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Sample records for 11th terrorist attacks

  1. Impact of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks on Teenagers' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lubell, Keri; Provenzano, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on adolescents' mental health is reported. Two successive cohorts of students in 6 New York state high schools, identified from health courses, completed an in-school self-report baseline assessment of hopelessness, impairment, and help-seeking behavior. One year later, these students completed a…

  2. Adolescent Vulnerability Following the September 11th Terrorist Attacks: A Study of Parents and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Holman, E. Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 2 weeks after September 11th, adolescents from a national sample of households who were indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks through the media completed a Web-based survey that assessed event-related acute stress symptoms. One year later, these adolescents (N = 142) and a randomly selected parent from their household completed…

  3. The Reporting of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks in American Social Studies Textbooks: A Muslim Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Mohammed M.; Thomas, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the reporting of the September 11th terrorist attacks in social studies textbooks from a Muslim perspective and reports on findings from a study of the responses of American Muslim children to the treatment of the events of September 11th in social studies textbooks. Constructivist grounded theory was used to centralize the…

  4. The enduring mental health impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Fatih; Auf der Heyde, Tanja; Reissman, Dori; Sharma, Vansh

    2013-09-01

    The authors review the existing literature on the mental health impact of the September 11th attacks and the implications for disaster mental health clinicians and policy makers. The authors discuss the demographic characteristics of those affected and the state of mental health needs and existing mental health delivery services; the nature of the disaster and primary impacts on lives, infrastructure, and socioeconomic factors; the acute aftermath in the days and weeks after the attacks; the persistent mental health impact and evolution of services of the postacute aftermath; and the implications for future disaster mental health practitioners and policy makers. PMID:23954056

  5. The enduring mental health impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Fatih; Auf der Heyde, Tanja; Reissman, Dori; Sharma, Vansh

    2013-09-01

    The authors review the existing literature on the mental health impact of the September 11th attacks and the implications for disaster mental health clinicians and policy makers. The authors discuss the demographic characteristics of those affected and the state of mental health needs and existing mental health delivery services; the nature of the disaster and primary impacts on lives, infrastructure, and socioeconomic factors; the acute aftermath in the days and weeks after the attacks; the persistent mental health impact and evolution of services of the postacute aftermath; and the implications for future disaster mental health practitioners and policy makers.

  6. Psychological sequelae of remote exposure to the September 11th terrorist attacks in Canadians with and without panic.

    PubMed

    Asmundson, Gordon J G; Carleton, R Nicholas; Wright, Kristi D; Taylor, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the psychological impact of remote exposure to the events and aftermath of the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, and to assess what differences, if any, exist between individuals classified with probable panic disorder and those without. Telephone interviews were conducted with 122 residents of the capital city of the Canadian prairie province of Saskatchewan in spring 2002 in order to gather information regarding current mood, fears and avoidance behaviours as well as current post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms specific to September 11th. Consistent with previous findings and despite the remote nature of exposure, results indicated that the psychological well-being and behaviour of participants with probable panic disorder was more adversely affected by the events and aftermath of September 11th than those without panic disorder. These results suggest that remote viewing of traumatic events can have a significant and lingering impact on psychological well-being and behaviour and that these effects are more pronounced in those with panic disorder. Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

  7. Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Ahern, Jennifer; Boscarino, Joseph A; Bucuvalas, Michael; Gold, Joel; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2002-06-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in the United States since the Civil War. Studies after earlier disasters have reported rates of psychological disorders in the acute postdisaster period. However, data on postdisaster increases in substance use are sparse. A random digit dial telephone survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of increased cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among residents of Manhattan, New York City, 5-8 weeks after the attacks. Among 988 persons included, 28.8% reported an increase in use of any of these three substances, 9.7% reported an increase in smoking, 24.6% reported an increase in alcohol consumption, and 3.2% reported an increase in marijuana use. Persons who increased smoking of cigarettes and marijuana were more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder than were those who did not (24.2% vs. 5.6% posttraumatic stress disorder for cigarettes; 36.0% vs. 6.6% for marijuana). Depression was more common among those who increased than for those who did not increase cigarette smoking (22.1 vs. 8.2%), alcohol consumption (15.5 vs. 8.3%), and marijuana smoking (22.3 vs. 9.4%). The results of this study suggest a substantial increase in substance use in the acute postdisaster period after the September 11th attacks. Increase in use of different substances may be associated with the presence of different comorbid psychiatric conditions.

  8. Utilization of mental health services following the September 11th terrorist attacks in Manhattan, New York City.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Resnick, Heidi; Vlahov, David

    2002-01-01

    To assess mental health utilization in Manhattan following the September 11th terrorist attacks, a random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted 5 to 8 weeks afterwards, among 988 randomly selected adult householders over 17 years old (females = 52%; whites = 72%; mean age = 42). 16.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.4-19.5) of residents reported using mental health services 30 days before the attacks and 19.4% (95% CI = 16.7-22.2) reported using these services 30 days afterwards (pre/post NcMemar's chi2 = 8.0, df = 1, p = 0.005, odds ratio[OR] = 2.0). 10.0% (95% CI = 7.9-12.0) increased mental health utilization 30 days after the attacks, compared to 30 days before and 5.3% (95% CI = 3.7-6.9) decreased utilization. Risk factors associated with increased mental health utilization in multivariate analyses included: being 45-64 years of age (vs. 65+; OR = 8.3, p = 0.011) female gender (OR = 2.3, p = 0.004), experiencing 4+ lifetime traumatic events (vs. none; OR = 3.5, p = 0.002), experiencing 2+ stressful life events in the past 12 months (vs. none; OR = 3.3, p < 0.001), and experiencing an acute panic attack during the disaster (OR = 3.3, p < 0.001). Neither current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nor current depression was predictive of increased post-disaster utilization when panic attack was included in the multivariate analysis. While we did find a statistically significant increase in pre- vs. post-disaster utilization among the general population in Manhattan this increase was not substantial, except among specific subgroups, including those who had a perievent panic attack, among those exposed to previous stressors, among women, and among those less than 65 years old.

  9. Forgiving the September 11th terrorists: associations with coping, psychological distress, and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Galena Kline; McIntosh, Daniel N; Wadsworth, Martha E; Ahlkvist, Jarl A; Burwell, Rebecca A; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R; Raviv, Tali; Rea, Jacqueline G

    2007-06-01

    Two studies examined how non-interpersonal forgiveness (when there is no social relationship between the transgressor and forgiver) related to coping and involuntary responses to stress, psychological distress, and religiosity. Three to six weeks after September 11th, 2001, forgiveness had non-linear associations with other responses to the terrorist attacks. Among college students (N=488), those who were trying or had forgiven (pro-forgiveness) the terrorists reported less involuntary engagement, more primary and secondary control coping, and more meaning finding than those who were unsure about forgiveness (ambivalent) and those who did not believe the perpetrators should be forgiven (anti-forgiveness). Ambivalent students reported the most distress, even after controlling for religion. Anti-forgiveness students reported less religiosity than ambivalent and pro-forgiveness students. Most findings were consistent among middle schoolers (N=154), particularly regarding psychological distress and responses to stress. Also, forgiveness of strangers for acts against one's community functioned separately from religion.

  10. Wake of September 11th attacks: implications for research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Darden, Madeline Lyles

    2002-02-01

    The National Consortium for African American Children (NCAAC) held a National Forum on Bioterrorism and Children on November 6, 2001 in Washington, DC. Convened in the wake of the September 11th attacks on New York City and the Pentagon, this unprecedented conference assembled a cross-section of professionals in child advocacy, health, mental health, insurance, economics, law enforcement, and media technology. The ensuing discussion focused on issues surrounding biological agents, their impact on children and youth, and the strategies needed to protect the health and mental health of children and families in the event of a large-scale bioterrorist crisis. Lessons learned as well as the implications of the terrorist acts from the tragic events of September 11th formed the backdrop for engaging dialogue among various industry executives and professionals. Accounts of personal experiences during the unprecedented tragedy of 9-11 were shared and provided a context for heightened preparedness planning for children and adults. A collaborative statement was also presented by NCAAC, the National Medical Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the National Black Media Coalition. This forum was hailed as a model for communities of color to join and help bolster broad-based coalition building to ensure the availability of culturally and linguistically appropriate messages, services, and support. As intended, the forum devoted significant attention to the special needs of children, their caregivers and families and provided for an invaluable interchange which is slated to evolve into a national action plan to address the imminent dangers facing our nation's children.

  11. Wake of September 11th attacks: implications for research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Darden, Madeline Lyles

    2002-02-01

    The National Consortium for African American Children (NCAAC) held a National Forum on Bioterrorism and Children on November 6, 2001 in Washington, DC. Convened in the wake of the September 11th attacks on New York City and the Pentagon, this unprecedented conference assembled a cross-section of professionals in child advocacy, health, mental health, insurance, economics, law enforcement, and media technology. The ensuing discussion focused on issues surrounding biological agents, their impact on children and youth, and the strategies needed to protect the health and mental health of children and families in the event of a large-scale bioterrorist crisis. Lessons learned as well as the implications of the terrorist acts from the tragic events of September 11th formed the backdrop for engaging dialogue among various industry executives and professionals. Accounts of personal experiences during the unprecedented tragedy of 9-11 were shared and provided a context for heightened preparedness planning for children and adults. A collaborative statement was also presented by NCAAC, the National Medical Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the National Black Media Coalition. This forum was hailed as a model for communities of color to join and help bolster broad-based coalition building to ensure the availability of culturally and linguistically appropriate messages, services, and support. As intended, the forum devoted significant attention to the special needs of children, their caregivers and families and provided for an invaluable interchange which is slated to evolve into a national action plan to address the imminent dangers facing our nation's children. PMID:11853055

  12. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  13. Preparing Schools for Terrorist Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Safety, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Outlines 21 actions, both immediate and over the long term, that administrators can take to protect students and schools from terrorist activities. Includes establishing a chain of command, a command post, a crisis response team, a communications staff, and inservice training. (four references) (MLF)

  14. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a terrorist

  15. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    PubMed

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  16. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  17. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical facilities to date; and (4

  18. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  19. Are Risk Assessments of a Terrorist Attack Coherent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments examined 3 types of violations of coherence criteria in risk assessments of a terrorist attack. First, the requirement that extensionally equivalent descriptions be assigned the same probability (i.e., additivity) was violated. Unpacking descriptions of an attack into subtypes led to an increase in assessed risk. Second,…

  20. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  1. Children Who Lost a Parent as a Result of the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001: Registry Construction and Population Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Conroy, David L.; Hochauser, Carl J.; Laraque, Danielle; Banks, Josette; Schmeidler, James; Dela Cruz, Maan; Nelsen, William C.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Children who experience traumatic bereavement in the context of catastrophic disasters are at increased risk for developing post-disaster problems. Despite massive loss of life on September 11th, 2001, no public data were collected on those children who lost a parent in the multiple terrorist attacks. Such a registry would be an important public…

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain TerroristAttacks Consistent... terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001,and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 9, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 11, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... national emergency declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the...

  7. Mental health issues in disasters and terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Jernigan, Nancy E

    2003-01-01

    Recent events make clear that those living in the United States are at risk of exposure to a variety of potentially traumatic events, ranging from sniper and terrorist attacks to a variety of natural disasters. This paper provides a broad overview of the most common psychological reactions that can be expected in the aftermath of such events, how primary care practitioners can identify such reactions in their patients, and actions those practitioners might take.

  8. Critical care delivery: the experience of a civilian terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Shirley, P J

    2006-03-01

    It has been recognised for some time that a terrorist incident was threatened in the U.K. and it has been noted previously in the JRAMC that the locations for terrorist atrocities are likely to be more diverse than previously experienced. July 7th 2005 witnessed the first terrorist suicide bombing on the U.K. mainland, targeting the public transport system in London. These attacks were unprecedented in both scale and intensity but they were anticipated in London. However there were clear difficulties, relating to multiple sites, their location underground and early problems with communication (2). This article highlights some of the experiences and learning points of the Intensive Care Medicine Service at the Royal London Hospital (RLH) in the wake of the July 7th bombings. The RLH was the single biggest receiver of casualties (195); seven of whom were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The Defence Medical Services have tri-service representation (both regular and reserve) at the RLH in Emergency Medicine and Pre-hospital Care, Surgical Services and Intensive Care Medicine.

  9. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  10. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future. PMID:25416378

  11. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  13. September 11th, the Internet, and the Affects on Information Provision in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stuart

    The September 11th terrorist attacks on the United States have contributed greatly to a change in the information environment around the world. The weeks following the attacks saw governments around the world rush to pass legislation designed to prevent future acts of terrorism. Much of this legislation targeted information flow, especially on the…

  14. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 9, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-23609 Filed 9-12-11; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C....

  15. 77 FR 56515 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-22708 Filed 9-11-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Notice of September 11, 2012--Continuation of the National... the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of...

  16. 78 FR 56579 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 10, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-22406 Filed 9-11... Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50...

  17. Help-Seeking Behaviours of Adolescents in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Israeli Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima; Kelman, Talia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism poses a challenge for children and adolescents as well as parents. For many years, Israeli citizens have been exposed to ongoing terrorist attacks. The present article is aimed at revealing the reactions of Israeli parents when facing terrorist attacks and their perceptions regarding the help-seeking behaviours of their…

  18. Review on emergency medical response against terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Wen; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ming-Min

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a global issue and a constant international threat. As a result, anti-terrorism and emergency response strategies are tasks of critical importance that have a direct impact on the national security of every country in the world. This paper reviews new characteristics of international anti-terrorism measures and offers an in-depth reflection on emergency medical response countermeasures; additionally, this paper presents the goals of related research, which include: 1) to present a model of a highly efficient medical response command; 2) to introduce the pre-planning phases of the emergency medical response; 3) to establish a response system capable of handling various types of terror attacks; 4) to promote anti-terrorism awareness to the general public and emphasize its prevention; and 5) to continue basic investigations into emergency medical responses for various types of terrorist attacks (for example, the classifications and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of the resultant stress disorders, improved high-efficiency medical response measures and equipment, etc.).

  19. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: A systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. Methods A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. Results A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Conclusions Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed. PMID:21627850

  20. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ..., September 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-22988 Filed 9-10-10; 1:30 pm] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent...

  1. Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

  2. Pre-Attack Symptomatology and Temperament as Predictors of Children's Responses to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Smith, Kimberlee I.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the psychological response of children following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC and to examine prospective predictors of children's post-attack responses. Method: Children's responses were assessed in a community sample of children in Seattle, Washington,…

  3. Labor Market Effects of September 11th on Arab and Muslim Residents of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert; Reimers, Cordelia

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the September 11, 2001 terrorists' attacks had any effect on employment, earnings, and residential mobility of first- and second-generation Arab and Muslim men in the United States. We find that September 11th did not significantly affect employment and hours of work of Arab and Muslim men, but was associated with a 9-11…

  4. Reasoning about Emotional Contents Following Shocking Terrorist Attacks: A Tale of Three Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Isabelle; Richards, Anne; Melnyk, Laura; Lavda, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined reasoning following the terrorist attacks carried out in London in July 2005. They tested participants in London (United Kingdom), Manchester (United Kingdom), and London (Canada) within 1 week of the attacks and again 6 months later. Participants reasoned about syllogisms of 3 types: neutral, generally emotional, and…

  5. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  6. Deaths in World Trade Center terrorist attacks--New York City, 2001.

    PubMed

    2002-09-11

    On September 11, 2001, terrorists flew two hijacked airplanes into the World Trade Center (WTC) in lower Manhattan in New York City (NYC), destroying both towers of the WTC. This report presents preliminary vital statistics on the deaths caused by the terrorist attacks and describes the procedures developed by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYCDOHMH) to issue death certificates in response to the attacks. These data underscore the need for legal mechanisms to expedite the issuance of death certificates in the absence of human remains and the need for vital registration systems that can be relocated in case of emergency. PMID:12238537

  7. KAMEDO Report 90: terrorist attacks in Madrid, Spain, 2004.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Roger; Ehrlin, Ylva; Forsberg, Rebecca; Rüter, Anders; Soest, Vivian; Vikström, Tore; Ortenwall, Per; Brändström, Helge

    2007-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of the medical responses to the bombings by terrorists in Madrid on 11 March 2004. The nature of the event, the human damage, and the responses are described. It describes the: (1) nature and operations associated with the alarm; (2) assignment of responding units and personnel; (3) establishment and operations of casualty collection points; (4) medical transport and distribution of injured victims; (5) prioritization and command; (6) hospital care; (7) psychosocial care; (8) identification of the dead; and (9) police investigation and actions. Each of these descriptions is discussed in terms of what currently is known and the implications for future planning, preparedness, and response.

  8. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities following a terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Janecky, David R; Doerr, Ted B

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist actions are aimed at maximizing harm (health, psychological, economical, and political) through the combined physical impacts of the act and fear. Immediate and effective response to a terrorist act is critical to limit human and environmental harm, effectively restore facility function, and maintain public confidence. Though there have been terrorist attacks in public facilities that we have learned from, overall our experiences in restoration of public facilities following a terrorist attack are limited. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. For example, there may be a great need to quickly restore the facility to full operation and allow public access even though it was not designed for easy or rapid restoration, and critical information is needed for quantitative risk assessment and effective restoration must be anticipated to be incomplete and uncertain. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the "adaptive management" paradigm provides a constructive parallel paradigm for restoration of public facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, inefficiencies, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a public facility after a terrorist attack suggest that integration of adaptive management principles explicitly into restoration processes will result in substantially enhanced and flexible responses necessary to meet the uncertainties of potential terrorist attacks.

  9. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  10. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    PubMed

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs.

  11. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  12. Patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in Iraq: retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gataa, I S; Muassa, Q H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, Iraq has witnessed daily terrorist attacks mainly using improvised explosive devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in a sample of Iraqi casualties. Records from two hospitals, including 551 patients who sustained maxillofacial injuries due to terrorists attacks, were analyzed according to the patients' age, sex, site of injury, type of injury and cause of injury. Concomitant injuries and mortality were also considered. The most common age group affected was those aged 15-29 years. Most of these injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (71%). More than one facial zone was injured in 212 patients (38%). Isolated soft tissues injuries were detected in (54%) of victims. Pure maxillofacial injuries comprised 33%. The most common injuries associated with this type of trauma were eye injuries (29%). The mortality rate was 2% from pure maxillofacial injuries. Terrorist attacks cause unique maxillofacial injuries, which should be considered a new entity in the trauma field.

  13. The Traumatic Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks and the Potential Protection of Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Santangelo, Linda K.; Cascio, Toni

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the September 11 terrorist attacks on graduate and undergraduate students and the role of optimism in posttraumatic distress. A sample of 457 students who attended courses at three schools of social work (Nevada, Pennsylvania, and Washington) participated in the study. A quarter of them had a known person as an…

  14. Effects of Terrorist Attacks on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the terrorist attacks on children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. These children may be adversely affected in a number of ways including inattentiveness, increased restlessness, crying, sleeplessness, use of profanity, and even inappropriate laughter. Several suggestions are offered to…

  15. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    PubMed

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs. PMID:27015702

  16. A decision framework for managing risk to airports from terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Cha, Eun J; Ellingwood, Bruce R

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an asset-level security risk management framework to assist stakeholders of critical assets with allocating limited budgets for enhancing their safety and security against terrorist attack. The proposed framework models the security system of an asset, considers various threat scenarios, and models the sequential decision framework of attackers during the attack. Its novel contributions are the introduction of the notion of partial neutralization of attackers by defenders, estimation of total loss from successful, partially successful, and unsuccessful actions of attackers at various stages of an attack, and inclusion of the effects of these losses on the choices made by terrorists at various stages of the attack. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example dealing with security risk management of a U.S. commercial airport, in which a set of plausible threat scenarios and risk mitigation options are considered. It is found that a combination of providing blast-resistant cargo containers and a video surveillance system on the airport perimeter fence is the best option based on minimum expected life-cycle cost considering a 10-year service period.

  17. A decision framework for managing risk to airports from terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Cha, Eun J; Ellingwood, Bruce R

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an asset-level security risk management framework to assist stakeholders of critical assets with allocating limited budgets for enhancing their safety and security against terrorist attack. The proposed framework models the security system of an asset, considers various threat scenarios, and models the sequential decision framework of attackers during the attack. Its novel contributions are the introduction of the notion of partial neutralization of attackers by defenders, estimation of total loss from successful, partially successful, and unsuccessful actions of attackers at various stages of an attack, and inclusion of the effects of these losses on the choices made by terrorists at various stages of the attack. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example dealing with security risk management of a U.S. commercial airport, in which a set of plausible threat scenarios and risk mitigation options are considered. It is found that a combination of providing blast-resistant cargo containers and a video surveillance system on the airport perimeter fence is the best option based on minimum expected life-cycle cost considering a 10-year service period. PMID:25109326

  18. Theoretical perspectives on public communication preparedness for terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Wray, Ricardo J; Kreuter, Matthew W; Jacobsen, Heather; Clements, Bruce; Evans, R Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The experience of federal health authorities in responding to the mailed anthrax attacks in the Fall of 2001 sheds light on the challenges of public information dissemination in emergencies. Lessons learned from the Fall of 2001 have guided more recent efforts related to crisis communication and preparedness goals. This article applies theories and evidence from the field of communication to provide an orientation to how public health communication can best contribute to the preparedness effort. This theoretical orientation provides a framework to systematically assess current recommendations for preparedness communication. PMID:15596970

  19. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Refsdal, Nils O.

    2014-01-01

    This brief report presents some of the lessons learned from coordinating research in which people directly affected by terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011 are taking part. After the terrorist attacks, it was decided to establish a national coordinating function in order to protect those who were affected when they participate in research. By gathering key stakeholders, it is possible to avoid duplication of research through practical measures such as information sharing, facilitating cooperation, and working toward sharing of data. In addition, a coordinating function provides a platform for working to increase the impact of the research among practitioners and policy makers, and inform the general public. The conclusions are that coordination should be interdisciplinary, that it is important to plan for the sharing and reuse of data, and that both the research community and the research infrastructure should take steps to improve preparedness when disaster inevitably strikes again. PMID:25018857

  20. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway.

    PubMed

    Refsdal, Nils O

    2014-01-01

    This brief report presents some of the lessons learned from coordinating research in which people directly affected by terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011 are taking part. After the terrorist attacks, it was decided to establish a national coordinating function in order to protect those who were affected when they participate in research. By gathering key stakeholders, it is possible to avoid duplication of research through practical measures such as information sharing, facilitating cooperation, and working toward sharing of data. In addition, a coordinating function provides a platform for working to increase the impact of the research among practitioners and policy makers, and inform the general public. The conclusions are that coordination should be interdisciplinary, that it is important to plan for the sharing and reuse of data, and that both the research community and the research infrastructure should take steps to improve preparedness when disaster inevitably strikes again.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed. PMID:27388691

  3. Statistical issues and challenges associated with rapid detection of bio-terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Fienberg, Stephen E; Shmueli, Galit

    2005-02-28

    The traditional focus for detecting outbreaks of an epidemic or bio-terrorist attack has been on the collection and analysis of medical and public health data. Although such data are the most direct indicators of symptoms, they tend to be collected, delivered, and analysed days, weeks, and even months after the outbreak. By the time this information reaches decision makers it is often too late to treat the infected population or to react in some other way. In this paper, we explore different sources of data, traditional and non-traditional, that can be used for detecting a bio-terrorist attack in a timely manner. We set our discussion in the context of state-of-the-art syndromic surveillance systems and we focus on statistical issues and challenges associated with non-traditional data sources and the timely integration of multiple data sources for detection purposes.

  4. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks. PMID:27423458

  5. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

  6. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  7. Psychological consequences of terrorist attacks: prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in Pakistani emergency responders.

    PubMed

    Razik, Saiqa; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2013-05-15

    Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather evidence on the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in N=125 Pakistani emergency workers, most of whom (n=100; 80%) had been exposed to terrorist attacks. Fifteen percent of participants showed clinically relevant levels of PTSD, and 11-16% of participants reported heightened levels of anxiety or depression. Neither the experience of terrorist attacks per se nor the severity of the attack experienced was related to symptom severities. However, symptom levels of PTSD were related to a number of predictor variables, including subjective threat, peritraumatic dissociation, past traumas, rumination, and avoidant coping. Only a few variables were predictive of levels of anxiety and depression. In sum, a substantial subgroup of emergency workers experienced mental health problems, and prevalences were in the high range of those reported in earlier studies focusing on emergency personnel in Western countries.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks: A Review of the Literature among Highly Exposed Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neria, Yuval; Digrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2011-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly…

  9. The Effect of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks on Suicide and Deliberate Self-Harm: A Time Trend Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Aart W.; Neeleman, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following the attacks. These findings contrast with…

  10. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  11. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services.

  12. A Study of Direct and Indirect Costs Resulting from a Radiological Attack by Terrorists

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.E.; McFee, J.; Langstead, J.

    2007-07-01

    An uncontrolled release of radioactivity caused by a terrorist attack is expected to result in an - incident of national significance - and have the potential consequence of a significant economic impact. The magnitude of the economic impact and the range of impacted entities are somewhat controversial. This paper will discuss the elements and methodology that comprise the buildup of an estimate for a specific critical infrastructure. The radiological attack event was studied by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to estimate the health and economic impacts of a radionuclide attack. The cost estimate was based on response actions outlined in the DHS National Response Plan and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Drinking Water Contamination Threats and Incidents. A response plan was developed to support the options for the estimate. Several response and cleanup options were evaluated to determine a range of potential costs. It is the breakdown of the cost elements and their relative size that is discussed in this paper. The first step in the estimating process was the development of the terrorist attack characteristics that were to be estimated. Example response timelines were developed to determine what immediate operational response actions are possible to mitigate the attack consequences. Based on the attack assumptions, costs were estimated for a number of response and remediation options that may be employed. Finally, each parameter was evaluated to account for the range of values possible and its effect on the total cost. Cost estimates were based on data from standard references, internet searches on specific subjects, and information from recent terrorist activities. These costs were broken down into Micro-economic Level Costs (primarily associated with Medical Treatment, Remediation, and Business Interruption) and Macroeconomic Level Costs (primarily associated with the value of life lost

  13. Roots of terrorism: a reassessment after September 11th

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political, sociological and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 11th, Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes. If 9/11 was caused by US Middle East policies, the response must involve a review of these policies. If it is a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes will be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment, which need to be clearly identified, are critical in any counterterrorism strategy. So we must understand the reasons for terrorism and, in particular, for the attacks of September 11th.T his paper will look at the question of the roots of terrorism and then look to the specific case of 911 and its aftermath, with a special view to the impact of globalization.

  14. Spatial proximity and the risk of psychopathology after a terrorist attack

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Emch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with the relation of proximity to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent psychopathology have produced conflicting results. The goals of this analysis are to assess the appropriateness of using Bayesian hierarchical spatial techniques to answer the question of the role of proximity to a mass trauma as a risk factor for psychopathology. Using a set of individual-level Medicaid data for New York State, and controlling for age, gender, median household income and employment-related exposures, we applied Bayesian hierarchical modeling methods for spatially-aggregated data. We, we found that distance from the World Trade Center site in the post-attack time period was associated with increased risk of anxiety-related diagnoses. In the months following the attack, each two mile increment in distance closer to the World Trade Center site was associated with a seven percent increase in anxiety-related diagnoses in the population. No similar association was found during a similar time period in the year prior to the attacks. We conclude that spatial variables help more fully describe post-terrorism psychiatric risk and may help explain discrepancies in the existing literature about these attacks. These methods hold promise for the characterization of disease risk where spatial patterning of ecologic-level exposures and outcomes merits consideration. PMID:20079543

  15. Amygdala Response to Negative Stimuli Predicts PTSD Symptom Onset following a Terrorist Attack

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Busso, Daniel S.; Duys, Andrea; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alves, Sonia; Way, Marcus; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened amygdala reactivity and atypical activation patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to negative emotional information. It is unknown whether these aspects of neural function are risk factors for PTSD or consequences of either trauma exposure or onset of the disorder. We had a unique opportunity to investigate this issue following the terrorist attacks at the 2013 Boston Marathon and the ensuing manhunt and shelter in place order. We examined associations of neural function measured prior to the attack with PTSD symptom onset related to these events. METHODS A sample of 15 adolescents (mean age=16.5 years) who previously participated in a neuroimaging study completed a survey assessing posttraumatic symptoms related to the terrorist attack. We examined blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response to viewing and actively down-regulating emotional responses to negative stimuli in regions previously associated with PTSD, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and mPFC, as prospective predictors of posttraumatic symptom onset. RESULTS Increased BOLD signal to negative emotional stimuli in the left amygdala was strongly associated with posttraumatic symptoms following the attack. Reduced bilateral hippocampal activation during effortful attempts to down-regulate emotional responses to negative stimuli was also associated with greater posttraumatic symptoms. Associations of amygdala reactivity with posttraumatic symptoms were robust to controls for pre-existing depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms and prior exposure to violence. CONCLUSIONS Amygdala reactivity to negative emotional information might represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to traumatic stress and, potentially, a risk factor for PTSD. PMID:24995938

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder and exposure to trauma reminders after a terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Glad, Kristin A; Jensen, Tine K; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Dyb, Grete

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to systematically describe the type and frequency of trauma reminders reported after a terrorist attack and (b) to examine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. A total of 285 survivors (M age = 22.2, SD = 4.3, 53% males) of the 2011 massacre on Utøya Island, Norway, were interviewed face to face 14-15 months after the terror. Participants were asked how often they had experienced a range of different trauma reminders in the past month and which was most distressing. Current posttraumatic stress reactions were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. In all, 33.3% of the survivors reported having experienced 1 or more trauma reminders often/very often in the past month. Auditory reminders were most frequently encountered and were reported to be the most distressing, especially sudden and sharp noises. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD was significantly associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. The findings suggest that trauma reminders are common among survivors of a terrorist attack almost 1.5 years after the trauma and that PTSD is strongly related to the frequency of exposure to reminders. It is important that clinicians are aware of the significant role trauma reminders may play in maintaining PTSD and help trauma survivors recognize and manage reminders.

  17. Impact of London's terrorist attacks on a major trauma center in London.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Aso B; Mann, Haroon A; Nawabi, Danyal H; Goodier, Davis W; Ang, Swee C

    2006-01-01

    During the morning rush hour on Thursday, 07 July 2005, a series of four bombs exploded, affecting London's public transport system. These terrorist attacks killed 52 people and injured > 700. A major incident was declared, and the Royal London Hospital (RLH) was a primary receiving hospital. A total of 194 patients presented to the RLH. Twenty-seven patients required admission. A total of 11 amputations were performed on eight patients. One patient died intra-operatively. Another patient died on Day 6 due to complications related to a head injury. Coordination is vital to the implementation of the hospital's Major Incident Plan in such an emergency. Subsequent internal reviews of the response of the RLH on 07 July 2005 highlighted problems with communication and documentation, as well as the need for extra staffing. These areas should be improved for the management of future major incidents.

  18. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  19. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  20. Identification With Terrorist Victims of the Washington, DC Sniper Attacks: Posttraumatic Stress and Depression.

    PubMed

    Herberman Mash, Holly B; Ursano, Robert J; Benevides, K Nikki; Fullerton, Carol S

    2016-02-01

    In October 2002, a series of sniper attacks in the Washington, DC area left 10 people dead and 3 wounded. We examined the association between identification with terrorist victims and psychological and behavioral outcomes. Participants were 1,238 residents of the Washington, DC area (ages 18-90 years; M = 41.73, SD = 12.56) who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and items pertaining to identification with attack victims approximately 3 weeks following the first sniper shooting. We examined 3 types of identification with the victims: (a) as like oneself, (b) as like a friend, and (c) as like a family member. The relationships of identification to posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms were examined using linear regression analyses. Greater total identification was associated with more posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms (B = 0.27, p < .001, and B = 0.44, p < .001, respectively), after adjusting for demographics. Those who specifically identified with the victims as either self (B = 0.24, p < .001), friend (B = 0.30, p < .001), or family member (B = 0.27, p < .001) reported more PTSD symptoms (n = 1,101). Identifying with victims as like a friend or family member, but not as like oneself, was associated with increased depressive symptoms (B = 0.61, p < .001, and B = 0.45, p = .01, respectively; n = 1,222). Presence and type of identification play a differential role in psychological and behavioral responses during traumatic events.

  1. Prolonged exposure and virtual reality-enhanced imaginal exposure for PTSD following a terrorist bulldozer attack: a case study.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Sara A; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L; Avitzour, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    In this case study, virtual reality was used to augment imaginal exposure in a protocol based on prolonged exposure. A 29-year-old male patient developed posttraumatic stress disorder after surviving a deadly terrorist bulldozer attack on two civilian buses and several cars in Jerusalem; the traumas witnessed by the survivor included a decapitation. The crowded bus in which the patient was riding was pushed over onto its side by the terrorist, injuring, trapping, and terrifying the passengers and causing gasoline to leak. Guided by his therapist, the patient entered an immersive computer-generated virtual world to go "back" to the scene of the traumatic event to help him gain access to his memories of the event, process and reduce the intensity of the emotions (fear/anger) associated with his pathological memories, and change unhealthy thought patterns. Traumatic memories of childhood abuse and traumatic memories of the bulldozer terrorist attack were treated using imaginal exposure while the patient was in the virtual environment BusWorld. The patient showed large posttreatment reductions in PTSD symptoms, and his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores dropped from 79 pretreatment to zero immediately posttreatment, and CAPS was still at zero 6 months later. Although case studies are inconclusive by nature, these encouraging preliminary results suggest that further exploration of the use of virtual reality during modified prolonged exposure for PTSD is warranted. As terrorist attacks increase in frequency and severity worldwide, research is needed on how to minimize the psychological consequences of terrorism.

  2. Americans respond politically to 9/11: understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath.

    PubMed

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-09-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping support for national security policy in the wake of 9/11. Support for a strong national security policy was most pronounced among Americans who perceived the nation as at threat from terrorism and felt angry at terrorists. In contrast, Americans who were personally affected by the attacks were more likely to feel anxious about terrorism, and this anxiety translated into less support for overseas military action. In addition, Americans who felt insecure after the 9/11 attacks and perceived a high future threat of terrorism were more likely than others to support strong foreign and domestic national security policies. Overall, research on American political reactions to 9/11 suggests that support for a strong government response to terrorism is most likely when members of a population perceive a high risk of future terrorism and feel angry at terrorists.

  3. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  4. The 9/11 terrorist attack and posttraumatic stress disorder revisited.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Naomi; Bohnert, Kipling M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2010-08-01

    Research published in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack reported elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the US population (4.3%-17.0%), attributable to indirect exposure through the media. We use data from a national survey conducted in 2004 to 2005 (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2) (n = 34,653). The list of traumatic events covered in the survey included indirect exposure to 9/11 through media coverage. Respondents who endorsed more than 1 traumatic event were asked to single out "the worst event" they had ever experienced. The worst event (or the only event) was the index event for diagnosing PTSD. Indirect experience of 9/11 had the lowest PTSD risk of all the traumatic events in the list, 1.3%. In the subset that endorsed only 9/11 indirect exposure (n = 3981), the PTSD risk was 0.3%. Of the total sample, 0.7% experienced PTSD in relation to indirect 9/11. Explanations for the lower estimates are discussed.

  5. Alcohol drinking problems among New York City residents after the September 11 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, D; Galea, S; Ahern, J; Rudenstine, S; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D; Crum, R M

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in alcohol use in New York City in the months after the September 11 terrorist attacks; thus far there have been no studies documenting changes in drinking problems. In 2002, a random digit dial phone survey was conducted of residents of New York City. This study provided us with estimates of the prevalence of alcohol drinking problems among residents of New York City 6 months after September 11 compared with the 6 months before September 11. Among 1,570 adults, the prevalence of drinking problems was 3.7% in the 6 months before September 11 and 4.2% in the 6 months after September 11. The incidence of drinking problems among those without drinking problems before September 11 was 2.2%. Persons with incident drinking problems were more likely than those without to report symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (17.4% vs. 0.4% in those without drinking problems and 1.4% in nondrinkers), and depression (23.5% vs 5.6% vs. 4.9%, respectively) after September 11. After a disaster, a link between drinking problems and posttraumatic stress disorder or depression should be assessed.

  6. [Prospective study of post-traumatic stress in victims of terrorist attacks].

    PubMed

    Jehel, L; Duchet, C; Paterniti, S; Consoli, S M; Guelfi, J D

    2001-01-01

    In 1995-96 several terrorist attacks struck Paris. After that, the French government decided to optimize the service claimed to treat psychological repercussions of attacks victims. For this reason we need to better understand the psychopathology developing after these traumatic events in order to adjust the various steps of the treatment. In December 1996, a terrorist attack occurred in a Paris subway. Medical and medico-psychological teams intervened immediately on the site to help victims. Among 115 victims, 4 persons died and 35 were seriously injured. The aim of our study was to evaluate the psychological impact among a population of terrorist attacks victims by a prospective study and to identify predictive factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We evaluated PTSD rates at 6 and 18 months, the relationship between coping style and PTSD, and whether PTSD increased health care utilization. Two follow up evaluations were performed in the 6th and 7th month respectively, by means of self-questionnaires sent by mail. Among 115 victims of the bombing attack occurred in December 1996, the 111 survivors were asked to participate to the study. The subjects who accepted and could use French questionnaires were considered eligible for the inclusion: the main criteria of the Watson's PTSD Inventory for the specific post-traumatic symptoms were used; the Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire was used to measure the general psychopathology; to identify coping styles we used the questionnaire "Ways of Coping Check List" of Vitaliano at 6 months and the "Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS)" by Endler at 18 months; a small questionnaire was proposed to evaluate injuries, hospitalization and specific treatment immediately or after the event. Among 70 subjects who accepted to participate, 56 (33 females) could be evaluated at 6 months and 32 (14 females) subjects at 18th months. The mean age at 6 months was 38.4 years: 41% of participants met PTSD

  7. Design of rapid medical evacuation system for trauma patients resulting from biological and chemical terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Frieder, Russell S; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Renfroe, David; Myers, Will J; Harvey, L Williams

    2006-01-01

    In the event of a large scale, biological or chemical terrorist attack it is unlikely that local emergency response organizations will have sufficient quantities of dedicated ambulances to evacuate all of the affected victims. As a potential solution to this problem, we have developed a device that can be retrofitted to a variety of government or civilian utility vehicles in order to convert them for emergency medical transport (US Pat. 7,028,351). Each installed device allows the host vehicle to safely transport either a single patient on a stretcher or multiple ambulatory patients. Additionally, each device provides a means for temporary or permanent attachment of emergency medical equipment. When not in use, the device can be collapsed to improve ease and efficiency of storage. Preliminary analyses of certain highly loaded structures on the device were carried out using known principles of solid mechanics. The analyses were carried out assuming the highest reasonable loading condition. This condition was determined to occur when the device is configured for the transport three 95(th) percentile males and 20 kg of medical equipment. This loading condition was assumed to be more severe than any that might occur due to an attendant performing CPR, or any other medical procedures, on a single supine patient. The base sections of the load bearing stretcher supports were then modeled using 3D CAD software and run through a finite element analysis (FEA) as a means to more accurately simulate the stresses that are likely to occur in the actual parts. As the device must be highly mobile, these analyses were used to confirm that the load bearing structures can be manufactured from low cost materials and still be light enough to be easily transported. Future work will include sizing and installation studies to ensure that the production version of the device can be rapidly implemented in a wide variety of private, commercial, and government utility vehicles.

  8. The roots of terrorism: A reassessment after September 11th

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 1 1 th. Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes, as well as by possible political requirements to address widespread perceptions of causes. If 9/11 was caused by Islamic radicalism, the near-term response must be to ensure the terrorists are defeated and pose no fiuther danger. In the longer term, education is critical. If the attacks were caused by US Middle East policies, the response should involve a review of those policies. This may or may not result in changes to policy, public diplomacy, etc. If the attacks were a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes (real and perceived) will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes can be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment effort are critical to any counterterrorism strategy. For this reason alone, we must do everything possible to understand the reasons terrorism may be undertaken, including the attacks of September 1 1 th. This paper will look

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder among injured survivors of a terrorist attack. Predictive value of early intrusion and avoidance symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shalev, A Y

    1992-08-01

    Fifteen injured survivors of a terrorist attack on a civilian bus were followed during their admission, and 12 of the 14 living survivors were examined 10 months later. A substantial amount of distress was found, in the entire group, across the study. Four patients (33%) suffered from diagnosable PTSD on follow-up. Symptoms of intrusion and denial, recorded during admission, failed to predict PTSD, and were not significantly correlated with psychiatric symptoms on follow-up. This paper discusses the finding of low predictive validity of early PTSD symptoms, and suggests that measures of arousal should be added to those of cognitive symptoms in future prospective studies of traumatic stress.

  10. NDM-1- or OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonising Polish tourists following a terrorist attack in Tunis, March 2015.

    PubMed

    Izdebski, R; Bojarska, K; Baraniak, A; Literacka, E; Herda, M; Żabicka, D; Guzek, A; Półgrabia, M; Hryniewicz, W; Gniadkowski, M

    2015-06-11

    We describe the introduction of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147 and Escherichia coli ST410, and OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae ST101 strains to Poland by two patients transported to the country after hospitalisation in Tunisia. The patients had gunshot wounds following the terrorist attack in the Bardo National Museum in Tunis in March 2015. Our report reinforces the need for microbiological screening of patients returning from travel on admission to healthcare institutions, especially following hospitalisation in countries where carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are endemic.

  11. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event.

  12. Tritium in the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack: It's Possible Sources and Fate

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, P; Semkow, T; Husain, L; Haines, D; Woznial, G; Williams, P; Hafner, R; Rabun, R

    2002-05-03

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were determined at World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174{plus_minus}0.074 (2{sigma}) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53{plus_minus}0.17 and 2.83{plus_minus}0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure. Several tritium radioluminescent (RL) devices were investigated as possible sources of the traces of tritium at ground zero. Tritium is used in self-luminescent emergency EXIT signs. No such signs were present inside the WTC buildings. However, it was determined that Boeing 767-222 aircraft operated by the United Airlines that hit WTC Tower 2 as well as Boeing 767-223ER operated by the American Airlines, that hit WTC Tower 1, had a combined 34.3 Ci of tritium at the time of impact. Other possible sources of tritium include dials and lights of fire and emergency equipment, sights and scopes in weaponry, as well as time devices equipped with tritium dials. It was determined that emergency equipment was not a likely source. However, WTC hosted several law-enforcement agencies such as ATF, CIA, US Secret Service and US Customs. The ATF office had two weapon vaults in WTC Building 6. Also 63 Police Officers, possibly carrying handguns with tritium sights, died in the attack. The weaponry containing tritium was therefore a likely and significant source of tritium. It is possible that some of the 2830 victims carried tritium watches, however this source appears to be less significant that the other

  13. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D A; Klein, S

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them), it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously) how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate) what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event. PMID:16679677

  14. Temporal Movement of the Geochemical "Fingerprint" of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack in New York Harbor Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. P.; Oktay, S. D.; Brabander, D. J.; Olsen, C. R.; Kada, J.

    2002-12-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City introduced large amounts of ash and debris over a wide area including New York Harbor (NYH) and the Lower Hudson River Estuary. Previous results, based on data from ash/debris collected after the event and from sediment cores taken on October 12, 2001 in inactive harbor slips along the lower west side of Manhattan, have identified a textural and elemental "fingerprint" for the ash/debris, and have documented a stratigraphic horizon for the event in New York Harbor sediments. On July 24 and July 25, 2002, almost eleven months after the attack, the same sample sites were revisited and new sediment cores collected. Sediment samples were analyzed using radionuclide tracers (Be-7, Cs-137, I-131) and textural and elemental (major- and trace-element) characterizations were made in order to: 1) document the temporal progression of the fingerprint as a distinct horizon preserved in the sediments of New York Harbor; and 2) investigate how short-to-medium term sediment dynamics (supply, deposition, re-suspension, and net accumulation) may affect the preservation of a sedimentological record associated with the event. These results will be used to evaluate whether the WTC geochemical fingerprint may serve as a tool to help assess the impact of the attack and as a tracer for short to medium term sediment dynamics in the Lower Hudson River Estuary.

  15. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities.

  16. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities. PMID:23160203

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ≥ 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564. PMID:21206544

  18. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  19. No Evidence of Suicide Increase Following Terrorist Attacks in the United States: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B.

    2009-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of…

  20. Reporting for duty. One year after terrorist attacks shook the nation, hospitals confront a changed landscape--and seek to do their part to defend the homeland.

    PubMed

    Haugh, Richard; Joch, Alan; Selvam, Ashok; Serb, Chris

    2002-09-01

    As we observe the first anniversary of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks that changed our nation, health care providers prepare to deal with potential disasters that in better times were merely the realm of science fiction. In communities across the country, readiness is the new goal, bioterrorism the new threat.

  1. The role of occupational health nurses in terrorist attacks employing radiological dispersal devices.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Suzanne Lobaton; Beaton, Randal D

    2009-03-01

    The potential for biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear terrorism has been widely acknowledged since the events of September 11, 2001. Terrorists' use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD), or dirty bomb, is considered to be a threat for which Americans must prepare. Occupational health nurses must have the knowledge and skill set to plan for, respond to, and recover from a radiologic event potentially affecting significant numbers of first responders as well as businesses and their workers. This article describes the hazards related to RDDs and provides resources supporting occupational health nurses' roles in such events occurring near or at their workplaces. Occupational health nurses are prepared to assess and treat RDD causalities using current information to identify signs and symptoms of exposed and contaminated RDD victims. Decontamination, treatment, and recovery methods for workers and businesses affected by an RDD event are described. PMID:19338261

  2. The effects of collective anger and fear on policy support in response to terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeshin

    2016-01-01

    Both correlational and experimental studies examined how perceived emotional responses of the majority of Americans to 9/11 affect individuals' support for government counter-terrorism policies (i.e., military intervention, anti-immigration, restricting civil liberties). Study 1 found associations between perceived collective emotions (i.e., anger, fear) and individuals' own corresponding emotions and those between perceived collective anger and counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated the associations of collective anger with policy support. Using experimental manipulations, Study 2 showed that collective anger had a significant effect on individuals' own anger and one significant and two marginal effects on counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated one of the marginal effects of collective anger on policy support. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of terrorist threat.

  3. Occupational Practitioner’s Role in the Management of a Crisis: Lessons Learned from the Paris November 2015 Terrorist Attack

    PubMed Central

    Descatha, Alexis; Huynh Tuong, Alice; Coninx, Pierre; Baer, Michel; Loeb, Thomas; Despréaux, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015. During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners, in collaboration with emergency and security professionals, were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans. Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, posttraumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols. In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up. PMID:27703965

  4. Consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among New York City residents six months after the September 11 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Resnick, Heidi; Boscarino, Joseph A; Gold, Joel; Bucuvalas, Michael; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2004-05-01

    Early analyses following the September 11 terrorist attacks on New York City showed an increase in cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, but it was unknown whether these increases would persist. A random-digit dial phone survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of increased substance use among residents of New York City six to nine months after the attacks. Among 1570 adults, 9.9% reported an increase in smoking, 17.5% an increase in alcohol use, and 2.7% an increase in marijuana use compared to the month before September 11. These increases were comparable to increases reported in the first one to two months after September 11. Persons who increased use of cigarettes were more likely than those who did not to report symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the past month (4.3% and 1.2% respectively). Depression was more common among those who increased use of cigarettes (14.6% and 5.2% respectively), alcohol (11.8% vs. 5.2%), and marijuana (34.1% vs. 5.3%). Among residents living in Manhattan below One Hundred Tenth Street, the prevalence of PTSD and depression declined by more than half in the first six months after September 11, while the increase in substance use did not decline substantially. These results suggest that the increase in substance use after a disaster may be a cause for public health concern in the long-term.

  5. Hope, Meaning, and Growth Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy; Cascio, Toni; Santangelo, Linda K.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychologists found the increase of seven character strengths that encompass the so-called theological virtues, including hope and spirituality, in Americans after the September 11, 2001, attacks. Little is known about how they may affect post-September 11, 2001, mental health. Using multivariate analysis, this study investigated the…

  6. A spiritual-hypnosis assisted treatment of children with PTSD after the 2002 Bali terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Lesmana, C B J; Suryani, L K; Jensen, G D; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a spiritual-hypnosis assisted therapy (SHAT) for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. All children, age 6-12 years (N=226; 52.7% females), who experienced the terrorist bomb blasts in Bali in 2002, and subsequently were diagnosed with PTSD were studied, through a longitudinal, quasi-experimental (pre-post test), single-blind, randomized control design. Of them, 48 received group SHAT (treatment group), and 178 did not receive any therapy (control group). Statistically significant results showed that SHAT produced a 77.1% improvement rate, at a two-year follow up, compared to 24% in the control group, while at the same time, the mean PTSD symptom score differences were significantly lower in the former group. We conclude that the method of spiritual-hypnosis is highly effective, economic, and easily implemented, and has a potential for therapy of PTSD in other cultures or other catastrophic life-threatening events.

  7. The economic impacts of the September 11 terrorist attacks: a computable general equilibrium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Rose, Adam; Bumsoo, Lee; Asay, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a bottom-up approach that focuses on behavioral responses in estimating the total economic impacts of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. The estimation includes several new features. First, is the collection of data on the relocation of firms displaced by the attack, the major source of resilience in muting the direct impacts of the event. Second, is a new estimate of the major source of impacts off-site -- the ensuing decline of air travel and related tourism in the U.S. due to the social amplification of the fear of terrorism. Third, the estimation is performed for the first time using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) analysis, including a new approach to reflecting the direct effects of external shocks. This modeling framework has many advantages in this application, such as the ability to include behavioral responses of individual businesses and households, to incorporate features of inherent and adaptive resilience at the level of the individual decision maker and the market, and to gauge quantity and price interaction effects across sectors of the regional and national economies. We find that the total business interruption losses from the WTC attacks on the U.S. economy were only slightly over $100 billion, or less than 1.0% of Gross Domestic Product. The impacts were only a loss of $14 billion of Gross Regional Product for the New York Metropolitan Area.

  8. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models

  9. Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracer Studies to Support Risk Assessment Modeling of Critical Infrastructure Subjected to Terrorist Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Terry M.; Heiser, John H.; Watson, Tom; Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., “urban canyons”. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City’s (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport

  10. Vicarious exposure to terrorist attacks and substance use: results from an urban household survey.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Adam M; Fendrich, Michael; Johnson, Timothy P

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of the 9/11 attacks on substance use in Chicago, Illinois. The study design was a cross-sectional, audio-computer-assisted self-interview survey conducted in 2001 and 2002. Biological samples were also collected for toxicological analyses. Using a multistage area probability design, residents between the ages of 18 and 40 years were randomly selected. Compared to pre-9/11 interviewees, post-9/11 interviewees showed significantly less self-reported marijuana use, marijuana use per test results, and cocaine use per test results. Law enforcement and social-structural explanations for the findings are discussed.

  11. Long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms among 3,271 civilian survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    DiGrande, Laura; Neria, Yuval; Brackbill, Robert M; Pulliam, Paul; Galea, Sandro

    2011-02-01

    Although the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in US history, there is little extant research documenting the attacks' consequences among those most directly affected, that is, persons who were in the World Trade Center towers. Data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2-3 years after the attacks ascertained the prevalence of long-term, disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 3,271 civilians who evacuated World Trade Center towers 1 and 2. Overall, 95.6% of survivors reported at least 1 current posttraumatic stress symptom. The authors estimated the probable rate of PTSD at 15.0% by using the PTSD Checklist. Women and minorities were at an increased risk of PTSD. A strong inverse relation with annual income was observed. Five characteristics of direct exposure to the terrorist attacks independently predicted PTSD: being on a high floor in the towers, initiating evacuation late, being caught in the dust cloud that resulted from the tower collapses, personally witnessing horror, and sustaining an injury. Working for an employer that sustained fatalities also increased risk. Each addition of an experience of direct exposure resulted in a 2-fold increase in the risk of PTSD (odds ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.84, 2.36). Identification of these risk factors may be useful when screening survivors of large-scale terrorist events for long-term psychological sequelae.

  12. Long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms among 3,271 civilian survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    DiGrande, Laura; Neria, Yuval; Brackbill, Robert M; Pulliam, Paul; Galea, Sandro

    2011-02-01

    Although the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in US history, there is little extant research documenting the attacks' consequences among those most directly affected, that is, persons who were in the World Trade Center towers. Data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2-3 years after the attacks ascertained the prevalence of long-term, disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 3,271 civilians who evacuated World Trade Center towers 1 and 2. Overall, 95.6% of survivors reported at least 1 current posttraumatic stress symptom. The authors estimated the probable rate of PTSD at 15.0% by using the PTSD Checklist. Women and minorities were at an increased risk of PTSD. A strong inverse relation with annual income was observed. Five characteristics of direct exposure to the terrorist attacks independently predicted PTSD: being on a high floor in the towers, initiating evacuation late, being caught in the dust cloud that resulted from the tower collapses, personally witnessing horror, and sustaining an injury. Working for an employer that sustained fatalities also increased risk. Each addition of an experience of direct exposure resulted in a 2-fold increase in the risk of PTSD (odds ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.84, 2.36). Identification of these risk factors may be useful when screening survivors of large-scale terrorist events for long-term psychological sequelae. PMID:21190987

  13. Driving under the influence (of stress): evidence of a regional increase in impaired driving and traffic fatalities after the september 11 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Su, Jenny C; Tran, Alisia G T T; Wirtz, John G; Langteau, Rita A; Rothman, Alexander J

    2009-01-01

    Did the September 11 terrorist attacks elicit a subsequent increase in traffic fatalities? Gigerenzer (2004) argued that decreases in flying and increases in driving in the 3 months after the attacks led to 353 "surplus" traffic fatalities. We applied a more systematic analysis to the same data and found no evidence of a significant increase in miles driven or of a significant increase in traffic fatalities. However, we did find evidence for a regional effect of the attacks on driving behaviors. We hypothesized that geographic proximity to the attacks increased stress, which in turn decreased driving quality. Our analyses revealed that in the last 3 months of 2001, the Northeast exhibited a significant increase in traffic fatalities, as well as a significant increase in fatal accidents involving an alcohol- or drug-related citation. Increased stress related to physical proximity to the attacks may explain the increase in traffic fatalities. PMID:19152541

  14. Exposure Science for Terrorist Attacks and Theaters of Military Conflict: Minimizing Contact with Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The strategies for protecting our deployed U.S. Forces are outlined in National Research Council documents published in 1999–2000. This article summarizes experiences and information gathered and interpreted regarding population and rescue workers’ exposures in the aftermath of the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, with the aim to provide insights on issues related to military deployment to locations with hazardous agents. Issues coveted include phases of exposure, materials of concern, detection equipment, and personal protection equipment. The focus is on human exposure issues, which are primarily associated with strategies 1 through 3 of the National Research Council’s report entitled “Protecting Those Who Serve: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces”. Contact and duration of contact with hazardous substances are critical areas of concern, which require prevention and intervention procedures and protocols to reduce the incidence of acute and long-term health outcomes. PMID:21916334

  15. Estimation of health hazards resulting from a radiological terrorist attack in a city.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K G; Mikkelsen, T; Astrup, P; Thykier-Nielsen, S; Jacobsen, L H; Schou-Jensen, L; Hoe, S C; Nielsen, S P

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the concern for protection of urban populations against terror attacks involving radiological, biological or chemical substances has attracted increasing attention. It sets new demands to decision support and consequence assessment tools, where the focus has traditionally been on accidental exposure. The aim of the present study was to illustrate issues that need to be considered in evaluating the radiological consequences of a 'dirty bomb' explosion. This is done through a worked example of simplified calculations of relative dose contributions for a specific 'dirty bomb' scenario leading to atmospheric dispersion of 90Sr contamination over a city area. Also, the requirements of atmospheric dispersion models for such scenarios are discussed. PMID:18550515

  16. Exposure science for terrorist attacks and theaters of military conflict: minimizing contact with toxicants.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    The strategies for protecting our deployed U.S. Forces are outlined in National Research Council documents published in 1999-2000. This article summarizes experiences and information gathered and interpreted regarding population and rescue workers' exposures in the aftermath of the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, with the aim to provide insights on issues related to military deployment to locations with hazardous agents. Issues covered include phases of exposure, materials of concern, detection equipment, and personal protection equipment. The focus is on human exposure issues, which are primarily associated with strategies 1 through 3 of the National Research Council's report entitled "Protecting Those Who Serve: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces". Contact and duration of contact with hazardous substances are critical areas of concern, which require prevention and intervention procedures and protocols to reduce the incidence of acute and long-term health outcomes. PMID:21916334

  17. The significance of a small, level-3 'semi evacuation' hospital in a terrorist attack in a nearby town.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, Moshe; Leiba, Adi; Zaltsman, Eilon; Erez, Onn; Blumenfeld, Amir; Avinoam, Shkolnick; Laor, Daniel; Schwartz, Dagan; Goldberg, Avishay; Levi, Yehezkel; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2007-09-01

    Terrorist attacks can occur in remote areas causing mass-casualty incidents MCIs far away from level-1 trauma centres. This study draws lessons from an MCI pertaining to the management of primary and secondary evacuation and the operational mode practiced. Data was collected from formal debriefings during and after the event, and the medical response, interactions and main outcomes analysed using Disastrous Incidents Systematic Analysis through Components, Interactions and Results (DISAST-CIR) methodology. A total of 112 people were evacuated from the scene-66 to the nearby level 3 Laniado hospital, including the eight critically and severely injured patients. Laniado hospital was instructed to act as an evacuation hospital but the flow of patients ended rapidly and it was decided to admit moderately injured victims. We introduce a novel concept of a 'semi-evacuation hospital'. This mode of operation should be selected for small-scale events in which the evacuation hospital has hospitalization capacity and is not geographically isolated. We suggest that level-3 hospitals in remote areas should be prepared and drilled to work in semi-evacuation mode during MCIs.

  18. Relations between PTSD and distress dimensions in an Indian child/adolescent sample following the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Ateka A; Mehta, Panna; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Hovey, Joseph D; Geers, Andrew L; Charak, Ruby; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Elhai, Jon D

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764-776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model's dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD's emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126-135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18's depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD's dysphoria than PTSD's avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor's complete accountability for PTSD's inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.

  19. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following a Chemical Terrorist Attack: Decision Criteria for Multipathway Exposure Routes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Annetta; Dolislager, Fredrick; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Love, Adam H.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination. PMID:21399674

  20. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following a chemical terrorist attack: Decision criteria for multipathway exposure routes

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Dolislager, Frederick; Hall, Dr. Linda; Hauschild, Veronique; Raber, Ellen; Love, Dr. Adam

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  1. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island

    PubMed Central

    Thoresen, Siri; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Background Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. Objective This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Method Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4–5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465) was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716) were 19% and 30%. Results Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4–5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. Conclusions The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related to later post

  2. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination. PMID:21390292

  3. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following chemical terrorist attack: Introduction and key assessment considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Raber, Ellen; Dolislager, Frederick; Hauschild, Veronique; Hall, Dr. Linda; Love, Dr. Adam

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  4. Chemical or biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Russell L

    2006-03-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York's Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be "ready" in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation's hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire

  5. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a

  6. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, PTSD, and risk factors among lower Manhattan residents 2-3 years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    DiGrande, Laura; Perrin, Megan A; Thorpe, Lorna E; Thalji, Lisa; Murphy, Joseph; Wu, David; Farfel, Mark; Brackbill, Robert M

    2008-06-01

    Manhattan residents living near the World Trade Center may have been particularly vulnerable to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. In 2003-2004, the authors administered the PTSD Checklist to 11,037 adults who lived south of Canal Street in New York City on 9/11. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 12.6% and associated with older age, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, low education and income, and divorce. Injury, witnessing horror, and dust cloud exposure on 9/11 increased risk for chronic PTSD. Postdisaster risk factors included evacuation and rescue and recovery work. The results indicate that PTSD is a continued health problem in the local community. The relationship between socioeconomic status and PTSD suggests services must target marginalized populations. Followup is necessary on the course and long-term consequences of PTSD. PMID:18553414

  7. King has no clothes: The role of the military in responding to a terrorist chemical/biological attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osterman, J.L.

    1996-06-14

    The United States has begun a program of counterproliferation in order to preempt the use of WMD by such elements, however, the ability to respond to the terrorist employment of biological/chemical weapons is absent. Given the structure, capability and technical expertise in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of Defense (DoD) will be tasked to conduct the response to such an incident. The geographical Commander in Chief (CINC) and the appointed Joint Task Force (JTF) commander will ultimately be assigned the response mission. Planning, training and coordination is required to develop a force capable of responding in a timely and coordinated manner.

  8. The Effects of September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on Public and Private Information Infrastructures: A Preliminary Assessment of Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the September 11 attacks on public and private information infrastructures. Topics include the role of information technology in future homeland security initiatives; continuity and recovery plans; decentralization of operations; and the development of system redundancies to eliminate single…

  9. Directions: Future Planner for 11th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Career and Postsecondary Advancement Center, Bloomington.

    This booklet is intended to help Indiana 11th graders plan their futures by identifying their career and educational goals and available employment and educational opportunities. The following are among the topics discussed in sections 1-4: (1) identifying goals (planning ahead, using class schedules to chart one's course, developing career and…

  10. Screening for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms in the wake of terrorist attacks: a study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Bita; Neria, Yuval; Gameroff, Marc J; Olfson, Mark; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M

    2009-06-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of terrorism beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The associations between exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in New York City and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms were examined in a sample of 929 primary care patients. After controlling for PTSD, depression, panic and substance use disorders, and pre-9/11 trauma, patients who screened positive (vs. negative) for GAD symptoms were roughly twice as likely to report having a loved one at the 9/11 disaster site, twice as likely to know someone who was killed by the attacks, and twice as likely to know someone who was involved with the rescue/recovery efforts after the disaster. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed.

  11. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks: A Study in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Bita; Neria, Yuval; Gameroff, Marc J.; Olfson, Mark; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of terrorism beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The associations between exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in New York City and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms were examined in a sample of 929 primary care patients. After controlling for PTSD, depression, panic and substance use disorders, and pre-9/11 trauma, patients who screened positive (vs. negative) for GAD symptoms were roughly twice as likely to report having a loved one at the 9/11 disaster site, twice as likely to know someone who was killed by the attacks, and twice as likely to know someone who was involved with the rescue/recovery efforts after the disaster. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19475656

  12. Chronic physical health consequences of being injured during the terrorist attacks on World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Brackbill, Robert M; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have focused on injuries from the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. Severe injury has health consequences, including an increased mortality risk 10 years after injury and the risk of mental health problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Trade Center Health Registry identified 14,087 persons with none of a selected group of preexisting chronic conditions before 2002 who were present during and soon after the World Trade Center attacks, 1,980 of whom reported sustaining 1 or more types of injury (e.g., a broken bone or burn). Survey data obtained during 2003-2004 and 2006-2007 were used to assess the odds of reporting a diagnosis of chronic conditions (heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, cancer) up to 5-6 years after the attacks. Number of injury types and probable PTSD were significantly associated with having any chronic conditions diagnosed in 2002-2007. Persons with multiple injuries and PTSD had a 3-fold higher risk of heart disease than did those with no injury and no PTSD, and persons with multiple injuries and with no PTSD had a 2-fold higher risk of respiratory diseases. The present study shows that injured persons with or without comorbid PTSD have a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. Clinicians should be aware of the heightened risk of chronic heart and respiratory conditions among injured persons.

  13. Chronic Physical Health Consequences of Being Injured During the Terrorist Attacks on World Trade Center on September 11, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Brackbill, Robert M.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Stellman, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have focused on injuries from the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. Severe injury has health consequences, including an increased mortality risk 10 years after injury and the risk of mental health problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Trade Center Health Registry identified 14,087 persons with none of a selected group of preexisting chronic conditions before 2002 who were present during and soon after the World Trade Center attacks, 1,980 of whom reported sustaining 1 or more types of injury (e.g., a broken bone or burn). Survey data obtained during 2003−2004 and 2006−2007 were used to assess the odds of reporting a diagnosis of chronic conditions (heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, cancer) up to 5–6 years after the attacks. Number of injury types and probable PTSD were significantly associated with having any chronic conditions diagnosed in 2002–2007. Persons with multiple injuries and PTSD had a 3-fold higher risk of heart disease than did those with no injury and no PTSD, and persons with multiple injuries and with no PTSD had a 2-fold higher risk of respiratory diseases. The present study shows that injured persons with or without comorbid PTSD have a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. Clinicians should be aware of the heightened risk of chronic heart and respiratory conditions among injured persons. PMID:24561992

  14. Chronic physical health consequences of being injured during the terrorist attacks on World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Brackbill, Robert M; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have focused on injuries from the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. Severe injury has health consequences, including an increased mortality risk 10 years after injury and the risk of mental health problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Trade Center Health Registry identified 14,087 persons with none of a selected group of preexisting chronic conditions before 2002 who were present during and soon after the World Trade Center attacks, 1,980 of whom reported sustaining 1 or more types of injury (e.g., a broken bone or burn). Survey data obtained during 2003-2004 and 2006-2007 were used to assess the odds of reporting a diagnosis of chronic conditions (heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, cancer) up to 5-6 years after the attacks. Number of injury types and probable PTSD were significantly associated with having any chronic conditions diagnosed in 2002-2007. Persons with multiple injuries and PTSD had a 3-fold higher risk of heart disease than did those with no injury and no PTSD, and persons with multiple injuries and with no PTSD had a 2-fold higher risk of respiratory diseases. The present study shows that injured persons with or without comorbid PTSD have a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. Clinicians should be aware of the heightened risk of chronic heart and respiratory conditions among injured persons. PMID:24561992

  15. A Focus Group Study of the Impact of Trauma Exposure in the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    North, Carol S.; Barney, Carissa J.; Pollio, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Much of the mental health research that has emerged from the September 11 (9/11) attacks has been focused on posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptoms. To better understand the broader experience of individuals following a disaster, focus groups were conducted with individuals from affected companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. Methods Twenty-one focus groups with a total of 140 participants were conducted in the second post-9/11 year. Areas of identified concern were coded into the following themes: Disaster Experience, Emotional Responses, Workplace Issues, Coping, and Issues of Public Concern. Results Discussions of focus groups included material represented in all five themes in companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. The emphasis and the content within these themes varied between the Ground Zero and other companies. Content suggesting symptoms of PTSD represented only a minority of the material, especially in the company groups not at Ground Zero. Conclusions This study’s findings revealed an array of psychosocial concerns following the 9/11 attacks among employees of companies in New York City that extended far beyond PTSD. This study’s results provide further evidence that trauma exposure is central to individuals’ post-disaster experience and focus, and to individuals’ adjustment and experience after disaster. PMID:25319111

  16. Searching for and Finding Meaning in Collective Trauma: Results From a National Longitudinal Study of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, John A.; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E. Alison

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one’s life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans’ searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval—the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001—among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N = 931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people’s fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability. PMID:18729704

  17. [Self-assessment of post-traumatic stress reactions in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City. A survey among medical students].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    2003-03-01

    The present paper describes psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City in a cohort of 174 medical students (104 females, 70 men, age 18 to 37 years) in their first academic year at the University of Kiel,Germany. For self-report of traumatic stress reactions,the Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) was administered 6 and 9 weeks after the disaster. The students reported weak to moderate levels of distress, the average IES-R scores on the intrusion and avoidance subscales were 11.1 (SD 6.2) and 10.6 (SD 6.4), respectively, and 5.2 (SD 4.1) for the hyperarousal scale. All symptoms had clearly faded at 9 weeks. Students with traumatic life events indicated significantly higher scores in some avoidance items. The current data suggest that the IES-R can be used as a screening measure in future research of trauma-related stress reactions also in people exposed to catastrophes by media coverage. PMID:12627243

  18. 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, H. J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings from the 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE 99), held June 7-11, 1999. This conference was attended by scientists and researchers from around the world. The subjects covered included natural and artificially initiated lightning, lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere (sprites and jets), lightning protection and safety, lightning detection techniques (ground, airborne, and space-based), storm physics, electric fields near and within thunderstorms, storm electrification, atmospheric ions and chemistry, shumann resonances, satellite observations of lightning, global electrical processes, fair weather electricity, and instrumentation.

  19. MEETING SUMMARY: 11TH AMS Education Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. R.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Croft, P. J.; Hayes, M. J.; Murphy, K. A.; Mcdonnell, J. D.; Johnson, R. M.; Friedman, H. A.

    2004-03-01

    The 11th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Symposium was held from 13 to 15 January 2002 in Orlando, Florida, as part of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the AMS. The theme of the symposium was “creating opportunities in educational outreach in the atmospheric and related sciences.” Drawing from traditional strengths in meteorology and numerous national recommendations, the presentations and posters of the symposium highlighted three opportunities for reform. These opportunities build on partnerships between diverse educational stakeholders, efforts to make science education more like scientific practice, and strategies that place the atmospheric sciences within a larger, multi-disciplinary context that includes oceanography, hydrology, and earth-system science.

  20. 11th International Congress of Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Fuller, P J

    2001-03-01

    The Olympics of endocrinology, the 11th International Congress of Endocrinolgy was held rather appropriately in Sydney, four weeks after the summer games of the XXWIIth Modern Olympiad. Both occasions were a great success and whilst it may be tempting to extend the analogy to the pool or the track or heaven forbid, digress into 'drugs in sport', this review will focus on endocrinology. There were over 3000 participants with ten plenary lectures, 20 meet-the-expert sessions, 41 symposia, 128 oral free communications and 1500 posters. Sydney post-Olympics provided a vibrant, exciting and picturesque setting with outstanding convention facilities. The Congress Party was held at Campbells Cove in the lee of the Harbour Bridge looking toward the Opera House which provided an opportunity for delegates to view the two architectural icons that had become so familiar in the preceding months. Credit must be given both to the Local Organising Committee of Sydney endocrinologists who made it all happen and to the International Program Organising Committee who crafted a pageant of first rate endocrinology. It is self-evident that this report can only hope to give the reader a flavour of a Congress such as this with the choice of topics being largely idiosyncratic. With five concurrent symposia and two concurrent orals each morning and afternoon of the four days, any omissions reflect not on the topic or its importance but on this reviewer's inability to be in more than one place at once!

  1. 11th International Congress of Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Fuller, P J

    2001-03-01

    The Olympics of endocrinology, the 11th International Congress of Endocrinolgy was held rather appropriately in Sydney, four weeks after the summer games of the XXWIIth Modern Olympiad. Both occasions were a great success and whilst it may be tempting to extend the analogy to the pool or the track or heaven forbid, digress into 'drugs in sport', this review will focus on endocrinology. There were over 3000 participants with ten plenary lectures, 20 meet-the-expert sessions, 41 symposia, 128 oral free communications and 1500 posters. Sydney post-Olympics provided a vibrant, exciting and picturesque setting with outstanding convention facilities. The Congress Party was held at Campbells Cove in the lee of the Harbour Bridge looking toward the Opera House which provided an opportunity for delegates to view the two architectural icons that had become so familiar in the preceding months. Credit must be given both to the Local Organising Committee of Sydney endocrinologists who made it all happen and to the International Program Organising Committee who crafted a pageant of first rate endocrinology. It is self-evident that this report can only hope to give the reader a flavour of a Congress such as this with the choice of topics being largely idiosyncratic. With five concurrent symposia and two concurrent orals each morning and afternoon of the four days, any omissions reflect not on the topic or its importance but on this reviewer's inability to be in more than one place at once! PMID:11424899

  2. NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE (WPA PROJECT, 1938-1941). - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  3. Business interruption impacts of a terrorist attack on the electric power system of Los Angeles: customer resilience to a total blackout.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam; Oladosu, Gbadebo; Liao, Shu-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Regional economies are highly dependent on electricity, thus making their power supply systems attractive terrorist targets. We estimate the largest category of economic losses from electricity outages-business interruption-in the context of a total blackout of electricity in Los Angeles. We advance the state of the art in the estimation of the two factors that strongly influence the losses: indirect effects and resilience. The results indicate that indirect effects in the context of general equilibrium analysis are moderate in size. The stronger factor, and one that pushes in the opposite direction, is resilience. Our analysis indicates that electricity customers have the ability to mute the potential shock to their business operations by as much as 86%. Moreover, market resilience lowers the losses, in part through the dampening of general equilibrium effects. PMID:17640205

  4. Research Methods in Child Disaster Studies: A Review of Studies Generated by the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Weems, Carl F.; Scott, Brandon G.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Varma, Vandana; Chakraburtty, Amarsha

    2013-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective: To identify the methodological approaches used to study children's reactions to three recent major disasters--the September 11, 2001, attacks; the…

  5. BusWorld: an analog pilot test of a virtual environment designed to treat posttraumatic stress disorder originating from a terrorist suicide bomb attack.

    PubMed

    Josman, Naomi; Reisberg, Ayelet; Weiss, Patrice L; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Hoffman, Hunter G

    2008-12-01

    Exposure therapy treatment can lead to large reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is designed to facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. During VRE therapy, patients go into an immersive computer-generated environment (go back to the scene of the traumatic event) to help them gain access to their memories of the traumatic event, change unhealthy thought patterns, gradually habituate to their anxiety, and reduce the intensity of associated emotions. The therapist's ability to manipulate the amount of anxiety experienced by the client during therapy is an important element of successful exposure therapy. Using a within-subjects design, 30 asymptomatic volunteers each experienced four levels of a virtual world depicting a terrorist bus bombing, designed to be increasingly distressful. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean subjective units of discomfort scores (SUDS) of the four levels, and several planned paired comparisons showed significantly higher SUDS ratings with higher simulation levels. Results suggest that sound may play an important role in successful elicitation of emotional responses during VRE. The results of this analog study provide initial validation of the potential of BusWorld to provide graded exposure for individuals suffering from PTSD originating from suicide bus bombings. Future research exploring whether VR exposure therapy with BusWorld can reduce PTSD in clinical patients is warranted.

  6. Islamophobia Pre- and Post-September 11th, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Lorraine P.

    2006-01-01

    Although much academic research has addressed racism, religious discrimination has been largely ignored. The current study investigates levels of self reported racial and religious discrimination in a sample of 222 British Muslims. Respondents indicate that following September 11th, 2001, levels of implicit or indirect discrimination rose by 82.6%…

  7. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    PubMed

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  8. The Developmental Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968–2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes. PMID:23185267

  9. School Entry After a Community-Wide Trauma: Challenges and Lessons Learned from September 11th, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elissa J.; Bobrow, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a school-based trauma-specific mental health program in New York City following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. This program aimed to serve children most at risk for developing mental health problems as a result of physical proximity (e.g., evacuation from schools…

  10. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  11. Islamophobia pre- and post-September 11th, 2001.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine P

    2006-03-01

    Although much academic research has addressed racism, religious discrimination has been largely ignored. The current study investigates levels of self-reported racial and religious discrimination in a sample of 222 British Muslims. Respondents indicate that following September 11th, 2001, levels of implicit or indirect discrimination rose by 82.6% and experiences of overt discrimination by 76.3%. Thus, the current work demonstrates that major world events may affect not only stereotypes of minority groups but also prejudice toward minorities. Results suggest that religious affiliation may be a more meaningful predictor of prejudice than race or ethnicity. General Health Questionnaire scores indicate that 35.6% of participants likely suffered mental health problems, with significant associations between problem-indicative scores and reports of experiencing a specific abusive incident of September 11th-related abuse by respondents. The dearth of empirical work pertaining to religious discrimination and its effects is a cause for concern. PMID:16443594

  12. Islamophobia pre- and post-September 11th, 2001.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine P

    2006-03-01

    Although much academic research has addressed racism, religious discrimination has been largely ignored. The current study investigates levels of self-reported racial and religious discrimination in a sample of 222 British Muslims. Respondents indicate that following September 11th, 2001, levels of implicit or indirect discrimination rose by 82.6% and experiences of overt discrimination by 76.3%. Thus, the current work demonstrates that major world events may affect not only stereotypes of minority groups but also prejudice toward minorities. Results suggest that religious affiliation may be a more meaningful predictor of prejudice than race or ethnicity. General Health Questionnaire scores indicate that 35.6% of participants likely suffered mental health problems, with significant associations between problem-indicative scores and reports of experiencing a specific abusive incident of September 11th-related abuse by respondents. The dearth of empirical work pertaining to religious discrimination and its effects is a cause for concern.

  13. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists. PMID:26853375

  14. The development of a quick-running prediction tool for the assessment of human injury owing to terrorist attack within crowded metropolitan environments

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the London ‘7/7’ attacks in 2005, UK government agencies required the development of a quick-running tool to predict the weapon and injury effects caused by the initiation of a person borne improvised explosive device (PBIED) within crowded metropolitan environments. This prediction tool, termed the HIP (human injury predictor) code, was intended to: — assist the security services to encourage favourable crowd distributions and densities within scenarios of ‘sensitivity’;— provide guidance to security engineers concerning the most effective location for protection systems;— inform rescue services as to where, in the case of such an event, individuals with particular injuries will be located;— assist in training medical personnel concerning the scope and types of injuries that would be sustained as a consequence of a particular attack;— assist response planners in determining the types of medical specialists (burns, traumatic amputations, lungs, etc.) required and thus identify the appropriate hospitals to receive the various casualty types.This document describes the algorithms used in the development of this tool, together with the pertinent underpinning physical processes. From its rudimentary beginnings as a simple spreadsheet, the HIP code now has a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows three-dimensional visualization of results and intuitive scenario set-up. The code is underpinned by algorithms that predict the pressure and momentum outputs produced by PBIEDs within open and confined environments, as well as the trajectories of shrapnel deliberately placed within the device to increase injurious effects. Further logic has been implemented to transpose these weapon effects into forms of human injury depending on where individuals are located relative to the PBIED. Each crowd member is subdivided into representative body parts, each of which is assigned an abbreviated injury score after a particular

  15. Research Methods in Child Disaster Studies: A Review of Studies Generated by the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Carl F.; Scott, Brandon G.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Varma, Vandana; Chakraburtty, Amarsha

    2013-01-01

    Background A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective To identify the methodological approaches used to study children’s reactions to three recent major disasters—the September 11, 2001, attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina. Methods This review was guided by a systematic literature search. Results A total of 165 unduplicated empirical reports were generated by the search and examined for this review. This included 83 references on September 11, 29 on the 2004 Tsunami, and 53 on Hurricane Katrina. Conclusions A diversity of methods has been brought to bear in understanding children’s reactions to disasters. While cross-sectional studies predominate, pre-event data for some investigations emerged from archival data and data from studies examining non-disaster topics. The nature and extent of the influence of risk and protective variables beyond disaster exposure are not fully understood due, in part, to limitations in the study designs used in the extant research. Advancing an understanding of the roles of exposure and various individual, family, and social factors depends upon the extent to which measures and assessment techniques are valid and reliable, as well as on data sources and data collection designs. Comprehensive assessments that extend beyond questionnaires and checklists to include interviews and cognitive and biological measures to elucidate the negative and positive effects of disasters on children also may improve the knowledge base. PMID:24443635

  16. Terrorist attacks in the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan: Profile of soft tissue and skeletal injuries from a single trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Shahid; Waheed, Shahan; Ali, Arif; Mumtaz, Narjis; Feroze, Asher; Noordin, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pakistan has been hugely struck with massive bomb explosions (car and suicide bombs) resulting in multiple casualties in the past few years. The aim of this study is to present the patterns of skeletal and soft tissue injuries and to review the outcome of the victims who presented to our hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review from January 2008 to December 2012. The medical record numbers of patients were obtained from the hospital Health Information and Management Sciences (HIMS) as per the ICD-9 coding. RESULTS: During the study period, more than 100 suicide and implanted bomb blast attacks took place in the public proceedings, government offices, residential areas and other places of the city. Altogether 262 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 31±14 years. The shrapnel inflicted wounds were present on to the upper limb in 24 patients and the lower limb in 50. CONCLUSION: Long bone fractures were the most common skeletal injuries. The fractures were complicated by penetrating fragments and nails which result in post operative infections and prolonged hospital stay. PMID:26401184

  17. Terrorist homicide bombings: a primer for preparation.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, James

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary planning for disaster response to terrorist events usually assumes the use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Historically, most victims of terrorist attacks are injured by the use of conventional explosives rather than weapons of mass destruction. Such attacks will likely produce victims who have suffered burn injuries along with conventional trauma. Alternately, the large number of patients sustaining conventional soft-tissue or crush injuries will benefit from burn center expertise. This study summarizes the current state of knowledge related to the management of terrorism mass casualty incidents caused by the use of conventional explosives. A review of pertinent medical, technical, and popular literature relating to terrorism and explosives, along with instruction received at Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel on the management of mass casualty terrorism events was undertaken, and the pertinent medical and scientific literature relating to bomb delivery methods, blast mechanics, blast pathophysiology, and medical response to a terrorist bombing is presented here. Although terrorist use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons is possible, historical analysis consistently demonstrates that the most likely terrorist weapon causing a mass casualty event is a standard explosive device detonated in a crowded area. The medical basis for management of such casualties is herein described. PMID:16998388

  18. Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Gordon

    Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.

  19. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  20. PREFACE: 11th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinon, Stefania; Pallecchi, Ilaria; Malagoli, Andrea; Lamura, Gianrico

    2014-05-01

    During the 11th edition of the European Conference on Applied Superconductivity, successfully held in Genoa from 15-19 September 2013, more than one thousand participants from over 40 countries were registered and contributions of 7 plenary lectures, 23 invited talks, 203 oral talks and 550 posters were presented. The present issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) collects the 218 submitted papers that were peer reviewed and accepted in the Conference Proceedings. Similarly to the Superconductor Science and Technology Special issue: ''EUCAS 11th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity'' which contains some plenary and invited contributions, as well as some selected contributions, in this issue the papers are sorted according to the four traditional topics of interest of EUCAS, namely Materials (56 papers), Wires and Tapes (47 papers), Large Scale Applications (64 papers) and Electronics (51 papers). While the it Superconductors Science and Technology special issue focuses on the scientific and technological highlights of the conference, this collection provides an overall view of the worldwide research activity on applied superconductivity, mirroring the main guidelines and the hottest issues, which range from basic studies on newly discovered superconducting compounds to the state-of-the-art advances in large scale applications, wires and tapes fabrication and electronics. We would like to point out that, among the JPCS contributions, six papers present works financed by ongoing EU-Japan projects, three papers belong to the session on junctions and SQUIDs dedicated to the memory of Antonio Barone and one paper belongs to the session on pinning and flux dynamics dedicated to the memory of John Clem. Finally, we would like to thank all the people whose careful work contributed to the preparation of this JPCS issue, in particular the session chairs as well as the peer reviewers. The Editors Stefania Farinon (Editor in Chief, Large Scale

  1. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  2. Thinking about September 11: Defining Terrorism and Terrorists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elshtain, Jean Bethke

    2003-01-01

    Notes the importance of distinguishing between terrorists and freedom fighters, suggesting that how people describe the attack closely relates to how they speak about the attackers. Emphasizes the importance of clear thinking and language, concluding that if people do not distinguish the killing of combatants from the intended targeting of…

  3. Benchmark analysis for quantifying urban vulnerability to terrorist incidents.

    PubMed

    Piegorsch, Walter W; Cutter, Susan L; Hardisty, Frank

    2007-12-01

    We describe a quantitative methodology to characterize the vulnerability of U.S. urban centers to terrorist attack, using a place-based vulnerability index and a database of terrorist incidents and related human casualties. Via generalized linear statistical models, we study the relationships between vulnerability and terrorist events, and find that our place-based vulnerability metric significantly describes both terrorist incidence and occurrence of human casualties from terrorist events in these urban centers. We also introduce benchmark analytic technologies from applications in toxicological risk assessment to this social risk/vulnerability paradigm, and use these to distinguish levels of high and low urban vulnerability to terrorism. It is seen that the benchmark approach translates quite flexibly from its biological roots to this social scientific archetype.

  4. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  5. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable. PMID:22944486

  6. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  7. PREFACE: The 11th International Superconductive Electronics Conference (ISEC 07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Donald L.; Wellstood, Fred; Donaldson, Gordon

    2007-11-01

    The 11th International Superconductive Electronics Conference (ISEC 07) was held in June 2007 in Washington, DC, USA. This special issue is a compendium of selected papers based on the technology presented at that meeting. ISEC, held on a biennial basis, traditionally rotates from Japan to Europe to the United States. The single exception to this rotation has been the 2003 conference which was held in Australia. This conference brings together the world's experts in superconductive electronics in a forum which is conducive to interaction among the participants with maximal interchange between the various topics. The conference this year was truly an international event with participation from 13 countries over six continents. The quality of presentations was also high. The conference witnessed the continued maturation of both digital/mixed signal electronics and SQUID-based instrumentation along with a number of novel devices. Of particular note was the transition of superconducting quantum computing research from a novel abstract concept to a broad-based research activity. The organizing committee was able to gather an exemplary group of invited speakers to share their results and visions for future progress. These presentations spanned both the subtopics of superconductor electronics and the history of the field. As I reflect on the efforts which went into making this conference a success, I must express my appreciation to many individuals and organizations, in no particular order. I would like to thank Northrop Grumman for their support for my activities as chair of the conference, both in terms of making my time available and for direct financial considerations. Centennial Conferences, as the conference organizer, provided invaluable guidance and administrative support. I would also like to acknowledge the support of the IEEE Council on Superconductivity, in particular in the persons of Moises Levy and John Spargo. I would be remiss if I did not thank John

  8. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  9. Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.N.; Langsted, J.M.; Young, M.E.; Day, J.E.

    2006-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed radioactive sources have been evaluated in numerous studies to assess their security and attractiveness for use as a terrorist weapon. The studies conclude that tens of thousands of curies in sealed radioactive sources are available for potential use in a terrorist attack. This risk is mitigated by international efforts to find lost and abandoned sources and bring them under adequate security. However, radioactive waste has not received the same level of scrutiny to ensure security. This paper summarizes the activity and nature of radioactive sources potentially available to international terrorists. The paper then estimates radiation doses from use of radioactive sources as well as typical environmental restoration or decontamination and decommissioning wastes in a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) attack. These calculated doses indicate that radioactive wastes are, as expected, much less of a health risk than radioactive sources. The difference in radiation doses from wastes used in an RDD are four to nine orders of magnitude less than from sealed sources. We then review the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) definition of 'dangerous source' in an adjusted comparison to common radioactive waste shipments generated in environmental management activities. The highest waste dispersion was found to meet only category 1-3.2 of the five step IAEA scale. A category '3' source by the IAEA standard 'is extremely unlikely, to cause injury to a person in the immediate vicinity'. The obvious conclusion of the

  10. 77 FR 5056 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: September 11th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: September 11th Victim Compensation Fund Claimant Eligibility and Compensation Form ACTION: 60-Day Notice of information collection under review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Civil Division, September 11th Victim Compensation Fund, will...

  11. Age and Terrorist Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, James; Hewitt, Christopher

    While research has examined how age-related factors structure the probability of experiencing a particular event or suffering a particular kind of injury, one issue which has not been empirically addressed is the age structure of victimization from terrorist activity and civil strife. To explore the relationship between age and terrorist…

  12. MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  13. Estimating Terrorist Risk with Possibility Theory

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Darby

    2004-11-30

    performed in PossibleRisk. [LEDTools] LEDTools is a general purpose linguistic evaluation tool and allows user defined universes of discourse and approximate reasoning rules, whereas PossibleRisk uses predefined universes of discourse (risk, attack, success, loss, and consequence) and rules. Also LEDTools has the capability to model a large number of threat scenarios with a graph and to integrate the scenarios (paths from the graph) into the linguistic evaluation. Example uses of PossibleRisk and LEDTools for the possibilistic evaluation of terrorist risk are provided in this report.

  14. School Preparation to the Terrorist Threat. SVRC Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Violence Resource Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a list of "lessons learned" to assist schools in better preparing for a crisis event. The list was compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Education specifically to assist schools in preparing for a terrorist attack. The lessons can help schools better identify appropriate…

  15. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  16. The Effects of 11th Graders' Opinions on Their Interpretation of Conflicting Arguments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Wayne H.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how individual differences in epistemological beliefs, strength of beliefs, and need for cognition affected the written conclusions that 11th graders constructed after reading a passage presenting arguments opposing and supporting gun control. (SR)

  17. 16. NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW OF 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW OF 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CORNER SHOWS THE DIAGONALLY FLUTED SPIRAL DESIGN OF THE RELIEF COLUMN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. E SERIES MAGAZINES, OVERVIEW OF REAR OF MAGAZINES FROM 11TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E SERIES MAGAZINES, OVERVIEW OF REAR OF MAGAZINES FROM 11TH ST. E 106 IN THE FOREGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, & Seventeenth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. VIEW OF COMPANY HOUSES ON 11TH STREET AT THE RAILROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPANY HOUSES ON 11TH STREET AT THE RAILROAD TRACKS. No. 401 to right (asbestos siding). House on left has retained the original clapboard siding. - Town of Windber, Windber, Somerset County, PA

  20. 14. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. WINDOWS HAVE WHITE TERRA COTTA SILLS, HEADS AND MULLIONS. ARCHES ARE OF TERRA COTTA INCLUDING ORNAMENTATION ABOVE THE 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CIRCULAR ORNAMENTATIONS BETWEEN ARCHES ARE TERRA COTTA PAINTED IN BRONZE COLOR. LOUVERS ON THE WINDOWS ARE NOT PART OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGN. THIS IS THE FRONT ELEVATION. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  2. A Bayesian Belief Network of Threat Anticipation and Terrorist Motivations

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Davenport, Kristen M; Schryver, Jack C

    2010-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  3. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  4. Malevolent Creativity in Terrorist Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Hunter, Samuel T.; Cushenbery, Lily D.

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist organizations are both imitative and innovative in character. While the drivers of imitation have been extensively modeled using concepts such as contagion and diffusion, creativity and innovation remain relatively underdeveloped ideas in the context of terrorist behavior. This article seeks to redress this deficiency by presenting a…

  5. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  6. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  7. Are Suicide Terrorists Suicidal? A Critical Assessment of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Most of the research on suicide terrorism is conducted in the political science and international relations fields. The prevailing wisdom within this literature is that suicide terrorists are not suicidal. But how good is the evidence for this assumption? Knowing whether suicide terrorists are suicidal has implications for prevention, rehabilitation, and the “softer” side of counterterrorism designed to win minds and hearts. In addition it may deepen our understanding of suicide itself. Design: This article uses a review of existing literature to examine the arguments and evidence for and against the possibility that suicide terrorists could be suicidal in the context of a broad range of explanations for suicide terrorism. Results: Much of the evidence against the possibility that suicide terrorists are suicidal is based on anecdote or faulty assumptions about suicide. Relatively few formal systematic studies of suicidality in suicide terrorists have been conducted. Nonetheless, there is emerging evidence that suicidality may play a role in a significant number of cases. Conclusion: The field needs a more multidimensional approach, more systematic data at the individual level, and greater international cross-disciplinary collaboration. Would-be suicide terrorists (intercepted and arrested on their way to an attack) should be routinely interviewed using standard internationally accepted psychiatric diagnostic interviews as well as suicidality and homicidality rating scales. Psychological autopsies should also be routinely conducted worldwide. Since no one research site can collect all of the information that is needed, the creation of an internationally shared database that focuses on suicide terrorists rather than simply incidents is encouraged. PMID:25520891

  8. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  9. Asian Studies: Experimental Course of Study, 11th or 12th Year Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryberg, Carl

    This experimental course of study has a twofold purpose. Primarily, it is intended to serve as basis for an elective for the 11th or 12th year student. Openended in organization, it encourages teachers and students to add new dimensions. It provides a comprehensive bibliography and detailed information with which to develop an elective in the area…

  10. 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Pain Consortium will convene the 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research, featuring keynote speakers and expert panel sessions on Innovative Models and Methods. The first keynote address will be delivered by David J. Clark, MD, PhD, Stanford University entitled “Challenges of Translational Pain Research: What Makes a Good Model?” |

  11. Court Says 11th Amendment Does Not Bar All Lawsuits against Public Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1994-01-01

    A federal appeals court decision suggests that public colleges may not be covered by the Constitution's 11th amendment prohibiting state governments from being sued in federal court. By the ruling, the institution loses immunity by having funds other than state appropriations with which to pay damages in the lawsuits. (MSE)

  12. 77 FR 43823 - Filing Dates for the Michigan Special Election in the 11th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Michigan Special Election in the 11th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Michigan has...

  13. 77 FR 21107 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: September 11th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: September 11th Victim Compensation Fund Claimant Eligibility and Compensation Form ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice...

  14. Review of "The September 11th Education Program: A National Interdisciplinary Curriculum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterson, Robert A.; Jenne, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    A review of "The September 11th Education Program: A National Interdisciplinary Curriculum" reveals a sensitive and well-created program for the 5-12 social studies teacher to use in teaching about the challenging subject of 9/11. This program provides an opportunity for teachers to find a balance among understanding, critical analysis,…

  15. Education Scholars' Reflections on the Implications of September 11th for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Judith L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the reflections of five educational scholars on the potential impact of the events of September 11th on curriculum and how to address it. Edited excerpts are featured from Maxine Greene, Nel Noddings, Jesse Goodman, Michael Apple, and Gloria Ladson-Billings. Respondents address such issues as cultural awareness, moral education, and…

  16. Agreement on Use of 11th Grade Smarter Balanced Assessment Results for Student Placement. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue brief lists the agreement principles relating to the use of 11th grade career and college readiness assessment results for student placement in Washington community and technical colleges. As part of the Washington implementation of the new Common Core State Standards for college- and career-readiness, the agreement described herein has…

  17. Expertise, Argumentation and Scientific Practice: A Case Study about Environmental Education in the 11th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Alexandre, Maria Pilar; Pereiro Munoz, Cristina; Aznar Cuadrado, Virginia

    This paper reports a case study about argumentation and scientific practice in the 11th grade. The objectives of the study are to identify argument patterns and dimensions of the scientific practice in students' conversations and actions while engaged in an environmental management project in a wetland. The focus are the warrants that students…

  18. State Education & Environment Roundtable (SEER) Seminar (11th, Des Moines, Iowa, May 20-24, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L.

    This document reports on the 11th seminar of the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER). It consists of brief overviews of the daily discussions and presentations that were made at the seminar. Topics discussed include potential partnerships with national language arts organizations and associations, how environmental justice issues…

  19. The Federal Forecasters Conference--2000. Papers and Proceedings (11th, Washington, DC, September 14, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerald, Debra, E., Ed.

    The 11th Federal Forecasters Conference provided a forum where 180 forecasters from different federal agencies and other organizations could meet and discuss forecasting in the United States. The theme for this conference was "Forecasting, Policy, and the Internet." In the morning session, a panel presentation featured three speakers. Neilson C.…

  20. Delimiting Democratic Debate: The Fordham Institute's Attack on Democratic Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting on the current debate on how to teach about the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, this article examines Thomas B. Fordham Institute's Terrorists, Despots, and Democracy: What Our Children Need to Know, one of the several publications produced by the Fordham Institute that…

  1. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Richard M; Siebeneck, Laura K.; Hepner, George F.

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  2. A Selective Chronology of Terrorist and Counter-Terrorist Incidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Beginning with the July 22, 1966, Palestinian hijacking of an El Al airliner and ending with the April 5, 1986, bombing raid on Libya by the United States, this chronology details 56 terrorist events which were covered in the world press. (JDH)

  3. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  4. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST - elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD - heart attack; Coronary artery disease - heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  5. The Role of Social Context in Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argo, Nichole

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of studies on suicide bombing suggest that terrorism is not necessarily bound to religious extremism. The authors of this body of work, primarily drawn from political science and social psychology, agree that suicide bombings, with or without the trappings of religion, are largely a response to occupation, or, since September…

  6. Paris terrorist attack: early lessons from the intensivists.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    During the night of 13-14 November, the city of Paris was exposed, within a few hours, to three bomb explosions, four shooting scenes, and one 3-hour hostage-taking of several hundred people causing at least 130 deaths and more than 250 injured victims. Most unstable patients were transferred to the six trauma centers of the Paris area, all members of the TRAUMABASE Group. A rapid adaptation of the organization of trauma patients' admittance was required in all centers to face the particular needs of the situation. Everything went relatively well in all centers, with overall hospital mortality below 2 %. Nevertheless, most physicians nowadays agree that anticipation, teaching, and training are crucial to appropriately face such events. All of us have learned many additional issues from this experience. Following a meeting of the TRAUMABASE Group, the most relevant issues are detailed in the following. PMID:27056826

  7. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  8. Terrorist Attacks Put Academic Freedom to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin; Cox, Ana Marie

    2001-01-01

    Explores how, in the aftermath of the airplane hijackings and deaths at New York's World Trade Center and the Pentagon, academic freedom may be under threat. Provides examples of student or administrative action against professors offering different viewpoints. (EV)

  9. Chemical plants remain vulnerable to terrorists: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K

    2006-09-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation's security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security ; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance ; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals ; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation ; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems ; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident.

  10. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  11. A Sociospatial Approach to Understanding Terrorist Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Richard M; Hepner, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist networks operate in hybrid space where activities in social and geographic spaces are necessary for logistics and security. The Islamist terrorist network is analyzed as a sociospatial system using social network analysis, Geographic Information Science (GISc), and novel techniques designed for hybrid space analyses. This research focuses on identifying distance and sociospatial dependencies within the terrorist network. A methodology for analyzing sociospatial systems is developed and results lead to a greater understanding of terrorist network structures and activities. Distance and sociospatial dependencies are shown to exist for the Islamist terrorist network structure. These findings are discordant with recent literature that focuses on terrorist network tendencies toward decentralization in the information age. In this research, the Islamist terrorist network is theorized to use multiple structures of hierarchical and decentralized organization for effectiveness, efficiency, and resilience. Implications for counterterrorism policy and strategies are given.

  12. 11th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Saundry

    2012-04-17

    On January 19-21, 2011, The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) successfully convened its 11th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans in Washington, DC at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center. Over 1,247 participants attended the conference, representing federal, state and local governments, university and colleges across the US, civil society organizations, the business community, and international entities. In addition, the conference was webcast to an audience across several states. The conference provided a forum to examine the profound changes our ocean will undergo over the next 25-50 years and share various perspectives on the new research, tools, and policy initiatives to protect and sustain our ocean. Conference highlights and recommendations are available to the public on NCSE's conference website, www.OurChangingOceans.org.

  13. September 11th--ripples across the ocean: perspectives from Tripler Army Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Staudenmeier, James J; Hill, Jeffrey V

    2002-09-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, or 9-11 as called by the media, will live in United States' memory forever. Even far-flung Hawaii shuddered with the rest of the United States. This brief article describes the September 11th experiences and fallout of three individuals living in Hawaii. One is a description of how the events worsened a client's illness. Two others are psychiatrists' accounts: one staff, another child fellow. These accounts describe how even those living in remote locales may be affected by significant world events. Even though individuals may not appear to be at risk to have much risk of psychopathology, they may experience subclinical symptoms. Individuals who do have mental illness may risk worsening of their symptoms. PMID:12363156

  14. The Italian Red Brigades and the structure and dynamics of terrorist groups.

    PubMed

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2010-06-01

    One of the problems in dealing with terrorism is that we have virtually no access to individual terrorists; only their actions are visible. The founders of the Italian terrorist group, the Red Brigades, on the other hand, have written about their experiences and have exhaustively explained their motivations. The author's premise is that these autobiographies and her interviews with several of the group's members give us access to the unconscious processes involved in the formation and operation of the group. After terrorist attacks, it is natural to ask whether the terrorists' capacity for collective violence is an indication of personal pathology. This paper argues that the relevant pathology in the terrorist enterprise is not that of the individual but that of the group. Relying on the theories of groups of Freud (1921), Bion (1961), Anzieu (1984) and Kaes (2007), the author argues that psychoanalytic theory is essential to understanding the motivations and actions of violent groups which otherwise remain obscure. Although the discussion has been confined to one terrorist group, the author hopes that it can also be useful for understanding the unconscious dynamics of other groups structured around an ideology which mandates the destruction of human life.

  15. Our Response to the Attack on America: What Can It Teach Children about Understanding and Revenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    2002-01-01

    What are the lessons young people will learn from how adults in their lives deal with terrorist strikes on the United States? What lessons will be learned about justice compassion, and revenge? This article discusses the responsibilities adults have in helping children cope with and understand the recent terrorist attacks. (Author)

  16. Psychological interventions for terroristic trauma: prevention, crisis management, and clinical treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist attacks combine features of a criminal assault, a mass casualty disaster and an act of war Accordingly, this article presents a model for prevention, response and recovery from the psychological impact of a terror attack. The nature of terrorism is delineated and the various psychological effects are described, including diagnostic clinical syndromes, as well as individual reactions. Interventions in the immediate aftermath of a terrorist attack include on-scene crisis intervention, short-term psychological stabilization, and longer-term psychotherapeutic approaches. Special techniques are described for individuals, families, children, and large groups of survivors and responders. Finally, the ways that mental health clinicians can serve as valuable consultants to community recovery efforts are discussed.

  17. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Smrcka, Julianne D.; Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David; Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  18. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack treatment works best when it's given right after symptoms occur. Prompt treatment of a heart attack can help prevent or limit damage to the heart and prevent sudden death. Call 9-1-1 Right Away A heart ...

  19. Practical Approaches to Addressing the Evolving Perception of Terrorist Threats to Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, E.J.; Roe, J.W.

    2002-07-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and subsequent events has effected perceptions of the terrorist threat to the U.S. in general, and nuclear power plants in particular. These concerns have given rise to calls by government and private organizations for reevaluations of both the nature of the threat and protection against it. This paper suggests a general framework for a balanced approach to these reevaluations and highlights some practical and cost effective approaches for improving nuclear power plant safeguards protection. (authors)

  20. PREFACE: 11th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffari, Nader; Lhémery, Alain; Lowe, Mike

    2013-08-01

    The 11th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC) was held in Brighton, UK on 18-20 January 2012. This event, which is an annual collaboration between the Physical Acoustics Group (PAG) of the Institute of Physics and the Groupe d'Acoustique Physique, Sous-marine et UltraSonore (GAPSUS) of the Société Française d'Acoustique, successfully achieved its main aim of being a small, friendly meeting of high scientific quality, welcoming younger researchers and PhD students and covering a broad range of subjects in Acoustics. The participants heard 44 excellent presentations covering an exciting and diverse range of subjects, from audio acoustics to guided waves in composites and from phononic crystals to ultrasound surgery. As is the custom at these meetings, four prominent invited speakers set the pace for the event; these were Keith Attenborough (The Open University, UK), Claire Prada (Institut Langevin, France), David Moore (University of Nottingham, UK) and Philippe Roux (IS Terre, France). The submission of manuscripts for publication in the proceedings was, as in previous years, on a voluntary basis and in these proceedings we present 11 peer reviewed papers. Due to some unforeseen problems there has been a longer than planned delay in preparing these proceedings, for which the Editors sincerely apologise to the authors and the community. Nader Saffari, Mike Lowe and Alain Lhémery

  1. Nasal dorsum reconstruction with 11th rib cartilage and auricular cartilage grafts.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Cervelli, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of international literature on the topic of nasal dorsum reconstruction with 11th rib cartilage and auricular cartilage grafts, analyzing 123 patients selected from 653 cases of rhinoplasties performed between January 1990 and October 2007 at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata." We present our experience with the correction of deformities of the nasal dorsum using rib cartilage and auricular cartilage grafts. The majority of the time, nasal dorsum deformities are complicated defects to correct surgically. They can be a consequence of naso-ethmoid-orbital fractures and of surgical procedures in the nasal area where a loss of bone or septal cartilaginous support has occurred. After a review of the techniques employed in the reconstruction, we describe the advantage of the use of rib cartilage and our experience using this procedure. In the sample examined, 84% of treated patients showed cosmetic improvements, with satisfactory results to both surgeon and patient. A functional improvement has been achieved in 94% of the operated cases. PMID:19131722

  2. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E.; Toranzos, Gary A.; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. PMID:26422376

  3. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J

    2015-01-01

    The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. PMID:26422376

  4. Highlights and summaries of the 11th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Edna S; Cushion, Melanie T; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Weiss, Louis M; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The 11th in the series of International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-11) was held in August 2010 on the Big Island of Hawaii. These meetings are devoted to agents of infections that cause serious problems in AIDS patients and other individuals with defective immune systems. International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists serves as a forum for exchange of current research information on Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium and the Microsporidia, Toxoplasma, free-living amoebae, kinetoplastid flagellates and other pathogens that are particularly pathogenic in immunodeficient hosts. Studies on interactions between host and pathogen, especially host responses, were highlighted in this year's symposium. The lack of in vitro cultivation methods for luxuriant growth of Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium and the Enterocytozoon bieneusi remains a major hindrance to understanding the basic biology of these organisms and precludes genetic manipulations. However, slow but steady progress is being achieved by hard work including data mining of some completed or partially completed genome sequencing of several IWOP organisms. Of great concern is evidence for dramatic decline in research funding for these pathogens and the lack of appreciation by the larger scientific community concerning the state of art and challenges faced by researchers working on these organisms that can provide critical insight into emerging and reemerging pathogens.

  5. What Is Found There: Literature in the Wake of September 11th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masini, Donna; Schwartz-Simon, Marisa; Gaitskill, Mary; Wolff, Rebecca; Olds, Sharon; Brown, Wesley; Willis, Meredith Sue; Nye, Naomi Shihab; Gamalinda, Eric; Pinsky, Robert; Sleigh, Tom; Karp, Gail

    2001-01-01

    Notes that teachers and writers across the country were called upon to share poems and prose that they had turned to in the days following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Notes that the response was a testament to literature's ability to transform experience of events as well as its capacity to be transformed, to be rendered anew by tragedy.…

  6. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  7. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  8. Your Reading: An Annotated Booklist for Middle School and Junior High. 11th Edition. NCTE Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jean E., Ed.; Stephens, Elaine C., Ed.

    Organized around the theme of "challenges," the 11th edition of "Your Reading" offers annotations of more than 1,200 books for young adults. Intended for teachers, librarians, parents, and students, this booklist presents recently published books that can be read for many purposes--for sheer enjoyment of the story, to pique curiosity or satisfy…

  9. The Effects of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied with Animations on Overcoming 11th Grade Students' Alternative Conceptions of Chemical Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Hulya; Demircioglu, Gokhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the effect of conceptual change texts accompanied with computer animations on 11th grade students' understanding and alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding. One experimental group (EG; N = 28) and one comparison group (CG; N = 30) were used in the study. While the comparison group taught traditional…

  10. Using ARCS Model to Promote 11th Graders' Motivation and Achievement in Learning about Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Sung-Lin; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study are: to apply the ARCS model in designing an acid and bases unit, and to assess a single class of 11th graders for motivation and achievement outcomes before and after ARCS instruction. Four essential strategies for designing motivation instruction in the ARCS model were: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and…

  11. Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

  12. The Effects of Cardio-Syntactic Analysis Instruction on Writing Scores in a 11th Grade High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Patrick N.; Blair, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of Cardio-Syntactic Analysis instruction on writing scores in an 11th grade English class. The sample consisted of 35 students enrolled in an Honor's English 11 class at Volunteer high School, in Church Hill, TN. The class was randomly assigned into an experimental group of 17 students and…

  13. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: Request for support of the 11th Workshop on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Thomas

    2009-05-21

    This grant supported the publication of student papers that were presented at the 11th Workshop on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas. Papers were published in a Special Issue of the IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 32, Issue 2 in April, 2007.

  14. Angry at the unjust, scared of the powerful: emotional responses to terrorist threat.

    PubMed

    Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Maitner, Angela T

    2013-08-01

    The threat of terrorist attacks motivates emotional reactions that elicit functional behavioral responses to characteristics of a threatening group. We argue that the more the group is seen as unjust, the more anger arises, whereas the more it is seen as powerful, the more fear arises. In Experiment 1, British participants read about terrorist groups with varied levels of injustice and power. As expected, the manipulation of injustice increased anger, and power increased fear. Anger and fear predicted offensive and defensive reactions. Experiment 2 used a representative sample of U.S. residents and again found distinct effects of an injustice manipulation on anger, and a power manipulation on fear. Anger was a primary motivator of support for offensive and defensive measures in both experiments. Willingness to negotiate was reduced with more injustice and anger, but increased with more outgroup power and fear. These findings have implications on public reactions to terrorist organizations.

  15. PREFACE: The 11th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The 11th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society was held in Exeter from 8-11 April 1991. The annual Condensed Matter meeting of the UK Institute of Physics, which would have been held in December 1990, was not scheduled in order that there should not be two similar meetings too close together. The Exeter EPS conference followed the traditional pattern for Condensed Matter Division conference by covering a very broad range of topics and including several plenary lectures. In addition, there was a lecture from one of the joint Hewlett-Packard prizewinners, Professor D Jerome, and the annual Mott Lecture was presented by Professor R G Clark. The invited lectures were divided into 5 parallel sessions, in part because of lecture theatre sizes, in which the topics roughly divided into semiconductors (2 sessions), metals and magnetism, high Tc superconductivity and heavy fermions, and soft matter and polymers. A number of contributors of abstracts for poster presentation were offered the opportunity of oral presentation. The three, very full poster sessions, were of a high standard and generated much interest and discussion. One can conclude that condensed matter physics is strong and active in Europe. The papers of the invited talks contained in this volume will allow conference participants the opportunity for further study of the work presented and will also allow those unable to attent the meeting to learn of the interesting results presented. With such a broad subject coverage it is difficult to order the papers in a wholly rational way; according they have been brought together under five broad headings. It is a pleasure to thank all those involved in the Organising and Programme Committees (see PDF file for detail) for their contributions to the Conference. The generosity of the Sponsors (see PDF file for list of sponsors) is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary bifurcation disease: 11th consensus document from the European Bifurcation Club.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Jens Flensted; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Banning, Adrian; Burzotta, Francesco; Lefèvre, Thierry; Chieffo, Alaide; Hildick-Smith, David; Louvard, Yves; Stankovic, Goran

    2016-05-17

    Coronary bifurcations are involved in 15-20% of all percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and remain one of the most challenging lesions in interventional cardiology in terms of procedural success rate as well as long-term cardiac events. The optimal management of bifurcation lesions is, despite a fast growing body of scientific literature, the subject of considerable debate. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) was initiated in 2004 to support a continuous overview of the field, and aims to facilitate a scientific discussion and an exchange of ideas on the management of bifurcation disease. The EBC hosts an annual, compact meeting, dedicated to bifurcations, which brings together physicians, engineers, biologists, physicists, epidemiologists and statisticians for detailed discussions. Every meeting is finalised with a consensus statement which reflects the unique opportunity of combining the opinions of interventional cardiologists with the opinions of a large variety of other scientists on bifurcation management. The present 11th EBC consensus document represents the summary of the up-to-date EBC consensus and recommendations. It points to the fact that there is a multitude of strategies and approaches to bifurcation stenting within the provisional strategy and in the different two-stent strategies. The main EBC recommendation for PCI of bifurcation lesions remains to use main vessel (MV) stenting with a proximal optimisation technique (POT) and provisional side branch (SB) stenting as a preferred approach. The consensus document covers a moving target. Much more scientific work is needed in non-left main (LM) and LM bifurcation lesions for continuous improvement of the outcome of our patients. PMID:27173860

  17. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  18. [Analysis of the definitive statistics of the 11th General Population and Housing Census].

    PubMed

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1992-01-01

    The 11th General Census of Population and Housing conducted in March 1990 enumerated 2,204,054 inhabitants in Sinaloa, for a density of 37.9 per sq. km. Sinaloa's population thus increased sevenfold from 297,000 in 1900. The proportion of Sinalioans in Mexico's population increased from 2.2% in 1900 to 2.7% in 1990. 38.4% of the population was under age 14, 57.0% was 14064, and 4.6% as over 65. The greatest challenge for the year 2010 will be to meet the demand for educational facilities, employment, and services for the growing elderly population. Sinaloa's population grew at an annual rate of 1.1 between 1980-90. 17 of its 18 municipios showed slowing growth rates between 1980-90, with only Escuinapa increasing its rate. Sinaloa's growth rate of 1.8% is still relatively high, and the population in the year 2000 is projected at 2.6 million. Population distribution and migration present problems that should be more actively addressed. Urban-urban migration is increasing in importance. In 1990, Sinaloa had 5247 localities of which only 85 had more than 2500 inhabitants and 4717 had fewer than 500. Growth of midsize localities with 500-2499 inhabitants may constitute an alternative allowing the demographic deconcentration and decentralization that Sinaloa urgently requires. The lack of jobs, infrastructure, educational and health services, housing, and food in the dispersed 4717 communities with fewer than 500 inhabitants makes them sources of emigration. Sinaloa's population is concentrated along the coast and in the 3 valleys of the north and central regions, which contain 80.8% of the population. One-third of the population lives on 12.1% of the territory in 2 municipios, while 12 municipios covering 67% of the territory contain just 24% of the population. Sinaloa's growth rate has declined from 4.3% between 1960-70 to 3.7% from 1970-80 and 1.8% in 1980-90.

  19. Selected papers from the 11th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdeghini, Carlo; Putti, Marina

    2014-04-01

    The 11th edition of the European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS) was held in Genoa (15-19 September 2013) and registered the participation of more than one thousand attendants from over 40 countries. During the conference seven plenary lectures, 23 invited, and 203 oral contributions and 550 posters have been presented, all focused on recent developments in the field of superconductivity applications. This issue of Superconductor Science Technology is a collection of some of the plenary and invited contributions. Moreover, the winners of the EUCAS prizes (the electronics prize dedicated to the memory of Antonio Barone), and the most significant oral contributions selected by the 125 chairs involved in the organization, have been invited to submit their papers. The remaining papers presented at the conference will be published in the Journal Physics Conference Series, edited by S Farinon, G Lamura, A Malagoli and I Pallecchi. The papers have been organized into the four traditional topics of interest of EUCAS, namely materials, wires and tapes, large scale applications, and electronics. The plenary lectures on these four topics have been collected: Potential of iron-based superconductors for practical materials in the future (J Shimoyama), Coated conductors for power applications: materials challenges (J Obradors), Challenges and status of ITER conductor production (A Devred), and the Impact of superconducting devices in imaging in neuroscience (G L Romani). We hope that this issue will let you taste the flavours, hear the sounds and see the colours of this exciting EUCAS edition. The very large participation in EUCAS 2013 has allowed debates on a wide range of topics, starting from the most basic studies on emergent materials up to the new developments in electronics and large scale applications. A round table on HTS Conductors was experimented for the first time gathering material scientists, wire manufacturers and device builders in a stimulating

  20. PREFACE: 11th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC-11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, P. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Dutta, D.

    2015-06-01

    The International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC) is a prestigious triennial conference series with a rich history. The 11th meeting in the series (PPC-11) was held at Cidade de Goa, Goa, India during 9-14, November, 2014. It was organized by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai. The co-organizers were Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Kolkata, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam and Indian Association of Nuclear Chemists and Allied Scientists (IANCAS), Mumbai. PPC-11 attracted participants both from academic institutions and industries. About 120 participants from 20 countries representing all continents participated in the conference. The conference continued the tradition of excellence in terms of quality of presentations and discussions. There were 33 plenary and invited talks, 39 oral presentations and 40 posters. The conference stood true to its multidisciplinary tag with papers presented in the fields of fundamentals of positron and positronium chemistry, applications in polymers, porous materials, metals/alloys, studies in liquids, biological applications as well as developments in theory and experimental techniques. The enthusiastic participation of senior researchers and young students made the scientific program a grand success. In order to encourage the student participants (twenty) and promote excellence, a committee of senior members evaluated their presentations and the top three contributions were awarded. The positron and positronium community paid homage to the memory of late Profs. J. Kristiak and A.T. Stewart. A brief sketch of their life and work was presented by Profs. Jan Kuriplach and Toshio Hyodo, respectively. All the papers published in these proceedings have been peer reviewed by the participants of PPC-11. Editors thank all the reviewers for sparing their valuable time and helping us in bringing out the proceedings with 43 contributed articles in the scheduled time. We are

  1. Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Lu, Hongyou; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Yining, Qin; Yowargana, Ping

    2010-04-28

    During the period 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). The period 2002-2005 saw a dramatic reversal of the historic relationship between energy use and GDP growth: energy use per unit of GDP increased an average of 3.8% per year during this period (NBS, various years). China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), which covers the period 2006-2010, required all government divisions at different levels to reduce energy intensity by 20% in five years in order to regain the relationship between energy and GDP growth experienced during the 1980s and 1990s. This report provides an assessment of selected policies and programs that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal of a 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010. The report finds that China has made substantial progress toward its goal of achieving 20% energy intensity reduction from 2006 to 2010 and that many of the energy-efficiency programs implemented during the 11th FYP in support of China's 20% energy/GDP reduction goal appear to be on track to meet - or in some cases even exceed - their energy-saving targets. It appears that most of the Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program are on track to meet or surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program, which was established prior to the 11th FYP, has become very robust during the 11th FYP period. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energy standards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal of adjusting China's economic structure to reduce the share of energy consumed by industry, do not appear to be on track to meet the stated goals. With the implementation of the 11th FYP now bearing fruit, it is important to maintain and strengthen the existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising programs or adding new

  2. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  3. Simulating Terrorist Cells: Experiments and Mathematical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Lauren

    How well do mathematical models of terrorist cells apply to the reallife struggle against terrorism? Certainly, mathematical models have been useful in the past for military planning and predicting the behavior of U.S. adversaries, but how well do mathematical projections of terrorist behavior actually hold up when tested on living people and real situations? This paper first presents a mathematical model of terrorist cells and their functionality, and then discusses the procedure and results of an experiment conducted to test this model’s theoretical projections by comparing them with experimental results, thus confronting the question of theory versus reality.

  4. RFID Distance Bounding Protocol with Mixed Challenges to Prevent Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong Hee; Avoine, Gildas

    RFID systems suffer from different location-based attacks such as distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist fraud attacks. Among them mafia fraud attack is the most serious since this attack can be mounted without the notice of both the reader and the tag. An adversary performs a kind of man-in-the-middle attack between the reader and the tag. It is very difficult to prevent this attack since the adversary does not change any data between the reader and the tag. Recently distance bounding protocols measuring the round-trip time between the reader and the tag have been researched to prevent this attack.

  5. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated terrorist. 595... Definitions § 595.311 Specially designated terrorist. (a) The term specially designated terrorist means: (1... other specially designated terrorist. (b) Note to § 595.311: Please refer to the appendices at the...

  6. Campus Computing, 2000: The 11th National Survey of Computing and Information Technology in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The 2000 Campus Computing Survey, the 11th such survey, was sent to the chief academic officer at 1,176 two-year and four-year colleges and universities across the United States. By October 2000, 506 responses had been received, a response rate of 43%. New data reveal that the growing demand for technology talent across all sectors of the U.S.…

  7. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenbach, Stefan; Borin, Dmitry

    2009-07-01

    Materials with properties controllable by external fields become more and more important for modern product design. Magnetorheological suspensions, electrorheological fluids and ferrofluids are classical examples for such smart materials exhibiting magnetic or electric field dependent properties. Their development over the past 60 years has shown how complex research and development of fluids with tailored properties can be. The demands of potential applications are the driving force for the synthesis of new fluids. The changes in the synthetic process and the composition of the fluids based on an increasing understanding of the relevant microscopic processes leads to certain macroscopic properties of the material. Only intense cooperation between basic and application oriented research, synthesis, characterisation, theory and application design can finally lead to fluids suitable for the envisaged use. The International Conferences on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions have provided over more than 20 years a platform for interdisciplinary discussions strengthening the scientific progress in the field. Besides being a forum for scientific exchange about recent developments in electro- and magnetorheological fluids. The 11th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR08) which has been organized by the chair of Magnetofluiddynamics at the Technische Universität Dresden in August 2008 in Dresden has continued this fruitful tradition. With more than 180 participants from 24 different countries it has been the largest ERMR meeting during the last decade - a tendency showing the high potential and promising development of the field of electrically and magnetically controllable fluids. A significant proportion of the participants were PhD students, a fact that also highlights the sustainability of the field. In total 85 oral presentations - including 8 plenary talks - and 81 posters were

  8. PREFACE 11th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, László; Corradi, Gábor

    2010-11-01

    The Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, organized in the period 12-16 July 2010 in Pécs, Hungary by the Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Budapest and the Institute of Physics of the University of Pécs, was the 11th European conference in the alternate series of EURODIM and ICDIM. The first meeting in Argonne, USA in 1956 was dedicated to the field of color centers in alkali halide crystals. Since then the topic has been gradually extended to the real structure of oxides, halides, nitrides and other more complex insulators, and also to less ordered materials like glasses, ceramics and low-dimensional systems, as well as applications e.g. in radiology, non-linear optics, photonics and electronics. Recently the field covered includes the research and technology of defect-related phenomena in crystalline and amorphous wide band-gap bulk, layered and nano-materials. More than 200 colleagues from 31 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas have participated in the conference. The program contained in addition to seven invited and three keynote talks 67 further oral presentations as well as some 200 poster contributions. The city of Pécs, a pearl of the Southern Danubia region, was proud of hosting the conference as one of the 2010 European Capitals of Culture, this status crowning a long urban history dating back to paleochristian times in the Roman province Pannonia. On behalf of the Organizing Committee signature László Kovács Conference Chair Conference Chair László Kovács Crystal Physics Department Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics Budapest, Hungary e-mail: eurodim2010@optics.szfki.kfki.hu Program Committee Gábor Corradi (Hungary) István Földvári (Hungary) Rob A. Jackson (UK) László Kovács (Hungary) Martin Nikl (Czech Republic) Anna Vedda (Italy) Andrea Watterich (Hungary) International Advisory Committee M.G. Blanchin (France)A. Lushchik (Estonia) F. Bridges (USA

  9. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures (DAMAS 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures (DAMAS) 2015. DAMAS has a long history of almost 20 years. The first DAMAS conference took place in 1995 (Pescara, Italy), followed by a biannual meeting in 1997 (Sheffield, UK), 1999 (Dublin, Ireland), 2001 (Cardiff, UK), 2003 (Southampton, UK), 2005 (Gdansk, Poland), 2007 (Torino, Italy), 2009 (Beijing, China), 2011 (Oxford, UK) and 2013 (Dublin, Ireland). The eleventh edition of DAMAS conference series, DAMAS 2015, is hosted by Ghent University, Belgium, and is held at the congress center Het Pand in Ghent city. Ghent is the capital and the largest city of the East Flanders province of the Flemish region of Belgium. Het Pand is the culture and congress center of Ghent University and is a historical monument. The conference is established as a major international forum for research topics relevant to damage assessment of engineering structures and systems including numerical simulations, signal processing of sensor measurements and theoretical techniques as well as experimental case studies. The presentations of DAMAS 2015 are divided into 6 main sessions, namely 1) Structural Health and Condition Monitoring, 2) Damage in Civil Engineering, 3) Damage in Machineries, 4) Damage in Composite Materials, 5) Sensing and Sensors and 6) Signal Processing. The organising committee is grateful to keynote speakers; Professor Guido De Roeck, Head of Structural Mechanics Division, KULeuven, Belgium, for his keynote lecture entitled 'Structural Health Monitoring: highlights and challenges', Professor Weidong Zhu, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, USA, for his keynote lecture entitled 'Vibration-based Structural Damage Detection: Theory and Applications' and Professor Wieslaw Ostachowicz, Head of the Laboratory of Active Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland, for his keynote lecture entitled 'Damage Assessment and

  10. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower “bad” cholesterol (also called LDL, or low-density lipoprotein) levels and may help increase “good” cholesterol (also called HDL, or high-density lipoprotein). If you have had a heart attack, ...

  11. Revising School Attack Protections since 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, prompted federal officials to step up campaigns to make schools safe. After visiting Ground Zero at New York City's World Trade Center, Education Secretary Rodney Paige sent each chief state school officer suggestions for managing school crises. Many states also have school safety plans in place. New…

  12. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-01-01

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required. PMID:25323086

  13. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-09-24

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  14. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  15. Schools in the Shadow of Terrorism: Psychosocial Adjustment and Interest in Interventions following Terror Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Erika; Vernberg, Eric M.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Gill, Dodie C.; Schorr, John; Boudreaux, Angela; Gurwitch, Robin H.; Galea, Sandro; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Following terrorist events, teachers and nonteaching school personnel are important in helping children recover, yet little is known about their willingness to assist with this. We surveyed 399 employees from a Washington, D.C.-area school district following terror attacks (September 11, 2001, attacks; sniper shootings) about their exposure,…

  16. Supracostal Approach for PCNL: Is 10th and 11th Intercostal Space Safe According to Clavien Classification System?

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Cengiz; Değirmenci, Tansu; Kozacioglu, Zafer; Gunlusoy, Bulent; Koras, Omer; Minareci, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success and morbidity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) performed through the 11th and 10th intercostal space. Between March 2005 and February 2012, 612 patients underwent PCNL, 243 of whom had a supracostal access. The interspace between the 11th and 12th rib was used in 204 cases (group 1) and between the 10th and 11th interspaces in 39 cases (group 2). PCNL was performed using standard supracostal technique in all patients. The operative time, success rate, hospital stay, and complications according to the modified Clavien classification were compared between group 1 and group 2. The stone-free rate was 86.8% in group 1 and 84.6% in group 2 after one session of PCNL. Auxiliary procedures consisting of ureterorenoscopy (URS) and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) were required in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, in group 1; and in 1 patient each in group 2 . After the auxiliary procedures, stone-free rates increased to 92.6% in group 1 and 89.7% in group 2. A total of 74 (30.4%) complications were documented in the 2 groups according to modified Clavien classification. Grade-I complications were recorded in 20 (8.2%), grade-II in 38 (15.6%), grade-IIIa in 13 (5.3%), and grade-IIIb in 2 (0.8%) patients; grade-IVa was recorded in 1 (0.4%) patient. There were no grade-IVb or grade-V complications. Overall complication rate was 30.9% in group 1 and 28.2% in group 2. Supracostal PCNL in selected cases is effective and safe with acceptable complications. The modified Clavien system provides a standardized grading system for complications of PCNL. PMID:25437600

  17. Is the 10th and 11th intercostal space a safe approach for percutaneous nephrostomy and nephrolithotomy?

    PubMed

    Muzrakchi, Ahmed Al; Szmigielski, W; Omar, Ahmed J S; Younes, Nagy M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of complications in percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and nephrolithotomy (PCNL) performed through the 11th and 10th intercostal spaces using our monitoring technique and to discuss the safety of the procedure. Out of 398 PCNs and PCNLs carried out during a 3-year period, 56 patients had 57 such procedures performed using an intercostal approach. The 11th intercostal route was used in 42 and the 10th in 15 cases. One patient had two separate nephrostomies performed through the 10th and 11th intercostal spaces. The technique utilizes bi-planar fluoroscopy with a combination of a conventional angiographic machine to provide anterior-posterior fluoroscopy and a C-arm mobile fluoroscopy machine to give a lateral view, displayed on two separate monitors. None of the patients had clinically significant thoracic or abdominal complications. Two patients had minor chest complications. Only one developed changes (plate atelectasis, elevation of the hemi-diaphragm) directly related to the nephrostomy (2%). The second patient had bilateral plate atelectasis and unilateral congestive lung changes after PCNL. These changes were not necessarily related to the procedure but rather to general anesthesia during nephrolithotomy. The authors consider PCN or PCNL through the intercostal approach a safe procedure with a negligible complication rate, provided that it is performed under bi-planar fluoroscopy, which allows determination of the skin entry point just below the level of pleural reflection and provides three-dimensional monitoring of advancement of the puncturing needle toward the target entry point. PMID:15383855

  18. Is the 10th and 11th Intercostal Space a Safe Approach for Percutaneous Nephrostomy and Nephrolithotomy?

    SciTech Connect

    Muzrakchi, Ahmed Al; Szmigielski, W. Omar, Ahmed J.S.; Younes, Nagy M.

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of complications in percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and nephrolithotomy (PCNL) performed through the 11th and 10th intercostal spaces using our monitoring technique and to discuss the safety of the procedure. Out of 398 PCNs and PCNLs carried out during a 3-year period, 56 patients had 57 such procedures performed using an intercostal approach. The 11th intercostal route was used in 42 and the 10th in 15 cases. One patient had two separate nephrostomies performed through the 10th and 11th intercostal spaces. The technique utilizes bi-planar fluoroscopy with a combination of a conventional angiographic machine to provide anterior-posterior fluoroscopy and a C-arm mobile fluoroscopy machine to give a lateral view, displayed on two separate monitors. None of the patients had clinically significant thoracic or abdominal complications. Two patients had minor chest complications. Only one developed changes (plate atelectasis, elevation of the hemi-diaphragm) directly related to the nephrostomy (2%). The second patient had bilateral plate atelectasis and unilateral congestive lung changes after PCNL. These changes were not necessarily related to the procedure but rather to general anesthesia during nephrolithotomy. The authors consider PCN or PCNL through the intercostal approach a safe procedure with a negligible complication rate, provided that it is performed under bi-planar fluoroscopy, which allows determination of the skin entry point just below the level of pleural reflection and provides three-dimensional monitoring of advancement of the puncturing needle toward the target entry point.

  19. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism.

  20. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers based on invited talks and contributed posters presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Tsukuba International Congress Center in Tsukuba, Japan, on 26-28 September 2007, and was organized jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tsukuba. The previous ten meetings in this series were held in San Diego (USA) 1987, Gut Ising (Germany) 1989, Abingdon (UK) 1991, Naka (Japan) 1993, Princeton (USA) 1995, Kloster Seeon (Germany) 1997, Oxford (UK) 1999, Toki (Japan) 2001, San Diego (USA) 2003, and St Petersburg (Russia) 2005. The purpose of the eleventh meeting was to present and discuss new results on H-mode (edge transport barrier, ETB) and internal transport barrier, ITB, experiments, theory and modeling in magnetic fusion research. It was expected that contributions give new and improved insights into the physics mechanisms behind high confinement modes of H-mode and ITBs. Ultimately, this research should lead to improved projections for ITER. As has been the tradition at the recent meetings of this series, the program was subdivided into six topics. The topics selected for the eleventh meeting were: H-mode transition and the pedestal-width Dynamics in ETB: ELM threshold, non-linear evolution and suppression, etc Transport relations of various quantities including turbulence in plasmas with ITB: rotation physics is especially highlighted Transport barriers in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields Theory and simulation on transport barriers Projections of transport barrier physics to ITER For each topic there was an invited talk presenting an overview of the topic, based on contributions to the meeting and on recently published external results. The six invited talks were: A Leonard (GA, USA): Progress in characterization of the H-mode pedestal and L-H transition N Oyama (JAEA, Japan): Progress and issues in

  1. Shark attack.

    PubMed

    Guidera, K J; Ogden, J A; Highhouse, K; Pugh, L; Beatty, E

    1991-01-01

    Shark attacks are rare but devastating. This case had major injuries that included an open femoral fracture, massive hemorrhage, sciatic nerve laceration, and significant skin and muscle damage. The patient required 15 operative procedures, extensive physical therapy, and orthotic assistance. A review of the literature pertaining to shark bites is included.

  2. Selected scientific topics of the 11th International Isotope Symposium on the Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labeled Compounds.

    PubMed

    Atzrodt, Jens; Derdau, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This micro-review describes hot topics and new trends in isotope science discussed at the 11th International Isotope Symposium on the Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labeled Compounds from a personal perspective.

  3. EDITORIAL: Special issue featuring articles arising from the 11th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference Special issue featuring articles arising from the 11th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Degrez, Gérard; Delplancke, Marie-Paule; Gleizes, Alain

    2011-05-01

    The 11th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP) was held in Brussels, Belgium, 27 June-2 July, 2010. HTPP started as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include low-temperature plasmas. The conference was founded by Jacques Amouroux and Pierre Fauchais, and aims to bring together different scientific communities to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry, providing a platform for the exploration of elementary processes and applications in and by plasmas. The first HTPP was held in Odeillo, France, in 1990. Since then it has been held every other year in different European cities: Paris, Aachen, Athens, Strasbourg, Saint-Petersburg, Patras and Brussels. The 11th HTPP conference was attended by 125 participants from 19 countries. The program involved 14 invited talks, 34 contributed talks, 72 posters and a software demonstration and hands-on session for plasma modelling. The 12th HTPP conference will be held 24-28 June 2012, in Bologna, Italy. A larger part of the contributions to the 11th HTPP has been published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) volume 275, 2011. All invited speakers and other contributors, as selected by the Steering, Scientific and Organizing Committee, were invited to submit a paper based on their contributions for this special issue which is peer reviewed by the journal. Both this special issue and the JPCS volume aim to bring the 11th HTPP to a wider audience. The publications are a nice example of the broad topic range of the conference. The JPCS volume contains papers covering fundamental aspects on radiative processes of thermal plasmas, modelling of thermal arcs and non-thermal RF plasma jets, plasma diagnostics including flow and heat flux measurements of thermal plasmas, radical density measurements and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The applications-oriented contributions of the JPCS volume include plasma spraying, synthesis of (nano-sized) materials, surface

  4. The willingness of U.S. Emergency Medical Technicians to respond to terrorist incidents.

    PubMed

    Dimaggio, Charles; Markenson, David; T Loo, George; Redlener, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A nationally representative sample of basic and paramedic emergency medical service providers in the United States was surveyed to assess their willingness to respond to terrorist incidents. EMT's were appreciably (9-13%) less willing than able to respond to such potential terrorist-related incidents as smallpox outbreaks, chemical attacks, or radioactive dirty bombs (p<0.0001). EMTs who had received terrorism-related continuing medical education within the previous 2 years were twice as likely (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.9, 2.0) to be willing to respond to a potential smallpox dissemination incident as those who indicated that they had not received such training. Timely and appropriate training, attention to interpersonal concerns, and instilling a sense of duty may increase first medical provider response rates. PMID:16366842

  5. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated global terrorist... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term specially designated global terrorist or SDGT means any foreign person or person listed in the Annex or...

  6. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign terrorist organization. 597...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign...

  7. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign terrorist organization. 597...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign...

  8. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign terrorist organization. 597...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign...

  9. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign terrorist organization. 597...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign...

  10. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign terrorist organization. 597...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign...

  11. Stress-related changes in toddlers and their mothers following the attack of September 11.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne; McDonough, Susan C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Follett, Chantal; Sameroff, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    Unlike other forms of disaster, terrorism is not confined to a particular place or time, and recent evidence indicates that the 9/11 terrorist attack was a significant macrolevel stressor affecting the health and mental health of United States citizens. No studies, however, have reported symptoms in toddlers and their mothers both before and after the attacks. To address this gap, we examined the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on mothers and their 33-month-old toddlers. The attacks occurred during data collection at 33 months of a longitudinal study. Thirty-three-month-old toddlers and mothers who were assessed after the attacks were compared with those assessed before the attacks. When changes were examined from a previous wave of data collected at 15 months, those in the after-attack group showed poorer health, lower child acceptance, and marginally more anxiety, and their toddlers cried more and slept less, whereas the before-attack group showed no changes. Our findings contribute to research documenting widespread effects of the 9/11 terrorist attack on stress-related symptoms and suggest that greater attention must be placed on the needs of our youngest citizens and their caregivers. PMID:24164525

  12. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  13. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  14. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  15. ROAD BRIDGES IN MINAMI-SANRIKU WASHED AWAY IN THE MARCH 11th 2011 GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglipay, Mary Roxanne I.; Konagai, Kazuo; Kyokawa, Hiroyuki; Keshab, Sharma

    On March 11th, 2011, Minami-Sanriku, located in the northeastern coast of Japan was severely inundated by the tsunami that followed the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Road bridges near the coastlines in this area have been extensively damaged with their decks being overturned or carried over long distances. An attempt was made to deduce as rational scenarios as possible before remaining debris was cleaned up. Though the reasons for the washout of bridges can be many and complex, it is to be noted that bridge decks have hollows for the optimum light-weight solution, which fact eventually allowed the bridge decks to be carried over remarkable distances. Poor connection details and cavities, hollows between deck beams, are considered to have facilitated overturning due to uplift forces.

  16. The 1986 terrorist bombing experience in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Rignault, D P; Deligny, M C

    1989-01-01

    Between December 7, 1985 and September 17, 1986, eleven terrorist bomb explosions took place in Paris. Thirteen people died immediately, 255 others were injured. Forty were treated on-site and were not hospitalized, 205 were subjected to triage and stabilization and were then hospitalized. These latter 205 patients are analyzed in this study. None of them died during transportation, and seven eventually died in hospitals. Forty-seven per cent of all victims suffered from multiple injuries. All deaths except one occurred in the polytraumatized group. The policy of subjecting victims of terrorist bomb explosions to triage and stabilization before hospitalization is compared to the so-called "scoop and run" technique, more generally applied in mass casualty situations. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:2647053

  17. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  18. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-08-07

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  19. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  20. Preparedness for an anthrax attack.

    PubMed

    Franz, David R

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a long-known bacterial organism with a uniquely stable spore stage. Its stability and the lethal disease which results when the spore is inhaled made it a favorite of state-sponsored biological weapons programs throughout the Cold War era. It is also believed to be high on the list of candidate microbial agents which could be used by terrorist groups or lone actors. Its unique characteristics make protection of humans, especially civilians, from an intentional biological attack very difficult. The author argues that an all-hazards/public health approach - which would also be needed for any natural or deliberate outbreak, no matter the agent - should serve as a foundation of preparation for the specific anthrax countermeasures. Because B. anthracis is a unique organism, specific countermeasures for anthrax detection, diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy, should be developed in nations or regions where the threat of biological attack is believed to warrant such preparation. Other considerations for a nation interested in anthrax preparedness are discussed.

  1. Preparedness for an anthrax attack.

    PubMed

    Franz, David R

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a long-known bacterial organism with a uniquely stable spore stage. Its stability and the lethal disease which results when the spore is inhaled made it a favorite of state-sponsored biological weapons programs throughout the Cold War era. It is also believed to be high on the list of candidate microbial agents which could be used by terrorist groups or lone actors. Its unique characteristics make protection of humans, especially civilians, from an intentional biological attack very difficult. The author argues that an all-hazards/public health approach - which would also be needed for any natural or deliberate outbreak, no matter the agent - should serve as a foundation of preparation for the specific anthrax countermeasures. Because B. anthracis is a unique organism, specific countermeasures for anthrax detection, diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy, should be developed in nations or regions where the threat of biological attack is believed to warrant such preparation. Other considerations for a nation interested in anthrax preparedness are discussed. PMID:19619577

  2. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S.

  3. Using Guided Notes to Increase the Understanding of Anatomy and Physiology in 11th Grade Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, Jay

    A survey of over 500 science teachers reported that two thirds of their science classes were lecture based lessons where students were required to listen and take notes (Boyle, 2010). In addition to taking notes from lectures, note taking is a necessary skill to possess to record scientific observations and procedures and record information during class. Guided notes is a pedagogical method in which the instructor prepares and provides students with a modified form of lecture information to guide students (Neef, McCord, & Ferreri, 2006). This study examined the extent to which the use of guided notes in a unit of study of the muscular system of anatomy and physiology positively affected the mastery on content-based assessments for 11 th grade students. The data collection methods included quiz and test scores, a 4-point Likert scale survey, and an open-ended questionnaire. Results of the data revealed that guided notes was one factor that led to mastery in learning content. Additionally, students in this study preferred this method as it helped them to distinguish relevant information allowing more time to listen and focus on the teacher.

  4. Unfolding the complexities of ER chaperones in health and disease: report on the 11th international calreticulin workshop.

    PubMed

    Gold, Leslie; Williams, David; Groenendyk, Jody; Michalak, Marek; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-11-01

    The 11th International Calreticulin workshop was held May 15-18, 2015 at New York University School of Medicine-Langone Medical Center, New York. The meeting highlighted many of the new discoveries in the past 2 years involving the important role of molecular chaperones in physiological and pathological processes. Crucial to the understanding of these disease processes was the role of chaperones in maintaining quality control of protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, the importance of Ca(2) regulation acting through its action in stress-related diseases, and the trafficking of glycoproteins to the cell surface. Central to maintaining healthy cell physiology is the correct ER-associated protein degradation of specific misfolded proteins. Information on different mechanisms involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins was revealed. This was a landmark meeting for the chaperone field in terms of new insights into their roles in physiology. These insights included the unfolded protein response, innate/adaptive immunity, tissue repair, the functions of calreticulin/chaperones from the cell surface, and extracellular environment. Diseases included neurodegenerative disorders, prion disease, autoimmunity, fibrosis-related disease, the host immune response to cancer, and hematologic diseases associated with calreticulin mutations. The 12th calreticulin workshop is planned for the spring of 2017 in Delphi, Greece. PMID:26395641

  5. Assessment of Building Energy-Saving Policies and Programs in China During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Mcneil, Michael; Levine, Mark

    2011-03-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target to reduce the energy intensity per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). In the building sector, the primary energy-saving target allocated during the 11 FYP period is 100 Mtce. Savings are expected to be achieved through the strengthening of enforcement of building energy efficiency codes, existing building retrofits and heat supply system reform, followed by energy management of government office buildings and large scale public buildings, adoption of renewable energy sources. To date, China has reported that it achieved the half of the 20% intensity reduction target by the end of 2008, however, little has been made clear on the status and the impact of the building programs. There has also been lack of description on methodology for calculating the savings and baseline definition, and no total savings that have been officially reported to date. This paper intends to provide both quantitative and qualitative assessment of the key policies and programs in building sector that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal. Overall, this paper concludes that the largest improvement for building energy efficiency were achieved in new buildings; the program to improve the energy management in government and large scale public buildings are in line with the target; however the progress in the area of existing building retrofits, particularly heating supply system reform lags behind the stated goal by a large amount.

  6. Assessment of Building Energy-Saving Policies and Programs in China During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael; Levine, Mark

    2010-06-07

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target to reduce the energy intensity per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). In the building sector, the primary energy-saving target allocated during the 11 FYP period is 100 Mtce. Savings are expected to be achieved through the strengthening of enforcement of building energy efficiency codes, existing building retrofits and heat supply system reform, followed by energy management of government office buildings and large scale public buildings, adoption of renewable energy sources. To date, China has reported that it achieved the half of the 20% intensity reduction target by the end of 2008, however, little has been made clear on the status and the impact of the building programs. There has also been lack of description on methodology for calculating the savings and baseline definition, and no total savings that have been officially reported to date. This paper intend to provide both quantitative and qualitative assessment of the key policies and programs in building sector that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal. Overall, this paper concludes that the largest improvement for building energy efficiency were achieved in new buildings; the program to improve the energy management in government and large scale public buildings are in line with the target; however the progress in the area of existing building retrofit particularly heat supply system reform lags the stated goal by a large amount.

  7. Physical activity participation by parental language use in 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Lewis, Kayan; Kelder, Steven H; Fernandez, Maria E; Barroso, Cristina S; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2010-10-01

    Research on physical activity (PA) by level of acculturation in Hispanic children is limited and findings have been mixed. We examined PA participation by primary language used with parents in a representative sample of 4th, 8th, and 11th grade Texas public school students. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted using cross-sectional data from the 2004-2005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (n = 22,049). Self-reported PA was compared among three language-ethnic groups: Spanish-Hispanic (SH) (referent); English-Hispanic (EH); and English-Other (EO). EH and/or EO girls were generally between 1.25 and 2.58 [OR] times more likely to participate in PA across grade levels, with the largest differences found for school sports in 8th grade girls. EH and EO 8th grade boys were 1.71 (CI: 1.40, 2.10) and 2.06 (CI: 1.68, 2.51) times, respectively, more likely to participate in school sports. Findings indicate important disparities in Spanish-speaking Hispanic children's PA participation. PMID:19365728

  8. Personalized integrative oncology: targeted approaches for optimal outcomes: the 11th International Conference of the Society for Integrative Oncology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard T; Yang, Peiying; Greenlee, Heather; Bauer-Wu, Susan; Balneaves, Lynda G; Zick, Suzanna

    2015-01-01

    The 11th International Conference of the Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO) brought together more than 300 clinicians, researchers, patients, and advocates to hear and interact with world-leading experts about the latest research in the areas of nutrition, exercise, acupuncture, health services research, meditation, and other integrative disciplines. The conference theme, "Personalized Integrative Oncology: Targeted Approaches for Optimal Outcomes," highlighted innovations in personalized medicine and ways this growing field will advance the evolution of individualized integrative cancer care to the next level. This year's conference also featured a clinical track focusing on clinical information for the practicing health care professional. The conference's rigorous schedule included 3 keynotes, 4 plenary sessions, 2 interdisciplinary tumor boards, 5 workshops, 45 concurrent oral sessions, and 106 posters. In addition to the conference theme, keynote and plenary sessions presented topics on stress and cancer, the importance of sleep for cancer patients, epigenetic mechanisms of lifestyle and natural products, recently published Journal of the National Cancer Institute monograph on integrative oncology, SIO's clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer survivors, and a joint session of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and SIO about supportive care and symptom management. This highly successful conference helped further the mission of the SIO to advance evidence-based, comprehensive, integrative health care to improve the lives of people affected by cancer.

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA) (11th, Porto, Portugal, October 25-27, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 11th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2014), October 25-27, 2014, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) and endorsed by the Japanese Society for Information and Systems in…

  10. Post-September 11Th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected Rebt Cognoscenti: A Response to My Colleagues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    2004-01-01

    This is a discussion and evaluation of the views of the authors of the article "Post-September 11th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti." Several of the authors are shown to endorse most of the main principles and practices of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy…

  11. Post-September 11Th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrach, Stephen G.; Dryden, Windy; DiMattia, Dominic J.; Doyle, Kristene A.; MacLaren, Catherine; O'Kelly, Monica; Malkinson, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article was for selected Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) cognoscenti to examine the impact of the events of September 11th, 2001, on their beliefs about religion, spirituality and their personal philosophy--including the role of evil in the universe and the implications of these issues on their use of REBT. The degree…

  12. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (11th, Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015. The Mobile Learning 2015 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  13. Relationships among Four Learner Variables and the Performance of Selected Jamaican 11th-Graders on Some Structured Questions on the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Hall, Nadine; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to find out if (a) the performance of 113 Jamaican 11th-graders on a mole concept test was satisfactory or not; (b) there were significant differences in their performance linked to their chemical and mathematical abilities, gender and socioeconomic background (SEB); and, (c) there were significant relationships among the four…

  14. Correlations among Five Demographic Variables and the Performance of Selected Jamaican 11th-Graders on Some Numerical Problems on Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emepue, Nicholas; Soyibo, Kola

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether the level of performance of selected Jamaican 11th-grade physics students on some numerical problems on the energy concept was satisfactory and if there were significant differences in their performance linked to their gender, socioeconomic background (SEB), school location, English language and…

  15. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  16. Radioactive Fallout from Terrorist Nuclear Detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R E

    2007-05-03

    Responding correctly during the first hour after a terrorist nuclear detonation is the key to reducing casualties from a low-yield surface burst, and a correct response requires an understanding of the rapidly changing dose rate from fallout. This report provides an empirical formula for dose rate as a function of time and location that can guide the response to an unexpected nuclear detonation. At least one post-detonation radiation measurement is required if the yield and other characteristics of the detonation are unknown.

  17. Proposed framework for cleanup and site restoration following a terrorist incident involving radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Conklin, W Craig

    2005-11-01

    Cleanup following a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or improvised nuclear device (IND) is likely to be technically challenging, costly, and politically charged. Lessons learned from the Top Officials 2 exercise and the increased threat of terrorist use of an RDD or IND have driven federal officials to push for an agreed-upon process for determining appropriate cleanup levels. State and local authorities generally have the ultimate responsibility for final public health decisions in their jurisdictions. In response to terrorist attacks, local authorities are likely to request federal assistance in assessing the risk and establishing appropriate cleanup levels. It is realistic to expect local and state requests for significant federal assistance in planning and implementing recovery operations. State and local authorities may desire "shared accountability" with the federal government in setting the appropriate cleanup levels. Government officials at all levels will face pressure to say how clean is clean enough and how quickly people can re-enter affected areas. Issues arising include (1) the nature of the relationship between the federal, state, and local leadership involved in the recovery efforts and (2) where the funding for recovery comes from. Many agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have long been involved in cleanup activities involving radioactive materials. These agencies have recognized the need for a participatory process and realize the need to remain flexible when faced with possible unprecedented environmental challenges following a terrorist attack. Currently, the Department of Homeland Security has a committee process underway, with participation of the EPA, NRC, DOE, and other federal agencies, to try to resolve these issues and to begin engaging state, local, and tribal governments, and others as

  18. PREFACE: 11th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics: Shell Model and Nuclear Structure - achievements of the past two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The 11th International Seminar on Nuclear Physics was held in Ischia from May 12 to May 16, 2014. This Seminar was dedicated to Aldo Covello, who has been the promoter of this series of meetings, which started in Sorrento in 1986 and continued with meetings held every two or three years in the Naples area. Aldo's idea was to offer to a group of researchers, actively working in selected fields of Nuclear Physics, the opportunity to confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. The choice for the period of the year, Spring, as well as the sites chosen reflected this intent. The first meeting was of a purely theoretical nature, but it was immediately clear that the scope of these conferences needed to be enlarged calling into play the experimental community. Then, starting from the second meeting, all the following ones have been characterized by fruitful discussion between theoretical and experimental researchers on current achievements and future developments of nuclear structure. This may be read, in fact, as one of the motivating factors for Aldo's election as Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2008 "... for his outstanding contributions to the international nuclear physics community by providing, for over two decades, a venue for theorists and experimentalists to share their latest ideas." The present meeting, organized by Aldo's former students and with the benefit of his suggestions, has maintained this tradition. The title "Shell model and nuclear structure: achievements of the past two decades" recalls that of the 2nd International Spring Seminar "Shell Model and Nuclear Structure: where do we stand?". The main aim of this 11th Seminar was, in fact, to discuss the changes of the past two decades on our view of nuclei in terms of shell structure as well as the perspectives of the shell model, which has been one of the key points in Aldo's research. This point is well accounted by the Opening Speech of Igal Talmi, one of the fathers of the

  19. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  20. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  1. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    PubMed

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article.

  2. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specially designated global terrorist... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term...

  3. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specially designated global terrorist... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term...

  4. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specially designated global terrorist... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term...

  5. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specially designated global terrorist... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term...

  6. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Results Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. Conclusion The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources. PMID:17274813

  7. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  8. STI. DE-FG02-00ER1505 [Brief summary of 11th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-24

    The 11th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was held in Madison, Wisconsin, June 24 through June 28, 2000. Arabidopsis thaliana has been the subject of genetic study for many years. However, during the last decade, the number of research laboratories using Arabidopsis as a model system has increased tremendously, and Arabidopsis is currently being used to study all aspects of plant biology. The rapid rate of progress in Arabidopsis research, including the completion of the genomic sequence, underscores the usefulness of holding a meeting every year. These conferences provide an important opportunity for the Arabidopsis community to interact and exchange information. The meeting opened with an evening keynote address on the global impact of plant biology, delivered by Richard Jefferson, the Executive Director of CAMBIA (Center for the Application of Molecular Biology to International Agriculture). This was followed by short updates from each of the NSF-funded Plant Genome groups. Many of these groups are carrying out projects that impact the Arabidopsis community. Each of the 17 platform sessions consisted of talks from two invited speakers followed by two short talks that were chosen from the submitted poster abstracts. A concerted effort was made to invite junior investigators, including graduate students and postdocs, to give these talks. Posters were available for viewing during three formal sessions, and, because the poster session was adjacent to the lecture hall, it was easy for participants to go back and forth between posters and lectures. Finally, a mixer and an informal banquet provided opportunities for participants to meet new people and renew acquaintances. Furthermore, the registration package included all lunches and dinners together in a cafeteria next to the posters and lecture hall, thus encouraging the meeting of established investigators with students and postdocs. The North American Arabidopsis Steering Committee (elected by

  9. Moments of Goodness: An Analysis of Ethical and Educational Dimensions of the Terror Attack on Utøya, Norway (July 22, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Aslaug

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is based on some moral experiences taking place during a terrorist attack on the Norwegian Labor Party's youth camp on the island of Utøya (outside of Oslo) July 22, 2011, where 69 young people were killed and several seriously injured. After the attack many of the survivors told stories of how strangers spontaneous had helped and…

  10. The Commons of the Tragedy: How the Internet Was Used by Millions after the Terror Attacks To Grieve, Console, Share News, and Debate the Country's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainie, Lee; Kalsnes, Bente

    This report presents the results of phone surveys that examined Internet use following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Findings include: (1) in the first days after the attacks, the number of people using the Internet fell; (2) overall usage was down, but the people using the Internet were surfing aggressively; (3) there was a rise in…

  11. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  12. Management of victims of urban chemical attack: the French approach.

    PubMed

    Laurent, J F; Richter, F; Michel, A

    1999-10-01

    Since the early 1980s several disasters involving mass release of toxic substances have focused the attention of different administrations and the fire services into producing protocols and guidelines for action in civilian situations. The bomb attack in the Tokyo subway, in March 1995, made it clear that a terrorist attack using highly toxic agents is now feasible. Management of disasters in the civil sector in France is based upon two interlinked plans: the Red Plan, which covers on-site organisation, and the White Plan, which concerns the interface with hospital services. Special procedures have been developed to adapt the Red and White Plans for use in the event of toxic attack and concern the deployment of emergency responding personnel, the provision of life support and antidotes in the contaminated zone, the prevention of secondary contamination and the transport and reception of victims at the hospital. Based on the established principle of pre-hospital resuscitation and well-tried assistance plans, this doctrine allows a safe and effective response to terrorist attacks as well as to other toxic release incidents. PMID:10617333

  13. Two Models for Semi-Supervised Terrorist Group Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgul, Fatih; Erdem, Zeki; Bowerman, Chris

    Since discovery of organization structure of offender groups leads the investigation to terrorist cells or organized crime groups, detecting covert networks from crime data are important to crime investigation. Two models, GDM and OGDM, which are based on another representation model - OGRM are developed and tested on nine terrorist groups. GDM, which is basically depending on police arrest data and “caught together” information and OGDM, which uses a feature matching on year-wise offender components from arrest and demographics data, performed well on terrorist groups, but OGDM produced high precision with low recall values. OGDM uses a terror crime modus operandi ontology which enabled matching of similar crimes.

  14. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    PubMed

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. PMID:24757013

  15. Implications of the World Trade Center Attack for the Public Health and Health Care Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Susan; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center had profound effects on the well-being of New York City. The authors describe and assess the strengths and weaknesses of the city’s response to the public health, environmental/ occupational health, and mental health dimensions of the attack in the first 6 months after the event. They also examine the impact on the city’s health care and social service system. The authors suggest lessons that can inform the development of a post–September 11th agenda for strengthening urban health infrastructures. PMID:12604481

  16. About Heart Attacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ...

  17. Development of SRM 2907 trace terrorist explosives simulants for the detection of Semtex and triacetone triperoxide.

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William; Moore, Stephanie; Hancock, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Effective and accurate detection of trace explosives is crucial in the effort to thwart terrorist explosives attacks. A National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) has been developed for the evaluation of trace explosives detectors that sample by collection of residue particles using swiping or air filtration. SRM 2907 Trace Terrorist Explosives Simulants consists of two materials individually simulating the residues of the plastic explosive Semtex [for pentaerytritol tetranitrate (PETN)] and the improvised explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Unique challenges were encountered in the development of these materials, including the selection of suitable inert substrates, material preparation, thermal stability testing, and analytical method development. Two independent analytical methods based on liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance and mass spectrometric detection, LC-UV and LC/MS, respectively, were developed and used to certify the mass fractions of PETN and TATP. These materials were further evaluated for their suitability on a field swipe-sampled trace explosives detectors based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). PMID:22004378

  18. Theoretical perspectives of terrorist enemies as networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Spulak, Robert George, Jr.; Glicken, Jessica

    2005-08-01

    This perspective of terrorist enemies as networks by two distinguished associate fellows of the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) follows as a result of its recent initiative to support USSOCOM strategic planning for the Global War on Terrorism. The paper is a manifestation of JSOU's goals for contributing products that will advance SOF strategic art and generating strategic outreach to the military, civilian, and academic communities to enrich those products. Dr. Robert Spulak and Dr. Jessica Glicken Turnley presented the findings of this paper to assembled strategic planners from USSOCOM, other combatant commands, and interagency players at the Center for Special Operations plan development conference, September 2005, in Tampa, Florida. At that meeting, the authors put forward a number of helpful planning concepts based on their professional studies in science and the humanities and their experiences in government and business. The JSOU Strategic Studies Department is pleased to facilitate the association of USSOCOM strategic planners with civilian expertise and insights that can broaden military thought and encourage planning decisions directly relevant to the changing global environment. Through JSOU's strategic outreach initiative, experts in many professional disciplines have signaled their willingness to support the Nation's counterterrorism efforts. In that spirit, JSOU is proud to commend this paper to SOF readers and appreciates the support of Dr. Spulak and Dr. Turnley.

  19. The current state of affairs for disaster planning for a nuclear terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents current thinking on the effects of an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view and will argue that current US Federal plans for a nuclear disaster are simply crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and principally relies on martial law as a means of crowd control. The simple physics of a fusion reaction bomb is discussed along with the plans of other countries, apparently "secret"American plans, which show a poor knowledge of the physics of nuclear bombs as well as poor insight into what will be needed to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative plan involving computer modeling and educating the public to the effects of a fission explosion are presented. The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, as the Federal government has dumped medical problems on "the local level." PMID:19378670

  20. Volunteerism and Well-Being in the Context of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Using a community sample of New York City residents (N=1681) interviewed 1 and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we estimated several logistic regression equations to assess predictors of volunteerism and the relationship between volunteerism and later well-being. Multivariate results show that those with more education, higher exposure to WTCD events, many life-time traumatic events, and pre-WTCD mental health problems were more likely to report volunteerism post-WTCD. African Americans and Latinos were less likely to volunteer, compared to Whites. Respondents scoring high on the Srole Anomie scale and reporting physical disabilities were also less likely to report volunteering in the aftermath of the WTCD. Multivariate results with volunteerism as an independent variable suggest that people who engaged in this activity were less likely to have poor well-being as measured by the SF-12 physical and mental health scales. We discuss these results as they relate to identity theory, the stress process model, and resilience and how community disaster researchers need to pay closer attention to how people interpret and give meaning to traumatic events. PMID:25774097

  1. Mass casualty incident after the Taba terrorist attack: an organisational and medical challenge.

    PubMed

    Karp, Erez; Sebbag, Gilbert; Peiser, Jochanan; Dukhno, Oleg; Ovnat, Amnon; Levy, Isaac; Hyam, Eytan; Blumenfeld, Amir; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Shaked, Gad

    2007-03-01

    Two suicide bombings in and around Taba, Egypt, on 7 October 2004 created a complex medical and organisational situation. Since most victims were Israeli tourists, the National Emergency and Disaster Management Division handled their evacuation and treatment. This paper describes the event chronologically, as well as the organisational and management challenges confronted and applied solutions. Forty-nine emergency personnel and physicians were flown early to the disaster area to reinforce scarce local medical resources. Two hundred casualties were recorded: 32 dead and 168 injured. Eilat hospital was transformed into a triage facility. Thirty-two seriously injured patients were flown to two remote trauma centres in central Israel. Management of mass casualty incidents is difficult when local resources are inadequate. An effective response should include: rapid transportation of experienced trauma teams to the disaster zone; conversion of local medical amenities into a triage centre; and rapid evacuation of the seriously injured to higher level medical facilities.

  2. Coping Styles as Moderating the Relationships between Terrorist Attacks and Well-Being Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verleye, Gino; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore use of coping strategies among adolescents and their relationships with well being in the context of ongoing terrorism. Furthermore, we aim to explore to what extent coping styles in addition to exposure variables explain well being of adolescents facing ongoing terror. During September 2003, after three years of ongoing…

  3. [The effects of terrorist attacks on European Holocaust survivors compared to Greek Holocaust survivors].

    PubMed

    Zloof, Dov; Even-Zohar, Shmuel; Posman, Renato

    2004-04-01

    This research aims to examine whether there are differences in the level of anxiety, the perception of danger, the reliance on security forces and signs of psychological distress during times of war between two groups of Holocaust survivors: Jews of Greece and Jews of Eastern and Western Europe, while assessing their psychological ability to cope with the wave of terrorism against the Israeli population. The Jews of Greece have been portrayed as being different, both by the Nazis and by Jews from other countries, as well as by the Greeks themselves. Their strength of spirit, encouraging them to rebel and resist, as well as their physical strength, were renowned in the concentration camps. Each of these traits has been supported by specific documentation in history books dealing with the Jews of Greece during the Holocaust. Fifty-eight years after the Holocaust and before it disappears from historical record, we scientifically examined the psychological or mental capacity of these people to withstand the wave of terrorism. The study included 33 European Jewish Holocaust survivors and 38 Greek Jewish Holocaust survivors. The subjects completed four questionnaires. The main results are: 1. The average level of anxiety among Greek Holocaust survivors is clearly lower than that of other Holocaust survivors--an average of 10.00 compared to 16.48 (t = 4.83, p < 0.001). 2. The average level of psychological distress during times of war among Greek Holocaust survivors is 2.10 compared to 2.65 among other Holocaust survivors (t = 4.24, p < 0.001). 3. The average level of trust in the security forces among Greek Holocaust survivors is 3.67 compared to 2.70 among the other Holocaust survivors (t = 4.354, p < 0.001). 4. The average level of perception of danger among Greek Holocaust survivors is 2.75 compared to 3.39 among other Holocaust survivors (t = 2.60, p < 0.01). 5. The readiness to emigrate from Israel is 1.02 among Greek Holocaust survivors compared to 2.09 among other Holocaust survivors (t = 4.06, p < 0.001). The findings of the research support the theory that the Greek Holocaust survivors statistically demonstrate clear and more substantial psychological or mental immunity as compared to European Holocaust survivors. The differences between Greek Holocaust survivors and other Holocaust survivors increase when applied to a subgroup of former concentration camp prisoners. In conclusion, Holocaust survivors do not constitute a homogeneous group which responds uniformly to traumatic events. They are not to be regarded as one unit, since they bear different social and cultural burdens, as well as the universal values which they absorbed in their countries of origin.

  4. INACTIVATION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER IN RESPONSE TO A TERRORIST ATTACK

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the event of an intentional biological contamination of a drinking water treatment and distribution system, information on the removal and/or inactivation of known biological agents by drinking water treatment processes is needed. This project was initiated to determine what i...

  5. The relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and narrative structure among adolescent terrorist-attack survivors

    PubMed Central

    Filkuková, Petra; Jensen, Tine K.; Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie; Minde, Hanne Torvund; Dyb, Grete

    2016-01-01

    Background The structure of trauma narratives is considered to be related to posttraumatic stress symptomatology and thus the capacity to make a coherent narrative after stressful events is crucial for mental health. Objective The aim of this study is to understand more of the relationship between narrative structure and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). More specifically, we investigated whether internal and external focus, organization, fragmentation, and length differed between two groups of adolescent survivors of a mass shooting, one group with low levels of PTSS and one group with high levels of PTSS. Method The sample comprised 30 adolescents who survived the shooting at Utøya Island in Norway in 2011. They were interviewed 4–5 months after the shooting and provided a free narrative of the event. PTSS were assessed using the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (PTSD-RI). Results We found that survivors with high levels of PTSS described more external events and fewer internal events in their narratives compared with survivors with low levels of symptoms. The analysis also showed that especially narratives containing more descriptions of dialogue and fewer organized thoughts were related to higher levels of PTSS. The groups did not differ in levels of narrative fragmentation or in length of the narratives. Conclusion Specific attributes of narrative structure proved to be related to the level of PTSS. On the basis of our results, we can recommend that practitioners focus especially on two elements of the trauma narratives, namely, the amount of external events, particularly dialogues, within the narrative and the number of organized thoughts. Participants with high levels of PTSS provided trauma narratives with low amount of organized (explanatory) thoughts accompanied by detailed descriptions of dialogues and actions, which is indicative for “here and now” quality of recall and a lack of trauma processing. PMID:26988972

  6. Ibn Jazlah and his 11th century accounts (Taqwim al-abdan fi tadbir al-insan) of disease of the brain and spinal cord. Historical vignette.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Ardalan, Mohammad; Oakes, W Jerry

    2008-09-01

    The 11th century was culturally and medicinally one of the most exciting periods in the history of Islam. Medicine of this day was influenced by the Greeks, Indians, Persians, Coptics, and Syriacs. One of the most prolific writers of this period was Ibn Jazlah, who resided in Baghdad in the district of Karkh. Ibn Jazlah made many important observations regarding diseases of the brain and spinal cord. These contributions and a review of the life and times of this early Muslim physician are presented. PMID:18928231

  7. SURFACE RUPTURE OF THE NORMAL SEISMIC FAULTS AND SLOPE FAILURES APPEARED IN APRIL 11th, 2011 FUKUSHIMA-PREFECTURE HAMADOORI EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmi, Zaheer Abbas; Konagai, Kazuo; Kyokawa, Hiroyuki; Tetik, Cigdem

    On April 11th, 2011, Iwaki region of Fukushima prefecture was jolted by Fukushima-Prefecture Hamadoori Earthquake. Surface ruptures were observed along causative Idosawa and Yunotake normal faults. In addition to numerous small slope failures, a coherent landslide and building structures of Tabito Junior High School, bisected by Idosawa Fault, were found along the causative faults. A precise digital elevation model of the coherent landslide was obtained through the ground and air-born LiDAR surveys. The measurements of perimeters of the gymnasium building and the swimming pool of Tabito Junior High School have shown that ground undergoes a slow and steady/continual deformation.

  8. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Borkin, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  9. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  10. Cyber Terrorism: A Study of the Extent of Coverage in Computer Security Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Janet J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    On September 11th, 2001 the United States experienced the largest terrorist attack in its history. This event caused many government agencies to review their security practices and procedures. It also has raised awareness of other avenues that terrorists might pursue to achieve their goals, including cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can be…

  11. Wild boar attacks.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Turedi, Suleyman; Nuhoglu, Irfan; Kalkan, Asim; Turkmen, Suha

    2007-01-01

    Attacks on humans by wild boar (Sus scrofa) are occasionally reported in rural areas of Turkey. While fatalities are rare, individuals may sustain significant soft tissue trauma. Lower extremity lacerations of up to 10 cm in length and 4 cm deep were seen in the 3 cases reviewed. Injuries to the upper abdomen and chest occurred in one case. Attacks frequently occur in forested areas covered by dense brushwood, and their incidence is increased during the rutting season. In contrast to other large, feral animal attacks, injuries sustained from wild boar typically are limited to the lower extremities. This case series examines 3 attacks by wild boar in rural Turkey.

  12. Growing up in the Shadow of Terrorism: Youth in America after 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attacks (9/11) suggests that, except for those who directly witnessed or suffered loss from the attacks, for most children the emotional impact was relatively transitory. We review this literature as well as consider other ways in which the attacks may have played a role in the…

  13. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Ekasawin, Suparat; Chakrabhand, Somchai; Suwanmitri, Soawaluk; Duangchun, Orawan; Chantaluckwong, Thananet

    2011-10-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accommodate the realistic threats facing patients. There were independent assessments conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months following treatment. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief). CBT resulted in significantly greater reduction in symptoms, including PTSD, depression, and complicated grief, at follow-up than TAU. Relative to TAU, CBT had stronger effect sizes at follow-up for PTSD, depression, and complicated grief. More patients in the CBT condition (75%) achieved high end-state functioning than participants in the TAU (33%). This preliminary evidence suggests that PTSD, depression, and complicated grief can be effectively treated despite ongoing threats of terrorism. Further, it demonstrates that non-specialist mental health workers in a non-western setting can be efficiently trained in using CBT, and this training can translate into successful treatment gains in trauma-affected individuals.

  14. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePlus

    Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only ... TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). TIA symptoms occur rapidly and last a ...

  15. Explosive attack: Lessons learned in Seyed Al Shohada mosque attack, April 2008, Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Shahram; Sharifian, Maryam; Parvaz, Shahram Boland; Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Moradian, Mohamad javad; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Nikghbalian, Saman; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Salehi, Oveis; Dehghani, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The threat of explosive attacks has become a worldwide problem. Bombing is the preferred method of attacks. These attacks result in specific physical and psychiatric trauma. In this paper, we present an epidemiologic description of the physical injuries of patients who survived the explosive attack in Seyed Al Shohada mosque April 2008 Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: All medical records of the patients admitted at Shiraz Hospitals on April 2008 due to Seyed Al Shohada mosque bombing attacks, Shiraz, Iran, were reviewed. Results: A total of 202 patients were referred to the hospitals over 24 h following the terrorist attack. One hundred sixty-four patients were admitted for short periods of observation (<24 h). Thirty-eight patients needed more than 1 day of hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 (range 2 to 51) years. One hundred thirty-five (66.8%) patients were males. Twenty-six (12.8%) were children. Burn was the most prevalent cause of admission. Five (13.5%) patients needed chest tube insertion and eight (21%) needed skin grafts due to burn. Overall, 12 patients expired (5%). Three (25%) of them were children (2 and 6, and 11 years old). Mortality rate was significantly higher among the children than adults (P value <0.05). The most important cause of death was head trauma which was seen in five (41.6%) of the expired patients followed by burn (including air way burn) in four (33%), and internal bleeding in three (25%). Patients with head trauma had significantly a higher rate of mortality than other patients (P value <0.05). Discussion: Following a bombing attack, numerous victims were brought to the emergency unit suffering from a combination of multi-organ injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries caused by shrapnel and other debris, and burns. It is important for a physician to be familiar with the clinical features and treatments of explosive attacks victims. Early management of patients at the scene and

  16. [Hygienic assessment of lifestyle and health status in 10th-11th-form pupils directed to have a higher medical education].

    PubMed

    Timoshenko, K T

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-seven pupils from the 10th-to-11th classes formed on a competitive basis for intensive education, for forming motivation for future medical profession were examined using a set of psychophysiological tests that could evaluate the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, psychophysiological adaptation, task performance, and personality traits. The vast majority of the examinees were found to follow the hygienic recommendation of the day regimen, which corresponded to the principles of healthy lifestyle. In 99% of the pupils, mental capacity was rated as fair (66%) and high (33%), as evidenced by psychophysiological testing. Fifty-six per cent of the examinees were observed to have mental adaptive disorders that might reflect age-related psychological immaturity in them at the completing stage of schooling.

  17. [Hygienic assessment of lifestyle and health status in 10th-11th-form pupils directed to have a higher medical education].

    PubMed

    Timoshenko, K T

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-seven pupils from the 10th-to-11th classes formed on a competitive basis for intensive education, for forming motivation for future medical profession were examined using a set of psychophysiological tests that could evaluate the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, psychophysiological adaptation, task performance, and personality traits. The vast majority of the examinees were found to follow the hygienic recommendation of the day regimen, which corresponded to the principles of healthy lifestyle. In 99% of the pupils, mental capacity was rated as fair (66%) and high (33%), as evidenced by psychophysiological testing. Fifty-six per cent of the examinees were observed to have mental adaptive disorders that might reflect age-related psychological immaturity in them at the completing stage of schooling. PMID:19097437

  18. [Review of the proceedings of the 11th Conference of the European Venous Forum (June 24-26, 2010, Antwerp, Belgium)].

    PubMed

    Sapelkin, S B; Bogachev, V Iu

    2010-01-01

    The authors reviewed herein the proceedings of the 11th Conference of the European Venous Forum held under the badge of a more and more significant effect of the positions and principles of evidence-based medicine on the life of the European Phlebological Community. This concerned both the representative reports and special subject lectures dedicated to the statistical analysis in surgery and phlebology, as well as assessment of the remote outcomes of surgical management of venous chronic diseases. Also analysed herein are the materials devoted to the modern minimally invasive techniques aimed at obliterating major veins and used in randomized studies. Presented at the Congress were initial results of employing a novel technique of thermoregulation using steam. Also analysed are the reports concerning interrelationship between phlebology as a science and mass media including the World Wide Web.

  19. Understanding Stress-Related Behavioral Phenotypes: Report from the 1st International Neuroscience Summer School and the 11th International “Stress and Behavior” Conference

    PubMed Central

    LaPorte, J. L.; Klimenko, V. M.; Kalueff, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    The 1st International Neuroscience Summer School and the 11th International Multidisciplinary Neuroscience and Biopsychiatry Conference on Stress and Behavior were held in St. Petersburg, Russia, during May 9–20, 2008. The summer school gathered 30 talented young scientists from 15 countries worldwide, and was dedicated to different topics of behavioral neuroscience. Many interactive courses were provided on neuropharmacology, animal phenotyping, and biopsychology. The conference's excellent scientific and social program attracted almost 500 delegates from 40 countries from many areas of stress research. The eclectic interaction between medical doctors, basic scientists, psychologists, and students made for a productive and collaborative environment, which contributed greatly to the success of the school and conference.

  20. Generation of the 11th order rational harmonic mode-locked pulses with an arbitrary numerator in fiber-ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. H.; Zhan, L.; Gu, Z. C.; Ye, Q. H.; Xia, Y. X.

    2004-08-01

    We report for the first time the generation of 5th, 10th and 11th order rational harmonic mode-locked pulse trains with the numerator of the detuning fraction be an arbitrary integer instead of unity used to date in conventional rational harmonic mode-locked fiber-ring lasers. Results show that the amplitude envelopes of these pulse trains are strongly modulated by some lower order rational harmonic mode locking with numerator equals to unity. This result makes it possible to generate dual- or multiple-pulse train when the detuning of the modulation frequency is close to the half of the cavity frequency. Choosing a proper numerator is also helpful in equalizing the amplitude distribution of the pulse train generated by high order rational harmonic mode locking.

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  2. Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is often identified as a determinant of terrorist group participation, but existing research reveals mixed support for this relationship. Some studies find that macroeconomic decline is associated with increased production of terrorists, but micro-level research suggests terrorists have above average socioeconomic status and educational…

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  4. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32...

  5. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32...

  6. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32...

  7. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32...

  8. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32...

  9. Nuclear Site Security in the Event of Terrorist Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.L.; Sims, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented as a poster, identifies why ballistic protection should now be considered at nuclear sites to counter terrorist threats. A proven and flexible form of multi purpose protection is described in detail with identification of trial results that show its suitability for this role. (authors)

  10. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  11. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  12. A fatal leopard attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr

    2010-05-01

    A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

  13. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  14. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  15. Does war hurt? Effects of media exposure after missile attacks on chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress.

  16. The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: a social psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the social-psychological factors often implicated in discussions of terrorist violence/martyrdom, with a particular focus on the role of religion. We offer a brief description of the psychological theories underpinning terrorist research before focusing on social-psychological factors. The roles of psychopathology, irrationality and grievance/threat are examined, followed by empirical research on the beliefs which have been associated with the perpetration and support of terrorist violence, and the social factors which foster those beliefs, including social identity, socially carried interpretations, group leadership and individual differences. Although religion is not a single, simple causal factor in terrorist violence, religious elements often feature strongly in the belief systems associated with terrorist violence, and can also feature in other important fostering factors for terrorist violence, such as the use of rhetoric. Finally, the status of lay explanations of terrorist violence, focusing on the role of religious fundamentalism is examined.

  17. The Tokyo subway sarin attack--lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Okumura, T; Hisaoka, T; Yamada, A; Naito, T; Isonuma, H; Okumura, S; Miura, K; Sakurada, M; Maekawa, H; Ishimatsu, S; Takasu, N; Suzuki, K

    2005-09-01

    The sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system is reviewed from a clinical toxicology perspective. Based on the lessons learned from this attack, the following areas should be addressed on a global scale. First, an adequate supply of protective equipment is required, including level B protective equipment with a pressure demand breathing apparatus. In addition, a system should be established that enables a possible cause to be determined based on symptoms, physical findings, general laboratory tests, and a simple qualitative analysis for poisonous substances. If an antidote is needed, the system should enable it to be administered to the victims as quickly as possible. Preparation for a large-scale chemical attack by terrorists requires the prior establishment of a detailed decontamination plan that utilizes not only mass decontamination facilities but also public facilities in the area. A system should be established for summarizing, evaluating, and disseminating information on poisonous substances. Finally, a large-scale scientific investigation of the Tokyo sarin attack should be conducted to examine its long-term and subclinical effects and the effects of exposure to asymptomatic low levels of sarin.

  18. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  19. Did Osler suffer from "paranoia antitherapeuticum baltimorensis"? A comparative content analysis of The Principles and Practice of Medicine and Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 11th edition.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D B

    1999-10-01

    One of the most important legacies of Sir William Osler was his textbook The Principles and Practice of Medicine. A common criticism of the book when it was first published was its deficiency in the area of therapeutics. In this article, the 1st edition of The Principles and Practice of Medicine is compared with the 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. The analysis focuses on the treatment recommendations for 4 conditions that were covered in both books (diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, pneumonia and typhoid fever). Osler's textbook dealt with typhoid fever and pneumonia at greater length, whereas Harrison's placed more emphasis on diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. Notwithstanding Osler's reputation as a therapeutic nihilist, the 2 books devoted equivalent space to treatment (in terms of proportion of total sentences for the conditions). For all conditions except ischemic heart disease, Osler concentrated on general measures and symptomatic care. Throughout Osler's textbook numerous negative comments are made about the medicinal treatment of various conditions. A more accurate statement about Osler's therapeutic approach was that he was a "medicinal nihilist." His demand for proof of efficacy before use of a medication remains relevant.

  20. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  1. Enhanced syndromic surveillance for mass gatherings in the Pacific: a case study of the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts in Solomon Islands, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Damian; Saketa, Salanieta T; Maraka, Roy Roger; Sio, Alison; Wanyeki, Ian; Frison, Pascal; Ogaoga, Divi; Iniakawala, Dennie; Joshua, Cynthia; Duituturaga, Sala; Lepers, Christelle; Roth, Adam; White, Paul; Souares, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings pose public health challenges to host countries, as they can cause or exacerbate disease outbreaks within the host location or elsewhere. In July 2012, the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts (FOPA), a mass gathering event involving 22 Pacific island states and territories, was hosted by Solomon Islands. An enhanced syndromic surveillance (ESS) system was implemented for the event. Throughout the capital city, Honiara, 15 sentinel sites were established and successfully took part in the ESS system, which commenced one week before the FOPA (25 June) and concluded eight days after the event (22 July). The ESS involved expanding on the existing syndromic surveillance parameters: from one to 15 sentinel sites, from four to eight syndromes, from aggregated to case-based reporting and from weekly to daily reporting. A web-based system was developed to enable data entry, data storage and data analysis. Towards the end of the ESS period, a focus group discussion and series of key informant interviews were conducted. The ESS was considered a success and played an important role in the early detection of possible outbreaks. For the period of the ESS, 1668 patients with syndrome presentations were received across the 15 sentinel sites. There were no major events of public health significance. Several lessons were learnt that are relevant to ESS in mass gathering scenarios, including the importance of having adequate lead in time for engagement and preparation to ensure appropriate policy and institutional frameworks are put in place. PMID:27766181

  2. Hepatic encephalopathy--definition, nomenclature, diagnosis, and quantification: final report of the working party at the 11th World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Vienna, 1998.

    PubMed

    Ferenci, Peter; Lockwood, Alan; Mullen, Kevin; Tarter, Ralph; Weissenborn, Karin; Blei, Andres T

    2002-03-01

    Research on hepatic encephalopathy is hampered by the imprecise definition of this disabling complication of liver disease. Under this light, the Organisation Mondiale de Gastroentérologie commissioned a Working Party to reach a consensus in this area and to present it at the 11th World Congress of Gastroenterology in Vienna (1998). The Working Party continued its work thereafter and now present their final report. In summary, the Working Party has suggested a modification of current nomenclature for clinical diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy; proposed guidelines for the performance of future clinical trials in hepatic encephalopathy; and felt the need for a large study to redefine neuropsychiatric abnormalities in liver disease, which would allow the diagnosis of minimal (subclinical) encephalopathy to be made on firm statistical grounds. In the interim, it proposes the use of a psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score, based on the result of 5 neuropsychologic tests. Finally, the need for a careful evaluation of the newer neuroimaging modalities for the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy was stressed.

  3. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  4. Enhanced capture of healthcare-related harms and injuries in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).

    PubMed

    Southern, Danielle A; Pincus, Harold A; Romano, Patrick S; Burnand, Bernard; Harrison, James; Forster, Alan J; Moskal, Lori; Quan, Hude; Droesler, Saskia E; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Colin, Cyrille; Gurevich, Yana; Brien, Susan E; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Üstün, Bedirhan; Ghali, William A

    2016-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) plans to submit the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to the World Health Assembly in 2018. The WHO is working toward a revised classification system that has an enhanced ability to capture health concepts in a manner that reflects current scientific evidence and that is compatible with contemporary information systems. In this paper, we present recommendations made to the WHO by the ICD revision's Quality and Safety Topic Advisory Group (Q&S TAG) for a new conceptual approach to capturing healthcare-related harms and injuries in ICD-coded data. The Q&S TAG has grouped causes of healthcare-related harm and injuries into four categories that relate to the source of the event: (a) medications and substances, (b) procedures, (c) devices and (d) other aspects of care. Under the proposed multiple coding approach, one of these sources of harm must be coded as part of a cluster of three codes to depict, respectively, a healthcare activity as a 'source' of harm, a 'mode or mechanism' of harm and a consequence of the event summarized by these codes (i.e. injury or harm). Use of this framework depends on the implementation of a new and potentially powerful code-clustering mechanism in ICD-11. This new framework for coding healthcare-related harm has great potential to improve the clinical detail of adverse event descriptions, and the overall quality of coded health data.

  5. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  6. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  7. Shark attack in Natal.

    PubMed

    White, J A

    1975-02-01

    The injuries in 5 cases of shark attack in Natal during 1973-74 are reviewed. Experience in shark attacks in South Africa during this period is discussed (1965-73), and the value of protecting heavily utilized beaches in Natal with nets is assessed. The surgical applications of elasmobranch research at the Oceanographic Research Institute (Durban) and at the Headquarters of the Natal Anti-Shark Measures Board (Umhlanga Rocks) are described. Modern trends in the training of surf life-guards, the provision of basic equipment for primary resuscitation of casualties on the beaches, and the policy of general and local care of these patients in Natal are discussed.

  8. Punishing the mad bomber: questions of moral responsibility in the trials of French anarchist terrorists, 1886-1897.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    In late nineteenth-century France, several criminologists maintained that the perpetrators of the contemporary wave of anarchist terrorism were victims of mental disorders who deserved judicial leniency. French courts did not accept this theory, but instead declared the principal terrorists sane and fully responsible for their crimes and, based on this view, handed down severe sentences. Many criminologists accused the jurists of deliberately ignoring the mental illness of the anarchists because of government and public pressures to impose the death penalty, but evidence from the anarchist trials fails to support this charge. The controversy highlights the conflicts between the judicial establishment and the emerging discipline of criminology, whose pathological explanations of anarchist terrorism reflected a positivist attack on the traditional concepts of free will and moral responsibility, concepts the jurists viewed as fundamental to the legal system.

  9. Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (11th, Portland, Oregon, May 6-8, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Lynwood J., Ed.; Tullis, Kathryn, Ed.; Hanson, Andrea, Ed.; Sowders, Stacey, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The 11th Annual Building on Family Strengths Conference was held from May 6th through May 8th, 2004, in Portland, Oregon. Highlights included: (1) The revival of a pre-conference training session; this year featured "Understanding Research and Evaluation in Relation to Social Change," presented by Elaine Slaton and Shannon CrossBear of the…

  10. 9/11 to the Iraq War: Using Books to Help Children Understand Troubled Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycik, Mary Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Four years after the 9/11 attack on the United States, the country continues to be in considerable turmoil. Children have lived through the devastation of the September 11th attacks, the panic over the anthrax mailings, the hunt for terrorists in Afghanistan, elevated homeland security threat levels, the war in Iraq, the tsunami disaster, and…

  11. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out.

  12. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  13. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23-27 July 2007).

    PubMed

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-21

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged. PMID:21694229

  14. Preface: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23 27 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23-27 July 2007).

    PubMed

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-21

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  17. Disrupting Terrorist Networks — A Dynamic Fitness Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip V.; Clemens, Jonathan P.; Wright, Roxana; Post, Jonathan Vos; Dadmun, Matthew

    The study of terrorist networks as well as the study of how to impede their successful functioning has been the topic of considerable attention since the odious event of the 2001 World Trade Center disaster. While serious students of terrorism were indeed engaged in the subject prior to this time, a far more general concern has arisen subsequently. Nonetheless, much of the subject remains shrouded in obscurity, not the least because of difficulties with language and the representation or translation of names, and the inherent complexity and ambiguity of the subject matter.

  18. What lessons can we learn from the Japanese sarin attacks?

    PubMed

    Vale, Allister

    2005-01-01

    On 27 June 1994 a Japanese terrorist group, Aum Shinrikyo, released sarin in Matsumoto. Some 600 people were exposed: 58 were admitted to six hospitals and all recovered: seven casualties living close to the sarin release died outside hospital. This release followed an earlier attempt by Aum Shinrikyo to use sarin to kill the head of a religious sect perceived as a threat. In December 1994, a former supporter of the group was murdered by Aum Shinrikyo using VX. On 20 March 1995, Aum Shinrikyo launched a coordinated attack using sarin on the Tokyo subway system. Over 5000 "casualties" sought medical attention of whom 984 were moderately poisoned and 54 were severely poisoned; 12 died. Despite some initial difficulties, Japanese emergency units and local hospitals were able to respond reasonably rapidly. Analysis of the events reveals a number of important lessons for authorities as well as physicians to consider when preparing for such incidents.

  19. The September 11 attack: A percolation of individual passive support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, S.

    2002-04-01

    A model to terrorism is presented using the theory of percolation. Terrorism power is related to the spontaneous formation of random backbones of people who are sympathetic to terrorism but without being directly involved in it. They just don't oppose in case they could. In the past such friendly-to-terrorism backbones have been always existing but were of finite size and localized to a given geographical area. The September 11 terrorist attack on the US has revealed for the first time the existence of a world wide spread extension. It is argued to have result from a sudden world percolation of otherwise unconnected and dormant world spread backbones of passive supporters. The associated strategic question is then to determine if collecting ground information could have predict and thus avoid such a transition. Our results show the answer is no, voiding the major criticism against intelligence services. To conclude the impact of military action is discussed.

  20. The 11th Century Collapse of Aqaba on the North Coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Fault System, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Tina; Allison, Alivia; Rucker, John

    2010-05-01

    The city of Aqaba is situated at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba along the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform Fault. Based both on the historical accounts and archaeological excavations, it is clear that earthquakes have played a significant role in the history of the region. The early Islamic city of Ayla was probably founded around 650 A.D., suffered some damage as a result of the 748 A.D. earthquake, and saw extensive reconstruction around the beginning of the Abbasid period (Whitcomb, 1994). Among other evidence of earthquake destruction at the Islamic city of Ayla is the leaning city Sea wall. Stratified pottery collections from our February 2009 excavation of the buttress of the city wall of Ayla strongly suggest a date for revetment construction in the early 11th Century. Based on the fact that the most recent pottery from sealed loci inside the buttress wall is late Abbasid - Fatimid and the absence of handmade pottery often found in the abandonment phases, the buttress was likely constructed after liquefaction damage from the 1033 earthquake. Damage from distant source earthquakes (748 and 1033) in the ancient city was repaired in antiquity. The destruction and loss of life (accounts claim that all but 12 residents who had been out fishing were killed) caused by the 1068 earthquake may account for the relative ease with which Baldwin I of Jerusalem took over when he arrived with a small retinue in 1116 A.D. Paleoseismic trenches in the modern city of Aqaba indicate that at least two earthquakes have occurred after deposits dated to 1045-1278 A.D. A preliminary analysis of the stratigraphy in new trenches in the Taba sabkha north of Aqaba shows at least three separate faulting events, with the most recent event located at a depth of 70 cm below the ground surface. This finding supports the initial ground penetrating radar survey conducted at the southern end of the Taba sabkha by Abueladas (2005). These data document a long period of quiescence

  1. Calls about anthrax to the Texas Poison Center Network in relation to the anthrax bioterrorism attack in 2001.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B; Stanley, Sharilyn K

    2003-10-01

    Between October 4, 2001 and November 20, 2001, 22 cases of anthrax were identified in a bioterrorism attack on the US. This study examined the patterns of anthrax calls before and after the bioterrorist attack based on calls received by poison centers in Texas, a state that reported no anthrax cases as a result of the attack. During 1998-2002, 553 calls about anthrax were received. The majority of the anthrax calls occurred in 2001 (n = 489, 88.4%) and 2002 (n = 52, 9.4%). The number of calls increased greatly in the days after October 4, 2001, reaching a peak of 31 anthrax calls in 1 d and then declining sharply in succeeding months. However, by December 2002 the number of calls about anthrax still had not returned to pre-attack levels. This study demonstrated the value of poison centers in documenting public need for information on biological agents used in a terrorist attack, even if the attack did not occur in the area serviced by the poison center. Poison centers may expect to receive calls regarding a bioterrorist attack shortly after the public became aware of the attack and will continue to receive related calls for months afterward. Poison centers need to be prepared with appropriate information prior to such attacks to provide to the public upon request.

  2. Terrorist on trial: the context of political crime.

    PubMed

    Post, J M

    2000-01-01

    When political terrorists stand trial for their violent acts, the political context inevitably plays a major role. This article describes the trial of an Abu Nidal terrorist tried in federal court for skyjacking an Egyptian airliner. The defense portrayed the traumas of the Palestinian people and of the defendant at the hands of the Israelis, offering a not guilty by reason of insanity defense on the basis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Making sense to the jury of how a sane individual could carry out a violent act in which more than 50 innocent men, women, and children died was the task of the author, who served as expert for the U.S. Department of Justice. The paper describes how the subject was socialized to violence in the refugee camps, where he was inspired to be a soldier in the revolution in order to reclaim his family lands. Nationalist-separatist terrorism is particularly intractable because of the generational transmission of hatred and revenge.

  3. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    SciTech Connect

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  4. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...

  5. Exploring the Development and Dismantling of Equivalence Classes Involving Terrorist Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Zlomke, Kimberly R.; Robinson, Ashton

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes 2 studies that present a conceptual interpretation and experimental findings involving the developing and dismantling of equivalence classes consisting of terrorist stimuli. In the first study, 8 United States citizen participants were trained to match nonterrorist stimuli to American and terrorist images. Afterwards,…

  6. The Effect of Terrorist Incidents on the Occupational Attitude of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Üstün, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how many terrorist incidents affected the teachers' occupational attitude by the variables of gender, marital status, birthplace, the term of employment and occupational status with "the effect of terrorist incidents on the occupational attitude of the teacher" scale. In this study, "descriptive scanning…

  7. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...

  8. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  9. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated terrorists. 595.408 Section 595.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (a) Unless... as food, clothing or medicine, may be made to or for the benefit of a specially designated...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 13, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 17, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 19, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

  13. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designated terrorists. 595.408 Section 595.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (a) Unless... as food, clothing or medicine, may be made to or for the benefit of a specially designated...

  14. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designated terrorists. 595.408 Section 595.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (a) Unless... as food, clothing or medicine, may be made to or for the benefit of a specially designated...

  15. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...

  16. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...

  17. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...

  18. [A modified retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in patients with a highly deformed thorax: obtaining a wide operative field through subperiosteal resection of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yuji; Kanou, Takehiro; Takagi, Norito; Tokuda, Yuji; Uozumi, Jiro; Masaki, Zenjiro

    2005-07-01

    We herein report a technique which facilitates a retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in cases of highly deformed thorax due to kyphoscoliosis. The operation consists of a lumbar oblique incision with removal of the 11th rib, combined with the additional removal of the 12th and 10th ribs. Resection of the upper two ribs was performed subperiosteally, leaving the periosteum of the deep side untouched. However, the deep side periosteum of the 12th rib was incised caudal from the pleural margin in order to facilitate exposure of the diaphragm. The retroperitoneal space was entered through the tip of the 11th rib bed. The diaphragm was incised dorso-medially at a level 1 cm caudal from the lower margin of the pleura, to an extent necessary to enable the pleura together with the cranial diaphragm to be manoeuvred in an upward direction. Two cases with renal tuberculosis associated with high-grade kyphosis and one case with staghorn calculi accompanied with lordosis were operated on utilizing this technique. In the former two cases, the thoracic cage was in direct contact with the iliac bone and there was practically no space between the rib border and the iliac crest. This was also true of the third case, but the grade of deformity was not as extensive as in the former two cases. Removal of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs could be achieved without injuring the pleura and a satisfactorily large operating field could thus be developed which enabled a simple nephrectomy to be performed without difficulty. The characteristic feature of the described approach is that resection of the 10th and 11th ribs is simply to facilitate manoevrability of the wound margin, without going through the rib bed. The technique could be advantageous in selected cases where there is a highly deformed thorax. PMID:16083038

  19. US-Japan workshop on field-reversed configurations with steady-state high-temperature fusion plasmas and the 11th US-Japan workshop on compact toroids

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.C.; Fernandez, J.C.; Rej, D.J.

    1990-05-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Field-Reversed Configurations with Steady-State High-Temperature Fusion Plasma and the 11th US-Japan Workshop on Compact Toroids were held at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico on November 7--9, 1989. These proceedings contain the papers presented at the workshops as submitted by the authors. These papers have been indexed separately.

  20. French Ministry of Health's response to Paris attacks of 13 November 2015.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Jean-Marc; Brahic, Olivier; Carli, Pierre; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Vallet, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    On Friday November 13th at 9:20 pm, three kamikaze bombs went off around the Stade de France a stadium in Saint-Denis just outside Paris, 4 different shootings took place and bombings in Paris and hundreds of people were held hostage in a theater.This multi-site terrorist attack was the first of this magnitude in France. Drawing the lessons of these attacks and those which occurred in other countries from a health perspective is essential to continuously adapt and improve the French response to possible future attacks. Several issues would need to be further explored: Management of uncertainties: When to trigger the plans: after the 1st attack, the 2nd? When do attacks end and when to release mobilized resources? Management of victims: How to ensure that all victims are secured or taken care of? How to provide assistance when attacks are ongoing? Management of teams: Proper follow-up of persons involved in the response: health professionals, police and firemen, emergency call centers but also civil servants within administration that contributed to the response. Communication: Reactivity of all is a key element to secure appropriate resource is mobilized for the response. All actors have to be able to communicate quickly in a secured way. PMID:27039082

  1. Fourier and Wavelet Based Characterisation of the Ionospheric Response to the Solar Eclipse of August, the 11th, 1999, Measured Through 1-minute Vertical Ionospheric Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, P.; Abry, P.; Boska, J.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the ionospheric response induced by the solar eclipse of August, the 11th, 1999. We provide Fourier and wavelet based characterisations of the propagation of the acoustic-gravity waves induced by the solar eclipse. The analysed data consist of profiles of electron concentration. They are derived from 1-minute vertical incidence ionospheric sounding measurements, performed at the Pruhonice observatory (Czech republic, 49.9N, 14.5E). The chosen 1-minute high sampling rate aims at enabling us to specifically see modes below acoustic cut-off period. The August period was characterized by Solar Flux F10.7 = 128, steady solar wind, quiet magnetospheric conditions, a low geomagnetic activity (Dst index varies from -10 nT to -20 nT, Σ Kp index reached value of 12+). The eclipse was notably exceptional in uniform solar disk. These conditions and fact that the culmination of the solar eclipse over central Europe occurred at local noon are such that the observed ionospheric response is mainly that of the solar eclipse. We provide a full characterization of the propagation of the waves in terms of times of occurrence, group and phase velocities, propagation direction, characteristic period and lifetime of the particular wave structure. However, ionospheric vertical sounding technique enables us to deal with vertical components of each characteristic. Parameters are estimated combining Fourier and wavelet analysis. Our conclusions confirm earlier theoretical and experimental findings, reported in [Altadill et al., 2001; Farges et al., 2001; Muller-Wodarg et al.,1998] regarding the generation and propagation of gravity waves and provide complementary characterisation using wavelet approaches. We also report a new evidence for the generation and propagation of acoustic waves induced by the solar eclipse through the ionospheric F region. Up to our knowledge, this is the first time that acoustic waves can be demonstrated based on ionospheric

  2. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent

  3. 31 CFR 1025.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. 1025.520 Section 1025.520... Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1025.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. (a) Refer to § 1010.520...

  4. 31 CFR 1026.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1026.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing...

  5. 31 CFR 1024.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. 1024.520 Section 1024.520 Money... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1024.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this...

  6. 31 CFR 1024.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. 1024.520 Section 1024.520 Money... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1024.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this...

  7. 31 CFR 1028.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit card systems. 1028.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1028.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit...

  8. 31 CFR 1025.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. 1025.520 Section 1025.520... Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1025.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. (a) Refer to § 1010.520...

  9. 31 CFR 1028.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit card systems. 1028.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1028.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit...

  10. 31 CFR 1028.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit card systems. 1028.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1028.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit...

  11. 31 CFR 1029.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan or finance companies. 1029.520 Section 1029... Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1029.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan or finance companies. (a) Refer...

  12. 31 CFR 1030.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for housing government sponsored enterprises. 1030... ENTERPRISES Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1030.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

  13. 31 CFR 1026.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1026.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing...

  14. 31 CFR 1025.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. 1025.520 Section 1025.520... Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1025.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. (a) Refer to § 1010.520...

  15. 31 CFR 1026.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1026.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing...

  16. 31 CFR 1023.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers in securities. 1023.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1023.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers...

  17. 31 CFR 1023.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers in securities. 1023.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1023.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers...

  18. 31 CFR 1024.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. 1024.520 Section 1024.520 Money... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1024.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this...

  19. 31 CFR 1029.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan or finance companies. 1029.520 Section 1029... Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1029.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan or finance companies. (a) Refer...

  20. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition... ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. As prescribed in 209.104-70(a), use the following provision: Disclosure of Ownership or Control by the Government of a Terrorist Country (JAN...

  1. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.201 Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist...

  2. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.201 Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist...

  3. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.201 Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist...

  4. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition... ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. As prescribed in 209.104-70(a), use the following provision: Disclosure of Ownership or Control by the Government of a Terrorist Country (JAN...

  5. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.201 Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist...

  6. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition... ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. As prescribed in 209.104-70(a), use the following provision: Disclosure of Ownership or Control by the Government of a Terrorist Country (JAN...

  7. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition... ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. As prescribed in 209.104-70(a), use the following provision: Disclosure of Ownership or Control by the Government of a Terrorist Country (JAN...

  8. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.201 Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist...

  9. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition... ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. As prescribed in 209.104-70(a), use the following provision: Disclosure of Ownership or Control by the Government of a Terrorist Country (JAN...

  10. Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, T. L.

    2002-05-01

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a government cover up. Preliminary statements by the scientific community also contributed to the uncertainty. A public science organization issued a press release that stated "the location and source of the second surface wave-recording is unknown. Detailed investigations at the building site may offer an explanation as to the cause and origin of the second event." A prominent professional newsletter reported that the "first event was caused by energy from the explosion and the second from the fall of the building." To understand the seismic phases in the April 19 seismograms, the USGS monitored the demolition of the damaged building on May 23, 1995, with a portable seismic array. The array recorded the same 2 wave trains during the demolition and indicated the wave trains were a propagation effect and not the result of multiple sources. Modeling of the waveforms indicated that the 2 wave trains probably resulted from propagation of seismic energy in a near-surface zone with a strong velocity gradient. The first phase appeared to be a packet of scattered body waves and the second was the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave. Timely resolution of the ambiguity of the seismogram and publication of results in a refereed publication, EOS, discouraged a conspiracy defense by the terrorists.

  11. An Analysis of IT Governance Practices in the Federal Government: Protecting U.S. Critical Infrastructure from Cyber Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. LeWayne

    2012-01-01

    Much of the governing process in the United States (U.S.) today depends on a reliable and well protected public information technology (IT) infrastructure. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is tasked with the responsibility of protecting the country's IT infrastructure. Critics contend that the DHS has failed to address planning and…

  12. A Pilot Study of Physiological Reactivity in Children and Maternal Figures Who Lost Relatives in a Terrorist Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Allen, James R.; Hammond, Donna R.; Whittlesey, Suzanne W.; Vinekar, Shreekumar S.; Feng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Trauma is thought to interfere with normal grief by superimposing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This exploratory pilot study examined the association between traumatic grief and objectively measured physiological reactivity to a trauma interview in 13 children who lost relatives in the Oklahoma City bombing as well as a potential link…

  13. Treatise of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust generated during the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the WTC towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Steven R.

    The initial devastation created by the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers resulting from the September 11, 2001 bombings was followed by the dissemination of newly formed toxic dust throughout Lower Manhattan. The ensuing fires that burned within the six-story high debris pile produced a continuous stream of hazardous combustion products. Emphasis on this research was placed on the characterization, the extent of contamination, remediation procedures, and the potential for recontamination by dusts produced by the events of 9/11/2001. A detailed characterization of the WTC Dust was performed using a wide variety of methods. Through the analyses of known WTC Dust, WTC Dust Markers were identified using the composition and morphology of the particles present. Buildings throughout Lower Manhattan were tested for WTC Dust Markers and the radial extent of the WTC Dust was identified. Case studies of buildings located in close proximity to the WTC Site were undertaken to determine the pervasiveness of the WTC Dust into various building systems and components. Testing was conducted on all major building systems/spaces including: occupied spaces, perimeter induction units, structural steel, interior wall cavities, curtain walls, IT raceways, HVAC, and MEP systems. The analytical results indicated that all systems contained WTC Dust and that reservoirs were present. The feasibility of remediation of the WTC Dust from surfaces was evaluated in order to determine if it is possible for the dusts and contaminants to be eradicated. Utilizing standard remediation methods specific to surface type and contaminate type, surfaces throughout the studied buildings were cleaned. Results of post-remediation analyses indicated that remediation efforts in a building contaminated with WTC Dust were ineffective in returning the building to its state prior to the WTC Event. Recontamination studies were also performed in buildings that had been previously cleaned to determine if cleaning methods should be amended. It has been demonstrated that WTC Dust was being redistributed onto the high-contact surfaces throughout these buildings.

  14. Providing for the Establishment of the Select Committee on the Events Surrounding the 2012 Terrorist Attack in Benghazi.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Sessions, Pete [R-TX-32

    2014-05-06

    05/08/2014 Mr. Sessions asked unanimous consent to modify H. Res. 567 in the form he had placed at the desk. Without objection, the modification was agreed to. (consideration: CR H3985) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. The Use of Dynamic Stochastic Social Behavior Models to Produce Likelihood Functions for Risk Modeling of Proliferation and Terrorist Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Jonathan; Thompson, Sandra E.; Brothers, Alan J.; Whitney, Paul D.; Coles, Garill A.; Henderson, Cindy L.; Wolf, Katherine E.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2008-12-01

    The ability to estimate the likelihood of future events based on current and historical data is essential to the decision making process of many government agencies. Successful predictions related to terror events and characterizing the risks will support development of options for countering these events. The predictive tasks involve both technical and social component models. The social components have presented a particularly difficult challenge. This paper outlines some technical considerations of this modeling activity. Both data and predictions associated with the technical and social models will likely be known with differing certainties or accuracies – a critical challenge is linking across these model domains while respecting this fundamental difference in certainty level. This paper will describe the technical approach being taken to develop the social model and identification of the significant interfaces between the technical and social modeling in the context of analysis of diversion of nuclear material.

  16. Israeli Adolescents' Help-Seeking Behaviours in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Students, School Counsellors and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to terror seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. School mental health professionals cope simultaneously with the counselling needs of their clients and with their own fears and doubts. This report is based on two studies. The first study was concerned with the perceptions of Israeli adolescents of the place of…

  17. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  18. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  19. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article.

  20. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a

  1. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a

  2. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 11th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2011) Selected papers from the 11th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Ho

    2012-09-01

    This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the 11th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2011), held at Sejong Hotel in Seoul, Korea during 15-18 November 2011. Since the first PowerMEMS workshop held in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the workshop has developed as the premier forum for reporting research results in micro and nanotechnology for power generation, energy conversion, harvesting and processing applications, including in-depth technical issues on nanostructures and materials for small-scale high-density energy and thermal management. Potential PowerMEMS applications cover not only portable power devices for consumer electronics and remote sensors, but also micro engines, impulsive thrusters and fuel cells for systems ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale. The 2011 technical program consists of 1 plenary talk, 4 invited talks and 118 contributed presentations. The 48 oral and 70 poster presentations, selected by 27 Technical Program Committee Members from 131 submitted abstracts, have stimulated lively discussion maximizing the interaction between participants. Among them, this special section includes 9 papers covering micro-scale power generators, energy converters, harvesters, thrusters and thermal coolers. Finally, we are grateful to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee, and the Local Organizing Committee for their efforts and contributions to PowerMEMS 2011. We also thank the two companies Samsung Electro-Mechanics and LG Elite for technical tour arrangements. Special thanks go to Dr Ian Forbes, the editorial staff of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, as well as to the staff of IOP Publishing for making this special section possible.

  3. The role of revenge, denial, and terrorism distress in restoring just world beliefs: the impact of the 2008 Mumbai attacks on British and Indian students.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Neil; Kamble, Shanmukh V

    2012-01-01

    Just world beliefs for students (N = 413) from India and the United Kingdom were measured. The participants then read a scenario about the 2008 terrorist attacks on Mumbai. The participants were then assessed for terrorism distress and offered multiple strategies (revenge and denial) to restore their just world beliefs. The findings indicate that students resident in India along with those who hold strong just world beliefs felt more distress, held a greater desire for revenge, and demonstrated more denial than the British students and those who had weak beliefs in a just world. These results indicate the important role just world beliefs play in responding to the threat created by mass casualty terrorist attacks. The implications for just world theory are also discussed.

  4. Terrorists, Despots, and Democracy: What Our Children Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, Washington, DC.

    People will debate for many years to come the causes and implications of the September 11, 2001, attacks on New York City and the Pentagon (District of Columbia). In such challenging times, educators rightly wonder about their proper role. What should they teach young U.S. students? What are the implications for the K-12 curriculum and for the…

  5. [Terrorist acting out, narcissism and psychopathology of identifications].

    PubMed

    Houssier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The impact of wounds and narcissistic conflicts can favour a murderous acting out. From a psychoanalytical point of view, narcissistic positions tinged with cynicism and envy in particular are identified, on a background of a pathology of ideals and the melancholisation of the social link. This article looks back at the attack in Paris in January 2015 through statements taken from social discourse.

  6. The impact of teacher assigned but not graded compared to teacher assigned and graded chemistry homework on the formative and summative chemistry assessment scores of 11th-grade students with varying chemistry potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jennifer L.

    The study analyzed 2005 posttest data compared to 2008 posttest data to determine student end of school year academic achievement outcomes across three academic levels (above average, average, and below average chemistry potential) and two teacher homework evaluation methods (assigned but not graded and assigned and graded) on teacher prepared 11th-grade assessments, district prepared 11th-grade assessment, and district graduation requirement physical science strand 11th-grade science Essential Learner Outcome assessment. Overall, results indicated that students with above average (n = 16), average, (n = 17) and below average (n = 14) chemistry potential whom were given teacher assigned and graded chemistry homework compared to students with above average (n = 17), average (n = 15), and below average (n = 19) chemistry potential whom were given teacher assigned but not graded chemistry homework had statistically significantly higher independent t test matter homework scores while atoms, naming, and reactions homework scores were generally in the direction of higher but not significant scores for students given graded homework regardless of their chemistry potential. Furthermore, students of above average and below average chemistry potential who were given assigned and graded chemistry homework performed statistically significantly better on the 11th-grade district prepared chemistry final and the district prepared physical science strand Essential Learner Outcome assessment t test results compared to students with the same chemistry potential given assigned but not graded chemistry homework, suggesting that the graded chemistry condition may have contributed to improved long term learning and retention of chemistry knowledge. Finally, the coefficient of determination (r2 = .95) measure of strength of relationship between not completing, not graded chemistry homework and a corresponding drop in chemistry assessment scores for all students was 95% and the

  7. 77 FR 25234 - Unblocking of One Individual Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Unblocking of One Individual Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION:...

  8. Cost of equity in homeland security resource allocation in the face of a strategic attacker.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaojun; Zhuang, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Hundreds of billions of dollars have been spent in homeland security since September 11, 2001. Many mathematical models have been developed to study strategic interactions between governments (defenders) and terrorists (attackers). However, few studies have considered the tradeoff between equity and efficiency in homeland security resource allocation. In this article, we fill this gap by developing a novel model in which a government allocates defensive resources among multiple potential targets, while reserving a portion of defensive resources (represented by the equity coefficient) for equal distribution (according to geographical areas, population, density, etc.). Such a way to model equity is one of many alternatives, but was directly inspired by homeland security resource allocation practice. The government is faced with a strategic terrorist (adaptive adversary) whose attack probabilities are endogenously determined in the model. We study the effect of the equity coefficient on the optimal defensive resource allocations and the corresponding expected loss. We find that the cost of equity (in terms of increased expected loss) increases convexly in the equity coefficient. Furthermore, such cost is lower when: (a) government uses per-valuation equity; (b) the cost-effectiveness coefficient of defense increases; and (c) the total defense budget increases. Our model, results, and insights could be used to assist policy making.

  9. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  10. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J.

    1989-01-01

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism.

  11. Plague, policy, saints and terrorists: a historical survey.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella; Conti, Andrea A

    2002-05-01

    Plague is an infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. During the Middle Ages millions of people in Europe died from plague, whose current mortality-if untreated-ranges from 50% to 90%. The plague has been a great protagonist in history because it has often been grimly present in the collective events of humans. Its plurisecular history, tied to the whole chain of ecological balance, has had a strong influence on the collective imagination on account of its sudden occurrence and unavoidable mortality. In the past, the passage from contagion to illness ended in death, as human remedies had no effect. The only way to conquer it was invoke the incorruptible spirit of a saint. Therefore, in the past, the major plague icons were saints to whom ordinary people attributed a fame for healing. More recently, many epidemic diseases have ceded place to biological weapons, and terrorists have become the modern icons of such a threatening reality. As a matter of fact, bioterrorism has become a great public health and infection control threat, and, among the number of potential biological agents, plague has assumed a key role.

  12. On the use of capillary electrophoresis for the determination of inorganic anions and cations, and carbohydrates in residues collected after a simulated suicide bombing attack.

    PubMed

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Gareil, Pierre

    2013-01-15

    In order to train scientist field investigators after terrorist attacks, the laboratory of the Prefecture de Police of Paris simulated a suicide bombing attack in a bus. After collection of the residues, analyses were carried out to determine the composition of the original explosive charge. This article focuses on the combined use, for the first time, of three new capillary electrophoresis methods for the determination of inorganic anions and cations, and carbohydrates in two representative extracts. Capillary electrophoresis appears as an effective tool to identify and quantify the compounds in real extracts and is fully complementary to chromatographic methods. PMID:23200391

  13. [Terrorist acting out, narcissism and psychopathology of identifications].

    PubMed

    Houssier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The impact of wounds and narcissistic conflicts can favour a murderous acting out. From a psychoanalytical point of view, narcissistic positions tinged with cynicism and envy in particular are identified, on a background of a pathology of ideals and the melancholisation of the social link. This article looks back at the attack in Paris in January 2015 through statements taken from social discourse. PMID:26790595

  14. Actions Speak Louder than Words: A Behavioral Analysis of 183 Individuals Convicted for Terrorist Offenses in the United States from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Horgan, John; Shortland, Neil; Abbasciano, Suzzette; Walsh, Shaun

    2016-09-01

    Involvement in terrorism has traditionally been discussed in relatively simplistic ways with little effort spent on developing a deeper understanding of what involvement actually entails, and how it differs from person to person. In this paper, we present the results of a three-year project focused on 183 individuals associated with the global jihadist movement who were convicted in the United States, for terrorist offenses, between 1995 and 2012. These data were developed by a large-scale, open-source data collection activity that involved a coding dictionary of more than 120 variables. We identify and explore the diversity of behaviors that constitute involvement in terrorism. We also compare lone actors and those who acted as part of a group, finding that lone actors differed from group-based actors in key demographic attributes and were more likely to be involved in attack execution behaviors. Implications for counterterrorism are then discussed.

  15. Actions Speak Louder than Words: A Behavioral Analysis of 183 Individuals Convicted for Terrorist Offenses in the United States from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Horgan, John; Shortland, Neil; Abbasciano, Suzzette; Walsh, Shaun

    2016-09-01

    Involvement in terrorism has traditionally been discussed in relatively simplistic ways with little effort spent on developing a deeper understanding of what involvement actually entails, and how it differs from person to person. In this paper, we present the results of a three-year project focused on 183 individuals associated with the global jihadist movement who were convicted in the United States, for terrorist offenses, between 1995 and 2012. These data were developed by a large-scale, open-source data collection activity that involved a coding dictionary of more than 120 variables. We identify and explore the diversity of behaviors that constitute involvement in terrorism. We also compare lone actors and those who acted as part of a group, finding that lone actors differed from group-based actors in key demographic attributes and were more likely to be involved in attack execution behaviors. Implications for counterterrorism are then discussed. PMID:27113859

  16. Safety and Security: Lessons Learned from 9/11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues faced by the Borough of Manhattan Community College following the September 11th terrorist attacks: the expense of recovery and budgeting for it, developing an emergency preparedness plan, the characteristics of emergency management and disaster recovery plans, technology and its role in emergency management, being prepared for…

  17. Trauma Practice in the Wake of September 11, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Steven N., Ed.; Faust, Jan, Ed.

    This book explores how frontline trauma practitioners responded to the crisis of the terrorist attacks of September 11th. Also presented is state-of-the-art information on the psychology of terrorism and an examination of the traumatic impact of terrorism on those directly affected as well as the general population, illustrating ways that…

  18. In the Wake of September 11: A Proactive Model for Supporting Diverse Campus Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mira Brancu; Sedlacek, William E.; Longerbeam, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Article explores the impact of September 11th terrorist attacks on stress, prejudicial attitudes, and hateful acts as they relate to college campuses. It presents a review of the literature concerning stressors and their impact on stereotyping and prejudice. This leads to a proposed proactive model with the purpose of building healthy campus…

  19. Together: The Generations United Newsletter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jaia, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 2002 issues of the newsletter for Generations United, a national membership organization focused on promoting intergenerational policies, strategies, and programs. The first issue reflects on two events: responses to the September 11th terrorist attacks, and on the organization's international conference…

  20. Information and the War against Terrorism, Part V: The Business Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of changes in business information protection since the September 11th terrorist attacks focuses on three planning goals: continuing to serve the customer in times of threat; implementing new communication paradigms; and establishing a comprehensive knowledge redundancy program. Considers threats other than terrorism, risk management…

  1. A Call to Action for National Foreign Language Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Defense, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11th, the Global War on Terrorism, and the continued threat to the Homeland have defined the critical need to take action to improve the foreign language and cultural capabilities of the Nation. The government must act now to improve the gathering and analysis of information, advance international diplomacy, and…

  2. Genetic attack on neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  3. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-15

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  4. Attack vulnerability of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun; Yoon, Chang No; Han, Seung Kee

    2002-05-01

    We study the response of complex networks subject to attacks on vertices and edges. Several existing complex network models as well as real-world networks of scientific collaborations and Internet traffic are numerically investigated, and the network performance is quantitatively measured by the average inverse geodesic length and the size of the largest connected subgraph. For each case of attacks on vertices and edges, four different attacking strategies are used: removals by the descending order of the degree and the betweenness centrality, calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal procedure. It is found that the removals by the recalculated degrees and betweenness centralities are often more harmful than the attack strategies based on the initial network, suggesting that the network structure changes as important vertices or edges are removed. Furthermore, the correlation between the betweenness centrality and the degree in complex networks is studied.

  5. Resource distribution in multiple attacks with imperfect detection of the attack outcome.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2012-02-01

    This article extends the previous research of consecutive attacks strategy by assuming that an attacker observes the outcome of each attack imperfectly. With given probabilities it may wrongly identify a destroyed target as undestroyed, and wrongly identify an undestroyed target as destroyed. The outcome of each attack is determined by a contest success function that depends on the amount of resources allocated by the defender and the attacker to each attack. The article suggests a probabilistic model of the multiple attacks and analyzes how the target destruction probability and the attacker's relative resource expenditure are impacted by the two probabilities of incorrect observation, the attacker's and defender's resource ratio, the contest intensity, the number of attacks, and the resource distribution across attacks. We analyze how the attacker chooses the number of attacks, the attack stopping rule, and the optimal resource distribution across attacks to maximize its utility.

  6. On the Path of Election and Martyrdom: Some Psychic Mechanisms Involved in the Anders Behring Breivik's Determination as a Terrorist.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    On 22 July 2011, the Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik carried out two attacks in Oslo that cost the lives of 77 people, injured many others, and plunged the entire Norwegian nation into mourning. When he was arrested, Breivik presented himself as a member of the Knights Templar, whose mission is to defend the Christian Western world. He considers that he has sacrificed himself by his actions for his people and says that he has prepared himself for martyrdom. In analysing Breivik's words and writings, this article attempts to identify the thought mechanisms involved in Breivik's idea of election (megalomania) and martyrology. It highlights the importance of a mechanism of "return to the sender," whereby Breivik returns the reproaches directed at him by an agency of judgment (ego ideal or superegoic object). It emphasizes the existence of a "burning desire" and yearning (Sehnsucht) for this same persecuting superegoic object, an object that Breivik constantly wants to find again, even if in death. Taking into consideration Searles's hypothesis that the sense of being persecuted is a defence against the impossibility of mourning, and also H. Blum's hypothesis that persecutory feelings are indicative of fears of a "regressive loss of object constancy," the different psychic mechanisms and modes of functioning underlying Breivik's terrorist determination are related here to what we know about his affective development and infantile relationships.

  7. On the Path of Election and Martyrdom: Some Psychic Mechanisms Involved in the Anders Behring Breivik's Determination as a Terrorist.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    On 22 July 2011, the Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik carried out two attacks in Oslo that cost the lives of 77 people, injured many others, and plunged the entire Norwegian nation into mourning. When he was arrested, Breivik presented himself as a member of the Knights Templar, whose mission is to defend the Christian Western world. He considers that he has sacrificed himself by his actions for his people and says that he has prepared himself for martyrdom. In analysing Breivik's words and writings, this article attempts to identify the thought mechanisms involved in Breivik's idea of election (megalomania) and martyrology. It highlights the importance of a mechanism of "return to the sender," whereby Breivik returns the reproaches directed at him by an agency of judgment (ego ideal or superegoic object). It emphasizes the existence of a "burning desire" and yearning (Sehnsucht) for this same persecuting superegoic object, an object that Breivik constantly wants to find again, even if in death. Taking into consideration Searles's hypothesis that the sense of being persecuted is a defence against the impossibility of mourning, and also H. Blum's hypothesis that persecutory feelings are indicative of fears of a "regressive loss of object constancy," the different psychic mechanisms and modes of functioning underlying Breivik's terrorist determination are related here to what we know about his affective development and infantile relationships. PMID:26290947

  8. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  9. Duloxetine-related panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Sabljić, Vladimir; Rakun, Radmir; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    Side-effects arising on the grounds of antidepressant administration pose as a substantial obstacle hindering successful depressive disorder treatment. Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients' trust in both the treatment and the treating physician. This case report deals with a patient experiencing a moderately severe depressive episode, who responded to duloxetine treatment administered in the initial dose of 30 mg per day with as many as three panic attacks in two days. Upon duloxetine withdrawal, these panic attacks ceased as well. The patient continued tianeptine and alprazolam treatment during which no significant side-effects had been seen, so that she gradually recovered. Some of the available literature sources have suggested the possibility of duloxetine administration to the end of generalised anxiety disorder and panic attack treatment. However, they are outnumbered by the contributions reporting about duloxetine-related anxiety, aggressiveness and panic attacks. In line with the foregoing, further monitoring of each and every duloxetine-administered patient group needs to be pursued so as to be able to evaluate treatment benefits and weigh them against risks of anxiety or panic attack onset.

  10. The development and interaction of terrorist and fanatic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Erika T.

    2013-11-01

    Through the mathematical study of two models we quantify some of the theories of co-development and co-existence of focused groups in the social sciences. This work attempts to develop the mathematical framework behind the social sciences of community formation. By using well developed theories and concepts from ecology and epidemiology we hope to extend the theoretical framework of organizing and self-organizing social groups and communities, including terrorist groups. The main goal of our work is to gain insight into the role of recruitment and retention in the formation and survival of social organizations. Understanding the underlining mechanisms of the spread of ideologies under competition is a fundamental component of this work. Here contacts between core and non-core individuals extend beyond its physical meaning to include indirect interaction and spread of ideas through phone conversations, emails, media sources and other similar mean. This work focuses on the dynamics of formation of interest groups, either ideological, economical or ecological and thus we explore the questions such as, how do interest groups initiate and co-develop by interacting within a common environment and how do they sustain themselves? Our results show that building and maintaining the core group is essential for the existence and survival of an extreme ideology. Our research also indicates that in the absence of competitive ability (i.e., ability to take from the other core group or share prospective members) the social organization or group that is more committed to its group ideology and manages to strike the right balance between investment in recruitment and retention will prevail. Thus under no cross interaction between two social groups a single trade-off (of these efforts) can support only a single organization. The more efforts that an organization implements to recruit and retain its members the more effective it will be in transmitting the ideology to other vulnerable

  11. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  12. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  13. Eyespots divert attacks by fish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish’ own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  14. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments.

  15. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  16. Detection of complex cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent H.; Giani, Annarita; Bakos, George; Bates, Marion; Cybenko, George; Madory, Doug

    2006-05-01

    One significant drawback to currently available security products is their inabilty to correlate diverse sensor input. For instance, by only using network intrusion detection data, a root kit installed through a weak username-password combination may go unnoticed. Similarly, an administrator may never make the link between deteriorating response times from the database server and an attacker exfiltrating trusted data, if these facts aren't presented together. Current Security Information Management Systems (SIMS) can collect and represent diverse data but lack sufficient correlation algorithms. By using a Process Query System, we were able to quickly bring together data flowing from many sources, including NIDS, HIDS, server logs, CPU load and memory usage, etc. We constructed PQS models that describe dynamic behavior of complicated attacks and failures, allowing us to detect and differentiate simultaneous sophisticated attacks on a target network. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of implementing such a multistage cyber attack detection system using PQS. We focus on how data from multiple sources can be combined and used to detect and track comprehensive network security events that go unnoticed using conventional tools.

  17. Psychometric and demographic predictors of the perceived risk of terrorist threats and the willingness to pay for terrorism risk management programs.

    PubMed

    Mumpower, Jeryl L; Shi, Liu; Stoutenborough, James W; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    A 2009 national telephone survey of 924 U.S. adults assessed perceptions of terrorism and homeland security issues. Respondents rated severity of effects, level of understanding, number affected, and likelihood of four terrorist threats: poisoned water supply; explosion of a small nuclear device in a major U.S. city; an airplane attack similar to 9/11; and explosion of a bomb in a building, train, subway, or highway. Respondents rated perceived risk and willingness to pay (WTP) for dealing with each threat. Demographic, attitudinal, and party affiliation data were collected. Respondents rated bomb as highest in perceived risk but gave the highest WTP ratings to nuclear device. For both perceived risk and WTP, psychometric variables were far stronger predictors than were demographic ones. OLS regression analyses using both types of variables to predict perceived risk found only two significant demographic predictors for any threat--Democrat (a negative predictor for bomb) and white male (a significant positive predictor for airline attack). In contrast, among psychometric variables, severity, number affected, and likelihood were predictors of all four threats and level of understanding was a predictor for one. For WTP, education was a negative predictor for three threats; no other demographic variables were significant predictors for any threat. Among psychometric variables, perceived risk and number affected were positive predictors of WTP for all four threats; severity and likelihood were predictors for three; level of understanding was a significant predictor for two.

  18. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941

  19. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Li, Xin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941

  20. 31 CFR 1027.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for dealers in precious metals, precious stones, or... METALS, PRECIOUS STONES, OR JEWELS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1027.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and...

  1. 31 CFR 1027.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for dealers in precious metals, precious stones, or... METALS, PRECIOUS STONES, OR JEWELS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1027.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and...

  2. 31 CFR 1027.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for dealers in precious metals, precious stones, or... METALS, PRECIOUS STONES, OR JEWELS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1027.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and...

  3. 78 FR 4303 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... 17, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-01296 Filed 1-18-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  4. 78 FR 59751 - Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of... Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order. This notice shall be...

  5. 75 FR 3845 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 20, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-1400 Filed 1-21-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  6. 78 FR 39057 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant To... aforementioned individual as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order....

  7. 76 FR 3007 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 13, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-1106 Filed 1-14-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195... Notice of January 13, 2011--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive...

  8. 77 FR 3065 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 19, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-1316 Filed 1-19-12; 2:00 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process...

  9. 31 CFR 1021.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for casinos and card clubs. 1021.520 Section 1021... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity for Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.520...

  10. 31 CFR 1021.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for casinos and card clubs. 1021.520 Section 1021... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity for Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.520...

  11. 31 CFR 1021.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for casinos and card clubs. 1021.520 Section 1021... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity for Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.520...

  12. 31 CFR 1021.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for casinos and card clubs. 1021.520 Section 1021... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity for Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.520...

  13. Generic attack approaches for industrial control systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, David P.

    2006-01-01

    This report suggests a generic set of attack approaches that are expected to be used against Industrial Control Systems that have been built according to a specific reference model for control systems. The posed attack approaches are ordered by the most desirable, based upon the goal of an attacker. Each attack approach is then graded by the category of adversary that would be capable of utilizing that attack approach. The goal of this report is to identify necessary levels of security required to prevent certain types of attacks against Industrial Control Systems.

  14. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study

    PubMed Central

    North, Carol S.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A.; Gordon, Mollie R.; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company’s workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees’ emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals. PMID:23066661

  15. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A; Gordon, Mollie R; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company's workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees' emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals.

  16. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  17. 11th Annual School Construction Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "School Planning & Management"'s annual survey of school construction statistics including projects completed during 2005, projected completions for 2006, and projects that will begin construction during 2006. In addition to national figures, statistics are broken down to provide detail for 12 regions of the nation, as well as the…

  18. An Economic Analysis of September 11th

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelett, George L.; Schug, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    To many Western observers, the behavior of people in the Middle East is a mystery. The area is the scene of brutality and seemingly senseless acts of violence. Why has there been so much turmoil there for so long? This article contains a brief review of past events in the Middle East, which helps to establish the context of the problem. Sections…

  19. Part C Updates. 11th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan; Goode, Sue; Lazara, Alex

    2010-01-01

    "Part C Updates" is a compilation of information on various aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This is the eleventh volume in a series of compilations, which included two editions of Part H Updates, the former name of the program.…

  20. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Various mechanisms in aerospace engineering were presented at this conference. Specifications, design, and use of spacecraft and missile components are discussed, such as tail assemblies, radiometers, magnetormeters, pins, reaction wheels, ball bearings, actuators, mirrors, nutation dampers, airfoils, solar arrays, etc.