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  1. Presidential Address: The Woman in the Case Jane Todd Crawford, 1763-1842

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854

  2. Tumours of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours of the urinary bladder are uncommon in all domestic animals except cattle in certain regions. Where cattle eat bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) there is a high incidence of these tumours. Epithelial tumours are the most frequently encountered neoplasms in cattle and in dogs—the two species most studied. They are described under the following names: papilloma, adenoma, transitional cell carcinoma (with variants), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16 PMID:4371741

  3. Urinary Tract Refunctionalization After Prior Diversion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, W. Hardy

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-two children who had undergone previous urinary diversion were operated upon to refunctionalize the bladder. In 24 the diversion had been considered permanent, and in eight, temporary. Success in these procedures suggests that many young patients deserve a second look for possible “undiversion.” ImagesFig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17a.Fig. 17b.Fig. 18. PMID:4416811

  4. Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandahl-Barth, G.

    1957-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify all described species of African Bulinus. It is based upon the author's examination of a great number of specimens collected from many parts of Africa. The variations attributable to age, environment and genetic factors which may be noted in the taxonomic characters are discussed, and some new species and subspecies are established. For each recognized species and subspecies the author states the distinguishing characters, indicates the geographical distribution, and gives a list of synonyms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2(concluded)Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5(continued)Fig. 5(concluded)Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 16(concluded)Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 22(concluded)Fig. 23 PMID:13479773

  5. Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandahl-Barth, G.

    1957-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify all described species of African Biomphalaria and Bulinus. It is based upon the author's examination of a great number of specimens collected from many parts of Africa. The variations attributable to age, environment and genetic factors which may be noted in the taxonomic characters are discussed, and some new species and subspecies are established. For each recognized species and subspecies the author states the distinguishing characters, indicates the geographical distribution, and gives a list of synonyms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37 PMID:13479768

  6. Functional Plyometric Exercises for the Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J

    1995-01-01

    In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304

  7. Intersexes in swine: a problem in descriptive anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Halina, W G; Barrales, D W; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1984-01-01

    Accurate anatomical descriptions of ten intersex pigs were compiled through dissection and histological examination in order to identify specific groups of reproductive anomalies. Six different anatomical phenotypes were identified: four varieties of male pseudohermaphrodite, one type of female pseudohermaphrodite and one type of true hermaphrodite. The intersex phenomenon is complicated by the number of distinct anatomical phenotypes represented broadly by the term hermaphrodite. Therefore, accurate anatomical descriptions and precise terminology are prerequisites to defining the etiology of hermaphroditism and defining the modes of inheritance. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:6478301

  8. A maturation change detected in the semilunar cartilages with the scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Moshurchak, E M; Ghadially, F N

    1978-01-01

    The surface of rabbit, cat, monkey and human semilunar cartilages was examined with the scanning electron microscope. A common feature was the occurrence of numerous ridges, undulations and furrows on the surface, but this was thought to be due to marked shrinkage and distortion of cartilage not firmly attached to bone. Humps were seen on the semilunar cartilages of young animals, but pits occurred in adults. This is thought to reflect a maturation change. Humps were seen in a young human semilunar cartilage, but pits were not seen in adult specimens. It is not clear whether pits are truly absent or just masked by the severe ridging produced during the preparation of large human specimens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:99411

  9. Orthotics in Sports Shoes

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1983-01-01

    We are all born with a varying assortment of biomechanical discrepancies. Ordinarily these may be of no consequence, but to those who try to achieve excellence in a certain sport these discrepancies can spell the difference between success and failure. Some athletes may have to accept the fact that biomechanically the odds are against them ever becoming excellent and that intensive training may in fact be detrimental to their wellbeing. However, the majority can be helped with advice on proper shoe wear and orthotic correction. This article highlights the role of foot orthotics as indicated for various biomechanically-related problems commonly encountered in athletes. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23 PMID:21283401

  10. Myeloperoxidase and Crystalline Bodies in the Granules of DMBA-Induced Rat Chloroma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ioachim, Harry L.; Keller, Steven; Sabbath, Marlene; Andersson, Barbro; Dorsett, Brent; Essner, Edward

    1972-01-01

    Chloroma (chloroleukemia) was induced in a splenectomized rat by repeatedly administering dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and was serially transplanted thereafter. Composed of immature myeloid cells, the tumor imparted a green discoloration to the tissues that it infiltrated extensively. Chloroma cells fluoresced red in ultraviolet light, produced a characteristic curve in spectrophotometry, and contained large amounts of myeloperoxidase. They included numerous intracytoplasmic granules of both types A and B, which contained occasional crystalline bars. Permanent lines of chloroma cells were established in tissue culture. These cells, while maintaining their initial morphology, ceased producing myeloperoxidase and subsequently induced white tumors when they were isotransplanted. ImagesFig 12Fig 13Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4333120

  11. An ultrastructural study of the cere of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Purton, M D

    1988-01-01

    The relative scarcity of primary and secondary skin infections in birds depends, at least in part, on the functional morphological barrier presented by the avian integument. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopical techniques were used to study the ultrastructural morphology of the epidermal barrier in the cere of the domestic racing pigeon. The epidermis is composed of sebokeratocytes which are responsible for producing not only the keratin proteins of the keratinized stratum corneum, but also the lipid emulsion forming the surface lipid layer and filling the intercellular spaces. The possible importance and role of these components in the defensive barrier presented by the skin is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:3198483

  12. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Frederick A.; Whitfield, Sylvia G.

    1975-01-01

    Arenaviruses have unique structural characteristics; they are pleomorphic, have a mean diameter of 110-130 nm, and consist of a membranous envelope with surface projections surrounding an interior containing ribosomes and filaments. Virus particles bud from plasma membranes of infected cells and in many cases large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are formed. These characteristics allow generic identification, but not differentiation of individual viruses. Ultrastructural identification of virus particles and pathological processes in infected tissues of man and experimental animals is important in understanding the nature of arenaviral pathogenesis Such identification also contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of viral shedding and transmission in reservoir host species. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:182396

  13. The Spleen in Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrans, Victor J.; Buja, L. Maximilian; Roberts, William C.; Fredrickson, Donald S.

    1971-01-01

    Histochemical, biochemical, microfluorometric and electron microscopic studies were made of the spleen of a patient with type I hyperlipoproteinemia. Foam cells were observed that contained a material identified as ceroid on the basis of its autofluorescence, acid-fastness, sudanophilia, PAS-positivity and insolubility in organic solvents. Electron microscopy showed that the ceroid was organized in the form of granules with concentric lamellae of irregular periodicity. The process of formation of these granules is described in detail. The ceroid was considered to represent nondigestible end products of the metabolism of chylomicrons taken up by macrophages in splenic sinusoids. ImagesFig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 25Fig 26Fig 27Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 15Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 14Fig 16Fig 17Fig 21Fig 22Fig 23Fig 24Fig 28Fig 29 and 30 PMID:4326635

  14. Observations on the source of embryonic myocardioblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E W

    1976-01-01

    The light and electron microscopic appearance of mesenchymal and myoblastic tissue in the embryonic heart is described. The similarity in the morphological appearance of all mesenchymal cells is pointed out, whether they occur in atrioventricular cushion tissue, the ridge tissue of the bulbus, cordis, sub-epicardial tissue or in mesenchyme elsewhere in the embryo. Cells intermediate in their ultrastructure between mesenchymal cells and myoblasts are found. The significance of such cells is discussed and the suggestion made that their appearance is consistent with their representing stages in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into myoblasts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:1254531

  15. Corticosteroid-induced mandibular growth retardation and palatal malformation in the ICR mouse fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Silbermann, M; Levitan, S

    1979-01-01

    Pregnant ICR mice were treated with triamcinolone hexacetonide at various stages of gestation. The mandibular ramus and its condylar cartilage were studied histologically in both viable and non-viable offspring. In addition, measurements were made of the overall height of the posterior vertical dimension of the mandible and of condylar height and width. Significant changes were noted in these parameters. Concomitantly, marked changes were observed in the various zones of the condylar cartilage. A very high incidence of cleft palate was noted in newborn and stillborn mice previously treated with triamcinolone. A possible correlation between mandibular growth retardation and palatal clefting is discussed. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:489465

  16. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  17. Some aspects of neuroendocrine pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1987-01-01

    The advent of modern microscopical investigative methods for the determination of neuroendocrine differentiation has increasingly given credence to the original concept of a "diffuse endocrine system". These methods include a variety of silver impregnation techniques, technologically advanced light and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry, and, lately, the ability to localise specific binding sites by in vitro autoradiography and mRNA species by in situ hybridisation. Further insight has been gained into the possible role of regulatory peptides contained in the so called "diffuse endocrine system" and into the nature of disease processes by investigating the role of the system in benign and malignant disease. Images Fig 13 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 14 Fig 15 PMID:3312297

  18. Tumours of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Mackey, L. J.; Misdorp, W.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent renal tumours of animals are renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma. Renal cell carcinomas are seen mainly in dogs and cattle and nephroblastoma is encountered in pigs, puppies, and calves. Renal cell carcinomas are usually papillary in the dog. They show a marked propensity for vascular invasion, penetration of the posterior vena cava, and subsequent pulmonary metastasis. Nephroblastoma, which is morphologically identical to Wilms' tumour of children, is almost always a benign tumour in animals. It is one of the most frequent neoplasms of pigs, possibly owing to the fact that most pigs are slaughtered (and examined) when a few months old. Lymphosarcoma involving the kidney is particularly frequent in the cat, but is also seen in other species as part of a generalized disease. ImagesFig. 5,6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1,2Fig. 3,4Fig. 16,17,18,19Fig. 9,10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14,15 PMID:1086154

  19. A military surgical team in Belfast.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper details the experiences of a military surgical team in Belfast from 1972 to early 1974. The overall picture of the problem is given and the current management of 'war' injuries discussed. Up to February 1974 over 1000 servicemen have been injured in Northern Ireland as a result of the vivil disturbance. Over 200 have died. Because of the close proximity of the hospital to many battle areas, casualties may arrive with massive injuries, requiring major resuscitation. Limb wounds have predominated. There is no short cut to adequate wound debridement, especially in the surgery of high-velocity missile injury. Missile wounds of the large bowel require a colostomy. Formal thoracotomy is increasingly used for the through-and-through gunshot wounds of the chest. Controlled ventilation is playing an increasingly important role in the management of some missile wounds of the head. Mine and bomb explosions frequently cause multiple injuries, requiring extensive surgery on any one patient. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 16 PMID:238456

  20. The ventricular system of the pigeon brain: a scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Mestres, P; Rascher, K

    1994-01-01

    The fine structural features and regional differences of the ependyma in adult pigeons have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Pigeons of either sex were fixed with buffered glutaraldehyde (3%) and formaldehyde (0.5%) by intravascular perfusion. The brain was dissected using section planes adequate to expose each part of the ventricular system. The specimens were then dehydrated, critical point dried and sputtered with gold. Depending upon the distribution of cilia, microvilli and single cilia, different areas were recognised in the 4 ventricles. The topographic locations of these areas were determined using the atlas of Karten & Hodos (1967). The medial surfaces of the 1st and 2nd lateral ventricles are more densely ciliated than the lateral surfaces. In the floor of the 4th ventricle the medial part is less ciliated than the lateral parts. The circumventricular organs (subseptal organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, infundibulum, choroid plexus, subcommissural organ, area postrema) show very characteristic surfaces and are surrounded by a transitional zone with the nonspecialized ependyma. In contrast, in the paraventricular organ the transition to the nonspecialized ependyma is rather abrupt. The ependyma covering the trochlear nucleus appears densely ciliated, differing from that of the classic circumventricular organs. Finally, the existence of openings in the caudal medullary velum, which represent direct communications between the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, was demonstrated. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8157492

  1. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  2. Pathological changes in the navicular bone and associated structures of the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Doige, C E; Hoffer, M A

    1983-01-01

    Navicular bones from 74 horses were examined at necropsy. Animals ranged in age from eight months to 30 years. Eight horses had a clinical history of navicular disease. Degenerative lesions in the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone and of the surface of the deep flexor tendons were age related changes not necessarily related to lameness. These lesions were more extensive in horses with a history of navicular disease, and were often accompanied by adhesions and subchondral cavitation of the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone. Osteophytes, present in 12 of the 74 horses, appeared to be age-related and were uncommon in horses with a history of navicular disease. Nutrient foramina on the distal border of the navicular bone were highly variable in size and shape; in horses with a history of navicular disease they often had a small external opening that became larger as it penetrated the bone. Occlusive vascular disease (arteriosclerosis) was found in sound horses and in horses with a history of navicular disease. Thrombosis of arteries or ischemic necrosis of bone was not identified in any case. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:6667428

  3. Early Development of and Pathology Associated with Strongylus edentatus

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B. M.; Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes and were examined at necropsy from two to 56 days postinfection. Larvae penetrated the intestine and reached the liver intravenously before 40 hours postinfection. Occasional thrombi and larval tracks associated with the intima of cecal and colic veins suggested aberrant paths. Larvae in the liver doubled in width between seven and 15 days postinfection and a sudden increment in circulating eosinophils occurred between 11 and 15 days. These changes were probably associated with the third molt. At 30 days fourth stage larvae were migrating in the liver; at 42 days they were present in the hepatorenal ligament. White foci were observed in the liver from two to 56 days. They contained mononuclear cells and eosinophils and later necrotic cores of eosinophils. By one month foci were overshadowed by tortuous tracks of migrating larvae. Aberrant larvae in the lungs were confined in granulomas. Massive granulomas in the wall of the cecum and colon contained small larvae which were probably inhibited by antibody associated with the third molt. Severe disruption of omental architecture and adhesions involving the intestine occurred several weeks after infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20.Fig. 21.Fig. 22.Fig. 23.Fig. 24. PMID:4274818

  4. Strongylus edentatus: development and lesions from ten weeks postinfection to patency.

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B M; Slocombe, J O

    1978-01-01

    Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were examined at necropsy from ten to 72 weeks postinfection. At ten weeks postinfection larvae were visible retroperitoneally in the liver and flanks and were recovered from the ligaments of the liver. The fourth molt was detected at 16 weeks postinfection and larvae were also recovered from the wall of the cecum at this time. By 40 weeks adult S. edentatus containing eggs were found in the contents of the cecum and colon. While many larvae migrate to remote parts of the body, it is likely that only those that attain the base of the cecum are successful in establishing in the cecum and colon as adult forms. By 36 weeks postinfection no larvae were found in the liver and up to this time none were found in the peritoneal cavity. Larvae were not recovered from the parenchyma of the lungs. Adhesions and disruption of omental architecture were frequent changes observed throughout infection. Casts of necrotic eosinophils enclosing tracks and larvae were observed beneath the intima of major veins of the cecum and colon. The liver was rough and the capsule thickened at 16 and 20 weeks postinfection and the flanks remained edematous until 36 weeks postinfection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:688075

  5. Pediatric osteomyelitis and septic arthritis: the pathology of neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The morphologic and histologic examination of over fifty-five foci of metaphyseal/epiphyseal osteomyelitis and eleven septic joints from five cases of neonatal osteomyelitis and joint sepsis are described in detail. The severity of the bone and joint involvement varied considerably, allowing a better understanding of the pathophysiologic sequence of events in the disease in the neonatal time period. Of particular importance were (1) the multifocal nature of the disease, (2) the highly variable destruction of the growth plate (physis) by several discrete mechanisms, and (3) the invasion of the chondroepiphysis through the cartilage canal systems. Two of the cases died from respiratory complications several months following presumed successful treatment of their skeletal infections. S&pecimens showed significant growth plate damage continuing beyond the neonatal period. These findings support the need for rapid diagnosis and drainage, whenever feasible, to prevent long-term skeletal growth damage. The severity of involvement also should emphasize that this disease, especially in the neonate, is not an innocuous condition, as a recent review suggested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 14 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 18 FIG. 19 FIG. 20 PMID:524924

  6. The microstructure of colonies of the Connaught BCG strain*

    PubMed Central

    Šula, L.

    1970-01-01

    It has previously been shown that there is a certain correlation between the biological properties of BCG strains—properties on which their immunogenicity and allergenicity depend—and the macroscopic appearance of the growth of these colonies on solid and liquid media. To investigate this phenomenon in greater detail, the author examined the microstructure of colonies of the Connaught BCG strain grown on both solid and liquid media. Colonies were fixed in agar, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. A striking finding was the alternation of acid-fast and non-acid-fast zones in colonies grown on bovine-serum agar or Ogawa egg medium; the strata nearest the surface of the solid media were usually more acid-fast than were the deeper strata. Colonies grown in Šula's liquid medium, on the other hand, showed no such stratification and were equally acid-fast at all points. These differences may be the result of genetic factors or of the different nutritional conditions provided by solid and liquid media. ImagesFIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:4925828

  7. Current Concepts of the Pathogenesis and Pathology of Inflammatory Lesions of the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Shnitka, Theodor K.

    1964-01-01

    The histopathologic lesions of regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis, particularly in their early stages, are distinct and distinguishable, irrespective of the sites that are involved. Regional enteritis is characterized by lymphangiectasis, lymphedema, lymphoid hyperplasia, and granulomatous inflammation of the submucosal and subserosal layers of intestine, whereas chronic ulcerative colitis is an exudative, ulcerative disorder of the mucosal layer that commences with “crypt abscesses” and only in its later stages progresses to deeper coats of the wall. Electron microscopy of a rectal biopsy from a juvenile patient with chronic ulcerative colitis for five years disclosed a labyrinthine system of clefts and compartments between columnar, mucosal epithelial cells. Regenerated colonic epithelial cells were of primitive, germinal type and featured a “vesicular” rather than a “goblet” pattern of mucus secretion. Clusters of small “clavate fimbriae” projected from the tips of microvilli. Each of these newly recognized substructures measured 30 to 60 mμ. in diameter, and was enclosed by a tri-laminar “unit membrane”, derived from the surface plasma membrane of the cell. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19 PMID:14182565

  8. Conservative surgical treatment of reflux esophagitis and esophageal stricture.

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, J L; Wright, R S; Edwards, W H; Sawyers, J L

    1975-01-01

    During a recent 3-year period, 17 consecutive patients were seen with advanced fibrotic esophageal strictures secondary to alkaline-acid-pepsin reflux. From detailed preoperative evaluations alone it was impossible to determine whether therapy should consist of excisional surgery, esophagogastroplasty or intra-operative dilatation with correction of reflux. Only at operation could the length, extent, degree and severity of the stricture be fully determined. Each of the 17 patients was treated by controlled dilatation, coupled with an antireflux procedure. This simplified approach proved successful on strictures thought preoperatively to be undilatable. It appears that this conservative approach is applicable to many advanced strictures and excisional and plastic procedures should be reserved for those cases that prove unyielding to intraoperative dilatation. The true appraisal of a reflux stricture and the choice of surgical procedure is best determined at the operating table. Images Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:1130874

  9. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  10. Mammary-carcinoma cells in mouse liver: infiltration of liver tissue and interaction with Kupffer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, E.; Dingemans, K. P.; Van de Pavert, I. V.; Van den Bergh-Weerman, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Interactions between TA3 mammary-carcinoma cells and liver cells were studied with the electron microscope in mouse livers that had been perfused with a defined medium containing the tumour cells. Infiltration of liver tissue by the TA3 cells proceeded in the following steps. First, numerous small protrusions were extended through endothelial cells and into hepatocytes. Next, some cells had larger processes deeply indenting hepatocytes. Finally a few tumour cells became located outside the blood vessels. Two variant cell lines, TA3/Ha and TA3/St, differing in cell coat and surface charge, did not differ in the extent of infiltration. TA3/Ha cells were often encircled by thin processes of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). Encircled cells were initially intact, but later some of them degenerated. These observations suggest that TA3/Ha cells were phagocytized by the Kupffer cells. Encirclement appeared to be inhibited after only 30 min, when many cells were still partly surrounded. Encirclement of TA3/St was much less frequent. After injection of tumour cells intra-portally in vivo, similar results were obtained, which demonstrated the validity of the perfused liver model. TA3/Ha cells formed much fewer tumour nodules in the liver than TA3/St cells. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:687522

  11. Sertoli cells and various types of multinucleates in the rat seminiferous tubules following temporary ligation of the testicular artery.

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, M

    1986-01-01

    The effects of temporary ligation of the testicular artery have been analysed in rats with respect to Sertoli cells and multinucleated spermatogenic cells. The first cells to show ultrastructural changes are the Sertoli cells which progressively degenerate, leading to complete necrosis as the duration of ligation and post-ligation survival interval increases. The degree of degeneration of spermatogenic cells depends on the severity of Sertoli cell destruction. Temporary ligation of the testicular artery causes the formation of various types of multinucleated spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous epithelium. The mechanisms involved in the multinucleate formation are cell fusion, karyokinesis devoid of cytokinesis and phagocytosis. The variety of noxious agents causing formation of multinucleated spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules of a number of species including man implies that the occurrence of multinucleated spermatogenic cells is not a specific response of the testis to a particular type of agent. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:3693041

  12. Lung development in the marsupial bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, R T

    1986-01-01

    The transformation of the terminal sacs present in the newborn into the alveoli observed in the adult, and the tissue and cellular composition of the interalveolar septum at various stages of lung development, were examined in the developing bandicoot. Lungs from 22 bandicoots, aged from 1 day postpartum to adult, were fixed with a glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde fixative and processed for examination of their structure. The respiratory region of the newborn lung is formed from terminating sacs, approximately 300-500 microns in diameter, which are delineated by thick connective tissue septa, have a highly vascularised internal lining and are present from birth until approximately Day 35 postpartum. The large blind sacs are then gradually replaced by alveoli, approximately 80 microns in diameter. In the juvenile and adult bandicoot, the connective tissue septa of the sacs are no longer discernible and a larger area of the blood capillaries of the lung is adjacent to the air within the alveoli. The changes in lung structure throughout pouch life probably reflect the increased respiratory requirements of the developing young. Although the time sequence of lung development in the eutherian differs from that in the marsupial, the adult form of the lung in both animal groups is similar in structure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3693087

  13. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  14. Growth of the pectoralis muscle of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, M M

    1982-01-01

    The pectoralis muscle from growing house sparrows was investigated using linear, gravimetric, histological and ultrastructural techniques. The structure of the muscle at different stages of development was discussed in relation to known behavioural activities, such as the onset of regular wing exercising and thermogenic shivering in the nestlings. Fibres in the pectoralis muscle of birds about to fledge (15 day nestlings) were similar in composition to fibres in muscles from fully fledged juveniles, with two exceptions. Firstly, numerous lipid droplets had accumulated adjacent to mitochondria in fibres from the pectoralis muscle of the nestlings. This lipid could act as a readily available source of energy for the birds on fledging. Secondly, masses of ribosomes and irregularly shaped myofibrils were present, indicating the continued elaboration of the contractile apparatus in fibres from the pectoralis muscle of the 15 day nestlings. The inefficient flight of newly fledged house sparrows may be accounted for by the size of the pectoralis muscle relative to total body weight. The total contractile material in the muscle of the birds about to fledge was estimated to be 60% or less of that found in fully fledged juveniles, while the body weight was nearly that of an adult bird. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:6305900

  15. Ultrastructural study on the plical epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius in chick embryos: influence of partial decerebration and hypophyseal allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, N; Baldassini, M R; Abelli, L; Aita, M; Mastrolia, L

    1996-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius of 18 day normal and partially decerebrated chick embryos, and partially decerebrated embryos bearing a hypophyseal allograft was analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, focusing on the ultrastructural characterisation of the plical epithelium. The plicae of the normal bursa consist of interfollicular (IFE) and follicle associated epithelium (FAE). The FAE is composed of typical polygonal cells and is supported by a layer of epithelial cells which appears as a continuation of the corticomedullary epithelium. Bordering cells lie between the FAE and IFE. The IFE is composed of 4 cell types: (1) undifferentiated, (2) goblet, at various stages of maturity, (3) prismatic, and (4) globular light cells. Partially decerebrated embryos showed a gross impairment of plical epithelium development and the complex of FAE and IFE cells was largely undifferentiated. Partially decerebrated embryos with a hypophyseal allograft displayed the same cellular types as observed in controls, thus indicating a restored differentiation of plical epithelium. These findings suggest that the hypophysis affects the differentiation of plical epithelium during ontogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs 8-11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:8655413

  16. Development of the ovary in the brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula (Marsupialia).

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, S L

    1996-01-01

    The urogenital region of 25 fetuses and 75 pouch young, ranging in age from newborn to 103 days (d) in development, was examined in serial histological sections. The rete ridges formed the anterior extensions of the gonadal ridges and gave rise to the rete system and gonads respectively. Sexual differentiation of the ovary commenced 2.5 d after birth, when 2 cell types appeared: the larger of these then clumped together to form the medullary cords, while the smaller cells gave rise to the stroma. Primordial germ cells were still migrating, dividing and populating the peripheral gonadal regions on d 8. Cortex and medulla were distinguishable by d 12, when a thick fibrous zone separated them. The cortex was augmented by cells from the mesothelium. The rete ovarii developed from cell condensations within the rete ridges, made secondary contact with the mesonephroi and penetrated the ovaries but did not contribute to the granulosa cells. It is concluded that, contrary to the situation in most eutherians, in Trichosurus, as in other marsupials examined, the mesonephros does not contribute to rete formation, or to the granulosa cells, which appear to arise from the medullary cords. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Figs. 22-23 PMID:8982841

  17. Encrustation and Atherosclerosis: The Analogy Between Early in Vivo Lesions and Deposits Which Occur in Extracorporeal Circulations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E. A.; Rowsell, H. C.; Downie, H. G.; Robinson, G. A.; Mustard, J. F.

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the relation between the pattern and topography of thrombus formation in models of various vessel configurations coupled into extracorporeal shunts in swine and the development of atherosclerosis at corresponding sites on swine aortas. The pattern and distribution of deposits formed in the models were strikingly similar to the pattern and distribution of incipient atherosclerosis at comparable sites in the vascular tree. The earliest and only consistent component of the flow chamber deposits was the blood platelet. The platelet deposits would frequently stain with oil red O. The cholesterol level of washed human platelets was found to show a good correlation with that in the plasma. This evidence suggests that deposition of particulate matter (chiefly platelets), largely determined by the hydraulic factors, may be an important factor in the early, as well as later, stages of atherosclerosis. ImagesFigs. 10a and bFig. 13Fig. 21Fig. 1Fig. 3Figs. 4a and bFig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:14477412

  18. Effect of a Transient Period of Ischemia on Myocardial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kloner, Robert A.; Ganote, Charles E.; Whalen, Daniel A.; Jennings, Robert B.

    1974-01-01

    Changes produced in the posterior papillary muscle of the dog following 40 minutes of circumflex artery occlusion and 0 to 20 minutes of blood reflow were studied by electron miroscopy. With no reflow of blood, myocardial cells were modestly swollen, contained amorphous matrix densities in the mitochondria, had aggregation and margination of nuclear chromatin and relaxation of myofibrils. With as little as 2 minutes of blood reflow, cells developed contraction bands and were greatly swollen due to a generalized increase in sarcoplasmic space, formation of vacuoles and swelling of mitochondria. Frequently, cell membranes were lifted away from the myofibers, forming large subsarcolemmal blebs which appeared capable of compressing adjacent capillaries. The extracellular space did not appear to be enlarged, and the marked tissue edema found after reflow was due primarily to accumulation of intracellular fluid. In addition to explosive cell swelling, there was, over the 2- to 20-minute period of reflow, a progressive increase in size and number of granular mitochondrial dense bodies of the calcium accumulation type. No significant changes in lysosomes were observed. The speed with which the morphologic changes developed during very early reflow periods suggests that irreversible ischemic injury produces a defect in cell volume regulation during the phase of ischemia and that this defect becomes manifest if arterial flow is restored to the affected cells. ImagesFig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4814895

  19. A morphological comparison of treatment with different beta-lactam antibiotics on experimental staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; McColm, A. A.; Acred, P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis with five different beta-lactam antibiotics (ceftazidime, cephaloridine, cefotaxime, methicillin and flucloxacillin) was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. It was found that therapy with all five antibiotics produced similar morphological changes. At 3 and 8 h, the bacterial colonies showed zonal changes with the bacteria furthest from the lumen exhibiting less severe damage while the outer region consisted largely of lysed cells. However, in the outer zone a few apparently viable, thick-walled persistent bacteria were observed. At 24 and 48 h, many colonies consisted of large masses of lysed bacteria with only a few thick-walled persistent bacteria. In all cases, therapy was associated with an increased host inflammatory cell response resulting in invasion of leucocytes through the aortic wall or vegetation towards and engulfing the colonies. However, even at 48 h the inflammatory cells had not reached all the deep-seated colonies. It would appear that all the antibiotics reached bactericidal concentrations within the lesions. However, the eradication of the few 'persistent' bacteria was delayed by the inability of the inflammatory cells to reach all the colonies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:2206986

  20. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  2. Electron Microscopy of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, T. S.

    1965-01-01

    The use of the electron microscope has added much to our knowledge of the cell. The fine structure of the component parts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm is described, and their functions are indicated. The nature and structural modifications of the plasma membrane are illustrated with particular reference to function. To illustrate the interrelationships of the nucleus and cytoplasm, the theory of protein secretion is discussed, the secretion of a particular protein or polypeptide being determined by a particular nucleotide sequence in the desoxyribonucleic acid of a chromosome, that is, by a gene. This information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm that the majority of the work is performed while the nucleus directs the work of the cell. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:5829410

  3. The Nature of D-Serine-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ganote, Charles E.; Peterson, Darryl R.; Carone, Frank A.

    1974-01-01

    Renal structural changes were studied sequentially between 1 hour and 6 days in rats treated with D-serine. Extensive necrosis of proximal straight tubules was rapid in onset and was followed by complete tubular regeneration 6 days post-treatment. The apparent progression of cellular changes was initial shrinkage, followed either by swelling and loss of apical cytoplasm or immediate lysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear contents. Tubular damage left only the basement membrane as a barrier between interstitial and luminal fluids. In similarly treated rats, proteinuria and glucosuria developed at the onset of tubular necrosis and disappeared when the tubules were completely relined by epithelium suggesting that they are due to diffusion of protein and glucose from interstitium into tubular fluid across the denuded basement membranes and that epithelial cells, under normal conditions, act as a barrier to diffusion of certain substances between the interstitium and tubular fluid. ImagesFig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9 PMID:4447130

  4. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. III. Silver and dietary supplements of ascorbic acid. Histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1989-01-01

    Silver-loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into loose connective tissue of the rat pinna produced a local reaction. Initially the lesion comprised local necrosis and tissue disruption with predominantly small round cell infiltration. The subsequent organization was delayed and disordered. Fibroblasts developed grossly dilated cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The matrix contained poorly orientated collagen fibrils of varying size and ground substance appeared condensed and granular. Distorted collagen fibrils were identified within membrane-bound vacuoles in the cytoplasm of both fibroblasts and macrophages. Abnormalities of the silver lesion were indicative of disordered collagen biosynthesis. Silver interfered with the biosynthesis and assembly of matrix components of the connective tissue. The reaction to silver beads in rats maintained on a diet heavily supplemented with ascorbic acid approached that of the control (sodium-loaded bead) with respect to the time scale, tissue reaction and tissue organization. The collagen matrix which formed was more organized and of greater density than that in the rat maintained on a normal diet. However, the repair tissue retained some of the morphological features of the legacy of silver toxicity, in particular delayed repair and dense intracellular fibrils within fibroblasts and macrophages. The excess of ascorbic acid partially ameliorated the effect of silver, possibly by compensating catabolysis of ascorbic acid caused by the presence of the released silver. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2923787

  5. The Fine Structure of Experimentally Induced Connective Tissue Complexes in the Human

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, W. W.; Richter, K. M.; Schilling, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The growth, development and cellular activity of fibrocollagenous tissue complexes induced by the implantation of specially structured wire mesh cylinders in 22 human male volunteers were studied during the time course of fibroplasia utilizing light and electron microscopic techniques. The fibrocollagenous tissue complexes after 4 to 16 weeks of development demonstrated highly ordered lamellations made of zones consisting primarily of fibroblasts and zones consisting primarily of collagenous fibers. The development of the ordered lamellations is referable to specific fibrillogenic activities by the constituent fibroblasts. The initial role of the fibroblast in fibrillogenesis is indicative of an apocrine-like secretory process followed by a holocrine-like role which results in cytodestruction and concurrent formation of an avascular collagenic tissue referable to an organizing cicatrix in a healing wound. ImagesFigs. 1-3.Figs. 4-9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Figs. 13, 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18, 19.Figs. 20-22.Fig. 23.Fig. 24. PMID:4599224

  6. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  7. Radiologic assessment in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, R. I.

    1984-01-01

    The severely ill infant or child who requires admission to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) often presents with a complex set of problems necessitating multiple and frequent management decisions. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role, not only in the initial assessment of the patient's condition and establishing a diagnosis, but also in monitoring the patient's progress and the effects of interventional therapeutic measures. Bedside studies obtained using portable equipment are often limited but can provide much useful information when a careful and detailed approach is utilized in producing the radiograph and interpreting the examination. This article reviews some of the basic principles of radiographic interpretation and details some of the diagnostic points which, when promptly recognized, can lead to a better understanding of the patient's condition and thus to improved patient care and management. While chest radiography is stressed, studies of other regions including the upper airway, abdomen, skull, and extremities are discussed. A brief consideration of the expanding role of new modality imaging (i.e., ultrasound, CT) is also included. Multiple illustrative examples of common and uncommon problems are shown. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 14 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 18 FIG. 19 FIG. 20 FIG. 21 FIG. 22 FIG. 23 FIG. 24 FIG. 25 FIG. 26 FIG. 27 FIG. 28 FIG. 29 FIG. 30 FIG. 31 FIG. 32 FIG. 33 PMID:6375164

  8. Comparative morphology of the accessory olfactory bulb in bats.

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, H D; Bhatnagar, K P

    1980-01-01

    Bouin-perfused brains of 148 bats (76 species, 48 genera, 8 families) were examined in serial sections for the presence of an accessory olfactory bulb. A moderate to well developed AOB was identified in 26 species. However, absence of an AOB in a particular species does not preclude its presence in some other species of that genus. Descriptions and measurements of the AOBs of each species are reported. The unmyelinated vomeronasal nerve enters the bulb medially and posteriorly. The glomeruli, variable in diameter, appear better circumscribed than previously described. Mitral cells often form thick layers, up to five cells deep, which sometimes reach the dorsolateral surface of the bulb formation. Both external and internal plexiform layers are thin. The latter, however is seen only in a few species. The internal granular layer, reaching the ventricular ependyma in some species, is a prominent component of the bulb. The pars dorsalis of the lateral olfactory tract usually courses between the mitral and internal granular layers. The chiropteran AOB does not differ in significant detail from that of insectivores, primates and other mammals. The occurrence of a functional vomeronasal system in the frugivorous, nectarivorous, and sanguivorous Phyllosotomatidae points to a primary functional role of this system in feeding strategy, at least in bats. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7400042

  9. Structure of the glandular layer and koilin membrane in the gizzard of the adult domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Akester, A R

    1986-01-01

    The koilin membrane is formed by the secretions of gland, crypt and surface epithelial cells. Glands form a continuous layer and are arranged in groups of 10-20. They are straight tubes about 500 microns long and 15 microns in diameter and produce rodlets of hard koilin. Hard koilin rodlets (5 microns diameter) form clusters of five or six as they pass through the crypts and enter the koilin membrane. Each rodlet hardens within its gland and maintains its individuality throughout its entire length. Rodlet clusters have previously been called 'rods'. Most of the softer koilin, which fills the spaces between the rodlet clusters, is produced by the surface epithelial cells. These cells form gentle arches between the cavities of adjacent crypts. Horizontal branches between rodlet clusters ('rods') do not exist. There is approximately twice as much surface koilin as rodlet koilin within the membrane. Abrasion of the koilin membrane is not uniform but occurs in a patchy fashion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3693065

  10. Ultrastructure of rabbit semilunar cartilages.

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, F N; Thomas, I; Yong, N; Lalonde, J M

    1978-01-01

    A light and transmission electron microscopical study of 6 to 8 months old rabbit semilunar cartilages has shown that the cells in this tissue resemble chondrocytes more than fibroblasts. The prominent organelles in these cells were rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. An unusual finding was the occurrence of filamentous material in Golgi sacs and vesicles, and collagen fibrils within smooth membrane-bound tubular structures, apparently within the cells. Collagen fibrils forming fibres, fibre bundles and lamellae constituted the major component of the menisci. Protein-polysaccharide particles and associated fine filaments were found in the interfibrillary matrix and in the sparse territorial matrix adjacent to the chondrocytes. Numerous immature elastic fibrils, and rare mature elastic fibres with an electorn-lucent amorphous core, were also found in the general matrix amongst the collagen fibrils. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:580431

  11. Electron microscope cytochemistry of host—parasite membrane interactions in malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Langreth, Susan G.

    1977-01-01

    Two membrane-bound enzymes were localized by electron microscope cytochemical techniques in Plasmodium lophurae and its host erythrocyte. Parasites were prepared by saponin lysis, French pressure cell lysis, or anti-red blood cell serum lysis; infected and uninfected erythrocyte ghosts were prepared by saponin or French pressure cell lysis. Enzyme incubations were performed on unfixed cells. Adenosinetriphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3) activity was found on the inside of the ghost membrane and on the inside of the outer parasite membrane. NADH oxidase was found on the outside of the erythrocyte membrane and on the outside of the parasite outer membrane. The parasite plasma membrane was negative for both enzymes. The location of both enzymes on the outer parasite membrane were reversed from what one would have expected if the outer membrane had remained merely an invaginated erythrocyte membrane. It is concluded that the outer membrane, although derived from the red cell membrane, has been altered by its association with the malarial parasite. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:145326

  12. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of dog and guinea-pig hyaline articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D L; O'Connor, P; Oates, K

    1981-01-01

    Fifty seven blocks of cartilage excised from the femoral condyles of 20 beagle dogs, and whole lower ends of 5 guinea-pig femora, were examined at -195 degrees (78 K), by scanning electron microscopy. The unfixed tissue, taken into slushy nitrogen at -210 degrees (63 K), was not exposed to atmospheric air after quenching and remained fully hydrated throughout long periods of observation. Images susceptible to analysis were obtained from washed and from unwashed cartilage surfaces. Preliminary coating with gold or with aluminium, known to be possible without exposing cold cartilage surfaces to changes in temperature likely to cause water loss by sublimation, was valuable in minimising charging and in facilitating the recording of electron images at higher magnifications. Although examination was possible without coating, the resultant images were of low resolution. Microscopy revealed a pattern of secondary surface irregularities of tertiary elevations closely resembling those seen by the conventional scanning electron microscopy of fixed, dehydrated hyaline cartilage. However, the pattern of tertiary surface structures was predominantly that of elevations, not of hollows. Quaternary surface ridges were common on the surfaces of excised dog cartilage blocks and were not seen on the surfaces of guinea-pig cartilage which remained on the femoral condyles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7024225

  13. The fine structure of proliferating cartilage cells: structural changes in an experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Scheck, M; Parker, J; Sakovich, L

    1975-01-01

    Extensive development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and comparatively less developed Golgi membranes were seen in the cells of chondrocyte clusters which had formed in the vicinity of cartilage defects produced by intra-articular papain and cortisone injections. These cells frequently showed myelin-like membranous figures. These figures were seen either close to the cell membrane, or between cells, or connected to the nuclear envelope or the endoplasmic reticulum. The hypothesis is advanced that the myelin figures are made from redundant material which was not used for membrane formation. Cortisone, which is known to interfere with mitochondrial function and general metabolic processes, could have been responsible for the deficiency in membrane differentiation and transfer. This investigation was supported by grants from the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and from the Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee of the School of Medicine, Univeristy of California, San Francisco. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7, 8 and 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Figs. 16 and 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 PMID:1141047

  14. Cryoscanning electron microscopic study of the surface amorphous layer of articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, S; Yonekubo, S; Kurogouchi, Y

    1995-01-01

    In order to elucidate the structure near the articular surface, frozen unfixed hydrated articular cartilage with subchondral bone from the pig knee was examined using a cryoscanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM). This method is considered to reduce the introduction of artefacts due to fixation and drying. An amorphous layer, without a collagen-fibril network or chondrocytes, covered most of the surface of the cartilage. This layer was termed the surface amorphous layer. It showed various appearances, which were classified into 4 groups. The average thickness of the layer did not differ among the 8 anatomical regions from which the specimens were taken. The thickness of the layer was found to correlate with the type of appearance of the layer. The 4 appearances associated with thicknesses in descending order are: 'streaked', 'foliate', 'spotted', and 'vestigial'. The surface layer observed in the cryo-SEM was thicker than that observed by a conventional SEM. This difference may be attributable to dehydration of the specimen used in specimen preparation for the latter technique. The layer was also observed in articular cartilage taken from human and rabbit knees. The layer was found to be unstable and to have very variable features. Its thickness and appearance may be influenced by various factors such as dehydration, fluid absorption or mechanical stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:7592006

  15. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  16. Selenium toxicity and porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia: description of a field outbreak and experimental reproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T M; Scholz, R W; Drake, T R

    1983-01-01

    An acute afebrile paretic condition was diagnosed in 18 of 225 feeder pigs between eight to ten weeks of age. Nine pigs died acutely, seven pigs were euthanatized and two appeared to recover. Macroscopic lesions in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements consisted of focal, bilateral, depressed areas. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of endothelial proliferation, glial cell reaction and microcavitation. Similar lesions were observed in some brain stem motor nuclei. High selenium levels were detected in the pig feed and in pig tissues and blood. Two of five experimental pigs fed a commercial grower ration and supplemented with 52 ppm selenium as sodium selenite developed paresis and paralysis after a 29 day feeding trial. Histopathological lesions of focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia confined to the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements, and identical to those in the field cases, were produced. Select brain stem motor nuclei were also affected. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:6667430

  17. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  18. The nuclear membranes in hypertrophied human cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrans, V. J.; Jones, M.; Maron, B. J.; Roberts, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear membranes of cardiac muscle cells were studied in 134 patients with cardiac hypertrophy of various causes. Abnormalities observed consisted of: a) increased foldings and convolutions; b) nuclear pseudoinclusions formed by cytoplasmic organelles protruding into saccular invaginations of the nuclear membranes, and c) intranuclear tubules. The increased foldings and convolutions of the nuclear membranes and the nuclear pseudoinclusions appear to result from synthesis of nuclear membranes in excess of that needed to accommodate the increase in nuclear volume which occurs in hypertrophy. Intranuclear tubules were found in 6 patients and consisted of tubular invaginations, 400 to 650 A in diameter, of the inner nuclear membranes into the nucleoplasm. Some of these tubules were straight and cylindrical, and were associated with a peripheral layer of marginated chromatin; others were not associated with chromatin, appeared coiled and followed irregular courses. Intranuclear tubules in cardiac muscle cells probably represent an extreme cellular response to the stimulus of hypertrophy. Images Fig 21 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 1 Fig 15 Fig 2 Figs 3 and 4 Fig 5 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 6 Fig 18 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 19 Fig 20 PMID:164122

  19. The ultrastructure of eosinophil granules of the black-necked crowned crane.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M H

    1979-01-01

    The fine structure of the granules of circulating eosinophil leucocytes was studied in five adult black-necked crowned cranes. The interna within these granules showed various crystalline arrangements. Optical diffraction patterns of the crystals revealed linear arrangements measuring 6.2 and 3.8 nm and often, when these arrangements were superimposed, a hexagonal pattern was observed. Bundles of microfilaments measuring 5-7 nm in diameter were found frequently in crystal-containing granules. Staining with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and various other cytochemical procedures gave results similar to those obtained previously in the shag and the duck. The PTA stain and peroxidase reaction product were found only in the externum of the granules whereas the acid hydrolases, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase were located within the crystalline matrix and in or between the microfilaments. As with shag eosinophil granules, those of the crane did not appear to contain histone arginine and in this respect they differed from those of the duck and the fowl. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:422484

  20. Immunologic Observations in Canine Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Krohn, Kai; Mero, Matti; Oksanen, Aili; Sandholm, Markus

    1971-01-01

    Immunofluorescence studies in cases of chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) in the dog demonstrated deposition of canine IgC and C'3 in the thickened capillary walls of the glomeruli and in the mesangium. Eluates obtained from the nephritic kidneys contained antibodies of IgG type and reacted with autologous or homologous nephritic kidneys but not with normal kidneys or with any normal canine tissue. The staining pattern of fluorescein-conjugated eluates was similar to that obtained with anti-canine IgG or anti-canine C'3. The eluates did not contain leptospiral antibodies. The findings indicate that complement-fixing immune complexes are deposited in the damaged glomeruli in CIN. The nature of the antigen involved in these complexes is unknown, but it does not seem to be a component of normal canine tissue and could thus be viral or bacterial. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4106382

  1. Light microscopic histochemical and immunohistochemical localisation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in the rooster comb and wattle tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, T; Imai, S; Koga, T; Sim, J S

    1996-01-01

    Comb and wattle tissues, which consist of layers of epidermis, dermis and central connective tissue, are known to contain sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including dermatan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate-dermatan sulphate copolymers. Little is known about distribution of these CAGs in each tissue. The objective of this study was to localise sulphated GAGS in the comb and wattle tissues from mature roosters. Monoclonal antibodies 6D6, CS-56 and AH12 specific to dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (decorin), chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate, respectively, were used. In both tissues, 6D6 epitope was found to be more concentrated in the superficial layer of dermis and the central connective tissue than in the intermediate layer of dermis containing fibromucoid tissue. The staining pattern for 6D6 epitope was similar to that for collagen fibres. In contrast, CS-56 epitope was uniformly distributed in most parts of the dermis and the central connective tissue. The stratum germinativum in the epidermis was the major tissue showing positive staining with AH12, haematoxylin and safranin-O. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8982840

  2. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of peripheral T cell lymphomas: a proposal for their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Suchi, T; Lennert, K; Tu, L Y; Kikuchi, M; Sato, E; Stansfeld, A G; Feller, A C

    1987-01-01

    Based on the results of histological and immunohistochemical observations of a large number of peripheral T cell lymphomas from China, England, Germany and Japan, histological and cytological morphology were correlated with immunophenotype, aetiological association with HTLV-1, and clinical behaviour to produce a working classification of the T cell lymphomas. This classification, based mainly on cytological criteria, divides the peripheral T cell lymphomas into tumours of low grade and high grade malignancy. Adult T cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) is caused by HTLV-1 and belongs chiefly to the high grade category. Some tumours are characterised by an admixture of other cells (epithelioid cells, follicular dendritic cells, etc) and structures (high endothelial venules, follicles), which may indicate the secretion of lymphokines by the tumour cells. Clear cells seem to be specific for T cell lymphomas and may occur in various types of peripheral T cell lymphoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 PMID:3312308

  3. Strongylus equinus: development and pathological effects in the equine host.

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B M; Slocombe, J O

    1985-01-01

    The development and pathological effects of Strongylus equinus were studied in 17 pony foals and one horse foal raised in isolation and examined at necropsy from seven days to 40 wk postinfection (PI). Following inoculation of 15000 +/- 6% or 16000 +/- 6% infective larvae by stomach tube foals were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes. Larvae penetrated the wall of the ileum, cecum and colon. The molt to the fourth stage occurred mostly in the wall of the ventral colon before 2 wk PI and larvae attained the liver mainly via the peritoneal cavity as early as eight days PI and persisted in the liver until 17 wk PI. Following active migration within the liver, invasion of the pancreas was accomplished at least by 7 wk PI with maximum numbers at 17 wk. The fourth molt occurred about 15 wk PI and preadults were present in the wall of the ventral colon at 30 wk PI and in the lumen of the colon at 40 wk. Strongylus equinus tends to wander retroperitoneally to the flanks, perirenal fat, diaphragm, omentum and occasionally to the lungs. Between 1 and 4 wk PI small raised hemorrhagic areas were present on the serosa of the ileum and colon. Small white foci on the surface of the liver at 1 wk PI were followed by tortuous tracks 3 wk later. Pathological changes in the pancreas were evident at three months PI and more severe by four months. Granulomas containing larvae were common in the flanks, diaphragm, omentum and occasionally beneath the pleura of the lungs. Clinical signs were correlated with invasion of the pancreas, the fourth molt, maximum globulin values and high eosinophil counts. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:4075237

  4. Light and electron microscopical observations on the Leydig cells of the scrotal and abdominal testes of naturally unilateral cryptorchid West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeasor, D N

    1985-01-01

    The structure of interstitial cells of Leydig in the scrotal and abdominal testes of adult West African dwarf goats was studied utilising light and electron microscopy. The Leydig cells in both testes were scattered singly, in cords or clusters in the intertubular connective tissue in close proximity to vascular elements. The intertubular connective tissue in the abdominal testes was however much wider because of the hypoplasia of the seminiferous tubules. While the cells of the scrotal testes exhibited non-granular, pale staining cytoplasm, those of the abdominal testes were darkly staining and the majority contained coarse intracytoplasmic osmiophilic granules Interspersed amongst these cells were adipose cells occasionally distributed overall. With the electron microscope, it was found that agranular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were more prominently developed in the scrotal testes. In marked contrast, there were numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the Leydig cells in the abdominal testes. Furthermore, the cytoplasm of several of these cells showed evidence of degeneration. It is concluded that, contrary to observations in the experimentally induced condition, abdominal retention of testes in natural unilateral cryptorchidism induces alterations in the light microscopical and ultrastructural features of the Leydig cells of West African dwarf goats, changes which possibly can be ascribed to the chronic decline in testicular blood flow and the elevated temperature of the abdominal environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2867081

  5. Structural changes in fluorosed dental enamel of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from a region with severe environmental pollution by fluorides.

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, U; Kierdorf, H; Sedlacek, F; Fejerskov, O

    1996-01-01

    A macroscopic, microradiographic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the structure of fluorosed dental enamel in red deer from a fluoride polluted region (North Bohemia, Czech Republic). As was revealed by analysis of mandibular bone fluoride content, the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation in the fluorotic deer was about 6 times that in controls taken from a region not exposed to excessive fluoride deposition. In all fluorosed mandibles, the 1st molar was consistently less fluorotic than the other permanent teeth. This was related to the fact that crown formation in the M1 takes place prenatally and during the lactation period. Fluorosed teeth exhibited opaque and posteruptively stained enamel, reduction or loss of enamel ridges, moderately to grossly increased wear and, in more severe cases, also enamel surface lesions of partly posteruptive, partly developmental origin. Microradiographically, fluorosed enamel was characterised by subsurface hypomineralisation, interpreted as a result of fluoride interference with the process of enamel maturation. In addition, an accentuation of the incremental pattern due to the occurrence of alternating bands with highly varying mineral content was observed in severely fluorosed teeth, denoting fluoride disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis. A corresponding enhancement of the incremental pattern was also seen in the dentine. The enamel along the more pronounced hypoplasias consisted of stacked, thin layers of crystals arranged in parallel, indicating that the ameloblasts in these locations had lost the distal (prism-forming) portions of their Tomes processes. The findings of the present study indicate that red deer are highly sensitive bioindicators of environmental pollution by fluorides. Images Figs 2-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 PMID:8655406

  6. Platelet Interaction with Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The interaction of several common strains of bacteria with rabbit or human platelets in vitro has been examined sequentially with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Bacteria were added to platelets in their native plasma or to washed platelets in a balanced salt solution at ratios of about 1:1 or at low bacteria to platelet ratios (down to 1:100). The platelet-bacterial interaction (PBI) was studied with recording nephelometry. Matched samples were fixed for microscopy at various points in the aggregation response. The results support these conclusions: a) Bacteria stimulate platelet aggregation by direct contact and adhesion with the platelet surface. b) Adhesion between the two cell types requires divalent cations, occurs through fusion of normal cell-surface coats and appears identical in the presence or absence of extracellular plasma protein. c) The morphologic transformation of platelets during PBI is identical to that produced by collagen. d) During PBI the bacteria are incorporated into the forming platelet aggregates and reside predominantly intercellularly. e) Phagocytosis of bacteria by a single platelet is very rare. f) Bacteria which have resided within platelet aggregates for one hour are unaltered morphologically. g) PBI occurs even at very low bacterial numbers and produces platelet-bacterial aggregates in small numbers without stimulating generalized platelet aggregation. Methods for concentration of thrombocytopenic plasma and washing human platelets are presented. ImagesFig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 12Fig 13Fig 3Fig 14Fig 4Fig 5 PMID:4632008

  7. Tumours and dysplasias of the mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, J. F.; Misdorp, W.

    1974-01-01

    As mammary tumours occur frequently in the dog and cat but rarely in other domestic animals, only the tumours of these two species are classified. The epithelial tumours are termed “complex” when they consist of cells resembling both secretory and myoepithelial cells: these tumours are biologically less malignant than tumours of the “simple” type in which only one of these kinds of cell is present. The carcinomas are subdivided into adenocarcinoma, solid carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. The term “carcinosarcoma or malignant mixed tumour” was used only when there were cells morphologically resembling not only one or both of the epithelial components but also connective tissue cells with their products of differentiation. The benign tumours are classed as adenoma, papilloma, fibroadenoma, or benign soft tissue tumour. The dysplasias are described under the following headings: cyst, adenosis, regular typical epithelial proliferation in ducts and lobules (epitheliosis), duct ectasia, fibrosclerosis, and lobular hyperplasia. ImagesFig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36 PMID:4371737

  8. Surgical management of chronic pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Sabiston, D C; Wolfe, W G; Oldham, H N; Wechsler, A S; Crawford, F A; Jones, K W; Jones, R H

    1977-01-01

    The clinical course of most patients with pulmonary embolism is one of gradual resolution with re-establishment of flow in the pulmonary arteries. In a small but definite group of patients, the emboli do not resolve and a state of chronic pulmonary embolism ensues. The primary thrombotic process in the systemic venous system may persist, and in some instances may be unrecognized. Such patients experience recurrent showers of emboli which may ultimately occlude a large part of the pulmonary arterial circulation with development of severe respiratory insufficiency. Six patients with this syndrome are described, and in each there was a history of dyspnea, cyanoiss, and exercise intolerance associated with a low arterial PO2, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary scans and arteriograms demonstrated that more than half of the major pulmonary arteries were occluded and, in addition, smaller vessels were also obstructed. Pulmonary embolectomy was performed in each patient. Five of the 6 obtained a highly gratifying response, including relief of the dyspnea and cyanosis, an increase in arterial PO2, and a decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure. In each of the five in whom improvement occurred, the back-bleeding from the pulmonary artery at the time of embolectomy was quite good. In the sixth patient, the back-bleeding was very poor, and despite embolectomy, the vessel thrombosed postoperatively with no improvement in the patient's clinical course. Follow-up studies in these patients range up to 8 years with demonstration of continued patency of the pulmonary arteries as well as continued improvement in clinical symptoms and in the arterial PO2. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 6C Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 11D. Fig. 12. Fig. 12B. Fig. 13 Fig. 1. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19.. PMID:871224

  9. Surface ultrastructure of the epithelia lining the normal human lower urinary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J.; Hicks, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The finding of cells with pleomorphic microvilli in urinary sediments has been proposed as an indicator for urothelial neoplasia. Recently, in addition to such cells, others with less bizarre, non-pleomorphic microvilli have also been found in urothelial cancers, and these cells are similar in appearance to others detected in the urinary sediments of healthy people. When using scanning electron microscopy as a diagnostic tool, these cells are a possible source of confusion. The entire lower urinary tracts from people free of urothelial neoplasia have therefore been examined to delineate the normal surface appearance of all cell types which could appear in the urine. There are 4 predominant cell types: the large, flat squamous cells of the urethral meatus which have abundant microridges; cells with mucus-coated, short, stubby microvilli lining the urethra and renal papilla; immature urothelial cells with chains and ridges of bleb-like processes in the ureters and bladder; and, also in the ureters and bladder, mature urothelial cells with microridges or ruffles. The lining epithelia of the normal urethra and renal papilla may thus contribute cells with non-pleomorphic stubby microvilli to urine sediments, which cannot be differentiated by scanning electron microscopy alone from similar cells derived from urothelial neoplasms. However, the normal complement of cells lining the adult lower urinary tract does not include any with prolific, long, pleomorphic microvilli such as characterize transitional-cell carcinomas of the urothelium. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 PMID:7248168

  10. A light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the innervation of axillary lymph nodes in juvenile and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, G E; Schöttelndreier, A; Heuer, T

    1993-01-01

    The innervation of axillary lymph nodes from 20 juvenile rats (aged < 6 wk) was compared with that of 20 old rats (aged > 2 y). One half of each group was investigated by light microscopy on silver-impregnated paraffin sections, the other half by electron microscopy. The lymph nodes of the old animals were larger than those of juvenile animals, as derived from the volumes analysed by light microscopy. By both light and electron microscopy, the nerves were found to be confined almost exclusively to the medulla and were frequently associated with groups of plasma cells. Nerves identified as cortical in location were consistently found only in cortical areas adjacent to the medulla. In the old animals the nerves were thicker and more prominent in the light microscopic preparations. No such differences were noted at the ultrastructural level. Myelinated nerves were found in all lymph nodes, except in a single old animal. Quantitative analysis of the nerves revealed a significant increase in the density of innervation of the medulla in the old animals both by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy there also appeared to be a significant increase in the innervation density of the cortex, but these nerves were considered to be mislocalized because of difficulty in precise localisation at this level of magnification. On light microscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of nerve branching was found in the nodes of the old animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:8270476

  11. Structural differentiation of the male genital ducts of the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed Central

    Djakiew, D; Jones, R C

    1981-01-01

    Seven ductuli efferentes radiate from the testis of the echidna and join the ductus epididymidis either directly or after joining one of their neighbours. They are pigmented brown and appear to be structurally and functionally similar to the ductuli efferentes of therian mammals. The epididymis is anatomically differentiated into a large head and small tail which appear to be, respectively, larger and smaller than the similar regions of the epididymis of scrotal mammals; they also contain, respectively, larger and smaller proportions of the animals' extragonadal spermatozoa. Only the head of the epididymis is adjacent to the testis: the tail and the ductus deferens are distal to the testis. The ductus epididymis is also histologically differentiated into two segments (initial and terminal segments) which correspond precisely with the anatomical differentiation. The initial segment is structurally similar to the initial segment of the epididymis of scrotal mammals (i.e. tall epithelium with long stereocilia, a farily homogeneous supranuclear cytoplasma containing Golgi apparatus and a low concentration of spermatozoa in the lumen). The terminal segment has adaptations of the duct (as in scrotal mammals) for the storage of spermatozoa such as a wide lumen containing a high concentration of spermatozoa, low epithelium and thick layers of periductal muscle. However, it is peculiar in that the duct epithelium is thrown into folds and it is involved in considerable apocrine secretion. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Figs. 16-19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Figs. 23-24 PMID:7275798

  12. Radioisotope scanning of brain, liver, lung and bone with a note on tumour localizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Radioisotopic scanning of brain, liver, lungs and the skeleton is briefly reviewed with a survey of recent developments of clinical significance. In brain scanning neoplasm detection rates of greater than 90% are claimed. The true figure is probably 70-80%. Autopsy data shows a number of false negatives, particularly with vascular lesions. Attempts to make scanning more specific in differentiating neoplasm from vascular lesions by rapid sequence blood flow studies are reviewed. In liver scanning by means of colloids again high success rate is claimed but small metastases are frequently missed and the false negative scan rate is probably quite high. Lung scanning still has its main place in investigating pulmonary embolic disease. Ventilation studies using Xenon 133 are useful, particularly combined with perfusion studies. The various radiopharmaceuticals for use in bone scanning are reviewed. The appearance of technetium labelled phosphate compounds will probably allow much wider use of total skeletal scanning. Research into tumour localizing agents continues, the most recent and interesting being Gallium citrate and labelled bleomycin. Neither agent is predictable however although Gallium may have a place in Hodgkins disease and bronchogenic neoplasm and both may have a place in the detection of cerebral tumours. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3p452-bFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5bFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 12c & 12dFig. 13Fig. 13 b,c,dFig. 14Fig. 14bFig. 15Fig. 15bFig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4602127

  13. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  14. Response of the rat to saccharin with particular reference to the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Chowaniec, J.; Hicks, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female Wistar rats were administered sodium saccharin for life (2 yr) either in the drinking water or diet. The maximum palatable dose of saccharin in the drinking water was found to be 2 g/kg/day and, even then, there was some voluntary restriction of fluid intake in the males. By contrast, double this dose--namely 4 g/kg/day, was palatable in the diet. A control group of rats of both sexes received saccharin-free diet and drinking water. Mild urothelial hyperplasias developed from 85 weeks in rats of both sexes receiving saccharin either in the drinking water or diet; the incidence was statistically significant in both the bladders and kidneys of rats receiving the higher dose of saccharin in the diet, but in the kidneys only of rats receiving the lower dose of saccharin in the drinking water. Telangiectasia of the vasa recta was significant in saccharin-treated rats of both sexes at both doses. A very low incidence of bladder tumours, exclusively in males receiving the higher saccharin dose in the diet was seen from 95 weeks. No consistent relationship between bladder epithelial hyperplasias and crystalluria could be demonstrated, although all 3 bladder tumours were associated with some form of mineralisation. Results suggest a particular susceptibility of males to saccharin treatment. The possibility that saccharin may promote, or enhance, the development of latent tumour cells already present in the experimental population, rather than initiate carcinogenesis per se is considered. Images Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:36123

  15. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  16. Normal and abnormal consequences of apoptosis in the human heart: from postnatal morphogenesis to paroxysmal arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    James, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    Apoptosis and necrosis are two distinctly different forms of cell death and both occur in the human heart. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis is not associated with inflammation and there are two reasons for this. The apoptotic cell does not swell or rupture prior to its being engulfed by either a macrophage or even a neighboring like cell. And the phagocytosis occurs with unusual rapidity. Apoptosis, also thought of as cell suicide, is a tidy way of removing cells no longer useful, in essence a form of selective deletion. These features make apoptosis a valuable component of morphogenesis, mediation of hormonal and immunological responses, and the homeostatic balance between hypertrophy and atrophy or involution. In the human heart apoptosis has been found in the sinus node of patients with the long QT syndrome. It most likely participates in the important postnatal morphogenesis of the sinus node, AV (atrioventricular) node and His bundle. Apoptosis may also participate in the genesis and pathophysiology of cardiomyopathy, paroxysmal arrhythmias or conduction disturbances (some of which may be responsible for sudden death), focal fibromuscular dysplasia of small coronary arteries, hereditary medial degeneration of the tunica media of coronary arteries, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. The possible role of apoptosis in numerous other changes in the human heart merit future investigation, among them being the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and mechanisms of ageing in the myocardium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7974966

  17. The Histology and Histopathology of the Dental Innervation

    PubMed Central

    Bradlaw, Robert

    1939-01-01

    The presence of a perivascular neural plexus in the periodontal membrane suggests that the dental structures have both sensory and autonomic nerve supply. The fibres described by Mummery are unaffected by section of the inferior dental nerve although there is marked degeneration in all demonstrable nerves. Nerve-fibres have been observed describing simple and complex looping in the odontogenetic zone and others which, running tangentially between the odontoblast layer and the dentine, form a very definite nerve plexus. Attached to these nerve-fibres are numerous round or pear-shaped bodies which may be either nerve-cells or end-organs. Definite nerve-fibres have been traced into the dentine. The convoluted forms described by growing nerve-fibres approaching transplanted teeth did not resemble the nerve-loops previously reported in the periodontal membrane of monkey and man. Plexiform nerve-fibres have been seen in the gum of the cat and varicose nerve-fibres in the gum of the sheep. In man, intra-epithelial fibres have been observed which pass from the intra-papillary neural coils to terminate near the surface of the epithelium in knob-like endings. No abnormality of innervation has been found in supernumerary teeth and teeth from cleft palates, dentigerous and ovarian cysts, and in the pulps of denticles from compound odontomes. Since there is no difference in the innervation of heterogenous and autogenous tooth-germ transplants, whether of normal or abnormal form, it would seem that abnormalities of form are not due to abnormal innervation. The development and degeneration of the peripheral nerves and the changes produced in the dental innervation by local and general disease in man and experimental animals are described and discussed. ImagesFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19992023

  18. The collagen fibril organization in human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Minns, R J; Steven, F S

    1977-01-01

    In this scanning electron microscopic study blocks of collagen fibrils were prepared from human articular cartilage, using two techinques which selectively removed either the proteoglycans alone, or both the proteoglycans and the collagen fibrils, of the non-calcified cartilage layer. Amino acid analysis of the fibrils confirmed the purity of the collagen after proteoglycan extraction. The cartilage was scanned in four different ways: (1) normal to the articular surface, (2) in superficial sections, (3) on surfaces of blocks which had been broken in planes parallel to artificial splits make by the insertion of a pin, and (4) on fracture surfaces which traversed the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone. Five features of the organization of the collagen fibrils were specially noted: (1) Individual fibrils within the trabeculae joined to form small fibre bundles which became grouped into larger bundles at the calcified/uncalcified interface. (2) Fibrils in the deep and middle zones which, exhibiting the characteristic surface periodicity of collagen, were generally oriented towars the articular surface in large bundles approximately 55 micronm across. (3) In the superficial zone, fibrils ran parallel to the surface. (4) The surface fibrils had random orientation, even at the bases of empty lacunae vacated by chondrocytes during specimen preparation. (5) The collagen fibrils of the lacunar walls appeared to be thinner and more closely packed than thos between the lacunae. The fine collagen fibrils associated with the lacunar walls were frequently observed to pass through a large lacunar space, resulting in the formation of two or more compartments, each of which was presumably filled with a chondrocyte in the living cartilage. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:870478

  19. Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine articular and epiphyseal cartilage: light ane electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, R; Christian, R G; Nakano, T; Aherne, F X; Thompson, J R

    1981-01-01

    Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine were studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in articular cartilage and light microscopy and epiphyseal cartilage of swine from three days to 30 weeks of age. Thickness, cellularity and vascularity of both the epiphyseal and articular cartilage, decreased as the swine aged. Osteochondrotic changes included formation of "plugs" of cartilage indicating localized failure of ossification and separation and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage. Eosinophilic streaks and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage was observed in relation to epiphyseal separation. Electron microscopy showed a continuous fibrillar layer on the surface of the cartilage corresponding to the lamina splendens of light microscopy. This layer increased in the thickness and showed accumulation of amorphous material between the fibrils with aging. In the matrix, the orientation and distribution of the collagen fibers changed with growth and thicker fibers with clear sub banding were more common in older age groups. Also, necrotic cells, glycogen containing bodies and cellular debris were noticed in the matrix of normal cartilage in old animals. Chondrocytes in the younger cartilage showed accumulation of organelles responsible for protein synthesis; while Golgi bodies, vesicles, lysosomes, well developed foot processes and other inclusions were noticed in older cartilage. Cartilage erosions had a clumped and disrupted lamina splendens on the surface and electron lucent patches in the ground substances of the matrix and chondrocyte cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2 and 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10 and 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. PMID:7260732

  20. Immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone: histopathological and hormonal changes in the female rat.

    PubMed Central

    Okon, E.; Livni, N.; Koch, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Immunization of female rats against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) resulted in cessation of the oestrus cycles, undetectable serum gonadotrophin levels and a reduction of pituitary gonadotrophin stores and of hypothalamic content of GnRH. Immunization abolished the post-ovariectomy rise in serum levels and in pituitary content of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) without affecting prolactin levels. This suggests that GnRH is involved in the regulation of synthesis as well as the secretion of LH and FSH. Histopathological changes were found in the pituitary, ovaries and uterus of the immunized rats. A marked reduction in the number of gonadotrophs as well as a small decrease in the size of other cells was observed in the pituitaries of rats having high anti-GnRH titres. Rats immunized 5 weeks before castration showed a marked reduction in the number and in the size of castration cells. The ovaries exhibited various degrees of atrophy which were correlated with the anti-GnRH titres. Rats with high anti-GnRH titres revealed extensive atrophy of stromal cells with disappearance of large follicles and corpora lutea; ovaries of rats with low titres of antibodies exhibited small corpora lutea and larger follicles, some of which were cystic. Uteri of rats having high titres of anti-GnRH were severely atrophied with cystic glandular dilation. Uteri of rats with low anti-GnRH titres showed squamous-cell metaplasia and fibrosis of the endometrial stroma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:7006665

  1. Tumours of the liver and biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarkov, V.; Mackey, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    In this histological classification of liver and gall bladder tumours the tumour types largely correspond to those found in man. The most common tumours in this group are liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086149

  2. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  3. The pineal organ of bats: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, K P; Frahm, H D; Stephan, H

    1986-01-01

    blood vessels. Epithelium-lined cavities are seen in the pineals of several species, while in a few others, the pineal is either absent or consists of a few scattered cells. Variable relationships between the pineal and the habenular commissure suggest that they may be unrelated functionally. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 PMID:3693069

  4. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-01-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persists in an eccentric position. This residual lumen transmits blood to the portal system from paraumbilical and systemic sources, and is retained in the upper part of the vein, even in old age. A similar process of lumen closure is observed in the ductus venosus. In early childhood the lower third of the vein undergoes breakdown, with fatty infiltration, resulting in its complete division into vascular fibro-elastic strands, and in old age some breakdown occurs in the outermost part of the wall of the upper two thirds. The paraumbilical veins are thick-walled and of similar structure to the umbilical vein. Together they constitute an accessory portal system which is confined between the layers of the falciform ligament and is in communication with the veins of the ventral abdominal wall. The constituents form an ascending series, namely, Burow's veins, the umbilical vein, and Sappey's inferior and superior veins. The main channel of Sappey's inferior veins may be the remnant of the right umbilical vein since it communicates with the right rectus sheath and often communicates directly with the portal system within the right lobe of the liver. The results are of significance in relation to clinical usage of the umbilical vein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 PMID:7400038

  5. Ultrastructural aspects of oocyte growth in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum).

    PubMed Central

    Falconnier, C; Kress, A

    1992-01-01

    involves the incorporation of endocytotic vesicles and the coalescence of larger vesicles. Ordinary fixation procedure leave the vesicles empty. Cortical granules are found only in small numbers. Images Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 PMID:1304586

  6. Tissue Localization of Australia Antigen Immune Complexes in Acute and Chronic Hepatitis and Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Nowosławski, Adam; Krawczyński, Krzysztof; Brzosko, Witold J.; Madaliński, Kazimierz

    1972-01-01

    membraneous glomerulonephritis, panarteritis and simple arteriolar hyalinosis were found at sites of localization of these deposits. ImagesFig 21Fig 22Fig 23Fig 24Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 25Fig 26Fig 27Fig 28Fig 29Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20 PMID:4628111

  7. Comparative studies on the distribution of binucleate cells in the placentae of the deer and cow using the monoclonal antibody, SBU-3.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C S; Gogolin-Ewens, K; Brandon, M R

    1986-01-01

    , granule transfer seems to be the primary function of binucleate cell migration. The histological classification of the mature placenta of the deer and the cow is epitheliochorial. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:3693070

  8. Identification of Membrane Protein Associated with Sucrose Transport Into Cells of Developing Soybean Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Ripp, Kevin G.; Viitanen, Paul V.; Hitz, William D.; Franceschi, Vincent R.

    1988-01-01

    The photolyzable sucrose derivative 6′-deoxy-6′-(4-azido-2-hydroxy)-benzamidosucrose (6′-HABS), competitively inhibited the influx of [14C] sucrose into protoplasts from developing soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv Wye) cotyledons. Photolysis of 125I-labeled 6′-HABS in the presence of 10 millimolar dithiothreitol and microsomal preparations from developing soybean cotyledons led to label incorporation into a moderately abundant membrane protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 62 kilodalton (kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 62 kD protein was partially protected from labeling by the inclusion of 100 millimolar sucrose in the photolysis medium and also by the inclusion of 10 millimolar phenyl α-d-thioglucopyranoside. Glucose, raffinose, or phenyl α-d-3-deoxy-3-fluoroglucopyranoside did not afford even partial protection from labeling. When the photolyzable moiety of 6′-HABS was attached to 6-deoxy-6-aminoglucose and 125I labeled, the resulting photoprobe did not label the 62 kD protein above background. The labeled protein at 62 kD is therefore apparently a specific, sucrose binding protein. Sucrose influx into cotlyedons of less than 25 milligrams fresh weight (approximately 10 days after flowering) occurred by passive processes, but metabolically dependent uptake became dominant over the next 5 to 7 days of development. Both the Coomassie staining protein at 62 kD and label incorporation at that position in analysis of membrane proteins appeared concomitant with the onset of active sucrose influx. Polyclonal antibodies to the purified 62 kD protein bound specifically to a protein in the plasmalemma of thin sections prepared from cotyledons and density stained with colloidal gold-protein A. The results suggest that the 62 kD membrane protein is associated with sucrose transport and may be the plasmalemma sucrose transporter. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14

  9. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  10. From Osler to Olafson. The evolution of veterinary pathology in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, L Z

    1987-01-01

    of instruction. However, by 1884, Osler had already left his indelible imprint on the students (both medical and veterinary) he had taught in Montreal, one of whom took over the teaching of pathology in the veterinary college. Another, who followed Osler's example and also studied in Berlin with Virchow, wrote the first book in the English language on veterinary post mortem technique in 1889.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:3552167

  11. The morphology of the lung of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Reptilia: Ophidia: Elapidae). A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1989-01-01

    evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Lymphatic System of the Teeth and Jaws

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Alexander

    1936-01-01

    are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818

  13. Pacesetters of the American image or (a case for a pleasant diversion).

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369

  14. Presidential Address: a history of appendicitis. With anecdotes illustrating its importance.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, G R

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred years after its anatomical description, the appendix was observed to be the site of inflammatory disease. This was not widely accepted until the publication by Fitz 120 years later. American surgeons led in demonstrating that early appendectomy was safe and life saving. Perforation of the appendix with peritonitis continues to be a significant problem, but the mortality rate has dramatically declined. Appendiceal disease has clearly affected the course of history. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 15. PMID:6342553

  15. Apical disease: an analysis of diagnosis and management with special reference to root lesion resection and pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Winstock, D.

    1980-01-01

    Apical disease is discussed against a background of a hitherto assumed high percentage of cystic and bacteriologically sterile lesions, both these concepts being challenged by the author's own investigations. Techniques are described for posterior root resection with emphasis on the conservability of apically diseased teeth, even in the presence of systemic diseases. Open operation is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of apical disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7396345

  16. Tumours of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Head, K. W.; Nielsen, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lung tumours are not common in domestic animals; there has not been the increase in epidermoid carcinomas and anaplastic small-cell carcinomas that has occurred in man this century. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in animals. The biological behaviour of each type of tumour in animals seems to be much the same as in man. The tumours are described histologically, the main categories being: epidermoid carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumours, bronchial gland tumours, benign tumours, and sarcomas. ImagesFig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4371738

  17. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-10-04

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  18. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  19. Mediastinoscopy: a diagnostic procedure in hilar and paratracheal lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, J. R.; Mitchell, D. N.

    1971-01-01

    Mediastinoscopy, in the skilled hands of a thoracic surgeon, is a safe, cosmetically accepted procedure with negligible complications, less than that reported in many series of scalene node biopsies. It has the advantage of yielding a much higher rate of diagnostic tissue, in all instances over 90%. In the cases of tuberculosis it enabled an organism to be isolated and sensitivities obtained. It has also revealed a group of cases with findings, a further study of which may increase our understanding, assessment and management of patients presenting with hilar and/or paratracheal lymphadenopathy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Figs. 3-6Figs. 7-10Fig. 11Fig. 12Figs. 13 and 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:4110536

  20. Abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in a patient with alpha heavy chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gafter, U; Kessler, E; Shabtay, F; Shaked, P; Djaldetti, M

    1980-01-01

    A patient with alpha heavy chain disease (alphaHCD), who showed an abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in 10% of the bone marrow cells, is described. The mesenteric lymph nodes, which showed reactive hyperplasia in the first biopsy, transformed later to a malignant lymphoma and finally to a plasma cell tumour. The small intestine revealed villous atrophy, diminished crypts, and intact surface epithelium. The ultrastructure of the goblet and epithelial cells appeared to be normal, and the microvilli were preserved except for circumscribed areas of destruction. The lamina propria was heavily infiltrated with mononuclear cells, mainly mature plasma cells. Alpha heavy chains (alphaHC) were found in the patient's saliva. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:6767755

  1. Selection of a Microbiological Corrosion System for Studying Effects on Structural Aluminum Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, H. G.; Miller, C. E.; Halkias, J. E.; Hildebrand, J. E.

    1964-01-01

    Two laboratory methods, a metal-strip test and a tank test, were evaluated as microbiological corrosion systems for producing corroded test specimens on a structural aluminum alloy. The results show that corrosion of the test alloy occurred best in the metal-strip test in a deionized water-fuel medium inoculated with a mixture of microorganisms under aerated conditions. The metal-strip test was more successful for producing large numbers of corroded test specimens and proved more economical than the tank-type test, since less structural material is needed to obtain a specimen with sufficient corrosion areas, and since the corrosion can more easily be restricted by maskants to certain areas for specific test purposes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 PMID:16349646

  2. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. II. Lead: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1987-01-01

    Lead loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into the loose connective tissue of the rat pinna induced local lesions which differed widely from those of the control (sodium loaded) beads (Ellender & Ham 1987). These lesions were characterized by changes in the granulation tissue and the approximating connective tissue. Granulation tissue contained mononuclear phagocytes in various guises, and some cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. The matrix of the granulation tissue contained collagen fibrils having a wide range of diameters suggestive of altered collagen biosynthesis. Foci of collagen mineralization occurred in zones of combined trauma and lead impregnation. Once mineralized they became enveloped by giant cells and epithelioid cells. Lead in damaged tissues is thought to modify the protective mechanism of calcification inhibition and the biosynthesis of the matrix. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3040063

  3. Spontaneous Atherosclerosis in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Santerre, Robert F.; Wight, Thomas N.; Smith, Samuel C.; Brannigan, David

    1972-01-01

    The interpretation of metabolic studies related to early changes in spontaneous atherosclerosis has been hampered by the focal nature of the disease and by the lack of a well-defined model system of the disease process. Gross, histologic and ultrastructural observations of lesion development at the celiac bifurcation of the aorta in atherosclerosis-susceptible White Carneau and atherosclerosis-resistant Show Racer pigeons are compared and discussed in terms of hemodynamics, muscular aggregation and altered metabolism of smooth muscle cells. Detailed knowledge of the morphologic sequence of events in lesion localization makes the celiac bifurcation in White Carneau and Show Racer pigeons a useful model for genetic comparisons of arterial wall metabolism and for investigating metabolic alterations occurring with atherogenesis. ImagesFig 9Fig 10Fig 1Fig 2Fig 10Fig 11Fig 3Fig 4Fig 12Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8 PMID:4261591

  4. The role of lung imaging in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Mishkin, Fred S.; Johnson, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    The advantages of lung scanning in suspected pulmonary embolism are its diagnostic sensitivity, simplicity and safety. The ability to delineate regional pulmonary ischaemia, to quantitate its extent and to follow its response to therapy provides valuable clinical data available by no other simple means. The negative scan effectively excludes pulmonary embolism but, although certain of its features favour the diagnosis of embolism, the positive scan inherently lacks specificity and requires angiographic confirmation when embolectomy, caval plication or infusion of a thrombolytic agent are contemplated. The addition of simple ventilation imaging techniques with radioxenon overcomes this limitation by providing accurate analog estimation or digital quantitation of regional ventilation: perfusion (V/Q) ratios fundamental to understanding the pathophysiologic consequences of embolism and other diseases of the lung. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7p495-bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:4602128

  5. Defecography in normal volunteers: results and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Shorvon, P J; McHugh, S; Diamant, N E; Somers, S; Stevenson, G W

    1989-01-01

    Forty seven healthy young volunteers underwent defecographic examination to determine the range of normal findings. Normality was shown to encompass radiological features often considered pathological. These features included broad ranges of anorectal angle and pelvic floor descent which overlap with reported pathological states. Furthermore, the formation of rectocoeles during defecation was a very common finding in women. Finally, a subgroup of the volunteers had marginal anorectal function. The marginal anorectal function and certain radiological findings such as rectocoeles or intussusceptions may predispose to later problems, or contribute to clinical problems when combined with other factors such as dietary fibre deficiency. The radiological findings raise a number of questions with respect to different aspects of the functioning of the continence and defecation mechanisms. Images Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2612988

  6. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  7. Paraquat Poisoning—Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Matthew, Henry; Logan, Andrew; Woodruff, M. F. A.; Heard, Brian

    1968-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy ingested a mouthful of paraquat and developed severe respiratory distress. Treatment included the transplantation of one lung, but subsequently changes developed in the graft which are thought to have been due to paraquat, and the patient died two weeks after the operation The dangers of keeping poisonous substances in incorrectly labelled bottles has once again been demonstrated, while the pattern of paraquat poisoning, especially the development of proliferative alveolitis and terminal bronchiolitis, is confirmed. Immediate forced diuresis followed by haemodialysis is necessary to remove paraquat, thereby perhaps avoiding initiation of the changes in the lungs. The technical feasibility of human lung transplantation has again been demonstrated. It has also been shown that infection does not necessarily pose an insuperable problem, at any rate if, as in the case described, there was no preoperative pulmonary infection in either recipient or donor. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5-8Fig. 9-12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15-16Fig. 16 PMID:4877735

  8. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  9. Regional Enteritis of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. M.; Michalyshyn, B.; Sherbaniuk, R. W.; Costopoulos, L. B.

    1965-01-01

    Forty-three cases of regional enteritis of the duodenum were found in the world literature. Regional duodenitis is relatively uncommon; in one large series of 600 cases of regional enteritis only three involved the duodenum. At the University of Alberta Hospital, in a three-year period (1962 to 1965), the authors encountered five patients with regional duodenitis, demonstrating a spectrum of clinical, radiologic and pathologic characteristics of this disease. The description of these patients brings the world's total to 48 reported cases. Two of these patients had symptoms of severe duodenal obstruction and were relieved by bypass procedures and vagotomy; one required surgery because of co-existent obstructive ileal disease: and two patients have improved on corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine without surgery. In our experience treatment with corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine is beneficial. Four of the five patients remain in a state of mild to moderate nutritional impairment and have evidence of intestinal malabsorption. In the fifth case the period of followup is too short to permit assessment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 (X 50) and 7 (X 450)Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Figs. 13 and 14 (both X 100)Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21 PMID:5843869

  10. A morphological control for ventricular pathology in man: a morphometric and morphologic assessment of LV myofibres in secundum ASD.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, M. A.; Whitton, I. D.

    1990-01-01

    Ethical considerations preclude the biopsy of normal human myocardium. As a consequence, morphological investigations of diseased human heart muscle are hampered by a lack of suitable normal control tissue. The left ventricular (LV) myocardium of patients with isolated secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is considered to be normal. This study was designed to investigate the possibility that the fine-structure of LV myofibres in hearts with ASD could be used as normal controls for myofibre pathomorphology. Wedge biopsies from the LV of four adults undergoing elective surgery for the repair of ASD were examined by light and electron microscopy. Bivariant myofibre morphometry showed that the LV myocardium of one specimen was 'normal' while three specimens exhibited varying degrees of hypertrophy. There was a correlation between the diameter (FD) and morphology of individual myofibres within and between specimens. In general, myofibres with FD less than 25 microns were similar in fine-structural appearance to those described as morphologically normal in animal models whereas those with FD greater than 25 microns exhibited hypertrophic features that increased in 'severity' with increase in myofibre size. It is proposed that although the LV myocardium in ASD may be mildly hypertrophied, myofibres with FD less than 25 microns are probably normal and may be used as fine-structural controls for myofibre pathomorphology in hearts suspected of disease. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2278821

  11. Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Joseph P.

    1966-01-01

    The author describes his personal involvement in head injury prevention and management over the past 40 years. He reviews the evolution of knowledge concerning the role of increased intracranial pressure, and considers the importance of cerebral vasoparalysis in the production of signs and symptoms following head injury, and the development of methods of recording intracranial pressure continuously, over hours and days. The development of an experimental compression model has led to a fuller understanding of edema of the brain and has provided a means of studying, by light and electron microscopy, the histological changes that result from edema. More recently, analyses of biochemical changes and disturbed membrane function have opened up a new avenue of potential treatment. Moreover, it is now clear that cerebral vascular dilatation and abrupt pressure increase can be produced in the monkey, in over 50% of cases, by lesions in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Similar lesions may occur in the human and this suggests other therapeutic approaches. There is, then, a genuine hope of a breakthrough in the management of head injuries. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 16Fig. 21 PMID:5928533

  12. Tumours of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Misdorp, W.; McEntee, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Ovarian tumours are common in animals, the majority occurring in bitches and cows. The two most important germ cell tumours were dysgerminoma and teratoma; these morphologically resemble their counterparts in women, with the exception that teratomas in animals tend less to malignancy. The granulosa cell tumour is the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumour in all six species and it may contain luteinized areas or show differentiation towards a Sertoli cell pattern. The canine papillary adenoma and papillary adenocarcinoma, which are as common as granulosa tumours, have several features in common with their counterparts in women: they are of similar histological appearance, are frequently bilateral, and the adenocarcinomas have a great propensity for peritoneal implantation metastasis. Ovarian cysts are frequent in the bitch, sow, and cow and may originate from five different anatomical structures in the ovary. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 and 3Fig. 20-22Fig. 8-10Fig. 15 and 16Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 17-19Fig. 4 and 5Fig. 6 and 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 and 14 PMID:1086151

  13. Amyloidogenesis in Healing Wound

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Brownstein, Martin H.

    1972-01-01

    Clinically and histologically typical skin lesions of macular and lichenoid amyloidoses were biopsied. Rebiopsies were performed after 2 to 16 weeks, and the sequence of amyloid reproduction in granulation tissue was followed. Initially, medium electron-dense proteinaceous substance with fine filaments was produced within or in close relation to the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum of fibroblasts and subsequently discharged. Typical amyloid filaments emerged within and in the vicinity of this substance. A significant number of collagen fibrils were admixed in the centers of some amyloid islands. Predominantly amorphous amyloid substance was seen in contact with the basal laminae. No plasma cells were observed in foci of amyloid. Nonepithelialized wounds did not contain amyloid. It was suggested that, in the primary skin amyloidoses, abnormal dermal fibroblasts produce amyloid precursors under the influence of the epidermis. ImagesFig 9Fig 10Fig 4Fig 5Fig 11Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8Fig 3 PMID:5049430

  14. A morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby Galago senegalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1990-01-01

    The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898

  15. Observations on abortions in cattle: a comparison of pathological, microbiological and immunological findings in aborted foetuses and foetuses collected at abattoirs.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R B; Quinn, P J

    1975-01-01

    Fifty nonaborted and 50 aborted bovine foetuses were examined utilizing histology, immunoelectrophoresis, bacteriology and the fluorescent antibody technique. Lesions were observed in 12 of the nonaborted foesuses and in four of these immunoglobulins were demonstrated. In addition, two of the nonaborted foetuses had immunoglobulins in the absence of observed lesions. Lesions were observed in 48 of the aborted foetuses and immunoglobulins were detected in 22 of these. An etiological diagnosis was arrived at in 24 of the 50 aborted foetuses. The tissues most frequently observed to have lesions of diagnostic significance were eyelid, intestine, liver, lung and placenta. Intestinal lesions were observed in several foetuses in association with a variety of agents including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Foetuses diagnosed as aborting because of mycotic infection consistently displayed lesions in their eyelids. The value of taking eyelid sections in cases of suspected mycotic abortions, the significance of foetal intestinal lesions, the evaluation of abomasal aspirates and the diagnostic importance of immunoglobulin determinations in aborted foetuses are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:166738

  16. Intracerebral transplantation of the genital tubercle in the rat: the fate of the penile bone and cartilages.

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, W A; Clayton, S P

    1977-01-01

    Genital tubercles of 70 newborn male and female rats were transplated into the brains of unrelated infant rats. Seven other tubercles were placed subcutaneously. All female, and some male, hosts were injected with testosterone propionate. After surviving from 2-24 days,, histological study of 49 successful grafts showed survival of the urethral and balano-preputial epithelia and growth of the preputial glands, which formed secretion-filled cysts and became the major component of the graft. The fate of the mesodermal tissues witin the glands varied between remaining in an undeveloped state, with only pale fibrouw tissue and an area of granular degeneration and giant cells, and achieving an incompletely differentiatel state in which erectile tissue and the anterior process of fibrocartilage had formed and the glans had grown but the penile bone and its secondary growth cartilage failed to appear. Grafts could reach this degree of differentiation of the glands irrespective of transplantation site, attachment to the host dura, the sex of donor or host, and whether or not male hosts were given exogenous hormone. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:870471

  17. The vomeronasal organ of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarezza, O L; Sepich, L N; Tramezzani, J H

    1981-01-01

    The anatomical organization of the vomeronasal complex of the rat (vomeronasal organ blood vessels, cartilage and glands) and the structure of the vomeronasal organ were studied. This organ is a tubular formation that shows different characteristics along its longitudinal axis. In its rostral portion it has a lateral flattened shape but caudally the organ acquires a typical crescent shape and a greater size. The organ is rotated along its longitudinal axis, the medial wall becoming inferior and the lateral one, superior. In its most caudal portion the organ decreases in size and ends in glandular branches. Three histological segments were recognized in the vomeronasal organ. The rostral one shows a pseudostratified epithelium surrounding all the lumen. The middle segment presents in one of its walls a similar epithelium and, in the other wall, the vomeronasal epithelium. The caudalmost segment shows a simple columnar epithelium that continues with that of glandular ducts. The vomeronasal epithelial border is formed by three types of cellular processes which intermingle, each one showing particular features: (a) microvilli originating from dendrites of bipolar cells; (b) microvilli from supporting cells and (c) micro-processes of undetermined origin. The surface of the vomeronasal epithelium shows an irregular distribution and arrangement of these processes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Figs. 11-12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 PMID:7275797

  18. Comparative Pathophysiological Effects of Methoxamine on Arteriosclerotic vs. Non-Arteriosclerotic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    Methoxamine, a pure alpha-adrenergic stimulating agent, has little cardiac stimulating capacity but is a very potent vasoconstrictor. Currently, its clinical use is limited to correction of hypotensive crises during anaesthesia and surgical shock. A single injection of methoxamine will produce hypertension and marked medial arterial necrosis in animals. In this connection, we subjected arteriosclerotic and non-arteriosclerotic animals to a single injection of methoxamine and sacrificed the animals 4 hours, 2, 5 and 7 days later in order to determine whether the arteriosclerotic animals would differ from the non-arteriosclerotic animals in their response to the medial necrosis inducing effects of methoxamine. Within minutes after injection, the animals became prostrate, developed congestive heart failure and mortality was high. Myocardial infarction, adrenocortical haemorrhage and thymic, involution, intestinal gangrene as well as splenic, renal and testicular thrombosis and infarction were prevalent. Serum CPK, SGOT, glucose, triglyceride, free fatty acids, cholesterol, BUN and corticosterone manifested dynamic increases but the pattern of response was quite different in the arteriosclerotic vs. non-arteriosclerotic animals. Although extensive medial necrosis was produced in the medium-sized arteries of animals with previously normal arteries, the damage was promptly repaired; the animals with pre-existing arteriosclerosis were not affected by the pressor effects of methoxamine. The induction of myocardial infarction, and extensive thrombosis and infarction are ascribed to the bradycardia-inducing effects of methoxamine and the medial necrosis-inducing effects are ascribed to its intense vasopressor activity. ImagesFigs. 17-19Figs. 10-12Fig. 13Figs. 14-16 PMID:5083876

  19. Evidence for a haematogenous origin of some of the macrophages appearing in the spinal cord of the rat after dorsal rhizotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1979-01-01

    Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:422475

  20. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  1. Origin of intraventricular haemorrhage in the preterm infant.

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, G; Wigglesworth, J S

    1976-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the injection and stereomicroscopic examination of blood vessels in the preterm newborn brain. Using this technique it can be seen that in the immature brain there is a rich capillary bed in the germinal layer region supplied mainly by Heubner's artery. Capillary channels drain directly into the terminal vein and its main branches. Study of 19 cases with spontaneous germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) with or without intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) failed to show rupture of the terminal vein or germinal layer infarction. In babies of up to 28 weeks' gestation GLH developed most frequently over the body of the caudate nucleus, whereas in babies of 29 weeks' gestation or more the haemorrhages were usually over the head of the caudate nucleus. Histological study of 10 cases of GLH failed to show rupture either of arteries or veins, though evidence of rupture at a capillary-vein junction was seen in one case and masses of fibrin adjacent to the vein wall in 2 others. Injection through the carotid artery caused prominent leaks of injection mass within the germinal layer capillary bed, often adjacent to the veins. Injection through the jugular veins in 2 cases failed to rupture the terminal vein but caused multiple vein ruptures at the junction of deep and cortical venous systems. Additional small ruptures in the germinal layer occurred in one of the cases only. It is suggested that the capillaries within the germinal layer may be ruptured by a rise in arterial pressure, particularly in conditions of hypercapnia and hypoxia. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 PMID:999324

  2. The structure and source of lingual proprioceptors in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M J; Sachithanandan, S R

    1979-01-01

    The proprioceptive innervation of the tounge has been investigated in the Cynamolgus monkey by silver impregnation methods following unilateral section of lingual, hypoglossal, and cervical nerves. Muscle spindles were constantly present in the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. They varied greatly in number, averaged half the length of lumbrical spindles, and showed an unusual arrangement of chain fibre nuclei. Other, inconstant proprioceptors included tendon endings, Ruffini endings, Pacinian corpuscles, paciniform and lamellated endings. Topologically, the endings other than spindles were extra-muscular, so that the overall pattern of proprioceptive innervation resembled that of skeletal muscle in general. Lingual nerve section was without apparent effect on the proprioceptors. Section of the hypoglossal nerve at its point of entry into the tongue caused severe depletiion of ipsilateral proprioceptors and of fusimotor nerves. In the anterior tongue there was evidence of transmedian overlap by efferent and afferent axons contained in the hypoglossal nerve. Hypoglossal section at the skull base caused degeneration of fusimotor nerves but not of proprioceptors. Section of (a), the connexion of C2-C3 ventral rami with the hypoglossal, together with section of (b), the ramus descendens hypoglossi, coused depletion of lingual proprioceptors; again there was evidence of transmedian overlap. Procedures (a) or (b) alone had a lesser effect. It was concluded that lingual proprioceptive afferent fibres occupy the distal hypoglossal nerve, leaving it in the ramus descendens and in the C2-C3 connexion to enter the spinal cord via nerves C2 and C3. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 17 Figs. 18,20 Fig. 19 Fig. 21 Figs. 22-26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 PMID:157344

  3. Upregulation and induction of surface antigens with special reference to MHC class II expression in microglia in postnatal rat brain following intravenous or intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Ling, E A

    1994-01-01

    positive cells, it is suggested that the OX-6 positive cells would have the potentiality to function in antigen presentation in the postnatal rat brain when challenged by the endotoxin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs 4,5 Figs 6,7 Figs 8,9 Figs 10,11 Figs 12,13 Figs 14,15 Figs 16,17 Figs 18,19 Figs 20,21 PMID:8014120

  4. The megachiropteran pineal organ: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation with special emphasis on the remarkably large pineal of Dobsonia praedatrix.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, K P; Frahm, H D; Stephan, H

    1990-01-01

    smaller but similarly shaped pineal is noted in the other three Dobsonia. Data on the largest known pineals in ratitae birds, seals and walruses have been compared with that of D. praedatrix and the human pineal. This study supports the hypothesis that pineal development may reflect dependence on habitat and possibly other related factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2323990

  5. Membrane properties and selective connexions of identified leech neurones in culture

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Paul A.; Nicholls, John G.; Ready, Donald F.

    1981-01-01

    mediated inhibitory potentials became apparent. 8. Isolated, identified leech neurones not only survive but regenerate processes and are capable of forming selective connexions in culture. The ability to define interactions between isolated pairs of cells offers the opportunity to explore in detail problems relating to synapse formation and cell—cell recognition. ImagesFig. 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Plate 1Plate 3Plate 4Plate 2 PMID:7320865

  6. Development of a cyclometalated iridium complex with specific intramolecular hydrogen-bonding that acts as a fluorescent marker for the endoplasmic reticulum and causes photoinduced cell death† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthesis; photophysical data (Table S1); pH dependent phosphorescence lifetime of complex C2 (Table S2); crystallographic parameters of C2; selected bond distances and angles of C2 (Table S3); cyclic voltammetric data of complexes C1–C11 (Table S4); 1H NMR spectra of ligands and complexes (Fig. S1 and S3); ESI-MS spectra of ligands and complexes (Fig. S2 and S4); fluorescence spectra of the complexes in acetonitrile and at pH 4, 7 and 9, exponential decay curve of C2 (Fig. S5); pH dependent fluorescence spectrum of complexes C1–C11 (Fig. S6); DIC and confocal fluorescence images of live MCF7 cells not treated with C2 but exposed to photoirradiation at 405 nm for 30 min; the cells were treated with DCFDA and fluorescence images were obtained at 529 nm after excitation at 495 nm (Fig. S7). ESI videos 1 and 2. CCDC 967841. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4dt00845f Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Soumik; Poria, Dipak K.; Ghosh, Ritabrata

    2014-01-01

    Cyclometalated iridium complexes have important applications as phosphorescent probes for cellular imaging due to their photophysical properties. Moreover, these properties also make them potential candidates as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors and skin diseases. Treatment of MCF7 breast carcinoma cells with a heteroleptic phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(iii) complex C2 followed by confocal imaging indicates that the complex selectively localizes and exhibits high fluorescence in the endoplasmic reticulum. In an unprecedented approach, systematic alteration of functional groups or the metal core in C2 to synthesize a series of iridium(iii) complexes (C1–C10) and an organometallic rhenium complex C11 with an imidazolyl modified phenanthroline ligand has indicated the functional groups and their interactions that are responsible for this selective localization. Remarkably, the exposure of the cells treated with C2 to irradiation at 405 nm for one hour led to membrane blebbing and cell death, demonstrating a photosensitizing property of the compound. PMID:25341053

  7. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-12-01

    Predictions for CP violation in the three generation Standard Model are reviewed based on what is known about the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Application to the K and B meson systems are emphasized. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, M.J.; DiMagno, S.G.

    1998-07-21

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core. 13 figs.

  10. Cosmic relics from the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-12-01

    A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Supercollider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1985-03-01

    The physics that can be explored with multi-TeV supercolliders is reviewed, including parton distributions, hadron jet production, the standard electroweak theory and minimal extensions to it, technicolor, supersymmetry, and compositeness. 19 refs., 11 figs. (LEW)

  12. Recent QCD results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Pickarz, Henryk; CDF and DO collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Recent QCD results from the CDF and D0 detectors at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider are presented. An outlook for future QCD tests at the Tevatron collider is also breifly discussed. 27 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Flexible liquid core light guide with focusing and light shaping attachments

    DOEpatents

    Kross, B.J.; Majewski, S.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

    1997-11-04

    A liquid light guide system for ultraviolet light is disclosed that has a light shaping arrangement for the emitted light, a stable liquid core and sheath and reliable and effective end closures. 12 figs.

  14. Development of coke strength after reaction (CSR) at Dofasco

    SciTech Connect

    T.W. Todoschuk; J.P. Price; J.F. Gransden

    2004-03-01

    In order to prevent coke degradation without detrimentally affecting blast furnace service life, Dofasco initiated a project to improve coke strength after reaction. The results of the program and Dofasco's prediction model are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. A suggested approach toward measuring sorption and applying sorption data to repository performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rundberg, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    The sorption of radioisotopes in relation to geologic disposal of radioactive wastes is discussed. Properties of the radioactive materials, rocks, and minerals, and the chemistry involved are described. 51 refs., 12 figs. CBS

  16. Repetitively pumped electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, L.G.

    1979-07-24

    Disclosed is an apparatus for producing fast, repetitive pulses of controllable length of an electron beam by phased energy storage in a transmission line of length matched to the number of pulses and specific pulse lengths desired. 12 figs.

  17. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Search for K/sup +/. -->. /pi/sup +//. nu. /bar /nu//

    SciTech Connect

    Atiya, M.S.; Chiang, I.H.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.S.; Ito, M.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Littenberg, L.S.; Stevens, A.J.; Strand, R.C.; Louis, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A description of the detector and present status of an experiment to search for the decay K/sup +/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..nu../bar /nu// at Brookhaven National Laboratory is presented. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for producing co-current fluid contact

    DOEpatents

    Trutna, W.R.

    1997-12-09

    An improved packing system and method are disclosed wherein a packing section includes a liquid distributor and a separator placed above the distributor so that gas rising through the liquid distributor contacts liquid in the distributor, forming a gas-liquid combination which rises in co-current flow to the separator. Liquid is collected in the separator, from which gas rises. 13 figs.

  20. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.; Kimmel, M.W.; Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-10

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media. 13 figs.

  1. Space-time aspects of hadronic cascading in lepton nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.

    1989-05-01

    A Monte Carlo model of hadronic cascading in inelastic lepton nucleus scattering is constructed to investigate space-time scenarios consistent with the momentum space description of string models of multiparticle production. The prospects for resolving the ambiguity inherent in the definition of a formation length for composite hadrons are emphasized. 15 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-08-02

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples. 13 figs.

  3. Mechanism of current modulation by optic phonon emission in heterojunction tunneling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, C.B.; Hellman, E.S.; Laughlin, R.B.

    1985-08-27

    We explain recent observations by Hickmott et al. of sequential longitudinal optic phonon emission in tunneling currents of GaAs-Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As heterojunctions in terms of inhomogeneous tunneling and a magnetopolaronic mass correction. 16 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Transmission Lines: An Overview of Electrical Properties and Environmental Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Biological Studies Task Team.

    1982-03-01

    A brief overview is provided of environmental and biological effects of high-voltage power transmission lines. Paragraph length descriptions of electric fields, induced voltage and currents, biological effects, magnetic fields, corona, radio and television interference, and ozone are given. 13 figs.

  5. Load Combination Program. Progress report No. 5, April 1 - June 30, 1980. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.K.; Lu, S.C.; Schwartz, M.W.; Dutton, J.C.; George, L.L.; Gilman, F.M.; Larder, R.A.; Streit, R.D.

    1980-07-15

    This document is a progress report on the Load Combination Program (LCP) covering the period April 1, 1980 through June 30, 1980. The report gives a general description of the program by project and tasks, together with financial summaries, technical reports generated, and meeting attendance. Two appendixes which discuss technical subjects are also included. 13 figs.

  6. Two coupled particle-finite volume methods using Delaunay-Voronoie meshes for the approximation of Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hermeline, F. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper deals with the approximation of Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell equations. We present two coupled particle-finite volume methods which use the properties of Delaunay-Voronoi meshes. These methods are applied to benchmark calculations and engineering problems such as simulation of electron injector devices. 42 refs., 13 figs.

  7. X, Y, Z positioner

    DOEpatents

    Goers, G.F.

    1987-11-10

    A three-axis control for precisely and conveniently adjusting items such as mirrors and lenses is disclosed. The adjuster apparatus includes a vertical stack of three rotatable adjusters. Rotation of the first effects vertical translation, whereas the second and third are eccentric assemblies which interact to effect movement along two angled axes perpendicular to the vertical axis. 13 figs.

  8. Convoy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdoerfer, J. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of the production and of the transport of convoy electrons through solids are reviewed. Similarities and differences to cusp electron emission in binary ion-atom collisions and to transport of free'' electrons through solids are highlighted. We also discuss recent observations of convoy electron emission in ion-surface collisions at small glancing angles. 36 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Beginner's guide to SPICE

    SciTech Connect

    Geisik, C.; Schilling, L.

    1988-07-01

    This work is intended to help a beginner learn the fundamentals of the circuit simulation program SPICE using a series of increasingly complex examples. These examples take the beginner from the most elementary circuits on up to an operational amplifier model. This work serves as a supplement to the existing SPICE documentation SPICE User's Guide. 13 figs.

  10. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOEpatents

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  11. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  12. Graphoepitaxy by encapsulation

    DOEpatents

    Geis, M.W.; Smith, H.I.; Antoniadis, D.A.; Flanders, D.C.

    1986-01-21

    Improvements on the graphoepitaxial process for obtaining epitaxial or preferred orientation films are described wherein a cap of material is formed over the film to be oriented, artificial surface-relief structure may be present in the substrate, the cap, or both, and the film may be heated by irradiation with electromagnetic radiation. 13 figs.

  13. Filling temporary underground structures and workings at high-head hydro developments

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyushin, V.F.

    1994-12-01

    Examples of backfilling temporary underground structures and workings at hydroelectric stations in Russia are cited. Structures backfilled include temporary tunnels and auxiliary workings (shafts, chambers, etc.). Detail drawings illustrate many of the examples. Examples of backfilling at a number of hydropower plants are given; however, the main emphasis is on construction of Nurek Hydroelectric Station. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, N.K.; Brinker, C.J.

    1999-08-10

    A process is described for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film. 11 figs.

  15. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1983-09-27

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current. 11 figs.

  16. The search for charged-lepton specific forces and the PEGASYS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1989-02-01

    This paper discusses the electroproduction of lepton pairs as a method of searching for a charged-lepton specific force, and as a general method of searching for deviations from conventional quantum electrodynamics. The use of the PEGASYS facility for these purposes is briefly described. Search possibilities in other energy ranges are noted. 22 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs.

  18. Electromagnetic energy applied to and gained from lunar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Vaniman, D.T.; Blake, R.D.; Cocks, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic energy may be useful in microwave frequencies for in-situ melting or sintering of lunar regolith. Simple configurations of magnetron or gyrotron tubes might be constructed for unique melting geometries. For energy production, lunar ilmenite has potential applications in photovoltaic devices. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Monolithic amplifier with stable, high resistance feedback element and method for fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    O`Connor, P.

    1998-08-11

    A monolithic amplifier includes a stable, high resistance feedback circuit and a dynamic bias circuit. The dynamic bias circuit is formed with active elements matched to those in the amplifier and feedback circuit to compensate for variations in the operating and threshold voltages thereby maintaining a stable resistance in the feedback circuit. 11 figs.

  20. Method of chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride using polymeric cyanoborane

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1994-06-14

    Polymeric cyanoborane is volatilized, decomposed by thermal or microwave plasma energy, and deposited on a substrate as an amorphous film containing boron, nitrogen and carbon. Residual carbon present in the film is removed by ammonia treatment at an increased temperature, producing an adherent, essentially stoichiometric boron nitride film. 11 figs.

  1. Introduction to conformal field theory and string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, L.J.

    1989-12-01

    These lectures are meant to provide a brief introduction to conformal field theory (CFT) and string theory for those with no prior exposure to the subjects. There are many excellent reviews already available, and most of these go in to much more detail than I will be able to here. 52 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory DIII-D cooperation: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Ellis, R.M.; Evans, J.C.; Ferguson, S.W.; Hill, D.N.; James, R.A.; Jenkins, S.L.; Karlsen, C.E.; Kevan, D.

    1988-02-24

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) DIII-D cooperation during FY87. The LLNL participation in DIII-D concentrated on three principal areas: ECH and current-drive physics, divertor and edge physics, and tokamak operations. These topics are dicussed in this report. 27 refs., 11 figs.

  3. High average power induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    The induction accelerator is discussed with respect to general background and concept, beam transport, scaling, pulse power technology, and the electron beam injector. A discussion of the factors which affect the scaling of the intensity of the beam is given. Limiting factors include collective forces in the beam, virtual cathode formation, surroundings, and beam breakup instability. 24 refs., 11 figs. (WRF)

  4. Waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Pepper, D.W.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Waste salt solution, produced during processing of high-level nuclear waste, will be incorporated in a cement matrix for emplacement in an engineered disposal facility. Wasteform characteristics and disposal facility details will be presented along with results of a field test of wasteform contaminant release and of modeling studies to predict releases. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Neutron spectroscopy on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Nishitani, T.; Strachan, J.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes the use of an /sup 3/He ionization chamber for neutron spectroscopy on TFTR during 1987. The ion temperature was measured using neutron spectroscopy for one set of ohmically heated plasmas. The deduced ion temperatures agreed to within 20% with those measured by other diagnostics. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. EMPACT: A detector for high-p sub T physics at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, J.

    1990-01-01

    EMPACT is a high-transverse-momentum physics detector for the SSC. It aims for a precise measurement of electrons, muons, jets, and missing transverse energy using a superior calorimeter surrounded by air-core toroidal magnets forming a precision muon spectrometer. The baseline design of EMPACT is described. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Deformation and thermal fatigue in high temperature austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, P.D.; Yost, B.; Swindeman, R.W.; Li, Che-Yu . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    The flow properties of modified austenitic alloys are reviewed. The important strengthening mechanisms discussed include precipitation hardening produced by a combination of cold work and aging and by creep aging. Grain boundary sliding enhanced by reduced grain size is shown to reduce the flow strength of these alloys. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  9. Resonances in periodically forced excitable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dolnik, M. |; Marek, M.; Epstein, I.R.

    1992-04-16

    Using a phase excitation curve, this paper studies single and periodic pulse perturbations in two model excitable systems, a four-variable extended Oregonator and a six-variable model of the chlorite-iodide reaction. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Permeability enhancement using high energy gas fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Cuderman, J.F.; Jung, J.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study of using High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF) techniques for geothermal well stimulation. Experiments conducted in the G-tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) showed that multiple fractures could be created in water-filled boreholes using HEGF. Therefore, the method is potentially useful for geothermal well stimulation. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Structures having enhanced biaxial texture and method of fabricating same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, A.; Budai, J.D.; Kroeger, D.M.; Norton, D.P.; Specht, E.D.; Christen, D.K.

    1998-04-14

    A biaxially textured article includes a rolled and annealed, biaxially textured substrate of a metal having a face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, or hexagonal close-packed crystalline structure; and an epitaxial superconductor or other device epitaxially deposited thereon. 11 figs.

  12. Structures having enhanced biaxial texture and method of fabricating same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, A.; Budai, J.D.; Kroeger, D.M.; Norton, D.P.; Specht, E.D.; Christen, D.K.

    1998-04-21

    A biaxially textured article includes a rolled and annealed, biaxially textured substrate of a metal having a face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, or hexagonal close-packed crystalline structure; and an epitaxial superconductor or other device epitaxially deposited thereon. 11 figs.

  13. North Alabama water quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pullin, B.P.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize previously existing information on the abundance and distribution of green-backed herons on selected areas of Wilson and Pickwick Reservoirs, present the results of the 1987 survey, and make recommendations regarding further investigations. 6 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A review of the Los Alamos effort in the development of nuclear rocket propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, F.P.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of the Los Alamos nuclear rocket propulsion program and describes some specific reactor design and testing problems encountered during the development program along with the progress made in solving these problems. The relevance of these problems to a renewed nuclear thermal rocket development program for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is discussed. 11 figs.

  15. 'Blueprint' your pulverizer for improved performance

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, R.F.

    2009-03-15

    Pulverizer throughput is determined by the coal fineness desired for a given coal. However, compromising on coal fineness when your pulverizer isn't up to scratch can increase NOx and cause many furnace problems. Your least costly option for increasing pulverizer capacity is to pay careful attention to key dimensions and critical tolerances during your next overhaul. 11 figs.

  16. Searching for the Higgs in ep collisions at LEP/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Grindhammer, G. ); Haidt, D. , Hamburg ); Ohnemus, J. ); Vermaseren, J. , Amsterdam . Sectie H); Zeppenfeld, D.

    1990-11-01

    We investigate the possibility to observe an intermediate mass Higgs in ep collisions at LEP/LHC. We find that such a particle can be observed once a reasonable level of flavor identification is available to separate efficiently the b{bar b} decay mode of the Higgs from most of the background. 18 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Composite hydrogen separation element and module

    DOEpatents

    Edlund, D.J.; Newbold, D.D.; Frost, C.B.

    1997-07-08

    There are disclosed improvements in multicomponent composite metal membranes useful for the separation of hydrogen, the improvements comprising the provision of at least one common-axis hole through all components of the composite membrane and the provision of a gas-tight seal around the periphery of the hole or holes through a coating metal layer of the membrane. 11 figs.

  18. Structures having enhanced biaxial texture and method of fabricating same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, A.; Budai, J.D.; Kroeger, D.M.; Norton, D.P.; Specht, E.D.; Christen, D.K.

    1999-04-27

    A biaxially textured article includes a rolled and annealed, biaxially textured substrate of a metal having a face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, or hexagonal close-packed crystalline structure; and an epitaxial superconductor or other device epitaxially deposited thereon. 11 figs.

  19. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1988-06-28

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  20. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1990-06-26

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  1. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  2. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R.E.; Bennett, C.; Chen, M.H.; Cowan, T.; Dietrich, D.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Levine, M.A.; Schneider, M.B.; Scofield, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged-ions (q /le/ 70+) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of dielectronic recombination, electron impact excitation and transition energies are presented. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. New particle searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maeshima, Kaori; CDF Collaboration

    1996-11-01

    We present recent results of searches for new particles beyond the Standard Model at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). These include searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, charged Higgs, heavy gauge bosons (Z{prime} and W{prime}), and stable massive charged particles. 19 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Stopping biological time: The freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental physical-chemical events that occur during the freezing and thawing of cells are outlined and the manner in which cell permeability determines the response of the cell to freezing is discussed both in terms of physical response and in terms of survival. 40 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Theory of helical electron beams in gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kuftin, A.N.; Lygin, V.K.; Manuilov, V.N.; Raisky, B.V.; Solujanova, E.A.; Tsimring, S.E.

    1993-04-01

    Helical electron beams (HEB) with disturbed axial symmetry of currents density and HEB with locking electrons in magnetic trap are described. The theory of magnetron injection gun (MIG) in space-charge limited current is developed. Systems on permanent magnets forming HEB are considered. 30 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1985-06-01

    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

    1994-06-07

    A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

  9. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  11. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  13. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  14. Model measurements for new accelerating techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, S.; Haseroth, H.; Knott, J.; Willis, W.

    1988-06-01

    We summarize the work carried out for the past two years, concerning some different ways for achieving high-field gradients, particularly in view of future linear lepton colliders. These studies and measurements on low power models concern the switched power principle and multifrequency excitation of resonant cavities. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Summary of ELMO Bumpy Torus experiments from 1982 to 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroe, S.; Colchin, R.J.; Haste, G.R.; Baity, F.W.; Bates, D.D.; Berry, L.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Bigelow, T.S.; Boyd, D.A.; Burris, R.D.; Carpenter, K.H.; Casson, W.H.; Cobble, J.A.; Connor, K.A.; Davis, W.A.; Donaldson, R.D.; Glowienka, J.C.; Goyer, J.R.; Hankins, O.E.; Hickok, R.L.; Hillis, D.L.; Juhala, R.E.; Kimrey, H.D.; Livesey, R.L.; Mahon, R.; Mankin, J.B.; McGuffin, M.W.; Overbey, D.R.; Owens, T.L.; Peterson, B.G.; Quon, B.H.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Richards, R.K.; Schaich, C.R.; Solensten, L.; Sullivan, G.R.; Swain, D.W.; Uckan, T.; White, T.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wintenberg, R.E.; Young, K.G.; Yun, V.E.

    1988-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) from 1973 until 1984. A number of papers have been published on various aspects of the final two years of the EBT experiments. This report summarizes the final experimental conclusions and discusses issues that were not resolved. 46 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. SLAC three-body partial wave analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Lasinski, T.A.; Sinervo, P.K.

    1985-10-01

    We present a heuristic description of the SLAC-LBL three-meson partial wave model, and describe how we have implemented it at SLAC. The discussion details the assumptions of the model and the analysis, and emphasizes the methods we have used to prepare and fit the data. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, M.J.

    1992-11-10

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface. 12 figs.

  18. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOEpatents

    Pelton, B.A.; Siminovitch, M.

    1997-07-29

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures. 12 figs.

  19. Development of intrinsic IPT scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.D.

    1989-07-31

    We report on the development of a new polystyrene based plastic scintillator. Optical absorption, fluorescence and light output measurements are presented. Preliminary results of radiation damage effects are also given and compared to the effects on a commercial plastic scintillator, NE 110. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, D.L.; Kim, W.; Williams, M.E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays are disclosed which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness. 12 figs.

  1. A lattice gas model for thermohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiyi; Chen, Hudong; Doolen, G.D.; Gutman, S.; Lee, M.

    1990-05-03

    The FHP lattice gas model is extended to include a temperature variable in order to study thermohydrodynamics. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are derived using a Chapman-Enskog expansion. Heat conduction and convention problems are investigated, including Benard convention. It is shown that the usual FHP rescaling procedure can be avoided by controlling the temperature. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Process for predicting structural performance of mechanical systems

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, D.R.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Plimpton, S.J.; Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Vaughan, C.T.

    1998-05-19

    A process for predicting the structural performance of a mechanical system represents the mechanical system by a plurality of surface elements. The surface elements are grouped according to their location in the volume occupied by the mechanical system so that contacts between surface elements can be efficiently located. The process is well suited for efficient practice on multiprocessor computers. 12 figs.

  3. Effects of various parameters on the fatigue life of Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    A data bank from over 700 tests on several heats of Alloy 718 with various test parameters is used to show the effects of temperature, strain rate, hold time, grain size, mean stress, surface roughness, and thermal aging on fatigue life. Both strain controlled and stress controlled tests were conducted providing data from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 9} cycles to failure. Empirical curve fitting of the data was performed using a multiple regression analysis performance. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Muonium and MEGA

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1986-10-01

    Two types of experiments on muonium are described. The first measures the hyperfine structure interval in muonium, and the second measures the Lamb shift. Another type of experiment is described which searches for the transition (..mu../sup +/e/sup -/)..-->..(..mu../sup -/e/sup +/). The MEGA experiment is then discussed which searches for the reaction ..mu.. ..-->.. e + ..gamma... 13 figs., 3 refs. (LEW)

  5. Description and operating instructions: TEMPO high-voltage microwave driver, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1988-06-01

    This manual describes the TEMPO high-voltage (HV) microwave driver and provides operating procedures and general maintenance requirements. It is intended as a guide for experienced personnel familiar with operating HV pulsed power equipment and not as a detailed instruction for inexperienced operators. For safety reasons, inexperienced personnel should never attempt to charge and fire HV pulsed power equipment. Serious personnel injury and damage to the machine can result from improper operation. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-12-30

    A new family of polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine compounds are provided for corrosion resistant coatings on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. The novel compounds contain backbones modified by metal alkoxides, metallocenes and metallophthalocyanates where the metal is Zr, Ti, Mo, V, Hf, Nb, Si, B and combinations thereof. Methods of making the new compounds are also provided. 13 figs.

  7. Beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-10-21

    A variety of TeV scale Higgs and flavor sectors are discussed. Key questions are addressed: how can we tell if there is a light Higgs boson or if the Higgs sector is strongly interacting. What new signatures can be used to search for supersymmetry. Can flavor physics be described at a TeV without Yukawa couplings. Ideas are reviewed and some new developments mentioned. 51 refs., 13 figs.

  8. An excitation-term modification for a certain class of electromagnetic aperture-coupling problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.J.; Bacon, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    A simple technique is presented for modifying electromagnetic aperture-coupling integral equations that are based on an infinite-ground-plane assumption, to partially account for excitation modifications which result from plane-wave interaction with a side of an actual three-dimensional scatterer. The technique is based on incorporating the solution for a conducting wedge into the integral equations. Results are presented for coupling to coaxial connectors which are more consistent with experimental observations. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Model SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole magnet cryostat assembly at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) magnet development program includes the design, fabrication and testing of full length model dipole magnets. A result of the program has been the development of a magnet cryostat design. The cryostat subsystems consist of cold mass connection-slide, suspension, thermal shields, insulation, vacuum vessel and interconnections. Design details are presented along with model magnet production experience. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  11. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington (US)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    This appendix responds to the issues raised by Federal, State, and local governments, affected Indian Tribes, private citizens, and other organizations on the draft environmental assessment (EA) that was prepared pursuant to Section 112 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. In addition to presenting the issues raised in the comments and the responses, it describes where changes were made in the final EA. 535 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Fuel performance: Annual report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1989-03-01

    This annual report, the tenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1987 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulator Commission evaluations are included. 384 refs., 13 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. Comprehensive, nonintercepting electron-beam diagnostics using spontaneous emission

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization and optimization of electron-beam parameters are important aspects of optimizing free-electron laser (FEL) performance. The visible spontaneous emission ({lambda}{approximately}650 nm) from the 5-meter long undulator of the Boeing FEL experiment can be characterized in sufficient detail with a streak/spectrometer to deduce time-resolved electron-beam spatial position and profile, micropulse duration, and energy. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Solid source MOCVD system

    DOEpatents

    Hubert, B.N.; Wu, X.D.

    1998-10-13

    A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting and non-superconducting oxide films provides a delivery system for the feeding of metallorganic precursors for multi-component chemical vapor deposition. The delivery system can include multiple cartridges containing tightly packed precursor materials. The contents of each cartridge can be ground at a desired rate and fed together with precursor materials from other cartridges to a vaporization zone and then to a reaction zone within a deposition chamber for thin film deposition. 13 figs.

  15. Advanced composite materials and processes for the manufacture of SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) superconducting magnets used at cryogenic temperatures in a high radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sondericker, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Presently, BNL work on superconducting magnets centers mainly on the development of 17 meter length dipoles for the Superconducting Super Collider Project, approved for construction at Waxahatchie, Texas and 9.7 meter dipoles and quadrupoles for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a BNL project to start construction next year. This paper will discuss the role of composites in the manufacture of magnets, their operational requirements in cryogenic and radiation environments, and the benefits derived from their use. 13 figs.

  16. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  17. Load management alternatives to transmission and distribution construction: Toledo-Wren case study

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Lyke, A.J.; Tawil, J.J.; De Steese, J.G.; Tepel, R.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to predict the feasibility of using load management as an alternative to construction of transmission and distribution capacity. A forecasting model was developed and applied to a particular case. Several problems were identified in the test case, necessitating modification of the model. The authors conclude that the modified version of the model allows accurate assessment of the effects of load management and conservation measures on transmission capacity. 13 figs. (JDH)

  18. The (. gamma. ,K) program: A new CEBAF initiative for the study of nuclear strangeness

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.; Hungerford, E.V.

    1987-06-01

    This paper is a summary of the CEBAF working group discussions on electromagnetic production of strangeness in nuclear systems. A review of the recent BNL results in (..pi..,K) is presented as representative of the physics questions that could be addressed with the CEBAF facility. Recommendations of the working group concerning the necessary experimental apparatus for a (e,e',K) program are presented. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Fuel performance annual report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J. ); Wu, S. . Div. of Engineering and Systems Technology)

    1990-03-01

    This annual report, the eleventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1988 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 414 refs., 13 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Dynamics of organic compound extraction from water using liquid-coated fused silica fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Louch, D.; Motlagh, S.; Pawliszyn, J.

    1992-05-15

    Mathematical descriptions of the absorption and desorption processes were developed and compared with experimental results for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) using poly(dimethylsiloxane)-coated fused silica optical fibers. Extraction times for benzene, toluene, and p-xylene using a coating thickness of 55 {mu}m are under 10 min and can be shortened substantially using agitation. Detection limits and distribution coefficients for several organic compounds are presented. 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  2. The response of a Fermilab-designed ion chamber in pulsed photon fields

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.S.; Hartman, B.; Krueger, F.; Larson, J.

    1988-01-26

    This note reports measurements of the response of a Fermilab-designed area monitor ionization chamber used in Chipmunk and Scarecrow detectors to pulsed photon fields of various intensities and durations. The measurements were made to better define the operating limits of the instruments and to understand the possible effects of recombination and space charge on the dose measured by the instruments in pulsed fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  4. Controlled release of molecular components of dendrimer/bioactive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Segalman, D.J.; Wallace, J.S.

    1998-08-18

    A method for releasing molecules (guest molecules) from the matrix formed by the structure of another molecule (host molecule) in a controllable manner has been invented. This method has many applications in science and industry. In addition, applications based on such molecular systems may revolutionize significant areas of medicine, in particular the treatment of cancer and of viral infection. Similar effects can also be obtained by controlled fragmentation of a source molecule, where the molecular fragments form the active principle. 13 figs.

  5. Spectrometer capillary vessel and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Linehan, J.C.; Yonker, C.R.; Zemanian, T.S.; Franz, J.A.

    1995-11-21

    The present invention is an arrangement of a glass capillary tube for use in spectroscopy. In particular, the invention is a capillary arranged in a manner permitting a plurality or multiplicity of passes of a sample material through a spectroscopic measurement zone. In a preferred embodiment, the multi-pass capillary is insertable within a standard NMR sample tube. The present invention further includes a method of making the multi-pass capillary tube and an apparatus for spinning the tube. 13 figs.

  6. (Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

  7. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  8. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  11. The effect of self field on the critical current determination of multifilamentary superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Sampson, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    In determining the short sample critical current of conductors of large cross section or high current density the self field produced by the transport current must be taken account in order to obtain a ''true value'' for the critical current. A simple model calculation for determining this effect is described. Measurements on wires, cables, and monoliths show the validity and self consistency of the procedures. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Martin, W.H.; Myers, D.W.; Keville, R.F.

    1992-10-06

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk. 13 figs.

  13. Micropole undulator

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, R.O.; Csonka, P.L.; Cremer, J.T.

    1990-12-11

    Micropole undulators for use in the generation of x-rays from moving charged particles are disclosed. Two rows of spaced apart poles are arranged so that each pole produces a magnetic field aligned with all other similar fields. The poles are the ends of C''-shaped magnets. In each row, adjacent poles are separated by spacers made of a superconducting material. 11 figs.

  14. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Kinetic theory of the Farley-Buneman instability in the E region of the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Dimant, Y.S.; Sudan, R.N.

    1995-08-01

    The Farley-Buneman instability in the ionospheric E region is studied. Restrictions under which the Farley-Buneman dispersion relation is derived are presented, along with the physical nature of the instability. A mathematical model based on a kinetic approach is given. The long wave limit of the instability is discussed as well as a brief review of the general case of arbitrary wavelengths. 38 refs. 11 figs.

  16. Numerical simulation of flow in Brush Creek Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Lee, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper, we present some results from our three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, finite element model applied to simulations of flow in Brush Creek Valley. These simulations are not intended to reproduce any particular experiment, but rather are to evaluate the qualitative performance of the model, to explore the major difficulties involved, and to begin sensitivity studies of the flows of interest. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  17. High temperature materials technology research for advanced thermionic systems. Quarterly progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, R.H.; Rose, M.F.

    1993-12-31

    Objective was to understand the strengthening mechanisms in advanced refractory alloys for high-temperature thermionic applications. During the first 6 months, the role of substitutional solutes in refractory alloy single crystals was identified and modeled using a simple size misfit factor as the governing parameter. During the past period, effort was concentrated on the strengthening effects in various refractory structures and the growth of refractory alloy single crystals. 11 figs, 4 tabs.

  18. Concepts in strong Langmuir turbulence theory

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, D.F.; Rose, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the basic concepts of strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) theory are reviewed. In SLT system, a major fraction of the turbulent energy is carried by local, time-dependent, nonlinear excitations called cavitons. Modulational instability, localization of Langmuir fields by density fluctuations, caviton nucleation, collapse, and burnout and caviton correlations are reviewed. Recent experimental evidence will be presented for SLT phenomena in the interaction of powerful HF waves with the ionosphere and in laser-plasma interaction experiments. 38 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Interferometric ring lasers and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, J.P.; Craft, D.C.

    1995-03-14

    Two ring diode lasers are optically coupled together to produce tunable, stable output through a Y-junction output coupler which may also be a laser diode or can be an active waveguide. These devices demonstrate a sharp peak in light output with an excellent side-mode-rejection ratio. The rings can also be made of passive or active waveguide material. With additional rings the device is a tunable optical multiplexer/demultiplexer. 11 figs.

  20. Results of the 1988 geothermal gradient test drilling project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Korosec, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    During late summer and early fall of 1988, the Washington Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER) completed drilling eight shallow geothermal gradient test wells in the southern Washington Cascade Range. This report describes the preliminary results of the 1988 drilling and gradient measuring, and summarizes our current perspectives on distribution and magnitude of the geothermal resource potential in the southern Washington Cascades. 18 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Simulated liquid water and visibility in stratiform boundary-layer clouds over sloping terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Tjernstroem, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The amount of liquid water in stratus clouds or fog is discussed from the point of view of estimating visibility variations in areas with complex terrain. The average vertical profile of liquid water from numerical simulations with a higher-order closure mesoscale model is examined, and runs with the model for moderately complex terrain are utilized to estimate the of low-level liquid water content variability and thus, indirectly, the variations in horizontal visibility along a slope. 37 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional MHD equilibrium and stability codes

    SciTech Connect

    Herrnegger, F.; Merkel, P.; Johnson, J.L.

    1986-02-01

    Stability results obtained with the fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code BETA, the helically invariant code HERA, and the asymptotic stellarator expansion code STEP agree well for a straight l = 2, M = 5 stellarator model. This good agreement between the BETA and STEP codes persists as toroidal curvature is introduced. This validation provides justification for confidence in work with these models. 20 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Fuel performance annual report for 1984. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Dunenfeld, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    This annual report, the seventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1984 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included. 279 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.S. ); Weiss, R.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

    1997-02-18

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOEpatents

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Calculating scattering amplitudes efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, L.

    1996-01-01

    We review techniques for more efficient computation of perturbative scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, in particular tree and one- loop multi-parton amplitudes in QCD. We emphasize the advantages of (1) using color and helicity information to decompose amplitudes into smaller gauge-invariant pieces, and (2) exploiting the analytic properties of these pieces, namely their cuts and poles. Other useful tools include recursion relations, special gauges and supersymmetric rearrangements. 46 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    SciTech Connect

    Garrad, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  9. Solderability test system

    DOEpatents

    Yost, F.; Hosking, F.M.; Jellison, J.L.; Short, B.; Giversen, T.; Reed, J.R.

    1998-10-27

    A new test method to quantify capillary flow solderability on a printed wiring board surface finish. The test is based on solder flow from a pad onto narrow strips or lines. A test procedure and video image analysis technique were developed for conducting the test and evaluating the data. Feasibility tests revealed that the wetted distance was sensitive to the ratio of pad radius to line width (l/r), solder volume, and flux predry time. 11 figs.

  10. Top coal caving longwall maximizes thick seam recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, G.; Sobey,. G.; Clarke, T.

    2007-07-15

    Austar's longwall system offers opportunities in coal seams thicker than 4.5 meters. The Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) method was recently launched in Australia at Yancoal Australia's Austar mines in Hunter Valley, although 90 such longwalls already operate in China. The article describes the method and its installation at Austar. In September 2006 the LTCC face commenced production. The operation is described and measures to prevent spontaneous combustion are outlined. Future work on the longwall is mentioned. 11 figs.

  11. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1982-08-10

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices. 11 figs.

  12. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  13. Quark flavor mixing, CP violation, and all that

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1988-04-01

    We review the present state of knowledge of the mixing of quark flavors under weak interactions and the associated explanation of CP violation inherent in the single nontrivial phase present in the three-generation mixing matrix. In this context we present the phenomenological basis for the increasing possibility that large CP violation asymmetries can be experimentally observed in the B meson system. 39 refs., 11 figs.,

  14. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.; Han, Kyung S.

    1994-11-01

    This article describes the Waste Inspection Tomography Program. The program provides an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste, transuranic waste, and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive and environmentally safe inspections using x-ray and gamma ray technologies with reasonable cost and throughput. included are background information; project description; and results. 11 figs.

  15. High current density pulsed cathode experiments at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, R.; Fant, K.; Vlieks, A.

    1990-06-01

    A 1.9 microperveance beam diode has been constructed to test high current density cathodes for use in klystrons. Several standard and specially coated dispenser cathodes are being tested. Results of tests to date show average cathode current densities in excess of 25 amps/cm, and maximum electric field gradients of more than 450 kV/cm for pulses of the order of 1{mu}sec. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Effectiveness of bomber deployed autonomous airborne vehicles in finding rail mobile SS-24s

    SciTech Connect

    Abey, A.E.; Erickson, S.A.; Norquist, P.D.

    1990-08-01

    Computer simulation predictions of the effectiveness of autonomous airborne vehicles in finding rail mobile SS-24s are presented. Effectiveness is discussed for several autonomous airborne vehicle endurances and survivabilities for the search area southwest of Moscow. The effect of where the Soviets place the SS-24s on the rail network was also investigated. The simulation predicts significant variations in the ability of a multi-autonomous airborne vehicle system to find SS-24s with these parameters. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Dworshak Dam Impact Assessment and Fishery Investigation, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mauser, Gregg; Cannamela, David; Downing, Richard

    1990-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded two 4-year research projects to develop recommendations for improving the sport fishery on Dworshak Reservoir. Research began during 1987 as a cooperative effort between the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The Nez Perce Tribe examined smallmouth bass and rainbow trout fisheries. The IDFG evaluated kokanee population dynamics and documented changes in reservoir productivity. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  19. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  20. Measurement of energy and charged particle emission in the central rapidity region from O + A and p + A collisions at 14. 5 GeV/c per nucleon and preliminary results from Si + A collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.; Akiba, Y.; Alburger, D.; Beavis, D.; Betts, R.R.; Bloomer, M.A.; Bond, P.D.; Chasman, C.; Chu, Y.Y.; Cole, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The first data from a 160 beam of total energy 232 GeV at the BNL Tandem-AGS are discussed. Preliminary results from a /sup 28/Si beam of total energy 406 GeV are also shown. The full complement of E-802, including a magnetic spectrometer, was used for the /sup 28/Si measurement. A different experimental arrangement was used for 160. Comparison measurements with proton beams are presented for both configurations. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. 12 figs.

  2. Level 1 remedial investigation work plan, 300 Area Process Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the objectives of the site characterization for the 300 Area Process Ponds which are to identify and quantify contamination at the ponds and to estimate their potential impact on human health and the environment. The results of the site characterization will be used to identify any future actions related to contamination at the site and to identify any additional data requirements needed to support selection of a remedial action. 9 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Review of the `cold fusion` effect

    SciTech Connect

    Storms, E.

    1996-09-01

    More than 190 studies reporting evidence for the `cold fusion` effect are evaluated. New work has answered criticisms by eliminating many of the suggested errors. Evidence for large and reproducible energy generation as well as various nuclear reactions, in addition to fusion, from a variety of environments and methods in accumulating. The field can no longer be dismissed by invoking obvious error or prosaic explanations. 192 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  5. Methane: Small molecule, big impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, J.G.

    1997-11-21

    Methanogenesis occures in anaerobic conditions in vast natural and human made environments. The estimated 1% annual increase in global methane is mainly attributed to human activities. This article gives an overall perspective on methane-producing microbes, which are phylogenetically distinct from all other prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the food chain which produces atmospheric methane, and biochemical pathways leading to methane production in these microbes. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.; Pauer, R.O.

    1990-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a multiprogram national laboratory managed by the University of California (UC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). LBL's major role is to conduct basic and applied science research that is appropriate for an energy research laboratory. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1989 are presented, and general trends are discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Physics of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-12-13

    Presupernova models of massive stars are presented and their explosion by ''delayed neutrino transport'' examined. A new form of long duration Type II supernova model is also explored based upon repeated encounter with the electron-positron pair instability in stars heavier than about 60 Msub solar. Carbon deflagration in white dwarfs is discussed as the probable explanation of Type I supernovae and special attention is paid to the physical processes whereby a nuclear flame propagates through degenerate carbon. 89 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Articles of protective clothing adapted for deflecting chemical permeation and methods there for

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1996-02-27

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation. 12 figs.

  9. Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Central Heating Plant site characterization report, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a characterization of the operation and maintenance (O M) environment at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This characterization is part of a program intended to provide the O M staff with a computerized artificial intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist the plant staff in more efficient operation of their plant. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Strangeonia and kin; new results from kaon hadroproduction with LASS

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Johnson, W.B.; Kunz, P.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Levinson, L.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Sinervo, P.K.; Tarnopolsky, G.; Toge, N.; Waite, A.; Williams, S. ); Awaji, N.; Fujii, K.; Hayashii, H.; Iwata, S.; Kajikawa, R.; Matsui, T.; Miyamoto, A.; Ozaki, H.; Pak, C.O.; Shimomura, T.; Sugiyama,

    1989-12-01

    Recent results from a high statistics study of strangeonium mesons produced in LASS by an 11 GeV/c K{sup -} beam are reviewed and compared with the quark model. New data from a variety of final states (K*{ovr K*}, {phi}{phi}, {phi}{pi}{sup 0}) produced by hypercharge exchange are described, and compared with results from other hadroproduction modes and from J/{psi} decay. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Calculation of Hugoniot values from atomic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, F.E.; Walker, F.G.; Walker, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    A relatively simple equation is presented for use in calculating the Hugoniot values of any condensed element from its atomic weight, atomic radius, and density. Calculations from the equation are compared with data for many elements, and a discussion of the development and utility of the equation is included. The equation also appears to be useful for the gaseous elements when they are in condensed phases. 19 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Tracheal Mucus Flow Rates in Experimental Bronchitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lightowler, Norah M.; Williams, J. R. B.

    1969-01-01

    The flow of mucus in the trachea of rats previously exposed to an atmosphere of SO2 in air was measured and correlated with the histological changes in the trachea, bronchi and lungs. Reduction in the speed of mucus flow in the exposed trachea was found with increasing severity of bronchopulmonary changes. ImagesFigs. 9-12Figs. 6-7Figs. 2-5 PMID:5772066

  14. Shale: Measurement of thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Morgan, I.L.

    1987-07-01

    Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were made on samples of Devonian shale, Pierre shale, and oil shale from the Green River Formation. Thermal expansion measurements were made on selected samples of Devonian shale. Measurements were obtained over the temperature range of ambient to 473 K. Average values for thermal conductivity and heat capacity for the samples studied were within two standard deviations of all data over this temperature range. 15 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Acid measurements via near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, B.R.

    1991-02-13

    We were able to predict acid concentration to {plus_minus}0.08M HNO{sub 3}. In the presence of Al{sup 3} interference, the prediction dropped to {plus_minus}0.29 mols/liter over the range 0 to 9M HNO{sub 3}. Temperature affects the prediction of acid adversely and would have to be modelled out or the sample cell thermostated prior to using this method. 10 refs, 12 figs.(DLC)

  16. Acid measurements via near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, B.R.

    1991-02-13

    We were able to predict acid concentration to {plus minus}0.08M HNO{sub 3}. In the presence of Al{sup 3} interference, the prediction dropped to {plus minus}0.29 mols/liter over the range 0 to 9M HNO{sub 3}. Temperature affects the prediction of acid adversely and would have to be modelled out or the sample cell thermostated prior to using this method. 10 refs, 12 figs.(DLC)

  17. Fuel performance annual report for 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1988-03-01

    This annual report, the ninth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1986 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 550 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Small-x physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.H.

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Preparation of fibrous palladium

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Leahy, B.T.; Werkmeister, D.W.; Martin, F.S.; Friedlander, H.N.

    1988-06-15

    Acrylic fibers (pan fibers) absorb palladium from a hot solution of palladium nitrate in nitric acid. When palladium-loaded acrylic fibers are burned, fibers consisting of palladium and palladium oxide are formed. Reduction of this mixture with hydrogen produces fibers of palladium metal. The fibers may be compressed into pellets which offer less resistance to flowing hydrogen than similar pellets prepared by compressing commercial palladium powder. 9 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Additional capabilities and benchmarking with the SPERT transients for heavy water application of the PARET code

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The capabilities of the PARET code have been expanded to include the ability to compute steady-state and transient results for heavy water reactors. A comparison is provided between PARET and the SPERT II series of transients. Another significant improvement in the code is the addition of a restart capability. The current capabilities of the code are summarized. 7 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Kansas-Nebraska seismicity studies using the Kansas-Nebraska microearthquake network: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, D.W.; Hildebrand, G.M.; Bennett, B.C.; Miller, R.D.; Chung, Y.; Knapp, R.W.

    1988-03-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) operates a 15 station seismograph network with stations located in northeast Kansas and southeast Nebraska. The network is supported in part by funding from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This report discusses operation of the network and summarizes the results of research that allows a better understanding of the seismicity of the region and the link between the seismicity and the tectonic setting of the region. 29 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Neutron flow between nuclei as the principal enhancement mechanism in heavy-ion subbarrier fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Stelson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The observed enhanced cross sections for heavy-ion fusion are interpreted with a model in which the near barrier cross sections are dominated by neck formation initiated by neutron flow between the colliding nuclei. The collective properties of the colliding nuclei are then interpreted as a modulation of the thresholds for neck formation and dominate the cross sections in the region far below the barrier. 12 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Luminescent studies of fluorescent chromophore-doped silica aerogels for flat panel display applications

    SciTech Connect

    Glauser, S.A.C.; Lee, H.W.H.

    1997-04-01

    The remarkable optical and electronic properties of doped and undoped silica aerogels establish their utility as unique, mulitfunctional host materials for fluorescent dyes and other luminescent materials for display and imaging applications. We present results on the photoluminescence, absorption, and photoluminescence excitation spectra of undoped silica aerogels and aerogels doped with Er{sup 3+}, rhodamine 6G (R6G), and fluorescein. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  5. Exclusive nuclear reactions: Can you count on the deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Three of the simplest nuclear reactions -- (1) electron-deuteron elastic scattering, (2) electro-disintegration of the deuteron near threshold and at high momentum transfer, and (3) photodisintegration of the deuteron at high energy -- were believed to have unique signatures for OCD effects in nuclei. The progress in the past few years with regard to these reactions will be traced and the results will be compared with recent theoretical predictions. 36 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dai, S.; Young, J.P.

    1998-10-13

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0{degree}, an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head. 12 figs.

  7. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-03-23

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced. 12 figs.

  8. A Weibull brittle material failure model for the ABAQUS computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.

    1991-08-01

    A statistical failure theory for brittle materials that traces its origins to the Weibull distribution function is developed for use in the general purpose ABAQUS finite element computer program. One of the fundamental assumptions for this development is that Mode 1 microfractures perpendicular to the direction of the principal stress contribute independently to the fast fracture. The theory is implemented by a user subroutine for ABAQUS. Example problems illustrating the capability and accuracy of the model are given. 24 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Method and apparatus for phase and amplitude detection

    DOEpatents

    Cernosek, R.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-06-09

    A new class of techniques has been developed which allow inexpensive application of SAW-type chemical sensor devices while retaining high sensitivity (ppm) to chemical detection. The new techniques do not require that the sensor be part of an oscillatory circuit, allowing large concentrations of, e.g., chemical vapors in air, to be accurately measured without compromising the capacity to measure trace concentrations. Such devices have numerous potential applications in environmental monitoring, from manufacturing environments to environmental restoration. 12 figs.

  10. Progress report on the SLAC Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, J.

    1986-06-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider project (SLC) is reported as being near completion. The performance specifications are tabulated both for the initial form and for eventual goals. Various parts of the SLC are described and the status of their construction is reported, including the front end electron gun and booster, the linac, damping ring, positron source, SLC arcs, and conventional facilities. 5 refs., 12 figs. (LEW)

  11. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  12. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOEpatents

    Porter, M.D.; Weisshaar, D.E.

    1998-10-27

    An electrochemical method is described for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS-, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH{sub 3} or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage. 13 figs.

  13. Accelerators for research and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs.

  14. Highly ordered nanocomposites via a monomer self-assembly in situ condensation approach

    DOEpatents

    Gin, D.L.; Fischer, W.M.; Gray, D.H.; Smith, R.C.

    1998-12-15

    A method for synthesizing composites with architectural control on the nanometer scale is described. A polymerizable lyotropic liquid-crystalline monomer is used to form an inverse hexagonal phase in the presence of a second polymer precursor solution. The monomer system acts as an organic template, providing the underlying matrix and order of the composite system. Polymerization of the template in the presence of an optional cross-linking agent with retention of the liquid-crystalline order is carried out followed by a second polymerization of the second polymer precursor within the channels of the polymer template to provide an ordered nanocomposite material. 13 figs.

  15. Beam dynamics verification in linacs of linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The SLAC two-mile linac has been upgraded to accelerate high current, low emittance electron and positron beams to be used in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). After the upgrade was completed, extensive beam studies were made to verify that the design criteria have been met. These tests involved the measurement of emittance, beam phase space orientation, energy dispersion, trajectory oscillations, bunch length, energy spectrum and wakefields. The methods, the systems and the data cross checks are compared for the various measurements. Implications for the next linear collider are discussed. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Proposal for a new tomographic device providing information on the chemical properties of a body section

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti, E.; Rehak, P.; Kemmer, J.

    1986-02-27

    A system to analyze the chemical properties of a region of tissue located deep inside the human body without having to access it is proposed. The method is based on a high precision detection of x-rays or ..gamma..-rays (photons) from an external source Compton scattered from the tissue under inspection. The method provides chemical information of plane regions lying not too deep inside the body (<6 cm). The amount of radiation absorbed by the body is about the same as needed for a standard x-ray tomography. The exposure time is estimated to be shorter than 10 minutes. 37 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry. 13 figs.

  18. Improvement of direct contact condensation model of RELAP/MOD3.1 for passive high-pressure injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Il; No, Hee Cheon

    1997-12-01

    A simple set of the transition criterion of the condensation regimes and the heat transfer coefficients on the direct contact condensation in the core makeup tank was developed, and implemented in RELAP5/MOD3.1. The condensation regimes were divided into two ones: supply limit and condensation limit. In modeling the transition criterion between two regimes, a large-eddy model developed by Theofanous was used. The modified code better predicted the experiments on the core makeup tank using small scale test facility than the original code did. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Alternative concepts for structurally supporting the cold mass of a superconducting accelerator magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Sondericker, J.H. ); Wolf, L.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Experimental and analytical studies toward the goal of replacing the fiberglass reentrant support posts and their end restraint systems with lower cost injection molded posts are described. Thermoplastic resins with chopped fiberglass reinforcement having lower thermal conductivity were investigated. Experimentally obtained data from creep, shear, and tensile tests on actual injection molded posts of Ultem and Noryl are included. Discussion of flaws and quality control is included. These studies for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are continuing at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the SSC Laboratory. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Failure analysis report: 10 MW geothermal binary turbine, Magma Electric Company, East Mesa, California

    SciTech Connect

    Anliker, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The cause of failure of two isobutane turbines at the East Mesa geothermal plant was investigated. One turbine lost all the vanes in all three stages, while the other turbine sustained dings and nicks in the vanes, but remained intact. The exact cause of failure could not be determined. Three possibilities were determined: (1) a single foreign object, possibly a bolt; (2) foreign substance (geothermal fluid, oil, liquid isobutane, or particulate corrosion products) entered both turbines; or (3) one or more brazed joints failed by fatigue or by a corrosive process. 5 refs., 13 figs. (ACR)

  2. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-05-13

    A micropower RF transponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life. 13 figs.

  3. Initial optical transition radiation measurements of the electron beam for the Boeing Free-Electron Laser experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Fiorito, R.B.; Rule, D.W.; Dowell, D.H.; Sellyey, W.; Lowrey, A.R.; Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD; Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, Seattle, WA )

    1989-01-01

    The potential for characterization of electron beams at {approximately}100 MeV at the Boeing Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility by optical transition radiation (OTR) techniques has been demonstrated as an important complement to other diagnostic means. Electron beam properties such as spatial profile and position, current intensity, emittance, and energy were made accessible in an on-line manner. Initial examples including transport through the 5-m wiggler and the resolution of Cerenkov radiation and spontaneous emission radiation competitive sources are discussed. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  5. Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, R.G.

    1987-03-23

    Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom. Differential phase measurements on scattered light from particles are possible using the two-frequency Zeeman effect laser which emits two frequencies of radiation 250 kHz apart. Excellent discrimination and reproducibility for various pure pollen and bacterial samples in suspension have been observed with a single polarization element. Additionally, a 250 kHz beat frequency was recorded from an individual particle traversing the focused output from the laser in a flow cytometer. 13 figs.

  6. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S.

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Projectile stopping system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, T.J.; Pittenger, L.C.

    1996-11-26

    A projectile interceptor launches a projectile catcher into the path of a projectile. In one embodiment, signals indicative of the path of a projectile are received by the projectile interceptor. A flinger mechanism has a projectile catcher releasably attached thereto, such that the projectile catcher can be released and launched from the flinger mechanism. A controller connected to the flinger mechanism uses the signals indicative of the path of the projectile to determine the launch parameters of the projectile catcher. The controller directs the flinger mechanism to release the projectile catcher such that the projectile catcher is launched into the path of the projectile and intercepts the projectile. 13 figs.

  8. BWRSAR (Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Response) calculations of reactor vessel debris pours for Peach Bottom short-term station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Ott, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent analyses performed by the BWR Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to estimate the release of debris from the reactor vessel for the unmitigated short-term station blackout accident sequence. Calculations were performed with the BWR Severe Accident Response (BWRSAR) code and are based upon consideration of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The modeling strategies employed within BWRSAR for debris relocation within the reactor vessel are briefly discussed and the calculated events of the accident sequence, including details of the calculated debris pours, are presented. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  10. Magnetic switch coupling to synchronize magnetic modulators

    DOEpatents

    Reed, K.W.; Kiekel, P.

    1999-04-27

    Apparatus for synchronizing the output pulses from a pair of magnetic switches is disclosed. An electrically conductive loop is provided between the pair of switches with the loop having windings about the core of each of the magnetic switches. The magnetic coupling created by the loop removes voltage and timing variations between the outputs of the two magnetic switches caused by any of a variety of factors. The only remaining variation is a very small fixed timing offset caused by the geometry and length of the loop itself. 13 figs.

  11. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  12. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  13. UV photoemission from metal cathodes for picosecond power switches

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-RAo, T.; Tsang, T.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported of photoemission studies using laser pulses of 10 ps duration and 4.66 eV photon energy on metal cathodes. These included thin wires, flat surfaces and an yttrium cathode with a grainy surface. The measurements of current density and quantum efficiency under low and high surface fields indicate that field assisted efficiencies exceeding 0.1% and current densities exceeding 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/ are obtainable. The results are compared to the requirements of switch power applications. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  15. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  16. Effects of parametric variations of complex targets on damage from projectile impact

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a hypervelocity projectile striking complex targets have been investigated. The targets consisted of metallic and low-density shock attenuating layers and void regions. The major features of the targets were systematically varied to correlate changes in the targets with the projectile's effectiveness in damaging the targets. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were done with the Eulerian computational fluid dynamics program PINON. Projectile effectiveness against the various targets was measured by determining the maximum pressure, pressure integral, P{sup 2}{tau} value, and hole size at several locations in the targets. 9 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Tensile behavior of tungsten/niobium composites at 1300--1600 K

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hee Mann ); Titran, R.H. . Lewis Research Center)

    1989-01-01

    The tensile behavior of continuous-tungsten-fiber-reinforced niobium composites (W/Nb), fabricated by an arc-spray process, was studied in the 1300 to 1600 K temperature range. The tensile properties of the fiber and matrix components as well as the composites were measured and were compared to rule of mixtures (ROM) predictions. The deviation from the ROM was found to depend upon the chemistry of the tungsten alloy fibers, with positive deviations for ST300/Nb (i.e., stronger composite strength than the ROM) and negative or zero deviations for 218/Nb. 16 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Prediction of stochastic blade responses using a filtered noise turbulence model in the FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program) code

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.W.; Holley, W.E.; Wright, A.D.

    1988-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and resulting stresses is important for predicting the fatigue life of components. There is a clear need within the wind industry for validated codes that can predict not only the deterministic loads from the mean wind velocity, wind shear, and gravity, but also the stochastic loads from turbulent inflow. The FLAP code has already been validated for predicting deterministic loads. This paper concentrates on validating the FLAP code for predicting stochastic turbulence loads using the filtered-noise turbulence model as input. 26 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Physics of the pion liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-04-01

    Excited hadronic matter in the temperature interval T = 100--200 MeV is not an ideal pion gas, but rather a liquid, in which attractive interaction among particles plays an important role. Pion dispersion curve is in this case essentially modified by a kind of collective momentum-dependent potential, which becomes important as the quasipion'' comes to the boundary of the system. We show that effects can provide and explanation for a number of recent experimental puzzles, in particular, for the observed copious production of soft pions and soft photons in high energy hadronic reactions. 31 refs., 13 figs.

  20. The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic and molecular physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1991-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the world's brightest synchrotron radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum when it begins operation in 1993. It will be available as a national user facility to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, biology, imaging, and technology. The high brightness of the ALS will be particularly well suited to high-resolution studies of tenuous targets, such as excited atoms, ions, and clusters. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Population of high spin states in very heavy ion transfer reactions. The experimental evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Guidry, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer reactions have been studied for some time with light heavy ions such as oxygen. Although states of spin I approx.10 h are sometimes populated in such reactions, it is assumed that collective excitation is small, and the transferred particles are responsible for the angular momentum transfer. In this paper we will discuss a qualitatively different kind of transfer reaction using very heavy ions (A greater than or equal to 40). In these reactions the collective excitation in both the entrance and exit channels is strong, and there may be appreciable angular momentum transfer associated with inelastic excitation. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  2. The influence of thermal energy exchange on the activity and energetics of yellow-bellied marmots

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris), large hibernating ground squirrels were investigated. Marmots typically inhabit montane regions with short growing seasons. Minimization of energy expenditure by hibernation is essential for overwinter survival, whereas maximization of energy intake is important during the active season. Marmots near the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in southwestern Colorado are active for only 4 to 5 months each year. During this time they must reproduce, grow, and store enough fat to survive hibernation. 64 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Southern Great Basin seismological data report for 1980 and preliminary data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Carr, W.J.

    1981-12-31

    Earthquake data for the calendar year 1980 are presented for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Nevada seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operation are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. The principal results are that (1) earthquakes concentrate in fault zones having a northeast orientation, (2) fault zones having a northwest orientation are quiescent or nearly so, and (3) no earthquakes have been detected closer that 12 km to the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository study area. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Portable data collection device with self identifying probe

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1998-11-17

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of time. The sensor may also store a unique sensor identifier. 13 figs.

  6. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Noise-induced intermittency in the quasiperiodic regime of Rayleigh-Benard convection

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, R.E.; Haucke, H.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal measurements on a convecting dilute /sup 3/He-superfluid /sup 4/He solution in the quasiperiodic regime show a transition from a mode-locked periodic state to chaotic time dependence via intermittency. In a region just below the onset of intermittency, injection of external multiplicative noise with noise amplitude above a certain threshold level induces the chaotic state. This noise-induced transition can be understood to be due to perturbation of a system with a barely stable attractor; the noise causing the system to escape the weakly attracting periodic points. We present numerical simulations and experimental data which support this picture. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Investigation of processes to treat zinc-ferrite regeneration offgases in high temperature desulfurization of coal gases

    SciTech Connect

    Woodland, L. R.

    1988-08-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of critical operating variables on sulfur dioxide removal efficiency for two candidate throwaway'' desulfurization processes for treating zinc-ferrite reactor regeneration offgas. These two throwaway'' processes, dual-alkali wet scrubbing and spray dryer desulfurization, generate a gypsum waste sludge environmentally acceptable for disposal. They have seen extensive commercial application in flue gas desulfurization, but have not been evaluated for such high levels of removal efficiency and such high inlet sulfur dioxide concentrations as would be required for this application. 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Hydrocarbon precombusting catalyst survey and optimization for perfluorocarbon tracer analysis in subsurface tracer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.; Cote, E.A.; D'Ottavio, T.W.; Dietz, R.N.

    1989-05-01

    The extension of the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology, as developed for atmospheric dispersion and transport studies to petroleum reservoir characterization studies, required the development of a more robust catalyst to remove analysis interferents caused by the adsorption of 5 liter hydrocarbon reservoir gas samples containing PFT onto carbonaceous adsorbent samplers. Two approaches were studied: (1) replacement of the present internal laboratory PFT analysis system catalyst with a more effective catalyst and, if this was not viable, (2) development of an external preprocessing catalyst train, to significantly reduce the hydrocarbon levels in the sample, without affecting the perfluorocarbon tracers. 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. A description of the SNL (Sandia National Laboratories) clutter model developed for the SRIM (Simulated Radar IMage) code version 2. 2s

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes the clutter model developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the SRIM code version 2.2s. The SNL clutter model is a fully polarimetric model that includes both coherent and incoherent scattering effects. The input parameters to the SNL clutter model are chosen so that an acceptable match is obtained between the model predicted data and the appropriate experimental data. These input parameters are then used in the SRIM code to simulated the desired clutter type. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Optical pumping in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.; Reimer, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    An important current trend in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the growing exploitation of optical pumping of nuclear spin polarizations as a means of enhancing and localizing NMR signals. Recent work has been concentrated in two areas, namely optically pumped NMR in semiconductors and optical pumping of noble gases. Progress in these two areas, including technical developments and new applications in physical chemistry, condensed matter physics, and biomedical sciences, is reviewed. Likely directions for future developments are suggested. 58 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  13. A new wheel control system for the omnidirectional HERMIES-III robot

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.

    1991-04-01

    We have designed, built, and tested a new wheel control system for the HERMIES-III robot. HERMIES-III is a large mobile robot with omnidirectional steering that is designed for human scale experiments. During each cycle (at 20 Hz), the wheel control system moves the robot toward a goal and calculates the current position of the robot. The system has seven modes for moving to a goal and the goal may be changed during motion of the robot. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  15. Time-resolved electrochromism associated with the formation of quinone anions in the rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 reaction center

    SciTech Connect

    Tiede, D.M.; Vazquez, J.; Cordova, J.; Marone, P.A.

    1996-08-20

    The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center contains bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) and bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) and bacteriopheophytin (Bph) cofactors that provide natural probes of electrostatic fields within this protein. We have examined the electrochromic responses of these cofactors, resolved during the lifetimes of the quinone anion states, P{sup +}Q{sub A}{sup -Q}{sub B} and P{sup +}Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -}, and measured as a function of temperature. These measurements provide information on the time-dependent variation in electrostatic field strength on the Bchl and Bph cofactors. Measurements in the near-infrared absorbance bands are described. 60 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    All mouse T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} variable (Tcra/d-, b-, and g-V) gene segments were aligned to compare the sequences with one another, to group them into subfamilies, and to derive a name which complies with the standard nomenclature. it was necessary to change the names of some V gene segments because they conflicted with those of other segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was re-evaluated using a much larger pool of sequences. In the mouse, most V gene segments can be grouped into subfamilies of closely related genes with significantly less similarity between different subfamilies. 118 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Influence of measurement geometry on the estimate of {sup 131}I activity in the thyroid: Monte Carlo simulation of a detector and a phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanovsky, A.V.; Minenko, V.F.; Korneev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    An approach for evaluating the influence of measurement geometry on estimates of {sup 131}I in the thyroid from measurements with survey meters was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in the human body and the radiation detector. The modified Monte Carlo code, EGS4, including a newly developed mathematical model of detector, thyroid gland, and neck, was used for the computations. The approach was tested by comparing calculated and measured differential and integral detector characteristics. This procedure was applied to estimate uncertainties in direct thyroid-measurement results due to geometrical errors. 14 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Method for chemical surface modification of fumed silica particles

    DOEpatents

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1999-05-11

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

  19. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for imparting strength to a material using sliding loads

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, D.A.; Dawson, D.B.; Korellis, J.S.

    1999-03-16

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads is disclosed. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: (1) asperity interactions and (2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example. 11 figs.

  1. Coupled thermo-mechanical and poro-mechanical response evaluations associated with underground coal conversion. Final report, June 1982-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Advani, S.H.; Lee, J.K.; Min, O.K.; Chen, S.M.; Tseng, Y.P.; El Rafei, Al; Aboustit, B.L.; Chen, K.S.; Kitamura, M.; So, J.Y.

    1986-04-01

    Research investigations on hygrothermomechanical response modeling associated with underground coal conversion processes are reported. In particular, stress mediated cavity shapes and subsidence profiles for several field experiments are evaluated from the developed thermostructural models. These finite element codes utilize temperature dependent material properties with different constitutive characterizations, depending on the desired predictive capabilities and field applications. On the basis of the conducted thermo-elastic, thermo-elastoplastic, thermal consolidation, cavity spalling model, and parametric sensitivity simulations, criteria related to UCC site selection, cavity roof, and subsidence response prediction are identified and discussed. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. The one-dimensional Boltzmann gas: The ergodic hypothesis and the phase portrait of small systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rouet, J.L. ); Blasco, F.; Feix, M.R. )

    1993-04-01

    The concept of ergodicity and its application to microcanonical systems composed of few particles of different masses are clarified. The distribution functions in position and velocity are theoretically derived and numerically verified. Moreover, the authors deal with a one-dimensional Boltzmann gas where the order relation (connected to the one dimensionality) brings constraints depending on the two classes of boundary conditions enforced (reflecting, periodic). The numerical simulations on a one-dimensional Boltzmann gas act as real experiments and allow them to play on the constraints to which the system is subjected. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for the evaluation of a depth profile of thermo-mechanical properties of layered and graded materials and coatings

    DOEpatents

    Finot, M.; Kesler, O.; Suresh, S.

    1998-12-08

    A technique for determining properties such as Young`s modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, and residual stress of individual layers within a multi-layered sample is presented. The technique involves preparation of a series of samples, each including one additional layer relative to the preceding sample. By comparison of each sample to a preceding sample, properties of the topmost layer can be determined, and residual stress at any depth in each sample, resulting from deposition of the top layer, can be determined. 11 figs.

  6. Bioenergy: Direct applications in cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, G.S.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1993-12-31

    Cooking stoves that burn traditional biofuels are used by half the world`s population, yet many are inefficient and hazardous to the health of those who tend them. In recent years, however, a new generation of cook stoves needing less fuel and emitting fewer airborne particulates has emerged. Many of the new designs run on biomass that has been transformed into a liquid, gaseous, or improved solid-fuel form. Alternative cooking systems are compared, and data from cooking trials conducted by the authors in a south Indian village are provided. 89 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

    1994-09-13

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

  8. High-resolution surface temperature patterns related to urban morphology in a tropical city: A satellite-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Nichol, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution thermal data derived from Landsat`s thematic mapper are evaluated for their correspondence to building geometry and landscape features in Singapore`s high-rise housing estates. The image data are sufficiently detailed to reveal that differences in solar azimuth on images taken at different times of year create different thermal patterns due to building geometry and surface materials. Field measurements of surface and adjacent air temperatures in urban canyons at different orientations and at different elevations above ground demonstrate that for Singapore conditions satellite-derived surface temperature patterns are a good indicator of the daytime urban heat island. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. MidAmerican's Walter Scott, Jr. Energy Center Unit 4 earns Power's highest honor

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2007-08-15

    MidAmerican Energy Co. and its project partners are convinced that supercritical coal-firing technology's inherently higher efficiency and lower CO{sub 2} emissions no longer come with a price: reduced reliability. Unit 4 of the Walter Scott, Jr. Energy Center (WSEC) entered into service in June 2006 doubling the capacity of the PRB-coal fuelled plant to 1,600 MW. This is the first major new supercritical plant in the US in more than 15 years. The design of the boiler and the air pollution control systems downstream are described and illustrated. Unit 4 won the 2007 Plant of the Year awarded by Power magazine. 11 figs.

  10. Electronic Raman scattering in copper-oxide superconductors and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hackl, R.; Krug, G.; Nemetschek, R.; Opel, M.; Stadlober, B.

    1996-12-31

    The authors describe Raman-scattering experiments in copper-oxide superconductors with transition temperatures between 12 and 90 K as a function of temperature and polarization. The broad continuum observed in all compounds in both the normal and the superconducting state is attributed predominantly to electronic excitations and will be interpreted in terms of charge-carrier fluctuations. The effect of impurities is studied systematically. The limitations of the present theoretical approach as well as possible generalizations will be discussed. 60 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Collisionally induced stochastic dynamics of fast ions in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdoerfer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of excited state formation in collisions of fast highly charged ions with solids are reviewed. We discuss a classical transport theory employing Monte-Carlo sampling of solutions of a microscopic Langevin equation. Dynamical screening by the dielectric medium as well as multiple collisions are incorporated through the drift and stochastic forces in the Langevin equation. The close relationship between the extrinsically stochastic dynamics described by the Langevin and the intrinsic stochasticity in chaotic nonlinear dynamical systems is stressed. Comparison with experimental data and possible modification by quantum corrections are discussed. 49 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Inconsistencies in pedigree symbols in human genetics publications: A need for standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhaus, K.A.; Bennett, R.L.; Resta, R.G.

    1995-04-10

    To determine consistency in usage of pedigree symbols by genetics professionals, we reviewed pedigrees printed in 10 human genetic and medical journals and 24 medical genetics textbooks. We found no consistent symbolization for common situations such as pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, death, or test results. Inconsistency in pedigree design can create difficulties in the interpretation of family studies and detract from the pedigree`s basic strength of simple and accurate communication of medical information. We recommend the development of standard pedigree symbols, and their incorporation into genetic publications, professional genetics training programs, pedigree software programs, and genetic board examinations. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Cerenkov ring imaging detector development: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.; Ratcliff, B.

    1988-10-01

    We present recent progress on the construction and testing of the first drift boxes and single electron detectors as they come from the production line. These detectors will be used for particle identification using the Ring Imaging technique in the SLD experiment at SLAC. Various experimental results are presented, including single electron pulse height measurements as a function of gas gain, detector gating capability, uniformity of response across the wire plane, charge division performance of a single electron signal, average pulse shape and its comparison with predicted shape, and cross-talk. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  14. A mathematical model of ethanol fermentation from cheese whey. II. Simulation and comparison with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chen-Jen; Bajpai, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    A cybernetic model for microbial growth on mixed substrates was used to simulate the anaerobic fermentation of cheese whey and multiple sugars in semisynthetic media by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397. The model simulations quite successfully predicted the observed behavior in batch and during transients in continuous operation, in single-substrate systems as well as in media involving multiple substrates, and in semisynthetic and reconstituted cheese whey solutions. The results of simulations and their comparison with the experimental data are presented. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Limnology of Sawtooth Valley Lakes in 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Luecke, C.; Slater, M.; Budy, P.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of the limnological characteristics of the four lakes in reference to their potential effect of growth and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon. Physical parameters included light penetration, Secchi transparency, and water temperature; chemical parameters included oxygen, and both dissolved and particulate forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Phytoplankton parameters included chlorophyll concentration, biovolume of dominant taxa, and rates of primary production; zooplankton parameters included density and biomass estimate, length frequencies, and the number of eggs carried by female cladocerans. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Ultrasonic flow imaging system: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1991-09-01

    This report examines the feasibility and potential problems in developing a real-time ultrasonic flow imaging instrument for on-line monitoring of mixed-phased flows such as coal slurries. State-of-the-art ultrasonic imaging techniques are assessed for this application. Reflection and diffraction tomographies are proposed for further development, including image-reconstruction algorithms and parallel processing systems. A conventional ultrasonic C-scan technique is used to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the particle motion in a solid/water flow. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, C.; Subbaraman, M.R.

    1989-06-13

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump is disclosed wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs. 11 figs.

  18. Photophysics and photochemistry of quantized ZnO colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, P.V.; Patrick, B.

    1992-08-06

    The photophysical and photochemical behavior of quantized ZnO colloids in ethanol has been investigated by time-resolved transient absorption and emission measurements. Trapping of electrons at the ZnO surface resulted in broad absorption in the red region. The green emission of ZnO colloids was readily quenched by hole scavengers such as SCN{sup -} and I{sup -}. The photoinduced charge transfer to these hole scavengers was studied by laser flash photolysis. The yield of oxidized product increased considerably when ZnO colloids were coupled with ZnSe. 36 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Sonar and its Use in Kidney Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, E. A.; Murphy, A. V.; Arneil, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles of diagnostic ultrasound or sonar are given, together with the special technique required for scanning newborn infants and small children for kidney abnormalities. Illustrative examples of the potential of this procedure, both in diagnosis and in monitoring changes include a normal neonatal and preadolescent kidney, unilateral renal agenesis, duplex kidney, renal cyst, polycystic disease, nephroblastoma, and examples of mild and severe hydronephrosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:4343783

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  2. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of military field-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Layton, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop drinking-water standards for field water for selected threat agents of concern, including radioactivity. The threat agents of concern in addition to radioactivity are the classical chemical-warfare compounds hydrogen cyanide, organophosphorus nerve agents, and lewisite, as well as a fungal metabolite identified only recently as a possible threat agent, the trichothecene mycotoxin. The recommended standards are applicable only to military personnel deployed in the field, and they are meant to protect against performance-degrading effects resulting from the ingestion of the substances in field water. 25 refs., 11 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Physical characterization of radioactive sludges in selected Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ceo, R.N.; Sears, M.B.; Shor, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    Physical measurements were performed on typical radioactive sludge samples from selected Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL. These measurements included viscosity, particle size, density, sedimentation rate, and solids content. The techniques developed during this project are simple and use inexpensive apparatus to assay the range of physical properties spanned by the sample set. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, and research and development activities in developing waste management alternatives. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. An introduction to baryon violation in standard electroweak theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.B.

    1990-12-01

    I shall begin with a qualitative overview of the anomaly and B violation at zero and non-zero temperature, demonstrating how these processes may be understood on the back of an envelope. Then I shall discuss a part of the formalism necessary for doing calculations in more detail. Specifically, B violation is related to various solutions to the Euclidean equations of motion; instantons, sphalerons, and calorons (also called periodic instantons). The applicability of the various solutions may be understood by analogies with elementary quantum mechanics problems. Finally, I shall touch upon the computation of high-energy B violation mentioned above. 29 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Measurements of sin/sup 2/ theta/sub w/ from studies of the elastic scattering of neutrinos by protons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This talk is intended as a brief report on studies of the elastic scattering of neutrinos by protons and electrons. Measurements of the ratios of muon antineutrino and muon neutrino elastic scattering on protons, and the corresponding ratio for elastic scattering on electrons minimize systematic experimental errors, and lead directly to values of the fundamental parameter of the electroweak interaction, the Weinberg Angle, with minimal ambiguity. Accordingly, the principal motivation in carrying out these studies was the desire to obtain and compare precise values of the Weinberg Angle from both the semileptonic and leptonic reactions as still another test of the basic validity of the standard electroweak theory. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Electropolishing process development for PWR steam generator channel heads

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, R.H.; Graves, P.; Guastaferro, C.T.; Spalaris, C.N. )

    1991-04-01

    A broad range of process parameters was established to smoothen the surface of 309 L weld clad overlay, prototypic of surfaces common is channel heads of replacement PWR (pressurized water reactor) steam generators. Mechanical and electropolishing steps were studied to explore process boundaries, which result in acceptable degree of surface smoothness, without compromising metallurgical properties. Recommended processes and acceptance criteria established in this work, can be applied to electropolish steam generator channel heads. Smooth surfaces are less likely to retain radioactive species, and potentially develop lower radiation fields when these components are placed into service. 7 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. An overview: Challenges in wind technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R W; Hock, S M

    1991-12-01

    Developing innovative wind turbine components and advanced turbine configurations is a primary focus for wind technology researchers. In their rush to bring these new components and systems to the marketplace, designers and developers should consider the lessons learned in the wind farms over the past 10 years. Experience has shown that a disciplined design approach is required that realistically accounts for the turbulence-induced loads, unsteady stall loading, and fatigue effects. This paper reviews past experiences and compares current modelling capabilities with experimental measurements in order to identify some of the knowledge gaps that challenge designers of advanced components and systems. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1988-07-19

    A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

  10. The Mouth: A Window on Systemic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joel B.

    1980-01-01

    The oral cavity often presents signs and symptoms of systemic disease—frequently the earliest and perhaps the only signs and symptoms. This article presents a brief description of oral signs and symptoms of some hematologic, metabolic, dermatologic, connective tissue and nutritional diseases, together with a discussion of clinical diagnostic problems. Diagnosis of systemic disease may be facilitated by awareness of the oral presentation of systemic disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:21293558

  11. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  12. Design of a field experiment for injection of natural colloids in a sandy coastal plain aquifer, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute, Georgetown, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; McCarthy, J.F. ); Williams, T.M. . Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Inst.)

    1990-06-01

    This report summarizes the design of field injection experiments that constitute one task in the larger project described in the report Experiments Using Natural Organics.'' In the experiment, we plan to inject a large volume of colloidal organic matter (COM) into a sandy, unconsolidated coastal aquifer and observe the migration of COM into the groundwater flow system. The report provides a brief overview of the research project, including hypotheses to be tested; describes the purpose of the field injection experiments; summarizes the site characterization preliminary to the experiments; and explains the design of the experiments. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Method of protecting surfaces from abrasion and abrasion resistant articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-06-09

    Surfaces of fabricated structures are protected from damage by impacting particulates by a coating of hard material formed as a mass of thin flexible filaments having root ends secured to the surface and free portions which can flex and overlap to form a resilient cushioning mat which resembles hair or fur. The filamentary coating covers the underlying surface with hard abrasion resistance material while also being compliant and capable of local accommodation to particle impacts. The coating can also function as thermal and/or acoustical insulation and has a friction reducing effect. 11 figs.

  14. On weak decays of heavy flavors, mixing and CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.

    1987-10-01

    Detailed studies of weak decays serve not only to confirm the Standard Model, but possess also a high sensitivity to New Physics: tau and top decays are discussed in this vein, with some short remarks on beauty and charm. The sensitivity to New Physics is even higher in delicate phenomena like mixing and CP violation: a fairly detailed discussion on K/sup 0/ - anti K/sup 0/, D/sup 0/ - anti D/sup 0/, and B/sup 0/ - anti B/sup 0/ mixing and on CP violation in K/sup 0/ and B decays is presented. 48 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  16. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.

    1994-08-16

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 11 figs.

  17. Feed-forward digital phase and amplitude correction system

    DOEpatents

    Yu, D.U.L.; Conway, P.H.

    1994-11-15

    Phase and amplitude modifications in repeatable RF pulses at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier are made utilizing a digital feed-forward correction system. A controlled amount of the output power is coupled to a correction system for processing of phase and amplitude information. The correction system comprises circuitry to compare the detected phase and amplitude with the desired phase and amplitude, respectively, and a digitally programmable phase shifter and attenuator and digital logic circuitry to control the phase shifter and attenuator. The phase and amplitude of subsequent are modified by output signals from the correction system. 11 figs.

  18. SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B,

    1985-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Toxicity assessment of Hanford Site wastes by bacterial bioluminescence. [Photobacter phosphoreum:a3

    SciTech Connect

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Voogd, J.A.

    1991-09-01

    This paper examines the toxicity of the nonradioactive component of low-level wastes stored in tanks on the Hanford reservation. The use of a faster, cheaper bioassay to replace the 96 hour fish acute toxicity test is examined. The new bioassay is based on loss of bioluminescence of {und Photobacter phosphoreum} (commonly called Microtox) following exposure to toxic materials. This bioassay is calibrated and compares well to the standard fish acute toxicity test for characterization of Hanford Wastes. 4 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs. (MHB)

  20. Nucleas (hadron) nucleus elastic scattering and geometrical picture

    SciTech Connect

    Aleem F.; Ali, S.; Saleem, M.

    1995-08-01

    A comprehensive explanation of nucleus-nucleus and hadron-nucleus elastic scattering is elusive ever since the measurements of these reactions were made. By proposing energy dependent hadronic form factors for deuteron and alpha, in analogy to that of the proton as suggested by Chou and Yang recently, the authors have fitted all the available data for alpha-alpha and deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering. In order to further verify the validity of the proposed form factor, they have also fitted the data for proton-alpha and proton-deuteron elastic scattering. It is concluded that the hadronic matter is expanding with an increase in energy. 30 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  2. Accurate Navier-Stokes results for the hypersonic flow over a spherical nosetip

    SciTech Connect

    Blottner, F.G.

    1989-01-01

    The unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations for a perfect gas are solved with a linearized block Alternating Direction Implicit finite-difference solution procedure. Solution errors due to numerical dissipation added to the governing equations are evaluated. Errors in the numerical predictions on three different grids are determined where Richardson extrapolation is used to estimate the exact solution. Accurate computational results are tabulated for the hypersonic laminar flow over a spherical body which can be used as a benchmark test case. Predictions obtained from the code are in good agreement with inviscid numerical results and experimental data. 9 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Ringfield lithographic camera

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-09-08

    A projection lithography camera is presented with a wide ringfield optimized so as to make efficient use of extreme ultraviolet radiation from a large area radiation source (e.g., D{sub source} {approx_equal} 0.5 mm). The camera comprises four aspheric mirrors optically arranged on a common axis of symmetry. The camera includes an aperture stop that is accessible through a plurality of partial aperture stops to synthesize the theoretical aperture stop. Radiation from a mask is focused to form a reduced image on a wafer, relative to the mask, by reflection from the four aspheric mirrors. 11 figs.

  4. Investigation of optical methods for hydroyield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Charest, J.A.; Lynch, C.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Two fiber optic techniques, the Linear Resistive Ladder (LRL) and the piezo-driven LED arrangement, were investigated and successfully demonstrated in the laboratory to be capable of being used for hydroyield measurements. Prototype linear arrangements for each of the above methods were constructed and placed in a designed UGT. The piezo-driven LED method appears very attractive as it showed the potential for becoming an all passive, non-intrusive'' treaty verification method capable of functioning at stress levels ranging from less than 1Kbar to 100 Kbars. Other optical methods using fiber optics for detection mechanisms and signal transmissions were also conceptually examined. 11 figs.

  5. Development and validation of a real-time SAFT-UT system for inservice inspection of LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Reid, L.D.; Hall, T.E.; Littlefield, R.J.; Gilbert, R.W.; Crawford, S.L.; Baldwin, A.J.; Bowey, R.E.

    1985-10-01

    A multi-year program is underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to move the synthetic aperture focusing technique from the Laboratory into the field to inspect light water reactor components. This report is a summary of highlights from the third year's efforts. The work presented here includes: scanner development, SAFT-UT signal processing techniques, SAFT-UT graphics package development, SAFT-UT real-time processor, SAFT-UT field system integration, SAFT-UT evaluation on CCSS, a field trip demonstrating in-field SAFT data processing, and future work. 11 figs.

  6. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Analysis of fission product release behavior during the TMI-2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, D. A.; Adams, J. P.; Anderson, J. L.; Hobbins, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of fission product release during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident has been initiated to provide an understanding of fission product behavior that is consistent with both the best estimate accident scenario and fission product results from the ongoing sample acquisition and examination efforts. ''First principles'' fission product release models are used to describe release from intact, disrupted, and molten fuel. Conclusions relating to fission product release, transport, and chemical form are drawn. 35 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Joining of dissimilar materials with the pulsed Nd-YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lingenfelter, A.C.; Westrich, C.N.; Anglin, C.D.; Murchie, J.R.

    1987-11-01

    The pulsed Nd-YAG laser welding process is an excellent method for joining dissimilar metals. The ability to focus the beam to a small spot size and the capability with a precision CNC positioner to locate the beam very precisely, permits close control of the fusion zone composition. The nature of the pulsed laser process requires that the fusion zone composition exhibit good cracking resistance. Frequently a filler metal can be introduced which will tolerate the dilution from both of the base metals and produce a crack-free weld. Examples are cited to illustrate a number of dissimilar metal combinations. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Feasibility of large-{beta} tokamak stability to ballooning modes due to nonmonotonic q-profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, M.V.; Yurchenko, E.I.

    1994-12-01

    The stability of high-temperature nondissipative plasmas to the flute instability ballooning modes in tokamak-like toroidal configurations is investigated at high plasma pressures. The analytical criterion of ballooning-mode stability at large toroidal numbers, discovered by O.P. Pogutse and E.I. Yurchenko, is used for stability assessment. In contrast to systems with monotonic safety-factor q-profiles, nonmonotonic q-profile systems are found to allow a considerable increase in the critical plasma pressure, provided that the pressure profile is properly chosen. The most preferred pressure profiles prove to be the peaked profiles. 13 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Anderson, M.T.; Ganguli, R.; Lu, Y.F.

    1999-01-12

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts. 12 figs.

  11. A Main Ring bunch length monitor by detecting two frequency components of the beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ieiri, T.; Jackson, G.

    1989-06-02

    The bunch length is measured by detecting two revolution frequency harmonics of the beam and taking the ratio of their amplitudes. Two heterodyne receivers have been made to direct them, one at 53MHz and the other at 159MHz. These signals are picked-up by a stripline detector. An analog circuit provides a signal proportional to the bunch length. The monitor measures variation of the bunch length as a function of time in the Main Ring. The measured signal, which sometimes shows that the bunches are tumbling in phase space, can be damped by feedback to the RF amplitude modulator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Method for reducing energy losses in laser crystals

    DOEpatents

    Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Roberts, D.H.

    1992-03-24

    A process for reducing energy losses in crystals is disclosed which comprises: a. heating a crystal to a temperature sufficiently high as to cause dissolution of microscopic inclusions into the crystal, thereby converting said inclusions into point-defects, and b. maintaining said crystal at a given temperature for a period of time sufficient to cause said point-defects to diffuse out of said crystal. Also disclosed are crystals treated by the process, and lasers utilizing the crystals as a source of light. 12 figs.

  13. A 34-meter VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) point design

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, T.D.; Berg, D.E.; Dodd, H.M.; Rumsey, M.A.; Sutherland, H.J.; Veers, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Wind Energy Division at Sandia National Laboratories recently completed a point design based on the 34-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Test Bed. The 34-m Test Bed research machine incorporates several innovations that improve Darrieus technology, including increased energy production, over previous machines. The point design differs minimally from the Test Bed; but by removing research-related items, its estimated cost is substantially reduced. The point design is a first step towards a Test-Bed-based commercial machine that would be competitive with conventional sources of power in the mid-1990s. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Benchmark study between FIDAP and a cellular automata code

    SciTech Connect

    Akau, R.L.; Stockman, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A fluid flow benchmark exercise was conducted to compare results between a cellular automata code and FIDAP. Cellular automata codes are free from gridding constraints, and are generally used to model slow (Reynolds number {approx} 1) flows around complex solid obstacles. However, the accuracy of cellular automata codes at higher Reynolds numbers, where inertial terms are significant, is not well-documented. In order to validate the cellular automata code, two fluids problems were investigated. For both problems, flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, isothermal, incompressible and periodic. Results showed that the cellular automata code simulated the overall behavior of the flow field. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Rigid clamp

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.; Burt, J.D.

    1994-07-12

    The invention relates to a clamp mechanism that can be used to attach or temporarily support objects inside of tubular goods. The clamp mechanism can also be modified so that it grips objects. The clamp has a self-centering feature to accommodate out-of-roundness or other internal defections in tubular objects such as pipe. A plurality of clamping shoes are expanded by a linkage which is preferably powered by a motor to contact the inside of a pipe. The motion can be reversed and jaw elements can be connected to the linkage so as to bring the jaws together to grab an object. 12 figs.

  16. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner's acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  19. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  20. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-05-09

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles

    DOEpatents

    Deka, C.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements are disclosed for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated CW laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes. 12 figs.

  3. Multi-function ring magnet power supply for rapid-cycling synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Praeg, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Ring magnet power supply (RMPS) circuits that produce a wide range of magnet current waveshapes for rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) are described. The shapes range from long flat-tops separated by a biased dual frequency cosine wave to those having a flat-bottom (injection), followed by a lower frequency cosine half wave (acceleration), a flat-top (extraction), and a higher frequency cosine half wave (magnet reset). Applications of these circuits for proposed synchrotrons are outlined. Solid-state switching circuits and the results of proof-of-concept tests are shown. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Cable insulation development (1): Superconducting power transmission system development (2): Annual report for the period 1 October 1985-30 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-09

    Progress is reported for two projects, the development of a superconducting power transmission system and an ambient temperature high stress power cable. The objective of the superconducting power transmission cable program is to develop a system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. Laboratory work in this project has extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. Ambient temperature high stress cable development has involved development of a fully synthetic polyethylene or polypropylene dielectric tape for use as electrical insulation. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Charache, G.W.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Nichols, G.J.

    1998-06-23

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device are disclosed. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E{sub g}) of 0.4 eV < E{sub g} < 0.7 eV and an emitter fabricated on the substrate formed from one of a p-type or an n-type material. Another thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes a host substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers. 12 figs.

  6. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-03-03

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units. 12 figs.

  7. Method and device for supporting blood vessels during anastomosis

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1985-05-20

    A device and method for preventing first and second severed blood vessels from collapsing during attachment to each other. The device comprises a dissolvable non-toxic stent that is sufficiently rigid to prevent the blood vessels from collapsing during anastomosis. The stent can be hollow or have passages to permit blood flow before it dissolves. A single stent can be inserted with an end in each of the two blood vessels or separate stents can be inserted into each blood vessel. The stent may include a therapeutically effective amount of a drug which is slowly released into the blood stream as the stent dissolves. 12 figs.

  8. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.; Bailey, J.L.

    1998-04-28

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50 C for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2,000 psi at 400 C for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650 C under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2,400 C to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc. 12 figs.

  9. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.; Bailey, J.L.

    1999-02-16

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50 C for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400 C for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650 C under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2400 C to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc. 12 figs.

  10. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.; Lambert, J.B.; Herzog, J.P.

    1997-02-11

    A method and system are disclosed for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod. 12 figs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-11

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  12. Family number non-conservation induced by the supersymmetric mixing of scalar leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.J.S.

    1987-08-01

    The most egregious aspect of (N = 1) supersymmetric theories is that each particle state is accompanied by a 'super-partner', a state with identical quantum numbers save that it differs in spin by one half unit. For the leptons these are scalars and are called ''sleptons'', or scalar leptons. These consist of the charged sleptons (selectron, smuon, stau) and the scalar neutrinos ('sneutrinos'). We examine a model of supersymmetry with soft breaking terms in the electroweak sector. Explicit mixing among the scalar leptons results in a number of effects, principally non-conservation of lepton family number. Comparison with experiment permits us to place constraints upon the model. 49 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Single phase two pole/six pole motor

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-09-25

    A single phase alternating current two pole/six pole motor is provided with a main stator winding having six coils disposed unequally around the periphery of the machine. These coils are divided into two groups. When these groups are connected such that their magnetomotive forces are additive, two pole motor operation results. When the polarity of one of the groups is then reversed, six pole motor operation results. An auxiliary stator winding which is similar to the main stator winding is displaced from the main stator winding by 90 electrical degrees on a two pole basis. 12 figs.

  14. Toward evaluation of heat fluxes in the convective boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbjan, Z.

    1995-05-01

    This article demonstrates that vertical profiles of the heat flux in the convective boundary layer can be diagnosed through an integration over height of the time change rates of observed potential temperature profiles. Moreover, the basic characteristics of the convective boundary layer, such as the mixed-layer height z{sub t}, the depth of the interfacial (entrainment) layer, and the heat flux zero-crossing height h{sub 0} can be uniquely evaluated based on a time evolution of potential temperature profiles in the lower atmosphere. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Biochemical and Histological Correlations of Regeneration After Experimental Liver Damage: Significance of Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    More, I. A. R.

    1973-01-01

    Chromatin was isolated from rat liver after the animal had been subjected to a variety of stimuli calculated to cause liver damage and regeneration. It was found that the regenerating nodule in the cirrhotic rat and the liver regenerating after partial hepatectomy showed similar changes. Both involved an increase in the content of active chromatin, an increased ability to make RNA and the derepression of a relatively small portion of the genome. ImagesFigs. 1-2Figs. 3-4Figs. 5-6 PMID:4726093

  16. Laser surface modification of electroplated, physically vapor deposited and plasma sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    Lasers are used to modify surface characteristics in order to improve properties for a variety of industrial applications. Typical surface alterations include: transformation hardening, melting, cladding, alloying, coating, and smoothing. This paper is a critical review that covers surface alloying. It concentrates on coatings applied by electroplating, plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition and the resultant properties obtained after laser treatment. In many cases, significant improvement in properties such as corrosion resistance, wear resistance, creep strength, porosity, and structure was noted after coatings were exposed to a laser treatment. 112 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  18. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mason, R.J.

    1996-10-22

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode is disclosed. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources. 12 figs.

  19. Importance of level structure in nuclear reaction cross-section calculations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.A.; Gardner, D.G.

    1985-11-07

    It is shown that level-density expressions cannot adequately represent or substitute for level structure information when making calculations of the Hauser-Feshbach type for cross sections or isomer-ratios for nuclei in the first few MeV above their ground state. It is stated that such discrete level information should include both experimentally confirmed and theoretically predicted levels. The utility of discrete level information to optimize level density calculations, to compute isomer ratios, in deriving dipole strength functions, and in the analysis of primary gamma ray spectra is emphasized, especially for nuclei far from the line of stability. 29 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs. (DWL)

  20. FREEFALL: A seabed penetrator flight code

    SciTech Connect

    Hickerson, J.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents a one-dimensional model and computer program for predicting the motion of seabed penetrators. The program calculates the acceleration, velocity, and depth of a penetrator as a function of time from the moment of launch until the vehicle comes to rest in the sediment. The code is written in Pascal language for use on a small personal computer. Results are presented as printed tables and graphs. A comparison with experimental data is given which indicates that the accuracy of the code is perhaps as good as current techniques for measuring vehicle performance. 31 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1992-01-14

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] (0.33[le]y[le]2.0 and x[le]2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li[sup +] ion conductors. 12 figs.

  2. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  3. Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

    1988-08-19

    This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Method of automatic measurement and focus of an electron beam and apparatus therefore

    DOEpatents

    Giedt, W.H.; Campiotti, R.

    1996-01-09

    An electron beam focusing system, including a plural slit-type Faraday beam trap, for measuring the diameter of an electron beam and automatically focusing the beam for welding is disclosed. Beam size is determined from profiles of the current measured as the beam is swept over at least two narrow slits of the beam trap. An automated procedure changes the focus coil current until the focal point location is just below a workpiece surface. A parabolic equation is fitted to the calculated beam sizes from which optimal focus coil current and optimal beam diameter are determined. 12 figs.

  5. The effect of asymmetric heating on flow stability and heat transfer for flow in a vertical tube

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, C.H.

    1987-11-01

    This study presents experimental results of combined free and forced convection heat transfer in a vertical tube with a circumferentially nonuniform constant wall heat flux. The effect of an asymmetric wall heat flux on flow stability and on the rate of heat transfer for water flowing downward in a vertical tube was investigated. Experimental results were used to develop two stability maps which identify various flow regimes, corresponding to different thermal and hydraulic conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were also determined. Experimental results in the present investigation were compared to those with uniform heating in horizontal and vertical tube flow situations discussed in the literature. 23 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Mechanical design and analysis of the 2D cross-section of the SSC collider dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, J.; Kerby, J.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the two dimensional cross-section of the base-line collider dipole magnet for the Superconducting Super Collider. The components described here are the collar laminations, the tapered keys that lock the upper and lower collars, the yoke laminations, the cold mass shell. We describe in detail the shape of the outer surface of the collars which defines the yoke-collar interface, and the shape of the collar interior, which defines the conductor placement. Other features of the collar and yoke will be described in somewhat less detail. 20 refs., 12 figs. , 6 tabs.

  7. Ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Kummerer, K.R.; Roth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramic materials are under investigation as potential breeder material in fusion reactors. This paper will review candidate materials with respect to fabrication routes and characterization, properties in as-fabricated and irradiated condition, and experimental results from laboratory and inpile investigations on tritium transport and release. Also discussed are the resources of beryllium, which is being considered as a neutron multiplier. The comparison of ceramic properties that is attempted here aims at the identification of the most-promising material for use in a tritium breeding blanket. 82 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-28

    The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Methanol production and heterogeneous catalysis utilizing transition elements supported on metal oxides with spinel structure are discussed. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C.; Sikivie, P.

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulations have been carried out of the motion and decay of global strings, including spectrum analysis of the energy stored in the scalar field which describes the global string and the radiated Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We simulated relaxing pieces of bent string and collapsing loops. We find, for the string sizes investigated, that the spectrum of field energy hardens rather than softens while the string decays into Nambu-Goldstone radiation. We argue on theoretical grounds that is indeed the most plausible general behaviour. 19 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Differential homogeneous immunosensor device

    DOEpatents

    Malmros, M.K.; Gulbinski, J. III.

    1990-04-10

    There is provided a novel method of testing for the presence of an analyte in a fluid suspected of containing the same. In this method, in the presence of the analyte, a substance capable of modifying certain characteristics of the substrate is bound to the substrate and the change in these qualities is measured. While the method may be modified for carrying out quantitative differential analyses, it eliminates the need for washing the analyte from the substrate which is characteristic of prior art methods. 12 figs.

  11. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOEpatents

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1997-05-06

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections. 12 figs.

  12. Mirror and Bragg reflections of neutrons at a nuclear resonance: (Final technical report)

    SciTech Connect

    Batigun, C.M.; Brugger, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    These experiments have observed the mirror reflection and Bragg diffraction of neutrons at the energy of a low lying nuclear resonance of /sup 115/In. The reflector was a mirror of In metal with the resonance at 1.457 eV. The mirror reflection for different angles of incidence has been measured and sets of data showing the relative reflectivities have been obtained. For the Bragg diffraction, the crystal was a wafer of InP and several examples of Bragg reflections near 1.455 eV were measured. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 4 in patients with a similar combination of multiple minor anomalies and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.M.; Pillers, D.A.M.; Magenis, R.E.

    1995-07-17

    Interstitial deletions of chromosome 4 have been described rarely and have had variable presentations. We describe the phenotypic characteristics associated with interstitial deletion of the p14-16 region of chromosome 4 in 7 patients with multiple minor anomalies in common, and with mental retardation. A review of published cases of interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 4 is provided. These deletions present a distinct phenotype which is different from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. 52 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal: Third quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K.; Kitchell, J.P.

    1989-03-14

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ''model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix. In this quarter we obtained important results both with the development of our understanding of the enzyme reaction systems and also with the microbial work at Woods Hole. 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1990-10-01

    The primary objective of the EERC/AMAX Mild Gasification project is to commercialize a process that will produce several value-added products from a high-sulfur midwestern bituminous or a low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Indiana No. 3 and Wyodak coals are being tested in a 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) that has undergone shakedown testing and is undergoing parametric testing. This unit will provide the engineering data for use in determining the technical and economic data required for the design of a commercial-scale mild gasification plant. This report discusses results of carbonizer tests, char upgrading and char separations. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-02-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Heavy ion precompound phenomena: A glance at hard gamma and subthreshold pion production

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-08-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann master equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons share the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho. With no additional free parameters our model successfully reproduces subthreshold pion production cross sections, high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra, and angular distributions of high energy ..gamma..-rays. 40 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Eastern oil shale research involving the generation of retorted and combusted oil shale solid waste, shale oil collection, and process stream sampling and characterization: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Approximately 518 tons of New Albany oil shale were obtained from the McRae quarry in Clark County, Indiana and shipped to Golden, CO. A portion of the material was processed through a TOSCO II pilot plant retort. About 273 tons of crushed raw shale, 136 tons of retorted shale, 1500 gallons of shale oil, and 10 drums of retort water were shipped to US Department of Energy, Laramie, WY. Process conditions were documented, process streams were sampled and subjected to chemical analysis, and material balance calculations were made. 6 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Molds for electroslag casting systems. [2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, G.K.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the basic types of molds used for the manufacture of electroslag castings. The report also provides guidelines for the design of such molds based on heat generation and heat transfer considerations pertaining to the electroslag casting process. The designs of the two-step and three-step molds used for the manufacture of electroslag castings of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, 316 stainless steel and 9 Cr-1 Mo steel are provided as examples of cost effective mold construction using cooled copper liners for metal-slag containment. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Development of a knowledge based system for diagnosing electrical faults in mining machinery: Final report for the 1986--1987 SOMED project year

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, T.; Sanford, R.L.; Meigs, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Rigorous duty cycles and harsh operating environments contribute to electrical component failures in mining machinery, thus reducing productivity at the working face. This report explains a rule-based expert system utilizing the microcomputer that may assist maintenance personnel in diagnosing electrical faults in the relatively complex electrical circuit of a shuttle car. By gathering information such as voltage and resistance measurements, the user acts as an interface between the machine circuit and expert system to diagnose single component failures caused by open and short circuits. The report also covers the structure of the expert system development tool, Insight 2+, chosen to develop the knowledge base. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Use of ferritin-labelled antibodies for differentiating Leishmania species and other Trypanosomatidae*

    PubMed Central

    Saf'janova, V. M.; Avakjan, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new immunomorphological test for differentiating Leishmania species, based on electron-microscopic revelation of the localization of their specific antigens, is described. The diagnostic value of treating the promastigotes of Leishmania and other Trypanosomatidae with ferritin-labelled antibodies was determined in cross experiments. The immunoferritin test reveals both the serogroup of a given species of Leishmania and specific antigenic differences between different species. However, it fails to differentiate different strains of a given species of Leishmania, which attests to its species-specificity. ImagesFigs. 1-2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4542797

  2. Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: New developments and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, S.M.; Myrick, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman phenomenon was discovered in 1974 and analytical applications of it are only now being developed. Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was first reported in 1988, and the characteristics of the technique are still being determined. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the technique and to describe some of its characteristics. In addition, some of the applications being explored by the authors, including remote monitoring of groundwater contaminants and qualitative assays for drugs, are presented. 61 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Effects of surgically induced instability on rat knee articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J M; Felten, D L; Peterson, R G; O'Connor, B L

    1982-01-01

    Degenerative lesions in the articular cartilage were present following transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the rat. These lesions included surface disruptions, a reduction in matrix proteoglycans, and cellular changes and therefore were similar to lesions seen in dogs following transection of the anterior cruciate ligament as well as lesions seen in other mechanical derangement models. Lesions were more frequently encountered in animals that had been exercised on a treadmill. This suggests that the rat knee joint may be a useful small animal model in studying the effect of mechanical derangement on articular tissues. Images Figs. 1-2 Figs. 3-4 Figs. 5-6 PMID:7076535

  4. The application of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers to charged particle and x-ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Fujieda, I.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Street, R.A.

    1989-04-01

    We outline the characteristics of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers which are optimized for the detection of charged particles, x-rays and ..gamma..-rays. Signal amplitude as a function of the linear energy transfer of various particles are given. Noise sources generated by the detector material and by the thin film electronics - a-Si:H or polysilicon proposed for pixel position sensitive detectors readout are described, and their relative amplitudes are calculated. Temperature and neutron radiation effects on leakage currents and the corresponding noise changes are presented. 17 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Synthesis of materials with infrared and ultraviolet lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses three divergent examples of synthesis of materials with lasers. The three techniques are: (1) infrared (CO/sub 2/) laser synthesis of silane (SiH/sub 4/) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/); (2) excimer (ArF) laser production of fine silicon powders from methyl- and chloro-substituted silanes; and, (3) excimer (KrF) laser production of fine metallic powders by laser ablation. The mechanism for each process is discussed along with some conclusions about the features of the laser radiation that enable each application. 19 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Progress of the RERTR (Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor) Program in 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1989-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1988, the major events, findings, and activities of 1989 are reviewed. The scope of the RERTR Program activities was curtailed, in 1989, by an unexpected legislative restriction which limited the ability of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency to adequately fund the program. Nevertheless, the thrust of the major planned program activities was maintained, and meaningful results were obtained in several areas of great significance for future work. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This document describes the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South (HFEF/S). The proposed action, to modify the existing HFEF/S at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, would allow important aspects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, offering potential advantages in nuclear safety and economics, to be demonstrated. It would support fuel cycle experiments and would supply fresh fuel to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the INEL. 35 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Status of PILAC: A pion linac facility for 1-GeV pion physics at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    A Pion Linac (PILAC) is being designed for LAMPF. Together with its high resolution beam line and spectrometer, the system is optimized to provide 10{sup 9} pions per second on target and 200-keV resolution for the ({pi}{sup +},K{sup +}) reaction at 920, MeV. There will also be an achromatic beam line capable of utilizing the maximum energy available, thus opening up the possibility of a broad experimental program as is being discussed at this workshop. 12 figs.

  9. Two phase flow in geothermal systems. Final report, April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Maeder, P.F.; Kestin, J.

    1985-04-01

    Studies were performed to better understand the physical mechanisms involved in two-phase, single substance flow and their thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic implications. Flow properties were measured over a wide range of flow conditions from low-flash Mach number to high-flash Mach numbers to simulate actual two-phase flow over the full length of a geothermal well from the flash horizon to the choked wellhead. Void fraction, friction factors and entropy production were calculated. 2 refs., 12 figs. (ACR)

  10. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.J.

    1999-08-17

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements. 12 figs.

  11. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. ); Ruether, J.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  12. Analysis of volatile-phase transport in soils using natural radon gas as a tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Thomas, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    We have conducted a field study of soil gas transport processes using radon gas as a naturally occurring tracer. The experiment monitored soil gas radon activity, soil moisture, and soil temperature at depth; barometric pressure, rainfall, and wind speed were monitored at the soil surface. Linear and multiple regression analysis under natural environmental conditions are influenced by soil moisture content, barometric pressure variations, soil temperature, and soil structure. The effect of wind speed on subsurface radon activities under our field conditions has not been observed. 25 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Anomalous thermal confinement in ohmically heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, F.; Tang, W.M.; White, R.B.

    1986-02-01

    A model is proposed to explain the behavior of the gross energy confinement time in ohmically heated tokamak plasmas. The analysis takes into account the effect of the anomalous thermal conductivity due to small scale turbulence and of the macroscopic MHD behavior, which provides some constraints on the temperature profile. Results indicate that the thermal conductivity associated with the dissipative trapped-electron mode and with the ion temperature gradient (eta/sub i/) mode can account, respectively, for the Neo-Alcator scaling and the saturation of the energy confinement time with density. Comparisons with experimental results show reasonable agreement. 32 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Acute Myocardial Histopathology in Normal and Arteriosclerotic Rats During Isoproterenol-induced Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, B. C.; Judd, J. T.

    1970-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic and non-arteriosclerotic, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 2 s.c. injections of isoproterenol known to produce extensive myocardial infarction. The appearance of positive fuchsinophilia was used as an index of focal myocardial acidosis and of anaerobic metabolism. After one injection of isoproterenol, positive fuchsinophilia appeared within 30 min., reached a zenith at 4 hr and then promptly disappeared. Following the second injection of isoproterenol, fuchsinophilia reappeared briefly but was not as intense. The arteriosclerotic animals showed markedly less evidence of heart failure outwardly and less evidence of fuchsinophilia, histopathologically. Apparently, the first episode of cardiac stimulation caused only temporary cardiac ischaemia, positive fuchsinophilia and anaerobic cardiac metabolism. After the second injection, however, irreversible cardiac damage occurred and despite an abortive attempt towards anaerobic metabolic readjustment overt cardiac necrosis became dominant. ImagesFigs. 9-10Figs. 11-12Figs. 1-2Figs. 13-14Figs. 7-8Figs. 5-6Figs. 3-4 PMID:4099593

  15. Aerodynamic pressure measurements on a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Jenks, M.D.; Simms, D.A.; Musial, W.P.

    1990-05-01

    A microprocessor-controlled measurement system has been designed and built to make accurate measurements of low pressures on a rotating wind turbine blade. This Pressure System Controller (PSC) is capable of simultaneously operating four pressure scanners (128 channels total) while rotating on a wind turbine blade. Calibrations and purge sequences are performed automatically on all 128 channels while the turbine is rotating. Data are fed to a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data-acquisition system and recorded on magnetic tape for later processing. Accurate measurements have been made down to pressures of 11 microbars (0.00018 psi) for low Reynolds Number tests. These rotating-blade pressure measurements are used to compare with wind tunnel data to see how blade rotation alters airfoil performance. A description of the test setup and instrumentation design is given along with examples results. Recommendations for future work and changes in the design approach are also discussed. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

  17. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  18. Effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile and creep properties of commercially heat-treated alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a structure material widely used in elevated-temperature applications. In particular, it was extensively used in the design of the upper internal system and control rod drive line of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Its popularity is due to several excellent behavioral features, including high creep and creep-rupture strength, good oxidation resistance, and exceptional high-cycle fatigue strength. However, alloy 718 is extremely complex, and its microstructure can be significantly modified by thermal treatment. The stability of the alloy in long-term elevated-temperature service is therefore a substantial concern in any such application. This report presents tensile and creep data obtained on three heats of alloy 718 after thermal aging for up to 27,000 h from 593 to 76{degree}C. Implications of these results in terms of long-term stability of the alloy are discussed. 5 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Penetration into dry porous rock: A numerical study on sliding friction simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, E.P.

    1988-10-01

    Penetration of Antelope tuff targets by steel penetrators is the subject of discussion in the present investigation. Specifically, the effect of sliding friction between projectile and target on penetration is examined. The finite element code PRONTO 2D is used to perform a parametric study of the coefficient of friction. Both constant and velocity dependent coefficient of friction representation have been included in the current investigation. Results indicate that increases in the coefficient of friction increase the penetration resistance although the relationship is nonlinear in nature. In terms of peak deceleration and depth of penetration, both the constant and velocity dependent coefficient of friction representation provide almost identical results. However, only the velocity dependent cases show the characteristic of increasing deceleration prior to the conclusion of the penetration event. For this reason, the velocity dependent representation of the coefficient of friction is preferred over the constant friction coefficient representation. 8 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. New development in the theory of heat and mass transfer in solar stills

    SciTech Connect

    Shawaqfeh, A.T.; Farid, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    A single basin solar still with basin area of 0.98 x 0.98 m was constructed from galvanized iron sheets and an inclined glass cover. The still was provided with 525 W electrical heating tapes, fixed under the still basin for indoor steady state operation. The variation of basin temperature, glass temperature and evaporation rate were measured during both indoor and outdoor operation. The hourly variation of solar radiation, ambient temperature, and wind velocity were also taken during the outdoor measurements. Transient analysis of the still requires the evaluation of evaporative, convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients. The Dunkle model, which has been widely used for the prediction of the evaporative coefficient, was found to overpredict evaporation rates. The models developed in this work were found to provide better prediction for the evaporation rate measured in this work and in some previous works. 17 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The dependence of canyon winds on surface cooling and external forcing in Colorado`s front range

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Gudiksen, P.

    1995-06-01

    The atmospheric katabatic flow in the foothills of the Front Range of Rocky Mountains has been monitored by a network of towers and sodars for several years as part of the ASCOT program. The dependence of the outflow from Coal Creek Canyon on surface cooling and channeling by winds above the canyon is explored by using three years of data from a portion of the network. The depth of the drainage flow and the height of the wind speed maximum were found to be largest at external wind speeds near 3 m s{sup -1}. For lighter winds aloft, the drainage depth, the height of the jet, and the drainage wind speed depend both on external wind speed and on the strength of the surface cooling. The magnitude of the near-surface temperature difference was also found to decrease with increasing surface cooling, possibly because of increasing turbulence caused by winds interacting with surface topography. 10 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sivill, R.L.

    1990-03-01

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Photovoltaic panel-generator based autonomous power source for small refrigeration units

    SciTech Connect

    Kattakayam, T.A.; Srinivasan, K.

    1996-06-01

    This article describes an autonomous power source for a domestic refrigeration unit which is powered by a field of photovoltaic panels backed-up by a generator set. Salient design features and results from some of the tests on the unit are presented. methodologies for reliable and efficient operation of the refrigerator have been evolved. A finite time delay between cut-out and cut-in of the compressor, changes in invertor design to meet the demands at start and at run of the motor, choice of battery capacity so as to eliminate the need for a power conditioner are found to result in energy conservation. The entire unit has been made from indigenously available components and uses minimal electronic controls. Such units have applications for the storage of vaccines and life saving medicines which require uninterrupted refrigeration, in medical shops, rural health centres, veterinary laboratories, etc. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Tubular lap joints for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Guess, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A combined analytical/experimental study of the strength of thick- walled, adhesively bonded PMMA-to-aluminum and E-glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum tubular lap joints under axial load has been conducted. Test results include strength and failure mode data. Moreover, strain gages placed along the length of the outer tubular adherend characterize load transfer from one adherend to the other. The strain gage data indicate that load transfer is nonuniform and that the relatively compliant PMMA has the shorter load transfer length. Strains determined by a finite element analysis of the tested joints are in excellent agreement with those measured. Calculated bond stresses are highest in the region of observed failure, and extensive bond yielding is predicted in the E- glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum joint prior to joint failure. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Thermoacoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Moss, W.C.

    1997-10-07

    A thermoacoustic device is described having a thermal stack made from a piece of porous material which provides a desirable ratio of thermoacoustic area to viscous area, which has a low resistance to flow, which minimizes acoustic streaming and which has a high specific heat and low thermal conductivity. The thermal stack is easy and cheap to form and it can be formed in small sizes. Specifically, in one embodiment, a thermal stack which is formed by the natural structure of a porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon is disclosed. The thermal stack is formed by machining a block of reticulated vitreous carbon into the required shape of the thermal stack. In a second embodiment, a micro-thermoacoustic device is disclosed which includes a thermal stack made of a piece of porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon. In another embodiment, a heat exchanger is disclosed which is formed of a block of heat conductive open cell foam material. 13 figs.

  6. Method for fabricating transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-09-02

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  7. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-05-09

    A method is disclosed for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  8. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R.

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Versatile high rate plasma deposition and processing with very high frequency excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Heintze, M.

    1997-07-01

    The interest in plasma deposition using very high frequency (VHF) excitation arose after the preparation of a-Si:H at high growth rates was demonstrated. Subsequently the improved process flexibility and the control of material properties offered by the variation of the plasma excitation frequency was recognized. The preparation of amorphous and microcrystalline thin films in a VHF-plasma is described. The increased growth rates have been attributed to an enhancement of film precursor formation at VHF, to the decreased sheath thickness as well as to an enhancement of the surface reactivity by positive ions. Plasma diagnostic investigations show that the parameters mainly affected by the excitation frequency are the ion flux to the electrodes as well as the sheaths potentials and widths, rather than the plasma density. 55 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Josten, N.E.; Svoboda, J.M.

    1999-05-25

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency. 13 figs.

  11. Structure and yarn sensor for fabric

    DOEpatents

    Mee, D.K.; Allgood, G.O.; Mooney, L.R.; Duncan, M.G.; Turner, J.C.; Treece, D.A.

    1998-10-20

    A structure and yarn sensor for fabric directly determines pick density in a fabric thereby allowing fabric length and velocity to be calculated from a count of the picks made by the sensor over known time intervals. The structure and yarn sensor is also capable of detecting full length woven defects and fabric. As a result, an inexpensive on-line pick (or course) density measurement can be performed which allows a loom or knitting machine to be adjusted by either manual or automatic means to maintain closer fiber density tolerances. Such a sensor apparatus dramatically reduces fabric production costs and significantly improves fabric consistency and quality for woven or knitted fabric. 13 figs.

  12. Energy conservation study on Simplot potato processing plant, Heyburn, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Simplot potato processing plant in Heyburn, Idaho. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specific modifications to process equipment. The plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products including french fries and pre-formed patties, a dehydrated frozen product, starch, and processes and ships raw potatoes. The plant also contains a box line that makes cardboard cartons for all Simplot plants. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product and has long-term cold storage. 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Performance evaluation of PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1987-10-01

    An investigation of collective effects has been undertaken to assess the possibilities for using the low emittance operating mode of the PEP storage ring as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation. Beam current limitations associated with longitudinal and transverse instabilities, and the expected emittance growth due to intrabeam scattering have been studied as a function of beam energy. Calculations of the beam lifetime due to Touschek and gas scattering are presented, and the growth times of coupled-bunch instabilities are estimated. In general, the results are encouraging, and no fundamental problems have been uncovered. It appears that beam currents up to about 10 mA per bunch should be achievable, and that the emittance growth is not a severe problem at an energy of about 8 GeV. A feedback system to deal with coupled-bunch instabilities is likely to be required. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Irregularity of the muon component in extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A.V.; Makarov, I.T.; Nikiforova, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    Experimental data obtained from 1974 to 1992 at the Yakutsk array for muons with threshold energies E{sub {mu}} {ge} 1 GeV in extensive air showers (EAS) are analyzed. Periods of reliable detector operation are selected, and miscounts of muon detectors near their operation thresholds are thoroughly taken into account. Average lateral distribution functions (LDF) are obtained for EAS muons in the energy range E{sub 0} = 10{sup 17} - 5 x 10{sup 19} eV and in the zenith-angle range {theta}=0{degrees} - 60{degrees}. For energies E{sub 0} > 5 x 10{sup 18} eV, the LDF are shown to depend on E{sub 0} and {theta} in a substantially different manner than they do in the range of lower EAS energies. This irregularity is apparently associated with certain unknown processes or unknown primary particles involved in the development of EASs. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Linear optimal control of tokamak fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C.E.; Firestone, M.A.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-05-01

    The control of plasma position, shape and current in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined using linear optimal control. These advanced tokamaks are characterized by non up-down symmetric coils and structure, thick structure surrounding the plasma, eddy currents, shaped plasmas, superconducting coils, vertically unstable plasmas, and hybrid function coils providing ohmic heating, vertical field, radial field, and shaping field. Models of the electromagnetic environment in a tokamak are derived and used to construct control gains that are tested in nonlinear simulations with initial perturbations. The issues of applying linear optimal control to advanced tokamaks are addressed, including complex equilibrium control, choice of cost functional weights, the coil voltage limit, discrete control, and order reduction. Results indicate that the linear optimal control is a feasible technique for controlling advanced tokamaks where the more common classical control will be severely strained or will not work. 28 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Method for testing the strength and structural integrity of nuclear fuel particles

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-10-17

    An accurate method for testing the strength of nuclear fuel particles is disclosed. Each particle includes an upper and lower portion, and is placed within a testing apparatus having upper and lower compression members. The upper compression member includes a depression therein which is circular and sized to receive only part of the upper portion of the particle. The lower compression member also includes a similar depression. The compression members are parallel to each other with the depressions therein being axially aligned. The fuel particle is then placed between the compression members and engaged within the depressions. The particle is then compressed between the compression members until it fractures. The amount of force needed to fracture the particle is thereafter recorded. This technique allows a broader distribution of forces and provides more accurate results compared with systems which distribute forces at singular points on the particle. 13 figs.

  17. Reinforced flexural elements for TEMP-STRESS Program

    SciTech Connect

    Marchertas, A.H.; Kennedy, J.M.; Pfeiffer, P.A.

    1987-06-01

    The implementation of reinforced flexural elements into the thermal-mechanical finite element program TEMP-STRESS is described. With explicit temporal integration and dynamic relaxation capabilities in the program, the flexural elements provide an efficient method for the treatment of reinforced structures subjected to transient and static loads. The capability of the computer program is illustrated by the solution of several examples: the simulation of a reinforced concrete beam; simulations of a reinforced concrete containment shell which is subjected to internal pressurization, thermal gradients through the walls, and transient pressure loads. The results of this analysis are relevant in the structural design/safety evaluations of typical reactor containment structures. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing using multiple electrodes and with resistances being defined between the electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III

    1996-10-29

    Methods of operation are disclosed for different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. The multiple electrode apparatus have a minimum of three spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage the interior of the cased well. Measurement information is obtained related to current which is caused to flow from the cased well into the adjacent geological formation. First compensation information is obtained related to a first casing resistance between a first pair of the spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes. Second compensation information is obtained related to a second casing resistance between a second pair of the spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes. The measurement information, and first and second compensation information are used to determine a magnitude related to the adjacent formation resistivity. 13 figs.

  19. Clouds-in-clouds, clouds-in-cells physics for many-body plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsall, C.K.; Fuss, D.

    1997-08-01

    A clouds-interacting-with-clouds, clouds-in-cells method (CIC) is presented for many-body nonlinear plasma problems. Density and force are obtained by assuming that the particles have finite size, are tenuous, and may pass through one another; the particles are thus called clouds. They obey a Coulomb force ({approx} 1/r or 1/r{sup 3}) when separated and a linear force ({approx}r) when overlapping, allowing simple harmonic oscillations at small separation. CIC is contrasted with the zero-size particle and nearest-grid-point approach, ZSP-NGP. CIC appears to have substantially less unwanted noise than ZSP-NGP and should be more useful in simulating dense plasmas. Initial runs have been encouraging. The methods may find use in other many-body simulations, such as with stars, or with particles in phase space. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, L.P.; Carder, B.M.; Gagnon, W.L.

    1981-03-17

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse. 13 figs.

  1. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  2. Fatigue crack growth automated testing method

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, P.W.; VanDenAvyle, J.A.; Laing, J.

    1989-06-01

    A computer controlled servo-hydraulic mechanical test system has been configured to conduct automated fatigue crack growth testing. This provides two major benefits: it allows continuous cycling of specimens without operator attention over evenings and weekends; and complex load histories, including random loading and spectrum loading, can be applied to the specimens to simulate cyclic loading of engineering structures. The software is written in MTS Multi-User Basic to control test machine output and acquire data at predetermined intervals. Compact tension specimens are cycled according to ASTM specification E647-86. Fatigue crack growth is measured via specimen compliance during the test using a compliance/crack length calibration determined earlier by visual crack length measurements. This setup was used to measure crack growth rates in 6063 aluminum alloy for a variety of cyclic loadings, including spectrum loads. Data collected compared well with tests run manually. 13 figs.

  3. Numerical forecasting of radiation fog. Part I: Numerical model and sensitivity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bergot, T.; Guedalia, D. )

    1994-06-01

    To improve the forecast of dense radiative fogs, a method has been developed using a one-dimensional model of the nocturnal boundary layer forced by the mesoscale fields provided by a 3D limited-area operational model. The 1D model involves a treatment of soil-atmosphere exchanges and a parameterization of turbulence in stable layers in order to correctly simulate the nocturnal atmospheric cooling. Various sensitivity tests have been carried out to evaluate the influence of the main input parameters of the model (geostrophic wind, horizontal advections, cloud cover, soil moisture, etc.) on the predicted fog characteristics. The principal result concerns the difficulty of obtaining accurate forecasts in the case of fog appearing in the middle or at the end of the night, when the local atmospheric cooling is weak. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Search for a QGP with a TPC spectrometer, and QGP signals predicted by new event generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1988-12-08

    The BNL/CCNY/Johns Hopkins/Rice Collaboration has developed and successfully tested a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer to search for OGP signals produced by ion beams at AGS. Test data with 14.5 GeV/c /times/ A Oxygen ions incident on a Pb target has been obtained. These include a 78-prong nuclear interaction in the MPS magnet which was pattern recognized with an efficiency approx.75%. A cascade and plasma event generator has also been developed, the predictions of which are used to illustrate how our technique can detect possible plasma signals at AGS and RHIC. A 4..pi.. tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer has been proposed for RHIC. The new event generator predicts striking central rapidity bump QGP signals at RHIC for p, /bar p/, ..pi../sup +-/, K/sup +-/, etc., produced by 100 GeV/c /times/ A Au on Au collisions and these are presented. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Warpinski, N.R.; Steinfort, T.D.; Branagan, P.T.; Wilmer, R.H.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture. 13 figs.

  6. Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, D.R.; Alford, C.W.; Anderson, M.H.; Garcia, R.F.; Legarra, J.R.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs.

  7. Performance characteristics of the Cooper PC-9 centrifugal compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.E.; Neely, R.F.

    1988-06-30

    Mathematical performance modeling of the PC-9 centrifugal compressor has been completed. Performance characteristics curves have never been obtained for them in test loops with the same degree of accuracy as for the uprated axial compressors and, consequently, computer modeling of the top cascade and purge cascades has been very difficult and of limited value. This compressor modeling work has been carried out in an attempt to generate data which would more accurately define the compressor's performance and would permit more accurate cascade modeling. A computer code, COMPAL, was used to mathematically model the PC-9 performance with variations in gas composition, flow ratios, pressure ratios, speed and temperature. The results of this effort, in the form of graphs, with information about the compressor and the code, are the subject of this report. Compressor characteristic curves are featured. 13 figs.

  8. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Turbine blade cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  10. Self-locking threaded fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.

    1996-01-16

    A threaded fastener with a shape memory alloy (SMA) coatings on its threads is disclosed. The fastener has special usefulness in high temperature applications where high reliability is important. The SMA coated fastener is threaded into or onto a mating threaded part at room temperature to produce a fastened object. The SMA coating is distorted during the assembly. At elevated temperatures the coating tries to recover its original shape and thereby exerts locking forces on the threads. When the fastened object is returned to room temperature the locking forces dissipate. Consequently the threaded fasteners can be readily disassembled at room temperature but remains securely fastened at high temperatures. A spray technique is disclosed as a particularly useful method of coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. 13 figs.

  11. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  12. Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, A.D.; Timofeev, E.N.; Florentiev, V.L.; Kirillov, E.V.

    1999-01-19

    A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided. A plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex. Each duplex facilitates intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface and exposing the light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern. This causes the fluid exposed to the light to coalesce into discrete units and adhere to the surface. This places each of the units in contact with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units. 13 figs.

  13. Acid-rain related reconnaissance of water, rock, soil, and sediment chemistry in the Adirondacks during Fall, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This study suggests strongly that inorganic chemical processes, with sulfate and nitrate input from atmospheric deposition and the absence of buffering from carbonate rock, cannot simply account for either the pH or the aluminum concentrations observed in Adirondack surface waters. Instead, organic acids originating from water flow through organic soil layers and wetlands are indicated as possible causes of increased acidity and aluminum concentrations. There are also indications that sulfides in bedrock and the sulfur utilized by vegetation may be important surface-water sulfate sources. Further, in part of the Adirondacks, weathering of calcium-containing non-carbonate aluminosilicate bedrock apparently keeps surface water from reaching ''critical'' acidity levels. Also, appreciable concentrations of heavy metals and persistent insecticides associated with the organic material in some soils and sediments. If mobilized into the food chain, these materials could be causing adverse ecological effects usually attributed to acid precipitation. Recommendations are included for further studies. 13 figs., 29 tabs. (PSB)

  14. Contracts for dispatchable power

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.; Marnay, C.; Berman, D.

    1990-10-01

    Competitive bidding for electric power is maturing. Increasing numbers of utilities are soliciting proposals from private suppliers. The amount of capacity being sought is increasing, and potential suppliers appear to be abundant. Analysis of these developments still remains limited. Evidence on the behavior of this market is scarce and sketchy. The underlying economic principles that are shaping the market have not clearly been articulated. In this report we examine the economics of competitive bidding both empirically and analytically. Previous study of this market has focused on the evaluation criteria specified in Requests for Proposals (RFPs), and highly aggregated summary statistics on participation and results. We continue the examination of RFPs, but also survey the details of long term contracts that have emerged from competitive bidding. Contracts provide a new level of specific detail that has not been previously available. 68 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Creep and creep-rupture behavior of Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.; Booker, M.K.; Ding, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Data obtained from creep and creep-rupture tests conducted on 18 heats of Alloy 718 were used to formulate models for predicting high temperature time dependent behavior of this alloy. Creep tests were conducted on specimens taken from a number of commercial product forms including plate, bar, and forgoing material that had been procured and heat treated in accordance with ASTM specifications B-670 or B-637. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 427 to 760{degree}C ad at test times to about 87,000 h. Comparisons are given between experimental data and the analytical models. The analytical models for creep-rupture included one based on lot-centering regression analysis and two based on the Minimum Commitment Method. A master'' curve approach was used to develop and equation for estimating creep deformation up to the onset of tertiary creep. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Apparatus for simultaneously disreefing a centrally reefed clustered parachute system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.W.

    1988-06-21

    A single multi-line cutter is connected to each of a cluster of parachutes by a separate short tether line that holds the parachutes, initially reefed by closed loop reefing lines, close to one another. The closed loop reefing lines and tether lines, one from each parachute, are disposed within the cutter to be simultaneously cut by its actuation when a central line attached between the payload and the cutter is stretched upon deployment of the cluster. A pyrotechnic or electronic time delay may be included in the cutter to delay the actual simultaneous cutting of all lines until the clustered parachutes attain a measure of stability prior to being disreefed. A second set of reefing lines and second tether lines may be provided for each parachute, to enable a two-stage, separately timed, step-by-step disreefing. 13 figs.

  17. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, B.E.

    1998-10-13

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol. 13 figs.

  18. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles

    SciTech Connect

    Prevost, C.; Vendel, J.; Seigneur, A.

    1997-08-01

    Aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye are a worthwhile tool within the framework of ventilation and filtration studies. The detection in real time of a specific particulate tracer allows characterization of ventilation behaviour such as air change rate, the determination of a good or bad mixing zone and transfer coefficient, or the determination of the decontamination factor for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. Generally, these tests require specific aerosols in order to get rid of the atmospheric aerosol background. Until now the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measuring has only allowed an integral response with a time lag by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after specific conditioning of these filters. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Measurements of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) loading with a ridged waveguide coupler on PLT

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Colestock, P.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Hosea, J.C.; Hwang, D.Q.; Nagy, A.

    1987-11-01

    An ICRF ridged waveguide coupler has been installed on PLT for measurements of plasma loading. The coupler was partially filled with TiO/sub 2/ dielectric in order to sufficiently lower the cutoff frequency and utilized a tapered ridge for improved matching. Vacuum field measurements indicated a single propagating mode in the coupler and emphasized the importance of considering the fringing fields at the mouth of the waveguide. Low power experiments were carried out at 72.6 and 95.0 MHz without any external impedance matching network. Plasma loading increased rapidly as the face of the coupler approached the plasma, and, at fixed position, increased with line-averaged plasma density. At the lower frequency, the reflection coefficient exhibited a minimum (<8%) at a particular coupler position. At both frequencies, measurements indicated efficient power coupling to the plasma. Magnetic probe signals showed evidence of dense eigenmodes suggesting excitation of the fast wave. 24 refs., 13 figs.