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Sample records for 11th north american

  1. NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE (WPA PROJECT, 1938-1941). - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (11th, New Brunswick, New Jersey, September 20-23, 1989), Volume 1: Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carolyn A., Ed.; Goldin, Gerald A., Ed.; Davis, Robert B., Ed.

    This conference proceedings from annual conference of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME-NA) contains the following research papers: "The Interactive Nature of Cognition and Affect in the Learning of Mathematics: Two Case Studies" (T.J. Bassarear); "The Value of Concept Forming in…

  3. The Reporting of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks in American Social Studies Textbooks: A Muslim Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Mohammed M.; Thomas, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the reporting of the September 11th terrorist attacks in social studies textbooks from a Muslim perspective and reports on findings from a study of the responses of American Muslim children to the treatment of the events of September 11th in social studies textbooks. Constructivist grounded theory was used to centralize the…

  4. Campus Computing, 2000: The 11th National Survey of Computing and Information Technology in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The 2000 Campus Computing Survey, the 11th such survey, was sent to the chief academic officer at 1,176 two-year and four-year colleges and universities across the United States. By October 2000, 506 responses had been received, a response rate of 43%. New data reveal that the growing demand for technology talent across all sectors of the U.S.…

  5. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  6. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  7. North American patience

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Independent power companies are facing numerous changes in power markets across North America. While changes bring uncertainty, they also hold promise for future competitive power opportunities. Included are new capacity, repowering aging infrastructure and the role of power brokers. It is likely that patience has never been a more valuable attribute for companies working in the North American market.

  8. North American encephalitic arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Larry E.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Arboviruses continue to be a major cause of encephalitis in North America and West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease is now the dominant cause of encephalitis. Transmission to humans of North American arboviruses occurs by infected mosquitoes or ticks. Most infections are asymptomatic or produce a flu-like illness. Elderly, immunosuppressed individuals and infants for some arboviruses have the highest incidence of severe encephalitis. Rapid serum or CSF IgM antibody capture ELISA assays are now available to diagnosis the acute infection for all North American arboviruses. Unfortunately, no antiviral drugs are approved for the treatment of arbovirus infection and current therapy is supportive. PMID:18657724

  9. The 11th Century Collapse of Aqaba on the North Coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Fault System, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Tina; Allison, Alivia; Rucker, John

    2010-05-01

    The city of Aqaba is situated at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba along the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform Fault. Based both on the historical accounts and archaeological excavations, it is clear that earthquakes have played a significant role in the history of the region. The early Islamic city of Ayla was probably founded around 650 A.D., suffered some damage as a result of the 748 A.D. earthquake, and saw extensive reconstruction around the beginning of the Abbasid period (Whitcomb, 1994). Among other evidence of earthquake destruction at the Islamic city of Ayla is the leaning city Sea wall. Stratified pottery collections from our February 2009 excavation of the buttress of the city wall of Ayla strongly suggest a date for revetment construction in the early 11th Century. Based on the fact that the most recent pottery from sealed loci inside the buttress wall is late Abbasid - Fatimid and the absence of handmade pottery often found in the abandonment phases, the buttress was likely constructed after liquefaction damage from the 1033 earthquake. Damage from distant source earthquakes (748 and 1033) in the ancient city was repaired in antiquity. The destruction and loss of life (accounts claim that all but 12 residents who had been out fishing were killed) caused by the 1068 earthquake may account for the relative ease with which Baldwin I of Jerusalem took over when he arrived with a small retinue in 1116 A.D. Paleoseismic trenches in the modern city of Aqaba indicate that at least two earthquakes have occurred after deposits dated to 1045-1278 A.D. A preliminary analysis of the stratigraphy in new trenches in the Taba sabkha north of Aqaba shows at least three separate faulting events, with the most recent event located at a depth of 70 cm below the ground surface. This finding supports the initial ground penetrating radar survey conducted at the southern end of the Taba sabkha by Abueladas (2005). These data document a long period of quiescence

  10. North American plate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Randall M.; Reding, Lynn M.

    1991-01-01

    Deformation within the North American plate in response to various tectonic processes is modeled using an elastic finite element analysis. The tectonic processes considered in the modeling include ridge forces associated with the normal thermal evolution of oceanic lithosphere, shear and normal stresses transmitted across transforms, normal stresses transmitted across convergent boundaries, stresses due to horizontal density contrasts within the continent, and shear tractions applied along the base of the plate. Model stresses are calculated with respect to a lithostatic reference stress state. Shear stresses transmitted across transform boundaries along the San Andreas and Caribbean are small, of the order of 5-10 MPa. Also, compressive stresses of the order of 5-10 MPa transmitted across the major transforms improve the fit to the data. Compressive stresses across convergent margins along the Aleutians and the Middle America trench are important.

  11. North American Biome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North America biome includes the major ecoregions that make up the land area of Canada, the United States, Mexico, and countries in Central America. The biome is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the s...

  12. North American XP-51 Mustang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1941-01-01

    North American XP-51 Mustang: This is the North American XP-51 Mustang shortly after it arrived for NACA trials in December 1941. Built as the fourth Mustang, it was diverted from RAF production for U. S. Army use. The prewar polished metal finish would soon be covered in camouflage paint. Extensive flight tests were made on this aircraft at Langley. In the past few years, this particular aircraft has been restored to flight status by the Experimental Aircraft Association, and may be seen at their museum at Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

  13. MEETING SUMMARY: 11TH AMS Education Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. R.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Croft, P. J.; Hayes, M. J.; Murphy, K. A.; Mcdonnell, J. D.; Johnson, R. M.; Friedman, H. A.

    2004-03-01

    The 11th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Symposium was held from 13 to 15 January 2002 in Orlando, Florida, as part of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the AMS. The theme of the symposium was “creating opportunities in educational outreach in the atmospheric and related sciences.” Drawing from traditional strengths in meteorology and numerous national recommendations, the presentations and posters of the symposium highlighted three opportunities for reform. These opportunities build on partnerships between diverse educational stakeholders, efforts to make science education more like scientific practice, and strategies that place the atmospheric sciences within a larger, multi-disciplinary context that includes oceanography, hydrology, and earth-system science.

  14. Conservation of North American rallids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Manley, Brooke; Reid, Frederic A.; Zembal, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Rallidae are a diverse group in their habitat selection, yet most North American species occur in or near wetlands As a consequence, most species are subject to habitat enhancement or perturbation from waterfowl management programs. The overall effects of these management programs relative to rallid conservation have been assessed for few species, and there is a need for synthesis of such information. In the cases of some species or raves, population status is not known, and suggested directions for conservation and management are needed. Rare, endangered, or status undetermined species or races often occur in areas where related species are classified as game birds, and the effects of such hunting on rarer forms are not known. Their generally secretive nature, the endangered status of several races and populations, and continued loss of habitat and threats to present habitat, warrant an examination of the conservation status of the North American taxa in this group. In 1977, a committee of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies summarized available information on management and biology of American Coots (Fulica americana), rails, and gallinules in North America (Holliman 1977). That summary was intended to provide relatively complete information on conservation of these species, and also to provide guidance for research within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Accelerated Research Program for Webless Migratory Shore and Upland Game Birds (ARP). Subsequently, a number of rallid studies were funded under this program. The program was eliminated in 1982, following substantial research activities on North American rallids. Since the demise of the ARP, additional research on rallids in North America has focused on an area the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies report failed to cover in detail--that of endangered rallids in the U.S. and their possessions. Most of these studies have been of threatened and endangered

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  16. North American X-15 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    A one-twentieth scale model of the X-15; originally suspended beneath the wing of a B-52 is observed by a scientist of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as it leaves the bomber model in tests to determine the release characteristics and drop motion of the research airplane. Caption: 'The aerodynamics of air launching the North American X-15 being investigated in the High Speed 7x10 FT Tunnel, about 1957.' Photograph and caption published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 366). Photograph also published in Sixty Years of Aeronautical Research 1917-1977 By David A. Anderton. A NASA publication (page 49).

  17. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions North American Indian childhood cirrhosis North American Indian childhood cirrhosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description North American Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare liver disorder that ...

  19. 75 FR 68378 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  20. 76 FR 31626 - Meeting Announcement; North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement; North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  1. 77 FR 71820 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  2. 78 FR 71637 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  3. 77 FR 39252 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  4. 76 FR 69278 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act grant proposals...

  5. 78 FR 11220 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  6. 75 FR 34479 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  7. North American tidal power prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, W. W., Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Prospects for North American tidal power electrical generation are reviewed. Studies by the US Army Corps of Engineers of 90 possible generation schemes in Cobscook Bay, ME, indicated that maximum power generation rather than dependable capacity was the most economic method. Construction cost estimates for 15 MW bulb units in a single effect mode from basin to the sea are provided; five projects were considered ranging from 110-160 MW. Additional tidal power installations are examined for: Half-Moon Cove, ME (12 MW, 18 ft tide); Cook Inlet, AK, which is shown to pose severe environmental and engineering problems due to fish migration, earthquake hazards, and 300 ft deep silt deposits; and the Bay of Fundy, Canada. This last has a 17.8 MW plant under construction in a 29 ft maximum tide area. Other tidal projects of the Maritime Provinces are reviewed, and it is noted that previous economic evaluations based on an oil price of $16/barrel are in need of revision.

  8. Directions: Future Planner for 11th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Career and Postsecondary Advancement Center, Bloomington.

    This booklet is intended to help Indiana 11th graders plan their futures by identifying their career and educational goals and available employment and educational opportunities. The following are among the topics discussed in sections 1-4: (1) identifying goals (planning ahead, using class schedules to chart one's course, developing career and…

  9. North American Journal of Psychology, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 5 issue 1 (March 2003) are: "Mothers' Attributional Style for Events in Their Offsprings' Lives as Predictors of Their Offsprings' Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression"; "American High…

  10. North American amphibians: distribution and diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Green, David M.; Weir, Linda A.; Casper, Gary S.; Lannoo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some 300 species of amphibians inhabit North America. The past two decades have seen an enormous growth in interest about amphibians and an increased intensity of scientific research into their fascinating biology and continent-wide distribution. This atlas presents the spectacular diversity of North American amphibians in a geographic context. It covers all formally recognized amphibian species found in the United States and Canada, many of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Illustrated with maps and photos, the species accounts provide current information about distribution, habitat, and conservation. Researchers, professional herpetologists, and anyone intrigued by amphibians will value North American Amphibians as a guide and reference.

  11. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  12. North American LNG Project Sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

  13. 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, H. J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings from the 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE 99), held June 7-11, 1999. This conference was attended by scientists and researchers from around the world. The subjects covered included natural and artificially initiated lightning, lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere (sprites and jets), lightning protection and safety, lightning detection techniques (ground, airborne, and space-based), storm physics, electric fields near and within thunderstorms, storm electrification, atmospheric ions and chemistry, shumann resonances, satellite observations of lightning, global electrical processes, fair weather electricity, and instrumentation.

  14. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridgham, S.D.; Megonigal, J.P.; Keller, J.K.; Bliss, N.B.; Trettin, C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-1, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the largest unknown being the role of carbon sequestration by sedimentation in freshwater mineral-soil wetlands. We estimate that North American wetlands emit 9 Tg methane (CH 4) yr-1; however, the uncertainty of this estimate is also greater than 100%. With the exception of estuarine wetlands, CH4 emissions from wetlands may largely offset any positive benefits of carbon sequestration in soils and plants in terms of climate forcing. Historically, the destruction of wetlands through land-use changes has had the largest effects on the carbon fluxes and consequent radiative forcing of North American wetlands. The primary effects have been a reduction in their ability to sequester carbon (a small to moderate increase in radiative forcing), oxidation of their soil carbon reserves upon drainage (a small increase in radiative forcing), and reduction in CH4 emissions (a small to large decrease in radiative forcing). It is uncertain how global changes will affect the carbon pools and fluxes of North American wetlands. We will not be able to predict accurately the role of wetlands as potential positive or negative feedbacks to anthropogenic global change without knowing the integrative effects of changes in temperature, precipitation, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur on the carbon balance of North American wetlands. 

  15. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  16. Entheseal changes and sexual division of labor in a North-African population: The case of the pre-Hispanic period of the Gran Canaria Island (11th-15th c. CE).

    PubMed

    Santana-Cabrera, J; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between entheseal changes and sexual division of labor in the pre-Hispanic population of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Ethnohistorical records from the period of contact between Europeans and the Canarian indigenous population provide rich information about the different activities performed by men and women. For this purpose, entheseal changes in a sample of 138 individuals (82 males and 56 females) buried in ten pre-Hispanic cemeteries (11th and 15th centuries cal. CE) were analyzed. Forty-one entheses located in the clavicle, humerus, ulna and radius were analyzed (fibrous and fibro-cartilaginous attachment sites). Entheses were graded using a visual and descriptive standard which summarized the entheseal changes. This method interprets the changes as a sign of robustness on a scale from low to high development and includes enthesopathies. The intra- and inter-observer error of this method was minimal. Sex differences in the degree of robustness, bilateral asymmetry, sexual dimorphism and principal components analyses were tested in this sample. The results indicate significant variance in the entheseal robustness between males and females. They also suggest the impact of certain biomechanical chains (pronosupination, shoulder rotation, etc.) in entheseal changes. These results contribute to an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the sexual division of labor in the pre-Hispanic society of Gran Canaria.

  17. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  18. Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1992-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…

  19. North American Journal of Psychology, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 1 issue 1 (June 1999) are: "Generalist Looks at His Career in Teaching: Interview with Dr. Phil Zimbardo"; "Affective Information in Videos"; "Infant Communication"; "Defining Projective…

  20. North American Journal of Psychology, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 3 issue 1 (March/April 2001) are: "Sense of Humor in Black and White"; "Convergent Validity of the Situational Outlook Questionnaire"; "Alcohol Consumption and Consequences in a Sample of…

  1. North American Journal of Psychology, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 4 issue 1 (March 2002) are: "An Interview with Kimmo Lehtonen: Music Therapy with Adolescents"; "The Relationship of Verbal-Nonverbal Incongruence to Communication Mismatches in Married…

  2. Ideas from Ten North American Curriculum Thinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    The views and attitudes of ten North American educational policy-makers concerning curriculum development and design are presented. The theories and research of Herbert M. Kliebard, Fenwick W. English, Walter Werner, John I. Goodlad, Decker F. Walker, William A. Reid, Norman E. Gleadow, Neil Postman, Elliot W. Eisner, and Michael W. Apple are…

  3. 76 FR 53149 - North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service North American Waterfowl Management Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the draft North American Waterfowl Management Plan Revision... Plan Revision, which was developed in close consultation with the waterfowl management...

  4. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  5. West Nile virus: North American experience.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  6. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North American green sturgeon. 223.210... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.210 North American green sturgeon. (a... endangered species apply to the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American...

  7. 47 CFR 52.13 - North American Numbering Plan Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false North American Numbering Plan Administrator. 52.13 Section 52.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.13 North American Numbering Plan Administrator. (a) The North American Numbering Plan Administrator...

  8. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological

  9. Standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, Courtney J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the population status of many marsh-dependent birds in North America but recent efforts have focused on collecting more reliable information and estimates of population trends. As part of that effort, a standardized survey protocol was developed in 1999 that provided guidance for conducting marsh bird surveys throughout North America such that data would be consistent among locations. The original survey protocol has been revised to provide greater clarification on many issues as the number of individuals using the protocol has grown. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol instructs surveyors to conduct an initial 5-minute passive point-count survey followed by a series of 1-minute segments during which marsh bird calls are broadcast into the marsh following a standardized approach. Surveyors are instructed to record each individual bird from the suite of 26 focal species that are present in their local area on separate lines of a datasheet and estimate the distance to each bird. Also, surveyors are required to record whether each individual bird was detected within each 1-minute subsegment of the survey. These data allow analysts to use several different approaches for estimating detection probability. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol provides detailed instructions that explain the field methods used to monitor marsh birds in North America.

  10. Composition of the ancient north american crust.

    PubMed

    Condie, K C

    1967-02-24

    Geochemical studies of Wyoming Precambrian graywackes derived from continental crust older than 3.2 x 10(9) years indicate that their source area was at least as highly differentiated as most younger Precambrian crust. The composition of this early crust (approximately that of calcium-rich granite) is not unlike that of the 2.5 to 3.2 x 10(9) year old North American crust. Limited geochemical data suggest that the composition of North America may not have changed significantly during the last 3.0 to 3.5 x 10(9) years.

  11. The Evolution of North American Rhinoceroses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, Donald R.

    2005-03-01

    First appearing about 40 million years ago in North America, rhinoceroses diversified into an incredible array of taxa, with a variety of ecologies that don't resemble any of the five living species. They ranged from delicate long-legged dog-sized forms, to huge hippo-like forms that apparently lived in rivers and lakes. Including a complete systematic review, and discussions of biogeography, evolution and paleoecology, this book summarizes our current knowledge of North American rhinos and constitutes the most complete reference available.

  12. Candidates for GRL North American coeditor sought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), AGU's all-Union primary research journal, is seeking candidates and nominations for candidates to succeed Rob Van der Voo, whose term as North American Coeditor ends December 31, 1986. The successful candidate will be challenged to seek out interesting papers at the forefront of the geophysical sciences and to attempt to strike a balance in the publication of that science that is of interest to the entire AGU membership. While complementing the interests of Editor in Chief Alex Dessler, the successful candidate will also be challenged to maintain rapid publication time and minimize the publication of research that is routine. The North American Coeditor should be prepared to welcome controversial research papers that challenge conventional wisdom in all fields of interest to AGU. The individual selected for this prestigious position will have a vital role in making GRL an even more important and more exciting journal that readers look forward to receiving each month.

  13. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D; Garland, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death. Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD, but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD. Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive. In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population. PMID:18698674

  14. 11th International Congress of Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Fuller, P J

    2001-03-01

    The Olympics of endocrinology, the 11th International Congress of Endocrinolgy was held rather appropriately in Sydney, four weeks after the summer games of the XXWIIth Modern Olympiad. Both occasions were a great success and whilst it may be tempting to extend the analogy to the pool or the track or heaven forbid, digress into 'drugs in sport', this review will focus on endocrinology. There were over 3000 participants with ten plenary lectures, 20 meet-the-expert sessions, 41 symposia, 128 oral free communications and 1500 posters. Sydney post-Olympics provided a vibrant, exciting and picturesque setting with outstanding convention facilities. The Congress Party was held at Campbells Cove in the lee of the Harbour Bridge looking toward the Opera House which provided an opportunity for delegates to view the two architectural icons that had become so familiar in the preceding months. Credit must be given both to the Local Organising Committee of Sydney endocrinologists who made it all happen and to the International Program Organising Committee who crafted a pageant of first rate endocrinology. It is self-evident that this report can only hope to give the reader a flavour of a Congress such as this with the choice of topics being largely idiosyncratic. With five concurrent symposia and two concurrent orals each morning and afternoon of the four days, any omissions reflect not on the topic or its importance but on this reviewer's inability to be in more than one place at once!

  15. 11th International Congress of Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Fuller, P J

    2001-03-01

    The Olympics of endocrinology, the 11th International Congress of Endocrinolgy was held rather appropriately in Sydney, four weeks after the summer games of the XXWIIth Modern Olympiad. Both occasions were a great success and whilst it may be tempting to extend the analogy to the pool or the track or heaven forbid, digress into 'drugs in sport', this review will focus on endocrinology. There were over 3000 participants with ten plenary lectures, 20 meet-the-expert sessions, 41 symposia, 128 oral free communications and 1500 posters. Sydney post-Olympics provided a vibrant, exciting and picturesque setting with outstanding convention facilities. The Congress Party was held at Campbells Cove in the lee of the Harbour Bridge looking toward the Opera House which provided an opportunity for delegates to view the two architectural icons that had become so familiar in the preceding months. Credit must be given both to the Local Organising Committee of Sydney endocrinologists who made it all happen and to the International Program Organising Committee who crafted a pageant of first rate endocrinology. It is self-evident that this report can only hope to give the reader a flavour of a Congress such as this with the choice of topics being largely idiosyncratic. With five concurrent symposia and two concurrent orals each morning and afternoon of the four days, any omissions reflect not on the topic or its importance but on this reviewer's inability to be in more than one place at once! PMID:11424899

  16. The North American ALMA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hibbard, J. E.; Staff, NAASC

    2010-01-01

    The North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, in Charlottesville, Virginia, in partnership with the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, will support the North American community in their observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA. Our goal is to promote successful observations with ALMA for both novice users, with no experience in either interferometry or millimeter astronomy, and experts alike. We will describe the services that the Science Center will provide for the community, from education about the capabilities of ALMA, though proposal preparation to data analysis. The Science Center will host a website with a Helpdesk that includes FAQs and a growing knowledgebase of ALMA expertise, and will support extensive demos and tutorials on observation preparation and data reduction with ALMA. The Science Center also promotes science-themed meetings. The staff of the Science Center will provide expert assistance for observers at all stages of development and execution of their program. There are visitor and postdoc opportunities at the Science Center. The North American ALMA Science Center is one of three regional centers around the globe that will support ALMA observations. Our partners are the European ALMA Regional Center at ESO in Garching, Germany, and the East Asian ALMA Region Center in Tokyo, Japan.

  17. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  18. North American poisonous bites and stings.

    PubMed

    Quan, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Critters and creatures can strike fear into anyone who thinks about dangerous animals. This article focuses on the management of the most common North American scorpion, arachnid, hymenoptera, and snake envenomations that cause clinically significant problems. Water creatures and less common animal envenomations are not covered in this article. Critical care management of envenomed patients can be challenging for unfamiliar clinicians. Although the animals are located in specific geographic areas, patients envenomed on passenger airliners and those who travel to endemic areas may present to health care facilities distant from the exposure.

  19. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Kathleen; Lopez, Hugo; Cairns, Julie; Wichert, Richard; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Buttner, William

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  20. North American poisonous bites and stings.

    PubMed

    Quan, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Critters and creatures can strike fear into anyone who thinks about dangerous animals. This article focuses on the management of the most common North American scorpion, arachnid, hymenoptera, and snake envenomations that cause clinically significant problems. Water creatures and less common animal envenomations are not covered in this article. Critical care management of envenomed patients can be challenging for unfamiliar clinicians. Although the animals are located in specific geographic areas, patients envenomed on passenger airliners and those who travel to endemic areas may present to health care facilities distant from the exposure. PMID:22998994

  1. Evidence for the Original Unity of North American French Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    Examines the resemblances - morphological, syntactic, lexical and phonological - among North American French dialects today in order to determine the extent to which these represent a common source. (PMP)

  2. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  3. Historical genomics of North American maize

    PubMed Central

    van Heerwaarden, Joost; Hufford, Matthew B.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density SNP genotyping to characterize a set of North American maize lines spanning the history of modern breeding. We provide a unique analysis of genome-wide developments in genetic diversity, ancestry, and selection. The genomic history of maize is marked by a steady increase in genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, whereas allele frequencies in the total population have remained relatively constant. These changes are associated with increasing genetic separation of breeding pools and decreased diversity in the ancestry of individual lines. We confirm that modern heterotic groups are the product of ongoing divergence from a relatively homogeneous landrace population, but show that differential landrace ancestry remains evident. Using a recent association approach, we characterize signals of directional selection throughout the genome, identifying a number of candidate genes of potential agronomic relevance. However, overall we find that selection has had limited impact on genome-wide patterns of diversity and ancestry, with little evidence for individual lines contributing disproportionately to the accumulation of favorable alleles in today's elite germplasm. Our data suggest breeding progress has mainly involved selection and recombination of relatively common alleles, contributed by a representative but limited set of ancestral lines. PMID:22802642

  4. The Summer Atlas of North American Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.; Droege, S.; Price, A.

    1995-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey comprises a network of regularly censussed, road-based survey routes and constitutes the most comprehensive set of data on the relative abundance and population trends of these birds during the summer months. Its value was highlighted in 1989, when the data were used to confirm suspected population declines in a number of species of neotropical migrants breeding in the northeastern United States and Canada. In this book Jeff and Amy Price and Sam Droege have used these data to create detailed, computer-generated maps showing the relative abundance of 450 species that summer in the contiguous United States and southern Canada. Tabular information on distribution hotspots for these, and a further 50 or so species too local in occurrence to map effectively, are also presented. As a data-based survey, the focus of the maps is on places where occurrence has been systematically confirmed over a number of years. As such, the maps provide a baseline for future and more regionally based studies. Supporting chapters provide details on the survey methodology, the mapping procedures used, and some current concerns in North American bird conservation.

  5. North American migratory bird management issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    As human population and industry have grown in North America, land-use practices have greatly altered the landscape. As a result of this changed landscape, several migratory bird populations have declined in recent years. For waterbirds, there have been several milestones: the 1986 North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) and the 1989 North American Wetlands Conservation Act. As a result, the United States and Canada have established 12 habitat and 2 species joint ventures. The primary emphasis of waterfowl management in Canada-U.S. has been land purchase and lease, wetland restoration, and coordination of harvest rates. Because of its different biological and cultural context, Mexico has established other conservation priorities. Mexico has had a long-standing concern to conserve its biodiversity and, in addition, conservation of Mexican resources goes hand in hand with human community development. Unlike Canada-U.S., wetland conservation projects in'Mexico include information gathering, environmental education, and management planning for its 32 priority wetlands. For migratory landbirds' scientists attribute declines in several migrant populations to forest fragmentation on the breeding grounds, deforestation on the wintering grounds, pesticide poisoning, or the cumulative effects of habitat changes. In 1990, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, commonly known as Partners in Flight-Aves de las Americas-was initiated. The next step that is being proposed is the formation of a habitat conservation plan for landbirds modeled after the NAWMP. Management of migratory birds requires a strong international approach in order to coordinate actions for the benefit of migratory birds, their habitats, and the uses they provide.

  6. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Arthur M.; Seager, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change “fingerprints”. Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format. PMID:27041506

  7. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Seager, Richard

    2016-04-01

    We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change “fingerprints”. Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format.

  8. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections.

    PubMed

    Greene, Arthur M; Seager, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change "fingerprints". Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format. PMID:27041506

  9. North American box turtles: A natural history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  10. North American Insecurities, Fears and Anxieties: Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Marianne A.

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary North American insecurities and fears are the focus of this article. In the first section, the inter-related concepts of insecurity, fear and vulnerability are theorised, and the argument put forward that these have come to constitute a dominant discourse in contemporary North American society. In the second section of the paper, the…

  11. Knowledge Organisation Systems in North American Digital Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali; Chase-Kruszewski, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the types of knowledge organisation systems (KOSs) utilised in North American digital library collections. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies, analyses and deep scans online North American hosted digital libraries. It reviews the literature related to the…

  12. 2005 the North American Solar Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Eberle

    2008-12-22

    In July 2005 the North American Solar Challenge (NASC) featured university built solar powered cars ran across the United States into Canada. The competition began in Austin, Texas with stops in Weatherford, Texas; Broken Arrow, Oklahoma; Topeka, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Fargo, North Dakota; Winnipeg, Manitoba; Brandon, Manitoba; Regina, Saskatchewan; Medicine Hat, Alberta; mainly following U.S. Highway 75 and Canadian Highway 1 to the finish line in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for a total distance of 2,500 miles. NASC major sponsors include the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Natural Resources Canada and DOEs National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The event is designed to inspire young people to pursue careers in science and engineering. NASCs predecessors, the American Solar Challenge and Sunrayce, generally have been held every two years since 1990. With each race, the solar cars travel faster and further with greater reliability. The NASC promotes: -Renewable energy technologies (specifically photovoltaic or solar cells) -Educational excellence in science, engineering and mathematics -Creative integration of technical and scientific expertise across a wide-range of disciplines -Hands-on experience for students and engineers to develop and demonstrate their technical and creative abilities. Safety is the first priority for the NASC. Each team put its car through grueling qualifying and technical inspections. Teams that failed to meet the requirements were not allowed participate. During the race, each team was escorted by lead and chase vehicles sporting rooftop hazard flashers. An official observer accompanied each solar car team to keep it alert to any safety issues.

  13. North American ultra-distal tephrochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; Hughes, P.; Mallon, G.; Amesbury, M.; Charman, D.; Street-Perrott, A.; Loader, N.; Woodman-Ralph, J.; Mauquoy, D.; Daley, T.; Booth, R.

    2011-12-01

    PRECIP (Palaeo-REconstruction of ocean-atmosphere Coupling In Peat) is a multi-proxy project examining the influences of Gulf Stream and Labrador Current variations on Holocene raised bogs along the Atlantic seaboard of North America. The project aims to reconstruct the influences of such climate drivers at multi-decadal timescales, thus enabling the testing of hypotheses relating to ocean-atmosphere coupling of Thermohaline Circulation (THC) and terrestrial responses (e.g. the '8.2 ka' event). A valuable geochronological tool for this task is tephrochronology which utilises far-travelled volcanic ash (microtephra: < ca.100 μm) as precise synchronous horizons or isochrons between depositional archives. One project site (Nordan's Pond Bog, Newfoundland) has been found to contain up to 12 rhyolitic microtephra layers throughout a continuous ca. 9000-year profile. The nearest volcanic sources are Iceland and Jan Mayan, ca. 2500 km to the north-east of Newfoundland. However, geochemical analysis reveals that the ash isochrons have little affinity with these sources and are instead primarily of North American provenance transported by Westerlies from Alaska and the Pacific Mountain System ca. 5000 km to the west. Two layers of particularly high shard concentration (> 600 shards/cm3) are estimated by the age model to occur at ca. 7500 14C cal. yrs BP and ca. 1200 14C cal. yrs BP (ca. AD 800), and are the correct period and geochemistry for correlation with the widespread Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) (7627±150 Greenland GISP2 ice core yrs BP) and White River Ash (Mount Churchill, Alaska) eruptions respectively. Other sources for prominent sequence isochrons are Mount St Helens (Washington), Mount Augustine (Alaska) and Mount Aniakchak (Alaska). The tephrochronological potential of other sites in the region is anticipated to be just as promising and should therefore provide the opportunity for the development of a new Holocene tephrostratigraphic framework for north

  14. The North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bystrak, D.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and a discussion of the technique are presented. The approximately 2000 random roadside routes conducted yearly during the breeding season throughout North America produce an enormous bank of data on distribution and abundance of breeding birds with great potential use. Data on about one million total birds of 500 species per year are on computer tape to facilitate accessibility and are available to any serious investigator. The BBS includes the advantages of wide geographic coverage, sampling of most habitat types, standardization of data collection, and a relatively simple format. The Survey is limited by placement of roads (e.g., marshes and rugged mountainous areas are not well sampled), traffic noise interference in some cases and preference of some bird species for roadside habitats. These and other problems and biases of the BBS are discussed. The uniformity of the technique allows for detecting changes in populations and for creation of maps of relative abundance. Examples of each are presented.

  15. 77 FR 59986 - Johnson Controls Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under IMECO LLC; North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... IMECO LLC; North American Refrigeration Dixon, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply... Johnson Controls, North American Refrigeration, Dixon, Illinois (subject firm). The workers were engaged... LLC, North American Refrigeration, Dixon, Illinois, who became totally or partially separated...

  16. 78 FR 33857 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council...: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to...

  17. 75 FR 8989 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council...: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to...

  18. 77 FR 5264 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council...: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to...

  19. 76 FR 5820 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council...: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to...

  20. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. Even following a 15-year-long effort through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and U.S. and Canadian Endangered/Threatened Species programs to fund research focused on sea duck habitats there are still important gaps in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Importantly, many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered, largely as a result of anthropogenic effects. Our goal here is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups (e.g., eiders) within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, this chapter will examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Finally, we will evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for

  1. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    PubMed

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated.

  2. Glacial geography and native North American languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the number and distribution of some native American languages may be related to ice-margin changes of the Wisconsin glaciation. The analysis indicated that the number of languages per unit area is much greater in unglaciated areas of the last glacial maximum than in glaciated areas. The pattern of languge overlap between land areas sequentially exposed during deglaciation appears to indicate the direction of movement of populations from the periphery toward the core of the area once covered by the Wisconsin Ice Sheet. The data strongly indicate that North America was inhabited prior to the Wisconsin glacial maximum, because glacial maximum conditions apparently influenced linguistic distributions. Evidence suggests that ancestral Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers occupied the northwestern edge of the continental ice mass, and that ancestral Algonquian speakers were south of the ice mass during the Wisconsin glacial maximum (approximately 18,000 yr ago). These three linguistic groups were the principal ones to spreas into areas exposed by the recession of the Wisconsin ice.

  3. Bioluminescence patterns among North American Armillaria species.

    PubMed

    Mihail, Jeanne D

    2015-06-01

    Bioluminescence is widely recognized among white-spored species of Basidiomycota. Most reports of fungal bioluminescence are based upon visual light perception. When instruments such as photomultipliers have been used to measure fungal luminescence, more taxa have been discovered to produce light, albeit at a range of magnitudes. The present studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of bioluminescence among North American Armillaria species. Consistent, constitutive bioluminescence was detected for the first time for mycelia of Armillaria calvescens, Armillaria cepistipes, Armillaria gemina, Armillaria nabsnona, and Armillaria sinapina and confirmed for mycelia of Armillaria gallica, Armillaria mellea, Armillaria ostoyae, and Armillaria tabescens. Emission spectra of mycelia representing all species had maximum intensity in the range 515-525 nm confirming that emitted light was the result of bioluminescence rather than chemiluminescence. Time series analysis of 1000 consecutive luminescence measurements revealed a highly significant departure from random variation. Mycelial luminescence of eight species exhibited significant, stable shifts in magnitude in response to a series of mechanical disturbance treatments, providing one mechanism for generating observed luminescence variation.

  4. The North American Soil Moisture Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, T.; Quiring, S.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable in the climate system, yet in situ observations of soil moisture are not prevalent in most regions of the world. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite recently launched by the European Space Agency and NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission underscore the need for better in situ soil moisture data for validation and accuracy assessment. The North American Soil Moisture Database is a harmonized and quality-controlled soil moisture dataset that is being developed to support investigations of land-atmosphere interactions, validating the accuracy of soil moisture simulations in global land surface models, and describing how soil moisture influences climate on seasonal to interannual timescales. Currently the database is comprised of well over 1,300 soil moisture observation stations from more than 20 networks in the United States. The data is subjected to rigorous quality control procedures. Upon completion, the database will consist of homogenized and standardized soil moisture data products that will be published on a dedicated website and made available to the scientific community to support research efforts such as EaSM, SMAP and SMOS.

  5. Investigators Share Improved Understanding of the North American Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsey, Richard A.; Cook, Robert B; Denning, Scott; Griffith, Peter; Law, Beverly E.; Masek, Jeffrey; Michalak, Anna; Ogle, Stephen; Ojima, Dennis; Pan, Yude; Sabine, Christopher; Sheffner, Edwin; Sundquist, Eric

    2007-06-01

    U.S. North American Carbon Program Investigators Meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 22-25 January 2007. The U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP) sponsored an "all-scientist" meeting to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North America and adjacent oceans, and to chart a course for improved integration across scientific disciplines, scales, and Earth system boundaries. The meeting participants also addressed the need for better decision support tools for managing the carbon cycle of North America, so that strong science can inform policy as interest in taking action increases across the nation.

  6. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Skip to Navigation Essential Pediatric GI Review Course ... Fellows Concise Review of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (Second Edition) Just released - The NASPGHAN Fellows Concise ...

  7. North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

    2012-09-01

    North American (NA) microtektites display Fe3+/Fetot ratios from 0 to 0.75, much higher than microtektites from Ivory Coast and Australasian strewn fields. FTIR determined water content compare well with NA tektites, suggesting lack of alteration.

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF CALIFORNIA STREET LOOKING EAST SHOWING LOVE AND BILGER TIN SHOP (FAR LEFT) (HABS NO. ORE-97). - Jacksonville Historic District, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 VIEW OF NORTH SIDE CALIFORNIA STREET BETWEEN OREGON STREET AND THIRD STREET SHOWING REPRODUCTION BUILDING. - Jacksonville Historic District, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  10. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer NORTH ENTRANCE DETAIL RIGHT JAMB, SHOWING SECTION OF CUT FOR DOOR HEADER - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  11. Wildlife values of North American ricelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eadie, J.M.; Elphick, C.S.; Reinecke, K.J.; Miller, M.R.; Manley, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    derermining threshold food levels required to maintain bird use; (3) quantifying use of ricefields by nonwaterfowl species throughout the year; and (4) determining the amount and distribution of rice habitat needed to meet objectives of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan and the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan.

  12. Jurassic Magmatism and Tectonics of the North American Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan

    The relationship of Jurassic magmatic arc rocks to the tectonic evolution of the North American Cordilleran continental margin is a principle theme of Geological Society of America Special Paper 299. The volume gives readers a comprehensive view of the early stages of magmatic arc evolution on a continental margin and is a tribute to the contributions of Richard Lee Armstrong, whose pioneering studies provide a framework for current geologic investigations of the North American Cordillera.

  13. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  14. The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program. [abstract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, J.

    1998-01-01

    The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program has been under development for the past three years. The monitoring strategy for NAAMP has five main prongs: terrestrial salamander surveys, calling surveys, aquatic surveys, western surveys, and atlassing. Of these five, calling surveys were selected as one of the first implementation priorities due to their friendliness to volunteers of varying knowledge levels, relative low cost, and the fact that several groups had already pioneered the techniques involved. While some states and provinces had implemented calling surveys prior to NAAMP, like WI and IL, most states and provinces had little or no history of state/provincewide amphibian monitoring. Thus, the majority of calling survey programs were initiated in the past two years. To assess the progress of this pilot phase, a program review was conducted on the status of the NAAMP calling survey program, and the results of that review will be presented at the meeting. Topics to be discussed include: who is doing what where, extent of route coverage, the continuing random route discussions, quality assurance, strengths and weaknesses of calling surveys, reliability of data, and directions for the future. In addition, a brief overview of the DISPro project will be included. DISPro is a new amphibian monitoring program in National Parks, funded by the Demonstration of Intensive Sites Program (DISPro) through the EPA and NPS. It will begin this year at Big Bend and Shenandoah National Parks. The purpose of the DISPro Amphibian Project will be to investigate relationships between environmental factors and stressors and the distribution, abundance, and health of amphibians in these National Parks. At each Park, amphibian long-term monitoring protocols will be tested, distributions and abundance of amphibians will be mapped, and field research experiments will be conducted to examine stressor effects on amphibians (e.g., ultraviolet radiation, contaminants, acidification).

  15. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-10

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  16. Twinning rates for North American Holstein sires.

    PubMed

    Johanson, J M; Bergert, P J; Kirkpatrick, B W; Dentine, M R

    2001-09-01

    Calving data of North American Holsteins were analyzed using a linear sire model and a threshold sire model to estimate fixed effects and sire predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for twinning rate. The data were 1,324,678 births of 37,174 sires of cows from the National Association of Animal Breeders (NAAB) calving ease database. All twins were assumed to be dizygotic. Triplets were not included in the analysis. The twinning rate was 5.02%. The sire model included relationships among sires and fixed effects of herd-years, season, parity, and sire groups. Different estimates of heritability due to models and restrictions on data have been demonstrated. Heritability estimates for the sire of the cow effect were 2.10% by the linear model analysis and 8.71% by the threshold model analysis. Sire PTA for twinning rate ranged from 1.6 to 8.0%. Mean incidence of twins increased from first to fifth and later parities: 1.63, 5.22, 6.66, 7.19, and 7.19%, respectively. Some changes with season were also evident. The incidence of twins was highest in April to June, at 5.88%, and lowest in October to December, at 4.23%. Sire group effects showed that sires born after 1990 had a higher incidence of twins than sires born before 1990. The mean twinning rate for sires born before 1980 was 4.55% compared with a mean of 5.58% for sires born after 1991. Characteristics of individual sire evaluations are discussed. Ample opportunity exists to change the incidence of twins in the Holstein population. Sire selection can be used to reduce the incidence of twins and also the increased cost of production associated with twins. From a national perspective, a reduction in the incidence of twin births can result in a saving of as much as $55 million per year.

  17. Using European Systems from a North American Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Marshall; Grenville, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates the special considerations of using European search systems from North America: steps in establishing a telephone link with the European Space Agency's system, lack of availability to North Americans of some European databases through this system, user reaction, and costs. Brief descriptions of some European databases and a connect…

  18. North American Ground Surface Temperature Histories: A Contribution to the PAGES2k North American Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, J. C.; Jaume Santero, F.; Beltrami, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, three hundred and seventy three (373) North American temperature-depth profiles from boreholes deeper than 300 meters were analyzed for recent climate. To facilitate comparisons and examine the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were inverted from the subsurface temperature anomalies using singular value decomposition for a model of 10 temperature changes along time-intervals of increasing duration. The inversion retains four singular values and accounts for the data acquisition time difference. The reference surface temperature and geothermal gradient were estimated by linear regression to the deepest 100 meters with a 95% confidence interval. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the root mean square between the model and the data. The GST history results for North America, given by the mean and 95% confidence interval, reveal in most cases, a warming up to 1°C - 2.5°C during the last 100-150 years.

  19. Islamophobia Pre- and Post-September 11th, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Lorraine P.

    2006-01-01

    Although much academic research has addressed racism, religious discrimination has been largely ignored. The current study investigates levels of self reported racial and religious discrimination in a sample of 222 British Muslims. Respondents indicate that following September 11th, 2001, levels of implicit or indirect discrimination rose by 82.6%…

  20. Islamophobia pre- and post-September 11th, 2001.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine P

    2006-03-01

    Although much academic research has addressed racism, religious discrimination has been largely ignored. The current study investigates levels of self-reported racial and religious discrimination in a sample of 222 British Muslims. Respondents indicate that following September 11th, 2001, levels of implicit or indirect discrimination rose by 82.6% and experiences of overt discrimination by 76.3%. Thus, the current work demonstrates that major world events may affect not only stereotypes of minority groups but also prejudice toward minorities. Results suggest that religious affiliation may be a more meaningful predictor of prejudice than race or ethnicity. General Health Questionnaire scores indicate that 35.6% of participants likely suffered mental health problems, with significant associations between problem-indicative scores and reports of experiencing a specific abusive incident of September 11th-related abuse by respondents. The dearth of empirical work pertaining to religious discrimination and its effects is a cause for concern. PMID:16443594

  1. Islamophobia pre- and post-September 11th, 2001.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine P

    2006-03-01

    Although much academic research has addressed racism, religious discrimination has been largely ignored. The current study investigates levels of self-reported racial and religious discrimination in a sample of 222 British Muslims. Respondents indicate that following September 11th, 2001, levels of implicit or indirect discrimination rose by 82.6% and experiences of overt discrimination by 76.3%. Thus, the current work demonstrates that major world events may affect not only stereotypes of minority groups but also prejudice toward minorities. Results suggest that religious affiliation may be a more meaningful predictor of prejudice than race or ethnicity. General Health Questionnaire scores indicate that 35.6% of participants likely suffered mental health problems, with significant associations between problem-indicative scores and reports of experiencing a specific abusive incident of September 11th-related abuse by respondents. The dearth of empirical work pertaining to religious discrimination and its effects is a cause for concern.

  2. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists. PMID:26853375

  3. Lithospheric models of the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Mooney, Walter; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    We constructed NACr14, a 3D model of the North American (NA) crust, based on the most recent seismic data from the USGS database. In comparison with the global crustal model CRUST 1.0, NACr14 is more heterogeneous, showing a larger spatial variability of the thickness and average velocities of the crustal layers. Velocities of the lower crust vary in a larger range than those of the other layers, while the thickness of all the three layers is on average between 11 and 13 km. The largest velocities of the crystalline crust (>6.6 km/s) reflect the presence of a 7.x layer (>7.0 km/s) in the lowermost part of the crust. Using NACr2014, a regional (NA07) and a global (SL201sv) tomography model, and gravity data, we apply an iterative technique, which jointly interprets seismic tomography and gravity data, to estimate temperature and compositional variations in the NA upper mantle. The results obtained demonstrate that temperature of the cratonic mantle is up to 150°C higher than when using a uniform compositional model. The differences between the two tomography models influence the results more strongly than possible changes of the depth distribution of compositional variations. Strong negative compositional density anomalies, corresponding to Mg # >92, characterize the upper mantle of the northwestern part of the Superior craton and the central part of the Slave and Churchill craton. The Proterozoic upper mantle of the western and more deformed part of the NA cratons, appears weakly depleted (Mg# ~91) when NA07 is used, in agreement with the results based on the interpretation of xenolith data. When we use SL2013sv, the same areas are locally characterized by high density bodies, which might be interpreted as the effect due to fragments of subducted slabs, as those close to the suture of the Appalachians and Grenville province. We used the two thermal models to estimate the integrated strength and the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere. In the

  4. Imported Dust in North American Skies

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and university scientists have made the first measurement-based estimate of the amount and composition of tiny airborne particles that arrive in the air over North America each year. With a 3D...

  5. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R. Terry; Burns, Kevin J; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Lovette, Irby J.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F.; Winker, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This is the 16th supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made between April 15, 2015, and April 15, 2016, by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature—North and Middle America. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000).

  6. Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhead, Noel M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread evidence shows that the modern rates of extinction in many plants and animals exceed background rates in the fossil record. In the present article, I investigate this issue with regard to North American freshwater fishes. From 1898 to 2006, 57 taxa became extinct, and three distinct populations were extirpated from the continent. Since 1989, the numbers of extinct North American fishes have increased by 25%. From the end of the nineteenth century to the present, modern extinctions varied by decade but significantly increased after 1950 (post-1950s mean = 7.5 extinct taxa per decade). In the twentieth century, freshwater fishes had the highest extinction rate worldwide among vertebrates. The modern extinction rate for North American freshwater fishes is conservatively estimated to be 877 times greater than the background extinction rate for freshwater fishes (one extinction every 3 million years). Reasonable estimates project that future increases in extinctions will range from 53 to 86 species by 2050.

  7. Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhead, Noel M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread evidence shows that the modern rates of extinction in many plants and animals exceed background rates in the fossil record. In the present article, I investigate this issue with regard to North American freshwater fishes. From 1898 to 2006, 57 taxa became extinct, and three distinct populations were extirpated from the continent. Since 1989, the numbers of extinct North American fishes have increased by 25%. From the end of the nineteenth century to the present, modern extinctions varied by decade but significantly increased after 1950 (post-1950s mean = 7.5 extinct taxa per decade). The modern extinction rate for North American freshwater fishes is conservatively estimated to be 877 times greater than the background extinction rate for freshwater fishes (one extinction every 3 million years). Reasonable estimates project that future increases in extinctions will range from 53 to 86 species by 2050.

  8. Longevity records of North American birds: Coerebinae through Estrildidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Futcher, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth paper of a 4-part series detailing the longevity records of marked North American birds. The previous three papers can be found in the Journal of Field Ornithology, Volumes 53 and 54. Prio to this series only one definitive paper ( Kennard 1975) had been written on North American taxa. Records for 84 taxa are included in this paper. Thirty are birds older than those listed by Kennard. Thirty-nine are new records and 9 are those listed in Kennard.

  9. Origin and evolution of North American polyploid Silene (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Popp, Magnus; Oxelman, Bengt

    2007-03-01

    Nuclear DNA sequences from introns of the low-copy nuclear gene family encoding the second largest subunit of RNA polymerases and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, combined with the psbE-petL spacer and the rps16 intron from the chloroplast genome were used to infer origins and phylogenetic relationships of North American polyploid Silene species and their closest relatives. Although the vast majority of North American Silene species are polyploid, which contrasts to the diploid condition dominating in other parts of the world, the phylogenetic analyses rejected a single origin of the North American polyploids. One lineage consists of tetraploid Silene menziesii and its diploid allies. A second lineage, Physolychnis s.l., consists of Arctic, European, Asian, and South American taxa in addition to the majority of the North American polyploids. The hexaploid S. hookeri is derived from an allopolyploidization between these two lineages. The tetraploid S. nivea does not belong to any of these lineages, but is closely related to the European diploid S. baccifera. The poor resolution within Physolychnis s.l. may be attributed to rapid radiation, recombination among homoeologues, homoplasy, or any combination of these factors. No extant diploid donors could be identified in Physolychnis s.l. PMID:21636405

  10. North American drought: Reconstructions, causes, and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Edward R.; Seager, Richard; Cane, Mark A.; Stahle, David W.

    2007-03-01

    Severe drought is the greatest recurring natural disaster to strike North America. A remarkable network of centuries-long annual tree-ring chronologies has now allowed for the reconstruction of past drought over North America covering the past 1000 or more years in most regions. These reconstructions reveal the occurrence of past "megadroughts" of unprecedented severity and duration, ones that have never been experienced by modern societies in North America. There is strong archaeological evidence for the destabilizing influence of these past droughts on advanced agricultural societies, examples that should resonate today given the increasing vulnerability of modern water-based systems to relatively short-term droughts. Understanding how these megadroughts develop and persist is a timely scientific problem. Very recently, climate models have succeeded in simulating all of the major droughts over North America from the Civil War to the severe 1998-2004 drought in the western U.S. These numerical experiments indicate the dominating importance of tropical Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in determining how much precipitation falls over large parts of North America. Of central importance to drought formation is the development of cool "La Niña-like" SSTs in the eastern tropical Pacific region. This development appears to be partially linked to changes in radiative forcing over that region, which affects the Bjerknes feedback mechanism of the ENSO cycle there. Paradoxically, warmer conditions over the tropical Pacific region lead to the development of cool La Niña-like SSTs there, which is drought inducing over North America. Whether or not this process will lead to a greater prevalence of drought in the future as the world warms due to accumulating greenhouse gases is unclear at this time.

  11. North American snake envenomation in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Lyndi L; Brunker, Jill

    2011-11-01

    Snake envenomation can be a cause of significant morbidity in dogs and cats in North America. Being familiar with the venomous snakes in your area and understanding the mechanisms of action of their venom will allow for successful treatment of envenomation cases. Treatment of snake envenomation revolves around supportive care in mild to moderate cases and venom neutralization with antivenom in severe cases. Dogs and cats envenomated by North American snakes have a good prognosis if treated appropriately.

  12. Sports or Athletics: A North American Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, J. Alex, Ed.

    This book reports on the 15th Annual Canadian American Seminar, the purpose of which was to explore the widening gulf between sports and athletics, and to examine and predict trends in the U.S. and Canada. The seminar presentations are divided into six sessions, plus the Frank Boland Memorial Lecture delivered by Jesse Owens. Each session includes…

  13. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  14. Biofuels and North American agriculture--implications for the health and safety of North American producers.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    This decade has provided North American agricultural producers with opportunity to not only produce fiber and food, but also fuel and other industrial products. The drivers incenting this development could be sustained well into the future, therefore workforce safety and health implications are likely to persist for some time. Within production agriculture, the 'feedstock growth and harvest cycle' and 'transport' sectors possess the changing exposures experienced by workers. The Conference explored the following exposures: distiller's grains and bio-processing byproducts, spent catalyst, solvent brine, microbial agents, genetically modified organisms, discharge effluent, H2O dilutes, change in cropping patterns and resultant use of different seeding and harvest technologies, pests (whether target or non-target), and rural traffic resulting from concentrated movement of massive quantities of biomass and grain. Other issues of a more general public health nature such as watershed implications, other environmental impacts, emissions, uneven economic development potential, public safety issues associated with transport of both fuel and other industrial products, and rural emergency medical service need were explored. And, agronomic impacts were noted, including tillage change, potassium buildup in soil, nutrient depletion, sedimentation and erosion of tillable soil, and local esthetics. It was concluded that rural venues for formation and exploration of public policy need to be created.

  15. Medicinal history of North American Veratrum

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Veratrum have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, phytochemical investigations revealed a host of steroidal alkaloids in Veratrum species, some of which are potent bioactives. This review discusses Veratrum species that grow in North America with a focus on the medicinal history of these plants and the steroidal alkaloids they contain. While significant reviews have been devoted to singularly describing the plant species within the genus Veratrum (botany), the staggering breadth of alkaloids isolated from these and related plants (phytochemistry), and the intricacies of how the various alkaloids act on their biological targets (physiology and biochemistry), this review will straddle the margins of the aforementioned disciplines in an attempt to provide a unified, coherent picture of the Veratrum plants of North America and the medicinal uses of their bioactive steroidal alkaloids. PMID:25379034

  16. The decline of North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Jelks, Howard L.; Burkhead, Noel M.

    2009-01-01

    North America has a broad array of freshwater ecosystems because of the continent's complex geography and geological history. Within a multitude of habitats—that include streams, large rivers, natural lakes, springs, and wetlands—rich assemblages of fishes reside, representing diverse taxonomic groups with unique ecological requirements. They face an unprecedented conservation crisis.1 In the last few decades, the proportion of inland fishes of North America, which are considered imperiled or extinct, increased from 20 to 40%.2 Although extinctions have occurred, many species and populations are declining in range size and abundance. The fish biota of the continent as a whole remains diverse; however, we can take action to stem any further declines.

  17. Building a North American Spatial Data Infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.J.; Nebert, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the state of spatial data infrastructures within North America in late 1997. After providing some background underlying the philosophy and development of the SDI concept, the authors discuss effects of technology, institutions, and standardization that confront the cohesive implementation of a common infrastructure today. The paper concludes with a comparative framework and specific examples of elements and initiatives defining respective spatial data infrastructure initiatives in the United States and Canada.

  18. Roots of terrorism: a reassessment after September 11th

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political, sociological and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 11th, Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes. If 9/11 was caused by US Middle East policies, the response must involve a review of these policies. If it is a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes will be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment, which need to be clearly identified, are critical in any counterterrorism strategy. So we must understand the reasons for terrorism and, in particular, for the attacks of September 11th.T his paper will look at the question of the roots of terrorism and then look to the specific case of 911 and its aftermath, with a special view to the impact of globalization.

  19. Origins of the 1988 north american drought.

    PubMed

    Trenberth, K E; Branstator, G W; Arkin, P A

    1988-12-23

    The 1988 summer drought in the United States was the most extensive in many years. Because the drought developed in different places at different times, not all regional effects can be traced to the same cause. Along the West Coast and in the northwestern United States drought conditions developed during 1987 in association with the 1986 to 1987 El Niño in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Record low rainfalls from April to June 1988 led to rapid development of drought in the North Central United States. Strong anticyclonic conditions and a northward displaced jet stream in the upper atmosphere over North America throughout this period were only part of pronounced and distinctive wavetrain of anomalies in the atmospheric circulation that appeared to emanate from the tropical Pacific. Below average sea surface temperatures along the equator in the Pacific in the northern spring of 1988, combined with warmer than normal water from 10 degrees to 20 degrees N, led to a northward displaced but still active intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) southeast of Hawaii. Results from a steady-state planetarywave atmospheric model indicate that the atmospheric heating anomalies associated with the displaced ITCZ can force an anomalous wavetrain across North America similar to that observed. Land surface processes probably contributed to the severity and persistence of the drought; however, the large-scale atmospheric circulation perturbations associated with natural variations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system in the tropical Pacific were most likely the primary cause. PMID:17730574

  20. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  1. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy BASEMENT PLAN, NORTH ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy BASEMENT PLAN, NORTH ELEVATION, ARCHITECT'S ORIGINAL PLAN Restricted: Not to be reproduced without written permission from Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - John Pitkin Norton House, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. North American Indians: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's resource guide produced by the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) is a collection of materials about North American Indians covering 3 categories, including an introduction, selected bibliographies, and a listing photographs and portraits. Additionally, there is a collecting of answers to questions that…

  3. The North American Free Trade Agreement. Headline Series No. 299.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, George W.

    This document discusses the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as a debate over the wisdom of opening the southern United States border to the free flow of goods and services between the United States and Mexico. The book is divided into six chapters. The first is a basic introduction to the development of the idea of a free trade…

  4. North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

    2012-03-01

    Microtektites from the Australasian and Ivory Coast strewn fields (SF) show low values of the Fe^3^+/Fe_t_o_t ratio, comparable to tektites from the same SF. In contrast, microtektites from the North American SF show a wider range (from 0 to 0.75).

  5. Structure of the North American Atlantic Continental Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitgord, K. K.; Schlee, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Offers explanations on the origin of the North American Atlantic continental margin. Provides an analysis and illustrations of structural and strategraphic elements of cross sections of the Atlantic continental margin. Also explains the operations and applications of seismic-relection profiles in studying ocean areas. (ML)

  6. The 2011 North American strawberry symposium: an introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 Symposium was held in conjunction with the 32nd North American Strawberry Growers Association (NASGA) Annual Conference on 8-11 Feb. 2011, at the Doubletree Hotel in Tampa, FL. The scientific program was conducted over two days and featured five sessions of oral and poster presentations sp...

  7. Strange country this: lesbianism and North American Indian tribes.

    PubMed

    Grahn, J

    1986-05-01

    This article is an exploration of historical names and functions of gay and lesbian people among traditional North American Indian tribes. Some detailed descriptions of individual offices are included, such as "manly hearted" women and shamanic cross-dressing men, as well as the original definition of "dyke" and "ceremonial lesbian" as described by Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna Pueblo). PMID:3531323

  8. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in North Florida African-American Churches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article describes cardiovascular problems of minority populations, exploring ways that churches can help their communities and describing the outcomes of a model intervention on four African American churches in rural north Florida. Positive outcomes were observed, particularly regarding community members' participation in health promotion…

  9. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION FROM THE N. W. - Southeast Area Survey, 600-602 & 1100 G Street (House), 1002,1006 Eye Street (House), 808-810,812-814, & 1016 K Street (House), 817-819 L Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Depressed Affect and Historical Loss among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Walls, Melissa L.; Johnson, Kurt D.; Morrisseau, Allan D.; McDougall, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence and correlates of perceived historical loss among 459 North American Indigenous adolescents aged 11-13 years from the northern Midwest of the United States and central Canada. The adolescents reported daily or more thoughts of historical loss at rates similar to their female caretakers. Confirmatory factor…

  11. Annotated Bibliography of Articles Pertaining to Native North Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon. Indian and Northern Curriculum Resources Centre.

    The annotated bibliography is designed to help a person find information about American Indians, Metis, and Eskimos of North America. It attempts to categorize and separate fields of interests. The books, magazines, and newspaper articles were printed from 1959-1971. Approximately 335 references are listed. Addresses are in the Appendix. The…

  12. Teaching Culture in a North American Context: Halloween Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollica, Anthony; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Notes that information presented in dialog form in a foreign language lends itself more easily to conversation than does intricate narrative prose. Using background information on Halloween, the article adapts the text to present information about the target culture as well as to humorously present facts about the North American festivity.…

  13. A Canadian Lens on Facilitating Factors for North American Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christa Lee

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to develop and maintain effective international education partnerships between institutions in the Canada, Mexico, and United States? This was a driving question for the qualitative study funded by a Fulbright-Enders-Garcia grant examining the relationship between North American partnerships and campus internationalization.…

  14. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND EAST FACADES (View B) This view shows clapboards on gable end and therefore, predates View A which shows shingles in upper gable From the collection of Mrs. L. T. Hazall, descendent of Rev. Woodward - Reverend John Woodward House, 409 Forbes Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  16. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer NORTH EAST CORNER POST, 2d FLOOR, SHOWING MOULDING OF ORIGINAL SET BACK CUT AWAY. ON THE EAST SIDE THE MOULDING REMAINS - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  17. Cultural Values in Latin and North American Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaster, Guy J.; Ahumada, Isa

    1971-01-01

    Study was conducted among adolescents in Puerto Rico, and replicated earlier studies in Buenos Aires and Chicago. Implications were drawn from frequencies in San Juan and compared with the Latin passive" pattern in Buenos Aires and the North American active" pattern in Chicago. (DM)

  18. Highlights of the North American CF Conference 2013.

    PubMed

    Walshaw, Martin

    2014-06-01

    This is a personal selection of papers that were presented at the 27th North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference held in Salt Lake City in October 2013. The papers discussed in this review are thought to be of particular interest to CF caregivers in the UK. PMID:24821547

  19. Skeleton of Extinct North American Sea Mink ( Mustela macrodon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Spiess, Arthur E.; Sobolik, Kristin D.

    2000-03-01

    Mustela macrodon (extinct sea mink) is known only from prehistoric and historic Native American shell middens dating less than 5100 years old along coastal islands of the Gulf of Maine, northeastern North America. The species is distinct from all known extant subspecies of M. vison (American mink) but still belongs to the North American subgenus Vison. Metric comparisons between M. macrodon and five subspecies of M. vison, using skull, mandible, humerus, radius, femur, and tibia skeletal elements, show that M. macrodon is larger in overall size and robustness and is proportionately larger in the dental region. Many habitat-related parallels exist between coastal island mink of the Gulf of Maine and those of the Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska, where the overall largest living subspecies of mink is found (M. v. nesolestes).

  20. North American snake and scorpion envenomations.

    PubMed

    Wilbeck, Jennifer; Gresham, Chip

    2013-06-01

    Envenomations by snakes and scorpions in North America, although uncommon, do occur, and the victims may seek medical treatment. Combined, snake and scorpion encounters result in more than 25,000 calls a year to poison centers. Although some similarities exist with respect to general signs of envenomation and treatment, specific nuances distinguish the medical care to be anticipated and therapies available. Regardless of geographic practice area, exposures will occur that may result in a significant envenomation. This article provides critical care nurses with fundamental knowledge of varied snake and scorpion envenomation presentations and treatments to assist in optimizing patient outcomes. PMID:23692937

  1. 78 FR 26349 - Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at North American Electric... the Commission and/or Commission staff may attend the following meetings: North American Electric... Compliance Committee, Finance and Audit Committee, and Standards Oversight and Technology Committee...

  2. 75 FR 4374 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing January 20, 2010. Take notice that on January 19, 2010, North American Electric Reliability Corporation...

  3. Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus.

    PubMed

    Ebel, G D; Spielman, A; Telford, S R

    2001-07-01

    To determine whether Powassan virus (POW) and deer tick virus (DTV) constitute distinct flaviviral populations transmitted by ixodid ticks in North America, we analysed diverse nucleotide sequences from 16 strains of these viruses. Two distinct genetic lineages are evident, which may be defined by geographical and host associations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lineage one (comprising New York and Canadian POW isolates) are highly conserved across time and space, but those of lineage two (comprising isolates from deer ticks and a fox) are more variable. The divergence between lineages is much greater than the variation within either lineage, and lineage two appears to be more diverse genetically than is lineage one. Application of McDonald-Kreitman tests to the sequences of these strains indicates that adaptive evolution of the envelope protein separates lineage one from lineage two. The two POW lineages circulating in North America possess a pattern of genetic diversity suggesting that they comprise distinct subtypes that may perpetuate in separate enzootic cycles. PMID:11413377

  4. North American vegetation patterns observed with the NOAA-7 advanced very high resolution radiometer. [North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Dye, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral vegetation index measurements derived from remotely sensed observations show great promise as a means to improve knowledge of land vegetation patterns. The daily, global observations acquired by the advanced very high resolution radiometer, a sensor on the current series of U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellites, may be particularly well suited for global studies of vegetation. Preliminary results from analysis of North American observations, extending from April to November 1982, show that the vegetation index patterns observed correspond to the known seasonality of North American natural and cultivated vegetation. Integration of the observations over the growing season produced measurements that are related to net primary productivity patterns of the major North American natural vegetation formations. Regions of intense cultivation were observed as anomalous areas in the integrated growing season measurements. Significant information on seasonality, annual extent and interannual variability of vegetation photosynthetic activity at continental and global scales can be derived from these satellite observations.

  5. 78 FR 18333 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 15, 2013, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a... Commission) in North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 138 FERC ] 61,193 (2012) (March 15...

  6. 78 FR 9687 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 1, 2013, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a... North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 141 FERC ] 61,086 (2012) (November 2 Order). Any...

  7. 77 FR 65873 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 12, 2012, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a... North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 140 FERC ] 61,215 (2012) (September 20 Order)....

  8. Electric System-wide Measurements: North American Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Huang, Zhenyu; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2007-01-03

    The western interconnected electric system of North America pioneered the concept of system-wide measurements, particularly applied to system dynamic issues. This involved the development and deployment of synchronized, sub-second measurement units and their associated data collection networks. More recently, the United States Department of Energy has collaborated with the North American Electric Reliability Council, electric utilities, reliability coordinators, equipment and software suppliers, and researchers to advance the use phasors in the eastern interconnection of North America. This paper provides an overview of the status of system-wide monitoring in North America, the directions emerging for application of this data to situational awareness and system operations, as well as the institutional changes underway to organize the relevant parties and establish a viable infrastructure to support the information exchange required to fulfill each party’s role.

  9. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  10. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability. PMID:26527335

  11. Coexistence, North American style: regulation and litigation.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Globally, biotech crops have left a legacy of success and some notable failures due to regulatory and litigious barriers to entry, with a pipeline of potentially beneficial biotech agricultural products lined up and awaiting approval. Compared with traditional agriculture, these crops provide significant health benefits to environmental and human health benefits, including organic systems. While the rest of the world has increased acreage of biotech crops at a steady annual rate of 10%, North America-the birthplace of most biotech crops-has reached a critical turning point in its regulatory evolution. Biotech crops can play a major role in creating a more sustainable agricultural landscape, which is increasingly well-documented, but future commercial use may be hampered by regulation and litigation that place organic and non-GMO agriculture on a pedestal, which could force many biotech crops into containment. If producers of biotech crops are required to prevent their crops from contaminating these other, high premium specialty crops through migration, innovation in agricultural biotechnology will suffer (as the European experience with agricultural biotechnology clearly demonstrates). PMID:22430853

  12. Coexistence, North American style: regulation and litigation.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Globally, biotech crops have left a legacy of success and some notable failures due to regulatory and litigious barriers to entry, with a pipeline of potentially beneficial biotech agricultural products lined up and awaiting approval. Compared with traditional agriculture, these crops provide significant health benefits to environmental and human health benefits, including organic systems. While the rest of the world has increased acreage of biotech crops at a steady annual rate of 10%, North America-the birthplace of most biotech crops-has reached a critical turning point in its regulatory evolution. Biotech crops can play a major role in creating a more sustainable agricultural landscape, which is increasingly well-documented, but future commercial use may be hampered by regulation and litigation that place organic and non-GMO agriculture on a pedestal, which could force many biotech crops into containment. If producers of biotech crops are required to prevent their crops from contaminating these other, high premium specialty crops through migration, innovation in agricultural biotechnology will suffer (as the European experience with agricultural biotechnology clearly demonstrates).

  13. Air quality progress in North American megacities: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, David D.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Molina, Luisa; Madronich, Sasha

    2011-12-01

    Air quality progress in the North American megacities of Los Angeles, New York, and Mexico City is reviewed, compared, and contrasted. Enormous progress made in North America over the last 5 decades provides a template for other megacities of the world, especially in developing countries, attempting to achieve rapid economic growth without compromising air quality. While the progress to date has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. The impact of pollutant emissions from megacities is felt long distances away from the local sources but no policy mechanisms currently exist to mitigate air quality impacts resulting from such pollution transport.

  14. PREFACE: 11th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinon, Stefania; Pallecchi, Ilaria; Malagoli, Andrea; Lamura, Gianrico

    2014-05-01

    During the 11th edition of the European Conference on Applied Superconductivity, successfully held in Genoa from 15-19 September 2013, more than one thousand participants from over 40 countries were registered and contributions of 7 plenary lectures, 23 invited talks, 203 oral talks and 550 posters were presented. The present issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) collects the 218 submitted papers that were peer reviewed and accepted in the Conference Proceedings. Similarly to the Superconductor Science and Technology Special issue: ''EUCAS 11th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity'' which contains some plenary and invited contributions, as well as some selected contributions, in this issue the papers are sorted according to the four traditional topics of interest of EUCAS, namely Materials (56 papers), Wires and Tapes (47 papers), Large Scale Applications (64 papers) and Electronics (51 papers). While the it Superconductors Science and Technology special issue focuses on the scientific and technological highlights of the conference, this collection provides an overall view of the worldwide research activity on applied superconductivity, mirroring the main guidelines and the hottest issues, which range from basic studies on newly discovered superconducting compounds to the state-of-the-art advances in large scale applications, wires and tapes fabrication and electronics. We would like to point out that, among the JPCS contributions, six papers present works financed by ongoing EU-Japan projects, three papers belong to the session on junctions and SQUIDs dedicated to the memory of Antonio Barone and one paper belongs to the session on pinning and flux dynamics dedicated to the memory of John Clem. Finally, we would like to thank all the people whose careful work contributed to the preparation of this JPCS issue, in particular the session chairs as well as the peer reviewers. The Editors Stefania Farinon (Editor in Chief, Large Scale

  15. The North American Market For Renewable Energy Certificates, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a study of the Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) market and takes a comprehensive look at what RECs are, how they work, the role they can play in spurring renewable energy development, the different models for implementing RECs, current offerings of REC suppliers, and customer purchases of RECs. Topics covered include: an overview of green power; definition of what RECs are and how they work; discussion of the history of RECs and their uses; explanation of the benefits of RECs and the challenges they face; discussion of how RECs interact with Renewable Portfolio Standards; discussion of the REC certification process; overview of the current market for RECs in the U.S.; profiles of major North American REC tracking systems; and, profiles of 40 key North American REC market participants.

  16. STI. DE-FG02-00ER1505 [Brief summary of 11th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-24

    The 11th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was held in Madison, Wisconsin, June 24 through June 28, 2000. Arabidopsis thaliana has been the subject of genetic study for many years. However, during the last decade, the number of research laboratories using Arabidopsis as a model system has increased tremendously, and Arabidopsis is currently being used to study all aspects of plant biology. The rapid rate of progress in Arabidopsis research, including the completion of the genomic sequence, underscores the usefulness of holding a meeting every year. These conferences provide an important opportunity for the Arabidopsis community to interact and exchange information. The meeting opened with an evening keynote address on the global impact of plant biology, delivered by Richard Jefferson, the Executive Director of CAMBIA (Center for the Application of Molecular Biology to International Agriculture). This was followed by short updates from each of the NSF-funded Plant Genome groups. Many of these groups are carrying out projects that impact the Arabidopsis community. Each of the 17 platform sessions consisted of talks from two invited speakers followed by two short talks that were chosen from the submitted poster abstracts. A concerted effort was made to invite junior investigators, including graduate students and postdocs, to give these talks. Posters were available for viewing during three formal sessions, and, because the poster session was adjacent to the lecture hall, it was easy for participants to go back and forth between posters and lectures. Finally, a mixer and an informal banquet provided opportunities for participants to meet new people and renew acquaintances. Furthermore, the registration package included all lunches and dinners together in a cafeteria next to the posters and lecture hall, thus encouraging the meeting of established investigators with students and postdocs. The North American Arabidopsis Steering Committee (elected by

  17. NORTH FORK OF THE AMERICAN RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the North Fork of the American River Wilderness study area, California have identified a zone of substantiated resource potential for gold and silver. Zones of probable gold and silver potential occur in the eastern part of the area between the Wubbena and La Trinidad mines and locally around the Marrs mine. A zone with probable chromium potential occurs in the serpentinite belt along the western border of the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  18. Team Update on North American Proton Facilities for Radiation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Turflinger, Thomas; Haas, Thurman; George, Jeffrey; Moss, Steven; Davis, Scott; Kostic, Andrew; Wie, Brian; Reed, Robert; Guertin, Steven; Wert, Jerry; Foster, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the closure of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF), this presentation provides an overview of the options for North American proton facilities. This includes those in use by the aerospace community as well as new additions from the cancer therapy regime. In addition, proton single event testing background is provided for understanding the criteria needed for these facilities for electronics testing.

  19. Habitat characteristics of North American tortoises: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nussear, Kenneth E.; Tuberville, Tracey D.

    2014-01-01

    North American tortoises are distributed in semi-arid and temperate deserts and coastal regions of the southern United States and Mexico. The five species currently recognized each have specific habitat requirements, which they fulfill through their selection of, and interaction with unique habitat constituents. In this chapter we discuss the physiographic and geological associations, perennial and annual vegetation components, shelter sites, and climatic conditions associated with the species’ habitats, as well as the potential threats to their habitat.

  20. 1992 annual report of the North American Electric Reliability Council

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the operation and concerns of the North American Electric Reliability Council and contains contributions from each of its member regional councils concerning reliability of electric power in their representative areas. The topics of the reports include current and future electric system reliability, regional monitoring, planning, telecommunications, the generating availability data system, technical services available, installed capacity changes, equipment changes, unusual events, hurricane Andrew, and ice storms.

  1. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  2. Climate and wildfires in the North American boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Macias Fauria, Marc; Johnson, E A

    2008-07-12

    The area burned in the North American boreal forest is controlled by the frequency of mid-tropospheric blocking highs that cause rapid fuel drying. Climate controls the area burned through changing the dynamics of large-scale teleconnection patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation/El Niño Southern Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation, PDO/ENSO and AO) that control the frequency of blocking highs over the continent at different time scales. Changes in these teleconnections may be caused by the current global warming. Thus, an increase in temperature alone need not be associated with an increase in area burned in the North American boreal forest. Since the end of the Little Ice Age, the climate has been unusually moist and variable: large fire years have occurred in unusual years, fire frequency has decreased and fire-climate relationships have occurred at interannual to decadal time scales. Prolonged and severe droughts were common in the past and were partly associated with changes in the PDO/ENSO system. Under these conditions, large fire years become common, fire frequency increases and fire-climate relationships occur at decadal to centennial time scales. A suggested return to the drier climate regimes of the past would imply major changes in the temporal dynamics of fire-climate relationships and in area burned, a reduction in the mean age of the forest, and changes in species composition of the North American boreal forest.

  3. The North American Monsoon Forecast Forum at CPC/NCEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemm, J. E.; Higgins, W.; Long, L.; Shi, W.; Gochis, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008, CPC introduced a new operational product to provide users a forum to monitor the North American monsoon (NAM). The NAME Forecast Forum (NAME FF) was proposed and endorsed by the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) Project Science Working Group as a natural extension to the NAME modeling activities coordinated under the NAME Climate Process Team project. It provided an opportunity to consolidate and assess, in real-time, the skill of intra-seasonal and seasonal monsoon forecasts. The NAME FF has continued in 2009 and three modeling groups collaborate with CPC to provide model simulated seasonal precipitation forecasts in the monsoon region. The website includes spatial maps and accumulated precipitation area-averaged over eight sub-regions of the NAM domain and is updated daily to include the current observed precipitation. A weekly update of the current conditions of the NAM system has been added to CPC’s American Monsoons monitoring webpage at, http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/Global_Monsoons/American_Monsoons/NAME/index.shtml. A highlight for the 2009 season is the inclusion of the NCEP CFS forecasts in T382 horizontal resolution. These special high-resolution runs were made with initial conditions in mid-April to accommodate the CPC’s hurricane season outlook. Some results based on the T382 CFS runs also will be presented with emphasis on the prediction of precipitation and accompanying atmospheric circulation over the NAM region.

  4. A snapshot of global health education at North American universities.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael; Mohindra, Katia

    2014-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in North America. It is widely agreed upon that global health is an important aspect of an education in the health sciences and increasingly in other disciplines such as law, economics and political science. There is currently a paucity of studies examining the content of global health courses at the post-secondary level. The purpose of our research is to identify the content areas being covered in global health curricula in North American universities, as a first step in mapping global health curricula across North America. We collected 67 course syllabi from 31 universities and analyzed the topics covered in the course. This snapshot of global health education will aid students searching for global health content, as well as educators and university administrators who are developing or expanding global health programs in Canada and the United States.

  5. Tropical Pacific impacts on cooling North American winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmond, Michael; Fyfe, John C.

    2016-10-01

    The North American continent generally experienced a cooling trend in winter over the early 2000s. This cooling trend represented a significant deviation from expected anthropogenic warming and so requires explanation. Previous studies indicate that climate variations in the tropical Pacific contributed to many mid-latitude climate variations over the early twenty-first century. Here we show using large ensembles of fully coupled, partially coupled and uncoupled model simulations that in northwest North America the winter cooling was primarily a remote response to climate fluctuations in the tropical Pacific. By contrast, in central North America the winter cooling appears to have resulted from a relatively rare fluctuation in mid-latitude circulation that was unrelated to the tropical Pacific. Our results highlight how decadal climate signals--both remote and local in origin--can together offset anthropogenic warming to produce continental-scale cooling.

  6. NorthAm Fest : fostering a North American continent approach to countering terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Dick; Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Oborotova, Marina

    2004-12-01

    On September 14-16, 2004, the Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the University of Texas at El Paso and the North American Institute hosted a workshop (fest) designed to explore the concept of a North American continental approach to countering terrorism. The fest began with the basic premise that the successful defense of North America against the threat of terrorism will require close collaboration among the North American allies--Canada, Mexico and the U.S.--as well as a powerful set of information collection and analysis tools and deterrence strategies. The NorthAm Fest recast the notion of ''homeland defense'' as a tri-national effort to protect the North American continent against an evolving threat that respects no borders. This is a report of the event summarizing the ideas explored. The fest examined the uniqueness of dealing with terrorism from a tri-national North American viewpoint, the role and possible features of joint security systems, concepts for ideal continental security systems for North America, and the challenges and opportunities for such systems to become reality. The following issues were identified as most important for the advancement of this concept. (1) The three countries share a set of core values--democracy, prosperity and security--which form the basis for joint interactions and allow for the development of a culture of cooperation without affecting the sovereignty of the members. (2) The creation of a continental defensive strategy will require a set of strategic guidelines and that smart secure borders play a pivotal role. (3) Joint security systems will need to operate from a set of complementary but not identical policies and procedures. (4) There is a value in joint task forces for response and shared information systems for the prevention of attacks. (5) The private sector must play a critical role in cross-border interactions. Finally, participants envisioned a ''Tri-National Security

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the North American environment.

    PubMed

    Hale, Robert C; Alaee, Mehran; Manchester-Neesvig, Jon B; Stapleton, Heather M; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2003-09-01

    North America consumes over half of the world's production of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. About 98% of global demand for the Penta-BDE mixture, the constituents of which are the most bioaccumulative and environmentally widespread, resides here. However, research on the environmental distribution of PBDEs in North America has lagged behind that in Northern Europe. Examination of available governmentally maintained release data suggests that Deca-BDE use in the US substantially exceeds that in Canada. Penta-BDE use probably follows a similar pattern. PBDE demand in Mexico is uncertain, but is assumed to be comparatively modest. Recent research examining air, water, sediment, sewage sludge and aquatic biota suggests that Penta-BDE constituents are present in geographically disparate locations in the US and Canada. The less brominated congeners have been observed in areas distant from their known use or production, e.g. the Arctic. PBDEs have been detected in low concentrations in North American air, water and sediment, but much higher levels in aquatic biota. Increased burdens as a function of position in the food web have been noted. PBDE concentrations in US and Canadian sewage sludges appear to be at least 10-fold greater than European levels and may be a useful barometer of release. In general, PBDE concentrations in environmental media reported in North America are comparable or exceed those observed elsewhere in the world. In contrast to Europe, environmental burdens are increasing over time here, consistent with the greater consumption of the commercial mixtures. However, data remain relatively scarce. Deca-BDE in the North American environment appears largely restricted to points of release, e.g. urban areas and those where PBDE-containing sewage sludges have been applied. This lack of redistribution is likely due to its extremely low volatility and water solubility. Penta-BDE and Deca-BDE products are used in different applications

  8. 77 FR 61593 - North American Natural Resources, Inc. Complainant v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C, American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North American Natural Resources, Inc. Complainant v. PJM Interconnection, L... Federal Power Act (FPA), 16 U.S.C. 824(e), North American Natural Resource, Inc. (NSANR) filed a...

  9. Pathogenic differences between North American and Latin American strains of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Michelle M; Connolly, Patricia A; Karimi, Kian; Wheat, Emerson; Schnizlein-Bick, Carol; Allen, Stephen D; Alves, Katia; Tewari, Ram P; Keath, Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Clinical differences in histoplasmosis between North America and Brazil prompted investigation of experimental infection with representative strains. Mortality was higher with Latin American strains, and lung pathology showed large necrotizing granuloma with prominent neutrophilic infiltration. Chronic disease was unique to the North American strain. PMID:15365047

  10. Antimicrobial peptides from the skins of North American frogs.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    North America is home to anuran species belonging to the families Bufonidae, Eleutherodactylidae, Hylidae, Leiopelmatidae, Ranidae, and Scaphiopodidae but antimicrobial peptides have been identified only in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of frogs belonging to the Leiopelmatidae ("tailed frogs") and Ranidae ("true frogs"). Eight structurally-related cationic alpha-helical peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, termed ascaphins, have been isolated from specimens of Ascaphus truei (Leiopelmatidae) occupying a coastal range. Characterization of orthologous antimicrobial peptides from Ascaphus specimens occupying an inland range supports the proposal that this population should be regarded as a separate species A. montanus. Ascaphin-8 shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, and temporin families have been isolated from North American ranids. It is proposed that "ranalexins" represent brevinin-1 peptides that have undergone a four amino acid residue internal deletion. Current taxonomic recommendations divide North American frogs from the family Ranidae into two genera: Lithobates and Rana. Cladistic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of the brevinin-1 peptides provides strong support for this assignment.

  11. Comparative nucleotide diversity across North American and European populus species.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Guy, Robert D; Jansson, Stefan; Silim, Salim N; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2012-06-01

    Nucleotide polymorphisms in two North American balsam poplars (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray and P. balsamifera L.; section Tacamahaca), and one Eurasian aspen (P. tremula L.; section Populus) were compared using nine loci involved in defense, stress response, photoperiodism, freezing tolerance, and housekeeping. Nucleotide diversity varied among species and was highest for P. tremula (θ(w) = 0.005, π(T) = 0.007) as compared to P. balsamifera (θ(w) = 0.004, π(T) = 0.005) or P. trichocarpa (θ(w) = 0.002, π(T) = 0.003). Across species, the defense and the stress response loci accounted for the majority of the observed level of nucleotide diversity. In general, the studied loci did not deviate from neutral expectation either at the individual locus (non-significant normalized Fay and Wu's H) or at the multi-locus level (non-significant HKA test). Using molecular clock analysis, section Tacamahaca probably shared a common ancestor with section Populus approximately 4.5 million year ago. Divergence between the two closely related balsam poplars was about 0.8 million years ago, a pattern consistent with an isolation-with-migration (IM) model. As expected, P. tremula showed a five-fold higher substitution rate (2 × 10(-8) substitution/site/year) compared to the North American species (0.4 × 10(-8) substitution/site/year), probably reflecting its complex demographic history. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) varied among species with a more rapid decay in the North American species (<400 bp) in comparison to P. tremula (≫400 bp). The similarities in nucleotide diversity pattern and LD decay of the two balsam poplar species likely reflects the recent time of their divergence.

  12. Report from the 2013 AOA North American Traveling Fellowship.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Grant, John A; Hettrich, Carolyn; Kakar, Sanjeev; Stinner, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Focused on young surgeons starting their careers in academic orthopaedics, the John J. Fahey, MD, Memorial North American Traveling Fellowship (NATF) has served to promote clinical, intellectual, and scientific exchange in orthopaedic surgery for the last forty-five years. The 2013 NATF was a tremendous experience for each and every one of us. We quickly developed very tight bonds with each other and friendships that will undoubtedly last throughout our careers and lives. At each site on the fellowship tour, we were made to feel special by our hosts and everyone with whom we came into contact. We each feel that we achieved the goals set out by the AOA (American Orthopaedic Association), making the most of this phenomenal experience through academic exchange, socialization, and networking and developing an appreciation of the various paths to success in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:25653329

  13. NLDAS Views of North American 2011 Extreme Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, William; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    2011 was marked as one of the most extreme years in recent history. Over the course of the year, weather-related extreme events, such as floods, heat waves, blizzards, tornadoes, and wildfires, caused tremendous loss of human life and property. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS, http://ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov/nldas/) data set, with high spatial and temporal resolutions (0.125? x 0.125?, hourly) and various water- and energy-related variables, is an excellent data source for case studies of extreme events. This presentation illustrates some extreme events from 2011 in North America, including the Groundhog Day Blizzard, the July heat wave, Hurricane Irene, and Tropical Storm Lee, all utilizing NLDAS Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) data.

  14. Prediction and predictability of North American seasonal climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infanti, Johnna M.

    Climate prediction on short time-scales such as months to seasons is of broad and current interest in the scientific research community. Monthly and seasonal climate prediction of variables such as precipitation, temperature, and sea surface temperature (SST) has implications for users in the agricultural and water management domains, among others. It is thus important to further understand the complexities of prediction of these variables using the most recent practices in climate prediction. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to determine the important contributions to seasonal prediction skill, predictability, and variability over North America using current climate prediction models and approaches. This dissertation aims to study a variety of approaches to seasonal climate prediction of variables over North America, including both climate prediction systems and methods of analysis. We utilize the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) System for Intra-Seasonal to Inter-Annual Prediction (ISI) to study seasonal climate prediction skill of North American and in particular for southeast US precipitation. We find that NMME results are often equal to or better than individual model results in terms of skill, as expected, making it a reasonable choice for southeast US seasonal climate predictions. However, climate models, including those involved in NMME, typically overestimate eastern Pacific warming during central Pacific El Nino events, which can affect regions that are influenced by teleconnections, such as the southeast US. Community Climate System Model version 4.0 (CCSM4) hindacasts and forecasts are included in NMME, and we preform a series of experiments that examine contributions to skill from certain drivers of North American climate prediction. The drivers we focus on are sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and their accuracy, land and atmosphere initialization, and ocean-atmosphere coupling. We compare measures of prediction skill of

  15. '1-Antitrypsin polymorphism and systematics of eastern North American wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    We used data on the polymorphic status of '1-antitrypsin ('1AT) to study the relationship of Minnesota wolves to the gray wolf (Canis lupus), which was thought to have evolved in Eurasia, and to red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans), which putatively evolved in North America. Recent evidence had indicated that Minnesota wolves might be more closely related to red wolves and coyotes. Samples from wild-caught Minnesota wolves and from captive wolves, at least some of which originated in Alaska and western Canada, were similarly polymorphic for '1AT, whereas coyote and red wolf samples were all monomorphic. Our findings, in conjunction with earlier results, are consistent with the Minnesota wolf being a gray wolf of Eurasian origin or possibly a hybrid between the gray wolf of Eurasian origin and the proposed North American wolf.

  16. Progress and Future Directions in North American Carbon Cycle Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Anna; Huntzinger, Deborah; Shrestha, Gyami

    2013-05-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) convened its fourth biennial "All Investigators" meeting (AIM4, http://www.nacarbon.org/meeting_2013) to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North America and adjacent oceans and to chart a course for a more integrative and holistic approach to future research. The meeting was structured around the six decadal goals outlined in the new "A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan" (Michalak et al., University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 2011, available at http://www.carboncyclescience.gov) and focused on (1) diagnosis of the atmospheric carbon cycle, (2) drivers of anthropogenic emissions, (3) vulnerability of carbon stocks to change, (4) ecosystem impacts of change, (5) carbon management, and (6) decision support.

  17. Soil moisture and the persistence of North American drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Erickson, David J., III

    1989-01-01

    Numerical sensitivity experiments on the effects of soil moisture on North American summertime climate are performed using a 12-layer global atmospheric general circulation model. Consideration is given to the hypothesis that reduced soil moisture may induce and amplify warm, dry summers of midlatitude continental interiors. The simulations resemble the conditions of the summer of 1988, including an extensive drought over much of North America. It is found that a reduction in soil moisture leads to an increase in surface temperature, lower surface pressure, increased ridging aloft, and a northward shift of the jet stream. It is shown that low-level moisture advection from the Gulf of Mexico is important in the maintenance of persistent soil moisture deficits.

  18. NLDAS Views of North American 2011 Extreme Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2014-01-01

    2011 was marked as one of the most extreme years in recent history. Over the course of the year, weather-related extreme events, such as floods, heat waves, blizzards, tornadoes, and wildfires, caused tremendous loss of human life and property. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS, http:ldas.gsfc.nasa.govnldas) data set, with high spatial and temporal resolutions (0.125 x 0.125, hourly) and various water- and energy-related variables, is an excellent data source for case studies of extreme events. This presentation illustrates some extreme events from 2011 in North America, including the Groundhog Day Blizzard, the July heat wave, Hurricane Irene, and Tropical Storm Lee, all utilizing NLDAS Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) data.

  19. Prediction and predictability of North American seasonal climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infanti, Johnna M.

    Climate prediction on short time-scales such as months to seasons is of broad and current interest in the scientific research community. Monthly and seasonal climate prediction of variables such as precipitation, temperature, and sea surface temperature (SST) has implications for users in the agricultural and water management domains, among others. It is thus important to further understand the complexities of prediction of these variables using the most recent practices in climate prediction. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to determine the important contributions to seasonal prediction skill, predictability, and variability over North America using current climate prediction models and approaches. This dissertation aims to study a variety of approaches to seasonal climate prediction of variables over North America, including both climate prediction systems and methods of analysis. We utilize the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) System for Intra-Seasonal to Inter-Annual Prediction (ISI) to study seasonal climate prediction skill of North American and in particular for southeast US precipitation. We find that NMME results are often equal to or better than individual model results in terms of skill, as expected, making it a reasonable choice for southeast US seasonal climate predictions. However, climate models, including those involved in NMME, typically overestimate eastern Pacific warming during central Pacific El Nino events, which can affect regions that are influenced by teleconnections, such as the southeast US. Community Climate System Model version 4.0 (CCSM4) hindacasts and forecasts are included in NMME, and we preform a series of experiments that examine contributions to skill from certain drivers of North American climate prediction. The drivers we focus on are sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and their accuracy, land and atmosphere initialization, and ocean-atmosphere coupling. We compare measures of prediction skill of

  20. Examining a Half Century of Northwestern North American Glacier Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.; Fahey, M. J.; Friesen, B.; Josberger, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    In 1957, as part of the United States' contribution to the International Geophysical Year (IGY), the American Geographical Society (AGS) initiated a multi-institutional mapping project to produce 1:10,000-scale topographic maps of nine northwestern North American glaciers. The project's goal was to prepare precise maps at large scales of selected small glaciers to form a permanent record of the condition of these glaciers so that at a future date they could be resurveyed and compared. Continued surveys would give the history of wastage and accumulation, and more accurate interpretation of the response of these glaciers to meteorological and other factors. The resulting maps and a descriptive summary brochure were published in 1960 by the American Geographical Society. The USGS Global Fiducials Program (GFP) began to systematically image the same nine glaciers approximately half-century after its IGY mapping. The results of the GFP analyses would permit the types of comparisons that were envisioned by the IGY project. Imagery of each of these nine glaciers has been collected from multiple sources, including Next View licensed commercial imagery, vertical and oblique aerial photography, Landsat, and US National Imagery Systems. Exploitation of the imagery has resulted in the production of new 21st century maps that can be compared and contrasted with the vintage AGS map set. Comparison will permit the calculation of a number of parameters which will provide a direct insight into the changes that northwestern North American glaciers have been experiencing during the past half century. Specifically, these comparisons will permit the calculation of changes in glacier length, area, thickness, and volume; computation of rates of glacier advance and/or retreat, rates of glacier thickening and/or thinning, and rates of volume change; production of digital elevation models (DEMs); and generation of velocity fields from crevasse migration. The subsequent re-mapping and

  1. Highlights from the 2015 North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference.

    PubMed

    Zemanick, Edith T; Ong, Thida; Daines, Cori L; Dellon, Elisabeth P; Muhlebach, Marianne S; Esther, Charles R

    2016-06-01

    The 29th Annual North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference was held in Phoenix, Arizona on October 8-10, 2015. Abstracts were published in a supplement to Pediatric Pulmonology.(1) In this review, we summarize presentations in several of the topic areas addressed at the conference. Our goal is to provide an overview of presentations with relevance to emerging or changing concepts in several areas rather than a comprehensive review. Citations from the conference are by first author and abstract number or symposium number, as designated in the supplement. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:650-657. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27074261

  2. Standard methods for sampling North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Hubert, Wayne A.; Willis, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This important reference book provides standard sampling methods recommended by the American Fisheries Society for assessing and monitoring freshwater fish populations in North America. Methods apply to ponds, reservoirs, natural lakes, and streams and rivers containing cold and warmwater fishes. Range-wide and eco-regional averages for indices of abundance, population structure, and condition for individual species are supplied to facilitate comparisons of standard data among populations. Provides information on converting nonstandard to standard data, statistical and database procedures for analyzing and storing standard data, and methods to prevent transfer of invasive species while sampling.

  3. Book review: Ecology of North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This book will be important in courses for upper undergraduates studying fish ecology or for graduate students. However, it will also be an excellent reference for the fishery manager who asks ‘Why does this fish do that?’. With the wealth of great information contained in Ross’ book, chances are an answer will be found. Review info: Ecology of North American freshwater fishes. Edited by Stephen T. Ross, 2013. ISBN: 978-0520249455, 408 pp.

  4. Cretinism in a North American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robert B; Jones, Jeryl C; Moll, H David; Moon, Martha M; Blodgett, Dennis J; Vaughan, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    Congenital hyperplastic goiter and cretinism were documented in a 16 month-old male North American black bear (Ursus americanus). The cub was captured at approximately 8 months of age and maintained for an additional 8 months in captivity. Clinical signs included growth retardation, clumsiness, and facial dysmorphism. Hypothyroidism was documented by determining serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels. Lysosomal storage disease was ruled out by measuring various lysosomal enzyme activities. Serologic, radiographic, computed tomographic, necropsy, and histopathologic findings were consistent with congenital hypothyroidism and cretinism. PMID:11866041

  5. MAGSAT and aeromagnetic data in the North American continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Problems were encountered in deriving a proper reference field to be subtracted from the aeromagnetic data obtained from Project MAGNET. Field models tried thus far do not seem to eliminate properly the main field. The MAGSAT data in the North American continent for the period November 1 to December 22, 1979 are being compiled and compared with MAGNET data. Efforts are being made to eliminate the orbital bias errors. A computer program was developed and successfully tested which computes a topographic profile of the Curie depth isotherm which fits best to the observed vector or scalar field magnetic data.

  6. Drought displaced movement of North American pintails into Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.

    1973-01-01

    During the years 1954-70, 230 pintails (Anas acuta) banded in North America were reported from eastern Asia, primarily Siberia. Most of the birds were shot on the breeding grounds in May. The movement into eastern Asia of pintails banded in the interior of North America was directly correlated with the overflight of the southern portion of the breeding range in North America (r = +0.73**); this overflight resulted from drought conditions (Smith 1970). Thus, the magnitude of the pintail movement into eastern Asia is believed to be dependent upon water conditions some 3,000 miles away. A higher percentage of the pintails banded in the west was reported from eastern Asia, although the recovery rate index was not significantly correlated with the percentage of pintails found in northern Canada and Alaska (r = +0.46 NS). Apparently, a portion of the pintails which winter in the western United States annually nest in Siberia, regardless of water conditions on the North American breeding grounds.

  7. The Southern Cone: A critical element in North American geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D. . Inst. for Geophysics)

    1993-02-01

    The Pacific and Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico continental margins converge towards southern Mexico, delimiting the Southern Cone of North American. The margins are controlled by late Precambrian to early Paleozoic rift systems. The Neoproterozoic rifts along the Pacific margin truncate the 1.3--1.0 Ga Grenville-Llano front and still older structural boundaries within the craton, such as the Snowbird line. The Atlantic margin originated by separation from another continent within the Grenville orogen near the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Gulf of Mexico margin was initiated with rifting at that time, but appears to truncate the Ordovician Taconian orogen in Georgia. The continental margins of the Southern Cone may prove critical in understanding the origin of North America as a discrete continent. A possible continuation of the Grenville-Llano front has now been identified along the Pacific margin of the East Antarctic craton; the opposite side of the Grenville orogen may be present in South America and East Antarctic; a southern continuation of the Taconic Appalachians may have been identified in southern South American and Antarctica (L. Dalla Salda et al., Geology, 1992 a;b: I. Dalziel, Geology, 1991, and GSA Today, 1992; P. Hoffman, Science, 1991; E. Moores, Geology, 1991). Thus the geology of the Southern Cone of North America provides opportunities for critical testing of these globally important hypotheses, notably through geochronometry, isotope geochemistry, stratigraphy, and paleobiogeography. Conversely, East Antarctica, southern Africa, and the proto-Andean margin of South America may offer exciting opportunities to further understanding of pre-Pangea geology across southern North America.

  8. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  9. Wake of September 11th attacks: implications for research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Darden, Madeline Lyles

    2002-02-01

    The National Consortium for African American Children (NCAAC) held a National Forum on Bioterrorism and Children on November 6, 2001 in Washington, DC. Convened in the wake of the September 11th attacks on New York City and the Pentagon, this unprecedented conference assembled a cross-section of professionals in child advocacy, health, mental health, insurance, economics, law enforcement, and media technology. The ensuing discussion focused on issues surrounding biological agents, their impact on children and youth, and the strategies needed to protect the health and mental health of children and families in the event of a large-scale bioterrorist crisis. Lessons learned as well as the implications of the terrorist acts from the tragic events of September 11th formed the backdrop for engaging dialogue among various industry executives and professionals. Accounts of personal experiences during the unprecedented tragedy of 9-11 were shared and provided a context for heightened preparedness planning for children and adults. A collaborative statement was also presented by NCAAC, the National Medical Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the National Black Media Coalition. This forum was hailed as a model for communities of color to join and help bolster broad-based coalition building to ensure the availability of culturally and linguistically appropriate messages, services, and support. As intended, the forum devoted significant attention to the special needs of children, their caregivers and families and provided for an invaluable interchange which is slated to evolve into a national action plan to address the imminent dangers facing our nation's children.

  10. Wake of September 11th attacks: implications for research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Darden, Madeline Lyles

    2002-02-01

    The National Consortium for African American Children (NCAAC) held a National Forum on Bioterrorism and Children on November 6, 2001 in Washington, DC. Convened in the wake of the September 11th attacks on New York City and the Pentagon, this unprecedented conference assembled a cross-section of professionals in child advocacy, health, mental health, insurance, economics, law enforcement, and media technology. The ensuing discussion focused on issues surrounding biological agents, their impact on children and youth, and the strategies needed to protect the health and mental health of children and families in the event of a large-scale bioterrorist crisis. Lessons learned as well as the implications of the terrorist acts from the tragic events of September 11th formed the backdrop for engaging dialogue among various industry executives and professionals. Accounts of personal experiences during the unprecedented tragedy of 9-11 were shared and provided a context for heightened preparedness planning for children and adults. A collaborative statement was also presented by NCAAC, the National Medical Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the National Black Media Coalition. This forum was hailed as a model for communities of color to join and help bolster broad-based coalition building to ensure the availability of culturally and linguistically appropriate messages, services, and support. As intended, the forum devoted significant attention to the special needs of children, their caregivers and families and provided for an invaluable interchange which is slated to evolve into a national action plan to address the imminent dangers facing our nation's children. PMID:11853055

  11. Structure, seismicity, and instrumentation of stable North American lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolin, Emily Lynne Gregonis

    The work in this thesis covers a number of different fields in seismology. These can be divided into three parts. In the first, I discuss earthquakes that occur along the North American passive margin. In the second, I investigate the noise characteristics of Superior Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) seismic stations. In the third, I evaluate the predictions of pre-existing tomographic models, expand raypath coverage in eastern North America by fitting waveforms, and produce an updated tomographic model focusing on the structure of stable North American lithosphere. First, I explore the rare, but moderate-to-large earthquakes that occur along the passive margin of North America, such as the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake. I discuss the tectonic setting, possible causes, and challenges of studying such earthquakes and propose directions for their future study. Examining the seismicity of the regions surrounding the 1929 Grand Banks and 1933 Baffin Bay earthquakes, I conclude that the aftershocks of these events continue today due to low strain rates along the margin. Second, I characterize the long-period noise characteristics of SPREE stations. At periods greater than 20 seconds, horizontal noise levels at SPREE stations vary seasonally and diurnally. I find that SPREE stations in sandy soil have the most consistent noise levels. Stations in fine-grained soil become extremely noisy during summer days, but very quiet when the surrounding soil freezes solid in winter. Finally, I evaluate previous generations of tomographic models and develop my own. I calculate synthetic seismograms for three tomographic models and compare them to new observed seismograms from earthquakes in stable North America. I find that adding data to a tomographic model does not necessarily improve predictions of regional S and Rayleigh waveforms. With this in mind, I apply the method of partitioned waveform inversion to derive constraints on S-velocity structure. I add these

  12. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Henriette; Parsley, Michael J.; Cech, Joseph J. Jr.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Forsythe, Patrick S.; Elliott, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe “round-trip” passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  13. Comparison of arch forms between Turkish and North American

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ahmet A.; Keklik, Hakan; Tan, Enes; Ucar, Faruk I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological differences in the mandibular arches of Turkish and North American white subjects. Methods: The sample included 132 Turkish (34 Class I, 58 Class II, and 40 Class III) and 160 North American (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III) subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of patients' mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth based on mandibular tooth thickness data. Four linear and two proportional measurements were taken. The subjects were grouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid and square) in order to have frequency distribution compared between ethnic groups in each Angle classification. Results: The Turkish group showed significantly lower molar depth and more significant molar width-depth (W/D) ratio in all three Angle classifications. On the other hand, the Turkish group also showed a significantly larger intercanine width in Class III malocclusion and intermolar width in Class II malocclusion. The most frequent arch forms seen were the ovoid arch form in the Turkish group and the tapered form in the white group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that when treating Turkish patients, one should expect to use preformed ovoid arch form orthodontic wires in a significant percentage of patients. PMID:27275615

  14. Phylogeography and pleistocene evolution in the North American black bear.

    PubMed

    Wooding, S; Ward, R

    1997-11-01

    To determine the extent of phylogeographic structuring in North American black bear (Ursus americanus) populations, we examined mitochondrial DNA sequences (n = 118) and restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles (n = 258) in individuals from 16 localities. Among the bears examined, 19 lineages falling into two highly divergent clades were identified. The clades differ at 5.0% of nucleotide positions, a distance consistent with an origin 1.8 MYA, and have different but overlapping geographical distributions. Areas of clade cooccurrence show that eastern and western populations are currently mixing, but regional differences in lineage distribution suggest that mixing has begun only recently. The long-term population history of black bears appears to be characterized predominantly by long-term regional isolation followed by recent contact and hybridization. Congruence between the pattern of diversity observed in black bears and patterns of forest refuge formation during the Pleistocene supports earlier speculation that Pleistocene forest fragmentations underlie a common pattern in the phylogeography of North American forest taxa. PMID:9364767

  15. Evaluating causes of population change in North American insectivorous songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1962-01-01

    Although the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a principal source of information regarding populations of most North American bird species, many features of the survey complicate analysis of population change. Correlation studies based on BBS data cannot be used to unambiguously define cause and effect relationships. Recently, B?hning-Gaese et al. (1993) presented an analysis of population trends in insectivorous songbirds using data from the BBS. They concluded that predation has played an important role in influencing population trends. We review aspects of the analysis methods for estimating population trends (e.g., observer effects, data subset) and for associating mean trends with species attributes (e.g., confounding of attributes). Using alternative analyses of the same BBS data, we demonstrate that the evidence that predation is associated with population declines is weaker than they suggested. Based on our analyses the only factor among those tested that is consistently associated with population trends is migration status (i.e., short-distance migrant/resident vs. long-distance migrant) during the period 1978-1987. Also, we present evidence that the harsh winters of the mid-1970's severely depressed populations of short-distance migrant species, and may be responsible for the observed associations between migration status and population trends.

  16. Evaluating causes of population change in North American insectivorous songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Pendleton, G.W.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    1996-01-01

    Although the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a principal source of information regarding populations of most North American bird species, many features of the survey complicate analysis of population change. Correlation studies based on BBS data cannot be used to unambiguously define cause and effect relationships. Recently, Bohning-Gaese et al. (1993) presented an analysis of population trends in insectivorous songbirds using data from the BBS. They concluded that predation has played an important role in influencing population trends. We review aspects of the analysis methods for estimating population trends (e.g., observer effects, data subset) and for associating mean trends with species attributes (e.g., confounding of attributes). Using alternative analyses of the same BBS data, we demonstrate that the evidence that predation is associated with population declines is weaker than they suggested. Based on our analyses the only factor among those tested that is consistently associated with population trends is migration status (i.e., short-distance migrant/resident vs. long-distance migrant) during the period 1978-1987. Also, we present evidence that the harsh winters of the mid-1970's severely depressed populations of short-distance migrant species, and may be responsible for the observed associations between migration status and population trends.

  17. Cancer mortality in Native Americans in North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms for Native Americans in North Carolina for 1968-72 and 1978-82. Sex-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated from death certificate data, using the cancer mortality experience of White North Carolinians to obtain the number of expected deaths. For most categories and specific sites of cancer, mortality was at or below the expected level, but higher than expected mortality was found for genitourinary cancers in males (SMR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.21) for the 1978-82 period; within this category, there was a higher than expected level of mortality from prostate cancer (SMR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.83) and cancer of the penis and other male genital organs (SMR = 9.09; 95% CI = 1.10, 32.84). Female Native Americans had an elevated mortality from cervical cancer (SMR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.09, 4.17) for the 1968-72 period only. PMID:2368854

  18. The spring migration of adult North American Ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Washburn, Brian E.; Elliott, John E.; Henny, Charles J.; Kennedy, Robert S.; MacLeod, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Most North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are migratory, breeding in northern latitudes and migrating long distances to and from their wintering grounds in the tropics. Although fall migration patterns of North American Ospreys have been described and studied, very little has been published about the spring migration of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to: (1) determine the characteristics (timing, duration, migratory routes) of spring migrations of Ospreys; (2) determine if differences in spring migration patterns existed between sexes and among three breeding populations (east coast, midwestern, and western); and (3) compare consecutive fall and spring migrations of individual Ospreys. The median dates for departure from the wintering grounds and arrival on the breeding grounds did not differ significantly between adult male and female Ospreys. Compared to their fall migrations, all male and all east coast Ospreys spent fewer days on migration, fewer days in stopover periods along the migration route, traveled shorter distances overall, and traveled farther (on average) each day during spring. In contrast, fall and spring migration characteristics of all female and western Ospreys were similar. Our findings suggest that, although sex and breeding location might influence the spring migration strategy used by individual Ospreys, both males and females minimize the time spent on migration to ensure a timely arrival on the breeding grounds to establish or defend a nesting territory.

  19. Gene flow across linguistic boundaries in Native North American populations

    PubMed Central

    Hunley, Keith; Long, Jeffrey C.

    2005-01-01

    Cultural and linguistic groups are often expected to represent genetic populations. In this article, we tested the hypothesis that the hierarchical classification of languages proposed by J. Greenberg [(1987) Language in the Americas (Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA)] also represents the genetic structure of Native North American populations. The genetic data are mtDNA sequences for 17 populations gleaned from literature sources and public databases. The hypothesis was rejected. Further analysis showed that departure of the genetic structure from the linguistic classification was pervasive and not due to an outlier population or a problematic language group. Therefore, Greenberg's language groups are at best an imperfect approximation to the genetic structure of these populations. Moreover, we show that the genetic structure among these Native North American populations departs significantly from the best-fitting hierarchical models. Analysis of median joining networks for mtDNA haplotypes provides strong evidence for gene flow across linguistic boundaries. In principle, the language of a population can be replaced more rapidly than its genes because language can be transmitted both vertically from parents to children and horizontally between unrelated people. However, languages are part of a cultural complex, and there may be strong pressure to maintain a language in place whereas genes are free to flow. PMID:15668380

  20. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE PAGES

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  1. The roots of terrorism: A reassessment after September 11th

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 1 1 th. Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes, as well as by possible political requirements to address widespread perceptions of causes. If 9/11 was caused by Islamic radicalism, the near-term response must be to ensure the terrorists are defeated and pose no fiuther danger. In the longer term, education is critical. If the attacks were caused by US Middle East policies, the response should involve a review of those policies. This may or may not result in changes to policy, public diplomacy, etc. If the attacks were a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes (real and perceived) will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes can be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment effort are critical to any counterterrorism strategy. For this reason alone, we must do everything possible to understand the reasons terrorism may be undertaken, including the attacks of September 1 1 th. This paper will look

  2. PREFACE: The 11th International Superconductive Electronics Conference (ISEC 07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Donald L.; Wellstood, Fred; Donaldson, Gordon

    2007-11-01

    The 11th International Superconductive Electronics Conference (ISEC 07) was held in June 2007 in Washington, DC, USA. This special issue is a compendium of selected papers based on the technology presented at that meeting. ISEC, held on a biennial basis, traditionally rotates from Japan to Europe to the United States. The single exception to this rotation has been the 2003 conference which was held in Australia. This conference brings together the world's experts in superconductive electronics in a forum which is conducive to interaction among the participants with maximal interchange between the various topics. The conference this year was truly an international event with participation from 13 countries over six continents. The quality of presentations was also high. The conference witnessed the continued maturation of both digital/mixed signal electronics and SQUID-based instrumentation along with a number of novel devices. Of particular note was the transition of superconducting quantum computing research from a novel abstract concept to a broad-based research activity. The organizing committee was able to gather an exemplary group of invited speakers to share their results and visions for future progress. These presentations spanned both the subtopics of superconductor electronics and the history of the field. As I reflect on the efforts which went into making this conference a success, I must express my appreciation to many individuals and organizations, in no particular order. I would like to thank Northrop Grumman for their support for my activities as chair of the conference, both in terms of making my time available and for direct financial considerations. Centennial Conferences, as the conference organizer, provided invaluable guidance and administrative support. I would also like to acknowledge the support of the IEEE Council on Superconductivity, in particular in the persons of Moises Levy and John Spargo. I would be remiss if I did not thank John

  3. Survey on current hydrotherapy use among North American burn centers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Peter G; Loiselle, Frederick B; Nickerson, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The authors have reviewed hydrotherapy practices in North American burn centers and described the epidemiology of hydrotherapy-associated nosocomial infections. A web-based survey was distributed to the directors of all burn care facilities listed by the American Burn Association. Questions addressed aspects of practice, including the method, additives, disposable liners, decontamination practices, nosocomial pathogens, and perceptions regarding the "ideal" method of hydrotherapy. The response rate was 44%, 59 of 142 centers, or 827 of 1900 beds. Hydrotherapy is regularly used by 83% of centers. Among these centers, 10% use exclusively immersion hydrotherapy (IH), 54% use exclusively shower cart hydrotherapy (SCH), and 35% use a combination of IH and SCH. Disposable liners are used at 80% of centers. Tap water alone is used by 51% of centers, 27% add detergent, 16% chlorhexidine, and 7% povidone-iodine. The majority of centers (57%) do not routinely culture their hydrotherapy equipment, 20% culture weekly, 7% monthly, and 17% less than once per month. Directors believe that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus are the most common nosocomial pathogens, followed by Acinetobacter species and Candida albicans. The relative frequency of occurrence of the first three pathogens did not vary with regard to the hydrotherapy method used. Given the opportunity to redesign, 45% of burn unit directors would implement SCH only, 42% a combination of SCH and IH, 2% exclusively IH, and 11% no hydrotherapy or bedside irrigation only. The prevalence of hydrotherapy use at North American burn centers has decreased since 1990 (83% vs 95%), yet continues to be used at the majority of centers. The use of IH has also declined (55% vs 81%). The trend away from the exclusive use of IH will likely continue, because more centers incorporate showering methods.

  4. Preliminary results of an updated North American GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.; Lapelle, E.

    2010-12-01

    In an effort to improve previous continental-scale GPS velocity fields for North America, we and other collaborators in the North American Reference Frame (NAREF) Working Group have reprocessed, or are in the process of reprocessing, data from nearly all continuous GPS sites in North America (as well as a selection of global sites used to define the reference frame). Previous velocity fields were derived from coordinate time series of somewhat inhomogeneous GPS results due to: (1) the use of relative antenna calibrations that did not include satellite antennas or account for the presence of antenna radomes, (2) the use of difference reference frames, (3) the use of IGS precise orbits based on these calibrations and reference frames, and (4) the use of different (evolving) versions of GPS processing software and procedures. This reprocessing effort of all previous data is based on more consistent and accurate absolute antenna calibrations of both station and satellite antennas, the ITRF2005 reference frame and the latest versions of GPS processing software and procedures. Also, more than three additional years of data have been included in the velocity field estimation. The new time series and velocity results from the different NAREF collaborators are compared with each other and with previous reported results. We also compare these results to new precise point positioning (PPP) solutions that are much more efficient for processing large networks and to recent model predictions of glacial isostatic adjustment.

  5. Programs for invasive research in North American zoos and aquariums.

    PubMed

    Goodrowe, Karen L

    2003-01-01

    Zoo-based research in North America is an emerging field, which has progressed from an ad hoc approach in a small number of zoos to a coordinated, integrated network of scientists with recognized research programs in approximately one half of the accredited institutions in North America. The disciplines most active in these programs--veterinary medicine and pathology, nutrition, reproductive biology, contraception, and behavior--are now becoming coordinated in zoos through Scientific Advisory Groups. Zoos with research programs generally establish either an institutional animal care and use committee or another committee to evaluate research proposals. In addition to scientific merit and experimental design, zoos evaluate proposals based on factors such as priority by conservation program/identified need; direct effect on species conservation, species type, and appropriateness; availability and location of animals; operational requirements/logistics; communication between institutions; and available funding. Euthanasia is considered only in rare circumstances. Zoo-based research has evolved into an integral component in animal management and conservation programs by providing practical information that is used to improve animal care, well-being, health, and reproduction. However, the degree to which zoos participate in invasive research varies considerably among institutions, due not only to resource limitations but also to how the term "invasive" is defined and accepted at each institution. A more standardized approach among zoological institutions for examining and approving research projects that are supported by zoo-based conservation programs would greatly facilitate the wildlife research efforts of North American zoos.

  6. A Landsat Record of North American Forest Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Hall, F. G.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R.

    2005-12-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) is generating a decadal, wall-to-wall analysis of forest disturbance and recovery from Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1975-2000. The intent is to provide an accurate, high-resolution view of forest disturbance to support biogeochemical modeling and carbon accounting for the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Through the NASA Science Data Purchase program, substantially cloud-free Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+ data were selected from the global archive and orthorectified to a UTM map base. The LEDAPS project has calibrated and atmospherically corrected these data (~2100 TM and ETM+ scenes to date) using the MODIS/6S radiative transfer approach. Forest disturbance and recovery is then calculated from the surface reflectance images using change detection techniques. An empirical spectral index (the `Disturbance Index') is used to classify pixels into classes exhibiting high rates of biomass loss over ten years (disturbance) or high rates of biomass gain (recovery). Initial results from North America show good correlation with areas of known harvest activity (Southeastern US, Maine, Pacific Northwest) and fire activity (Boreal forests). Additional work is concentrating on the use of canopy reflectance models to quantify changes in canopy properties in order to identify more subtle changes due to partial harvest and thinning. Initial versions of the surface reflectance and Disturbance Index products were released during 2005 (http://ledaps.nascom.nasa.gov/ledaps/ledaps_NorthAmerica.html).

  7. A Lagrangian Assimilation System for North American Carbon Flux Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; He, W., Sr.; Peters, W.; Andrews, A. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Sweeney, C.; Baker, I. T.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Velde, I.; Tans, P. P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding biospheric CO2 fluxes is paramount for climate studies to be able to analyze the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. To improve North American carbon flux estimates, we have built a new data assimilation system that couples the contemporary global carbon cycle model CarbonTracker with the Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) model (referred as CarbonTracker-WRF-STILT). The current CarbonTracker-WRF-STILT system assimilates atmospheric observations of CO2 mole fractions at eight tower sites in North America and optimizes the a priori carbon fluxes from the simple biosphere (SiB) model. The system employs a two-lag Ensemble Kalman smoother to optimize scaling factors for both biospheric fluxes and the boundary conditions every 10 days. We will present the optimized carbon fluxes for North America for 2010, and compare them with the results from the CT2013B and CTE2014. To estimate the transport uncertainties, we also plan to test an alternative Lagrangian transport model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) driven by the NAM12 meteorological fields. In the following step, the CarbonTracker-WRF-STILT system will be adapted to assimilate multiple tracers, e.g. CO2 and carbonyl sulfide (COS) to simultaneously optimize photosynthesis (Gross Primary Production, GPP) and respiration.

  8. Linking North Atlantic Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, periods, and directions along the North American Atlantic coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-period NAO SWHs are greater than negative-period NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-period NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-period NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American Atlantic coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.

  9. 77 FR 5056 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: September 11th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: September 11th Victim Compensation Fund Claimant Eligibility and Compensation Form ACTION: 60-Day Notice of information collection under review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Civil Division, September 11th Victim Compensation Fund, will...

  10. Subseasonal variability of North American wintertime surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai

    2015-09-01

    Using observational pentad data of the recent 34 Northern Hemisphere extended winters, subseasonal variability of surface air temperature (SAT) over North America is analyzed. The four leading modes of subseasonal SAT variability, that are identified with an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, account for about 60% of the total variance. The first (EOF1) and second (EOF2) modes are independent of other modes, and thus are likely controlled by distinct processes. The third (EOF3) and fourth (EOF4) modes, however, tend to have a phase shift to each other in space and time, indicating that part of their variability is related to a common process and represent a propagating pattern over North America. Lagged regression analysis is conducted to identify the precursors of large-scale atmospheric circulation for each mode a few pentads in advance, and to understand the processes that influence the subseasonal SAT variability and the predictability signal sources. EOF1 is found to be closely related to the Pacific-North American (PNA) circulation pattern and at least part of its variability is preceded by the East Asian cold surge. The cold surge leads to low-level convergence and enhanced convection in the tropical central Pacific which in turn induces the PNA. EOF2 tends to oscillate at a period of about 70 days, and is influenced by the low-frequency component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). On the other hand, EOF3 and EOF4 are connected to the high-frequency part of the MJO which has a period range of 30-50 days. These findings would help understanding the mechanisms of subseasonal surface air temperature variability in North America and improving weather predictions on a subseasonal time scale.

  11. Tectonics of the North American Cordillera near the Fortieth Parallel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    The North American Cordillera near the Fortieth Parallel consists of the following tectonic units: 1. (A) To the east is a reactivated cratonic area, in the Southern Rocky Mountains and Colorado Plateau, in which the supracrustal rocks (Cambrian to Cretaceous) were broadly deformed during the late Cretaceous-Paleocene Laramide orogeny, and the Precambrian basement was raised in folds of wide amplitude. 2. (B) West of it is a miogeosynclinal belt, in the eastern Great Basin, in which a thick sequence of Paleozoic carbonates and related deposits was thrust eastward along low-angle faults during the middle to late Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. The miogeosyncline is the downwarped western margin of the original North American continent, and its rocks accumulated on Precambrian basement. 3. (C) Beyond is a eugeosynclinal belt, in the western Great Basin, in which Paleozoic graywackes, cherts, and volcanics were thrust easteastward along low-angle faults during several Paleozoic orogenies - the mid-Paleozoic Antler orogeny which produced the Roberts thrust on the east, and the end-Paleozoic Sonoma orogeny which produced the Golconda thrust farther west. The Paleozoic eugeosynclinal rocks accumulated on oceanic basement. They are overlapped from the west by Triassic and Jurassic shelf deposits, which pass westward into eugeosynclinal deposits. 4. (D) A volcanic island-arc belt existed on the sites of the Sierra Nevada in Paleozoic and early Mesozoic time, which produced thick bodies of sediments and volcanics. During the mid-Mesozoic Nevadan orogeny these were steeply deformed and thrust westward over subduction zones, and were intruded by granitic rocks that rose from the upper mantle to form great batholiths. 5. (E) West of the Sierra Nevada, in the Great Valley, is a great sedimentary embankment of later Mesozoic flysch or turbidite, largely younger than the supracrustal rocks of the Sierra Nevada and the Nevadan orogeny. It was formed of the erosional products of the

  12. Geometry of the Cocos Plate Under North American Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Cocos plate subducts under the North American plate with a complex geometry, and previous seismicity studies revealed some of this complexity. However, details of the geometry and the depth that the plate penetrates werelargely unknown. Since 2004, temporary experiments and the expansion of the permanent network of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) have improved resolution of the plate geometry and have helped to map its descent into the upper mantle. Going from northwest to southeast, the Cocos plate appears to be fragmenting into north and south segments. The north segment subducts with an angle of ~30º and the south with an angle of ~10-15º. The transition is smooth near the trench and progresses to a tear at depth; this coincides with the projection of the Orozco Fracture Zone to depth. Also, this transition marks the limit of the presence to the south of an ultra slow velocity layer (USL) on top of the slab.South of this transition, the Cocos plate subducts horizontally , underplating the North American plate for a distance of ~140 to ~300 km from the trench. Along this horizontal region, silent slow events (SSE) and tectonic tremor (TT) have been observed. At a distance of 300 km from the trench (beneath central Mexico), the plate dives into the mantle with an angle of 76º to a depth of 500 km. This geometry changes abruptly to the south, marking the eastern limit of the USL. This change seems to be also characterized by a tear on the slab. Finally to the south, the Cocos plate subducts with a constant angle of 26º. This presentation summarizes the work of many contributors including A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Brudzinski, E. Cabral-Cano, T. Chen, R. Clayton,F. Cordoba-Montiel,P. Davis,S. Dougherty,F. Green, M. Gurnis, D. V. Helmberger, A. Husker,A. Iglesias, Y. Kim, V. Manea, D. Melgar, M. Rodríguez-Domínguez,S. K. Singh, T.-R. A. Song, C. M. Valdés-González, D. Valencia-Cabrera

  13. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. )

    1989-12-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction. PMID:27468040

  17. Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

  18. Oospore dimensions and morphology in North American Tolypella (Charophyceae, Charophyta).

    PubMed

    Pérez, William; Hall, John D; McCourt, Richard M; Karol, Kenneth G

    2015-04-01

    Characteristics of the oospores have been used to delimit sections and, in some cases, species in the genus Tolypella A. Braun. To test the utility of oospore characters for identifying North American species of Tolypella, we investigated oospores from field-collected and herbarium specimens. Oospore dimensions (length, width, and length to width ratio) and morphology (color, ridge number and shape, wall ornamentation, and basal impression number) were measured. Oospore dimensions were statistically analyzed and oospore morphology was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in length, width, and length to width ratios among most Tolypella species and populations but there was considerable overlap, which suggested that species identification based on oospore measurements alone is not wholly reliable. In addition, oospore morphology was not unique for every species. PMID:26986526

  19. North American Fuzzy Logic Processing Society (NAFIPS 1992), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the NAFIPS '92 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference. More than 75 papers were presented at this Conference, which was sponsored by NAFIPS in cooperation with NASA, the Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, the Indian Society for Fuzzy Mathematics and Information Processing (ISFUMIP), the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA), the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, and the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). The fuzzy set theory has led to a large number of diverse applications. Recently, interesting applications have been developed which involve the integration of fuzzy systems with adaptive processes such as neural networks and genetic algorithms. NAFIPS '92 was directed toward the advancement, commercialization, and engineering development of these technologies.

  20. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

  1. A Comparative Review of North American Tundra Delineations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Kirk C.; Carroll, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Recent profound changes have been observed in the Arctic environment, including record low sea ice extents and high latitude greening. Studying the Arctic and how it is changing is an important element of climate change science. The Tundra, an ecoregion of the Arctic, is directly related to climate change due to its effects on the snow ice feedback mechanism and greenhouse gas cycling. Like all ecoregions, the Tundra border is shifting, yet studies and policies require clear delineation of boundaries. There are many options for ecoregion classification systems, as well as resources for creating custom maps. To help decision makers identify the best classification system possible, we present a review of North American Tundra ecoregion delineations and further explore the methodologies, purposes, limitations, and physical properties of five common ecoregion classification systems. We quantitatively compare the corresponding maps by area using a geographic information system.

  2. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction.

  3. A Sustainable Biomass Industry for the North American Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Smith, Steven J.

    2009-12-01

    The North American Great Plains (hereafter NAGP) region is economically distressed and prone to severe ecological disruptions such as soil erosion. Its water resources are over-used and subject to pollution from agricultural fertilizers and chemicals, issues common to agricultural lands globally. On the other hand, the region is well suited to the production of herbaceous biomass that can be combusted directly for power or converted to liquid transportation fuels. This paper reviews the geography, history and current condition of the NAGP and offers suggestions about how the agriculture, economy and environment of this and similar regions around the world can be made more sustainable and able to contribute to a reduction in CO2 emissions and consequent global warming.

  4. North American Fuzzy Logic Processing Society (NAFIPS 1992), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the NAFIPS '92 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference. More than 75 papers were presented at this Conference, which was sponsored by NAFIPS in cooperation with NASA, the Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, the Indian Society for Fuzzy Mathematics and Information Processing (ISFUMIP), the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA), the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, and the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). The fuzzy set theory has led to a large number of diverse applications. Recently, interesting applications have been developed which involve the integration of fuzzy systems with adaptive processes such a neural networks and genetic algorithms. NAFIPS '92 was directed toward the advancement, commercialization, and engineering development of these technologies.

  5. Oospore dimensions and morphology in North American Tolypella (Charophyceae, Charophyta).

    PubMed

    Pérez, William; Hall, John D; McCourt, Richard M; Karol, Kenneth G

    2015-04-01

    Characteristics of the oospores have been used to delimit sections and, in some cases, species in the genus Tolypella A. Braun. To test the utility of oospore characters for identifying North American species of Tolypella, we investigated oospores from field-collected and herbarium specimens. Oospore dimensions (length, width, and length to width ratio) and morphology (color, ridge number and shape, wall ornamentation, and basal impression number) were measured. Oospore dimensions were statistically analyzed and oospore morphology was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in length, width, and length to width ratios among most Tolypella species and populations but there was considerable overlap, which suggested that species identification based on oospore measurements alone is not wholly reliable. In addition, oospore morphology was not unique for every species.

  6. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): The Prodromal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Jean; Liu, Lu; Buchy, Lisa; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    In studies describing the long-term follow-up up of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, little attention has been given to details of specific prodromal symptoms. In this paper we describe the prodromal symptoms of 764 CHR participants recruited in the multi-site North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Symptoms were rated on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) at baseline and 6, 12, 18 and 24 month follow-ups. Clinical outcome at the 2-year assessment was categorized as psychotic, prodromal progression, symptomatic or in remission. The majority of the CHR sample (93%) met criteria for the attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS). Significant improvements in SOPS symptoms were observed overtime. Unusual thought content, disorganized communication and overall ratings on disorganized symptoms differentiated those who transitioned to psychosis from the other clinical outcome groups. Suspiciousness and total positive symptoms differentiated those in remission from the other clinical outcome groups. PMID:25919383

  7. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome).

    PubMed

    Rosen, I B; Walfish, P G

    1989-12-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

  8. Human North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) attack.

    PubMed

    Potter, Tiffany M; Hanna, Jill A; Freer, Luanne

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the successful restoration and conservation programs deployed by state and federal agencies, populations of the North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) are increasing in many states. Recreational activities such as swimming, boating, and fishing increase the likelihood of human interactions with this charismatic, nonendangered mustelid. Otters tend to avoid areas of high human activity, occur at low population densities, and in some habitats in the United States have not recovered from population declines. Therefore, interactions with humans are rare, and aggressive encounters by otters are even less frequent. We report a recent, aggressive, and unprovoked attack that was followed by immediate medical treatment, including postexposure rabies prophylaxis, extensive suturing, and subsequent reconstructive surgery. We discuss river otter biology, the prevalence of diseases in wild populations of river otter, and otter attacks on humans and their treatment.

  9. Teaching Media and Methods in Marketing: European and North American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Natalia; Kuster, Ines

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to examine the most widely used teaching media and methods in university education. To achieve this objective, international research has been carried out among 135 marketing teachers from North American and European universities. The study shows that North American teachers use more traditional media and participatory methods…

  10. Cultural Contrasts: Hispanic-North American. Contrastes De Costumbres: El Hispano y el Norteamericano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Marcel C.

    The purpose of this booklet (written in English and Spanish) is to present, to North Americans, basic cultural differences between North American and Hispanic peoples. Following an introduction to general concepts about Hispanic peoples, the cultural contrasts are presented, with cartoons which graphically illustrate the ideas put forth. The…

  11. 77 FR 32629 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 14, 2012, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a compliance filing in accordance with the...

  12. 77 FR 45598 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 16, 2012, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a filing proposing to amend the NERC...

  13. 75 FR 81601 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing December 20, 2010. Take notice that on December 1, 2010, North American Electric Reliability Corporation... free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern Time on January 10, 2011. Kimberly...

  14. 75 FR 67960 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing October 28, 2010. Take notice that on October 25, 2010, the North American Electric Reliability... FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment...

  15. 78 FR 18333 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 11, 2013, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and SERC Reliability..., please email FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

  16. 76 FR 62802 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 30, 2011, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) filed a..., please e-mail FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

  17. 77 FR 44610 - Notice of Filing; North American Electric Reliability Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Filing; North American Electric Reliability Corporation Take notice that on July 18, 2012, North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a filing... Valley Electric Corporation (OVEC) should not be registered as a load-serving entity, if NERC did...

  18. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  19. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  20. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards....

  1. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards....

  2. 75 FR 57761 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing September 14, 2010.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing September 14, 2010. Take notice that on September 9, 2010, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation... Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards, designated as CIP-002-2 through CIP-009-002...

  3. The Luneburg Sustainable University Project in International Comparison: An Assessment against North American Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the Luneburg Sustainable University Project (the Project) in a non-European international context; to relate the project scholarly approach to selected scholarly and practice-oriented North American sustainability in higher education (SHE) methods; to analyze project innovations against North American initiatives.…

  4. Ozone Production from the 2004 North American Boreal Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, G. G.; Emmons, L. K.; Hess, P. G.; Honrath, R.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Val Martin, M.; Owen, R. C.; Avery, M. A.; Browell, E. V.; Holloway, J. S.; Nedelec, P.; Purvis, R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sachse, G. W.; Schlager, H.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the ozone production from boreal forest fires based on a case study of wildfires in Alaska and Canada in summer 2004. The model simulations were performed with the chemistry transport model, MOZART-4, and were evaluated by comparison with a comprehensive set of aircraft measurements. In the analysis we use measurements and model simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) at the PICO-NARE station located in the Azores within the pathway of North American outflow. The modeled mixing ratios were used to test the robustness of the enhancement ratio deltaO3/deltaCO (defined as the excess O3 mixing ratio normalized by the increase in CO) and the feasibility for using this ratio in estimating the O3 production from the wildfires. Modeled and observed enhancement ratios are about 0.25 ppbv/ppbv which is in the range of values found in the literature, and results in a global net O3 production of 12.9 2 Tg O3 during summer 2004. This matches the net O3 production calculated in the model for a region extending from Alaska to the East Atlantic (9-11 Tg O3) indicating that observations at PICO-NARE representing photochemically well-aged plumes provide a good measure of the O3 production of North American boreal fires. However, net chemical loss of fire related O3 dominates in regions far downwind from the fires (e.g. Europe and Asia) resulting in a global net O3 production of 6 Tg O3 during the same time period. On average, the fires increased the O3 burden (surface-300 mbar) over Alaska and Canada during summer 2004 by about 7-9%, and over Europe by about 2-3%.

  5. Phonetic study of North American languages history and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddieson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    Serious phonetic study of North America languages started at the beginning of the 20th century. Within limits of available technology, aspects of speech articulation, aerodynamics and acoustics were investigated. One clear motivation was to understand how classes of sounds unfamiliar from study of better-known European and Asian languages were produced. Glottalized consonants and stops then referred to as ``intermediate'' (voiceless unaspirated) received particular attention. Nasal airflow, lip position in vowels, and tone and pitch accent were also investigated. Significant insights on relative timing were obtained, inter alia foreshadowing VOT measurement as a useful discriminator of laryngeal activity and revealing part of the mechanism by which ejective consonants are made. After the 1920's, the idea of ``psychologically real'' phonemes which ignored phonetic differences became the ruling paradigm in American linguistics, contributing to a decline of interest in phonetic studies that basically lasted until around the 1980's. When interest renewed, a new vision that phonetic patterns show regularities independent of phonemic structure guided research, and considerable attention was also paid to how indigenous American languages fit into overall phonetic typologies. Recent work is also often informed by concern for documentation of endangered languages and community interest in language revival.

  6. Earlier North American Monsoon Onset in a Warmer World?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, S. A.; Seth, A.; Ringler, T.; Rojas, M.; Liebmann, B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of twenty-first century projections indicate substantial drying over the American Southwest and the potential for “Dust Bowl” conditions to be the norm by the middle of century. Closer examination of monthly precipitation data from the CMIP3 models indicates that the annual cycle is actually amplified over the North American Monsoon (NAMS) region, with drier conditions during the winter and an increase in monsoon rains during the later part of the rainy season. Importantly, the projected decrease in winter precipitation extends into the spring season, suggesting a delayed onset of the NAMS. Consistent thermodynamic changes, including a decrease in low-level relative humidity and an increase in the vertical gradient of moist static energy, accompany this spring precipitation decrease. Here we examine daily precipitation data from the CMIP3 archive to determine if this reduced spring precipitation represents a true delay in the NAMS onset. We further analyze the hydrological cycle over the NAMS region in several of the CMIP3 models, focusing on changes in net moisture divergence, surface evaporation, and soil moisture in order to fully understand how the hydrological cycle will change in the future based on the CMIP3 simulations, and how these changes may be translated into the timing and intensity of the NAMS. The combination of a delayed NAMS onset and earlier and reduced snowmelt runoff in the western US could substantially change the availability of water resources over the NAMS region.

  7. VOC signatures from North American oil and gas sources (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Hartt, G.; Meinardi, S.; Schroeder, J.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008 and 2013 UC Irvine has used its whole air sampling (WAS) technique to investigate VOC source signatures from a range of oil and gas sources in North America, including five separate field campaigns at the Alberta oil sands (1 airborne, 4 ground-based); the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (airborne and ship-based); the 2012 airborne Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) mission over oil and gas wells in Colorado, Texas and Oklahoma; and the 2013 ground-based Barnett Shale Campaign in Texas. Each campaign has characterized more than 80 individual C1-C10 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes and aromatics. For example, oil sands are an extra-heavy, unconventional crude oil that is blended with diluent in order to flow, and upgraded into synthetic crude oil. The VOC signature at the oil sands mining and upgrading facilities is alkane-rich, and the fuel gas associated with these operations has an i-butane/n-butane ratio similar to that of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In addition to light alkanes, enhanced levels of benzene were observed over US oil and natural gas wells during DC3, likely because of its use in hydrofracking fluid. A series of VOC emission ratios from North American petrochemical sources will be presented and compared, including oil sands, conventional oil and hydrofracking operations.

  8. Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sydney A; Lozier, Jeffrey D; Strange, James P; Koch, Jonathan B; Cordes, Nils; Solter, Leellen F; Griswold, Terry L

    2011-01-11

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are vitally important pollinators of wild plants and agricultural crops worldwide. Fragmentary observations, however, have suggested population declines in several North American species. Despite rising concern over these observations in the United States, highlighted in a recent National Academy of Sciences report, a national assessment of the geographic scope and possible causal factors of bumble bee decline is lacking. Here, we report results of a 3-y interdisciplinary study of changing distributions, population genetic structure, and levels of pathogen infection in bumble bee populations across the United States. We compare current and historical distributions of eight species, compiling a database of >73,000 museum records for comparison with data from intensive nationwide surveys of >16,000 specimens. We show that the relative abundances of four species have declined by up to 96% and that their surveyed geographic ranges have contracted by 23-87%, some within the last 20 y. We also show that declining populations have significantly higher infection levels of the microsporidian pathogen Nosema bombi and lower genetic diversity compared with co-occurring populations of the stable (nondeclining) species. Higher pathogen prevalence and reduced genetic diversity are, thus, realistic predictors of these alarming patterns of decline in North America, although cause and effect remain uncertain.

  9. Factors influencing reporting and harvest probabilities in North American geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, G.S.; Moser, T.J.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F.; White, Gary C.; Caswell, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed variation in reporting probabilities of standard bands among species, populations, harvest locations, and size classes of North American geese to enable estimation of unbiased harvest probabilities. We included reward (US10,20,30,50, or100) and control (0) banded geese from 16 recognized goose populations of 4 species: Canada (Branta canadensis), cackling (B. hutchinsii), Ross's (Chen rossii), and snow geese (C. caerulescens). We incorporated spatially explicit direct recoveries and live recaptures into a multinomial model to estimate reporting, harvest, and band-retention probabilities. We compared various models for estimating harvest probabilities at country (United States vs. Canada), flyway (5 administrative regions), and harvest area (i.e., flyways divided into northern and southern sections) scales. Mean reporting probability of standard bands was 0.73 (95 CI 0.690.77). Point estimates of reporting probabilities for goose populations or spatial units varied from 0.52 to 0.93, but confidence intervals for individual estimates overlapped and model selection indicated that models with species, population, or spatial effects were less parsimonious than those without these effects. Our estimates were similar to recently reported estimates for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We provide current harvest probability estimates for these populations using our direct measures of reporting probability, improving the accuracy of previous estimates obtained from recovery probabilities alone. Goose managers and researchers throughout North America can use our reporting probabilities to correct recovery probabilities estimated from standard banding operations for deriving spatially explicit harvest probabilities.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of North American Branchiobdellida (Annelida: Clitellata).

    PubMed

    Williams, Bronwyn W; Gelder, Stuart R; Proctor, Heather C; Coltman, David W

    2013-01-01

    Branchiobdellidans, or crayfish worms, are ectosymbiotic clitellate annelids associated primarily with freshwater crayfishes. The main objectives of our study were to infer a molecular phylogeny for the North American Branchiobdellida, examine its congruence with morphology-based hypotheses of relationships at the subfamily and genus level, and use our dataset to assess consistency of GenBank-archived branchiobdellidan sequences. We used nucleotide sequence data from two mtDNA genes (COI and 16S rDNA) and three nuclear genes (28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, and ITS1) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 47 described and one undescribed species of Branchiobdellida. We recovered a monophyletic branchiobdellidan clade with generally short branch lengths, suggesting that a large portion of the taxon has likely undergone a recent and rapid radiation in North America. Results from our phylogenetic analyses indicate that current taxonomic groupings are largely unsupported by the molecular data. All four subfamilies are either paraphyletic or polyphyletic, and only three of seven sampled non-monotypic genera were monophyletic. We found a high rate (49%) of inconsistency in GenBank-archived sequences, over 70% of which can be attributed to field- or laboratory-based error.

  11. The 1994 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.; Early, E.A.; DeLuisi, J.

    1997-05-01

    Concern over stratospheric ozone depletion has prompted several government agencies in North America to establish networks of spectroradiometers for monitoring solar ultraviolet irradiance at the surface of the Earth. To assess the ability of spectroradiometers to accurately measure solar ultraviolet irradiance, and to compare the results between instruments of different monitoring networks, the first North American Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Monitoring Spectroradiometers was held September 19--29, 1994 at Table Mountain outside Boulder, Colorado, USA. This Intercomparison was coordinated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Participating agencies were the Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, and Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada. Instruments were characterized for wavelength accuracy, bandwidth, stray-light rejection, and spectral irradiance responsivity, the latter with a NIST standard lamp calibrated to operate in the horizontal position. The spectral irradiance responsivity was determined once indoors and twice outdoors, and demonstrated that, while the responsivities changed upon moving the instruments, they were relatively stable when the instruments remained outdoors. Synchronized spectral scans of the solar irradiance were performed over several days. Using the spectral irradiance responsivities determined with the NIST standard lamp, and a simple convolution technique to account for the different bandwidths of the instruments, the measured solar irradiances agreed within 5%.

  12. The North American Astronomical Photographic Plate Center: Phase I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, J. D.; Castelaz, M. W.; Crowley, T.; Griffin, E.; Osborn, W.

    2004-05-01

    Astronomical photographic plates constitute an important and, for the large part, unrepeatable resource for research. International pressure is mounting to preserve and catalog scientifically valuable plate collections and capture their information through digitization. At the same time, many institutions holding plates now lack the space, funds and expertise to adequately preserve this important material. In response, the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute has established the North American Photographic Plate Center (NAPPC). NAPPC is intended as a long-term repository for direct and objective prism plate collections currently stored in North America. PARI is a natural location for such a center. It offers physically secure and abundant environmentally controlled space for plate storage as well as Internet 2 infrastructure and instrument space necessary for the eventual digitization and Internet distribution of images. Phase I of this initiative is to collect unwanted plate collections, store them in an appropriate manner, prepare catalogues of their relevant information and establish a laboratory for on-site examination or measurement of the plates. This is currently underway. Phase II will be the eventual digitization and development of a public web accessible database of images. We will describe the procedures for placing plate collections in NAPPC, the infrastructure in place for plate storage and measurement, and our preliminary plans for making the plate archive a public image library with Internet access.

  13. The North American Carbon Program: It takes a village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was created in 2002 in response to the need to reduce uncertainties surrounding the magnitude of North America's contribution to the overall Northern Hemisphere carbon sink. The breadth and depth of the science that has been fostered by the NACP is impressive, and matched only by the strength of the community that it has helped to create. Following the first NACP All Investigators' meeting in 2007, the NACP community came together to embark on a variety of synthesis efforts aimed at gleaning deeper scientific insights through systematic intercomparison studies. These syntheses span a variety of scales, a variety of greenhouse gases, and include both land and coastal regions. The last five years have seen a dramatic return on this investment, and in many ways the community continues to gain momentum. This talk will provide an overview of the science enabled by the NACP and its synthesis efforts, as well as of the community's vision for the future of carbon cycle science in the United States.

  14. Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sydney A; Lozier, Jeffrey D; Strange, James P; Koch, Jonathan B; Cordes, Nils; Solter, Leellen F; Griswold, Terry L

    2011-01-11

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are vitally important pollinators of wild plants and agricultural crops worldwide. Fragmentary observations, however, have suggested population declines in several North American species. Despite rising concern over these observations in the United States, highlighted in a recent National Academy of Sciences report, a national assessment of the geographic scope and possible causal factors of bumble bee decline is lacking. Here, we report results of a 3-y interdisciplinary study of changing distributions, population genetic structure, and levels of pathogen infection in bumble bee populations across the United States. We compare current and historical distributions of eight species, compiling a database of >73,000 museum records for comparison with data from intensive nationwide surveys of >16,000 specimens. We show that the relative abundances of four species have declined by up to 96% and that their surveyed geographic ranges have contracted by 23-87%, some within the last 20 y. We also show that declining populations have significantly higher infection levels of the microsporidian pathogen Nosema bombi and lower genetic diversity compared with co-occurring populations of the stable (nondeclining) species. Higher pathogen prevalence and reduced genetic diversity are, thus, realistic predictors of these alarming patterns of decline in North America, although cause and effect remain uncertain. PMID:21199943

  15. Correlates of gonorrhoea among African Americans in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Irene A; Adimora, Adaora A; Schoenbach, Victor J; Aral, Sevgi O

    2007-02-01

    Rates of gonorrhoea (GC) infections are highest among African Americans in the USA, but risk factors for GC in this population have not been well defined. The purpose of this study was to study these risk factors. We used secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from a population-based case-control study of African Americans, aged 18-59 years, in rural North Carolina, USA. A history of past infection was 2.4 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 4.4) as likely among men (35%) than women (18%). Among men, a history of gonorrhoea was associated with earlier age at first intercourse (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 2.0 95% CI [1.2, 3.4]), substance use (aOR = 4.4 95% CI [1.1, 17.9]), and having a partner who had been incarcerated (aOR = 18.1 [2.8, 118.0]). Among women, factors associated with GC included diagnosis of another STD (aOR = 5.9 [1.9, 16.9]), lifetime number of sex partners (aOR = 1.9 [1.1, 3.4]), and a sex partner who used drugs (aOR = 4.1 (1.3, 12.9)). In conclusion, African Americans with a history of GC are likely to have traditional STD risk factors, including partners at high risk for sexually transmitted disease (STD). STD screening is warranted upon entry to treatment facilities for substance abuse or correctional facilities.

  16. Drought Monitoring for 3 North American Case Studies Based on the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay; Ek, Michael; Xia, Youlong; Dong, Jiarui

    2012-01-01

    Both NLDAS Phase 1 (1996-2007) and Phase 2 (1979-present) datasets have been evaluated against in situ observational datasets, and NLDAS forcings and outputs are used by a wide variety of users. Drought indices and drought monitoring from NLDAS were recently examined by Mo et al. (2010) and Sheffield et al. (2010). In this poster, we will present results analyzing NLDAS Phase 2 forcings and outputs for 3 North American Case studies being analyzed as part of the NOAA MAPP Drought Task Force: (1) Western US drought (1998- 2004); (2) plains/southeast US drought (2006-2007); and (3) Current Texas-Mexico drought (2011-). We will examine percentiles of soil moisture consistent with the NLDAS drought monitor.

  17. Synoptic Scale North American Weather Tracks and the Formation of North Atlantic Windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, A. J.; Godek, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Each winter, dozens of fatalities occur when intense North Atlantic windstorms impact Western Europe. Forecasting the tracks of these storms in the short term is often problematic, but long term forecasts provide an even greater challenge. Improved prediction necessitates the ability to identify these low pressure areas at formation and understand commonalities that distinguish these storms from other systems crossing the Atlantic, such as where they develop. There is some evidence that indicates the majority of intense windstorms that reach Europe have origins far west, as low pressure systems that develop over the North American continent. This project aims to identify the specific cyclogenesis regions in North America that produce a significantly greater number of dangerous storms. NOAA Ocean Prediction Center surface pressure reanalysis maps are used to examine the tracks of storms. Strong windstorms are characterized by those with a central pressure of less than 965 hPa at any point in their life cycle. Tracks are recorded using a coding system based on source region, storm track and dissipation region. The codes are analyzed to determine which region contains the most statistical significance with respect to strong Atlantic windstorm generation. The resultant set of codes also serves as a climatology of North Atlantic extratropical cyclones. Results indicate that a number of windstorms favor cyclogenesis regions off the east coast of the United States. A large number of strong storms that encounter east coast cyclogenesis zones originate in the central mountain region, around Colorado. These storms follow a path that exits North America around New England and subsequently travel along the Canadian coast. Some of these are then primed to become "bombs" over the open Atlantic Ocean.

  18. An Areal-Typological Study of American Indian Languages North of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherzer, Joel

    This study attempts to provide a systematic mapping of the linguistic structural properties of North American Indian languages. The study includes: (1) the history of areal-typological linguistic studies in North America; (2) a framework for the presentation of areal linguistic phenomena in North America; (3) a presentation and discussion of the…

  19. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P.; van Oevelen, P. J.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Schlosser, C. A.; Wood, E. F.; Ek, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  20. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  1. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  2. Isotopes in Western North American snowpack 1993 - 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; VanSistine, P.

    2013-12-01

    The interpretation of oxygen isotope-based climate proxies in the western North America, including those from lake sediment calcite, tree cellulose, leaf waxes, and speleothems, each depend on assumptions about the site-specific and regional patterns of the isotopic composition of seasonal precipitation. Here we explore isotopic ratios in the integrated Rocky Mountain snowpack (IRMS) since 1993 for >45 high-elevation locations per year between northern Montana and northern New Mexico. The isotopic network comprises the most extensive spatial and temporal effort to document snowpack isotopic values to be conducted beyond Polar Regions. The dataset provides new insight into the processes that influence the isotopic composition of Western North American winter precipitation. Preliminary assessments indicate a number of spatial features that are similar to those observed in existing isotopic networks from North America but with additional spatial and temporal detail over this topographically complex region. Lower isotopic ratios generally occur with higher latitude, a reflection of condensation at cooler temperatures associated with more common Arctic air mass incursions, which bring isotopically depleted vapor. Higher elevation sites also generally have lower isotopes ratios, but this is most likely as a consequence of orographic rainout. East-west isotopic gradients occur as a consequence of preferential rainout as air masses pass from west to east over the spine of the cordillera and when southern tracking lows generate east to west upslope flow. Previous studies have also indicated that isotopes in precipitation track interannual shifts in atmospheric regimes that lead to changes in jet stream strength and position and the frequency that Arctic, sub-tropical or Pacific air masses reach the Rockies. We hypothesize that these changes also yield distinct impacts on the isotopic ratio of the snowpack and use the unique spatial and temporal density of the IRMS dataset

  3. 3 CFR 8405 - Proclamation 8405 of August 31, 2009. To Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the North American Free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Rules of Origin Under the North American Free Trade Agreement and for Other Purposes 8405 Proclamation... Rules of Origin Under the North American Free Trade Agreement and for Other PurposesBy the President of..., implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with respect to the United States and, pursuant...

  4. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  5. Aggressive delinquency among north American indigenous adolescents: Trajectories and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sittner, Kelley J; Hautala, Dane

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive delinquency is a salient social problem for many North American Indigenous (American Indian, Canadian First Nations) communities, and can have deleterious consequences later in life. Yet there is a paucity of research on Indigenous delinquency. Group-based trajectory modeling is used to prospectively examine trajectories of aggressive delinquency over the course of adolescence using data from 646 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture, spanning the ages of 10-19. Five aggression trajectory groups were identified, characterized by different levels and ages of onset and desistence: non-offenders (22.1%), moderate desistors (19.9%), adolescent-limited offenders (22.2%), high desistors (16.7%), and chronic offenders (19.2%). Using the social development model of antisocial behavior, we selected relevant risk and protective factors predicted to discriminate among those most and least likely to engage in more aggressive behavior. Higher levels of risk (i.e., parent rejection, delinquent peers, substance use, and early dating) in early adolescence were associated with being in the two groups with the highest levels of aggressive delinquency. Positive school adjustment, the only significant protective factor, was associated with being in the lowest aggression trajectory groups. The results provide important information that could be used in developing prevention and intervention programs, particularly regarding vulnerable ages as well as malleable risk factors. Identifying those youth most at risk of engaging in higher levels of aggression may be key to preventing delinquency and reducing the over-representation of Indigenous youth in the justice system. PMID:26350331

  6. The Effects of 11th Graders' Opinions on Their Interpretation of Conflicting Arguments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Wayne H.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how individual differences in epistemological beliefs, strength of beliefs, and need for cognition affected the written conclusions that 11th graders constructed after reading a passage presenting arguments opposing and supporting gun control. (SR)

  7. 16. NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW OF 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW OF 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CORNER SHOWS THE DIAGONALLY FLUTED SPIRAL DESIGN OF THE RELIEF COLUMN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. E SERIES MAGAZINES, OVERVIEW OF REAR OF MAGAZINES FROM 11TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E SERIES MAGAZINES, OVERVIEW OF REAR OF MAGAZINES FROM 11TH ST. E 106 IN THE FOREGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, & Seventeenth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. VIEW OF COMPANY HOUSES ON 11TH STREET AT THE RAILROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPANY HOUSES ON 11TH STREET AT THE RAILROAD TRACKS. No. 401 to right (asbestos siding). House on left has retained the original clapboard siding. - Town of Windber, Windber, Somerset County, PA

  10. A partial mechanistic understanding of the North American monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the major governing processes of North American monsoon (NAM) is necessary to guide improvement in global and regional climate modeling of the NAM, as well as NAM's impacts on the summer circulation, precipitation, and drought over North America. A mechanistic understanding of the NAM is suggested by incorporating local- and synoptic-scale processes. The local-scale mechanism describes the effect of the temperature inversion over the Gulf of California (GC) on controlling low-level moisture during the 2004 NAM. The strong low-level inversion inhibits the exchange between the moist air in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the overlying dry air. This inversion weakens with increasing sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in GC and generally disappears once SSTs exceed 29.5°C, allowing the moist air, trapped in the MBL, to mix with free tropospheric air. This leads to a deep, moist layer that can be transported by across-gulf (along-gulf) flow toward the NAM core region (southwestern U.S.) to form thunderstorms. On the synoptic scale, climatologies from 1983 to 2010 exhibit a temporal correspondence between coastal warm tropical surface water, NAM deep convection, NAM anticyclone center, and NAM-induced strong descent. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this correspondence, based on limited soundings at the GC entrance (suggesting this local mechanism may also be active in that region), the climatologies, and the relevant literature. The warmest SSTs moving up the coast may initiate NAM convection and atmospheric heating, advancing the position of the anticyclone and the region of descent northward.

  11. 14. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. WINDOWS HAVE WHITE TERRA COTTA SILLS, HEADS AND MULLIONS. ARCHES ARE OF TERRA COTTA INCLUDING ORNAMENTATION ABOVE THE 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CIRCULAR ORNAMENTATIONS BETWEEN ARCHES ARE TERRA COTTA PAINTED IN BRONZE COLOR. LOUVERS ON THE WINDOWS ARE NOT PART OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGN. THIS IS THE FRONT ELEVATION. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Subject cataloging practices in North American medical school libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, R B; Michael, H N

    1976-01-01

    A survey of North American medical school libraries was made to determine current trends in subject cataloging practices. First, responses from 114 of these libraries are recorded and analyzed in the following areas: subject heading authority lists employed; use of the divided versus the dictionary catalog; and the form in which local subject authority files are kept. Then, focusing on 78 libraries that use MeSH in combination with a divided catalog, a further analysis of responses is made concerning issues relating to subject cataloging practices: updating the subject catalog to conform to annual MeSH changes; use of guide cards in the catalog; use of MeSH subheadings; filing conventions; and related issues. An attempt is made to analyze the extent to which these libraries vary from NLM practices. Suggestions are offered for formulating subject cataloging practices for an individual library. Finally, while it is concluded that MeSH and the Current Catalog are useful tools, a more detailed explication of the use of MeSH and NLM cataloging practices would be beneficial. PMID:989741

  13. The Isotopic History of Western North American Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, B. E.; Koch, P. L.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, researchers have detected a rise in carbon isotope values of fossil mammals, paleosol minerals, and organic substrates roughly 6 to 8 Ma, which indicates an increase in the relative abundance of C4 grass at localities around the world. Prior research has shown that this increase in C4 abundance did not occur in cool high latitude regions, nor did it occur at sites around the Mediterranean. Similarly, modern California and Nevada do not support native C4 grasses. These states have a water regime similar to the Mediterranean region, with hot and dry summers, and most precipitation occurring during the cool winter months. Because the amount of C4 grass in North American ecosystems correlates positively with growing season temperature, it is not surprising that these western states, which have a winter growing season, do not support C4 plants. This does not necessarily imply, however, that C4 plants have never been favored in these western states. We used the carbon isotope composition of fossil ungulate tooth enamel as a proxy for C4 plant abundance in California and Nevada from 18 Ma to the present. Our carbon isotope data suggest that whereas there are very few native C4 species living in California or Nevada today, C4 plants may have been present in the region as early as the Late Miocene. Furthermore, there is an indication that C4 plants may have increased in abundance in the region during Pleistocene glacial periods.

  14. Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

  15. Inaugural Meeting of North American Pancreatic Cancer Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Fleshman, Julie M.; Goldberg, Ann E.; Rothschild, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A meeting of North American Pancreatic Cancer Organizations planned by Kenner Family Research Fund and Pancreatic Cancer Action Network was held on July 15–16, 2015, in New York City. The meeting was attended by 32 individuals from 20 nonprofit groups from the United States and Canada. The objectives of this inaugural convening were to share mission goals and initiatives, engage as leaders, cultivate potential partnerships, and increase participation in World Pancreatic Cancer Day. The program was designed to provide opportunities for informal conversations, as well as facilitated discussions to meet the stated objectives. At the conclusion of the meeting, the group agreed that enhancing collaboration and communication will result in a more unified approach within the field and will benefit individuals diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. As a first step, the group will actively collaborate to participate in World Pancreatic Cancer Day, which is planned for November 13, 2015, and seeks to raise the level of visibility about the disease globally. PMID:26465947

  16. Odontology as a forensic science, the North American experience.

    PubMed

    Barsley, Robert E

    2010-09-10

    This chapter discusses the North American situation, primarily that of the United States judicial system. The United States was established as neither a monarchy nor a theocracy. An unofficial motto of the country has always been - the rule of laws, not of men (or deities). The primary source of law in the United States is the US Constitution. However, each of the 50 states has as its primary source of law a state constitution. In order to become a state, that constitution must conform to US Constitution. In the United States the US Congress, consisting of duly elected Representatives and Senators from the 50 states draft and pass Acts that establish (or direct to be established by officers of the Executive Branch following prescribed administrative procedures) federal law. Each state too, has its own legislative bodies and process for making law. Each state also has its own system of courts. In order to discuss the role of the odontologist within these systems, a primer on how these systems function and interact is crucial. This article discusses the functioning of those systems in relation to the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:20304574

  17. Mountain Building Triggered Late Cretaceous North American Megaherbivore Dinosaur Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Terry A.; Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Zanno, Lindsay E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of Mesozoic biodiversity document a diversity peak for dinosaur species in the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, yet have failed to provide explicit causal mechanisms. We provide evidence that a marked increase in North American dinosaur biodiversity can be attributed to dynamic orogenic episodes within the Western Interior Basin (WIB). Detailed fossil occurrences document an association between the shift from Sevier-style, latitudinally arrayed basins to smaller Laramide-style, longitudinally arrayed basins and a well substantiated decreased geographic range/increased taxonomic diversity of megaherbivorous dinosaur species. Dispersal-vicariance analysis demonstrates that the nearly identical biogeographic histories of the megaherbivorous dinosaur clades Ceratopsidae and Hadrosauridae are attributable to rapid diversification events within restricted basins and that isolation events are contemporaneous with known tectonic activity in the region. SymmeTREE analysis indicates that megaherbivorous dinosaur clades exhibited significant variation in diversification rates throughout the Late Cretaceous. Phylogenetic divergence estimates of fossil clades offer a new lower boundary on Laramide surficial deformation that precedes estimates based on sedimentological data alone. PMID:22876302

  18. Response of North American freshwater lakes to simulated future climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Small, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    We apply a physically based lake model to assess the response of North American lakes to future climate conditions as portrayed by the transient trace-gas simulations conducted with the Max Planck Institute (ECHAM4) and the Canadian Climate Center (CGCM1) atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (A/OGCMs). To quantify spatial patterns of lake responses (temperature, mixing, ice cover, evaporation) we ran the lake model for theoretical lakes of specified area, depth, and transparency over a uniformly spaced (50 km) grid. The simulations were conducted for two 10-year periods that represent present climatic conditions and those around the time of CO2 doubling. Although the climate model output produces simulated lake responses that differ in specific regional details, there is broad agreement with regard to the direction and area of change. In particular, lake temperatures are generally warmer in the future as a result of warmer climatic conditions and a substantial loss (> 100 days/yr) of winter ice cover. Simulated summer lake temperatures are higher than 30??C ever the Midwest and south, suggesting the potential for future disturbance of existing aquatic ecosystems. Overall increases in lake evaporation combine with disparate changes in A/OGCM precipitation to produce future changes in net moisture (precipitation minus evaporation) that are of less fidelity than those of lake temperature.

  19. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican Nursing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses’ security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services. PMID:20595330

  20. The North American and Pelican Nebulae. I. IRAC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieu, S.; Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Padgett, D. L.; Cole, D. M.; Carey, S. J.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Strom, S. E.

    2009-05-01

    We present a 9 deg2 map of the North American and Pelican Nebulae regions obtained in all four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) channels with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The resulting photometry is merged with that at JHKs from Two Micron All Sky Survey and a more spatially limited BVI survey from previous ground-based work. We use a mixture of color-color diagrams to select a minimally contaminated set of more than 1600 objects that we claim are young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the star-forming region. Because our selection technique uses infrared excess as a requirement, our sample is strongly biased against inclusion of Class III YSOs. The distribution of IRAC spectral slopes for our YSOs indicates that most of these objects are Class II, with a peak toward steeper spectral slopes but a substantial contribution from a tail of Flat spectrum and Class I type objects. By studying the small fraction of the sample that is optically visible, we infer a typical age of a few Myr for the low-mass population. The young stars are clustered, with about a third of them located in eight clusters that are located within or near the LDN 935 dark cloud. Half of the YSOs are located in regions with surface densities higher than 1000 YSOs/deg2. The Class I objects are more clustered than the Class II stars.

  1. Financing North American medical libraries in the nineteenth century*

    PubMed Central

    Belleh, Godfrey S.; Luft, Eric v. d.

    2001-01-01

    Culture not only justifies the existence of libraries but also determines the level of funding libraries receive for development. Cultural appreciation of the importance of libraries encourages their funding; lack of such appreciation discourages it. Medical library development is driven by culture in general and the culture of physicians in particular. Nineteenth-century North American medical library funding reflected the impact of physician culture in three phases: (1) Before the dawn of anesthesia (1840s) and antisepsis (1860s), when the wisdom of elders contained in books was venerated, libraries were well supported. (2) In the last third of the nineteenth century, as modern medicine grew and as physicians emphasized the practical and the present, rather than books, support for medical libraries declined. (3) By the 1890s, this attitude had changed because physicians had come to realize that, without both old and new medical literature readily available, they could not keep up with rapidly changing current clinical practice or research. Thus, “The Medical Library Movement” heralded the turn of the century. PMID:11837261

  2. Salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora.

    PubMed

    Min, Gi-Sik; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Siddall, Mark E

    2010-12-01

    A variety of bioactive proteins from medicinal leeches, like species of Hirudo , have been characterized and evaluated for their potential therapeutic biomedical properties. However, there has not previously been a comprehensive attempt to fully characterize the salivary transcriptome of a medicinal leech that would allow a clearer understanding of the suite of polypeptides employed by these sanguivorous annelids and provide insights regarding their evolutionary origins. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library-based analysis of the salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora, reveals a complex cocktail of anticoagulants and other bioactive secreted proteins not previously known to exist in a single leech. Transcripts were identified that correspond to each of saratin, bdellin, destabilase, hirudin, decorsin, endoglucoronidase, antistatin, and eglin, as well as to other previously uncharacterized predicted serine protease inhibitors, lectoxin-like c-type lectins, ficolin, disintegrins and histidine-rich proteins. This work provides a lens into the richness of bioactive polypeptides that are associated with sanguivory. In the context of a well-characterized molecular phylogeny of leeches, the results allow for preliminary evaluation of the relative evolutionary origins and historical conservation of leech salivary components. The goal of identifying evolutionarily significant residues associated with biomedically significant phenomena implies continued insights from a broader sampling of blood-feeding leech salivary transcriptomes.

  3. Mantle discontinuities and temperature under the North American continental keel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aibing; Fischer, Karen M.; Wysession, Michael E.; Clarke, Timothy J.

    1998-09-01

    A ubiquitous feature of upper-mantle seismic velocity models has been the presence of high-velocity `keels' beneath stable continental interiors. Uncertainty remains, however, regarding the maximum depth to which continental keels extend, the degree to which they have cooled the mantle that surrounds them and their role in mantle flow. Here we investigate thermal anomalies across the eastern margin of the North American continental keel by imaging the seismic discontinuities at depths of 410 and 660km with compressional-to-shear converted waves recorded by a 1,500-km-long seismometer deployment in the eastern United States. The thickness of the transition zone (the region nominally between depths of 410 and 660km) and the depth to the `410-km' discontinuity indicate that cold keel material and sub-keel downwellings must be largely confined to the upper mantle and may impinge on the transition zone only in localized regions and with thermal anomalies of less than ~150K. A 20-km depression of the `660-km' discontinuity to the south of the westernmost stations coincides with a region of fast velocity in the deep transition zone and may be associated with the remnants of the subducted Farallon plate,,.

  4. Conservation status of imperiled north American freshwater and diadromous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jelks, H.L.; Walsh, S.J.; Burkhead, N.M.; Contreras-Balderas, Salvador; Diaz-Pardo, E.; Hendrickson, D.A.; Lyons, J.; Mandrak, N.E.; McCormick, F.; Nelson, Joseph S.; Platania, S.P.; Porter, B.A.; Renaud, C.B.; Schmitter-Soto, J. J.; Taylor, E.B.; Warren, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    This is the third compilation of imperiled (i.e., endangered, threatened, vulnerable) plus extinct freshwater and diadromous fishes of North America prepared by the American Fisheries Society's Endangered Species Committee. Since the last revision in 1989, imperilment of inland fishes has increased substantially. This list includes 700 extant taxa representing 133 genera and 36 families, a 92% increase over the 364 listed in 1989. The increase reflects the addition of distinct populations, previously non-imperiled fishes, and recently described or discovered taxa. Approximately 39% of described fish species of the continent are imperiled. There are 230 vulnerable, 190 threatened, and 280 endangered extant taxa, and 61 taxa presumed extinct or extirpated from nature. Of those that were imperiled in 1989, most (89%) are the same or worse in conservation status; only 6% have improved in status, and 5% were delisted for various reasons. Habitat degradation and nonindigenous species are the main threats to at-risk fishes, many of which are restricted to small ranges. Documenting the diversity and status of rare fishes is a critical step in identifying and implementing appropriate actions necessary for their protection and management.

  5. Population trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, B.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Robbins, C.S.; Martin, Thomas E.; Finch, Deborah M.

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Most Neotropical migrant birds are difficult to count accurately and are moderately common over large breeding distributions. Consequently, little historical information exists on their large-scale population changes, and most of this information is anecdotal. Surveys begun in this century such as Breeding Bird Censuses and Christmas Bird Counts have the potential to provide this information, but only the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) achieves the extensive continental coverage necessary to document population changes for most Neotropical migrant birds. Conservationists and ecologists have begun to use BBS data to estimate population trends, but there is still widespread confusion over exactly what these data show regarding population changes. In this chapter, we review the current state of knowledge regarding population changes in Neotropical migrant birds and the methods used to analyze these changes. The primary emphasis is on the BBS (Robbins et al. 1986) because this survey provides the best available data for estimating trends of Neotropical migrants on a continental scale. To address questions about methods of analyzing survey data, we review and compare some alternative methods of analyzing BBS data. We also discuss the effectiveness of the BBS in sampling Neotropical migrant species, and review possibilities for use of alternative data sets to verify trends from the BBS.

  6. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. PMID:25816274

  7. The North American upper mantle: Density, composition, and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Kaban, Mikhail K.

    2010-12-01

    The upper mantle of North America has been well studied using various seismic methods. Here we investigate the density structure of the North American (NA) upper mantle based on the integrative use of the gravity field and seismic data. The basis of our study is the removal of the gravitational effect of the crust to determine the mantle gravity anomalies. The effect of the crust is removed in three steps by subtracting the gravitational contributions of (1) topography and bathymetry, (2) low-density sedimentary accumulations, and (3) the three-dimensional density structure of the crystalline crust as determined by seismic observations. Information regarding sedimentary accumulations, including thickness and density, are taken from published maps and summaries of borehole measurements of densities; the seismic structure of the crust is based on a recent compilation, with layer densities estimated from P-wave velocities. The resultant mantle gravity anomaly map shows a pronounced negative anomaly (-50 to -400 mGal) beneath western North America and the adjacent oceanic region and positive anomalies (+50 to +350 mGal) east of the NA Cordillera. This pattern reflects the well-known division of North America into the stable eastern region and the tectonically active western region. The close correlation of large-scale features of the mantle anomaly map with those of the topographic map indicates that a significant amount of the topographic uplift in western NA is due to buoyancy in the hot upper mantle, a conclusion supported by previous investigations. To separate the contributions of mantle temperature anomalies from mantle compositional anomalies, we apply an additional correction to the mantle anomaly map for the thermal structure of the uppermost mantle. The thermal model is based on the conversion of seismic shear-wave velocities to temperature and is consistent with mantle temperatures that are independently estimated from heat flow and heat production data. The

  8. The North American upper mantle: density, composition, and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, Walter D.; Kaban, Mikhail K.

    2010-01-01

    The upper mantle of North America has been well studied using various seismic methods. Here we investigate the density structure of the North American (NA) upper mantle based on the integrative use of the gravity field and seismic data. The basis of our study is the removal of the gravitational effect of the crust to determine the mantle gravity anomalies. The effect of the crust is removed in three steps by subtracting the gravitational contributions of (1) topography and bathymetry, (2) low-density sedimentary accumulations, and (3) the three-dimensional density structure of the crystalline crust as determined by seismic observations. Information regarding sedimentary accumulations, including thickness and density, are taken from published maps and summaries of borehole measurements of densities; the seismic structure of the crust is based on a recent compilation, with layer densities estimated from P-wave velocities. The resultant mantle gravity anomaly map shows a pronounced negative anomaly (−50 to −400 mGal) beneath western North America and the adjacent oceanic region and positive anomalies (+50 to +350 mGal) east of the NA Cordillera. This pattern reflects the well-known division of North America into the stable eastern region and the tectonically active western region. The close correlation of large-scale features of the mantle anomaly map with those of the topographic map indicates that a significant amount of the topographic uplift in western NA is due to buoyancy in the hot upper mantle, a conclusion supported by previous investigations. To separate the contributions of mantle temperature anomalies from mantle compositional anomalies, we apply an additional correction to the mantle anomaly map for the thermal structure of the uppermost mantle. The thermal model is based on the conversion of seismic shear-wave velocities to temperature and is consistent with mantle temperatures that are independently estimated from heat flow and heat production data

  9. Differential aspects of ascending thoracic aortic dissection and its treatment: the North American experience

    PubMed Central

    Coselli, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection is a deadly disease with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe the differential aspects of the disease and the North American experience with its treatment. PMID:27563548

  10. Climate change effects on North American inland fish populations and assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Myers, Bonnie; Chu, Cindy; Eby, Lisa A.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Krabbenhoft, Trevor J.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Lyons, John; Paukert, Craig P.; Whitney, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Climate is a critical driver of many fish populations, assemblages, and aquatic communities. However, direct observational studies of climate change impacts on North American inland fishes are rare. In this synthesis, we (1) summarize climate trends that may influence North American inland fish populations and assemblages, (2) compile 31 peer-reviewed studies of documented climate change effects on North American inland fish populations and assemblages, and (3) highlight four case studies representing a variety of observed responses ranging from warmwater systems in the southwestern and southeastern United States to coldwater systems along the Pacific Coast and Canadian Shield. We conclude by identifying key data gaps and research needs to inform adaptive, ecosystem-based approaches to managing North American inland fishes and fisheries in a changing climate.

  11. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  12. 78 FR 36571 - North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official Protraction Diagram (OPDs) AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior... Ocean Energy Management. BILLING CODE 4310-MR-P...

  13. 77 FR 69453 - Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... sent to Deborah Blue, Competition Policy Division, Wireline Competition Bureau, Federal...

  14. RESULTS FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN MERCURY MODEL INTER-COMPARISON STUDY (NAMMIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A North American Mercury Model Intercomparison Study (NAMMIS) has been conducted to build upon the findings from previous mercury model intercomparison in Europe. In the absence of mercury measurement networks sufficient for model evaluation, model developers continue to rely on...

  15. 75 FR 26748 - Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Representatives Committee and Board of Trustees Meetings. Hyatt Regency Baltimore on the Inner Harbor, 300 Light... matters at issue in the following Commission proceedings: Docket No. RC08-4, North American...

  16. Holy smoke: tobacco use among native american tribes in North America.

    PubMed

    Godlaski, Theodore M

    2013-01-01

    The use of tobacco by Native Americans in North America seems to have ancient origins and significant spiritual meaning. This article reviews archeological and anthropological data about the use of tobacco and its sacred significance.

  17. Thirty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    This fourth supplement after the 6th edition (1983) of the AOU "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 March 1989 and 1 March 1991. The changes fall into eight categories: (1) five species (Ixobrychus sinensis, Porphyrula flavirostris, Sterna bergii, Streptopelia orientalis, and Ficedula narcissina) are added to the main list because of new distributional information; (2) six species (Pterodroma cervicalis, Ortalis wagleri, Lophornis brachylopha, Corvus sinaloae, Cinclocerthia gutturalis, and Loxops caeruleirostris) are added to the list because of the splitting of species previously in the list; (3) one extinct species (Dysmorodrepanis munroi) is added to the list because of re-identification of the unique type; (4) one scientific name (Speotyto cunicularia) is changed because of generic splitting; (5) one scientific name (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) is changed for nomenclature reasons, accompanied by a change in English name; (6) the spelling of one scientific name (Neocrex colombianus) is corrected; (7) to other English names are changed or corrected; and (8) one sequencing change is made. No new distributional information is included except as noted above (i.e. minor changes of distribution of distributional records within North America are not included). The twelve additions bring the number of species recognized as occurring within the Check-list area (main list) to 1957.

  18. Unraveling reticulate evolution in North American Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The thirteen species of Dryopteris in North America have long been suspected of having undergone a complicated history of reticulate evolution via allopolyploid hybridization. Various explanations for the origins of the allopolyploid taxa have been suggested, and though most lines of evidence have supported the so-called “semicristata” hypothesis, contention over the group’s history has continued in several recent, conflicting studies. Results Sequence data from nine plastid and two nuclear markers were collected from 73 accessions representing 35 species of Dryopteris. Sequences from each of the allopolyploids are most closely related to their progenitor species as predicted by the “semicristata” hypothesis. Allotetraploid D. campyloptera appears to be derived from a hybrid between diploid D. expansa and D. intermedia; D. celsa, from diploid D. ludoviciana x D. goldiana; and D. carthusiana and D. cristata, from diploid “D. semicristata” x D. intermedia and D. ludoviciana, respectively. Allohexaploid D. clintoniana appears to be derived from D. cristata x D.goldiana. The earliest estimated dates of formation of the allopolyploids, based on divergence time analyses, were within the last 6 Ma. We found no evidence for recurrent formation of any of the allopolyploids. The sexual allopolyploid taxa are derived from crosses between parents that show intermediate levels of genetic divergence relative to all pairs of potential progenitors. In addition, the four allotetraploids are transgressive with respect to geographic range relative to one or both of their parents (their ranges extend beyond those of the parents), suggesting that ecological advantages in novel habitats or regions may promote long-term regional coexistence of the hybrid taxa with their progenitors. Conclusions This study provides the first thorough evaluation of the North American complex of woodferns using extensive sampling of taxa and genetic markers. Phylogenies produced

  19. New estimates of area and mass for the North American tektite strewn field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, C.

    1989-01-01

    A revised estimate is given for the total mass of the North American tektite material, which is based on a concept of patches or rays of distribution rather than on a continuous tektite and microtektite blanket. This concept yields a total mass of about 3 x 10 to the 14th g, which is less than a third of previous estimates. The shape of the North American tektite strewn field is in agreement with other tektite strewn fields.

  20. Toward linking maize chemistry to archaeological agricultural sites in the North American Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordell, L.S.; Durand, S.R.; Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) was the staple domestic food crop for Ancestral Pueblo people throughout the northern American Southwest. It is thought to have been the basic food of the inhabitants of Chaco Canyon. New Mexico, a location that was a major centre of Ancestral Pueblo building and population during the 11th and early 12th centuries AD. Modern heirloom varieties of Native American corn have been difficult to grow in experimental fields in Chaco Canyon. Given an abundance of apparent storage structures in Chacoan buildings, it is possible that some corn recovered from archaeological contexts, was imported from surrounding areas. The ultimate goal of this research is to determine whether the corn in Chaco Canyon was grown locally or imported. This paper establishes the feasibility of a method to accomplish this goal. This study reports the results of using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) instrumentation to determine chemical constituents of experimental fields and modern heirloom varieties of Native American corn. Analysis of 19 elements is adequate to differentiate soil and corn from three field areas. These results are promising: however, a number of problems, including post-depositional alterations in maize, remain to be solved. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Predicting vulnerabilities of North American shorebirds to climate change.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Hector; DesRochers, David W; Brown, Stephen; Reed, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in conservation efforts for shorebirds, there are widespread declines of many species of North American shorebirds. We wanted to know whether these declines would be exacerbated by climate change, and whether relatively secure species might become at-risk species. Virtually all of the shorebird species breeding in the USA and Canada are migratory, which means climate change could affect extinction risk via changes on the breeding, wintering, and/or migratory refueling grounds, and that ecological synchronicities could be disrupted at multiple sites. To predict the effects of climate change on shorebird extinction risks, we created a categorical risk model complementary to that used by Partners-in-Flight and the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan. The model is based on anticipated changes in breeding, migration, and wintering habitat, degree of dependence on ecological synchronicities, migration distance, and degree of specialization on breeding, migration, or wintering habitat. We evaluated 49 species, and for 3 species we evaluated 2 distinct populations each, and found that 47 (90%) taxa are predicted to experience an increase in risk of extinction. No species was reclassified into a lower-risk category, although 6 species had at least one risk factor decrease in association with climate change. The number of species that changed risk categories in our assessment is sensitive to how much of an effect of climate change is required to cause the shift, but even at its least sensitive, 20 species were at the highest risk category for extinction. Based on our results it appears that shorebirds are likely to be highly vulnerable to climate change. Finally, we discuss both how our approach can be integrated with existing risk assessments and potential future directions for predicting change in extinction risk due to climate change.

  2. Predicting Vulnerabilities of North American Shorebirds to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Hector; DesRochers, David W.; Brown, Stephen; Reed, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in conservation efforts for shorebirds, there are widespread declines of many species of North American shorebirds. We wanted to know whether these declines would be exacerbated by climate change, and whether relatively secure species might become at–risk species. Virtually all of the shorebird species breeding in the USA and Canada are migratory, which means climate change could affect extinction risk via changes on the breeding, wintering, and/or migratory refueling grounds, and that ecological synchronicities could be disrupted at multiple sites. To predict the effects of climate change on shorebird extinction risks, we created a categorical risk model complementary to that used by Partners–in–Flight and the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan. The model is based on anticipated changes in breeding, migration, and wintering habitat, degree of dependence on ecological synchronicities, migration distance, and degree of specialization on breeding, migration, or wintering habitat. We evaluated 49 species, and for 3 species we evaluated 2 distinct populations each, and found that 47 (90%) taxa are predicted to experience an increase in risk of extinction. No species was reclassified into a lower–risk category, although 6 species had at least one risk factor decrease in association with climate change. The number of species that changed risk categories in our assessment is sensitive to how much of an effect of climate change is required to cause the shift, but even at its least sensitive, 20 species were at the highest risk category for extinction. Based on our results it appears that shorebirds are likely to be highly vulnerable to climate change. Finally, we discuss both how our approach can be integrated with existing risk assessments and potential future directions for predicting change in extinction risk due to climate change. PMID:25268907

  3. Molecular Clouds in the North American and Pelican Nebulae: Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaobo; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji

    2014-03-01

    We present observations of a 4.25 deg2 area toward the North American and Pelican Nebulae in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. Three molecules show different emission areas with their own distinct structures. These different density tracers reveal several dense clouds with a surface density of over 500 M ⊙ pc-2 and a mean H2 column density of 5.8, 3.4, and 11.9 × 1021 cm-2 for 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, respectively. We obtain a total mass of 5.4 × 104 M ⊙ (12CO), 2.0 × 104 M ⊙ (13CO), and 6.1 × 103 M ⊙ (C18O) in the complex. The distribution of excitation temperature shows two phases of gas: cold gas (~10 K) spreads across the whole cloud; warm gas (>20 K) outlines the edge of the cloud heated by the W80 H II region. The kinetic structure of the cloud indicates an expanding shell surrounding the ionized gas produced by the H II region. There are six discernible regions in the cloud: the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Islands and Sea, and Pelican's Beak, Hat, and Neck. The areas of 13CO emission range within 2-10 pc2 with mass of (1-5) × 103 M ⊙ and line width of a few km s-1. The different line properties and signs of star-forming activity indicate they are in different evolutionary stages. Four filamentary structures with complicated velocity features are detected along the dark lane in LDN 935. Furthermore, a total of 611 molecular clumps within the 13CO tracing cloud are identified using the ClumpFind algorithm. The properties of the clumps suggest that most of the clumps are gravitationally bound and at an early stage of evolution with cold and dense molecular gas.

  4. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

  5. Increasing incidence of celiac disease in a North American population

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; van Dyke, Carol T.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Lahr, Brian D.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) varies greatly, potentially because of incomplete ascertainment of cases and small study samples with limited statistical power. Previous reports indicate that the incidence of CD is increasing. We examined the prevalence of CD in a well-defined US county. METHODS Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, US. Using the infrastructure of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, medical, histopathology, and CD serology records were used to identify all new cases of CD in Olmsted County since 2000. Age- and sex-specific and adjusted (to the US white 2000 population) incidence rates for CD were estimated. Clinical presentation at diagnosis was also assessed. RESULTS Between 2000 and 2010, 249 individuals (157 female or 63%, median age 37.9 years) were diagnosed with CD in Olmsted County. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CD in the study period was 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.2–19.6) per 100,000 person-years, increasing from 11.1 (95% CI=6.8–15.5) in 2000–2001 to 17.3 (95% CI=13.3–21.3) in 2008–2010. The temporal trend in incidence rates was modeled as a two-slope pattern, with the incidence leveling off after 2004. Based on the two classic CD symptoms of diarrhea and weight loss, the relative frequency of classical CD among incident cases decreased over time between 2000 and 2010 (p=0.044). CONCLUSION The incidence of CD has continued to increase in the past decade in a North American population. PMID:23511460

  6. Seroprevalence of retrovirus in North American captive macropodidae.

    PubMed

    Georoff, Timothy A; Joyner, Priscilla H; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Pogranichniy, Roman M

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. Serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 North American captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, and among animals with identified parentage was examined by nonparametric statistical analyses. Median age of animals at time of sample collection was 36 mo (range 2-201 mo). Total percentage seropositive was 20.4%. Serum antibody was detected in 31 of 47 (66.0%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), nine of 24 (37.5%) yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus), four of 11 (36.4%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 10 of 80 (12.5%) red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), and one of 54 (1.9%) parma wallaby (Macropus parma). No individuals of western gray kangaroo (n=3) (Macropus fuliginosus), eastern gray kangaroo (n=19) (Macropus giganteus), common wallaroo (n=6) (Macropus robustus), red kangaroo (n=11) (Macropus rufus), or Matschie's tree kangaroo (n=14) (Dendrolagus matschiei) were positive for retrovirus antibody. These results demonstrate that five species of captive macropods have a history of exposure to retrovirus, with the highest percentage seropositive and highest statistical correlation in M. eugenii (pair-wise Fisher's exact test, alpha = 0.05). Additionally, one wild-caught M. eugenii was confirmed seropositive during quarantine period, indicating that retrovirus exposure may exist in wild populations.

  7. 76 FR 45603 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the North American Amphibian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... On March 14, 2011 we published a Federal Register notice (76 FR 13658) announcing that we would... American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION... request (ICR) for the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP). As required by the...

  8. "Beneath the Gloss and Floss": Teaching American History in "The Great White North."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    The senior author of a textbook presenting U.S. and Canadian history in a comparative framework criticizes U.S. history textbooks for their interpretations of Native Americans and for their mystifying tendencies. Explains how "Canada: A North American Nation" presents a more detached perspective and offers a second opinion on some of the United…

  9. Genetic Diversity of North American Wild kidney bean (Phaseolus polystachios) in the Eastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American wild kidney bean or thicket bean (Phaseolus polystachios (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb) is a perennial vine found in the eastern United States from Texas to Connecticut. It is the only Phaseolus species native to temperate North America. Its closest cultivated relative is P. lunatus...

  10. North American Leadership Academy. [Report of the First North American Leadership Academy (1st, San Diego, CA, July 30-August 2, 1997)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council Connections, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This special issue of the newsletter "Council Connections" reports on the First North American Leadership Academy. The Academy's theme was "Strengthening the Operation of Reading Recovery" and its purpose was to develop opportunities for strengthening Reading Recovery in individual schools, sites, school districts and state and provinces…

  11. Human and Host Species Transferrin Receptor 1 Use by North American Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Min; Fofana, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT At least five New World (NW) arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fevers in South America. These pathogenic clade B viruses, as well as nonpathogenic arenaviruses of the same clade, use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) of their host species to enter cells. Pathogenic viruses are distinguished from closely related nonpathogenic ones by their additional ability to utilize human TfR1 (hTfR1). Here, we investigate the receptor usage of North American arenaviruses, whose entry proteins share greatest similarity with those of the clade B viruses. We show that all six North American arenaviruses investigated utilize host species TfR1 orthologs and present evidence consistent with arenavirus-mediated selection pressure on the TfR1 of the North American arenavirus host species. Notably, one of these viruses, AV96010151, closely related to the prototype Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV), entered cells using hTfR1, consistent with a role for a WWAV-like virus in three fatal human infections whose causative agent has not been identified. In addition, modest changes were sufficient to convert hTfR1 into a functional receptor for most of these viruses, suggesting that a minor alteration in virus entry protein may allow these viruses to use hTfR1. Our data establish TfR1 as a cellular receptor for North American arenaviruses, highlight an “arms race” between these viruses and their host species, support the association of North American arenavirus with fatal human infections, and suggest that these viruses have a higher potential to emerge and cause human diseases than has previously been appreciated. IMPORTANCE hTfR1 use is a key determinant for a NW arenavirus to cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans. All known pathogenic NW arenaviruses are transmitted in South America by their host rodents. North American arenaviruses are generally considered nonpathogenic, but some of these viruses have been tentatively implicated in human fatalities. We show that these North American

  12. Changes in size and trends of North American sea duck populations associated with North Pacific oceanic regime shifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-scale multi-species declines in populations of North American sea ducks for unknown reasons is cause for management concern. Oceanic regime shifts have been associated with rapid changes in ecosystem structure of the North Pacific and Bering Sea. However, relatively little is known about potential effects of these changes in oceanic conditions on marine bird populations at broad scales. I examined changes in North American breeding populations of sea ducks from 1957 to 2011 in relation to potential oceanic regime shifts in the North Pacific in 1977, 1989, and 1998. There was strong support for population-level effects of regime shifts in 1977 and 1989, but little support for an effect of the 1998 shift. The continental-level effects of these regime shifts differed across species groups and time. Based on patterns of sea duck population dynamics associated with regime shifts, it is unclear if the mechanism of change relates to survival or reproduction. Results of this analysis support the hypothesis that population size and trends of North American sea ducks are strongly influenced by oceanic conditions. The perceived population declines appear to have halted >20 years ago, and populations have been relatively stable or increasing since that time. Given these results, we should reasonably expect dramatic changes in sea duck population status and trends with future oceanic regime shifts.

  13. Forty-sixth supplement to the American ornithologists' union check-list of North American Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J.L.; Kratter, A.W.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, J.D.; Stotz, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    This is the fifth Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists? Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU?s Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 January and 31 December 2004. Changes in this Supplement fall into the following categories: (1) two species replace others presently on the list because of splitting of extralimital forms (Leptotila plumbeiceps replaces L. rufaxilla and Hylocharis humboldtii replaces H. grayi); (2) one species is removed from the Appendix and added to the main list because of new distributional information (Circus aeruginosus); (3) one species is removed from the list because of its merger with another species on the list (Motacilla lugens); (4) one species is removed from the main list and placed in the Appendix (Acridotheres cristatellus); (4) two species are removed from the families in which they were previously treated and placed in incertae sedis categories (Donacobius atricapilla and Coereba flaveola), and one family is removed from the list (Coerebidae); (6) one genus is removed from the list (Mimodes) because of its merger with another on the list (Mimus), with the consequent change of the scientific name of one species; and (7) the distribution of one species is restricted because of the removal of an extralimital population now treated as distinct (Melanerpes chrysauchen). Further, one species is added to the list of birds known to occur in the United States (Tachycineta albilinea). A few recent references are added to statements of distribution. Minor corrections are made in several citations or notes. There is one more deletion from the main list than additions to it, so the number of species in the main list becomes 2,037.

  14. Thirty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union checklist of North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    This third supplement subsequent to the 6th edition (1983) of the A.O.U. "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature as of 1 March 1989. The changes fall into nine categories: (1) six species are added to the main list (Pterodroma longirostris, Larus crassirostris, Streptopelia decaocto, Cocccyzus julieni, Chrysolampis mosquitus, Emberiza aureola) because of new distributional information; (2) five species (Ara cubensis, Chlorostilbon bracei, Empidonax occidentalis, Polioptila californica, Pipilo crissalis) are added to the main list because of the splitting of species already on the list; (3) one name (Anthus rubescens) is changed because of the splitting of a species from outside the Checklist area; (4) two names (Morus bassanus, Nyctanassa violacea) is removed from the main list to Appendix B because of re-evaluation of Northern Hemisphere records; (6) three species (Pterodrama rostrata, P. alba, P. solandri) are moved from Appendix A to Appendix B, and one (P. defilippiana) is added to Appendix B because of questionable sight records; (7)A.O.U. numbers are added to three species (Ciccaba virgata, Myiopagis viridicata, Molothrus bonariensis) on the basis on new distributional records or supporting data; (8) several corrections in spelling or citations are made; and (9) English names are changed for twelve species to accommodate worldwide usage of these names. No new distributional information is included except as indicated above (i.e. minor changes of distribution are not noted). These actions bring the number of species recognized as occurring in North America (main list) to 1,945.

  15. Molt and aging criteria for four North American grassland passerines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyle, Peter; Jones, Stephanie L.; Ruth, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    Prairie and grassland habitats in central and western North America have declined substantially since settlement by Europeans (Knopf 1994) and many of the birds and other organisms that inhabit North American grasslands have experienced steep declines (Peterjohn and Sauer 1999; Johnson and Igl 1997; Sauer, Hines, and Fallon 2007). The species addressed here, Sprague’s Pipit (Anthus spragueii), Grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum) and Baird’s (A. bairdii) sparrows, and Chestnut-collared Longspurs (Calcarius ornatus), are grassland birds that are of special conservation concern throughout their ranges due to declining populations and the loss of the specific grassland habitats required on both their breeding and wintering ranges (Knopf 1994, Davis and Sealy 1998, Davis 2003, Davis 2004, Jones and Dieni 2007). Population-trend data on grassland birds, while clearly showing declines, provides no information on the causes of population declines. Without demographic information (i.e., productivity and survivorship), there are no means to determine when in their life cycle the problems that are creating these declines are occurring, or to determine to what extent population trends are driven by factors that affect birth rates, death rates, or both (DeSante 1995). For migratory birds, population declines may be driven by factors on breeding grounds, during migration, and/or on wintering grounds. Lack of data on productivity and survivorship thus impedes the formulation of effective management and conservation strategies to reverse population declines (DeSante 1992). Furthermore, if deficiencies in survivorship are revealed, management strategies may need to address habitats on both breeding and non-breeding grounds, as well as along migratory pathways. One technique that helps inform management strategies is the biochemical analysis of isotopes and genetic markers, from the sampling of individual feathers from live birds (Smith et al. 2003, Pérez and Hobson 2006

  16. Population status of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.B.; Grimes, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Lindley, S.T.; Moser, M.L.; Parsley, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The two questions that need to be answered when considering an ESA listing are; (1) Is the entity a species under the ESA and if so (2) is the "species" in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range? Green sturgeon genetic analyses showed strong differentiation between northern and southern populations, and therefore, the species was divided into Northern and Southern Distinct Population Segments (DPSs). The Northern DPS includes populations in the Rogue, Klamath-Trinity, and Eel rivers, while the Southern DPS only includes a single population in the Sacramento River. The principal risk factors for green sturgeon include loss of spawning habitat, harvest, and entrainment. The Northern DPS is not considered to be in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. The loss of spawning habitat is not large enough to threaten this DPS, although the Eel River has been severely impacted by sedimentation due to poor land use practices and floods. The two main spawning populations in the Rogue and Klamath-Trinity rivers occupy separate basins reducing the potential for loss of the DPS through catastrophic events. Harvest has been substantially reduced and green sturgeon in this DPS do not face substantial entrainment loss. However there are significant concerns due to lack of information, flow and temperature issues, and habitat degradation. The Southern DPS is considered likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Green sturgeon in this DPS are concentrated into one spawning area outside of their natural habitat in the Sacramento River, making them vulnerable to catastrophic extinction. Green sturgeon spawning areas have been lost from the area above Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River and

  17. Molecular clouds in the North American and Pelican Nebulae: structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaobo; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji

    2014-03-01

    We present observations of a 4.25 deg{sup 2} area toward the North American and Pelican Nebulae in the J = 1-0 transitions of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O. Three molecules show different emission areas with their own distinct structures. These different density tracers reveal several dense clouds with a surface density of over 500 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} and a mean H{sub 2} column density of 5.8, 3.4, and 11.9 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} for {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O, respectively. We obtain a total mass of 5.4 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} ({sup 12}CO), 2.0 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} ({sup 13}CO), and 6.1 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} (C{sup 18}O) in the complex. The distribution of excitation temperature shows two phases of gas: cold gas (∼10 K) spreads across the whole cloud; warm gas (>20 K) outlines the edge of the cloud heated by the W80 H II region. The kinetic structure of the cloud indicates an expanding shell surrounding the ionized gas produced by the H II region. There are six discernible regions in the cloud: the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Islands and Sea, and Pelican's Beak, Hat, and Neck. The areas of {sup 13}CO emission range within 2-10 pc{sup 2} with mass of (1-5) × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} and line width of a few km s{sup –1}. The different line properties and signs of star-forming activity indicate they are in different evolutionary stages. Four filamentary structures with complicated velocity features are detected along the dark lane in LDN 935. Furthermore, a total of 611 molecular clumps within the {sup 13}CO tracing cloud are identified using the ClumpFind algorithm. The properties of the clumps suggest that most of the clumps are gravitationally bound and at an early stage of evolution with cold and dense molecular gas.

  18. Precipitation and Moisture Sources in North American Monsoon Surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, N. J.; Nesbitt, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    Prediction of North American Monsoon (NAM) precipitation plays an important role in decision-making on time scales from minutes for severe weather to seasons and years for agriculture. Gulf of California (GoC) moisture surges are connected to NAM precipitation and play a role in modulating the monsoon. This study aims to improve understanding of the relationship between precipitation, surges, and the larger scale moisture sources of the NAM with the ultimate goal of improving precipitation forecasts over the monsoon region. Although previous studies have relied primarily on dew point temperature to identify surges, relative humidity accounts for the cool and moist qualities of surges simultaneously. Using an updated method to recognize surges, relative humidity, temperature, and dew point from surface observations all show distinct trends that are consistent with surges lasting 1-2 days. The NARR identifies surges more precisely based on a plan view of θe anomalies than a pseudo-surface observation at a single data point near Yuma. With an eye towards climate change, 29 years of surface observations show surge length is not changing, but surges may be growing more frequent, less humid, and warmer. Surges show a pronounced relationship with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42-estimated precipitation. As the surge progresses northward along the GoC, precipitation follows, showing little delay until the surge breaches the northern end of the GoC. Yuma, AZ, surface observations show a one-day delay between surge arrival and precipitation enhancement, probably because surge arrival is defined at the beginning of the rise in atmospheric moisture. This positive precipitation anomaly in the Desert Southwest appears at the same time that negative anomalies dominate the Great Plains, intimating an inverse relationship suggested in previous studies. In terms of surge moisture source, there is no significant connection between the GoC and an outside moisture

  19. Returning the Gift: A Festival of North American Native Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaeser, Kimberly M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses (1) the place of Native American literature in the literary canon; (2) who determines Indian identity and images, and the emerging inter-American indigenous identity; and (3) children's literature as a means of portraying true Indian culture and identity, thereby improving self-esteem and school success of Indian children. (SV)

  20. Duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in North American Waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Leibovitz, L.; Herman, C.M.; Walker, J.W.

    1968-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the status of DVE among wild waterfowl in North America and describes some of the characteristic lesions associated with this disease. The paper also mentions some of the work which has been undertaken to learn more about the status of DVE in North America.

  1. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  2. Asian Studies: Experimental Course of Study, 11th or 12th Year Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryberg, Carl

    This experimental course of study has a twofold purpose. Primarily, it is intended to serve as basis for an elective for the 11th or 12th year student. Openended in organization, it encourages teachers and students to add new dimensions. It provides a comprehensive bibliography and detailed information with which to develop an elective in the area…

  3. 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Pain Consortium will convene the 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research, featuring keynote speakers and expert panel sessions on Innovative Models and Methods. The first keynote address will be delivered by David J. Clark, MD, PhD, Stanford University entitled “Challenges of Translational Pain Research: What Makes a Good Model?” |

  4. Court Says 11th Amendment Does Not Bar All Lawsuits against Public Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1994-01-01

    A federal appeals court decision suggests that public colleges may not be covered by the Constitution's 11th amendment prohibiting state governments from being sued in federal court. By the ruling, the institution loses immunity by having funds other than state appropriations with which to pay damages in the lawsuits. (MSE)

  5. Labor Market Effects of September 11th on Arab and Muslim Residents of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert; Reimers, Cordelia

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the September 11, 2001 terrorists' attacks had any effect on employment, earnings, and residential mobility of first- and second-generation Arab and Muslim men in the United States. We find that September 11th did not significantly affect employment and hours of work of Arab and Muslim men, but was associated with a 9-11…

  6. 77 FR 43823 - Filing Dates for the Michigan Special Election in the 11th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Michigan Special Election in the 11th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Michigan has...

  7. Impact of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks on Teenagers' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lubell, Keri; Provenzano, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on adolescents' mental health is reported. Two successive cohorts of students in 6 New York state high schools, identified from health courses, completed an in-school self-report baseline assessment of hopelessness, impairment, and help-seeking behavior. One year later, these students completed a…

  8. 77 FR 21107 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: September 11th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: September 11th Victim Compensation Fund Claimant Eligibility and Compensation Form ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice...

  9. Review of "The September 11th Education Program: A National Interdisciplinary Curriculum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterson, Robert A.; Jenne, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    A review of "The September 11th Education Program: A National Interdisciplinary Curriculum" reveals a sensitive and well-created program for the 5-12 social studies teacher to use in teaching about the challenging subject of 9/11. This program provides an opportunity for teachers to find a balance among understanding, critical analysis,…

  10. Education Scholars' Reflections on the Implications of September 11th for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Judith L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the reflections of five educational scholars on the potential impact of the events of September 11th on curriculum and how to address it. Edited excerpts are featured from Maxine Greene, Nel Noddings, Jesse Goodman, Michael Apple, and Gloria Ladson-Billings. Respondents address such issues as cultural awareness, moral education, and…

  11. Agreement on Use of 11th Grade Smarter Balanced Assessment Results for Student Placement. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue brief lists the agreement principles relating to the use of 11th grade career and college readiness assessment results for student placement in Washington community and technical colleges. As part of the Washington implementation of the new Common Core State Standards for college- and career-readiness, the agreement described herein has…

  12. September 11th, the Internet, and the Affects on Information Provision in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stuart

    The September 11th terrorist attacks on the United States have contributed greatly to a change in the information environment around the world. The weeks following the attacks saw governments around the world rush to pass legislation designed to prevent future acts of terrorism. Much of this legislation targeted information flow, especially on the…

  13. Expertise, Argumentation and Scientific Practice: A Case Study about Environmental Education in the 11th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Alexandre, Maria Pilar; Pereiro Munoz, Cristina; Aznar Cuadrado, Virginia

    This paper reports a case study about argumentation and scientific practice in the 11th grade. The objectives of the study are to identify argument patterns and dimensions of the scientific practice in students' conversations and actions while engaged in an environmental management project in a wetland. The focus are the warrants that students…

  14. Adolescent Vulnerability Following the September 11th Terrorist Attacks: A Study of Parents and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Holman, E. Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 2 weeks after September 11th, adolescents from a national sample of households who were indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks through the media completed a Web-based survey that assessed event-related acute stress symptoms. One year later, these adolescents (N = 142) and a randomly selected parent from their household completed…

  15. State Education & Environment Roundtable (SEER) Seminar (11th, Des Moines, Iowa, May 20-24, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L.

    This document reports on the 11th seminar of the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER). It consists of brief overviews of the daily discussions and presentations that were made at the seminar. Topics discussed include potential partnerships with national language arts organizations and associations, how environmental justice issues…

  16. The Federal Forecasters Conference--2000. Papers and Proceedings (11th, Washington, DC, September 14, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerald, Debra, E., Ed.

    The 11th Federal Forecasters Conference provided a forum where 180 forecasters from different federal agencies and other organizations could meet and discuss forecasting in the United States. The theme for this conference was "Forecasting, Policy, and the Internet." In the morning session, a panel presentation featured three speakers. Neilson C.…

  17. Detection of North American eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses by nucleic acid amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Amy J; Martin, Denise A; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    We have developed nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and TaqMan nucleic acid amplification assays for the rapid detection of North American eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and western equine encephalitis (WEE) viral RNAs from samples collected in the field and clinical samples. The sensitivities of these assays have been compared to that of virus isolation. While all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays provide rapid detection of viral RNAs comparable to the isolation of viruses in Vero cells, the TaqMan assays for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs are the most sensitive. We have shown these assays to be specific for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs by testing geographically and temporally distinct strains of EEE and WEE viruses along with a battery of related and unrelated arthropodborne viruses. In addition, all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays have been used to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs from mosquito and vertebrate tissue samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of nucleic acid amplification demonstrate the usefulness of NASBA, standard RT-PCR, and TaqMan assays, in both research and diagnostic settings, to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs. PMID:12517876

  18. [Analysis of the definitive statistics of the 11th General Population and Housing Census].

    PubMed

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1992-01-01

    The 11th General Census of Population and Housing conducted in March 1990 enumerated 2,204,054 inhabitants in Sinaloa, for a density of 37.9 per sq. km. Sinaloa's population thus increased sevenfold from 297,000 in 1900. The proportion of Sinalioans in Mexico's population increased from 2.2% in 1900 to 2.7% in 1990. 38.4% of the population was under age 14, 57.0% was 14064, and 4.6% as over 65. The greatest challenge for the year 2010 will be to meet the demand for educational facilities, employment, and services for the growing elderly population. Sinaloa's population grew at an annual rate of 1.1 between 1980-90. 17 of its 18 municipios showed slowing growth rates between 1980-90, with only Escuinapa increasing its rate. Sinaloa's growth rate of 1.8% is still relatively high, and the population in the year 2000 is projected at 2.6 million. Population distribution and migration present problems that should be more actively addressed. Urban-urban migration is increasing in importance. In 1990, Sinaloa had 5247 localities of which only 85 had more than 2500 inhabitants and 4717 had fewer than 500. Growth of midsize localities with 500-2499 inhabitants may constitute an alternative allowing the demographic deconcentration and decentralization that Sinaloa urgently requires. The lack of jobs, infrastructure, educational and health services, housing, and food in the dispersed 4717 communities with fewer than 500 inhabitants makes them sources of emigration. Sinaloa's population is concentrated along the coast and in the 3 valleys of the north and central regions, which contain 80.8% of the population. One-third of the population lives on 12.1% of the territory in 2 municipios, while 12 municipios covering 67% of the territory contain just 24% of the population. Sinaloa's growth rate has declined from 4.3% between 1960-70 to 3.7% from 1970-80 and 1.8% in 1980-90.

  19. North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

  20. A Comparison of North American and Latin American Societies and Their Social-Political Pressures: A Preliminary Statement for Instructional Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ronald H.

    In this paper, a comparison of the Latin American and the North American society is presented as a preliminary to future refinement of the concepts into instructional devices for secondary students. Following discussion of the distinctions between the two general societal types (Latin America as organic-centripetal and North America as…

  1. North American nonmarine climates and vegetation during the Late Cretaceous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.; Upchurch, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of physiognomy of Late Cretaceous leaf assemblages and of structural adaptations of Late Cretaceous dicotyledonous woods indicate that megathermal vegetation was an open-canopy, broad-leaved evergreen woodland that existed under low to moderate amounts of rainfall evenly distributed through the year, with a moderate increase at about 40-45??N. Many dicotyledons were probably large, massive trees, but the tallest trees were evergreen conifers. Megathermal climate extended up to paleolatitude 45-50??N. Mesothermal vegetation was at least partially an open, broad-leaved evergreen woodland (perhaps a mosaic of woodland and forest), but the evapotranspirational stress was less than in megathermal climate. Some dicotyledons were large trees, but most were shrubs or small trees; evergreen conifers were the major tree element. Some mild seasonality is evidenced in mesothermal woods; precipitational levels probably varied markedly from year to year. Northward of approximately paleolatitude 65??N, evergreen vegetation was replaced by predominantly deciduous vegetation. This replacement is presumably related primarily to seasonality of light. The southern part of the deciduous vegetation probably existed under mesothermal climate. Comparisons to leaf and wood assemblages from other continents are generally consistent with the vegetational-climatic patterns suggested from North American data. Limited data from equatorial regions suggest low rainfall. Late Cretaceous climates, except probably those of the Cenomanian, had only moderate change through time. Temperatures generally appear to have warmed into the Santonian, cooled slightly into the Campanian and more markedly into the Maastrichtian, and then returned to Santonian values by the late Maastrichtian. The early Eocene was probably warmer than any period of the Late Cretaceous. Latitudinal temperature gradients were lower than at present. For the Campanian and Maastrichtian, a gradient of about 0.3??C/1

  2. EVIDENCE OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINATION OF WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is emerging evidence that mountain ecosystems in the western USA are receiving deposition of persistent bioaccumulative toxicants with origins in North America and elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere. The toxic materials include metals and organic compounds. Of particula...

  3. Alfred Russel Wallace's North American tour: transatlantic evolutionism.

    PubMed

    Fichman, M

    2001-06-01

    Evolutionary theory aroused vigorous debate in the late-19th century, regarding both its scientific status and its sociocultural implications. Alfred Russel Wallace's lecture tour of North America, during 1886-1887, affords a striking insight into his particular interpretation of evolution and reveals the depth of his conviction that science was inseparable from ethical and political realities. Wallace's views on matters scientific and cultural were as controversial and significant in North America as they were in Great Britain and Europe. PMID:11468798

  4. Commerce in health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Frenk, J; Cruz, C

    1997-06-01

    This article discusses the future of commercial trade in personal health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the latter's potential influence on health care for the Mexican people. It begins by defining concepts related to international trade of services, particularly health services, and then proceeds to analyze elements of NAFTA that affect the delivery, regulation, and financing of such services, as well as their future trade within the NAFTA area. It concludes with some recommendations directed at helping Mexico's national health care system confront the risks posed while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the Mexican economy's entry into a broader market.

  5. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcot, Jonathan D.; Fox, David L.; Niebuhr, Spencer R.

    2016-06-01

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals.

  6. North American Paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the Context of Global Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Procop, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible. PMID:19597007

  7. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Marcot, Jonathan D; Fox, David L; Niebuhr, Spencer R

    2016-06-28

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals. PMID:27298355

  8. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Marcot, Jonathan D; Fox, David L; Niebuhr, Spencer R

    2016-06-28

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals.

  9. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  10. History of North American donor milk banking: one hundred years of progress.

    PubMed

    Jones, Frances

    2003-08-01

    Over the past 100 years, North American milk banking has evolved from an idea to a sophisticated process. The early history of establishment of North American banks, including screening processes undertaken, provides the basis for current procedures in modern banks. Increased research and technological improvements have also dramatically changed modern screening procedures. Human milk banks have waxed and waned through the years due to concerns of safety, lack of information, and assertive marketing of infant formula. With increasing awareness of the benefits of human milk and the safety of the optimal product provided through modem milk banks, demand is increasing, leading to greater interest in establishing additional banks. PMID:12931784

  11. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  12. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Panter, Nicholas; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Nagorsen, David W.

    2014-01-01

    North American water shrews, which have traditionally included Sorex alaskanus, S. bendirii, and S. palustris, are widely distributed through Nearctic boreal forests and adapted for life in semiaquatic environments. Molecular mitochondrial signatures for these species have recorded an evolutionary history with variable levels of regional divergence, suggesting a strong role of Quaternary environmental change in speciation processes. We expanded molecular analyses, including more-comprehensive rangewide sampling of specimens representing North American water shrew taxa, except S. alaskanus, and sequencing of 4 independent loci from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We investigated relative divergence of insular populations along the North Pacific Coast, and newly recognized diversity from southwestern montane locations, potentially representing refugial isolates. Congruent independent genealogies, lack of definitive evidence for contemporary gene flow, and high support from coalescent species trees indicated differentiation of 4 major geographic lineages over multiple glacial cycles of the late Quaternary, similar to a growing number of boreal taxa. Limited divergence of insular populations suggested colonization following the last glacial. Characterization of southwestern montane diversity will require further sampling but divergence over multiple loci is indicative of a relictual sky-island fauna. We have reviewed and revised North American water shrew taxonomy including the recognition of 3 species within what was previously known as S. palustris. The possibility of gene flow between most distantly related North American water shrew lineages coupled with unresolved early diversification of this group and other sibling species reflects a complex but potentially productive system for investigating speciation processes.

  13. Final Report on Kokes Awards for the 20th North American Catalysis Society Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Michael S

    2008-12-31

    This Final Report describes how the Kokes Awards program was carried out for the 2007 meeting with regard to selection of students and disbursement of funds received from DOE and other sources. The objective of the Richard J. Kokes Travel Award program of the American Catalysis Society is to encourage graduate students to attend and participate meaningfully in the biennial North American Catalysis Society Meeting.

  14. Reflections on Monetarism, Stagnation and Other North American Exports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordhaus, William D.

    1983-01-01

    The major new development in American economics is the abandonment of neo-Keynesian economics and the reliance on modern monetarism and the rational expectation approach. The result is a stagnant economy with high unemployment. The reasons for this change and its implications are discussed. Suggestions for change are made. (IS)

  15. A Critical Bibliography on North American Indians, for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupp, P. Ann, Comp.; Burnett, Fiona, Comp.; Malloy, Maureen, Comp.; Wilson, Cheryl, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography is a response to teachers' concerns about choosing culturally sensitive and historically accurate books about American Indians and Alaska Natives. It contains critical annotations and evaluations of approximately 1,000 books, most published 1960-93, and points out controversial titles and disagreements about specific…

  16. Social Research in North American Moisture-Deficient Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John W., Ed.

    Five papers presented at the 9th symposium held during the 42nd annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are: (1) "Do We Need a Sociology of Arid Regions"?; (2) "Deficit Creating Influences for Role Performance and Status Acquisition in Sparsely Populated Regions of…

  17. Simulations of Western North American Hydroclimate during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. M.; Mann, M. E.; Steinman, B. A.; Feng, S.; Zhang, Y.; Miller, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the immense impact that large, modern North American droughts, such as those of the 1930s and 1950s, have had on economic, social, aquacultural, and agricultural systems, they are smaller in duration and magnitude than the multidecadal megadroughts that affected North America, in particular the western United States, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ~ 900-1300 AD) and the Little Age (LIA, ~1450-1850 AD). Although various proxy records have been used to reconstruct the timing of these MCA and LIA megadroughts in the western United States, there still exists great uncertainty in the magnitude and spatial coherence of such droughts in the Pacific Northwest region, especially on decadal to centennial timescales. This uncertainty motivates the following study to establish a causal link between the climate forcing that induced these megadroughts and the spatiotemporal response of regional North American hydroclimates to this forcing. This study seeks to establish a better understanding of the influence of tropical Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs on North American drought during the MCA and LIA. We force NCAR's Community Atmospheric Model version 5.1.1 (CAM 5) with prescribed proxy-reconstructed tropical Pacific and North Atlantic SST anomalies from the MCA and LIA, in order to investigate the influence that these SST anomalies had on the spatiotemporal patterns of drought in North America. To isolate the effects of individual ocean basin SSTs on the North American climate system, the model experiments use a variety of SST permutations in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic basin as external forcing. In order to quantify the spatiotemporal response of the North American climate system to these SST forcing permutations, temperature and precipitation data derived from the MCA and LIA model experiments are compared to lake sediment isotope and tree ring-based hydroclimate reconstructions from the Pacific Northwest. The spatiotemporal temperature and

  18. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle (CIRSIUM ARVENSE – Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants worldwide. Native to Eurasia, its unintentional introduction into North America now threatens the native flora and imposes enormous agricultural losses. The goals of this study were to: (i) conduct bioclimati...

  19. Manchineel dermatitis in North American students in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Blue, Lauren M; Sailing, Christopher; Denapoles, Christopher; Fondots, Jordan; Johnson, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    We report an outbreak of Manchineel dermatitis and ophthalmitis in four students from North America who visited the island of Bequia, West Indies. The exposure resulted from taking shelter during a rain storm under a Manchineel tree. Manchineel exposure and ingestion can lead to severe and even fatal disease.

  20. Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of…

  1. Perspectives in Applied Linguistics: A North American View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, William

    2004-01-01

    This overview focuses on the work of Applied Linguistics in North America with an emphasis on publications in the past 6 years. Follow a brief interpretive section on the nature and status of Applied Linguistics, the article reviews a number of major areas of research in Applied Linguistics. These areas include second language acquisition (and its…

  2. DON occurrence in cereal grains: A North American perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in agricultural commodities has been reported all over the world, with levels varying amongst grain type and years of production. However, a systematic review of the current situation regarding this mycotoxin, its occurrence, and its management in North America...

  3. Teaching Culture in a North American Context: Halloween.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollica, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    Provides background information on Halloween and its celebration in North America, along with suggestions for student- and teacher-initiated activities for classroom use. The material and activities may be translated or adapted to various target languages in foreign, second, or bilingual education programs. (MDM)

  4. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense – Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants worldwide. Native to Eurasia, its unintentional introduction into North America now threatens the native flora and imposes enormous agricultural losses. The goals of this study are to: (i) conduct bioclim...

  5. Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining abundance and range shifts of bumble bee (Bombus) species have been observed in Europe and Asia. However, the status of North America’s bumble bee species has been largely unstudied. Recent reports based on local or regional observations suggest that parallel declines are taking place in N...

  6. Perceptions and Images of North Africa: What American Schools Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Examined descriptions of North Africa (particularly Tunisia) found in U.S. high school social studies textbooks, noting the resulting perceptions and images these descriptions created in the minds of teachers and students. Data from examination of textbooks and interviews with teachers indicated that few high school students were exposed to images…

  7. Ecosystem services to and from North American arid grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid grasslands throughout North America are characterized by low and variable precipitation, nutrient-poor soils, and high spatial and temporal variability in plant production. These grasslands have provided a variety of goods and services, with the provisioning of food and fiber dominating through...

  8. Understanding the Population Structure of North American Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weili; Sun, Lei; Corey, Mary; Zou, Fei; Lee, Seunggeun; Cojocaru, Andreea L; Taylor, Chelsea; Blackman, Scott M; Stephenson, Anne; Sandford, Andrew J; Dorfman, Ruslan; Drumm, Mitchell L; Cutting, Garry R; Knowles, Michael R; Durie, Peter; Wright, Fred A; Strug, Lisa J

    2010-01-01

    Rationale It is generally presumed that the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) population is relatively homogeneous, and predominantly of European origin. The complex ethnic make-up observed in the CF patients collected by the North American CF Modifier Gene Consortium has brought this assumption into question, and suggested the potential for population substructure in the three CF study samples collected from North America. It is well appreciated that population substructure can result in spurious genetic associations. Objectives To understand the ethnic composition of the North American CF population, and to assess the need for population structure adjustment in genetic association studies with North American CF patients. Methods Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms on 3076 unrelated North American CF patients were used to perform population structure analyses. We compared self-reported ethnicity to genotype-inferred ancestry, and also examined whether geographic distribution and CFTR mutation type could explain the structure observed. Main Results Although largely Caucasian, our analyses identified a considerable number of CF patients with admixed African-Caucasian, Mexican-Caucasian and Indian-Caucasian ancestries. Population substructure was present and comparable across the three studies of the consortium. Neither geographic distribution nor mutation type explained the population structure. Conclusion Given the ethnic diversity of the North American CF population, it is essential to carefully detect, estimate and adjust for population substructure to guard against potential spurious findings in CF genetic association studies. Other Mendelian diseases that are presumed to predominantly affect single ethnic groups may also benefit from careful analysis of population structure. PMID:20681990

  9. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request for Panel Review was... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  10. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review...

  11. 77 FR 66798 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request for Panel Review was filed with the Mexican Section of the... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review...

  12. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel review...

  13. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  14. Seismotectonic constraints on the convergence rate between the Rivera and North American plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostoglodov, Vladimir; Bandy, William

    1995-09-01

    There are two significantly different types of models for the convergence rate between the Rivera and North American plates. The first type, the high-rate model (Bandy, 1992), predicts convergence rates of approximately 5.0 cm/yr near the southern end of the Rivera-North America subduction zone and between 2.0 and 3.0 cm/yr at its northern end. In contrast, the second type, the low-rate model (e.g., DeMets and Stein, 1990), predicts convergence rates of between 2.0 and 3.3 cm/yr near the southern end of the Rivera-North America subduction zone and between 0.6 and 1.7 cm/yr at its northern end. Seismotectonic relationships, which relate seismic characteristics of subduction zones (maximum magnitudes, maximum seismic depths, etc.) to plate tectonic parameters (convergence rates, age of the oceanic lithosphere, etc.) provide a means of distinguishing between the two different models. Three such relationships suggest that the Rivera-North American and Cocos-North American convergence rates should be roughly equal across the Rivera-Cocos plate boundary, favoring the high-rate model. Employing the high-rate model, one can evaluate the magnitude and distribution of the strike-slip component of forearc motion, Vss, produced by oblique convergence between the Rivera and North American plates. The analysis indicates both a progressive increase and clockwise reorientation of Vss northwestward along the plate contact zone of the Rivera-North America subduction zone. Such a distribution in Vss should produce a northwestward movement of and NW-SE oriented extension within the interior of the Jalisco Block, consistent with previous proposals of Jalisco Block motions. Also, such a distribution in Vss should produce a slight clockwise rotation of the Jalisco Block in the vicinity of Bahia de Banderas, consistent with paleomagnetic data.

  15. Northeastern North American Pleistocene megafauna chronologically overlapped minimally with Paleoindians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Matthew T.; Lyman, R. Lee

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that specialized big-game-hunting Paleoindians were responsible for the extinction of three dozen large-bodied mammalian genera in North America. In northeastern North America, the overkill hypothesis cannot be tested on the basis of associations of Paleoindian artifacts and remains of extinct mammals because no unequivocal associations are known. The overkill hypothesis requires Paleoindians to be contemporaneous with extinct mammalian taxa and this provides a means to evaluate the hypothesis, but contemporaneity does not confirm overkill. Blitzkrieg may produce evidence of contemporaneity but it may not, rendering it difficult to test. Overkill and Blitzkrieg both require large megafaunal populations. Chronological data, Sporormiella abundance, genetics, and paleoclimatic data suggest megafauna populations declined prior to human colonization and people were only briefly contemporaneous with megafauna. Local Paleoindians may have only delivered the coup de grace to small scattered and isolated populations of megafauna.

  16. Anostracan (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) zoogeography I. North American bioregions.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Nine anostracan biogeographical regions are defined for North America: Appalachia/Ozark, Southwest Arid, Great Plains, Coastal Plain, Neotropical, California, Cold Deserts, Beringia/Canadian Shield, and Transmontane. These regions are quantitatively defined using species distributions compared through Jaccard's Coefficient of Community Similarity, and qualitatively defined using climate data, following the ecoregions protocol of the US Environmental Protection Agency for North America and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for Mexico. Community assemblages are quantified using Fager's Index of Recurring Species Groups. The average Fager's Index for each bioregion, as well as the percentage of taxa co-occurring, generally decreases with the length of time the region has been available for colonisation. The strong Fager's Index/colonisation time availability relationship suggests that the Monopolization Hypothesis of De Meester et al. may function at larger landscape scales. PMID:25081776

  17. Anostracan (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) zoogeography I. North American bioregions.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher

    2014-07-18

    Nine anostracan biogeographical regions are defined for North America: Appalachia/Ozark, Southwest Arid, Great Plains, Coastal Plain, Neotropical, California, Cold Deserts, Beringia/Canadian Shield, and Transmontane. These regions are quantitatively defined using species distributions compared through Jaccard's Coefficient of Community Similarity, and qualitatively defined using climate data, following the ecoregions protocol of the US Environmental Protection Agency for North America and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for Mexico. Community assemblages are quantified using Fager's Index of Recurring Species Groups. The average Fager's Index for each bioregion, as well as the percentage of taxa co-occurring, generally decreases with the length of time the region has been available for colonisation. The strong Fager's Index/colonisation time availability relationship suggests that the Monopolization Hypothesis of De Meester et al. may function at larger landscape scales.

  18. Ecology and conservation of North American sea ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Harvest history The book presents a comprehensive synthesis of sea duck ecology, documents factors that have caused population declines of some species, and provides managers with measures to enhance recovery of depressed populations of sea ducks in North America. Capturing the current state of knowledge of this unique tribe, it provides a benchmark for where we are in conservation efforts and suggests future directions for researchers, managers, students, conservationists, and avian enthusiasts.

  19. ["Us" and "them": European and North American attitudes to immigration].

    PubMed

    Livi-bacci, M

    1994-01-01

    This work compares attitudes toward immigration in Europe and North America. Europe has adopted and reinforced a restrictive immigration policy since the 1970s, but family reunification and asylum for refugees have replaced labor migration to maintain the flow of newcomers over the past two decades. Illegal immigration has increased in countries such as Italy and Spain where immigration is a recent phenomenon. Migratory pressure from the former Soviet block, violence against immigrants in Germany and elsewhere, the crisis of social protection systems, economic recession and increasing unemployment have pressured European governments to reinforce their closed door policy. In the US, restrictions against immigration have relaxed greatly since adoption of the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. Over 800,000 immigrants have been admitted annually to the US in recent years. The factors explaining the different immigration policies in North America and Europe are not economic or demographic, but stem rather from history, social structure, the functioning of the labor market and social mobility. North America, more than Europe, has a positive view of immigration as contributing to the vitality and renewal of the culture and promoting development by broadening experience and knowledge. Immigration is regarded in Europe as, at best, a necessity in times of labor shortage and economic expansion. European countries tend to perceive themselves as totally formed and not requiring further cultural contribution. Homogeneity in culture, language, and religion is valued. Social mobility is possible in North America through professional success, but in the older and more hierarchical societies of Europe, social status is determined by birth and family or other connections. Since the early 1990s, public opinion toward immigration has become less favorable on both sides of the Atlantic, with increasing proportions favoring limitation. The positive perception of immigration in

  20. Sustainable use of glyphosate in North American cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David I

    2008-04-01

    Roundup Ready (glyphosate-resistant) cropping systems enable the use of glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide that offers growers several benefits, including superior weed control, flexibility in weed control timing and economic advantages. The rapid adoption of such crops in North America has resulted in greater glyphosate use and concern over the potential for weed resistance to erode the sustainability of its efficacy. Computer modeling is one method that can be used to explore the sustainability of glyphosate when used in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Field tests should help strengthen the assumptions on which the models are based, and have been initiated for this purpose. Empirical evaluations of published data show that glyphosate-resistant weeds have an appearance rate of 0.007, defined as the number of newly resistant species per million acres treated, which ranks low among herbicides used in North America. Modeling calculations and ongoing field tests support a practical recommendation for growers occasionally to include other herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems, to lower further the potential for new resistance to occur. The presented data suggest that the sustainability of glyphosate in North America would be enhanced by prudent use of additional herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems.

  1. Triazine herbcides: Ecological risk assessment in North American surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, K.R.

    1996-10-01

    The triazine herbicides are some of the most widely used pesticides in North America. Some are found in surface waters in North America and risks to aquatic ecosystems are a possible concern. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive aquatic ecological risk assessment conducted using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The assessment of exposure data concentrated on Midwestern us watersheds, the area of greatest triazine use in North America and showed that concentrations of some triazines rarely exceeded 20 {mu}g/L in rivers, streams, and reservoirs. The effects assessment showed that phytoplankton were the most sensitive organisms to triazines followed, in decreasing order of sensitivity, by macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and fish. Distribution analysis of sensitivity to atrazine showed 10th percentile of 37 {mu}g/L for LC50s in all organisms and 5.4 {mu}g/L for LC50s in algae and plants. Simazine showed 10th percentiles of 188 {mu}g/L for LC50s in all organisms and 27 {mu}g/L for LC50s in aquatic plants. Comparisons of the exposure and effects distributions showed low probabilities of exceeding the 10th percentiles of the sensitivity distributions. These results will be discussed in relation to the mechanism of action of these substances and other stressors in the environment.

  2. 77 FR 25400 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY; Application for Manufacturing Authority; North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... to manufacture athletic tape under FTZ procedures within FTZ 109 (76 FR 43259-43260, 7-20-2011; Amendment--77 FR 13263-13264, 3-6-2012). The rebuttal comments submitted on April 18, 2012, on behalf of NAT...; North American Tapes, LLC; Comment Period on New Evidence The FTZ Board is inviting public comment...

  3. 76 FR 43259 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY, Application for Manufacturing Authority, North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ..., North American Tapes, LLC, (Textile Athletic Tape), Watertown, NY A request has been submitted to the...) with textile backing material for the U.S. market and export. The manufacturing process under FTZ... textile fabrics (duty rates: 10.5, 14.9%). The facility can produce up to 12.5 million square meters...

  4. Strategies for North American Missionaries' Relational Language-Culture Learning in the Japanese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manabe-Kim, Rie

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help…

  5. The Use of Ultrasound in Remediation of North American English /r/ in 2 Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler-Bock, Marcy; Bernhardt, Barbara May; Gick, Bryan; Bacsfalvi, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound can provide images of the tongue during speech production. The present study set out to examine the potential utility of ultrasound in remediation of North American English /r/. Method: The participants were 2 Canadian English-speaking adolescents who had not yet acquired /r/. The study included an initial period without…

  6. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter was requested and terminated... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Review, ``A panel review is deemed to be terminated on the...

  7. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter has been conducted in accordance with these... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the...

  8. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  9. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... antidumping or countervailing duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of...

  10. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter has been conducted in... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government...

  11. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  12. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter was requested and terminated pursuant to... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel...) of the Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Review, the panel review is terminated...

  13. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel... appointed to this panel review. Pursuant to Rule 71(2) of the Rules of Procedure for Article 1904...

  14. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  15. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists...

  16. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists...

  17. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  18. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... antidumping or countervailing duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of...

  19. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which...

  20. 76 FR 62364 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were discharged...

  1. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... antidumping or countervailing duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of...

  2. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  3. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter was requested and terminated pursuant to... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... Article 1904 Binational Panel Review, this panel review is terminated. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  4. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came...

  5. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter has been conducted in... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government...

  6. 76 FR 17149 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for North American Reporting Center for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 80525) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for... Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations (NARCAM) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior... currently approved paperwork requirements for the USGS North American Reporting Center for...

  7. How New Is the "New Employment Contract?" Evidence from North American Pay Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.; Belman, Dale; Charness, Gary; Groshen, Erica L.; O'Shaughnessy, K. C.

    Evidence from North American pay practices was used to examine the question of whether the "old employment contact," according to which employees promised to exchange hard work for job security, has truly been replaced by a "new employment contract" based more on market forces. The study analyzed data from the following sources: (1) the Current…

  8. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  9. Development of Cultural Strategies of Attention in North American and Japanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Toriyama, Rie; Itakura, Shoji; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that North American adults exhibit a focused strategy of attention that emphasizes focal information about objects, whereas Japanese adults exhibit a divided strategy of attention that emphasizes contextual information about objects. The current study investigated whether 4- and 5-, 6- to 8-, and 9- to 13-year-old North…

  10. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: II. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to examine the performance of five North American bioreactor landfills. This paper represents the second of a two part series and addresses biological and chemical aspects of bioreactor performance including gas production and management, and l...

  11. 2011 North American Geographic Trend Report for GMAT[R] Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The North American Geographic Trend Report presents trends in the student pipeline for graduate management education. Examination of data collected from respondents taking the Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) during the 2007 and 2011 testing years (TY) and from the requested destination of their score reports forms the basis of this…

  12. 75 FR 24700 - Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    .... ADDRESSES: Requests to make an oral statement or provide written comments to the NANC should be sent to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  13. The New Gateway, an Old Paradox: Immigrants and Involuntary Americans in North Carolina History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilburn, Jeremy; Fitchett, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis of North Carolina history textbooks to explore how the definition of immigration has changed over the last century. They also examined how immigrant groups and involuntary Americans have been portrayed throughout the state's history. Findings suggest that as a burgeoning gateway state for immigrants, North…

  14. Underrepresentation of Women in the Academic Profession: A Comparative Analysis of the North American Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Gonzalez, Laura Padilla

    2013-01-01

    The present study addresses women's underrepresentation in the academic profession, as well as the need for policies and practices aimed at this issue. It compares underrepresentation of academic women in North American countries, and explores, throughout a bivariate analysis, personal, professional, as well as institutional variables related to…

  15. The role of genetics in chronic wasting disease of North American cervids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an important management issue for many North American cervid populations. This fatal prion disease has led to deer population declines in areas with high infection rates and to economic loses even in low-prevalence areas. Because potential for cross-species transmiss...

  16. Dreaming in Green: Service Learning, Global Engagement and the Liberal Arts at a North American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cororaton, Claire; Handler, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article documents and analyses the uneasy, if not contradictory, relationship between service learning and liberal arts thinking in an undergraduate programme in Global Development Studies (GDS) at a North American University. As an undergraduate, Cororaton participated in a service-learning project to build a greenhouse in Mongolia; at the…

  17. Management of North American Culicoides biting midges: Current knowledge and research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses infecting North American ruminants: bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV). While these viruses have been identified for over 60 years, we still lack an adequate understanding of t...

  18. North American Legumes for Rangeland Restoration, Conservation, and Forage Production in the Western U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land managers do not have many alternatives to choose from when seeding North American legume species on rangelands of the western U.S. As part of an initiative to address that need, research was conducted with basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes), western prairie clover (Dalea ornata), and Searls...

  19. Assimilation of gridded GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates in the North American Land Data Assimilation System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is to provide best-available estimates of near surface meteorological conditions and soil hydrological status for the Continental United States. The first two phases of NLDAS, however, have not included the assimilation of rem...

  20. Morphologic Variability of the Shoulder between the Populations of North American and East Asian

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, Andres F.; Krebes, Kristi; Hussey, Michael M.; Santoni, Brandon G.; Kim, Hyuong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if there were significant differences in glenohumeral joint morphology between North American and East Asian populations that may influence sizing and selection of shoulder arthroplasty systems. Methods Computed tomography reconstructions of 92 North American and 58 East Asian patients were used to perform 3-dimensional measurements. The proximal humeral position was normalized in all patients by aligning it with the scapular plane utilizing anatomic landmarks. Measurements were performed on the humerus and scapula and included coronal and axial humeral head radius, humeral neck shaft and articular arc angles, glenoid height and width, and critical shoulder angle. Glenohumeral relationships were also measured and included lateral distance to the greater tuberosity and acromion, abduction lever arm, and acromial index. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were used to compare population metrics. Results East Asian glenohumeral measurements were significantly smaller for all linear metrics (p < 0.05), with the exception of acromial length, which was greater than in the North American cohort (p < 0.001). The increase in acromial length affected all measurements involving the acromion including abduction lever arms. No difference was found between the neck shaft and articular angular measurements. Conclusions The East Asian population exhibited smaller shoulder morphometrics than their North American cohort, with the exception of an extended acromial overhang. The morphologic data can provide some additional factors to consider when choosing an optimal shoulder implant for the East Asian population, in addition to creating future designs that may better accommodate this population. PMID:27583111

  1. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  2. Perception and Experience of Transformative Learning and Faculty Authenticity among North American Professors of Christian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hokyung Paul

    2012-01-01

    Through convenient purposeful sampling, 16 professors from North American Professors of Christian Education were recruited for this study. Through consulting key personnel in NAPCE a pool of participants were attained (n = 16). The findings from the research study revealed the elements contributing to the way that participants experienced and…

  3. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: I. LEACHATE HYDROLOGY AND WASTE SETTLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An assessment of state-of-the-practice at five full-scale North American landfills operating as bioreactors is presented in this two-paper set. This paper focuses on effectiveness of liners and leachate collection systems, leachate generation rates, leachate recirculation practi...

  4. Novel role for Aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the North American medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Worthen, Paul L; Johnson, Matthew; Graf, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The gut bacteria of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora, were characterized. Biochemical tests and DNA sequences indicated that Aeromonas jandaei is the dominant culturable symbiont in leeches from a broad geographic area. In this work we identified a new habitat for A. jandaei, and here we suggest that there is unexpected specificity between leeches and Aeromonas species.

  5. 78 FR 7773 - Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation Meetings The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and/or Commission...

  6. 75 FR 65624 - Notice of Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation Meetings October 19, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff...

  7. 77 FR 47051 - Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation Meetings The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission...

  8. 75 FR 74051 - Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... North American Numbering Council (NANC). The intended effect of this action is to make the public aware...) has scheduled a meeting to be held Thursday, December 16, 2010, from 9:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. The... later than 5 p.m. * The Agenda may be modified at the discretion of the NANC Chairman with the...

  9. 75 FR 61140 - Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... North American Numbering Council (NANC). The intended effect of this action is to make the public aware...) has scheduled a meeting to be held Friday, October 22, 2010, from 9:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. The meeting... no later than 5 p.m. *The Agenda may be modified at the discretion of the NANC Chairman with...

  10. 76 FR 6787 - Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... North American Numbering Council (NANC). The intended effect of this action is to make the public aware...) has scheduled a meeting to be held Wednesday, March 9, 2011, from 9:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. The meeting...) 15. Other Business Adjourn no later than 5 p.m. * The Agenda may be modified at the discretion of...

  11. 76 FR 24486 - Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... North American Numbering Council (NANC). The intended effect of this action is to make the public aware...) has scheduled a meeting to be held Tuesday, May 17, 2011, from 9:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. The meeting will... later than 5 p.m. *The Agenda may be modified at the discretion of the NANC Chairman with the...

  12. Early Adolescent and Peer Drinking Homogeneity: Similarities and Differences among European and North American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…

  13. 77 FR 28568 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; North American Stainless, (Stainless Steel), Ghent, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 66684-66685, 10-27-2011) and the application... Steel), Ghent, KY Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the stainless steel mill of North American...

  14. Interactive Encyclopedia of North American Weeds, DVD v.4.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An interactive DVD-ROM encyclopedia of North American weeds was developed that includes home pages for 685 weed species descriptions, over 3700 color photos, illustrated collar regions for grasses, distribution maps, habitat information, crops affected, ecological information, and hot-linked illustr...

  15. The association between extremes in North American snow cover extent and United States temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Leathers, D.J. ); Robinson, D.A. )

    1993-07-01

    The association between satellite-derived North American snow cover extent and United States winter (December, January, February) temperature is examined. The results indicate that winter months evidencing extreme position (negative) values of North American snow cover extent are associated with below- (above) normal temperatures across the majority of the United States. The area evidencing the largest temperatures departures during both positive and negative North American snow cover extremes is located across the central United States, roughly from the Dakotas south through the southern plains, and from the Rocky Mountains east the Mississippi Valley. This area is collocated with the largest variations in snow cover frequency. No consistently strong association is indicated east of the Appalachians or west of the Rocky Mountains. During December, strong 500-mb height anomalies are collocated with the area of maximum snow cover frequency deviations and the largest temperature departures. This is not the case in January and February. During these months the snow cover frequency and temperature anomaly fields are not in close proximity to strong areas of 500-mb deviations. Evidence is presented to suggest that continental snow cover anomalies produce remote temperature perturbations away from the area of local snow cover variations, through the large-scale modification of air masses. In addition, a brief climatology of North American snow cover is presented. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 47 CFR 1.570 - AM broadcast station applications involving other North American countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM broadcast station applications involving... GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Broadcast Applications and Proceedings General Filing Requirements § 1.570 AM broadcast station applications involving other North American countries. See § 73.3570....

  17. Iraqi Expatriates' Experience of North American Media Coverage of the Iraq War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostam, Hajera; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    The extensive North American (NA) media coverage of the recent conflict in Iraq invites the question of how adult Iraqi immigrants have experienced such coverage. This qualitative investigation, involving Iraqi immigrants in Vancouver, Canada, used an interpretive description method (Thorne et al., Int J Qual Methods 3(1):1-21, 2004) to analyze…

  18. Epistemological Dead End and Ergonomic Disaster? The North American Collections Inventory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henige, David

    1987-01-01

    This discussion focuses on the problems involved in the interpretation and verification of the data gathered and presented by the North American Collections Inventory Project. It suggests that the National Shelflist Count is a better resource for collection management and shared library resources decisions. (CLB)

  19. USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: History and current research on western North American rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants on western North American rangelands have historically been troublesome to livestock producers. Research on toxic plants was initiated by U.S. Department of Agriculture in the late 1890’s to solve problems for the livestock industry. The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laborator...

  20. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  1. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... officer's response to the appeal, if any, must include argument and evidence (see 13 CFR Part 134), and... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.303 Determining North American...

  2. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... officer's response to the appeal, if any, must include argument and evidence (see 13 CFR Part 134), and... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.303 Determining North American...

  3. The Decline of German Language and Culture in the North American Heartland, 1890-1923.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnell, Jerrold B.

    Although German influences in North America were prominent in the decades just before and after 1900, the advent of World War I marked a major decline in the ethnic identity and bilingualism of German-Americans. Specifically, the German communities in Ontario and the Prairie Provinces in Canada and the Midwest and Great Lakes States in the United…

  4. Effects of Grazing Pressure on Efficiency of Grazing on North American Great Plains Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Robust prediction models describing vegetation and animal responses to stocking rate in North American Great Plains rangelands are lacking as across site comparisons are limited by different qualitative designations of light, moderate and heavy stocking. Comparisons of stocking rates across sites ca...

  5. 78 FR 58153 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ..., 2013, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (78 FR 18252) to update the... RIN 3206-AM78 Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes currently used in Federal Wage System wage survey...

  6. GCM Simulation of the Large-scale North American Monsoon Including Water Vapor Tracer Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Sud, Yogesh; Walker, Gregory K.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we have applied GCM water vapor tracers (WVT) to simulate the North American water cycle. WVTs allow quantitative computation of the geographical source of water for precipitation that occurs anywhere in the model simulation. This can be used to isolate the impact that local surface evaporation has on precipitation, compared to advection and convection. A 15 year 1 deg, 1.25 deg. simulation has been performed with 11 global and 11 North American regional WVTs. Figure 1 shows the source regions of the North American WVTs. When water evaporates from one of these predefined regions, its mass is used as the source for a distinct prognostic variable in the model. This prognostic variable allows the water to be transported and removed (precipitated) from the system in an identical way that occurs to the prognostic specific humidity. Details of the model are outlined by Bosilovich and Schubert (2002) and Bosilovich (2002). Here, we present results pertaining to the onset of the simulated North American monsoon.

  7. Surface wave tomography applied to the North American upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lee, Suzan; Frederiksen, Andrew

    Tomographic techniques that invert seismic surface waves for 3-D Earth structure differ in their definitions of data and the forward problem as well as in the parameterization of the tomographic model. However, all such techniques have in common that the tomographic inverse problem involves solving a large and mixed-determined set of linear equations. Consequently these inverse problems have multiple solutions and inherently undefinable accuracy. Smoother and rougher tomographic models are found with rougher (confined to great circle path) and smoother (finite-width) sensitivity kernels, respectively. A powerful, well-tested method of surface wave tomography (Partitioned Waveform Inversion) is based on inverting the waveforms of wave trains comprising regional S and surface waves from at least hundreds of seismograms for 3-D variations in S wave velocity. We apply this method to nearly 1400 seismograms recorded by digital broadband seismic stations in North America. The new 3-D S-velocity model, NA04, is consistent with previous findings that are based on separate, overlapping data sets. The merging of US and Canadian data sets, adding Canadian recordings of Mexican earthquakes, and combining fundamental-mode with higher-mode waveforms provides superior resolution, in particular in the US-Canada border region and the deep upper mantle. NA04 shows that 1) the Atlantic upper mantle is seismically faster than the Pacific upper mantle, 2) the uppermost mantle beneath Precambrian North America could be one and a half times as rigid as the upper mantle beneath Meso- and Cenozoic North America, with the upper mantle beneath Paleozoic North America being intermediate in seismic rigidity, 3) upper-mantle structure varies laterally within these geologic-age domains, and 4) the distribution of high-velocity anomalies in the deep upper mantle aligns with lower mantle images of the subducted Farallon and Kula plates and indicate that trailing fragments of these subducted

  8. A correlated shortening of the North and South American monsoon seasons in the past few decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Paola A.; Fu, Rong; Vera, Carolina; Rojas, Maisa

    2015-12-01

    Our observational analysis shows that the wet seasons of the American monsoon systems have shortened since 1978 due to correlated earlier retreats of the North American monsoon (NAM) and late onsets of the southern Amazon wet season, an important part of the South American monsoon (SAM). These changes are related to the combination of the global sea surface temperature (SST) warming mode, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), the westward shift of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH), and the enhancement of Pacific South American and Pacific North American wave train patterns, which induces variations of the regional circulation at interannual and decadal scales. The joint contributions from these forcing factors are associated with a stronger and more equatorward regional Hadley cell, which enhances convergence towards the equator, strengthening and possibly delaying the retreat of the tropical part of the NAM. This in turn accelerates the demise of the northern NAM and delays the reversal of the cross-equatorial flow over South America, reducing moisture transport to the SAM and delaying its onset. In addition, the thermodynamic response to warming appears to cause local drier land conditions over both regions, reinforcing the observed changes in these monsoons. Although previous studies have identified the isolated influence of the regional Hadley cell, ENSO, AMO, global SST warming, and NASH on the NAM, the correlated changes between NAM and SAM through variations of the cross-equatorial flow had not been established before.

  9. Sex and cultural differences in spatial performance between Japanese and North Americans.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maiko; Spiers, Mary V

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Asians perform better than North Americans on spatial tasks but show smaller sex differences. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between long-term experience with a pictorial written language and spatial performance. It was hypothesized that native Japanese Kanji (a complex pictorial written language) educated adults would show smaller sex differences on spatial tasks than Japanese Americans or North Americans without Kanji education. A total of 80 young healthy participants (20 native Japanese speakers, 20 Japanese Americans-non Japanese speaking, and 40 North Americans-non Japanese speaking) completed the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and customized 2D and 3D spatial object location memory tests. As predicted, main effects revealed men performed better on the MRT and RCFT and women performed better on the spatial object location memory tests. Also, as predicted, native Japanese performed better on all tests than the other groups. In contrast to the other groups, native Japanese showed a decreased magnitude of sex differences on aspects of the RCFT (immediate and delayed recall) and no significant sex difference on the efficiency of the strategy used to copy and encode the RCFT figure. This study lends support to the idea that intensive experience over time with a pictorial written language (i.e., Japanese Kanji) may contribute to increased spatial performance on some spatial tasks as well as diminish sex differences in performance on tasks that most resemble Kanji.

  10. Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of gulls in the ecology of avian influenza (AI) is different than that of waterfowl. Different constellations of subtypes circulate within the two groups of birds and AI viruses isolated from North American gulls frequently possess reassortant genomes with genetic elements from both North America and Eurasian lineages. A 2008 isolate from a Newfoundland Great Black-backed Gull contained a mix of North American waterfowl, North American gull and Eurasian lineage genes. Methods We isolated, sequenced and phylogenetically compared avian influenza viruses from 2009 Canadian wild birds. Results We analyzed six 2009 virus isolates from Canada and found the same phylogenetic lineage had persisted over a larger geographic area, with an expanded host range that included dabbling and diving ducks as well as gulls. All of the 2009 virus isolates contained an internal protein coding set of genes of the same Eurasian lineage genes except PB1 that was from a North American lineage, and these genes continued to evolve by genetic drift. We show evidence that the 2008 Great Black-backed Gull virus was derived from this lineage with a reassortment of a North American PA gene into the more stable core set of internal protein coding genes that has circulated in avian populations for at least 2 years. From this core, the surface glycoprotein genes have switched several times creating H13N6, H13N2, and H16N3 subtypes. These gene segments were from North American lineages except for the H16 and N3 vRNAs. Conclusions This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable “triple reassortant internal gene” core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the

  11. Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy; Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of gulls in the ecology of avian influenza (AI) is different than that of waterfowl. Different constellations of subtypes circulate within the two groups of birds and AI viruses isolated from North American gulls frequently possess reassortant genomes with genetic elements from both North America and Eurasian lineages. A 2008 isolate from a Newfoundland Great Black-backed Gull contained a mix of North American waterfowl, North American gull and Eurasian lineage genes. Methods: We isolated, sequenced and phylogenetically compared avian influenza viruses from 2009 Canadian wild birds. Results: We analyzed six 2009 virus isolates from Canada and found the same phylogenetic lineage had persisted over a larger geographic area, with an expanded host range that included dabbling and diving ducks as well as gulls. All of the 2009 virus isolates contained an internal protein coding set of genes of the same Eurasian lineage genes except PB1 that was from a North American lineage, and these genes continued to evolve by genetic drift. We show evidence that the 2008 Great Black-backed Gull virus was derived from this lineage with a reassortment of a North American PA gene into the more stable core set of internal protein coding genes that has circulated in avian populations for at least 2 years. From this core, the surface glycoprotein genes have switched several times creating H13N6, H13N2, and H16N3 subtypes. These gene segments were from North American lineages except for the H16 and N3 vRNAs. Conclusions: This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable "triple reassortant internal gene" core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the

  12. North American Artemisia species from the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush): a phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Turi, Christina E; Shipley, Paul R; Murch, Susan J

    2014-02-01

    The genus Artemisia consists of between 350 and 500 species with most of the North American endemic Artemisia species contained within the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush). The reported uses of these species by Native American and First Nations peoples include analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, immunostimulation activity, as well as the treatment of afflictions from spiritual origins. Taxonomic revision for North American Sagebrush has created a number of synonyms that confuse the literature. The phytochemical diversity of the Tridentatae includes at least 220 distinct and important specialized metabolites. This manuscript reviews the current phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological understanding for the subgenus Tridentatae, and provides a foundation for future studies of the metabolomes of the Tridentatae. Modern approaches to phytochemical analysis and drug discovery are likely to provide interesting lead compounds in the near future.

  13. Dermatology in the North American Indian/Alaska Native population.

    PubMed

    Kryatova, Maria S; Okoye, Ginette A

    2016-02-01

    Dermatology is greatly understudied in the American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) population. This topic deserves attention in light of the changing demographics of the United States and the healthcare disparities faced by AIAN, including access to dermatologic care. In this review, we discuss disorders that are more prevalent or otherwise important in the AIAN population, such as cutaneous malignancies, photodermatoses, acanthosis nigricans, connective tissue disorders, cutaneous infections, hypertrophic scar formation, and Heck's disease. We aim to provide an updated review and increase awareness of the dermatologic needs of the AIAN population.

  14. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  15. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the North American clade of the Ceratocystis fimbriata complex.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jason A; Harrington, Thomas C; Engelbrecht, C J B

    2005-01-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a widely distributed, plant pathogenic fungus that causes wilts and cankers on many woody hosts. Earlier phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences revealed three geographic clades within the C. fimbriata complex that are centered respectively in North America, Latin America and Asia. This study looked for cryptic species within the North American clade. The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the rDNA were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that most isolates from the North American clade group into four host-associated lineages, referred to as the aspen, hickory, oak and cherry lineages, which were isolated primarily from wounds or diseased trees of Populus, Carya, Quercus and Prunus, respectively. A single isolate collected from P. serotina in Wisconsin had a unique ITS sequence. Allozyme electromorphs also were highly polymorphic within the North American clade, and the inferred phylogenies from these data were congruent with the ITS-rDNA analyses. In pairing experiments isolates from the aspen, hickory, oak and cherry lineages were interfertile only with other isolates from their respective lineages. Inoculation experiments with isolates of the four host-associated groupings showed strong host specialization by isolates from the aspen and hickory lineages on Populus tremuloides and Carya illinoensis, respectively, but isolates from the oak and cherry lineages did not consistently reveal host specialization. Morphological features distinguish isolates in the North American clade from those of the Latin American clade (including C. fimbriata sensu stricto). Based on the phylogenetic evidence, interfertility, host specialization and morphology, the oak and cherry lineages are recognized as the earlier described C. variospora, the poplar lineage as C. populicola sp. nov., and the hickory lineage as C. caryae sp. nov. A new species associated with the bark beetle Scolytus quadrispinosus on Carya is closely related to C

  16. Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rowan T; Hodson, Daniel L R

    2005-07-01

    Recent extreme events such as the devastating 2003 European summer heat wave raise important questions about the possible causes of any underlying trends, or low-frequency variations, in regional climates. Here, we present new evidence that basin-scale changes in the Atlantic Ocean, probably related to the thermohaline circulation, have been an important driver of multidecadal variations in the summertime climate of both North America and western Europe. Our findings advance understanding of past climate changes and also have implications for decadal climate predictions.

  17. Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rowan T; Hodson, Daniel L R

    2005-07-01

    Recent extreme events such as the devastating 2003 European summer heat wave raise important questions about the possible causes of any underlying trends, or low-frequency variations, in regional climates. Here, we present new evidence that basin-scale changes in the Atlantic Ocean, probably related to the thermohaline circulation, have been an important driver of multidecadal variations in the summertime climate of both North America and western Europe. Our findings advance understanding of past climate changes and also have implications for decadal climate predictions. PMID:15994552

  18. Trapping and furbearer management in North American wildlife conservation

    PubMed Central

    White, H. Bryant; Decker, Thomas; O’Brien, Michael J.; Organ, John F.; Roberts, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Furbearer Management in North America maintains wild furbearer populations at sustainably harvestable, scientifically determined and socially acceptable levels. Furbearer management impacts numerous wildlife populations and habitats, and human health, safety and property. Achieving balance in the management of furbearers is not always an easy task partly because regulated trapping, a controversial management technique, plays a critical role in this balance. Steps have been taken by wildlife professionals to improve the humaneness of trapping through the development of international standards used to evaluate traps. These efforts will ideally preserve trapping and the many roles it plays in furbearer management and wildlife management in general. PMID:26692584

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of screen time behaviour among North American indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Foulds, H J A; Rodgers, C D; Duncan, V; Ferguson, L J

    2016-05-01

    Screen time (computer, television, video game and smartphone/tablet activity) is associated with increased obesity and other health risks. This systematic review evaluates screen time among North American Indigenous populations and compares it with that of North American Europeans. Electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE and EMBASE) were searched, and citations cross-referenced. Included articles reported screen time among First Nations/American Indians, Métis, Inuit/Alaskan Natives or Native Hawaiians. From 788 citations evaluated, 40 identified articles report television, video game, computer and/or overall screen time. Overall screen time was 3.65 ± 1.26 h day(-1) (n = 2,242, 8 articles) among Indigenous children/youth and 3.61 ± 2.95 h day(-1) (n = 155, 1 article) among adults. Among children/youth, 66.0% (n = 11 256, 9 articles) reported less than 2 h day(-1) of television screen time, while only 52.8% (n = 2,458, 1 article) of adults reported this volume. Screen time was generally greater among male population, youth, First Nations/American Indians and overweight/obese individuals. Indigenous children/youth reported greater overall screen time than North American Europeans (4.81 ± 2.84 h day(-1) , n = 1,182 vs. 3.40 ± 2.81 h day(-1) , n = 2,785; 3 articles; p < 0.0001). Screen time is common among North American Indigenous populations. Further research evaluating interventions to reduce screen time and chronic disease risks is required. PMID:26990323

  20. Comparing the 2010 North American and European atrial fibrillation guidelines.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Anne M; Skanes, Allan C

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the important differences in the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA)/Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2010 guidelines on atrial fibrillation (AF). All guidelines recommend more lenient targets for ventricular rate control although the CCS guidelines recommend a target heart rate at rest <100 bpm whereas the the ACCF/AHA/HRS and ESC guidelines accept a target heart rate at rest <110 bpm with provisos. All the guidelines recommend that the choice of antiarrhythmic drug for maintenance of sinus rhythm be based on the underlying cardiovascular disease state. However, the CCS guidelines do not recommend that the use of Class IC drugs or sotalol be restricted in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy alone. All the guidelines have incorporated dronedarone into their recommendations of antiarrhythmic drug therapy for maintenance of sinus rhythm. However, the CCS guidelines do not make a specific recommendation that the use of dronedarone is reasonable to decrease the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in patients with AF. The ACCF/AHA/HRS update makes a strong recommendation for catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF who have failed a single anti-arrhythmic drug whereas the CCS and ESC guidelines make this a conditional recommendation. The CCS guidelines are the only guidelines at present that recommend dabigitran for prevention of stroke in high risk patients and suggest that dabigatran is preferred to warfarin for stroke prevention in most patient groups.

  1. Behavioral responses of north American Elk to recreational activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naylor, L.M.; Wisdom, M.J.; Anthony, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Off-road recreation on public lands in North America has increased dramatically in recent years. Wild ungulates are sensitive to human activities, but the effect of off-road recreation, both motorized and nonmotorized, is poorly understood. We measured responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to recreational disturbance in northeast Oregon, USA, from April to October, 2003 and 2004. We subjected elk to 4 types of recreational disturbance: all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding, mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Motion sensors inside radiocollars worn by 13 female elk recorded resting, feeding, and travel activities at 5-minute intervals throughout disturbance and control periods. Elk fed and rested during control periods, with little time spent traveling. Travel time increased in response to all 4 disturbances and was highest in mornings. Elk travel time was highest during ATV exposure, followed by exposure to mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Feeding time decreased during ATV exposure and resting decreased when we subjected elk to mountain biking and hiking disturbance in 2003. Our results demonstrated that activities of elk can be substantially affected by off-road recreation. Mitigating these effects may be appropriate where elk are a management priority. Balancing management of species like elk with off-road recreation will become increasingly important as off-road recreational uses continue to increase on public lands in North America.

  2. Tracking regional and global teleconnections recorded by western North American speleothem records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Kelley, Neil P.

    2016-10-01

    Speleothem proxy records are useful for interrogating past climates in the low and mid-latitudes given their ability to provide continuous, high-resolution, and long-lived records that can be dated with high precision. Several speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America have recently been developed that highlight the importance of this archive in documenting past changes in atmospheric circulation. Taken individually, these records hint at teleconnections between western North American hydroclimate and climate changes in the high northern latitudes and tropics. However, there has been no systematic investigation of global climate teleconnections to this region that draws upon the body of North American speleothem records as a whole. Here we review the dominant controls on precipitation oxygen isotopes across the region, and conduct statistical comparisons and network visualizations of high-resolution speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America to investigate the regional response to pronounced climate changes of the last deglaciation and to determine the pattern of global teleconnections to this region. We find that most western North American speleothem oxygen isotope records demonstrate a robust and consistent response to the events of the last deglaciation, despite differing controls on the oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation across the region. One record that receives a strong influence from the Gulf of Mexico exhibits a contrasting pattern in oxygen isotopes relative to most of the other records, which are dominated by westerly storms generated in the Pacific. During the studied interval, major shifts in Western North American speleothem records appear broadly synchronous at least within the uncertainty of age models. We also find strong statistical linkages between western North American speleothem records and speleothem records of Asian monsoon variability and other records from regions directly influenced by movement of

  3. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild North American waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.; Krapu, G.L.; Robb, J.R.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Chipley, W.H.; Conroy, M.J.; Kleven, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. Nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma anatis; M. anatis was recovered from four mallards, a black duck, and a gadwall (Anas strepera) duckling. Nineteen (37%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma cloacale; these isolates were obtained from mallard, canvasback, and black duck adults, and from a mallard duckling. Additional unspeciated mycoplasmas were isolated from mallards, black ducks, and one canvasback.

  4. Animal ethics and public expectations: the North American outlook.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    Recent social science research on the American public's attitudes toward the welfare of food animals tracks closely with a difficult-to-resolve philosophical issue. One side interprets welfare in terms of the way that a given animal is faring in a production setting. This view emphasizes the animal's medical condition and cognitive well-being. The other view derives norms for welfare from a conception of what is natural for an animal of a given species. This view presumes that an animal does well when it is living according to its nature. Both of these approaches reflect traditions of ethical thinking that have long histories of application to human and non-human animals, and each appears to have a significant constituency among the public. Each view implies a different approach and different standards for livestock welfare. The fact that this philosophical debate has a history dating back to ancient times suggests that it will not be resolved easily.

  5. Canine Distemper Virus Strains Circulating among North American Dogs▿

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Sanjay; Allison, Robin W.; Johnston, Larry; Murray, Brandy L.; Holland, Steven; Meinkoth, Jim; Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes multisystemic disease in dogs. We received seven samples from dogs with CD from the United States during 2007. CDV isolates from these samples formed large, multinucleated syncytia in a Vero cell line expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Based on the hemagglutinin gene sequences, the CDV isolates from three states (California, Missouri, and Oklahoma) formed two CDV genetic groups: group I (major; six of seven isolates) consisted of CDV isolates closely related to the European wildlife lineage of CDV, and group II (minor; one of seven isolates) was genetically related to the Arctic-like lineage of CDV. However, both CDV groups were genetically different from the current vaccine strains that belong to the American-1 lineage of the old (1930 to 1950) CDV isolates. PMID:18256210

  6. Albumin Naskapi variant in North American Indians and Eti Turks.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S G; Wolf, S I; Ozdemir, Y; Yüregir, G T; Isbir, T; Blumberg, B S

    1980-09-01

    Both conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a new type of electrophoretic screening procedure indicate that the polymorphic albumin variants Naskapi, found chiefly in the Naskapi Indians of Quebec, and Mersin, found in the Eti Turks of southeastern Turkey, are molecularly identical or very similar and that the amino acid substitution site in these variants is located between residues 330 and 446. This discovery is consistent with a genetic relationship between the Eti Turks and American Indians. We also report a new variant found in the Eti Turks, albumin Adana, which migrates similarly to albumin B on conventional gels but which our new system shows to differ from the common albumin A and albumin B by a substitution between residues 549 and 585.

  7. Large-scale environmental drivers of North American methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Kort, E. A.; Worthy, D.; Havice, T. C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Andrews, A. E.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties in environmental drivers have made it difficult for existing methane inventories to accurately assess the magnitude and seasonality of emissions. We characterize methane sources over northern North America and provide insight into the underlying environmental processes driving both anthropogenic and natural emissions. This study employs top-down inversion methods to examine driving emissions processes at continental scales. Tower measurements and a geostatistical inversion within a high resolution particle dispersion model (STILT) help constrain methane sources. We find a large methane source over the Hudson Bay Lowland in Canada, which exhibits a delayed, shorter seasonality than most existing inventories. Our analysis suggests a need to improve the treatment of soil temperature in many biogeochemical models of wetland sources.

  8. North American Bird Banding and quantitative population ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Tautin, J.; Davis, William E.=; Jackson, Jerome A.; Tautin, John

    2008-01-01

    Early bird-banding programs in North America were developed to provide descriptions of bird migration and movement patterns. This initial interest in description quickly evolved into more quantitative interests in two ways. There was (1) interest in quantifying migration and movement patterns, and (2) rapid recognition that re-observations of marked birds provided information about other parameters relevant to population dynamics. These included survival rate, recruitment rate, and population size. The evolution of methods for estimating population size, survival, recruitment, and movement is reviewed and we show it to be closely tied to bird-banding data. These estimation methods have been used with bird-banding data to draw important inferences about evolutionary ecology, population ecology, and population management. Illustrative examples of such inferences are provided.

  9. InSAR Analysis of North American Periglacial Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, N.; Gomez, F. G.

    2010-12-01

    Periglacial processes of North America are climate-dependent, and as such serve as useful indicators of local climate change. This study focuses on surface deformations associated with arctic permafrost and alpine rock glacier flow. These phenomena produce surface displacements ranging from several to tens of centimeters, respectively. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is an effective tool to measure displacements of these magnitudes. In addition to its sensitivity to small motions, InSAR also offers the potential to image the spatial extents of ground motions. Arctic permafrost undergoes seasonal heaving and settlement of the surface that is generally associated with freezing and thawing of the active layer. Magnitudes of vertical motion should generally be proportional to the active layer’s thickness. Assuming soil properties are constant over short time scales, this thickness is a function of ambient air temperature. Analysis of L-Band PALSAR data of Prudhoe Bay, on the Alaskan North Slope, resulted in two six-month interferograms between December 2008 and December 2009. Preliminary results suggest amplitudes of oscillation on the order of eight to ten centimeters. At lower latitudes (e.g., the continental U.S.), periglacial features are limited to alpine regions. Rock glacier flow rates are partially controlled by ice content, and will be sensitive to changes in ambient air temperature. Historic and recent measurements of flow rates for rock glaciers in the Colorado Front Range (CFR) are well documented, and will provide a basis for comparison. Analysis of PALSAR data of the CFR produced eleven interferograms, providing coverage from June 2007 to January 2009. Preliminary results indicate peak movements of the Taylor rock glacier as approximately 12 cm/y, and 7 cm/yr of movement on the Arapaho rock glacier. Although comparing these results with historic measurements may suggest changes in climate, it is important to recognize these changes as

  10. Historical development of ornithophily in the western North American flora.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, V

    1994-01-01

    The 129 ornithophilous plant species in western North America have floristic affinities with one or the other of four geofloras: the Arcto-Tertiary flora (101 species), Madro-Tertiary flora (19 species), Madrean-Tethyan flora (8 species), and Neotropical flora (1 species). The last three floras have been in continuous contact with hummingbirds since some time early in the Tertiary, and ornithophily is old in this subset of western ornithophilous plants. The Arcto-Tertiary flora had no contact with hummingbirds in Eurasia or in its early history in North America. Ornithophily is a new condition in Arcto-Tertiary plant groups, dating from the first significant contact of these plants with hummingbirds in the Eocene. Buildup of the hummingbird pollination system in the Arcto-Tertiary flora is expected to be gradual and stepwise for several reasons. Ornithophilous plant groups with Arcto-Tertiary affinities in the modern western flora form a graded series with respect to taxonomic rank, taxonomic size, and ecological diversity. The series consists of one large genus (Castilleja), three small genera (Zauschneria, etc.), species groups in several genera (Penstemon, Aquilegia, etc.), single ornithophilous species in otherwise nonornithophilous genera (seven genera--e.g., Pedicularis, Monardella), and ornithophilous races in otherwise nonornithophilous species (known in two species). It is suggested that the gradations in size of the groups approximately reflect stages in their development, with the largest ornithophilous genus being oldest, with single ornithophilous species being relatively recent, and with ornithophilous races being most recent. The observed distribution of numbers of ornithophilous species among genera is in agreement with the expectation of a gradual and stepwise development of ornithophily. PMID:7937964

  11. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Chen, J. M.; Birdsey, R.; McCullough, K.; He, L.; Deng, F.

    2010-02-01

    Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stock and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a predictable pattern with forest recovery. Forest age, which is related to time since disturbance, is the most available surrogate variable for various forest carbon analyses that concern the impact of disturbance. In this study, we compiled the first continental forest age map of North America by combining forest inventory data, historical fire data, optical satellite data and the dataset from NASA's LEDAPS project. Mexico and interior Alaska are excluded from this initial map due to unavailability of all required data sets, but work is underway to develop some different methodology for these areas. We discuss the significance of disturbance legacy from the past, as represented by current forest age structure in different regions of the US and Canada, tracking back disturbances caused by human and nature over centuries and at various scales. We also show how such information can be used with inventory data for analyzing carbon management opportunities, and other modeling applications. By combining geographic information about forest age with estimated C dynamics by forest type, it is possible to conduct a simple but powerful analysis of the net CO2 uptake by forests, and the potential for increasing (or decreasing) this rate as a result of direct human intervention in the disturbance/age status. The forest age map may also help address the recent concern that the terrestrial C sink from forest regrowth in North America may saturate in the next few decades. Finally, we describe how the forest age data can be used in large-scale carbon modeling, both for land-based biogeochemistry models and atmosphere-based inversion models

  12. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, J. I.; Briner, J. P.; Mangerud, J.; Hughes, A. L. C.; Young, N. E.; Vasskog, K.

    2014-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  13. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  14. Personalized integrative oncology: targeted approaches for optimal outcomes: the 11th International Conference of the Society for Integrative Oncology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard T; Yang, Peiying; Greenlee, Heather; Bauer-Wu, Susan; Balneaves, Lynda G; Zick, Suzanna

    2015-01-01

    The 11th International Conference of the Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO) brought together more than 300 clinicians, researchers, patients, and advocates to hear and interact with world-leading experts about the latest research in the areas of nutrition, exercise, acupuncture, health services research, meditation, and other integrative disciplines. The conference theme, "Personalized Integrative Oncology: Targeted Approaches for Optimal Outcomes," highlighted innovations in personalized medicine and ways this growing field will advance the evolution of individualized integrative cancer care to the next level. This year's conference also featured a clinical track focusing on clinical information for the practicing health care professional. The conference's rigorous schedule included 3 keynotes, 4 plenary sessions, 2 interdisciplinary tumor boards, 5 workshops, 45 concurrent oral sessions, and 106 posters. In addition to the conference theme, keynote and plenary sessions presented topics on stress and cancer, the importance of sleep for cancer patients, epigenetic mechanisms of lifestyle and natural products, recently published Journal of the National Cancer Institute monograph on integrative oncology, SIO's clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer survivors, and a joint session of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and SIO about supportive care and symptom management. This highly successful conference helped further the mission of the SIO to advance evidence-based, comprehensive, integrative health care to improve the lives of people affected by cancer.

  15. Wood duck population trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.; Burger, George V.; Havera, Stephen P.; Graber, David A.; Kirby, Ronald E.; Taylor, T. Scott

    1990-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has been conducted yearly since 1966, and can be used to describe relative population density and trends of birds in North America north of Mexico. Wood ducks (Air sponsa) are difficult to survey using conventional waterfowl monitoring techniques, but a large portion of their range is surveyed by the BBS. Wood ducks are detected at low densities on many BBS routes, and population trends can be estimated for most regions. Populations have been increasing throughout North America since 1966, but statistically significant increases generally occurred only in the early (1966-78) part of the period. Roadside survey methodology used in the BBS has limitations that make it inefficient as a survey technique for wood ducks, and we recommend using modified methodologies that specifically survey wood duck habitat.

  16. Two centuries of coherent decadal climate variability across the Pacific North American region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.; Villaescusa, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    The decadal variability of the Pacific Ocean and North American hydroclimate are subjects of immediate concern for society, yet the length of the instrumental record limits full mechanistic understanding of this variability. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved coral oxygen isotopic record from Clarion Island (18°N, 115°W), a sampling a subtropical region that is strongly influenced by the decadal-scale fluctuations of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and a region that serves as a critical locus for the communication of climate anomalies with the tropics. This Mexican Pacific coral record is highly correlated to coral records from the central tropical Pacific and tree ring records from western North America. Significant changes in the amplitude of oceanic decadal variability in the early nineteenth century are mirrored in the drought reconstructions in western North America. The spatial manifestation of this relationship was relatively invariant, despite notable changes in the climatic mean state.

  17. How neuroscience is taught to North American dental students: results of the Basic Science Survey Series.

    PubMed

    Gould, Douglas J; Clarkson, Mackenzie J; Hutchins, Bob; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how North American dental students are taught neuroscience during their preclinical dental education. This survey represents one part of a larger research project, the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, which covers all of the biomedical science coursework required of preclinical students in North American dental schools. Members of the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Dental Education Association assembled, distributed, and analyzed the neuroscience survey, which had a 98.5 percent response from course directors of the sixty-seven North American dental schools. The eighteen-item instrument collected demographic data on the course directors, information on the content in each course, and information on how neuroscience content is presented. Findings indicate that 1) most neuroscience instruction is conducted by non-dental school faculty members; 2) large content variability exists between programs; and 3) an increase in didactic instruction, integrated curricula, and use of computer-aided instruction is occurring. It is anticipated that the information derived from the survey will help guide neuroscience curricula in dental schools and aid in identifying appropriate content.

  18. Visibility graph network analysis of natural gas price: The case of North American market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Wang, Yaqi; Gao, Cuixia

    2016-11-01

    Fluctuations in prices of natural gas significantly affect global economy. Therefore, the research on the characteristics of natural gas price fluctuations, turning points and its influencing cycle on the subsequent price series is of great significance. Global natural gas trade concentrates on three regional markets: the North American market, the European market and the Asia-Pacific market, with North America having the most developed natural gas financial market. In addition, perfect legal supervision and coordinated regulations make the North American market more open and more competitive. This paper focuses on the North American natural gas market specifically. The Henry Hub natural gas spot price time series is converted to a visibility graph network which provides a new direction for macro analysis of time series, and several indicators are investigated: degree and degree distribution, the average shortest path length and community structure. The internal mechanisms underlying price fluctuations are explored through the indicators. The results show that the natural gas prices visibility graph network (NGP-VGN) is of small-world and scale-free properties simultaneously. After random rearrangement of original price time series, the degree distribution of network becomes exponential distribution, different from the original ones. This means that, the original price time series is of long-range negative correlation fractal characteristic. In addition, nodes with large degree correspond to significant geopolitical or economic events. Communities correspond to time cycles in visibility graph network. The cycles of time series and the impact scope of hubs can be found by community structure partition.

  19. Influenza A Virus Migration and Persistence in North American Wild Birds

    PubMed Central

    Kühnert, Denise; Fourment, Mathieu; Raven, Garnet; Pryor, S. Paul; Niles, Lawrence J.; Danner, Angela; Walker, David; Mendenhall, Ian H.; Su, Yvonne C. F.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Webby, Richard J.; Wentworth, David E.; Drummond, Alexei J.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV) samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:24009503

  20. Brokers, consumers and the internet: how North American consumers navigate their infertility journeys.

    PubMed

    Speier, Amy R

    2011-11-01

    North Americans who suffer infertility often reach an end to treatment options at home, whether it is due to a lack of egg donors in Canada or the high cost of treatment in the USA. Patients navigate their way onto the internet, seeking support and other options. As women and couples 'do the research' online, they conduct endless Google searches, come across IVF brokers, join support groups, read blogs and meet others on the road of infertility. This paper considers the journeys that North American patients make to clinics in Moravia, Czech Republic. Along these travels, patients engage with support groups, other patients, IVF brokers and clinic co-ordinators. Since the distance travelled between North America and Europe is extensive, reproductive travels may be arranged by clinical staff, travel brokers and patients. Acting as consumers, North Americans make different 'choices' along their journeys – the use of a broker, if and when they should join online communities, which clinic to visit and where to stay. This study focuses on the question of how patient choices often determine the success of brokers and clinics, thus influencing the structure of cross-border reproductive care in the Czech Republic.

  1. Adapting North American wheat production to climatic challenges, 1839–2009

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Alan L.; Rhode, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that temperatures in the major grain-growing areas of North America will rise by 3–4 °C by 2100. Such abrupt changes will create major challenges, significantly altering the area suitable for wheat. The historical record offers insight into the capability of agriculture to adapt to climatic challenges. Using a new county-level dataset on wheat production and climate norms, we show that during the 19th and 20th centuries North American grain farmers pushed wheat production into environments once considered too arid, too variable, and too harsh to cultivate. As summary measures, the median annual precipitation norm of the 2007 distribution of North American wheat production was one-half that of the 1839 distribution, and the median annual temperature norm was 3.7 °C lower. This shift, which occurred mostly before 1929, required new biological technologies. The Green Revolution associated with the pioneering work of Norman Borlaug represented an important advance in this longer process of biological innovation. However, well before the Green Revolution, generations of North American farmers overcame significant climatic challenges. PMID:21187376

  2. Climate and ecosystem linkages explain widespread declines in North American Atlantic salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine E; Pershing, Andrew J; Sheehan, Timothy F; Mountain, David

    2013-10-01

    North American Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations experienced substantial declines in the early 1990s, and many populations have persisted at low abundances in recent years. Abundance and productivity declined in a coherent manner across major regions of North America, and this coherence points toward a potential shift in marine survivorship, rather than local, river-specific factors. The major declines in Atlantic salmon populations occurred against a backdrop of physical and biological shifts in Northwest Atlantic ecosystems. Analyses of changes in climate, physical, and lower trophic level biological factors provide substantial evidence that climate conditions directly and indirectly influence the abundance and productivity of North American Atlantic salmon populations. A major decline in salmon abundance after 1990 was preceded by a series of changes across multiple levels of the ecosystem, and a subsequent population change in 1997, primarily related to salmon productivity, followed an unusually low NAO event. Pairwise correlations further demonstrate that climate and physical conditions are associated with changes in plankton communities and prey availability, which are ultimately linked to Atlantic salmon populations. Results suggest that poor trophic conditions, likely due to climate-driven environmental factors, and warmer ocean temperatures throughout their marine habitat area are constraining the productivity and recovery of North American Atlantic salmon populations.

  3. North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments: Assessment of 21st Century Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, E. D.; Kinter, J. L.; Mariotti, A.; Sheffield, J.; Task Force, T.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation summarizes the efforts of the NOAA MAPP CMIP5 task force to examine projections of 21st Century climate in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission experiments, contained within a comprehensive paper submitted to Journal of Climate. We examine aspects of North American climate change including changes in continental-scale temperature and the hydrologic cycle, extremes events, Northern Hemisphere sea ice, and storm tracks, as well as regional manifestations of these climate variables. We also examine changes in east Pacific and Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and North American intraseasonal to decadal variability, including changes in teleconnections to North America. We show that projected changes are generally consistent with those in CMIP3, although with better model agreement in some areas (e.g. projections of summer time precipitation decreases in the Caribbean and Southern Mexico). Although many projected changes in North American climate are robust across CMIP5 models, substantial disagreement in other areas helps to define priorities for future research. Areas of disagreement include projections of changes in snow water equivalent and diurnal temperature range on a regional basis, precipitation in the Southern U.S., Atlantic and east Pacific tropical cyclone activity, intraseasonal variability, and El Niño teleconnections. CMIP5 model success in simulating historical climate lends confidence to many of the projected results. However, we show that model biases in other areas decrease confidence in projections, including changes in the timing of North American monsoon precipitation, growing season length along the West Coast, and the distribution of persistent drought and wet spells.

  4. North American osprey populations and contaminants: Historic and contemporary perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Johnson, Branden L.

    2010-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations were adversely affected by DDT and perhaps other contaminants in the United States and elsewhere. Reduced productivity, eggshell thinning, and high DDE concentrations in eggs were the signs associated with declining osprey populations in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The species was one of the first studied on a large scale to bring contaminant issues into focus. Although few quantitative population data were available prior to the 1960s, many osprey populations in North America were studied during the 1960s and 1970s with much learned about basic life history and biology. This article reviews the historical and current effects of contaminants on regional osprey populations. Breeding populations in many regions of North America showed post-DDT-era (1972) population increases of varying magnitudes, with many populations now appearing to stabilize at much higher numbers than initially reported in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the magnitude of regional population increases in the United States between 1981 (first Nationwide Survey, ≈8,000 pairs), when some recovery had already occurred, 1994 (second survey, ≈14,200), and 2001 (third survey, ≈16,000–19,000), or any other years, is likely not a simple response to the release from earlier contaminant effects, but a response to multi-factorial effects. This indirect "contaminant effects" measurement comparing changes (i.e., recovery) in post-DDT-era population numbers over time is probably confounded by changing human attitudes toward birds of prey (shooting, destroying nests, etc.), changing habitats, changing fish populations, and perhaps competition from other species. The species' adaptation to newly created reservoirs and its increasing use of artificial nesting structures (power poles, nesting platforms, cell towers, channel markers, offshore duck blinds, etc.) are two important factors. The timing of the initial use of artificial nesting structures, which replaced

  5. North American osprey populations and contaminants: historic and contemporary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Grove, Robert A; Kaiser, James L; Johnson, Branden L

    2010-10-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations were adversely affected by DDT and perhaps other contaminants in the United States and elsewhere. Reduced productivity, eggshell thinning, and high DDE concentrations in eggs were the signs associated with declining osprey populations in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The species was one of the first studied on a large scale to bring contaminant issues into focus. Although few quantitative population data were available prior to the 1960s, many osprey populations in North America were studied during the 1960s and 1970s with much learned about basic life history and biology. This article reviews the historical and current effects of contaminants on regional osprey populations. Breeding populations in many regions of North America showed post-DDT-era (1972) population increases of varying magnitudes, with many populations now appearing to stabilize at much higher numbers than initially reported in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the magnitude of regional population increases in the United States between 1981 (first Nationwide Survey, ∼8,000 pairs), when some recovery had already occurred, 1994 (second survey, ∼14,200), and 2001 (third survey, ∼16,000-19,000), or any other years, is likely not a simple response to the release from earlier contaminant effects, but a response to multi-factorial effects. This indirect "contaminant effects" measurement comparing changes (i.e., recovery) in post-DDT-era population numbers over time is probably confounded by changing human attitudes toward birds of prey (shooting, destroying nests, etc.), changing habitats, changing fish populations, and perhaps competition from other species. The species' adaptation to newly created reservoirs and its increasing use of artificial nesting structures (power poles, nesting platforms, cell towers, channel markers, offshore duck blinds, etc.) are two important factors. The timing of the initial use of artificial nesting structures, which replaced

  6. North American osprey populations and contaminants: historic and contemporary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Grove, Robert A; Kaiser, James L; Johnson, Branden L

    2010-10-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations were adversely affected by DDT and perhaps other contaminants in the United States and elsewhere. Reduced productivity, eggshell thinning, and high DDE concentrations in eggs were the signs associated with declining osprey populations in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The species was one of the first studied on a large scale to bring contaminant issues into focus. Although few quantitative population data were available prior to the 1960s, many osprey populations in North America were studied during the 1960s and 1970s with much learned about basic life history and biology. This article reviews the historical and current effects of contaminants on regional osprey populations. Breeding populations in many regions of North America showed post-DDT-era (1972) population increases of varying magnitudes, with many populations now appearing to stabilize at much higher numbers than initially reported in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the magnitude of regional population increases in the United States between 1981 (first Nationwide Survey, ∼8,000 pairs), when some recovery had already occurred, 1994 (second survey, ∼14,200), and 2001 (third survey, ∼16,000-19,000), or any other years, is likely not a simple response to the release from earlier contaminant effects, but a response to multi-factorial effects. This indirect "contaminant effects" measurement comparing changes (i.e., recovery) in post-DDT-era population numbers over time is probably confounded by changing human attitudes toward birds of prey (shooting, destroying nests, etc.), changing habitats, changing fish populations, and perhaps competition from other species. The species' adaptation to newly created reservoirs and its increasing use of artificial nesting structures (power poles, nesting platforms, cell towers, channel markers, offshore duck blinds, etc.) are two important factors. The timing of the initial use of artificial nesting structures, which replaced

  7. Implications of summertime marine stratocumulus on the North American climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John H. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of summertime stratocumulus over the eastern Pacific. This cloud is linked to the semi-permanent sub-tropical highs that dominate the low-level circulation over the Pacific and Atlantic. Subsidence on the eastern flank of these highs creates an inversion based about 800 m above sea level that caps moist air near the surface. This air overlies cool waters driven by upwelling along the coastal regions of North America. Strong surface north-westerlies mix the boundary layer enough to saturate the air just below the capping inversion. Widespread stratocumulus is thus formed. All calculations were carried out using the GENESIS general circulation model that was run at MSFC. Among the more important properties of the model is that it includes radiative forcing due to absorption of solar radiation and the emission of infrared radiation, interactive clouds (both stratocumulus and cumulus types), exchanges of heat and moisture with the lower boundary. Clouds are interactive in the sense that they impact the circulation by modifying the fields of radiative heating and turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. In turn, clouds are modified by the winds through the advection of moisture. In order to isolate the effects of mid- and high-latitude stratocumulus, two runs were made with the model: one with and the other without stratocumulus. The runs were made for a year, but with perpetual July conditions, i.e., solar forcing was fixed. The diurnal solar cycle, however, was allowed for. The sea surface temperature distribution was fixed in both runs to represent climatological July conditions. All dependent variables were represented at 12 surfaces of constant sigma = p/p(sub O), where p is pressure and p(sub O) is surface pressure. To facilitate analysis, model output was transformed to constant pressure surfaces. Structures no smaller in size than 7.5 degrees longitude and 4.5 degrees in latitude were resolved. Smaller

  8. The enduring mental health impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Fatih; Auf der Heyde, Tanja; Reissman, Dori; Sharma, Vansh

    2013-09-01

    The authors review the existing literature on the mental health impact of the September 11th attacks and the implications for disaster mental health clinicians and policy makers. The authors discuss the demographic characteristics of those affected and the state of mental health needs and existing mental health delivery services; the nature of the disaster and primary impacts on lives, infrastructure, and socioeconomic factors; the acute aftermath in the days and weeks after the attacks; the persistent mental health impact and evolution of services of the postacute aftermath; and the implications for future disaster mental health practitioners and policy makers. PMID:23954056

  9. The enduring mental health impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Fatih; Auf der Heyde, Tanja; Reissman, Dori; Sharma, Vansh

    2013-09-01

    The authors review the existing literature on the mental health impact of the September 11th attacks and the implications for disaster mental health clinicians and policy makers. The authors discuss the demographic characteristics of those affected and the state of mental health needs and existing mental health delivery services; the nature of the disaster and primary impacts on lives, infrastructure, and socioeconomic factors; the acute aftermath in the days and weeks after the attacks; the persistent mental health impact and evolution of services of the postacute aftermath; and the implications for future disaster mental health practitioners and policy makers.

  10. [North American Indians: A Collection of Bibliographies, Resource Lists, Questions and Answers, and Other Leaflets Prepared by the National Museum of Natural History].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This extensive collection of information and resource materials about North American Indians includes: (1) "A General Introduction to North American Indian Art"; (2) "Selected References on Native American Silverwork"; (3) "Selected References on Southwestern Native American Pottery"; (4) "Selected References on Southwestern Indian Textiles and…

  11. A new food guide for North American vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia; Melina, Vesanto; Mangels, Ann Reed

    2003-01-01

    This companion paper to the Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian Diets, presents a new food guide for vegetarians. Two graphic formats are presented, a rainbow and a pyramid. The guide will assist vegetarians in choosing diets that meet recent recommendations established by the Institute of Medicine for nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin A, omega-3 fatty acids, and iodine. The guide can be adapted for different types of vegetarian diets and includes a wide variety of foods commonly used by vegetarians. The guide is based on the following food groups: grains; vegetables; fruits; legumes; nuts, and other protein-rich foods; fats; and Calcium-rich foods. The calcium-rich foods food group is planned to offer expanded choices for calcium sources and includes foods from each of the other food groups. Specific guidelines are given for meeting requirements for vitamins B-12 and D. Modifications are provided to meet needs of different stages of the life cycle. This vegetarian food guide has a number of advantages including the promotion of variety and moderation within the context of vegetarian diets, a focus on foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, and a foundation in current nutritional science. PMID:12826029

  12. A new food guide for North American vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia; Melina, Vesanto; Mangels, Ann Reed

    2003-01-01

    This companion paper to the Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian Diets, presents a new food guide for vegetarians. Two graphic formats are presented, a rainbow and a pyramid. The guide will assist vegetarians in choosing diets that meet recent recommendations established by the Institute of Medicine for nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin A, omega-3 fatty acids, and iodine. The guide can be adapted for different types of vegetarian diets and includes a wide variety of foods commonly used by vegetarians. The guide is based on the following food groups: grains; vegetables; fruits; legumes; nuts, and other protein-rich foods; fats; and Calcium-rich foods. The calcium-rich foods food group is planned to offer expanded choices for calcium sources and includes foods from each of the other food groups. Specific guidelines are given for meeting requirements for vitamins B-12 and D. Modifications are provided to meet needs of different stages of the life cycle. This vegetarian food guide has a number of advantages including the promotion of variety and moderation within the context of vegetarian diets, a focus on foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, and a foundation in current nutritional science.

  13. Widespread Triploidy in Western North American Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Karen E.; Callahan, Colin M.; Islam-Faridi, M. Nurul; Shaw, John D.; Rai, Hardeep S.; Sanderson, Stewart C.; Rowe, Carol A.; Ryel, Ronald J.; Madritch, Michael D.; Gardner, Richard S.; Wolf, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    We document high rates of triploidy in aspen (Populus tremuloides) across the western USA (up to 69% of genets), and ask whether the incidence of triploidy across the species range corresponds with latitude, glacial history (as has been documented in other species), climate, or regional variance in clone size. Using a combination of microsatellite genotyping, flow cytometry, and cytology, we demonstrate that triploidy is highest in unglaciated, drought-prone regions of North America, where the largest clone sizes have been reported for this species. While we cannot completely rule out a low incidence of undetected aneuploidy, tetraploidy or duplicated loci, our evidence suggests that these phenomena are unlikely to be significant contributors to our observed patterns. We suggest that the distribution of triploid aspen is due to a positive synergy between triploidy and ecological factors driving clonality. Although triploids are expected to have low fertility, they are hypothesized to be an evolutionary link to sexual tetraploidy. Thus, interactions between clonality and polyploidy may be a broadly important component of geographic speciation patterns in perennial plants. Further, cytotypes are expected to show physiological and structural differences which may influence susceptibility to ecological factors such as drought, and we suggest that cytotype may be a significant and previously overlooked factor in recent patterns of high aspen mortality in the southwestern portion of the species range. Finally, triploidy should be carefully considered as a source of variance in genomic and ecological studies of aspen, particularly in western U.S. landscapes. PMID:23119006

  14. The occurrence of blood protozoa in North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1957-01-01

    This report is based on review of literature and examination of a great number of blood smears from native birds in North America, particularly Passeriformes and Anseriformes. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon occur most frequently, although various species of Plasmodium and, occasionally, other less known forms are recognized. Prevalence of these parasites in wild birds is related to season of year and age of host. Highest incidence occurs in spring and summer. Relapse of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is common in the spring. Blood smears of adult wood ducks, on the Atlantic flyway, in April and May show a high prevalence of Haemoproteus, while smears at other times are usually negative. Although the author (Herman, 1938) demonstrated that young redwings in Massachusetts primarily acquired Plasmodium infections after leaving the nest, in many cases infection is acquired by the nestling. Nestling magpies in northeastern California acquire a high incidence of infection with several parasites. The hypothesis, expressed by Manwell and Herman (1935), that a higher prevalence of infection can be expected in more southerly ranging species, is subject to question. Smears taken during the winter demonstrate higher parasite prevalence in birds at the southern limits of their range, such as juncos and white-throated sparrows, than do smears of other species with more southern range. Little is known of significance of these parasites to survival of the host, although O'Roke ( 1934) reported a high loss for ducklings from Leucocytozoon and there have been occasional reports of fatality in other species.

  15. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds.

  16. Managing North American waterfowl in the face of uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Informed management of waterfowl (or any animal population) requires management goals and objectives, the ability to implement management actions, periodic information about population and goal-related varlables, and knowledge of effects of management actions on population and goal-related variables. In North America, international treaties mandate a primary objective of protecting migratory bird populations, with a secondary objective of providing hunting opportunity in a manner compatible with such protection. Through the years, annual establishment of hunting regulations and acquisition and man-agement of habitat have been the primary management actions taken by federal agencies. Various information-gathering programs were established and, by the 1960s, had developed into arguably the best monitoring system in the world for continentally distributed animal populations. Retrospective analyses using estimates from this monitoring system have been used to investigate effects of management actions on waterfowl population and harvest dynamics, but key relationships arc still characterized by uncertainty. We recommend actively adaptive management as an approach that can meet short-term harvest objectives, while reducing uncertainty and ensuring sustainable populations over the long-term.

  17. Widespread triploidy in Western North American aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    PubMed

    Mock, Karen E; Callahan, Colin M; Islam-Faridi, M Nurul; Shaw, John D; Rai, Hardeep S; Sanderson, Stewart C; Rowe, Carol A; Ryel, Ronald J; Madritch, Michael D; Gardner, Richard S; Wolf, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    We document high rates of triploidy in aspen (Populus tremuloides) across the western USA (up to 69% of genets), and ask whether the incidence of triploidy across the species range corresponds with latitude, glacial history (as has been documented in other species), climate, or regional variance in clone size. Using a combination of microsatellite genotyping, flow cytometry, and cytology, we demonstrate that triploidy is highest in unglaciated, drought-prone regions of North America, where the largest clone sizes have been reported for this species. While we cannot completely rule out a low incidence of undetected aneuploidy, tetraploidy or duplicated loci, our evidence suggests that these phenomena are unlikely to be significant contributors to our observed patterns. We suggest that the distribution of triploid aspen is due to a positive synergy between triploidy and ecological factors driving clonality. Although triploids are expected to have low fertility, they are hypothesized to be an evolutionary link to sexual tetraploidy. Thus, interactions between clonality and polyploidy may be a broadly important component of geographic speciation patterns in perennial plants. Further, cytotypes are expected to show physiological and structural differences which may influence susceptibility to ecological factors such as drought, and we suggest that cytotype may be a significant and previously overlooked factor in recent patterns of high aspen mortality in the southwestern portion of the species range. Finally, triploidy should be carefully considered as a source of variance in genomic and ecological studies of aspen, particularly in western U.S. landscapes.

  18. Conservation genetics of North American freshwater mussels Amblema and Megalonaias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvey, M.; Lydeard, C.; Pyer, D.L.; Hicks, K.M.; Brim-Box, J.; Williams, J.D.; Butler, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Freshwater bivalves are among the most endangered groups of organisms in North America. Efforts to protect the declining mussel fauna are confounded by ambiguities associated with recognition of distinct evolutionary entities or species. This, in part, is due to the paucity of reliable morphological characters for differentiating taxa. We have employed allozymes and DNA sequence data to search for diagnosably distinct evolutionary entities within two problematic genera of unionid mussels, Amblema and Megalonaias. Within the genus Amblema three species are recognized based on our DNA sequence data for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and allozyme data (Amblema neislerii, A. plicata, and A. elliotti). Only one taxonomically distinct entity is recognized within the genus Megalonaias—M. nervosa. Megalonaias boykiniana of the Apalachicolan Region is not diagnosable and does not warrant specific taxonomic status. Interestingly, Megalonaias from west of the Mississippi River, including the Mississippi, exhibited an allozyme and mtDNA haplotype frequency shift suggestive of an east-west dichotomy. The results of this study eliminate one subspecies of Amblema and increase the range of A. plicata. This should not affect the conservation status of “currently stable” assigned to A. plicata by Williams et al. (1993). The conservation status of A. elliotti needs to be reexamined because its distribution appears to be limited to the Coosa River System in Alabama and Georgia.

  19. Predicting future coexistence in a North American ant community

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Sharon; Stuble, Katharine L; Lessard, Jean-Phillipe; Dunn, Robert R; Adler, Frederick R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change will remodel ecological communities worldwide. However, as a consequence of biotic interactions, communities may respond to climate change in idiosyncratic ways. This makes predictive models that incorporate biotic interactions necessary. We show how such models can be constructed based on empirical studies in combination with predictions or assumptions regarding the abiotic consequences of climate change. Specifically, we consider a well-studied ant community in North America. First, we use historical data to parameterize a basic model for species coexistence. Using this model, we determine the importance of various factors, including thermal niches, food discovery rates, and food removal rates, to historical species coexistence. We then extend the model to predict how the community will restructure in response to several climate-related changes, such as increased temperature, shifts in species phenology, and altered resource availability. Interestingly, our mechanistic model suggests that increased temperature and shifts in species phenology can have contrasting effects. Nevertheless, for almost all scenarios considered, we find that the most subordinate ant species suffers most as a result of climate change. More generally, our analysis shows that community composition can respond to climate warming in nonintuitive ways. For example, in the context of a community, it is not necessarily the most heat-sensitive species that are most at risk. Our results demonstrate how models that account for niche partitioning and interspecific trade-offs among species can be used to predict the likely idiosyncratic responses of local communities to climate change. PMID:24963378

  20. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds. PMID:27106273