that these residues do not pose any significant risk to human health or the environment.

  6. Structural Validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Suran; Sun, Wenmei; Liu, Chang; Wu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, PSQI, Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Results showed that the item “use of sleep medicine” was not suitable for use with this population, that a two-factor model provided the best fit to the data as assessed through confirmatory factor analysis, and that other indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality but not the sleep efficiency factor. PMID:27551270

  7. Structural Validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Chinese Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suran; Sun, Wenmei; Liu, Chang; Wu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, PSQI, Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Results showed that the item "use of sleep medicine" was not suitable for use with this population, that a two-factor model provided the best fit to the data as assessed through confirmatory factor analysis, and that other indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality but not the sleep efficiency factor. PMID:27551270

  8. [Proceedings of the] International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (3rd, Pittsburgh, PA, July 11-13, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d., Ed.; Merceron, Agathe, Ed.; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Data Mining (EDM 2010) was held in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. It follows the second conference at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on July 1-3, 2009 and the first edition of the conference held in Montreal in 2008, and a series of workshops within the AAAI, AIED, EC-TEL, ICALT, ITS, and UM conferences. EDM 2011…

  9. Findings From the Pittsburgh Youth Study: Cognitive Impulsivity and Intelligence as Predictors of the Age-Crime Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Menting, Barbara; Lynam, Donald R.; Moffitt, Terri E.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Stallings, Rebecca; Farrington, David P.; Pardini, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article first summarizes key research findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study from 1987 to the present, and focuses on delinquency in 1,517 young men who have been followed up from late childhood into their 20s. Second, the article addresses how indicators of self-control prospectively predict later offending, and whether the…

  10. Creating Social Connections in Higher Education: Insights from the Campus Canines Program at the University of Pittsburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camaioni, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to capture the relationships made during the Campus Canines Program, an animal-assisted activity program, at the University of Pittsburgh. Meaningful social relationships create greater educational satisfaction. These social relationships are an important piece to creating and sustaining student involvement,…

  11. An Analysis of Two Beginning Reading Programs: Scott Foresman's "Reading Unlimited" and Pittsburgh LRDC's "New Primary Grades Reading Systems."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Helen Mitchell

    The two reading programs discussed in this paper, "Reading Unlimited" (RU) published by Scott Foresman and "New Primary Grades Reading Systems" (RS) by the University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center, provide maximal contrasts in materials and teaching strategies. The instructional strategies in RU are analytic and inductive,…

  12. The Use of Information Theory to Study Human Learning. Project on the Information Memory Model, University of Pittsburgh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Gene W.

    As the proceedings of a symposium held at the 1973 Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, theoretical and experimental results from research in the use of information theory to study human learning are presented in this volume to reflect the efforts made at the University of Pittsburgh over the past four…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a Cohort of Peruvian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We sought to evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among pregnant Peruvian women. Methods: A cohort of 642 women were interviewed at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation. During interview, we ascertained information about lifestyles, demographics, sleep characteristics, and mood symptoms. Stress induced sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were evaluated using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) assessment scales, respectively. Consistency indices, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, correlations, and logistic regressions were used. Results: Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a three-factor solution: sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and sleep medication. We observed significantly positive correlations of the PSQI with the FIRST (0.42), the PHQ-9 (0.49), and the GAD-7 (0.46). Poor sleepers (PSQI global score > 5) had significantly increased odds of experiencing stress-induced sleep disturbance (odds ratio, OR = 3.57; 95% CI: 2.40, 5.31), depression (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 3.58, 8.37), and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 4.57; 95% CI: 3.08, 6.76). Conclusions: The Spanish-language version of the PSQI instrument was found to have good construct validity among pregnant Peruvian women. Consistent with some other studies, the PSQI was found to have a three-factor structure. Further assessment and validation studies are needed to determine whether the three, factor-specific scoring of the PSQI is favored over the PSQI global score in diverse populations. Citation: Zhong QY, Gelaye B, Sánchez SE, Williams MA. Psychometric properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a cohort of Peruvian pregnant women. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):869–877. PMID:25845902

  14. A geostatistical approach to predicting sulfur content in the Pittsburgh coal bed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, W.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Bragg, L.J.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is completing a national assessment of coal resources in the five top coal-producing regions in the US. Point-located data provide measurements on coal thickness and sulfur content. The sample data and their geologic interpretation represent the most regionally complete and up-to-date assessment of what is known about top-producing US coal beds. The sample data are analyzed using a combination of geologic and Geographic Information System (GIS) models to estimate tonnages and qualities of the coal beds. Traditionally, GIS practitioners use contouring to represent geographical patterns of "similar" data values. The tonnage and grade of coal resources are then assessed by using the contour lines as references for interpolation. An assessment taken to this point is only indicative of resource quantity and quality. Data users may benefit from a statistical approach that would allow them to better understand the uncertainty and limitations of the sample data. To develop a quantitative approach, geostatistics were applied to the data on coal sulfur content from samples taken in the Pittsburgh coal bed (located in the eastern US, in the southwestern part of the state of Pennsylvania, and in adjoining areas in the states of Ohio and West Virginia). Geostatistical methods that account for regional and local trends were applied to blocks 2.7 mi (4.3 km) on a side. The data and geostatistics support conclusions concerning the average sulfur content and its degree of reliability at regional- and economic-block scale over the large, contiguous part of the Pittsburgh outcrop, but not to a mine scale. To validate the method, a comparison was made with the sulfur contents in sample data taken from 53 coal mines located in the study area. The comparison showed a high degree of similarity between the sulfur content in the mine samples and the sulfur content represented by the geostatistically derived contours. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Different Analogs of 11C-Labeled TZTP for Imaging Muscarinic M2 Receptors with PET

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Alicia E.; Ding, Yu-Shin; Eckelman, William C.; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Shea, Colleen; Xu, Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The only radiotracer available for the selective imaging of muscarinic M2 receptors in vivo is 3-(3-{3-[18F]fluoropropyl)thio}-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridine) ([18F]FP-TZTP). We have prepared and labeled FP-TZTP and two other TZTP derivatives with 11C at the methylpyridine moiety to explore the potential of using C-11 labeled FP-TZTP for PET imaging of M2 receptors and to compare the effect of small structural changes on tracer pharmacokinetics (PK) in brain and peripheral organs. Methods 11C radiolabeled [FP-TZTP, 3], 3-(3-propyl)-TZTP [P-TZTP, 6], 3,3,3-(3-(3-trifluoropropyl)-TZTP [F3P-TZTP, 10] were prepared and log D, plasma protein binding (PPB), affinity constants, time-activity curves (TACs), area under the curve (AUC) for arterial plasma, distribution volumes (DV) and pharmacological blockade in baboons were compared. Results Values for log D, PPB and affinity constants were similar for 3, 6 and 10. The fraction of parent radiotracer in the plasma was higher and the AUC lower for 10 than for 3 and 6. TACs for brain regions were similar for 3 and 6, which showed PK similar to the F-18 tracer, while 10 showed slower uptake and little clearance over 90 min. DV’s for 3 and 6 were similar to the F-18 tracer but higher for 10. Uptake of the three tracers was significantly reduced by coinjection of unlabeled 3 and 6. Conclusion Small structural variations on the TZTP structure greatly altered the PK in brain and behavior in blood with little change in the log D, PPB or affinity. The study suggests that 11C radiolabeled 3 will be a suitable alternative to [18F]FP-TZTP for translational studies in humans. PMID:18355684

  16. Cu(I)-catalyzed (11)C carboxylation of boronic acid esters: a rapid and convenient entry to (11)C-labeled carboxylic acids, esters, and amides.

    PubMed

    Riss, Patrick J; Lu, Shuiyu; Telu, Sanjay; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Pike, Victor W

    2012-03-12

    Rapid and direct: the carboxylation of boronic acid esters with (11)CO(2) provides [(11)C]carboxylic acids as a convenient entry into [(11)C]esters and [(11)C]amides. This conversion of boronates is tolerant to diverse functional groups (e.g., halo, nitro, or carbonyl). PMID:22308017

  17. Automated Measurements of Ambient Aerosol Chemical Composition and its Dry and Wet Size Distributions at Pittsburgh Supersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A. Y.; Stanier, C.; Chun, W.; Vayenas, D.; Mandiro, M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2001-12-01

    Ambient aerosol particles change size with changes in ambient relative humidity. The magnitude of the size change depends on the hygroscopic properties of the particles, which is determined by their chemical composition. Hygroscopic properties of particles influence many environmentally important aerosol qualities, such as light scattering and partitioning between the gas and particle phases of semivolitile compounds. Studying the hygroscopic growth of ambient particles is thus of paramount importance. The highroscopic growth of ambient particles and their chemical composition are measured continuously within the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (EPA supersite program). The hygroscopic size changes are measured using an automated system built for this study. The system consists of two Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers (SMPS, TSI Inc.) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS, TSI Inc.). The three instruments measure aerosol size distribution between 5 nanometers and 10 micrometers in diameter. The inlets of the instruments and the sheath air lines of the SMPS systems are equipped with computer controlled valves that direct air through Nafion dryers (PermaPure Inc.) or bypass them. The Nafion dryers are drying the air stream below 40% RH at which point ambient particles are expected to lose most or all water and thus be virtually dry. To avoid changes in relative humidity and evaporation of volatile particles due to temperature differences the system is kept at ambient temperature. The system measures alternatively dry (below 40% RH) and wet (actual ambient RH) aerosol size distributions every 6 minutes. The hygroscopic growth observed with the size-spectrometer system is compared with theoretic predictions based on the chemical composition of aerosol particles. A modified semi-continuous Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector provides the total available budget (particles and gas) of water-soluble species, which is used as an input to the thermodynamic model. The model calculates

  18. A digital resource model of the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed, Monongahela Group, northern Appalachian basin coal region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Bragg, L.J.; Wallack, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coal beds and zones that are expected to provide the bulk of the Nation's coal resources for the next few decades. The Pittsburgh coal bed is the first bed in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region to undergo a fully-digital assessment. The bed-specific assessment is being carried out in partnership with the state geologic surveys of West Virginia (WV), Pennsylvania (PA), Ohio (OH), and Maryland (MD). Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical databases have been developed for the Pittsburgh coal bed, and areal extent, mined areas, structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness maps of the bed have been released as United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Reports. The resulting resource model indicates that of the original 34 billion short tons (31 billion tonnes) of Pittsburgh coal, 16 billion short tons (14 billion tonnes) remain. Although most of the remaining coal is thinner, deeper, and higher in ash and sulfur (S) than the original resource, there are blocks of extensive thick (6-8 ft or 1.8-2.4 m) coal in southwestern PA and the northern panhandle of WV.The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coal beds and zones that are expected to provide the bulk of the Nation's coal resources for the next few decades. The Pittsburgh coal bed is the first bed in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region to undergo a fully-digital assessment. The bed-specific assessment is being carried out in partnership with the state geologic surveys of West Virginia (WV), Pennsylvania (PA), Ohio (OH), and Maryland (MD). Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical databases have been developed for the Pittsburgh coal bed, and areal extent, mined areas, structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness maps of the bed have been released as United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Reports. The resulting resource

  19. 1996 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The 1996 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The primary mission of the Bettis Laboratory has been directed toward the design, development, testing, and operation of nuclear reactor propulsion plants for naval surface and submarine vessels. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 1996 were in accordance with applicable federal, state, county, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicated that the current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrated that these residues do not pose any significant health risk.

  20. Reconstruction of the 1994 Pittsburgh Airplane Accident Using a Computer Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Edwin K.; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Shin, Jae Ho

    1998-01-01

    On September 8, 1994, a Boeing 737-300 passenger airplane was on a downwind approach to the Pittsburgh International Airport at an altitude of 5000 feet above ground level (6000 feet MSL). While in a shallow left turn onto a downwind approach heading, the airplane crossed into the vortex trail of a Boeing 727 flying in the same approach pattern about 4 miles ahead. The B-737 airplane rolled and turned sharply to the left, exited the vortex wake and plunged into the ground. Weather was not a factor in the accident. The airplane was equipped with a 11+ channel digital Flight Data Recorder (FDR) and a multiple channel Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR). Both recorders were recovered from the crash site and provided excellent data for the development of an accident scenario. Radar tracking of the two airplanes as well as the indicated air speed (IAS) perturbations clearly visible on the B-737 FDR recordings indicate that the upset was apparently initiated by the airplane's crossing into the wake of the B-727 flying ahead in the same traffic pattern. A 6 degree-of-freedom simulation program for the B-737 airplane using MATLAB and SIMULINK was constructed. The simulation was initialized at the stabilized flight conditions of the airplane about 13 seconds prior to its entry into the vortex trail of the B-727 airplane. By assuming a certain combination of control inputs, it was possible to produce a simulated motion that closely matched that recorded on the FDR.

  1. Social Contact Networks and Mixing among Students in K-12 Schools in Pittsburgh, PA

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Hasan; Read, Jonathan; Vukotich, Charles J.; Galloway, David D.; Gao, Hongjiang; Rainey, Jeanette J.; Uzicanin, Amra; Zimmer, Shanta M.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Students attending schools play an important role in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we present a social network analysis of contacts among 1,828 students in eight different schools in urban and suburban areas in and near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, including elementary, elementary-middle, middle, and high schools. We collected social contact information of students who wore wireless sensor devices that regularly recorded other devices if they are within a distance of 3 meters. We analyzed these networks to identify patterns of proximal student interactions in different classes and grades, to describe community structure within the schools, and to assess the impact of the physical environment of schools on proximal contacts. In the elementary and middle schools, we observed a high number of intra-grade and intra-classroom contacts and a relatively low number of inter-grade contacts. However, in high schools, contact networks were well connected and mixed across grades. High modularity of lower grades suggests that assumptions of homogeneous mixing in epidemic models may be inappropriate; whereas lower modularity in high schools suggests that homogenous mixing assumptions may be more acceptable in these settings. The results suggest that interventions targeting subsets of classrooms may work better in elementary schools than high schools. Our work presents quantitative measures of age-specific, school-based contacts that can be used as the basis for constructing models of the transmission of infections in schools. PMID:26978780

  2. Vulnerability studies and integrated assessments for hazard risk reduction in Pittsburgh, PA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.

    2013-12-01

    Today's environmental problems stretch beyond the bounds of most academic disciplines, and thus solutions require an interdisciplinary approach. For instance, the scientific consensus is changes in the frequency and severity of many types of extreme weather events are increasing (IPCC 2012). Yet despite our efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, we continue to experience severe weather events such as Superstorm Sandy, record heat and blizzards, and droughts. These natural hazards, combined with increased vulnerability and exposure, result in longer-lasting disruptions to critical infrastructure and business continuity throughout the world. In order to protect both our lives and the economy, we must think beyond the bounds of any one discipline to include an integrated assessment of relevant work. In the wake of recent events, New York City, Washington, DC, Chicago, and a myriad of other cities have turned to their academic powerhouses for assistance in better understanding their vulnerabilities. This talk will share a case study of the state of integrated assessments and vulnerability studies of energy, transportation, water, real estate, and other main sectors in Pittsburgh, PA. Then the talk will use integrated assessment models and other vulnerability studies to create coordinated sets of climate projections for use by the many public agencies and private-sector organizations in the region.

  3. Stream reconnaissance for nutrients and other water-quality parameters, Greater Pittsburgh Region, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beall, Robert M.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-five stream sites in and near the six-county Greater Pittsburgh Region were sampled in mid-June 1971 in mid-October 1972. Data are reported for 89 sites because 4 substitute sites were sampled in the second period. Drainage areas of the basins sampled ranged from 4.1 to 19,5000 square miles (10.6 to 50,500 square kilometres). The chemical analyses included constituents of three general classes: (1) nutrients, (2) activity indicators, and (3) dominant anions. Modification of the natural chemical and physical characteristics of the surface waters by man's activities is evident in some of the data. However, the activities are so diverse in type and in areal extent that their influence in terms of cause and effect is often obscure. Nutrient concentrations were high enough to indicate potential problems at about a quarter of the sampling sites. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH values indicated a generally favorable capacity for regeneration or recovery from degradation, although a number a streams east of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers are marginal or lacking in the capacity. Regionally, sulfate is the dominant ion and was observed in concentrations of 40 milligrams per litre or more at 90 percent of the sites. Bicarbonate exceeded 100 milligrams per litre at 22 sites. A moderate to high degree of mineralization, as indicated by conductance readings of more than 500 micromhos per cetrimetre at half of the sampling sites, is a characteristic of the region's surface waters.

  4. Nonstandard Programs: the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's next frontier in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Kroboth, Frank J; Zerega, W Dennis; Patel, Rita M; Barnes, Barbara E; Webster, Marshall W

    2011-02-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has seen continuous growth in the number and types of graduate training programs not accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the American Board of Medical Specialties, or the American Osteopathic Association. For the purposes of ensuring best educational products and of controlling unrecognized competition with our accredited programs, a sequential process of centralized oversight of these nonstandard programs was undertaken. The first step involved programs whose fellows were hired and tracked like accredited fellows (i.e., not instructors). The basic process began with consensus among leadership, writing of policy with consultation as necessary, establishment of a registry of programs and graduates, and a committee to allow sharing of best practices and dissemination of policy. The second step applied the same process to instructor-level programs. Whereas the previous group of programs was made subject to ACGME regulations, more latitude in duty hours and progressive responsibility were allowed for instructor programs. The final step, in progress, is extending a similar but modified approach to short-duration clinical experiences and observerships. The outcomes of these efforts have been the creation of a centralized organizational structure, policies to guide this structure, an accurate registry of a surprising number of training programs, and a rolling record of all graduates from these programs. Included in the process is a mechanism that ensures that core program directors and department chairs specifically review the impact of new programs on core programs before allowing their creation.

  5. Continued development of the Nimbus/University of Pittsburgh (UOP) axial flow left ventricular assist system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D C; Butler, K C; Taylor, L P; Le Blanc, P; Griffith, B P; Kormos, R L; Borovetz, H S; Litwak, P; Kameneva, M V; Choi, S; Burgreen, G W; Wagner, W R; Wu, Z; Antaki, J F

    1997-01-01

    Nimbus and the University of Pittsburgh (UOP) have continued the development of a totally implanted axial flow blood pump under the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS) program. This 62 cc device has an overall length of 84 mm and an outer diameter of 34.5 mm. The inner diameter of the blood pump is 12 mm. It is being designed to be a totally implanted permanent device. A key achievement during the past year was the completion of the Model 2 pump design. Ten of these pumps have been fabricated and are being used to conduct in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the performance of different materials and hydraulic components. Efforts for optimizing the closed loop speed control have continued using mathematical modeling, computer simulations, and in vitro and in vivo testing. New hydraulic blade designs have been tested using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and flow visualization. A second generation motor was designed with improved efficiency. To support the new motor, a new motor controller fabricated as a surface mount PC board has been completed. The program is now operating under a formal QA system.

  6. Social Contact Networks and Mixing among Students in K-12 Schools in Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Guclu, Hasan; Read, Jonathan; Vukotich, Charles J; Galloway, David D; Gao, Hongjiang; Rainey, Jeanette J; Uzicanin, Amra; Zimmer, Shanta M; Cummings, Derek A T

    2016-01-01

    Students attending schools play an important role in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we present a social network analysis of contacts among 1,828 students in eight different schools in urban and suburban areas in and near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, including elementary, elementary-middle, middle, and high schools. We collected social contact information of students who wore wireless sensor devices that regularly recorded other devices if they are within a distance of 3 meters. We analyzed these networks to identify patterns of proximal student interactions in different classes and grades, to describe community structure within the schools, and to assess the impact of the physical environment of schools on proximal contacts. In the elementary and middle schools, we observed a high number of intra-grade and intra-classroom contacts and a relatively low number of inter-grade contacts. However, in high schools, contact networks were well connected and mixed across grades. High modularity of lower grades suggests that assumptions of homogeneous mixing in epidemic models may be inappropriate; whereas lower modularity in high schools suggests that homogenous mixing assumptions may be more acceptable in these settings. The results suggest that interventions targeting subsets of classrooms may work better in elementary schools than high schools. Our work presents quantitative measures of age-specific, school-based contacts that can be used as the basis for constructing models of the transmission of infections in schools.

  7. Social Contact Networks and Mixing among Students in K-12 Schools in Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Guclu, Hasan; Read, Jonathan; Vukotich, Charles J; Galloway, David D; Gao, Hongjiang; Rainey, Jeanette J; Uzicanin, Amra; Zimmer, Shanta M; Cummings, Derek A T

    2016-01-01

    Students attending schools play an important role in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we present a social network analysis of contacts among 1,828 students in eight different schools in urban and suburban areas in and near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, including elementary, elementary-middle, middle, and high schools. We collected social contact information of students who wore wireless sensor devices that regularly recorded other devices if they are within a distance of 3 meters. We analyzed these networks to identify patterns of proximal student interactions in different classes and grades, to describe community structure within the schools, and to assess the impact of the physical environment of schools on proximal contacts. In the elementary and middle schools, we observed a high number of intra-grade and intra-classroom contacts and a relatively low number of inter-grade contacts. However, in high schools, contact networks were well connected and mixed across grades. High modularity of lower grades suggests that assumptions of homogeneous mixing in epidemic models may be inappropriate; whereas lower modularity in high schools suggests that homogenous mixing assumptions may be more acceptable in these settings. The results suggest that interventions targeting subsets of classrooms may work better in elementary schools than high schools. Our work presents quantitative measures of age-specific, school-based contacts that can be used as the basis for constructing models of the transmission of infections in schools. PMID:26978780

  8. Description of interview data regarding Pittsburgh and confluence toxic chemical accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1990-11-01

    Evacuation is the protective action most often recommended in response to chemical releases in the United States. The appropriateness of a decision to evacuate depends on whether the affected areas can be cleared of residents before it is contaminated by the chemical release. In determining whether an evacuation can be completed in time, emergency officials must consider both technical and behavioral aspects. The technical components can be readily conceived and quantified. In contrast, the behavioral components are much more abstract and more difficult to estimate. This report summarizes the univariate analysis of responses to surveys conducted in two communities where evacuation was recommended following train derailments involving hazardous chemicals. The surveys were designed to identify the actions taken by residents upon receiving the emergency warning; determine when people received the warning, decided to take action, and implemented the action; and ascertain factors that might explain the nature and timing of their actions. The surveys were conducted in the Bloomfield section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in the town of Confluence, Pennsylvania. The study confirms that compliance with an emergency warning to evacuate varies and that potentially dangerous delays can be expected. Significant differences were noted, however, in the rate and speed of compliance in the two communities. The surveys provide information on several factors that may be useful in determining the reasons for differences in the responses from the two communities as well as differences among individual respondents. Such factors include the time of day when the accident occurred, where the respondent was at the time, whether the family was together, previous disaster experience, pet ownership, the content of the warning message, and demographic characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Indian University Students

    PubMed Central

    Manzar, Md. Dilshad; Moiz, Jamal A.; Zannat, Wassilatul; Spence, David W.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Hussain, M. Ejaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the demonstrated utility of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in various demographic groups, it has never been validated in a sample of Indian subjects. To extend and confirm the PSQI’s applicability for South Asian subjects, this preliminary study aimed to assess its psychometric and diagnostic validity in a sample of university students. Methods Forty-seven male students were recruited from Jamia Millia Islamia, a public central university in New Delhi, India. The mean age of the students was 23.4±3.9 years, and they had a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.3±3.3kg/m2. The PSQI was administered to all subjects and overnight polysomnographic testing was carried out as a concurrent validation measure. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the questionnaire was found to be 0.736. Internal homogeneity was high, with the majority of correlations between questionnaire component scores and the summed global score being significant (p<0.010). Criterion validity-correlations between the PSQI global score and polysomnography (PSG) measures were low. However, the questionnaire component scores and the related polysomnographic measures did show some significant relationships. The optimal cut-off scores for distinguishing students with/without sleep problems was >6 and was generated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios at the cut-off score were 0.838 (p<0.0001), 75.0%, 88.9%, 6.75, and 0.280, respectively. Conclusion The study found evidence that the PSQI had internal consistency, internal homogeneity, and diagnostic characteristics that compared well with PSG among a sample of young adult male students in India. This supports the applicability and certain aspects of the validity of the PSQI in the population. PMID:26171126

  10. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  11. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  12. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  13. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, Andrew; Stecher, Dave

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  14. Experimental particle physics at the University of Pittsburgh. Progress report, 1 November 1993--31 October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, E. Jr.; Shepard, P.F.; Thompson, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Task A involves the study of kaon decays. The overall physics focus of the current work is rare and semi-rare decays of the {phi} and the short-lived kaon, with an emphasis on those aspects needed in preparation for the proposed {Phi}-factory measurements of CPT violation. Another aspect of the rare kaon decay work is E865 at BNL, a search for K{sup +} yields {pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}e{sup {minus}}, a lepton number violating process. Pittsburgh`s E865 responsibilities are the design and construction of the Cerenkov counters. The major goals of task B are as follows: (1) the analysis of the E706 (direct photon production) data taken during the 1987--1988 and 1990--1991 target runs at Fermilab and (2) the continuation of work within SVXII group of the CDF collaboration. The CDF program involves a dedicated effort towards the design of the silicon vertex detector upgrade, SVXII.

  15. Improvements in the life expectancy of type 1 diabetes: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study cohort.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachel G; Secrest, Aaron M; Sharma, Ravi K; Songer, Thomas J; Orchard, Trevor J

    2012-11-01

    Survival in type 1 diabetes has improved, but the impact on life expectancy in the U.S. type 1 diabetes population is not well established. Our objective was to estimate the life expectancy of the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) study cohort and quantify improvements by comparing two subcohorts based on year of diabetes diagnosis (1950-1964 [n = 390] vs. 1965-1980 [n = 543]). The EDC study is a prospective cohort study of 933 participants with childhood-onset (aged <17 years) type 1 diabetes diagnosed at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh from 1950 to 1980. Mortality ascertainment was censored 31 December 2009. Abridged cohort life tables were constructed to calculate life expectancy. Death occurred in 237 (60.8%) of the 1950-1964 subcohort compared with 88 (16.2%) of the 1965-1980 subcohort. The life expectancy at birth for those diagnosed 1965-1980 was ~15 years greater than participants diagnosed 1950-1964 (68.8 [95% CI 64.7-72.8] vs. 53.4 [50.8-56.0] years, respectively) (P < 0.0001); this difference persisted regardless of sex or pubertal status at diagnosis. This improvement in life expectancy emphasizes the need for insurance companies to update analysis of the life expectancy of those with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes because weighting of insurance premiums is based on outdated estimates.

  16. Legionellaceae in the hospital water-supply. Epidemiological link with disease and evaluation of a method for control of nosocomial legionnaires' disease and Pittsburgh pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Best, M; Yu, V L; Stout, J; Goetz, A; Muder, R R; Taylor, F

    1983-08-01

    An epidemiological link was found between contamination of a hospital water-supply by Legionella pneumophila and by Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (PPA) and subsequent cases of nosocomial legionnaires' disease and Pittsburgh pneumonia. The extent of L pneumophila isolation from the water-supply paralleled the occurrence of disease. Whenever L pneumophila was isolated from more than 30% of ten selected water sites, nosocomial legionellosis occurred. The temperature of the hot water tanks was raised to 60-77 degrees C for 72 h, and water outlets were flushed for 30 min with hot water. A decline in numbers of L pneumophila and PPA in the water-supply was followed by a fall in the incidence of legionnaires' disease and Pittsburgh pneumonia. In addition, intermittent raising of the temperature in the hot water system decreased both the number of months in which disease occurred and the proportion of nosocomial pneumonias caused by these organisms. PMID:6135832

  17. Use of Electronic Journals by Library and Information Science Faculty Members in Performing Various Academic Tasks: A Field Study Performed at the School of Information Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh (Modified Version)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouserie, Hossam Eldin Mohamed Refaat

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and investigate the ways faculty at The School of Information Science at the University of Pittsburgh use electronic journals to obtain information to support their academic tasks, teaching, research and services. Library and Information Sciences faculty at the University of Pittsburgh were chosen as the…

  18. Time- and size-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles in Pittsburgh: Implications for aerosol sources and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    2005-04-01

    An Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the Pittsburgh Environmental Protection Agency Supersite from 7 to 22 September 2002 as part of the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS). The main objectives of this deployment were to characterize the concentrations, size distributions, and temporal variations of nonrefractory (NR) chemical species in submicron particles (approximately PM1) and to further develop and evaluate the AMS. Reasonably good agreement was observed on particle concentrations, composition, and size distributions between the AMS data and measurements from collocated instruments (given the difference between the PM1 and PM2.5 size cuts), including TEOM, semicontinuous sulfate, 2-hour- and 24-hour-averaged organic carbon, SMPS, 4-hour-averaged ammonium, and micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor. Total NR-PM1 mass concentration in Pittsburgh accumulates over periods of several days punctuated with rapid cleaning due to rain or air mass changes. Sulfate and organics are the major NR-PM1 components while the concentrations of nitrate and chloride are generally low. Significant amounts of ammonium, which most of the time are consistent with sulfate present as ammonium sulfate, are also present in particles. However, there are periods when the aerosols are relatively acidic and more than 50% of sulfate is estimated to be in the form of ammonium bisulfate. No major enhancement of the organic concentration is observed during these acidic periods, which suggests that acid-catalyzed SOA formation was not an important process during this study. Size distributions of particulate sulfate, ammonium, organics, and nitrate vary on timescales of hours to days, showing unimodal, bimodal and even trimodal characteristics. The accumulation mode (peaking around 350-600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter for the mass distributions) and the ultrafine mode (<100 nm) are observed most frequently. The accumulation mode is dominated by sulfate that appears to

  19. Design and implementation of a library-based information service in molecular biology and genetics at the University of Pittsburgh

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Tannery, Nancy Hrinya; Silverman, Deborah A. L.; Bergen, Phillip; Epstein, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Setting: In summer 2002, the Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) at the University of Pittsburgh initiated an information service in molecular biology and genetics to assist researchers with identifying and utilizing bioinformatics tools. Program Components: This novel information service comprises hands-on training workshops and consultation on the use of bioinformatics tools. The HSLS also provides an electronic portal and networked access to public and commercial molecular biology databases and software packages. Evaluation Mechanisms: Researcher feedback gathered during the first three years of workshops and individual consultation indicate that the information service is meeting user needs. Next Steps/Future Directions: The service's workshop offerings will expand to include emerging bioinformatics topics. A frequently asked questions database is also being developed to reuse advice on complex bioinformatics questions. PMID:16888665

  20. How Far Do You Go and How Much Do You Show: Pittsburgh Television News Media and the R. Budd Dwyer Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matviko, John

    Only one Pittsburgh television station (WPXI) chose to show the entire event when R. Budd Dwyer, Pennsylvania state treasurer, shot himself at a televised news conference. Within 12 hours, the focus of the story had shifted from Dwyer himself to the media's coverage. Was WPXI wrong to show the suicide? Were the other stations wrong to curtail the…

  1. Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. Report of the Regional Conference Held at University of Pittsburgh, Friday, November 26, 1920. Bulletin, 1921, No. 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pyke; John, Walton C.

    1921-01-01

    This bulletin provides information on the proceedings of the regional conference on education for highway engineering and highway transport that was held at the University of Pittsburgh on November 26, 1920, under the direction of the highway and highway transport education committee. The purpose of this report is: (1) To stimulate greater…

  2. EVALUATION OF THE CMB AND PMF MODELS USING ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN FINE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED DURING THE PITTSBURGH AIR QUALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research investigated different strategies for source apportionment of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected as part of the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Two source receptor models were used, the EPA Chemical Mass Balance 8.2 (CMB) and EPA Positive Matrix Facto...

  3. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  4. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Jones, Michael G.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Luther, Thomas A.; Trowbridge, Tammy L.

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  5. Does insomnia in prison improve with time? Prospective study among remanded prisoners using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.

    PubMed

    Elger, Bernice S

    2003-10-01

    Insomnia is a frequent health problem in prison, but little is known about its severity and duration. The objective was to find out whether subjective sleep quality improves during time and which factors influence improvement. Fifty-two randomly chosen prisoners complaining of insomnia at the Geneva remand prison were interviewed (T1) and followed up ten days (T2) and two months (T3) later. They received hypnotics habitually prescribed by prison physicians (benzodiazepines, chloralhydrate, zolpidem). After ten days 40 patients were still in prison and agreed to participate and after two months 16 prisoners could be re-evaluated. Total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores at T1 were 12.3 +/- 4.7. At T2 and T3, PSQI scores improved significantly, whereas General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores and conditions of imprisonment were similar. Only 12.5% of patients at T2, and 6.25% at T3, were 'good sleepers' (PSQI scores =/< 5). Cocaine users and prisoners with a healthy lifestyle reported the greatest improvement of PSQI scores. Our study shows that significant improvement of PSQI scores takes place in the first one to two weeks. However, in spite of regular drug treatment during the following weeks, PSQI scores persisted at a clinically significant level two months later. Drug treatment in prison only partially improves insomnia. PMID:14655964

  6. Particulate Air Pollution and the Rate of Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure among Medicare Beneficiaries in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bateson, Thomas F.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz., Joel

    2006-01-01

    We used a case-crossover approach to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and the rate of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) among Medicare recipients (age ≥ 65) residing in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh area), PA, during 1987–1999. We also explored effect modification by age, gender, and specific secondary diagnoses. During follow-up, there were 55,019 admissions with a primary diagnosis of CHF. We found that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide – but not ozone – were positively and significantly associated with the rate of admission on the same day in single-pollutant models. The strongest associations were observed with CO, NO2 and PM10. The associations with CO and NO2 were the most robust in two-pollutant models, remaining statistically significant even after adjusting for other pollutants. Patients with a recent myocardial infarction were at greater risk of particulate-related admission, but there was otherwise no significant effect modification by age, gender, or other secondary diagnoses. These results suggest that short-term elevations in air pollution from traffic-related sources may trigger acute cardiac decompensation of heart failure patients and that those with certain comorbid conditions may be more susceptible to these effects. PMID:15901623

  7. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  8. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary pollutants during a 2001 summer study in Pittsburgh using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard R; Martello, Donald V; Lucas, Leonard J; Davidson, Cliff I; Modey, William K; Eatough, Delbert J

    2006-09-01

    Apportionment of primary and secondary pollutants during the summer 2001 Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) is reported. Several sites were included in PAQS, with the main site (the supersite) adjacent to the Carnegie Mellon University campus in Schenley Park. One of the additional sampling sites was located at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, located approximately 18 km southeast of downtown Pittsburgh. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass, gas-phase volatile organic material (VOM), particulate semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material (NVOM), and ammonium sulfate were apportioned at the two sites into their primary and secondary contributions using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX 2.3 multivariate receptor modeling and analysis software. A portion of each of these species was identified as originating from gasoline and diesel primary mobile sources. Some of the organic material was formed from local secondary transformation processes, whereas the great majority of the secondary sulfate was associated with regional transformation contributions. The results indicated that the diurnal patterns of secondary gas-phase VOM and particulate semivolatile and NVOM were not correlated with secondary ammonium sulfate contributions but were associated with separate formation pathways. These findings are consistent with the bulk of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport and, thus, decoupled from local activity involving organic pollutants in the metropolitan area.

  9. Perfluorinated Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...

  10. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  11. Characterizing the spatial variation of air pollutants and the contributions of high emitting vehicles in Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Lipsky, Eric M; Saleh, Rawad; Robinson, Allen L; Presto, Albert A

    2014-12-16

    We used a mobile measurement platform to characterize a suite of air pollutants (black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH), benzene, and toluene) in the city of Pittsburgh and surrounding areas. More than 270 h of data were collected from forty-two sites which were selected based on analysis in the geographic information system (GIS). Mobile measurements were performed during three different times of day (mornings, afternoons/evenings, and overnight) in both winter (November 2011 to February 2012) and summer (June 2012 to August 2012). Pollutant concentrations were elevated in river valleys by 9% (benzene) to 30% (PB-PAH) relative to upland areas. Traffic had strong impacts on measured pollutants. PB-PAH and BC concentrations at high traffic sites were a factor of 2 and 30% higher than at low traffic sites, respectively. Pollutant concentrations were highest in the morning sessions due to a combination of traffic and meteorological conditions. The highly time-resolved data indicated that elevated pollutant concentrations at high traffic sites were due to short duration plume events associated with high emitting vehicles. High emitting vehicles contributed up to 70% of the near road PB-PAH and 30% of BC; emissions from these vehicles drove substantial spatial variations in BC and PB-PAH concentrations. Many high emitting vehicles were presumably diesel trucks or buses, because plumes were strongly correlated with truck traffic volume. In contrast, PB-PAH and BC in the nonplume background air was weakly correlated with traffic, and their spatial patterns were more influenced by terrain and point source emissions. The spatial variability in contributions of high emitting vehicles suggests that the effect of potential control strategies vary for different pollutants and environments.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  13. Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankland, Kenneth

    For many years, powder X-ray diffraction was used primarily as a fingerprinting method for phase identification in the context of molecular organic materials. In the early 1990s, with only a few notable exceptions, structures of even moderate complexity were not solvable from PXRD data alone. Global optimisation methods and highly-modified direct methods have transformed this situation by specifically exploiting some well-known properties of molecular compounds. This chapter will consider some of these properties.

  14. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  15. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  16. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  19. Brightside Academy: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Brightside Academy has been providing quality care to children six weeks to 12 years old. Operating 49 locations in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York, the company is committed to strengthening learners and respecting families. Currently, the organization provides early education for 6,700 children on a daily basis. 90%…

  20. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh site.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Mangelson, Nolan F; Anderson, Richard R; Martello, Donald V; Pekney, Natalie J; Davidson, Cliff I; Modey, William K

    2007-10-01

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NO(x), NO2, and O3 concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. These findings are consistent with the majority of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport, and thus decoupled from local

  1. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  2. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  3. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  4. Cumberland and Pittsburgh 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS areas Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia: data report (abbreviated). National uranium resource evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, W.M.

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes results of ground water, surface water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Cumberland and Pittsburgh 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1042 sites in the Cumberland quadrangle and 342 sites in the Pittsburgh quadrangle. Ground water samples were collected at 1240 sites in the Cumberland quadrangle and 467 sites in the Pittsburgh quadrangle. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water, and for uranium and 9 other elements in surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps.

  5. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Buckwalter, Theodore F.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) in Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pa. Water-quality samples and river-discharge measurements were collected from July to September 2001 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period), mixed-, and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 6-hour period) conditions at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers in Allegheny County. Water samples were collected weekly to establish baseline conditions and during successive days after three wet-weather events. Water samples were analyzed for fecal-indicator organisms including fecal-coliform (FC) bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Water samples were collected by the USGS and analyzed by the ACHD Laboratory. At each site, left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a composite sample (discharge-weighted sample representative of the channel cross section as a whole) at each site. Fecal-indicator bacteria reported in bank and composite samples were used to evaluate the distribution and mixing of bacteria-source streams in receiving waters such as the Three Rivers. Single-event concentrations of enterococci, E. coli, and FC during dry-weather events were greater than State and Federal water-quality standards (WQS) in 11, 28, and 28 percent of the samples, respectively; during mixed-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 28, 37, and 43 percent of the samples, respectively; and during wet-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 56, 71, and 81 percent of samples, respectively. Single-event, wet-weather concentrations exceeded those during dry-weather events for all sites except the Allegheny River at

  6. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.; Goodman, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control. This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines. Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  7. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C.O.; Olea, R.A.; Goodman, G.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control.This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines.Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  8. A Study of the Presence of Gunshot Residue in Pittsburgh Police Stations using SEM/EDS and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ali, Leah; Brown, Kyle; Castellano, Holly; Wetzel, Stephanie J

    2016-07-01

    Due to possible secondary transfer of gunshot residue (GSR) onto a suspect in police custody prior to sampling, a baseline must be created for the amount of GSR present. With an increase of "lead free" ammunition, testing for both gunpowder and primer GSR is relevant. Seventy samples were collected using carbon-coated adhesive stubs from four Pittsburgh Police Stations and vehicles to investigate these locations as sources of secondary GSR contamination. These seventy samples were analyzed for primer GSR using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. One primer GSR particle was detected; no sample was classified as positive for primer GSR. These same samples were then analyzed for gunpowder GSR using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to test for akardite II, ethylcentralite, diphenylamine, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, 2-nitrodiphenylamine, and 4-nitrodiphenylamine. Ethylcentralite was quantifiable in two test samples. These results suggest there is a negligible potential for secondary transfer of primer and gunpowder GSR. PMID:27364271

  9. A Study of the Presence of Gunshot Residue in Pittsburgh Police Stations using SEM/EDS and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ali, Leah; Brown, Kyle; Castellano, Holly; Wetzel, Stephanie J

    2016-07-01

    Due to possible secondary transfer of gunshot residue (GSR) onto a suspect in police custody prior to sampling, a baseline must be created for the amount of GSR present. With an increase of "lead free" ammunition, testing for both gunpowder and primer GSR is relevant. Seventy samples were collected using carbon-coated adhesive stubs from four Pittsburgh Police Stations and vehicles to investigate these locations as sources of secondary GSR contamination. These seventy samples were analyzed for primer GSR using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. One primer GSR particle was detected; no sample was classified as positive for primer GSR. These same samples were then analyzed for gunpowder GSR using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to test for akardite II, ethylcentralite, diphenylamine, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, 2-nitrodiphenylamine, and 4-nitrodiphenylamine. Ethylcentralite was quantifiable in two test samples. These results suggest there is a negligible potential for secondary transfer of primer and gunpowder GSR.

  10. The Power of Place: Social Network Characteristics, Perceived Neighborhood Features, and Psychological Distress Among African Americans in the Historic Hill District in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Karen R; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; de la Haye, Kayla; Duru, Obidiugwu Kenrik; Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    African American neighborhoods have been historically targeted for urban renewal projects, which impact social composition and resident's health. The Hill District in Pittsburgh, PA is such a neighborhood. This research sought to investigate the extent to which social networks and perceived neighborhood social cohesion and safety were associated with psychological distress among residents in an African American neighborhood undergoing urban renewal, before the implementation of major neighborhood changes. Findings revealed a modest, significant inverse association between social network size and psychological distress (β = -0.006, p < .01), even after controlling for age, employment, education, and income. Perceived neighborhood safety predicted decreased psychological distress (β = -1.438, p < .01), but not social cohesion, which is consistent with past research. Findings suggest that social networks protect against psychological distress, but neighborhood perceptions are also paramount. PMID:27612324

  11. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Nolan F. Mangelson; Richard R. Anderson

    2007-10-15

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NOx, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest from sources including coal-fired power plants, coke processing plants and steel mills, (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. 27 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Compounding in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Zdoryk, Oleksandr A; Georgiyants, Victoriya A; Gryzodub, Oleksandr I; Schnatz, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding in modern Ukraine has a rich history and goes back to ancient times. Today in the Ukraine, there is a revival of compounding practice, the opening of private compounding pharmacies, updating of legislative framework and requirements of the State Pharmacopeia of Ukraine for compounding preparations, and the introduction of Good Pharmaceutical Practice. PMID:23696172

  13. Pharmacy compounding urban legends.

    PubMed

    Kastango, Eric S

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews and clarifies a small sampling of the myths, or urban legends, about compounding. Included are comments on United sTates Pharmacopeia Chapter 797, environmental issues related to sterile compounding, and suggested resources for clarification of some of these myths. This article recommends a knowledge-based partnership between compounding pharmacists and pharmaceutical manufacturers to improve compounding activities and quality assurance methods to ensure that compounded medications are safe.

  14. Phytodegradation of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lee A; Reynolds, Charles M

    2004-06-01

    The phytodegradation of organic compounds can take place inside the plant or within the rhizosphere of the plant. Many different compounds and classes of compounds can be removed from the environment by this method, including solvents in groundwater, petroleum and aromatic compounds in soils, and volatile compounds in the air. Although still a relatively new area of research, there are many laboratories studying the underlying science necessary for a wide range of applications for plant-based remediation of organic contaminants.

  15. Re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil as a dominant source of atmospheric lead in Birmingham, Chicago, Detroit and Pittsburgh, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidlaw, Mark A. S.; Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W.; Taylor, Mark P.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.

    2012-03-01

    Soils in older areas of cities are highly contaminated by lead, due largely to past use of lead additives in gasoline, the use of lead in exterior paints, and industrial lead sources. Soils are not passive repositories and periodic re-suspension of fine lead contaminated soil dust particulates (or aerosols) may create seasonal variations of lead exposure for urban dwellers. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosol data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) database were obtained for Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Detroit (Michigan), Chicago (Illinois), and Birmingham (Alabama), USA. In this study the temporal variations of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols in these four US cities were examined to determine whether re-suspended lead contaminated urban soil was the dominant source of atmospheric lead. Soil and lead-in-air concentrations were examined to ascertain whether lead aerosols follow seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. In addition, atmospheric soil and lead aerosol concentrations on weekends and Federal Government holidays were compared to weekdays to evaluate the possibility that automotive turbulence results in re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil. The results show that the natural logs of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols were associated in Pittsburgh from April 2004 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.31, p < 0.01), Detroit from November 2003 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.49, p <0.01), Chicago from November 2003 to August 2005 (R2 = 0.32, p < 0.01), and Birmingham from May 2004 to December 2006 (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.01). Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols followed seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols are 3.15 and 3.12 times higher, respectively, during weekdays than weekends and Federal Government holidays, suggesting that automotive traffic turbulence plays a significant role in re-suspension of contaminated roadside soils and

  16. Spatial patterns of brain amyloid-beta burden and atrophy rate associations in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Duygu; Schuff, Norbert; Mathis, Chester A; Jagust, William; Weiner, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    Amyloid-β accumulation in the brain is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease, possibly leading to synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive/functional decline. The earliest detectable changes seen with neuroimaging appear to be amyloid-β accumulation detected by (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging. However, some individuals tolerate high brain amyloid-β loads without developing symptoms, while others progressively decline, suggesting that events in the brain downstream from amyloid-β deposition, such as regional brain atrophy rates, play an important role. The main purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between the regional distributions of increased amyloid-β and the regional distribution of increased brain atrophy rates in patients with mild cognitive impairment. To simultaneously capture the spatial distributions of amyloid-β and brain atrophy rates, we employed the statistical concept of parallel independent component analysis, an effective method for joint analysis of multimodal imaging data. Parallel independent component analysis identified significant relationships between two patterns of amyloid-β deposition and atrophy rates: (i) increased amyloid-β burden in the left precuneus/cuneus and medial-temporal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the left medial-temporal and parietal regions; and (ii) in contrast, increased amyloid-β burden in bilateral precuneus/cuneus and parietal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the right medial temporal regions. The spatial distribution of increased amyloid-β and the associated spatial distribution of increased brain atrophy rates embrace a characteristic pattern of brain structures known for a high vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease pathology, encouraging for the use of (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography measures as early indicators of

  17. Spatial patterns of brain amyloid-beta burden and atrophy rate associations in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Duygu; Schuff, Norbert; Mathis, Chester A; Jagust, William; Weiner, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    Amyloid-β accumulation in the brain is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease, possibly leading to synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive/functional decline. The earliest detectable changes seen with neuroimaging appear to be amyloid-β accumulation detected by (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging. However, some individuals tolerate high brain amyloid-β loads without developing symptoms, while others progressively decline, suggesting that events in the brain downstream from amyloid-β deposition, such as regional brain atrophy rates, play an important role. The main purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between the regional distributions of increased amyloid-β and the regional distribution of increased brain atrophy rates in patients with mild cognitive impairment. To simultaneously capture the spatial distributions of amyloid-β and brain atrophy rates, we employed the statistical concept of parallel independent component analysis, an effective method for joint analysis of multimodal imaging data. Parallel independent component analysis identified significant relationships between two patterns of amyloid-β deposition and atrophy rates: (i) increased amyloid-β burden in the left precuneus/cuneus and medial-temporal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the left medial-temporal and parietal regions; and (ii) in contrast, increased amyloid-β burden in bilateral precuneus/cuneus and parietal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the right medial temporal regions. The spatial distribution of increased amyloid-β and the associated spatial distribution of increased brain atrophy rates embrace a characteristic pattern of brain structures known for a high vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease pathology, encouraging for the use of (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography measures as early indicators of

  18. Innovation and translation efforts in wireless medical connectivity, telemedicine and eMedicine: a story from the RFID Center of Excellence at the University of Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Rothfuss, Michael A; Stachel, Joshua R; Franconi, Nicholas G; Bocan, Kara; Lovell, Michael R; Mickle, Marlin H

    2013-09-01

    Translational research has recently been rediscovered as one of the basic tenants of engineering. Although many people have numerous ideas of how to accomplish this successfully, the fundamental method is to provide an innovative and creative environment. The University of Pittsburgh has been accomplishing this goal though a variety of methodologies. The contents of this paper are exemplary of what can be achieved though the interaction of students, staff, faculty and, in one example, high school teachers. While the projects completed within the groups involved in this paper have spanned other areas, the focus of this paper is on the biomedical devices, that is, towards improving and maintaining health in a variety of areas. The spirit of the translational research is discovery, invention, intellectual property protection, and the creation of value through the spinning off of companies while providing better health care and creating jobs. All but one of these projects involve wireless radio frequency (RF) energy for delivery. The remaining device can be wirelessly connected for data collection. PMID:23897048

  19. Alpha 1-antitrypsin Pittsburgh (Met358-->Arg) inhibits the contact pathway of intrinsic coagulation and alters the release of human neutrophil elastase during simulated extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Wachtfogel, Y T; Bischoff, R; Bauer, R; Hack, C E; Nuijens, J H; Kucich, U; Niewiarowski, S; Edmunds, L H; Colman, R W

    1994-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass prolongs bleeding time, increases postoperative blood loss, and triggers activation of plasma proteolytic enzyme systems and blood cells referred to as the "whole body inflammatory response". Contact of blood with synthetic surfaces leads to qualitative and quantitative alterations in platelets, neutrophils, contact and complement systems. Contact and complement pathway proteins both induce neutrophil activation. alpha 1-antitrypsin Pittsburgh (Met358-->Arg), a mutant of alpha 1-antitrypsin, is a potent inhibitor of plasma kallikrein and thrombin. We investigated whether this recombinant mutant protein inhibited platelet activation, as well as contact and/or complement-induced neutrophil activation during simulated extracorporeal circulation. Arg358 alpha 1-antitrypsin did not prevent the 34% drop in platelet count at 5 min of recirculation, did not block the 50% decrease in ADP-induced platelet aggregation at 120 min of recirculation, nor inhibit the release of 6.06 +/- 1.07 micrograms/ml beta-thromboglobulin at 120 min of recirculation suggesting that the inhibitor had little effect on platelet activation. However, Arg358 alpha 1-antitrypsin totally blocked kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complex formation but not C1-C1-inhibitor complex formation. Most importantly, Arg358 alpha 1-antitrypsin decreased the release of 1.11 +/- 0.16 micrograms/ml human neutrophil elastase by 43%. The attenuation of neutrophil activation in the absence of an effect on complement activation via the classical pathway, supports the concept that kallikrein is a major mediator of neutrophil degranulation during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  20. Emerald ash borer and the urban forest: Changes in landslide potential due to canopy loss scenarios in the City of Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Pfeil-McCullough, Erin; Bain, Daniel J; Bergman, Jeffery; Crumrine, Danielle

    2015-12-01

    Emerald ash borer is expected to kill thousands of ash trees in the eastern U.S. This research develops tools to predict the effect of ash tree loss from the urban canopy on landslide susceptibility in Pittsburgh, PA. A spatial model was built using the SINMAP (Stability INdex MAPping) model coupled with spatially explicit scenarios of tree loss (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% loss of ash trees from the canopy). Ash spatial distributions were estimated via Monte Carlo methods and available vegetation plot data. Ash trees are most prevalent on steeper slopes, likely due to urban development patterns. Therefore, ash loss disproportionately increases hillslope instability. A 75% loss of ash resulted in roughly 800 new potential landslide initiation locations. Sensitivity testing reveals that variations in rainfall rates, and friction angles produce minor changes to model results relative to the magnitude of parameter variation, but reveal high model sensitivity to soil density and root cohesion values. The model predictions demonstrate the importance of large canopy species to urban hillslope stability, particularly on steep slopes and in areas where soils tend to retain water. To improve instability predictions, better characterization of urban soils, particularly spatial patterns of compaction and species specific root cohesion is necessary. The modeling framework developed in this research will enhance assessment of changes in landslide risk due to tree mortality, improving our ability to design economically and ecologically sustainable urban systems. PMID:26245535

  1. Emerald ash borer and the urban forest: Changes in landslide potential due to canopy loss scenarios in the City of Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Pfeil-McCullough, Erin; Bain, Daniel J; Bergman, Jeffery; Crumrine, Danielle

    2015-12-01

    Emerald ash borer is expected to kill thousands of ash trees in the eastern U.S. This research develops tools to predict the effect of ash tree loss from the urban canopy on landslide susceptibility in Pittsburgh, PA. A spatial model was built using the SINMAP (Stability INdex MAPping) model coupled with spatially explicit scenarios of tree loss (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% loss of ash trees from the canopy). Ash spatial distributions were estimated via Monte Carlo methods and available vegetation plot data. Ash trees are most prevalent on steeper slopes, likely due to urban development patterns. Therefore, ash loss disproportionately increases hillslope instability. A 75% loss of ash resulted in roughly 800 new potential landslide initiation locations. Sensitivity testing reveals that variations in rainfall rates, and friction angles produce minor changes to model results relative to the magnitude of parameter variation, but reveal high model sensitivity to soil density and root cohesion values. The model predictions demonstrate the importance of large canopy species to urban hillslope stability, particularly on steep slopes and in areas where soils tend to retain water. To improve instability predictions, better characterization of urban soils, particularly spatial patterns of compaction and species specific root cohesion is necessary. The modeling framework developed in this research will enhance assessment of changes in landslide risk due to tree mortality, improving our ability to design economically and ecologically sustainable urban systems.

  2. Transforming the present--discovering the future: the University of Pittsburgh's NLM grant on education and training of health sciences librarians.

    PubMed Central

    Detlefsen, E G; Epstein, B A; Mickelson, P; Detre, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The University of Pittsburgh was awarded a grant by the National Library of Medicine to study the education and training needs of present and future medical librarians and health information specialists through a collaboration of the university's School of Information Sciences and Health Sciences Library System. Goals and objectives for the year-long project included (1) assessment of education and training needs of medical librarians, (2) development of a master of library science curriculum and an internship program that would prepare graduates to take leadership roles in medical librarianship or information management, (3) development of continuing education programs for medical librarians in different formats, and (4) development of targeted recruitment efforts to attract minority group members and individuals with undergraduate science majors. The importance of this project, present practice, and success factors for programs seeking excellence in the preparation of health sciences information professionals are reviewed. A needs assessment involving a national advisory panel and a follow-up study of individuals who have participated in previous specialized training programs in health sciences information, compared with a peer group of medical librarians who did not participate in such programs, is described. This paper presents the goals and objectives of the project, describes the methods used, and outlines a curriculum, continuing education initiatives, and recruitment activities. PMID:8913555

  3. History and dating of the publication of the Philadelphia (1822) and London (1823) editions of Edwin James's Account of an expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The public record of Major Stephen H. Long's 1819–1820 exploration of the American north-west, Account of an expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, compiled by Edwin James, contains valuable contributions regarding the natural landscapes, native peoples and wildlife of a mostly unexplored region of the American west compiled from the notes of some of America's foremost naturalists, and it includes the first descriptions of 67 new species. The original plan was to publish the Account in Philadelphia and London simultaneously, yet these two editions differ substantially in ways that are relevant to the taxonomic contributions in the work. It is generally assumed that the Philadelphia edition was published in early January 1823 and was available first, but little substantive evidence has been presented to support its priority over the London edition. Review of contemporary correspondence and periodicals indicates the Philadelphia edition was available and for sale on 31 December 1822, whereas the London edition was available in late February 1823. As previously assumed by most sources, the Philadelphia edition has priority of publication and is the authority for most species names. Its correct year of publication, however, is 1822 rather than 1823.

  4. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in older primary care patients with generalized anxiety disorder: psychometrics and outcomes following cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Bush, Amber L; Armento, Maria E A; Weiss, Brandon J; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Wilson, Nancy L; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2012-08-30

    The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used, comprehensive self-report measure of sleep quality and impairment, which has demonstrated good psychometric properties within various populations, including older adults. However, the psychometric properties of the PSQI and its component scores have not been evaluated for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Additionally, changes in PSQI global or component scores have not been reported following cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) of late-life GAD. This study examined (1) the psychometric properties of the PSQI within a sample of 216 elderly primary care patients age 60 or older with GAD who were referred for treatment of worry and/or anxiety; as well as (2) response to CBT, relative to usual care, for 134 patients with principal or coprincipal GAD. The PSQI demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and adequate evidence of construct validity. Those receiving CBT experienced greater reductions in PSQI global scores at post-treatment, relative to those receiving usual care. Further, PSQI global and component scores pertaining to sleep quality and difficulties falling asleep (i.e., sleep latency and sleep disturbances) demonstrated response to treatment over a 12-month follow-up period. Overall, results highlight the usefulness of the PSQI global and component scores for use in older adults with GAD.

  5. Innovation and translation efforts in wireless medical connectivity, telemedicine and eMedicine: a story from the RFID Center of Excellence at the University of Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Rothfuss, Michael A; Stachel, Joshua R; Franconi, Nicholas G; Bocan, Kara; Lovell, Michael R; Mickle, Marlin H

    2013-09-01

    Translational research has recently been rediscovered as one of the basic tenants of engineering. Although many people have numerous ideas of how to accomplish this successfully, the fundamental method is to provide an innovative and creative environment. The University of Pittsburgh has been accomplishing this goal though a variety of methodologies. The contents of this paper are exemplary of what can be achieved though the interaction of students, staff, faculty and, in one example, high school teachers. While the projects completed within the groups involved in this paper have spanned other areas, the focus of this paper is on the biomedical devices, that is, towards improving and maintaining health in a variety of areas. The spirit of the translational research is discovery, invention, intellectual property protection, and the creation of value through the spinning off of companies while providing better health care and creating jobs. All but one of these projects involve wireless radio frequency (RF) energy for delivery. The remaining device can be wirelessly connected for data collection.

  6. Innovation and Translation Efforts in Wireless Medical Connectivity, Telemedicine and eMedicine: A Story from the RFID Center of Excellence at the University of Pittsburgh

    PubMed Central

    Sejdić, Ervin; Rothfuss, Michael; Stachel, Joshua R.; Franconi, Nicholas G.; Bocan, Kara; Lovell, Michael R.; Mickle, Marlin H.

    2016-01-01

    Translational research has recently been rediscovered as one of the basic tenants of engineering. Although many people have numerous ideas of how to accomplish this successfully, the fundamental method is to provide an innovative and creative environment. The University of Pittsburgh has been accomplishing this goal though a variety of methodologies. The contents of this paper are exemplary of what can be achieved though the interaction of students, staff, faculty and, in one example, high school teachers. While the projects completed within the groups involved in this paper have spanned other areas, the focus of this paper is on the biomedical devices, that is, towards improving and maintaining health in a variety of areas. The spirit of the translational research is discovery, invention, intellectual property protection, and the creation of value through the spinning off of companies while providing better health care and creating jobs. All but one of these projects involve wireless radio frequency energy for delivery. The remaining device can be wirelessly connected for data collection. PMID:23897048

  7. Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2005-01-01

    The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

  8. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  9. Regulating compounding pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Noble, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    (1) The Pew Charitable Trusts identified 27 compounding incidents that resulted in 89 deaths since 2001. (2) Unlike drug manufacturers, compounding pharmacies are generally not required to report adverse events associated with their products to the FDA. (3) Federal law on drug compounding was updated in 2013 to create a new group of compounders called "outsourcing facilities." Over 50 facilities in 23 states are now registered with the FDA.

  10. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume B. DOE-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) combustion tests were conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Combustion and flue-gas treatment of three different physical forms of SRC, as well as a No. 6 fuel oil, were evaluated. The three SRC fuels were (1) pulverized SRC Fuel; (2) SRC Residual Fuel Oil; and (3) SRC/Water Slurry. The SRC Residual Fuel Oil was a solution of SRC Fuel dissolved in heated process solvent. Approximately 500 tons of pulverized SRC Fuel and 30,000 gallons of SRC Residual Fuel Oil were combusted in a 700 hp (30 x 130 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr fuel input) oil-designed watertube package boiler. Sixty four-hour ASME combustion tests with three different SRC fuels were successfully concluded. The principal parameters evaluated were excess air levels and combustion air preheat temperature levels. Extensive data were collected on flue-gas levels of O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, uncontrolled particulates, uncontrolled opacity and carbon content of the flue-gas particulates. Boiler and combustion efficiencies were measured. The particulates were characterized via mass loadings, impactors, in-situ resistivity measurements, ultra-fine sampling, optical large particle sampling, five-stage cyclone sampling and chemical analysis of various cut sizes. A three-field pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP) containing over 1000 square feet of plate collection area, a reverse air fabric filter pilot dust collector and a commercial pulse-jet fabric filter dust collector were operated at high collection efficiency. The results will be valuable in making recommendations for future tests and will provide a basis for conversion of industrial oil-fired boilers to SRC fuels. 11 references, 20 figures, 29 tables.

  11. Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

    2006-12-20

    Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they

  12. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  13. Ecotoxicology of organofluorous compounds.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret B; Loi, Eva I H; Kwok, Karen Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2012-01-01

    Organofluorous compounds have been developed for myriad purposes in a variety of fields, including manufacturing, industry, agriculture, and medicine. The widespread use and application of these compounds has led to increasing concern about their potential ecological toxicity, particularly because of the stability of the C-F bond, which can result in chemical persistence in the environment. This chapter reviews the chemical properties and ecotoxicology of four groups of organofluorous compounds: fluorinated refrigerants and propellants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), fluorinated pesticides, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. These groups vary in their environmental fate and partitioning, but each raises concern in terms of ecological risk on both the regional and global scale, particularly those compounds with long environmental half-lives. Further research on the occurrence and toxicities of many of these compounds is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their ecological effects.

  14. XAFS Model Compound Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Newville, Matthew

    The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

  15. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  16. Nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds and processes

    DOEpatents

    Lerom, M.W.; Peters, H.M.

    1975-07-08

    This patent relates to the nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds: 3,3''-bis (difluoramino)-2,2'' 4,4', 4'',6,6',6''-octanitro-m-terphenyl (DDONT) and 3,3''-bis(difluoramino)-2,2',2''4,4',4'',6,6',6''-nonanitro-m-terphenyl (DDNONA). Procedures are described wherein diamino precursors of the indicated compounds are prepared and the final compounds are obtained by a fluorination operation. The compounds are highly energetic and suitable for use as explosives and particularly in exploding bridge wire (EBW) detonators. (auth)

  17. International telepathology consultation: Three years of experience between the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and KingMed Diagnostics in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengquan; Wu, Tao; Ding, Xiangdong; Parwani, Anil V.; Chen, Hualin; McHugh, Jeffrey; Piccoli, Anthony; Xie, Qinling; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Feng, Xiaodong; Hartman, Douglas J.; Seethala, Raja R.; Wu, Shangwei; Yousem, Samuel; Liang, Yaoming; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-01-01

    Background: Telepathology is increasingly being employed to support diagnostic consultation services. Prior publications have addressed technology aspects for telepathology, whereas this paper will address the clinical telepathology experience of KingMed Diagnostics, the largest independent pathology medical laboratory in China. Beginning in 2012 the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) and KingMed Diagnostics partnered to establish an international telepathology consultation service. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study that summarizes the telepathology experience and diagnostic consultation results between UPMC and KingMed over a period of 3 years from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: A total of 1561 cases were submitted for telepathology consultation including 144 cases in 2012, 614 cases in 2013, and 803 in 2014. Most of the cases (61.4%) submitted were referred by pathologists, 36.9% by clinicians, and 1.7% by patients in China. Hematopathology received the most cases (23.7%), followed by bone/soft tissue (21.0%) and gynecologic/breast (20.2%) subspecialties. Average turnaround time (TAT) per case was 5.4 days, which decreased from 6.8 days in 2012 to 5.0 days in 2014. Immunostains were required for most of the cases. For some difficult cases, more than one round of immunostains was needed, which extended the TAT. Among 855 cases (54.7%) where a primary diagnosis or impression was provided by the referring local hospitals in China, the final diagnoses rendered by UPMC pathologists were identical in 25.6% of cases and significantly modified (treatment plan altered) in 50.8% of cases. Conclusion: These results indicate that international telepathology consultation can significantly improve patient care by facilitating access to pathology expertise. The success of this international digital consultation service was dependent on strong commitment and support from leadership, information technology expertise, and dedicated

  18. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  19. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.

    1985-01-01

    The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  20. Anti-Fog Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tracer Chemical Corporation's TRX Anti-Fog Composition is an inexpensive product which prevents condensation on plastic and glass surfaces. It was the result from a Tech Briefs article detailing a Johnson Space Center compound.

  1. A Spectral Graph Regression Model for Learning Brain Connectivity of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chenhui; Cheng, Lin; Sepulcre, Jorge; Johnson, Keith A.; Fakhri, Georges E.; Lu, Yue M.; Li, Quanzheng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding network features of brain pathology is essential to reveal underpinnings of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we introduce a novel graph regression model (GRM) for learning structural brain connectivity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) measured by amyloid-β deposits. The proposed GRM regards 11C-labeled Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data as smooth signals defined on an unknown graph. This graph is then estimated through an optimization framework, which fits the graph to the data with an adjustable level of uniformity of the connection weights. Under the assumed data model, results based on simulated data illustrate that our approach can accurately reconstruct the underlying network, often with better reconstruction than those obtained by both sample correlation and ℓ1-regularized partial correlation estimation. Evaluations performed upon PiB-PET imaging data of 30 AD and 40 elderly normal control (NC) subjects demonstrate that the connectivity patterns revealed by the GRM are easy to interpret and consistent with known pathology. Moreover, the hubs of the reconstructed networks match the cortical hubs given by functional MRI. The discriminative network features including both global connectivity measurements and degree statistics of specific nodes discovered from the AD and NC amyloid-beta networks provide new potential biomarkers for preclinical and clinical AD. PMID:26024224

  2. Compound composite odontoma

    PubMed Central

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas. PMID:27194882

  3. Compound composite odontoma.

    PubMed

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  4. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  5. Compounding a Problem?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-01-01

    Allergist-immunologists say a U.S. Pharmacopeia proposal will mess with an allergy treatment system that's worked for more than a century. The revised standards, if adopted, would remove a key exemption separating allergen extract preparations from the stricter requirements of other compounds. Immunologists say the exemption has allowed them to compound allergen extracts in their own offices, and they've done so safely and effectively millions of times a year.

  6. Understanding medication compounding issues.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Rodney W

    2014-04-01

    The potential for contamination of compounded products and the resulting infections are a serious threat to patient safety. Immediate use products are used frequently in the perioperative department, and perioperative nurses should be familiar with the guidelines and practices that aim to reduce the contamination that can occur during the sterile compounding process. Four common themes lead to successful compounding: quality (eg, product identification, purity, stability, compatibility, risk level assessment), the environment (eg, using a segregated compounding area with specialized airflow capabilities, reducing particulate matter, practicing proper hand hygiene, performing gloved fingertip sampling, properly cleaning equipment and work areas), personnel activities (eg, familiarity with types of containers used and how often they can be accessed, following expiration dates and the number of times containers can be accessed), and the control process (eg, process monitoring, quality improvement). If a third-party vendor is contracted to handle compounding for a facility, perioperative personnel should be aware of the responsibilities for the facility and the vendor to ensure a quality compounding program. PMID:24674793

  7. Nonpost mold cure compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akihiro

    1997-08-01

    The recent low price trend of electronic products has made IC manufacturing efficiency a top priority in the semiconductor industry. Post mold cure (PMC) process, which generally involves heating the packages in the oven at 175 C for 4 to 8 hours, takes up much longer time than most other assembly processes. If this PMC process can be reduced or eliminated, semiconductor makers will be rewarded with a much higher cost merit. We define the purpose of Non-PMC as 'to get high reliability with suitable physical and electrical properties without PMC'. We compared carious properties of molding compound before and after PMC. We found that curing reaction has almost complete through DSC and C-NMR measurement, but several properties have not stabilized yet, and that not all properties after PMC were better than before PMC. We developed new grade of molding compound considering these facts. And we found that main factors to accomplish non-PMC compound are curability and flowability, and more, increasing of fundamental properties. To accomplish non-PMC, at first, molding compound need to have very high curability. Generally speaking, too high curability causes low flowability, and causes incomplete filing, wire sweep, pad shift, and weak adhesion to inner parts of IC packages. To prevent these failures, various compound properties were studied, and we achieved in adding good flowability to very high curable molding compound. Finally, anti-popcorn property was improved by adding low moisture, high adhesion, high Tg, and high flexural strengths at high temperature. Through this study, we developed new compound grade for various package, especially large QFP using standard ECN resin.

  8. Metalloid compounds as drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

  9. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  10. Compound management beyond efficiency.

    PubMed

    Burr, Ian; Winchester, Toby; Keighley, Wilma; Sewing, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Codeveloping alongside chemistry and in vitro screening, compound management was one of the first areas in research recognizing the need for efficient processes and workflows. Material management groups have centralized, automated, miniaturized and, importantly, found out what not to do with compounds. While driving down cost and improving quality in storage and processing, researchers still face the challenge of interfacing optimally with changing business processes, in screening groups, and with external vendors and focusing on biologicals in many companies. Here we review our strategy to provide a seamless link between compound acquisition and screening operations and the impact of material management on quality of the downstream processes. Although this is driven in part by new technologies and improved quality control within material management, redefining team structures and roles also drives job satisfaction and motivation in our teams with a subsequent positive impact on cycle times and customer feedback.

  11. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of whether organic compounds originated in meteorites as a primary condensate from a solar gas or whether they were introduced as a secondary product into the meteorite during its residence in a parent body is examined by initially attempting to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation (temperature, pressure, time) from clues in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is then analyzed on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, and compounds synthesized in model experiments on the condensation of carbon are compared with those actually found in meteorites. Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ammonia in the solar nebula at 360 to 400 K temperature and about 3 to 7.6 microtorr pressure. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures.

  12. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Gill, David D.

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  13. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  14. 8-fluoropurine compounds

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Namavari, Mohammad; Phelps, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

  15. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  16. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Boron and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 42 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  17. Beryllium and compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Beryllium and compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  18. Selenium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenium and Compounds ; CASRN 7782 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  19. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  20. Lead and compounds (inorganic)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  1. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  2. Energies of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, K.B.

    1995-07-01

    The studies included hydrolysis of ketals, hydration of alkenes, barrier to rotation about C-O bonds in esters and acids, hydrolysis of lactones, reduction of ketones, non-bonded interactions, and enthalpies of vaporization of ketones, ketals, and other compounds.

  3. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  4. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  5. Urinary Compounds in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.

    2004-01-01

    Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…

  6. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  7. Noun Compounding in Thai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasold, Ralph William August

    The present study, a slightly revised version of the author's 1968 Ph.D. thesis presented to the University of Chicago, investigates compound formation in Thai. Chapter 1 summarizes the transformational generative theory on which the study is based, discusses the concept that Thai is a "simple" language in comparison with English, and briefly…

  8. Toxicity of dipyridyl compounds and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenggang; Crooks, Peter A; Wei, Xiaochen; de Leon, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Five dipyridyl isomers, 2,2'-, 2,3'-, 2,4'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-dipyridyl, are products resulting from the pyrolytic degradation of tobacco products and degradation of the herbicide paraquat, and therefore may be present in the environment. In this article, the toxicological properties of these dipyridyl isomers in humans and animals are reviewed. Epidemiological studies suggest that cancerous skin lesions in workers involved in the manufacturing of paraquat may be associated with exposure to dipyridyl compounds. Experimental animal studies suggest that dipyridyl isomers may have several toxicological effects. Three of the dipyridyl isomers (the 2,2', 2,4', and 4,4' isomers) appear to be inducers of some metabolic enzymes. The 2,2'-dipyridyl isomer, an iron chelator, appears to influence vasospasm in primate models of stroke. The cytotoxic effects of 2,2'-dipyridyl on several leukemia cell lines have been reported, and a potent teratogenic effect of 2,2'-dipyridyl has been observed in rats. Based on the results of paraquat studies in experimental animal models, it has been proposed that paraquat may have deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons. These findings support the epidemiological evidence that paraquat exposure may be associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. Studies designed to determine an association between paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease are complicated by the possibility that metabolic changes may influence the neurotoxicity of paraquat and/or its metabolites. Preliminary unpublished data in mice show that 300-mg/kg doses of 2,2'-dipyridyl are neurotoxic, and 300-mg/kg doses of 2,4'- and 4,4'-dipyridyls are lethal. These results are consistent with earlier studies in Sherman rats using high 2,2'- and 4,4'-dipyridyl doses. New studies are needed to further explore the toxicological properties of dipyridyls and their potential public health impact.

  9. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.

  10. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burn for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  11. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  12. Compound chondrules fused cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ∼ 1100 K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025 K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025 K. In that temperature window the coalescence time is finite but long, covering a span of hours to a decade. This is particularly interesting because those temperatures are precisely the critical window for thermally ionized MRI activity, so compound chondrules provide a possible probe into that vital regime.

  13. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  14. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Tânia K.; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P.; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P. D.; Fiore, Marli F.; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders. PMID:25871291

  15. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  16. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  17. Arsenic compounds and cancer.

    PubMed

    Axelson, O

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic compounds has been epidemiologically associated with various types of cancers, particularly cancer of the lung among copper smelters and pesticide workers, whereas skin cancers and liver angiosarcomas have been associated with ingestion of arsenic for treatment of skin disorders, especially psoriasis. Attempts to reproduce cancer in animals have been mainly unsuccessful, however. Experimental evidence suggests that arsenic inhibits DNA repair; this might help to explain the somewhat conflicting observations from epidemiologic studies and animal experiments with regard to carcinogenicity, and perhaps also cardiovascular morbidity related to arsenic exposure. PMID:7463514

  18. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, Stephen B.; Koo, Myoung-Seo

    1992-01-01

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  19. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

    1992-09-22

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  20. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Sekiyama, S.

    1988-06-07

    A turbo compound engine is described comprising: an engine having an exhaust gas passage and a crankshaft; a power turbine disposed in the exhaust gas passage so as to recover the exhaust gas energy; driving power transmission means for drivingly connecting the power turbine and the crankshaft so as to transmit the driving power; a fluid passage connected to a portion of the exhaust passage which lies between the power turbine and the engine; and fluid passage switching means for closing the exhaust passage upstream of the fluid passage while opening the fluid passage during exhaust braking.

  1. Titanium alkoxide compound

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  2. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  3. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report consists of six sections: heterobimetallic dihydrides, early-late transition metal heterobimetallic compounds, amphiphilic carbene complexes and hydroxycarbene complexes, diiron compounds with bridging hydrocarbon ligands, diphosphine chelates with natural bite angles near 120 degrees, and synthesis and reactions of M=M compounds. (WET)

  4. Sulfur compounds in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Ahearn, M.

    1989-01-01

    Cometary atmospheres exhibit abundant sulfur and sulfur compounds, which are absent in planetary atmospheres. Sulfur compounds were also detected in interstellar media, including SO, SO2, CS, etc., but excluding S2 which was identified only in IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Fluorescence calculations are used to analyze the B-X system of S2 which appeared in IUE and ground-based spectra of IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Single- and multiple-cycle fluorescence calculations indicate that fluorescent equilibrium accounts for the observed spectra despite the fact that the S2 lifetime against solar ultraviolet radiation is relatively short. This analysis confirms unambiguously that emission peaks in the 3000 to 4000 A spectral range of the ground-based data are due to the B-X bands of S2. New evidence is presented of at least one S2 outburst before it was detected by A'Hearn, Feldman, and Schleicher. The time variation of S2 outgassing rates and discussion on the correlation between solar wind flux and the S2 outbursts will be presented.

  5. Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.

    PubMed

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk

  6. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  7. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis.

    PubMed

    Martello, Donald V; Pekney, Natalie J; Anderson, Richard R; Davidson, Cliff I; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene; Christensen, William F; Mangelson, Nolan F; Eatough, Delbert J

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  8. Apportionment of Ambient Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory Particulate Matter Characterization Site Using Positive Matrix Factorization and a Potential Source Contributions Function Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martello, Donald; Pekney, Natalie; Anderson, Richard; Davidson, Cliff; Hopke, Philip; Kim, Eugene; Christensen, William; Mangelson, Nolan; Eatough, Delbert

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5, organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5, were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  9. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martello, Donald V.; Pekney, Natalie J.; Anderson, Richard R.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Hopke, Philip K.; Kim, Eugene; Christensen, William F.; Mangelson, Nolan F.; Eatough, Delbert J.

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5, organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5, were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  10. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martello, D.V.; Pekney, N.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Davidson, C.I.; Hopke, P.K.; Kim, E.; Christensen, W.F.; Mangelson, N.F.; Eatough, D.J.

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  11. Compounded oral ketamine.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Jack P; Hahn, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The nonnarcotic nonaddictive neuropathic pain reliever ketamine, which was synthesized in the early 1960s by Parke-Davis, was first administered to human patients in 1965. Used by the U. S. military as a field anesthetic during the Vietnam War, it slowly became popular as both an induction and maintenance agent for the general anesthesia required during brief surgical procedures. The use of ketamine in the past has been limited primarily to intravenous administration in hospitalized patients. Very recently, several published reports have described the use of low-dose ketamine for the relief of pain, refractory depression, and anxiety in patients with or without cancer. Because chronic pain, depression, and anxiety often occur in hospice patients with or without cancer and in palliative care patients who are not eligible for hospice, the discovery of new and effective uses for an established drug to treat those conditions has excited interest in the palliative care community. We support that interest with this case report, which describes our experience in treating a 44-year-old male hospice patient with severe constant anxiety, fear, and depression in addition to multiple near-terminal comorbid physical conditions that produce chronic pain. Prior treatments prescribed to resolve this patient's pain, anxiety, and depression had proven ineffective. However, a single low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneous test injection of ketamine provided dramatic relief from those symptoms for 80 hours, although the anesthetic effects of that drug are not of long duration. This good outcome has been sustained to date by daily treatment with a compounded flavored oral ketamine solution (40 mg/5 mL) that is not commercially available. Flavoring the solution masks the bitter taste of ketamine and renders the treatment palatable. We found ketamine to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for the triad of severe anxiety, chronic pain, and severe depression in a hospice patient with

  12. Compound chondrules: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.; Atre, N.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1994-07-01

    Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.

  13. Pluto's Nonvolatile Chemical Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, Richard; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Earle, Alissa M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Jennings, Donald; Howett, Carly; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Linscott, Ivan; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Parker, Alex Harrison; Parker, Joel Wm.; Philippe, Sylvain; Protopapa, Silvia; Quirico, Eric; Reuter, D. C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John R.; Stansberry, John A.; Stern, S. Alan; Tsang, Constantine; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Weigle, G. E.; Young, Leslie

    2016-10-01

    Despite the migration of Pluto's volatile ices (N2, CO, and CH4) around the surface on seasonal timescales, the planet's non-volatile materials are not completely hidden from view. They occur in a variety of provinces formed over a wide range of timescales, including rugged mountains and chasms, the floors of mid-latitude craters, and an equatorial belt of especially dark and reddish material typified by the informally named Cthulhu Regio. NASA's New Horizons probe observed several of these regions at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 km/pixel with its LEISA imaging spectrometer, covering wavelengths from 1.25 to 2.5 microns. Various compounds that are much lighter than the tholin-like macromolecules responsible for the reddish coloration, but that are not volatile at Pluto surface temperatures such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethane (C2H6) have characteristic absorption bands within LEISA's wavelength range. This presentation will describe their geographic distributions and attempt to constrain their origins. Possibilities include an inheritance from Pluto's primordial composition (the likely source of H2O ice seen on Pluto's surface) or ongoing production from volatile precursors through photochemistry in Pluto's atmosphere or through radiolysis on Pluto's surface. New laboratory data inform the analysis.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  14. Compound power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes a compound motor for a vehicle. It comprises: an engine defining therein a chamber for the combustion of fuel, an intake passage leading to the combustion chamber and an exhaust passage leading from the combustion chamber; a drive shaft extending from the engine; means in the engine for rotating the drive shaft in response to the combustion of fuel in the chamber; a rotary compressor at the entry end of the intake passage; a turbine at the exit end of the exhaust passage, the turbine being drivable by exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; means for selectively transferring rotational motion of the turbine to the compressor, the transferring means including a clutch for mechanically connecting or disconnecting the compressor from the turbine; a planetary gear set having a sun gear member, a ring gear member surrounding the sun gear member, a planet gear member rotatable about its own axis and meshed between the sun gear member and the ring gear member, and a planet carrier member upon which the planet gear member is mounted for revolution about the sun gear member; a gear train between one of the members of the planetary gear set and the turbine; another one of the members of the planetary gear set being driven by the shaft extending from the engine; and a final output shaft driven by a third member of the planetary gear set.

  15. Developments in experimental techniques in heat transfer and combustion; Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth National Heat Transfer Conference and Exhibition, Pittsburgh, PA, Aug. 9-12, 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, R. O., Jr.; Chen, M. M.; Felske, J. D.; Grosshandler, W. L.

    1987-08-01

    This volume includes articles related to the developments in experimental techniques in heat transfer and in combustion. Papers are presented on high-resolution heat-transfer-coefficient maps applicable to compound-curve surfaces using liquid crystals in a transient wind tunnel, an instrument for the measurement of the heat flux distribution along a contour of a surface at uniform temperature, an advanced viscometric thermometer for steady and unsteady states temperature measurement in electric or magnetic fields, the development of a thermopile-based deposition sensor, and the measurement of surface heat flux, using the Peltier effect. Consideration is also given to a new method of experimentally determining heat transfer coefficients in direct-contact bubble evaporation, temperature measurements by light scattering methods, the design calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer in internal combustion, the application of an electrodynamic balance to study mass transfer from a single particle, single droplet studies in a hot high-pressure environment, and the measurement of flame propagation through a moving mixture.

  16. Profiling the NIH Small Molecule Repository for Compounds That Generate H2O2 by Redox Cycling in Reducing Environments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Small Molecule Repository (SMR) libraries in a horseradish peroxidase–phenol red (HRP-PR) H2O2 detection assay to identify redox cycling compounds (RCCs) capable of generating H2O2 in buffers containing dithiothreitol (DTT). Two RCCs were identified in the LOPAC set, the ortho-naphthoquinone β-lapachone and the para-naphthoquinone NSC 95397. Thirty-seven (0.02%) concentration-dependent RCCs were identified from 195,826 compounds in the NIH SMR library; 3 singleton structures, 9 ortho-quinones, 2 para-quinones, 4 pyrimidotriazinediones, 15 arylsulfonamides, 2 nitrothiophene-2-carboxylates, and 2 tolyl hydrazides. Sixty percent of the ortho-quinones and 80% of the pyrimidotriazinediones in the library were confirmed as RCCs. In contrast, only 3.9% of the para-quinones were confirmed as RCCs. Fifteen of the 251 arylsulfonamides in the library were confirmed as RCCs, and since we screened 17,868 compounds with a sulfonamide functional group we conclude that the redox cycling activity of the arylsulfonamide RCCs is due to peripheral reactive enone, aromatic, or heterocyclic functions. Cross-target queries of the University of Pittsburgh Drug Discovery Institute (UPDDI) and PubChem databases revealed that the RCCs exhibited promiscuous bioactivity profiles and have populated both screening databases with significantly higher numbers of active flags than non-RCCs. RCCs were promiscuously active against protein targets known to be susceptible to oxidation, but were also active in cell growth inhibition assays, and against other targets thought to be insensitive to oxidation. Profiling compound libraries or the hits from screening campaigns in the HRP-PR H2O2 detection assay significantly reduce the timelines and resources required to identify and eliminate promiscuous nuisance RCCs from the candidates for lead optimization. PMID:20070233

  17. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-09-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution and clutter levels are measured using a wire phantom setup and compared with conventional application of the array, as well as to synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. If the full aperture is used for synthetic aperture compounding, the cystic resolution is improved by 41% compared with conventional imaging, and is at least as good as what can be obtained using synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. PMID:23007781

  18. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.; Matchett, S.A.

    1992-06-23

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines. 2 figs.

  19. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, Myron; Matchett, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

  20. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  1. New England Compounding Center Indictment.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article is a review of the lapses in compliance with United States Pharmacopeia standards and pharmacy law as alleged by the New England Compounding Center indictment. This indictment was a result of an outbreak of fungal meningitis traced to fungal contamination of compounded methylprednisolone suspension for epidural steroid injections. This article is also intended as a gap analysis for compounders to review compliance at their own facility, and, if necessary, take the appropriate steps to implement best practices. PMID:26685489

  2. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  3. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

  4. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here.

  5. Saturn's Stratospheric Oxygen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Paul N.; Delgado Díaz, Héctor E.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Hesman, Brigette; Achterberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    There are three known oxygenated species present in Saturn's upper atmosphere: H2O, CO and CO2. The ultimate source of the water must be external to Saturn as Saturn's cold tropopause effectively prevents any internal water from reaching the upper atmosphere. The carbon monoxide and dioxide source(s) could be internal, external, produced by the photochemical interaction of water with Saturn's stratospheric hydrocarbons or some combination of all of these. At this point it is not clear what the external source(s) are.Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) has detected emission lines of H2O and CO2 (Hesman et al., DPS 2015, 311.16 & Abbas et al. 2013, Ap. J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/2/73) on Saturn. CIRS also retrieves the temperature of the stratosphere using CH4 lines at 7.7 microns. Using CIRS retrieved temperatures, the mole fraction of H2O at the 0.5-5 mbar level can be retrieved and the CO2 mole fraction at ~1-10 mbar. Coupled with ground based observations of CO (Cavalié et al., 2010, A&A, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912909) these observations provide a complete oxygen compound data set to test photochemical models.Preliminary results will be presented with an emphasis on upper limit analysis to determine the percentage of stratospheric CO and CO2 that can be produced photochemically from CIRS observational constraints on the H2O profile.

  6. Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

  7. Awareness of Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Is Low but Interest Is High Among Men Engaging in Condomless Anal Sex With Men in Boston, Pittsburgh, and San Juan.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Curtis; Frasca, Timothy; Giguere, Rebecca; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Cranston, Ross D; Febo, Irma; Mayer, Kenneth H; McGowan, Ian; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2015-08-01

    This study examines awareness of and experiences with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among 228 men recruited in Boston, Pittsburgh, and San Juan between 12/2010 and 6/2012. All of them reported having condomless anal sex with a man in the prior year. Overall, 41% had heard of PEP, ranging from 16% in San Juan to 64% in Boston. Only 21% had heard of PrEP, ranging from 8% in San Juan to 36% in Boston. Three had used PEP, and none had used PrEP. After the methods were described to participants, interest in both was high, with intentions to use PEP and PrEP respectively at 9.1 and 7.7 (10-point scale). Increased public education is needed to raise awareness of these HIV prevention methods, especially among MSM who acknowledge potential risk behavior. It also seems likely that many such men would use these methods once they become aware of them.

  8. Impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development in southwest Pennsylvania on volatile organic compound emissions and regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Swarthout, Robert F; Russo, Rachel S; Zhou, Yong; Miller, Brandon M; Mitchell, Brittney; Horsman, Emily; Lipsky, Eric; McCabe, David C; Baum, Ellen; Sive, Barkley C

    2015-03-01

    The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas deposit in the U.S. and rapid development of this resource has raised concerns about regional air pollution. A field campaign was conducted in the southwestern Pennsylvania region of the Marcellus Shale to investigate the impact of unconventional natural gas (UNG) production operations on regional air quality. Whole air samples were collected throughout an 8050 km(2) grid surrounding Pittsburgh and analyzed for methane, carbon dioxide, and C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Elevated mixing ratios of methane and C2-C8 alkanes were observed in areas with the highest density of UNG wells. Source apportionment was used to identify characteristic emission ratios for UNG sources, and results indicated that UNG emissions were responsible for the majority of mixing ratios of C2-C8 alkanes, but accounted for a small proportion of alkene and aromatic compounds. The VOC emissions from UNG operations accounted for 17 ± 19% of the regional kinetic hydroxyl radical reactivity of nonbiogenic VOCs suggesting that natural gas emissions may affect compliance with federal ozone standards. A first approximation of methane emissions from the study area of 10.0 ± 5.2 kg s(-1) provides a baseline for determining the efficacy of regulatory emission control efforts.

  9. Impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development in southwest Pennsylvania on volatile organic compound emissions and regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Swarthout, Robert F; Russo, Rachel S; Zhou, Yong; Miller, Brandon M; Mitchell, Brittney; Horsman, Emily; Lipsky, Eric; McCabe, David C; Baum, Ellen; Sive, Barkley C

    2015-03-01

    The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas deposit in the U.S. and rapid development of this resource has raised concerns about regional air pollution. A field campaign was conducted in the southwestern Pennsylvania region of the Marcellus Shale to investigate the impact of unconventional natural gas (UNG) production operations on regional air quality. Whole air samples were collected throughout an 8050 km(2) grid surrounding Pittsburgh and analyzed for methane, carbon dioxide, and C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Elevated mixing ratios of methane and C2-C8 alkanes were observed in areas with the highest density of UNG wells. Source apportionment was used to identify characteristic emission ratios for UNG sources, and results indicated that UNG emissions were responsible for the majority of mixing ratios of C2-C8 alkanes, but accounted for a small proportion of alkene and aromatic compounds. The VOC emissions from UNG operations accounted for 17 ± 19% of the regional kinetic hydroxyl radical reactivity of nonbiogenic VOCs suggesting that natural gas emissions may affect compliance with federal ozone standards. A first approximation of methane emissions from the study area of 10.0 ± 5.2 kg s(-1) provides a baseline for determining the efficacy of regulatory emission control efforts. PMID:25594231

  10. Making solutions from hydrated compounds.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dany Spencer

    2008-05-01

    INTRODUCTIONSolution making typically involves dissolving dry chemicals in water or other specified solvent. The amount of chemical to be added to a solvent depends on the final concentration or molarity (M) needed for the finished solution and the total amount in liters (L) of solution required. However, some chemicals come with water molecules attached. The molecular weight (MW) of such compounds, listed as formula weight (FW) on the bottle, includes the mass of the water. Whenever you would use the MW of an unhydrated compound in calculations, use instead the MW of the hydrated compound. If a recipe tells how many grams to use of the unhydrated compound, determine the target concentration and then calculate the grams to use of hydrated compound. When using a hydrated compound, the attached water molecules contribute water to the solution, potentially diluting the final concentration (if the solvent is water). Therefore, you must account for the contribution of water from the hydrated compound when determining the volume of solvent (water) to add. This article describes the calculations involved in making solutions from hydrated compounds.

  11. Morphological Dynamics in Compound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the time-course of morphological processing of trimorphemic Finnish compounds. We find evidence for the parallel access to full-forms and morphological constituents diagnosed by the early effects of compound frequency, as well as early effects of left constituent frequency and family size. We also observe an interaction between…

  12. Compound odontoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hale, F A; Wilcock, B P

    1996-09-01

    Compound odontomas are rare tumors of dental origin. Though benign, their effect as a space occupying lesion can be dramatic. A large compound odontoma in the caudal right mandible of a five and a half month old dog was managed by surgical enucleation of the abnormal tissues. No recurrence was evident 6 months later.

  13. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  14. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  15. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  16. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  17. Macrocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Rawat, J.; Ajmal, M.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of three macrocyclic compounds on corrosion of mild steel (MS) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, alternating current (AC) impedance, and hydrogen permeation techniques. All the investigated compounds showed significant efficiencies and reduced permeation of hydrogen through MS in HCl. Inhibition efficiency (IE) varied with the nature and concentrations of the inhibitors, temperature, and concentrations of the acid solutions. The addition of iodide ions (I{sup {minus}}) increased IE of all the tested compounds as a result of the synergistic effect. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that macrocyclic compounds acted as mixed inhibitors in 1 M HCl to 5 M HCl. Adsorption on the metal surface obeyed Temkin`s adsorption isotherm. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of the polished MS surface, exposed with tetraphenyldithia-octaazacyclotetradeca-hexaene (PTAT) proved adsorption of this compound on the surface through nitrogen and sulfur atoms.

  18. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Nicole B.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity) in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05); MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all. PMID:26551613

  19. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  20. Photoprotective compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Singh, Shailendra P; Häder, Donat-P

    2010-06-01

    The substantial loss in the stratospheric ozone layer and consequent increase in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface have augmented the interest in searching for natural photoprotective compounds in organisms of marine as well as freshwater ecosystems. A number of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), scytonemin, carotenoids and several other UV-absorbing substances of unknown chemical structure have been identified from different organisms. MAAs form the most common class of UV-absorbing compounds known to occur widely in various marine organisms; however, several compounds having UV-screening properties still need to be identified. The synthesis of scytonemin, a predominant UV-A-photoprotective pigment, is exclusively reported in cyanobacteria. Carotenoids are important components of the photosynthetic apparatus that serve both light-harvesting and photoprotective functions, either by direct quenching of the singlet oxygen or other toxic reactive oxygen species or by dissipating the excess energy in the photosynthetic apparatus. The production of photoprotective compounds is affected by several environmental factors such as different wavelengths of UVR, desiccation, nutrients, salt concentration, light as well as dark period, and still there is controversy about the biosynthesis of various photoprotective compounds. Recent studies have focused on marine organisms as a source of natural bioactive molecules having a photoprotective role, their biosynthesis and commercial application. However, there is a need for extensive work to explore the photoprotective role of various UV-absorbing compounds from marine habitats so that a range of biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications can be found.

  1. Air/water oxidative desulfurization of coal and sulfur-containing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warzinski, R. P.; Freidman, S.; LaCount, R. B.

    1981-02-01

    Air/water Oxydesulfurization has been demonstrated in autoclave experiments at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for various coals representative of the major U. S. coal basins. The applicability at present of this treatment for producing an environmentally acceptable coal has been restricted by recently proposed SO2 emission standards for utility boilers. The product would, however, be attractive to the many smaller industrial coal users who cannot afford to operate and maintain flue gas desulfurization systems. It is also possible that the utility industry could realize a benefit by using chemically cleaned coal with partial flue gas scrubbing. The higher cost of the cleaned coal would be offset by the reduction in capital and operating costs resulting from decreased FGD requirements. The susceptibility of sulfur in coal to oxidative removal varies with the nature of the sulfur-containing species. The inorganic sulfur compounds, primarily pyrite, marcasite, and iron sulfate, are more amenable to treatment than the organically bound sulfur which exhibits varying degrees of resistance depending on its chemical environment. Air/water Oxydesulfurization consistently removes in excess of 90 percent of the pyritic sulfur; the extent and efficiency of organic sulfur removal however, depends on the type of coal and severity of treatment used. In general, the organic sulfur of the higher rank coals exhibits more resistance to treatment than that of the lower rank coals; however, the accompanying heating value is greater for the latter. Similar treatment of sulfur-containing model compounds further illustrates the relative susceptibilities of different chemical species to oxidation. Application of these data to the understanding of the complex chemistry involved in the treatment of coal is a preliminary step toward improving the efficiency of Oxydesulfurization.

  2. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  3. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Rujin

    2013-01-01

    Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. PMID:27135488

  4. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  5. The Chemiluminescence of Organometallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikov, Genrikh A.; Bulgakov, Ramil G.; Kazakov, Valeri P.

    1985-11-01

    Studies on the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions of organometallic compounds accompanied by the emission of light are described systematically and discussed. The influence of the magnetic field on the chemiluminescence of Grignard reagents and the study of the electrochemiluminescence of solutions of organometallic compounds are examined. The ways leading to further development of the field of the chemiluminescence of organometallic compounds and certain possible applications of the phenomenon in the monitoring of industrial processes are discussed. The bibliography includes 80 references.

  6. New syntheses of diazo compounds.

    PubMed

    Maas, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Diazo compounds (R1R2C=N2) are known as versatile and useful substrates for an array of chemical transformations and, therefore, diazo chemistry is still far from losing anything of its long-standing fascination. In addition to many studies on the subsequent chemistry of the diazo group, the inventory of methods for the preparation of diazo compounds is continuously supplemented by new methods and novel variations of established procedures. Several of these synthetic approaches take into account the lability and remarkable chemical reactivity of certain classes of diazo compounds, and environmentally more benign procedures also continue to be developed. PMID:19790217

  7. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  8. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  9. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA`s fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  10. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  11. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  12. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  13. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  14. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  15. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  16. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  17. Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.; Muedas, C.A.; Ferguson, R.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes improvement in a Group IIb photosensitized vapor phase dimerization of an organic compound in which a gaseous mixture of a Group IIB metal and the organic compound is irradiated in a reaction zone with a photosensitizing amount of radiant energy. The improvement comprises: a continuous stream of the gaseous mixture is passed as a vapor phase in a single pass through the reaction zone at a temperature at which the thus-produced dimer condenses immediately upon the formation thereof; the starting gaseous mixture comprises hydrogen and two ethylenically unsaturated compounds selected from the group consisting of alkenes of at least six carbon atoms, unsaturated nitriles, unsaturated epoxides, unsaturated silanes, unsaturated amines, unsaturated phosphines, and fluorinated alkenes; the gaseous mixture comprises nitrous oxide and the organic compound is a saturated compound with C-H bond strengths greater than 100 kcal/mol or a mixture of the saturated compound and an alkene; or the starting gaseous comprises an activating amount of hydrogen and the dimerization is a dehydrodimerization or cross-dimerization of a saturated hydrocarbon.

  18. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  19. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  20. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  1. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Donald V. Martello; Natalie J. Pekney; Richard R. Anderson

    2008-03-15

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory particulate matter characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material, local secondary material, diesel combustion emissions, and gasoline combustion emissions. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds.

  3. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  4. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  5. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  6. PDMS compound adsorption in context.

    PubMed

    Li, Nianzhen; Schwartz, Michael; Ionescu-Zanetti, Cristian

    2009-02-01

    Soft lithography of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an elastomeric polymer, has enabled rapid and inexpensive fabrication of microfluidic devices for various biotechnology applications. However, concerns remain about adsorption of compounds on PDMS surfaces because of its porosity and hydrophobicity. Here, the adsorption of 2 small fluorescent dyes of different hydrophobicity (calcein and 5- (and 6-)carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR)) on PDMS surface has been systematically characterized, and PDMS adsorption has been compared with 2 traditional substrates: glass and polystyrene. To characterize adsorption in a regimen that is more relevant to microfluidic applications, the adsorption and desorption of the 2 compounds in PDMS microfluidic channels under flow conditions were also studied. Results showed that there was minimal adsorption of the hydrophilic compound calcein on PDMS, whereas the more hydrophobic TMR adsorbed on PDMS up to 4 times of that on glass or polystyrene. Under flow conditions, the desorption profiles and times needed to drop desorbed compound concentrations to negligible levels (desorption time constant, 10-42 s) were characterized. In the worst case scenario, after a 4-min exposure to TMR, 4 min of continuous wash resulted in compound concentrations in the microchannels to drop to values below 2 x 10(- 5) of the initial concentration.

  7. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  8. [Triterpene compounds from Cirsium setosum].

    PubMed

    Li, Lingling; Sun, Zheng; Shang, Xiaoya; Li, Jinjie; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Jie

    2012-04-01

    To investigate chemical constituents contained in cytotoxic petroleum ether extractive fractions from ethanol extracts of Cirsium setosum. The constituents were separated and purified by a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS methods. The compound structures were also determined by reference to literature. Twelve compounds were separated from the petroleum ether fraction of ethanolic extract and elucidated as lupenyl acetate (1), lupeol (2), lupenone (3), beta-amyrin (4), psi-taraxasterol (5), psi-taraxasteryl acetate (6), taraxasteryl acetate (7), marsformoxide B (8), alpha-amyrenone (9), beta-amyrenone (10), taraxasterone (11) and psi-taraxasterone (12). Of them, compounds 3, 5, 7-12 were separated from this genus for the first time.

  9. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  10. Anaerobic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schink, B.; Philipp, B.; Müller, J.

    Mononuclear aromatic compounds are degraded anaerobically through three main pathways, the benzoyl-CoA pathway, the resorcinol pathway, and the phloroglucinol pathway. Various modification reactions channel a broad variety of mononuclear aromatics including aromatic hydrocarbons into either one of these three pathways. Recently, a further pathway was discovered with hydroxyhydroquinone as central intermediate through which especially nitrate-reducing bacteria degrade phenolic compounds and some hydroxylated benzoates. Comparison of the various strategies taken for the degradation of aromatics in the absence of oxygen demonstrates that the biochemistry of breakdown of these compounds is determined largely by the overall reaction energetics and, more precisely, by the redox potentials of the electron acceptor systems used. Nitrate reducers differ in their strategies significantly from those used by sulfate-reducing or fermenting bacteria.

  11. Hydrophobic Compounds Reshape Membrane Domains

    PubMed Central

    Barnoud, Jonathan; Rossi, Giulia; Marrink, Siewert J.; Monticelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Cell membranes have a complex lateral organization featuring domains with distinct composition, also known as rafts, which play an essential role in cellular processes such as signal transduction and protein trafficking. In vivo, perturbations of membrane domains (e.g., by drugs or lipophilic compounds) have major effects on the activity of raft-associated proteins and on signaling pathways, but they are difficult to characterize because of the small size of the domains, typically below optical resolution. Model membranes, instead, can show macroscopic phase separation between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains, and they are often used to investigate the driving forces of membrane lateral organization. Studies in model membranes have shown that some lipophilic compounds perturb membrane domains, but it is not clear which chemical and physical properties determine domain perturbation. The mechanisms of domain stabilization and destabilization are also unknown. Here we describe the effect of six simple hydrophobic compounds on the lateral organization of phase-separated model membranes consisting of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and cholesterol. Using molecular simulations, we identify two groups of molecules with distinct behavior: aliphatic compounds promote lipid mixing by distributing at the interface between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains; aromatic compounds, instead, stabilize phase separation by partitioning into liquid-disordered domains and excluding cholesterol from the disordered domains. We predict that relatively small concentrations of hydrophobic species can have a broad impact on domain stability in model systems, which suggests possible mechanisms of action for hydrophobic compounds in vivo. PMID:25299598

  12. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-01-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  13. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-03-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  14. The Pittsburgh Voyager: A Floating Science Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes a science program called "Environmental Science on the Three Rivers" which coordinates hands-on water-ecology experiments for local schools on a modified Navy training vessel. The vessel holds 35 students and stops at three major sampling stations during a four-and-a-half-hour class. The program is conducted by people with…

  15. 49 CFR 372.211 - Pittsburgh, PA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... commerce, not under common control, management, or arrangement for a continuous carriage or shipment to or...) and (c) of this section, and (e) All of any municipality wholly surrounded, or so surrounded...

  16. The Pittsburgh Children's Museum. Study Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Susan K.; And Others

    These five study guides present ideas for activities based on museum exhibition themes. The learning activities are designed for coordination with museum visits, but may be adapted for independent use. Activities appropriate for preschool and elementary levels are indicated. Exhibition themes include: (1) "Space Exploration," which explores the…

  17. Construct Validity and Factor Structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale in a Multi-National Study of African, South East Asian and South American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmeharit, Somrat; Pensuksan, Wipawan C.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Zhu, Xiaotong; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Anderade, Asterio; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) are questionnaires used to assess sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in clinical and population-based studies. The present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among young adults in four countries (Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,481 undergraduate students. Students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. In each country, the construct validity and factorial structures of PSQI and ESS questionnaires were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Results The largest component-total correlation coefficient for sleep quality as assessed using PSQI was noted in Chile (r = 0.71) while the smallest component-total correlation coefficient was noted for sleep medication use in Peru (r = 0.28). The largest component-total correlation coefficient for excessive daytime sleepiness as assessed using ESS was found for item 1 (sitting/reading) in Chile (r = 0.65) while the lowest item-total correlation was observed for item 6 (sitting and talking to someone) in Thailand (r = 0.35). Using both EFA and CFA a two-factor model was found for PSQI questionnaire in Chile, Ethiopia and Thailand while a three-factor model was found for Peru. For the ESS questionnaire, we noted two factors for all four countries Conclusion Overall, we documented cross-cultural comparability of sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness measures using the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among Asian, South American and African young adults. Although both the PSQI and ESS were originally developed as single-factor questionnaires, the results of our EFA and CFA revealed the multi- dimensionality of the scales suggesting limited

  18. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications. PMID:27276233

  19. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications.

  20. Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds ( CAS No . 1306 - 38 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER Th

  1. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  2. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  3. Infrared Spectroscopy of Deuterated Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment (based on the potassium bromide pressed-pellet method) involving the infrared spectroscopy of deuterated compounds. Deuteration refers to deuterium-hydrogen exchange at active hydrogen sites in the molecule. (JN)

  4. Instability of viscoelastic compound jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han-Yu; Yang, Li-Jun; Fu, Qing-Fei

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the axisymmetric instability of a viscoelastic compound jet, for which the constitutive relation is described by the Oldroyd B model. It is found that a viscoelastic compound jet is more unstable than a Newtonian compound jet, regardless of whether the viscoelastic compound jet is inner-Newtonian-outer-viscoelastic, inner-viscoelastic-outer-Newtonian, or fully viscoelastic. It is also found that an increase in the stress relaxation time of the inner or outer fluid renders the jet more unstable, while an increase in the time constant ratio makes the jet less unstable. An analysis of the energy budget of the destabilization process is performed, in which a formulation using the relative rate of change of energy is adopted. The formulation is observed to provide a quantitative analysis of the contribution of each physical factor (e.g., release of surface energy and viscous dissipation) to the temporal growth rate. The energy analysis reveals the mechanisms of various trends in the temporal growth rate, including not only how the growth rate changes with the parameters, but also how the growth rate changes with the wavenumber. The phenomenon of the dispersion relation presenting two local maxima, which occurred in previous research, is explained by the present energy analysis.

  5. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  6. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds. PMID:20948909

  7. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, Sandra E.; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr). PMID:23024385

  8. Large Constituent Families Help Children Parse Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krott, Andrea; Nicoladis, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, has been shown to affect adults' access to compound words in the mental lexicon. The present study was designed to see if family size would affect children's segmentation of compounds. Twenty-five English-speaking children between 3;7 and…

  9. The nature of compounds: a psychocentric perspective.

    PubMed

    Libben, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Although compound words often seem to be words that themselves contain words, this paper argues that this is not the case for the vast majority of lexicalized compounds. Rather, it is claimed that as a result of acts of lexical processing, the constituents of compound words develop into new lexical representations. These representations are bound to specific morphological roles and positions (e.g., head, modifier) within a compound word. The development of these positionally bound compound constituents creates a rich network of lexical knowledge that facilitates compound processing and also creates some of the well-documented patterns in the psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic study of compounding. PMID:24580553

  10. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  11. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC₆ and YbC₆ in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic statesmore » and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less

  12. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC₆ and YbC₆ in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  13. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  15. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  16. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  17. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  18. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  19. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  20. Compound fiber ring resonator: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lit, J.W.Y.

    1994-06-01

    A compound fiber ring resonator is made with a Fabry-Perot etalon built inside a fiber ring that is fed through a 2 x 2 directional single-mode fiber coupler. It is theoretically analyzed by an unfolded equivalent model and a transfer-matrix method. The output intensities are presented, and four cases are discussed. The results may be useful in applications such as fiber spectrum analyzers, sensors, and lasers. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Optics of arthropod compound eye.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S R

    1969-07-01

    The extent to which light can escape from one ommatidium into its neighbors in the compound eye has been examined by recording from single receptors during stimulation of single facets. In the "apposition" eye of the drone honeybee and locust, optical interaction is extremely small. In the "superposition" eye of the crayfish, more than half the light captured by the average cell gets in through neighboring facets, even when screening pigments are in the fully lightadapted position.

  2. Neuroprotective compounds of Tilia amurensis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bohyung; Weon, Jin Bae; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tilia amurensis (Tiliacese) has been used for anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory in Korea, China, and Japan. Objective: In this study, we isolated five compounds from T. amurensis and determined whether protected neuronal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. Materials and Methods: Compounds were isolated using chromatographic techniques including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 open column and high performance liquid chromatography analysis, and evaluated neuroprotective effect in HT22 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Results: β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-epicatechin (2), nudiposide (3), lyoniside (4), and scopoletin (5) were isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation from the ethyl acetate fraction of T. amurensis. Among them, (-)-epicatechin, nudiposide, lyoniside, and scopoletin had significant neuroprotective activities against glutamate-injured neurotoxicity in HT22 cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that compound two, three, four, and five have a pronounced protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells. PMID:26664019

  3. Technology Roadmaps for Compound Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Herbert S.

    2000-01-01

    The roles cited for compound semiconductors in public versions of existing technology roadmaps from the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Inc., Optoelectronics Industry Development Association, Microelectronics Advanced Research Initiative on Optoelectronic Interconnects, and Optoelectronics Industry and Technology Development Association (OITDA) are discussed and compared within the context of trends in the Si CMOS industry. In particular, the extent to which these technology roadmaps treat compound semiconductors at the materials processing and device levels will be presented for specific applications. For example, OITDA’s Optical Communications Technology Roadmap directly connects the information demand of delivering 100 Mbit/s to the home to the requirement of producing 200 GHz heterojunction bipolar transistors with 30 nm bases and InP high electron mobility transistors with 100 nm gates. Some general actions for progress towards the proposed International Technology Roadmap for Compound Semiconductors (ITRCS) and methods for determining the value of an ITRCS will be suggested. But, in the final analysis, the value added by an ITRCS will depend on how industry leaders respond. The technical challenges and economic opportunities of delivering high quality digital video to consumers provide concrete examples of where the above actions and methods could be applied. PMID:27551615

  4. Butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines.

    PubMed

    Azenha, Manuel; Vasconcelos, Maria Teresa

    2002-04-24

    Butyltin compounds are widespread contaminants that have also been found in some wines. The purpose of the present work was to make a survey of butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines. Forty-three table wines and 14 Port wines were analyzed for butyltin contents by using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In 14% of the analyzed wine samples, measurable dibutyltin (DBT) was found at concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 0.15 microg/L as Sn. Monobutyltin (MBT) was also observed (0.05 microg/L as Sn) in just a single wine. A search for the possible sources of DBT residues found in the wines was carried out. Therefore, some plastics and oak wood used in the process of wine-making, which have been directly in contact with the musts or the wines, were studied to check their possible release of butyltins. The eventual presence of DBT was also tested directly along the vinification process, from the must to the finished product. The results suggest that high-density polyethylene containers used in the transfer of wine in an early stage of the vinification process may be the main sources of these contaminants. Therefore, it is recommendable that plastic materials to be used in wineries be previously tested for the release of butyltin compounds. PMID:11958646

  5. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another.

  6. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  7. Accuracy in prescriptions compounded by pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, R P; Deloatch, K H

    1998-01-01

    Most compounded prescriptions are not analyzed to determine the accuracy of the employed instruments and procedures. The assumption is that the compounded prescription will be +/- 5% the labeled claim. Two classes of School of Pharmcacy students who received repeated instruction and supervision on proper compounding techniques and procedures were assessed to determine their accuracy of compounding a diphenhydramine hydrochloride prescription. After two attempts, only 62% to 68% of the students could compound the prescription within +/- 5% the labeled claim; but 84% to 96% could attain an accuracy of +/- 10%. The results suggest that an accuracy of +/- 10% labeled claim is the least variation a pharmacist can expect when extemporaneously compounding prescriptions.

  8. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  9. Butein is a novel anti-adipogenic compound[S

    PubMed Central

    Song, No-Joon; Yoon, Hyang-Jin; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, So-Ra; Jang, Woo-Seok; Seo, Cho-Rong; Lee, Young Min; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Hong, Joung-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Park, Ki-Moon; Lee, Kang Ro; Park, Kye Won

    2013-01-01

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for its various biological activities including anti-adipogenic effects. Activity-guided separation led to the identification of the anti-adipogenic functions of butein. Butein, a novel anti-adipogenic compound, robustly suppressed lipid accumulation and inhibited expression of adipogenic markers. Molecular studies showed that activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and suppressed signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways were mediated by butein. Analysis of the temporal expression profiles suggests that TGF-β signaling precedes the STAT3 in the butein-mediated anti-adipogenic cascade. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of STAT3 or SMAD2/3 blunted the inhibitory effects of butein on adipogenesis indicating that an interaction between two signaling pathways is required for the action of butein. Upon butein treatments, stimulation of TGF-β signaling was still preserved in STAT3 silenced cells, whereas regulation of STAT3 signaling by butein was significantly impaired in SMAD2/3 silenced cells, further showing that TGF-β acts upstream of STAT3 in the butein-mediated anti-adipogenesis. Taken together, the present study shows that butein, a novel anti-adipogenic compound from RVS, inhibits adipocyte differentiation through the TGF-β pathway followed by STAT3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ signaling, further implicating potential roles of butein in TGF-β- and STAT3-dysregulated diseases. PMID:23468131

  10. Statistical Modelling of Compound Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevacqua, Emanuele; Maraun, Douglas; Vrac, Mathieu; Widmann, Martin; Manning, Colin

    2016-04-01

    In the recent special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on extreme events it has been highlighted that an important class of extreme events has received little attention so far: so-called compound events (CEs) (Seneviratne et al., 2012). Compound events (CEs) are multivariate extreme events in which the individual contributing events might not be extreme themselves, but their joint occurrence causes an extreme impact. Following Leonard et al., 2013, we define events as CEs only when the contributing events are statistically dependent. For many events analysed so far, the contributing events have not been statistically dependent (e.g. the floods in Rotterdam, Van den Brink et al., 2005). Two typical examples of CEs are severe drought in conjunction with a heatwave, and storm surges coinciding with heavy rain that cause the so-called Compound Floods in the lower section of a river. We develop a multivariate statistical model to represent and analyse the physical mechanisms driving CEs, and to quantify the risk associated with these events. The model is based on pair-copula construction theory, which has the advantage of building joint probability distributions modeling the marginal distributions separately from the dependence structure among variables. This allows to analyse the individual contributing variables underlying the CE separately to their dependence structure. Here is presented an application of the statistical model for Compound Floods, based on a conceptual case study. For these particular events it is not trivial to find satisfying data. Usually, water level stations are not present in the area of the river where both the influence of the sea and river are seen. The main reason being that this critical area is small and stakeholders have little interest in measuring both effect from the sea and from the river. For these reasons we have developed a conceptual case study which allows us to vary the system's physical parameters

  11. Occupational exposure to antimony compounds.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R I

    2005-12-01

    The toxicology of antimony and its compounds is known from three sources: its medicinal use over centuries, studies of process workers in more recent times, and more recent still, studies of its presence in modern city environments and in domestic environments. Gross exposure to antimony compounds over long periods, usually the sulfide (SbS3) or the oxide (Sb2O3) has occurred in antimony miners and in antimony process workers. There have been relatively few of these, and few studies of possible symptoms have been made. Antimony sulfide imported from, at different times, China, South Africa, and South America was processed in the North-East of England from about 1870 to 2003. The process workers in North-East England have been studied at different times, notably by Sir Thomas Oliver in 1933, and by the Newcastle upon Tyne University Department of Occupational Medicine on later occasions. Studies which have been made of the working environment, and in particular of the risk of lung cancer in process workers, have underlined the high levels of exposure to antimony compounds and to other toxic materials. However, the working conditions in antimony processing have improved markedly over the last 30 years, and the workforce had been much reduced in numbers following automation of the process. Prior to the cessation of the industry in the UK it had become a 'white coat' operation with relatively few people exposed to high concentrations of antimony. Antimony, which is normally present in domestic environments, has also been studied as a possible cause of cot death syndrome (SIDS) but extensive investigations have not confirmed this. The full importance of environmental antimony has still to be determined, and evidence of specific effects has not yet been presented.

  12. Some statistics on intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dshemuchadse, Julia; Steurer, Walter

    2015-02-01

    It is still largely unknown why intermetallic phases show such a large variety of crystal structures, with unit cell sizes varying between 1 and more than 20 000 atoms. The goal of our study was, therefore, to get a general overview of the symmetries, unit cell sizes, stoichiometries, most frequent structure types, and their stability fields based on the Mendeleev numbers as ordering parameters. A total of 20829 structures crystallizing in 2166 structure types have been studied for this purpose. Thereby, the focus was on a subset of 6441 binary intermetallic compounds, which crystallize in 943 structure types.

  13. Pharmaceutical Compounds Studied Using NEXAFS

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Booth, A.; Braun, Simon; Lonsbourough, Tom; Schroeder, Sven L. M.; Purton, John; Patel, Sunil

    2007-02-02

    Total Electron Yield (TEY) oxygen K-edge NEXAFS detects the presence of strongly adsorbed water molecules on poloxamer-coated pharmaceutical actives, which provides a useful spectroscopic indicator for bioavailability. The results are supported by complementary XPS measurements. Carbon K-edge spectra obtained in a high-pressure NEXAFS cell were used in situ to establish how a polymer coating spread on a drug surface by using humidity induced dispersion of the coating. Finally, we demonstrate how combined Carbon and Oxygen K-edge measurements can be used to characterize amorphous surface layers on micronised crystals of a drug compound.

  14. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  15. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  16. Bacterial degradation of detergent compounds.

    PubMed

    Goodnow, R A; Harrison, A P

    1972-10-01

    A survey for surfactant degradation among aerobic bacteria has been undertaken. Tests have been made in peptone medium where such a degradation, if it occurs, will be gratuitous. Tallow-alkyl-sulfate, alkyl-ethoxylate-sulfate, and linear-alkyl-benzene-sulfonate were used. Forty-five strains of 34 species in 19 genera degrade one or more of these detergent compounds. With some species, the surfactant inhibits degradation without inhibiting growth, whereas with one species slight degradation took place even at a toxic concentration of surfactant.

  17. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee Soong; Lim, Yun; Kim, Eun-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds) that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases. PMID:25421245

  18. Polyfluorinated Compounds: Past, Present, and Future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest and concern about polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), erfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an increasing number of other related compounds is growing as more is learned about these ubiquitous anthropogenic substances. Many of these co...

  19. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  20. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  1. Groundwater Dating with Atmospheric Halogenated Compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, Karl B.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2014-01-01

    "Atmospheric environmental releases refer to the emission of stable, long-lived compounds of solely anthropogenic origin into the atmosphere and the use of the compounds to estimate dates of their incorporation into groundwater."

  2. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, Michael J.; DiMagno, Stephen G.

    1998-01-01

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core.

  3. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, M.J.; DiMagno, S.G.

    1998-07-21

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core. 13 figs.

  4. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines. PMID:26558641

  5. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines.

  6. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  7. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  8. Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PubMed

    Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2015-05-01

    Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  9. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  10. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  11. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  12. Prebiotic Evolution of Nitrogen Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1999-01-01

    Support from this four year grant has funded our research on two general problems. One involves attempts to model the abiotic formation of simple source compounds for functional biomolecules, their concentration from dilute state in the hydrosphere and, in several cases, surface induced reactions to form precursor monomers for bioactive end products (refs. 1-5). Because of the pervasiveness and antiquity of phosphate based biochemistry and the catalytic activity of RNA we have exploring the hypothesis of an RNA World as an early stage in the emergence of life. This concept is now rather generally considered, but has been questioned due to the earlier lack of an experimentally demonstrated successful scheme for the spontaneous formation of ribose phosphate, the key backbone molecule in RNA. That impediment has now been removed. This has been achieved by demonstrating probable sources of activated (condensed) highly soluble and strongly sorbed phosphates in nature (Refs. 1,2) and effective condensation of aldehyde phosphates to form ribose phosphate in high yield (ref.6), thereby placing the RNA World concept on a somewhat safer experimental footing. Like all work in this field these experiments are oversimplifications that largely ignore competing side reactions with other compounds expected to be present. None the less our choice of experimental conditions aim at selective processes that eliminate interfering reactions. We have also sought to narrow the credibility gap by simulating geophysically and geochemically plausible conditions surrounding the putative prebiotic reactions.

  13. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: HD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  14. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  15. Compound prism design principles, I

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Prisms have been needlessly neglected as components used in modern optical design. In optical throughput, stray light, flexibility, and in their ability to be used in direct-view geometry, they excel over gratings. Here we show that even their well-known weak dispersion relative to gratings has been overrated by designing doublet and double Amici direct-vision compound prisms that have 14° and 23° of dispersion across the visible spectrum, equivalent to 800 and 1300 lines/mm gratings. By taking advantage of the multiple degrees of freedom available in a compound prism design, we also show prisms whose angular dispersion shows improved linearity in wavelength. In order to achieve these designs, we exploit the well-behaved nature of prism design space to write customized algorithms that optimize directly in the nonlinear design space. Using these algorithms, we showcase a number of prism designs that illustrate a performance and flexibility that goes beyond what has often been considered possible with prisms. PMID:22423145

  16. INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be

  17. Cdc25B Dual-Specificity Phosphatase Inhibitors Identified in a High-Throughput Screen of the NIH Compound Library

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Caleb A.; Tierno, Marni Brisson; Shun, Tong Ying; Shinde, Sunita N.; Paquette, William D.; Brummond, Kay M.; Wipf, Peter; Lazo, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The University of Pittsburgh Molecular Library Screening Center (Pittsburgh, PA) conducted a screen with the National Institutes of Health compound library for inhibitors of in vitro cell division cycle 25 protein (Cdc25) B activity during the pilot phase of the Molecular Library Screening Center Network. Seventy-nine (0.12%) of the 65,239 compounds screened at 10 μM met the active criterion of ≥50% inhibition of Cdc25B activity, and 25 (31.6%) of these were confirmed as Cdc25B inhibitors with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <50 μM. Thirteen of the Cdc25B inhibitors were represented by singleton chemical structures, and 12 were divided among four clusters of related structures. Thirteen (52%) of the Cdc25B inhibitor hits were quinone-based structures. The Cdc25B inhibitors were further characterized in a series of in vitro secondary assays to confirm their activity, to determine their phosphatase selectivity against two other dual-specificity phosphatases, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1 and MKP-3, and to examine if the mechanism of Cdc25B inhibition involved oxidation and inactivation. Nine Cdc25B inhibitors did not appear to affect Cdc25B through a mechanism involving oxidation because they did not generate detectable amounts of H2O2 in the presence of dithiothreitol, and their Cdc25B IC50 values were not significantly affected by exchanging the dithiothreitol for β-mercaptoethanol or reduced glutathione or by adding catalase to the assay. Six of the nonoxidative hits were selective for Cdc25B inhibition versus MKP-1 and MKP-3, but only the two bisfuran-containing hits, PubChem substance identifiers 4258795 and 4260465, significantly inhibited the growth of human MBA-MD-435 breast and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. To confirm the structure and biological activity of 4260465, the compound was resynthesized along with two analogs. Neither of the substitutions to the two analogs was tolerated, and only the

  18. Elastomer Compound Developed for High Wear Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D.; Feuer, H.; Flanagan, D.; Rodriguez, G.; Teets, A.; Touchet, P.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently spending 300 million dollars per year replacing rubber track pads. An experimental rubber compound has been developed which exhibits 2 to 3 times greater service life than standard production pad compounds. To improve the service life of the tank track pads various aspects of rubber chemistry were explored including polymer, curing and reinforcing systems. Compounds that exhibited superior physical properties based on laboratory data were then fabricated into tank pads and field tested. This paper will discuss the compounding studies, laboratory data and field testing that led to the high wear elastomer compound.

  19. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorous compounds

    DOEpatents

    McIsaac, Lyle D.; Krupa, Joseph F.; Schroeder, Norman C.

    1981-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorous compounds are purified of undesirable impurities by contacting a solution of the compounds with a mercuric nitrate solution to form an insoluble mercuric bidentate compound which precipitates while the impurities remain in solution. The precipitate is washed and then contacted with a mixture of an aqueous solution of a strong mercuric ion complexing agent and an organic solvent to complex the mercuric ion away from the bidentate compound which then dissolves in the solvent. The purified bidentate compounds are useful for extracting the actinide elements from aqueous acidic nuclear waste solutions.

  20. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  1. New permanent magnets; manganese compounds.

    PubMed

    Coey, J M D

    2014-02-12

    The exponential growth of maximum energy product that prevailed in the 20th century has stalled, leaving a market dominated by two permanent magnet materials, Nd2Fe14B and Ba(Sr)Fe12O19, for which the maximum theoretical energy products differ by an order of magnitude (515 kJ m(-3) and 45 kJ m(-3), respectively). Rather than seeking to improve on optimized Nd-Fe-B, it is suggested that some research efforts should be devoted to developing appropriately priced alternatives with energy products in the range 100-300 kJ m(-3). The prospects for Mn-based hard magnetic materials are discussed, based on known Mn-based compounds with the tetragonal L10 or D022 structure or the hexagonal B81 structure.

  2. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

    1995-08-29

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  5. Discretely tunable optofluidic compound microlenses.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; He, Zi; Zheng, Chunhong; Chen, Tao; Men, Yongfan; Huang, Yanyi

    2011-09-01

    We report a novel method to fabricate high zoom-ratio optofluidic compound microlenses using poly(dimethylsiloxane) with multi-layer architecture. The layered structure of deformable lenses, biconvex and plano-concave, are self-aligned as a group. The refractive index contrast of each lens, which is controlled by filling the chambers with a specific medium, is the key factor for determining the device's numerical aperture. The chip has multiple independent pneumatic valves that can be digitally switched on and off, pushing the liquid into the lens chambers with great accuracy and consistency. This quickly and precisely tunes the focal length of the microlens device from centimetres to sub-millimetre. The system has great potential for applications in portable microscopic imaging, bio-sensing, and laser beam configuration.

  6. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Gregory D.; Moore, Glenn A.; Stone, Mark L.; Reagen, William K.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

  7. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  8. High-Strength, Superelastic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm; Noebe, Ronald; Dellacorte, Christopher; Bigelow, Glen; Thomas, Fransua

    2013-01-01

    In a previous disclosure, the use of 60- NiTiNOL, an ordered intermetallic compound composed of 60 weight percent nickel and 40 weight percent titanium, was investigated as a material for advanced aerospace bearings due to its unique combination of physical properties. Lessons learned during the development of applications for this material have led to the discovery that, with the addition of a ternary element, the resulting material can be thermally processed at a lower temperature to attain the same desirable hardness level as the original material. Processing at a lower temperature is beneficial, not only because it reduces processing costs from energy consumption, but because it also significantly reduces the possibility of quench cracking and thermal distortion, which have been problematic with the original material. A family of ternary substitutions has been identified, including Hf and Zr in various atomic percentages with varying concentrations of Ni and Ti. In the present innovation, a ternary intermetallic compound consisting of 57.6 weight percent Ni, 39.2 weight percent Ti, and 3.2 weight percent Hf (54Ni-45Ti-1Hf atomic percent) was prepared by casting. In this material, Hf substitutes for some of the Ti atoms in the material. In an alternate embodiment of the innovation, Zr, which is close in chemical behavior to Hf, is used as the substitutional element. With either substitution, the solvus temperature of the material is reduced, and lower temperatures can be used to obtain the necessary hardness values. The advantages of this innovation include the ability to solution-treat the material at a lower temperature and still achieve the required hardness for bearings (at least 50 Rockwell C) and superelastic behavior with recoverable strains greater than 2%. Most structural alloys will not return to their original shape after being deformed as little as 0.2% (a tenth of that possible with superelastic materials like 60 NiTiNOL). Because lower temperatures

  9. Biomedical research with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, February 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, J.S.

    1981-09-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: evaluation of chemotherapeutic regimens in solid tumors using /sup 13/N-labelled amino acids; organ imaging with /sup 13/N-labelled L-amino acids; imaging with /sup 111/In-labelled-autologous platelets; synthesis and biological studies of /sup 111/In-labelled ammonia and L-amino acids; synthesis and evaluation for pancreatic imaging of /sup 11/C-labelled amino acides; radioisotope monitoring of myocardiol function; synthesis of /sup 11/C-labelled precursor compounds; reduction of radiation exposure through automation and remote control; development of an anhydrous /sup 18/F target; evaluation of radiolabelled 5-fluorouracils for scintigraphy; and methods of data analysis, modeling, and unproving instrumentation for positron-emission tomography. (EDB)

  10. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-03-19

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  11. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-10-23

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  12. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  13. Compound chondrules: An experimental investigation. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.; Atre, N.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.

  14. Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Montgomery, Eliza; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry; Back, Teddy; Balles, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings and Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) project is to identify, test, and develop qualification criteria for the use of environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and CPCs for flight hardware and ground support equipment. This document is the Final Report for Phase I evaluations, which included physical property, corrosion resistance, and NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing and analysis of fifteen CPC types. The CPCs consisted of ten different oily film CPCs and five different wax or grease CPC types. Physical property testing encompassed measuring various properties of the bulk CPCs, while corrosion resistance testing directly measured the ability of each CPC material to protect various metals against corrosion. The NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing included common tests required by NASA-STD-6001, "Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion". At the end of Phase I, CPC materials were down-selected for inclusion in the next test phases. This final report includes all data and analysis of results obtained by following the experimental test plan that was developed as part of the project. Highlights of the results are summarized by test criteria type.

  15. Superconducting compounds and alloys research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.

    1975-01-01

    Resistivity measurements as a function of temperature were performed on alloys of the binary material system In sub(1-x) Bi sub x for x varying between 0 and 1. It was found that for all single-phase alloys (the pure elements, alpha-In, and the three intermetallic compounds) at temperatures sufficiently above the Debye-temperature, the resistivity p can be expressed as p = a sub o T(n), where a sub o and n are composition-dependent constants. The same exponential relationship can also be applied for the sub-system In-In2Bi, when the two phases are in compositional equilibrium. Superconductivity measurements on single and two-phase alloys can be explained with respect to the phase diagram. There occur three superconducting phases (alpha-In, In2Bi, and In5Bi3) with different transition temperatures in the alloying system. The magnitude of the transition temperatures for the various intermetallic phases of In-Bi is such that the disappearance or occurrence of a phase in two component alloys can be demonstrated easily by means of superconductivity measurements.

  16. Thigtness Compound Climatic Test - QC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelia Butnaru, Mariana

    2006-11-01

    This method determinate the suitabilty of materials components, finised products and others to stressful conditions like: cold, heat, UV and IR radiations others. Generally, the thigtness is testing in lab environmental conditions. But some materials, components or finised products are used transported or/and deposited in special climatic conditions. So when we test thighness we must mimic the environmental factors of aging. The samples are same elastomers of general use (used for gaskets). The rubber was studied using IR measurements. We studied the structural changes which appear due to the climatic factors on samples of N50 rubber. The elastomer was cooled and irradiated with UV radiation. Due to cooling a new spectral band at 1443 cm -1 appears, and also the intensity of spectral band from 1432 cm -1 decreases. The most important structural changes, due to the degradation action of the ultraviolet radiations, appear after 10 hours of the action of the aging factor. The rubber was also studied with photoacoustic technique. An important decrease of thermal diffusity with the number of climatic cycles (aging factor - cold) and the UV irradiations dose was observed for N50 type samples. We assume that a variety of structural changes have been produced. This kind of elastomer is not a resistent one to stressful conditions. The results proved that thigtness compound method QC, works, is a very imortant one and must be applied.

  17. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review. PMID:26042616

  18. Computed structures of polyimides model compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Phillips, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    Using a semi-empirical approach, a computer study was made of 8 model compounds of polyimides. The compounds represent subunits from which NASA Langley Research Center has successfully synthesized polymers for aerospace high performance material application, including one of the most promising, LARC-TPI polymer. Three-dimensional graphic display as well as important molecular structure data pertaining to these 8 compounds are obtained.

  19. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  20. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Automated compound classification using a chemical ontology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Classification of chemical compounds into compound classes by using structure derived descriptors is a well-established method to aid the evaluation and abstraction of compound properties in chemical compound databases. MeSH and recently ChEBI are examples of chemical ontologies that provide a hierarchical classification of compounds into general compound classes of biological interest based on their structural as well as property or use features. In these ontologies, compounds have been assigned manually to their respective classes. However, with the ever increasing possibilities to extract new compounds from text documents using name-to-structure tools and considering the large number of compounds deposited in databases, automated and comprehensive chemical classification methods are needed to avoid the error prone and time consuming manual classification of compounds. Results In the present work we implement principles and methods to construct a chemical ontology of classes that shall support the automated, high-quality compound classification in chemical databases or text documents. While SMARTS expressions have already been used to define chemical structure class concepts, in the present work we have extended the expressive power of such class definitions by expanding their structure-based reasoning logic. Thus, to achieve the required precision and granularity of chemical class definitions, sets of SMARTS class definitions are connected by OR and NOT logical operators. In addition, AND logic has been implemented to allow the concomitant use of flexible atom lists and stereochemistry definitions. The resulting chemical ontology is a multi-hierarchical taxonomy of concept nodes connected by directed, transitive relationships. Conclusions A proposal for a rule based definition of chemical classes has been made that allows to define chemical compound classes more precisely than before. The proposed structure-based reasoning logic allows to translate

  2. Antimicrobial Action of Compounds from Marine Seaweed

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, María José; Falqué, Elena; Domínguez, Herminia

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control new diseases or multiresistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from green, brown and red algae showing potent antimicrobial activity belong to polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, pigments, lectins, alkaloids, terpenoids and halogenated compounds. This review presents the major compounds found in macroalga showing antimicrobial activities and their most promising applications. PMID:27005637

  3. PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS AND PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.; Diehl, H.C. Jr.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to certain new compounds of plutonium, and to the utilization of these compounds to effect purification or separation of the plutonium. The compounds are organic chelate compounds consisting of tetravalent plutonium together with a di(salicylal) alkylenediimine. These chelates are soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water. Use is made of this property in extracting the plutonium by contacting an aqueous solution thereof with an organic solution of the diimine. The plutonium is chelated, extracted and effectively separated from any impurities accompaying it in the aqueous phase.

  4. Hydrodesulfurization catalysis by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Kevin F.; Schrader, Glenn L.

    1985-12-24

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M.sub.x Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts. The most active catalysts were the "large" cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the "small" cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  5. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  6. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  7. PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  8. A[subscript 2]: Element or Compound?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stains, Marilyne; Talanquer, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Particulate questions were used to investigate the strength of the mental association between the concept of compound and microscopic representations of molecules in students with different levels of chemistry preparation. The results have suggested that the mental association between the concepts of compound and particulate representations of…

  9. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  10. Perfluorinated Compounds: Emerging POPs with Potential Immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as an important class of environmental contaminants commonly detected in blood samples of both wildlife and humans. These compounds have been in use for more than 60 years as surface treatment chemicals, polymerization aids, an...

  11. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  12. Performance of BNL-TSTA compound cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H C; Worwetz, H A

    1980-01-01

    A compound cryopump using cryocondensation pumping for hydrogen isotopes and cryosorption pumping with coconut charcoal as adsorbent for helium was designed. This compound cryopump was subsequently built (by Janis Research, Stoneham, MA) and has been tested at Brookhaven, fulfilling the design requirements and are delivered to Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) Vacuum Facility at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for on-line operations.

  13. Crystal structure analysis of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, R. A., Jr.; Downey, J. W.; Dwight, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Study concerns crystal structures and lattice parameters for a number of new intermetallic compounds. Crystal structure data have been collected on equiatomic compounds, formed between an element of the Sc, Ti, V, or Cr group and an element of the Co or Ni group. The data, obtained by conventional methods, are presented in an easily usable tabular form.

  14. Improved process for synthesizing anilinosilane compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunnavant, W. R.; Markle, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    New process gives good yields of anilinosilane compounds that can be readily isolated in a high state of purity. S-collidine is used as an HCl acceptor. Silane compounds can be melt-condensed with aromatic diols to provide high molecular weight polyaryloxysilane materials that are of importance in polymer technology.

  15. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  16. Compound Verbs in Persian: An Euphemistic Phraseology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    An analysis of the compound verb system of Persian marks constructions euphemistically by producing an indirect order effect and by alternating different compound and simple forms that bear the same denotation but are governed by a rigorous code of ethics. What really carries the semantic reference in these cases is the process of construing…

  17. Use of Polyphenolic Compounds in Dermatologic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Costa, Adilson; Bonner, Michael Yi; Arbiser, Jack L

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenols are a widely used class of compounds in dermatology. While phenol itself, the most basic member of the phenol family, is chemically synthesized, most polyphenolic compounds are found in plants and form part of their defense mechanism against decomposition. Polyphenolic compounds, which include phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans, play an integral role in preventing the attack on plants by bacteria and fungi, as well as serving as cross-links in plant polymers. There is also mounting evidence that polyphenolic compounds play an important role in human health as well. One of the most important benefits, which puts them in the spotlight of current studies, is their antitumor profile. Some of these polyphenolic compounds have already presented promising results in either in vitro or in vivo studies for non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma. These compounds act on several biomolecular pathways including cell division cycle arrest, autophagy, and apoptosis. Indeed, such natural compounds may be of potential for both preventive and therapeutic fields of cancer. This review evaluates the existing scientific literature in order to provide support for new research opportunities using polyphenolic compounds in oncodermatology. PMID:27164914

  18. Ambient Air Monitoring for Sulfur Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Joseph; Newman, Leonard

    1973-01-01

    A literature review of analytical techniques available for the study of compounds at low concentrations points up some of the areas where further research is needed. Compounds reviewed are sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate and bisulfate, metal sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfides. (BL)

  19. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  20. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) CHAPTER 31.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term "volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) was originally coined to refer, as a class, to carbon-containing chemicals that participate in photochemical reactions in the ambient (outdoor) are. The regulatory definition of VOCs used by the U.S. EPA is: Any compound of carbon, ex...

  1. Two New Compounds from Artemisia sacrorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghu; Wu, Rongjun; Han, Narenchaoketu; Dai, Nayintai; Wu, Jiesi

    2016-04-01

    Two new compounds, named as sacric acid A (1) and sacric acid B (2), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. This is the first report on the structure elucidation of these compounds based on UV, IR, and extensive ID and 2D NMR spectroscopic, and ESI-MS techniques. PMID:27396200

  2. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Paula; DʼAuria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications. PMID:25203732

  3. Hyphenated Compounds in West German Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Helga H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the types of hyphenated compound nouns (which fill the need for naming new things and expressing new ideas) found in German newspapers and journals. Observes in what particular types of compounds the hyphen is most frequently used and why there is an upsurge in their use. (SED)

  4. Nitroaromatic Compounds, from Synthesis to Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Kou-San; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Nitroaromatic compounds are relatively rare in nature and have been introduced into the environment mainly by human activities. This important class of industrial chemicals is widely used in the synthesis of many diverse products, including dyes, polymers, pesticides, and explosives. Unfortunately, their extensive use has led to environmental contamination of soil and groundwater. The nitro group, which provides chemical and functional diversity in these molecules, also contributes to the recalcitrance of these compounds to biodegradation. The electron-withdrawing nature of the nitro group, in concert with the stability of the benzene ring, makes nitroaromatic compounds resistant to oxidative degradation. Recalcitrance is further compounded by their acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and easy reduction into carcinogenic aromatic amines. Nitroaromatic compounds are hazardous to human health and are registered on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's list of priority pollutants for environmental remediation. Although the majority of these compounds are synthetic in nature, microorganisms in contaminated environments have rapidly adapted to their presence by evolving new biodegradation pathways that take advantage of them as sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. This review provides an overview of the synthesis of both man-made and biogenic nitroaromatic compounds, the bacteria that have been identified to grow on and completely mineralize nitroaromatic compounds, and the pathways that are present in these strains. The possible evolutionary origins of the newly evolved pathways are also discussed. PMID:20508249

  5. Two new compounds from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Fang; Yan, Yong-Ming; Wang, Xin-Long; Ma, Xiu-Jing; Fu, Xue-Yan; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Two pairs of new enantiomers, lucidulactones A and B (1 and 2), and two known compounds were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic methods. The chiral HPLC was used to separate the ( - )- and (+)-antipodes of the new compounds.

  6. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  7. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Alexander

    2011-11-18

    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed.

  8. Nitroaromatic compounds, from synthesis to biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Kou-San; Parales, Rebecca E

    2010-06-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are relatively rare in nature and have been introduced into the environment mainly by human activities. This important class of industrial chemicals is widely used in the synthesis of many diverse products, including dyes, polymers, pesticides, and explosives. Unfortunately, their extensive use has led to environmental contamination of soil and groundwater. The nitro group, which provides chemical and functional diversity in these molecules, also contributes to the recalcitrance of these compounds to biodegradation. The electron-withdrawing nature of the nitro group, in concert with the stability of the benzene ring, makes nitroaromatic compounds resistant to oxidative degradation. Recalcitrance is further compounded by their acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and easy reduction into carcinogenic aromatic amines. Nitroaromatic compounds are hazardous to human health and are registered on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's list of priority pollutants for environmental remediation. Although the majority of these compounds are synthetic in nature, microorganisms in contaminated environments have rapidly adapted to their presence by evolving new biodegradation pathways that take advantage of them as sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. This review provides an overview of the synthesis of both man-made and biogenic nitroaromatic compounds, the bacteria that have been identified to grow on and completely mineralize nitroaromatic compounds, and the pathways that are present in these strains. The possible evolutionary origins of the newly evolved pathways are also discussed.

  9. Microbial removal of hazardous organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Rittman, B.E.

    1982-03-01

    An in-depth evaluation of the potential for microorganisms to remove anthropogenic organic compounds, mainly priority pollutants and related compounds, is presented. The evaluation indicates that use of properly selected populations of microbes, and the maintenance of environmental conditions most conducive to their metabolism, can be an important means of improving biological treatment of organic wastes. One major theme is that microorganisms not normally associated with biological waste treatment have potential advantages when the removal of anthropogenic compounds is the goal. An extensive summary of examples of anthropogenic compounds and microorganisms that can attack them is presented in tabular form. A second table lists the selective uses of microorganisms for removal of different anthropogenic compounds. (KRM)

  10. Methods of making organic compounds by metathesis

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Timothy W.; Kaido, Hiroki; Lee, Choon Woo; Pederson, Richard L.; Schrodi, Yann; Tupy, Michael John

    2015-09-01

    Described are methods of making organic compounds by metathesis chemistry. The methods of the invention are particularly useful for making industrially-important organic compounds beginning with starting compositions derived from renewable feedstocks, such as natural oils. The methods make use of a cross-metathesis step with an olefin compound to produce functionalized alkene intermediates having a pre-determined double bond position. Once isolated, the functionalized alkene intermediate can be self-metathesized or cross-metathesized (e.g., with a second functionalized alkene) to produce the desired organic compound or a precursor thereto. The method may be used to make bifunctional organic compounds, such as diacids, diesters, dicarboxylate salts, acid/esters, acid/amines, acid/alcohols, acid/aldehydes, acid/ketones, acid/halides, acid/nitriles, ester/amines, ester/alcohols, ester/aldehydes, ester/ketones, ester/halides, ester/nitriles, and the like.

  11. Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Han, Hyoung Yun; Roh, Hang Sik; Seok, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Ja Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Jeong Ah; Min, Byung Sun

    2014-04-01

    The anti-cholinesterase activity was evaluated of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds and of compounds isolated from it by various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from spectroscopic analyses (NMR data). Thirteen compounds (1-13) were isolated and identified. Compound 8 { [(7S)-8'-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxypropyl]benzene-2,4-diol) showed the most effective activity with an IC50 value of 35.1 microM, followed by compounds 2 [(8R,8'S)-7'-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,8'-dimethyl-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-butane] and 11 (malabaricone C) with IC50 values of 42.1 and 44.0 pM, respectively. This is the first report of significant anticholinesterase properties of M. fragrans seeds. The findings demonstrate that M. fragrans could be used beneficially in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  13. Anticancer Mechanism of Sulfur-Containing Compounds.

    PubMed

    De Gianni, Elena; Fimognari, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetables have traditionally represented a main source for the discovery of many biologically active substances with therapeutic values. Among the many bioactive compounds identified over the years, sulfur-containing compounds, which are present especially in the genera Allium and Brassica, have been showing a protective effect against different types of cancer. Many in vitro and in vivo studies reported that apoptosis is crucial for the anticancer effects of sulfur-containing compounds. Garlic and onion compounds and isothiocyanates contained in Brassica vegetables are able to modulate apoptosis by a wide range of mechanisms. This chapter will give an overview on the induction of apoptosis by sulfur-containing compounds in cancer cells and their different molecular mechanisms. Finally, the potential clinical implications of their proapoptotic effects will be discussed. PMID:26298460

  14. Use of model compounds in coal chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C J

    1980-01-01

    The use of model compounds in coal chemistry has been summarized. Several examples from the literature, and also from work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been used to illustrate the main principles involved. The current controversy on the subject of model compounds is believed to stem from a semantic misunderstanding owing to different definitions of what a model compound is. The definition of a model compound from the organic chemist's point of view is that it is a substance which may possess at least one property or structural feature suspected of being present in the sample investigated. The sample may be coal itself, a maceral, a coal-derived material or a hydrogen-donor solvent. It is stressed that a recognition of the structure-reactivity relationship in organic compounds is necessary to avoid false conclusions.

  15. Depyrogenation options for the compounding cleanroom.

    PubMed

    Weller, Tom; Bell, Jeff; Dullinger, Roger; Allen, Vern; Anthenat, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies, especially those awarded 503B status under the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that resulted from the Drug Quality and Security Act, must meet increasingly strict standards for the preparation of sterile formulations. Depyrogenating the containers and tools used in such compounding is essential to meeting those standards and ensuring patient safety. Although pyrogens are relatively thermally stable, treating aseptic-compounding glassware and implements in a dry-heat oven or tunnel is the most common method of depyrogenation. Depyrogenation tunnels are used at larger facilities in which automation and a higher throughput can justify the cost of that equipment, but a small batch oven is an inexpensive and appropriate solution to meeting sterilization and depyrogenation requirements in a smaller compounding pharmacy. In this article, we discuss the appropriate use of depyrogenation ovens and tunnels, compare those types of equipment, and describe the selection and use of a cleanroom oven in a compounding pharmacy.

  16. Compound estimation procedures in reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Ron

    1990-01-01

    At NASA, components and subsystems of components in the Space Shuttle and Space Station generally go through a number of redesign stages. While data on failures for various design stages are sometimes available, the classical procedures for evaluating reliability only utilize the failure data on the present design stage of the component or subsystem. Often, few or no failures have been recorded on the present design stage. Previously, Bayesian estimators for the reliability of a single component, conditioned on the failure data for the present design, were developed. These new estimators permit NASA to evaluate the reliability, even when few or no failures have been recorded. Point estimates for the latter evaluation were not possible with the classical procedures. Since different design stages of a component (or subsystem) generally have a good deal in common, the development of new statistical procedures for evaluating the reliability, which consider the entire failure record for all design stages, has great intuitive appeal. A typical subsystem consists of a number of different components and each component has evolved through a number of redesign stages. The present investigations considered compound estimation procedures and related models. Such models permit the statistical consideration of all design stages of each component and thus incorporate all the available failure data to obtain estimates for the reliability of the present version of the component (or subsystem). A number of models were considered to estimate the reliability of a component conditioned on its total failure history from two design stages. It was determined that reliability estimators for the present design stage, conditioned on the complete failure history for two design stages have lower risk than the corresponding estimators conditioned only on the most recent design failure data. Several models were explored and preliminary models involving bivariate Poisson distribution and the

  17. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  18. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis.

  19. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  20. Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds.

    PubMed

    Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium belongs to the group of transition metals and is present in the air and soil contaminants in large urban agglomerations due to combustion of fossil fuels. It forms numerous inorganic compounds (vanadyl sulfate, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, vanadium pentoxide) as well as complexes with organic compounds (BMOV, BEOV, METVAN). Depending on the research model, vanadium compounds exhibit antitumor or carcinogenic properties. Vanadium compounds generate ROS as a result of Fenton's reaction or of the reaction with atmospheric oxygen. They inactivate the Cdc25B(2) phosphatase and lead to degradation of Cdc25C, which induces G(2)/M phase arrest. In cells, vanadium compounds activate numerous signaling pathways and transcription factors, including PI3K-PKB/Akt-mTOR, NF-κB, MEK1/2-ERK, that cause cell survival or increased expression and release of VEGF. Vanadium compounds inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis and promote entry into the S phase of cells containing functional p53 protein. In addition, vanadium compounds, in particular organic derivatives, have insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic properties. Vanadium compounds lower blood glucose levels in animals and in clinical trials. They also inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. By activating the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway, vanadium compaunds increase the cellular uptake of glucose by the GLUT4 transporter. The PKB/Akt pathway is also used to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3. The impact of vanadium compounds on inflammatory reactions has not been fully studied. Vanadium pentoxide causes expression of COX-2 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in a human lung fibroblast model. Other vanadium compounds activate NF-κB in macrophages by activating IKKβ.

  1. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and L-fucitol, respectively.

  2. Environmental exposure to preformed nitroso compounds.

    PubMed

    Tricker, A R; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1989-01-01

    In the human environment, nitrosatable amine precursors to N-nitroso compounds and nitrosating species such as nitrite and oxides of nitrogen are abundant. As a result, the formation of N-nitroso compounds and human exposure to these compounds show a rather complex pattern. The largest known human exposures to exogenous N-nitrosamines occur in the work place. This is particularly evident in the rubber and tyre manufacturing industry and in metal cutting and grinding shops. Nearly all industries which are concerned with the production and/or use of amines have a related nitrosamine problem. Outside the industrial environment, commodities such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber and household products, which are either prepared from amines or contain high concentrations of amino compounds, may be subject to contamination by low concentrations of N-nitroso compounds. This contamination may result from the use of contaminated starting materials, in particular amines, or from the formation of N-nitroso compounds during manufacturing processes. A similar problem exists with agricultural chemicals. As our knowledge of the occurrence and formation of N-nitroso compounds in the environment increases, preventive measures can be introduced, particularly in manufacturing industries, to reduce the levels of human exposure to nitrosamines in the work place and to protect the consumer from nitrosamine exposure from household commodities. PMID:2696580

  3. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  4. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  5. Risk and liabilities of prescribing compounded medications.

    PubMed

    Randell, Michael D; Duffy, Phillip J

    2014-07-01

    Complications resulting from the use of compounded medications have become a troubling trend nationwide. There is a significant potential for patients to suffer serious harm from the use of substandard medications prepared by compounding pharmacies, and the reality of this problem has been demonstrated in several well-publicized incidences of serious medical complications, including patient deaths, that directly resulted from the use of medications prepared at compounding pharmacies. Unlike US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, compounded products are not required to meet evidentiary standards for establishing safety and efficacy. Moreover, these products are not held to Good Manufacturing Practices, which require regular inspections, quality control testing, and rejection of material not meeting specifications. Physicians, as well as other prescribers, need to be aware that when a patient suffers harm from using a compounded medication, those injured patients may bring negligence and malpractice claims, not only against the pharmacy and the pharmacist responsible for preparing the medication, but also against the prescribing physician and the physician’s practice. Consequently, the best way for physicians to manage professional risk and avoid both litigation and potential negative patient outcomes related to compounded pharmaceuticals is to not use these products if there is an FDA-approved product available. However, if the use of a compounded medication is medically necessary, then physicians should adhere to the FDA guidance concerning traditional compounding. Moreover, it would be prudent for any physician who intends to either resell or participate in the distribution of compounded products beyond the direct treatment of their patients to consider obtaining the appropriate insurance coverage for this activity. PMID:25276868

  6. [Common features of antibacterial compounds: an analysis of 104 compounds library].

    PubMed

    Veselov, M S; Sergiev, P V; Osterman, I A; Skvortsov, D A; Golovina, A Ya; Andreyanova, E S; Laptev, I G; Pletnev, P I; Evfratov, S A; Marusich, E I; Leonov, S V; Ivanenkov, Ya A; Bogdanov, A A; Dontsova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial compounds are one of the essential classes of clinically important drugs. High throughput screening allowed revealing potential antibiotics active towards any molecular target in bacterial cell. We used a library of 9820 organic compounds with highly diversified structures to screen for antibacterial activity. As the result of automated screening, 103 compounds were found to possess antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The properties of these compounds were compared with those of initial library. Non-linear Kohonen mapping was used to analyze the differences between non-active molecules from initial library, identified antibacterial hits and compounds with reported antibacterial activity. It was found that identified antibacterial compounds are located in the separated area of chemical space. It can be therefore suggested that these molecules belong to novel classes of antibacterial compounds and could be studied further.

  7. Microbial production of scent and flavor compounds.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Austin L; Desai, Shuchi H; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-02-01

    Scents and flavors like those of fresh oranges are no longer limited to just the natural product. Fruit, flower, and essential oil scents have found place in cosmetics, soaps, candles, and food amongst many common household products. With their increasing global demand and difficulty in extractation from the natural source, alternative methods of their production are being sought. One sustainable method is to employ microorganisms for the production of these high value compounds. With the tools of metabolic engineering, microorganisms can be modified to produce compounds such as esters, terpenoids, aldehydes, and methyl ketones. Approaches and challenges for the production of these compounds from microbial hosts are discussed in this review.

  8. Application of bicyclic and cage compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. D.; Archuleta, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a literature survey of the field of bicyclic and cage compounds were presented, with the objective of identifying those types of compounds with unusual physical and chemical stability, and determining what practical applications have been found for these compounds. Major applications have been as polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and pesticides. Lesser applications have included fuels, fuel additives, lubricants, lubricant additives, and perfumes. Several areas where further work might be useful were also outlined; these are primarily in the areas of polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and synthetic lubricants.

  9. Chlorinated organic compounds produced by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize, not only reduces grain yield and degrades quality but also produces mycotoxins in the infected grain. Focus has been on mycotoxins because of the human and animal health hazards associated with them. In addition to work done on mycotoxins, chemical profiling of F. graminearum to identify other compounds produced by this fungus remains critical. With chemical profiling of F. graminearum the entire chemistry of this fungus can be understood. The focus of this work was to identify chlorinated compounds produced by F. graminearum. Various chlorinated compounds were detected and their role in F. graminearum is yet to be understood.

  10. Compound leaf development in model plant species.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum).

  11. A growing codependency: compounding pharmacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Prince, Bryan; Lundevall, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are in constant contact with potent compounds. When compounding with powders, there is a susceptibility to environmental conditions such that proper containment be in place to keep the employees safe, the medicine free from cross contamination or the introduction of outside contaminants, and the workplace free from floating active pharmaceutical ingredient particles. Adapting powder hoods as safety devices that work in direct relation to clearly defined standard operating procedures and good lab practices will facilitate a safer lab environment for employees and ensure good-quality prescriptions. This article discusses the safety concerns of compounding with powders and the safety measures to consider when purchasing powder hoods. PMID:24579299

  12. A new caffeate compound from Nardostachys chinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-peng; Wang, Zhong-ping; Zheng, Hong-hong; Xu, Yan-tong; Zhu, Yani; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Hong-hua

    2016-01-01

    A new caffeate compound, (E)-erythro-syringylglyceryl caffeate (1), was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Nardostachys chinensis Batal., together with nine known phenolic compounds, including (+)-licarin A (2), naringenin 4', 7-dimethyl ether (3), pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (4), caraphenol A (5), Z-miyabenol C (6), protocatechuic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), gallic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and physicochemical properties. Furthermore, this is the first report of compounds 2, 5 and 6 from Nardostachys genus.

  13. A new caffeate compound from Nardostachys chinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-peng; Wang, Zhong-ping; Zheng, Hong-hong; Xu, Yan-tong; Zhu, Yani; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Hong-hua

    2016-01-01

    A new caffeate compound, (E)-erythro-syringylglyceryl caffeate (1), was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Nardostachys chinensis Batal., together with nine known phenolic compounds, including (+)-licarin A (2), naringenin 4', 7-dimethyl ether (3), pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (4), caraphenol A (5), Z-miyabenol C (6), protocatechuic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), gallic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and physicochemical properties. Furthermore, this is the first report of compounds 2, 5 and 6 from Nardostachys genus. PMID:27405169

  14. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenases by thiol compounds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L Y; Lek, L H

    1992-04-01

    2-Mercaptoethanol is a strong inhibitor of LADH. The inhibitory effect is likely due to the binding of the SH group to the enzymatic zinc ion. Various thiol compounds do not inhibit YADH and it is suggested that the zinc atoms involved in the catalytic mechanism of LADH and YADH may have different structural arrangements and that these zinc atoms in YADH may not be blocked by thiol compounds. Thiol compounds also quench the enhanced fluorescence of LADH-NADH in a pH-dependent manner. At pH 9.2, the binding of coenzyme to LADH is replaced by 2-mercaptoethanol, whilst at pH 7.3, it further quenches the fluorescence of NADH-LADH. This quenching of fluorescence is likely attributed to a conformational change and energy transfer upon binding of 2-mercaptoethanol to the LADH-NADH complex. Complete reversal of the inhibitory effect of thiol compounds on LADH can be obtained by dialysis.

  15. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined...

  16. Perfluorinated Compounds In The Ohio River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in waterways include pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), alkylphenols, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs). Their distributions and persistence in the aquatic environment remain p...

  17. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A.

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application. PMID:23060862

  18. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    PubMed

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects. PMID:27007730

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  20. ANALYSIS OF FISH HOMOGENATES FOR PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) which include PFOS and PFOA are widely distributed in wildlife. Whole fish homogenates were analyzed for PFCs from the upper Mississippi, the Missouri and the Ohio rivers. Methods development, validation data, and preliminary study results will b...

  1. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Ellis, Timothy W.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Hofer, Robert J.; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  2. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  3. Microwave spectra of some volatile organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-controlled microwave (MRR) spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. Tables of absorption frequency, peak absorption intensity, and integrated intensity are included for 26 volatile organic compounds, all but one of which contain oxygen.

  4. New twisted intermetallic compound superconductor: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.; Brown, G. V.; Laurence, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Method for processing Nb3Sn and other intermetallic compound superconductors produces a twisted, stabilized wire or tube which can be used to wind electromagnetics, armatures, rotors, and field windings for motors and generators as well as other magnetic devices.

  5. Energies of organic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this research was to gain information on the energies of organic compounds and on the factors that control energies. The work involved calorimetric measurements of energy changes and theoretical studies of intramolecular interactions and molecular energies.

  6. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    PubMed

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects.

  7. The Industrial Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for enriching an A-level chemistry course with a series of chemical company visits. The rationale is discussed for an emphasis of the visits on the industrial reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. (CS)

  8. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tuan-Phat; Mann, Shivani N.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases. PMID:23843879

  9. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  10. SEPARATION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM AND COMPOUNDS THEREOF

    DOEpatents

    Van Winkle, A.

    1959-07-21

    The separation of protactinium from aqueous solutions from its mixtures with thorium, uranium and fission products is described. The process for the separation comprises preparing an ion nitric acid solution containing protactinium in the pentavalent state and contacting the solution with a fluorinated beta diketone, such as trifluoroacetylacetone, either alone or as an organic solvent solution to form a pentavalent protactinium chelate compound. When the organic solvent is present the chelate compound is extracted; otherwise it is separated by filtration.

  11. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  12. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  13. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  14. Bioremediation and phytoremediation: Chlorinated and recalcitrant compounds

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Bioremediation and phytoremediation have progressed, especially with regard to the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Sites contaminated with chlorinated and recalcitrant compounds have proven more resistant to these approaches, but exciting progress is being made both in the laboratory and in the field. This book brings together the latest breakthrough thinking and results in bioremediation, with chapters on cometabolic processes, aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms, biological reductive dechlorination processes, bioaugmentation, biomonitoring, and phytoremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds.

  15. Hybrid compounds: from simple combinations to nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Sticht, Heinrich; Korth, Carsten

    2012-02-01

    The combination of two different and independently acting compounds into one covalently linked hybrid compound can convey synergy from the effects of both independently acting moieties to the new composite compound, leading to a pharmacological potency greater than the sum of each individual moiety's potencies. Here, we review a variety of such hybrid compounds, which can consist of various functional parts, molecular recognition or subcellular targeting moieties, or combinations thereof, acting either simultaneously or sequentially. Such moieties within a hybrid compound can consist of a variety of substance classes, including small organic molecules, polypeptides or nucleic acids identified either via rational molecular design or selection from libraries. Precedent for hybrid compounds comes from naturally occurring proteins and small molecules, such as botulinum toxin and bleomycin, which are secreted by micro-organisms. We review the high degree of suitability of hybrid compounds for the treatment of multifactorial diseases by simultaneously hitting several targets along an identified disease pathway. Examples are hybrid compounds against Alzheimer's disease, against the cancer-relevant phosphoinisitide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and epidermal growth factor signaling cascade, or in antimalarial therapy via simultaneous hitting of different mechanisms of hemozoin formation. Molecular recognition by peptides or aptamers (recognition-specific RNA or peptide sequences) can be combined with the transport of small molecule β-sheet breakers or toxins, or targeting to ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. The vision of molecular nanomachines is currently realized in sequentially acting modular nanotransporters, consisting of four modules including a target, a membrane and nuclear translocation sequence, as well as a drug attachment domain. Through the rational combination of existing drugs and the synergy of their effects, a rapid

  16. New biologically active compounds from Kenyan propolis.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Assya; Popova, Milena; Kuzmanova, Christina; Tsvetkova, Iva; Naydenski, Hristo; Muli, Eliud; Bankova, Vassya

    2010-09-01

    From propolis samples from Kenya, two new arylnaphtalene lignans were isolated, tetrahydrojusticidin B 1 and 6-methoxydiphyllin 2, along with four known phenolic compounds 5-8, found for the first time in propolis. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on their spectral properties. The geranylstilbenes 7 and 8 demonstrated antibacterial activity against S. aureus, and the geranylflavon macarangin 6 possessed antiradical activity against DPPH radicals.

  17. Particles and iodine compounds in coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Jones, Anna E.; Brough, Neil; Weller, Rolf; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Schoenhardt, Anja; Burrows, John P.; Fleming, Zoe L.

    2015-07-01

    Aerosol particle number concentrations have been measured at Halley and Neumayer on the Antarctic coast, since 2004 and 1984, respectively. Sulphur compounds known to be implicated in particle formation and growth were independently measured: sulphate ions and methane sulphonic acid in filtered aerosol samples and gas phase dimethyl sulphide for limited periods. Iodine oxide, IO, was determined by a satellite sensor from 2003 to 2009 and by different ground-based sensors at Halley in 2004 and 2007. Previous model results and midlatitude observations show that iodine compounds consistent with the large values of IO observed may be responsible for an increase in number concentrations of small particles. Coastal Antarctica is useful for investigating correlations between particles, sulphur, and iodine compounds, because of their large annual cycles and the source of iodine compounds in sea ice. After smoothing all the measured data by several days, the shapes of the annual cycles in particle concentration at Halley and Neumayer are approximated by linear combinations of the shapes of sulphur compounds and IO but not by sulphur compounds alone. However, there is no short-term correlation between IO and particle concentration. The apparent correlation by eye after smoothing but not in the short term suggests that iodine compounds and particles are sourced some distance offshore. This suggests that new particles formed from iodine compounds are viable, i.e., they can last long enough to grow to the larger particles that contribute to cloud condensation nuclei, rather than being simply collected by existing particles. If so, there is significant potential for climate feedback near the sea ice zone via the aerosol indirect effect.

  18. Spatial Angular Compounding of Photoacoustic Images.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Jae; Bell, Muyinatu A Lediju; Guo, Xiaoyu; Boctor, Emad M

    2016-08-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) images utilize pulsed lasers and ultrasound transducers to visualize targets with higher optical absorption than the surrounding medium. However, they are susceptible to acoustic clutter and background noise artifacts that obfuscate biomedical structures of interest. We investigated three spatial-angular compounding methods to improve PA image quality for biomedical applications, implemented by combining multiple images acquired as an ultrasound probe was rotated about the elevational axis with the laser beam and target fixed. Compounding with conventional averaging was based on the pose information of each PA image, while compounding with weighted and selective averaging utilized both the pose and image content information. Weighted-average compounding enhanced PA images with the least distortion of signal size, particularly when there were large (i.e., 2.5 mm and 7 (°)) perturbations from the initial probe position. Selective-average compounding offered the best improvement in image quality with up 181, 1665, and 1568 times higher contrast, CNR, and SNR, respectively, compared to the mean values of individual PA images. The three presented spatial compounding methods have promising potential to enhance image quality in multiple photoacoustic applications. PMID:26890642

  19. Compounding pharmacies: who is in charge?

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Labhsetwar, Sumedha; LeQuang, Jo Ann

    2013-03-01

    Compounding pharmacies play an increasing and increasingly important role in our healthcare system, but recent media attention has exposed limited regulatory control over these organizations at the same time their role is expanding. Compounding pharmacies are not regulated in the same manner as pharmaceutical companies and are governed largely by Chapter <797>, a monograph on the pharmaceutical compounding of sterile products, issued but not enforced by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention. Not all states require adherence to Chapter <797>, and those that do may choose not to enforce it stringently. Furthermore, Chapter <797> is not a strong standard--for example, it does not require documentation of drug lot numbers or cross-references for patient identification. Thus, there have long been many potential quality issues associated with compounding pharmacies. As these compounding pharmacies provide important products and services, better regulation is urgently needed. Moreover, clinicians should be better aware that some injectable products they use may have been prepared by a compounding pharmacy.

  20. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.