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Sample records for 12 24 hours compared

  1. Abbreviated (12-hour) versus traditional (24-hour) postpartum magnesium sulfate therapy in severe pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Maia, Sabina B; Katz, Leila; Neto, Carlos Noronha; Caiado, Bárbara V R; Azevedo, Ana P R L; Amorim, Melania M R

    2014-09-01

    To compare the use of magnesium sulfate for 12 hours versus 24 hours in postpartum women with stable severe pre-eclampsia. In 2011, an open randomized clinical trial was conducted with 120 postpartum women with severe pre-eclampsia who gave birth at a tertiary hospital in Brazil; 60 women received magnesium sulfate for 24 hours and 60 for 12 hours. The analysis was by intention-to-treat and the intervention was not masked. Abbreviated (12-hour) magnesium sulfate therapy was associated with less exposure to the drug, and clinical outcomes were similar in both groups. No woman developed eclampsia and there was no need to re-initiate treatment after completing the scheduled magnesium sulfate therapy in either group. Magnesium sulfate therapy was extended in only three women in the 12-hour group. In addition, in this group, significant reductions were found in the duration of postpartum use of an indwelling bladder catheter, the time to ambulation, and the time to maternal contact with the newborn. Abbreviated postpartum magnesium sulfate therapy in patients with stable severe pre-eclampsia was associated with less drug exposure, similar outcomes, and benefits such as a reduction in the time to contact with the newborn. clinicaltrials.gov NCT1408979. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Fluctuation of intraocular pressure in 24-hour telemonitoring compared to tonometry during normal office hours].

    PubMed

    Jürgens, C; Antal, S; Henrici, K; Grossjohann, R; Tost, F H

    2009-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a clinically relevant factor in glaucoma progression. As a dynamic parameter the IOP depends on various internal and exogenic influencing factors. Therefore, we analysed intraindividual IOD variations between ambulant care and 24-h home-monitoring using self-tonometry. This study is based on paper-based glaucoma cards of 25 patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Additionally, all patients participated in a telemedical home-monitoring study with self-measurements of IOP and blood pressure stored in an electronic patient record. The glaucoma cards contained a total number of 409 IOP values with documentation periods from 0.5 to 10 years. In the teletonometry project all 25 patients were observed for 6 months with 1490 recorded IOP values. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. Average IOP values for all 25 glaucoma patients were 16.3 +/- 2.9 mmHg for both eyes in glaucoma card documentation, whereas the electronic patient records showed IOP averages of 18.9 +/- 4.7 mmHg for right eyes and 18.2 +/- 4.4 mmHg for left eyes. Corresponding to the practice opening hours the glaucoma cards contained no IOP records from 12:00 pm to 01:30 pm as well as between 06:00 pm and 07:15 am. In these time periods 17 % of all IOP values recorded in 24-hour teletonometry were higher than 20 mmHg. However, statistical analysis and clinical evaluation of device parameters and measurement characteristics revealed sporadic measuring errors. The additional involvement of self-tonometry in telemedical 24-h home-monitoring is a feasible method to record and detect intraday IOP fluctuations. Compared to single IOP measurements documented in common paper-based glaucoma cards, the 24-h electronic patient record showed more frequent circadian IOP variations. As a result, self-tonometry and home-monitoring can be a useful link to fill the gap between singular ambulant IOP measurement and hospitalisation with 24-hour IOP profiles.

  3. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L.; Folkard, S.; Tucker, P.; Macdonald, I.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. RESULTS: The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.   PMID:9624275

  4. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake Some forms of kidney disease Use of diuretic medicines Alternative Names Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection; Urine protein - 24 hour Images Urine sample Female urinary tract ...

  5. Simultaneous Administration Compared With a 24-Hour Mifepristone-Misoprostol Interval in Second-Trimester Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Dina Fatima; Blum, Jennifer; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Nga, Nguyen Thi Bach; Chi, Huynh Thi Kim; Martin, Roxanne; Winikoff, Beverly

    2016-11-01

    To compare outcomes with simultaneous administration of mifepristone and misoprostol with a regimen in which the drugs are administered at a 24-hour interval for second-trimester abortion. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, participants were randomized to receive mifepristone either 24 hours before or at the same time as misoprostol. Participants were hospitalized to receive 400 micrograms buccal misoprostol at 3-hour intervals up to 48 hours or until uterine expulsion. The primary outcome was the proportion of women who experienced uterine expulsion within 24 hours after the first misoprostol dose and this required 504 women to examine our hypothesis that this rate would be 85% in the 24-hour interval arm compared with 70% in the simultaneous arm. Secondary outcomes included total abortion time from mifepristone and misoprostol. From February 2013 to April 2014, 509 women were enrolled. Women in the 24-hour interval arm were more likely to abort within 24 hours (94.4% compared with 85.0%, relative risk 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.18). At 48 hours, the rate was similar in the two arms (96.8% [24-hour interval] and 95.7% [simultaneous], relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.04). Median misoprostol dosing time was shorter in the 24-hour interval arm (7.7 compared with 13 hours; P<.001) and consistent with the median misoprostol doses required (three compared with five; P<.001). Median time from mifepristone to uterine expulsion was longer in the 24-hour interval arm (32.3 compared with 13 hours; P<.001). Both regimens had high acceptability rates and reported similar side effects and pain scores. Administering mifepristone and misoprostol simultaneously results in lower expulsion rates within 24 hours of taking misoprostol, longer median misoprostol treatment times, and requires more misoprostol doses. At 48 hours, both regimens work equally well. Simultaneous dosing results in less total time from the first clinical contact to complete

  6. Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in young and older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Reid, K; Dawson, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To simulate a 12 hour shift rotation and measure the difference in performance if any, between older and younger subjects. Significant reductions in neurobehavioural performance during shift work and particularly night work have long been recognised. There are conflicting reports of the effects of 12 hour shifts on performance, alertness, and safety. Furthermore, research suggests that older shift workers have more sleep disruption and maladaption to shift work. When this is combined with longer hours at work there may be considerable reductions in performance for older compared with younger workers.
METHODS—Thirty two subjects were allocated to groups according to age. Group one had 16 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 21.2 (2.7) years, and group two had 16 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 43.9 (6.8) years. Subjects came to the laboratory for six consecutive days and completed a simulated 12 hour shift rotation consisting of two 12 hour day shifts (0700-1900), followed by two 12 hour night shifts (1900-0700). During the work period subjects completed a computer administered neurobehavioural performance task every hour.
RESULTS—Performance for the older subjects was consistently lower than for the younger subjects. There was a significant difference in performance across the shift between older and younger subjects. There was a significant change in performance across the shifts in the older subjects, such that performance significantly increased across the day shifts and decreased across the night shifts. By contrast, the younger subjects were able to maintain performance across both day shifts and the second night shift.
CONCLUSIONS—There are significant differences in performance of older and younger subjects during a simulated 12 hour shift rotation. Future studies both in the field and the laboratory would be useful in determining whether this is typical and if there are any important consequences for the older worker on 12 hour

  7. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) at term in nulliparous women with a ripe cervix. A randomized trial of 12 or 24 hours of expectant management.

    PubMed

    Hjertberg, R; Hammarström, M; Moberger, B; Nordlander, E; Granström, L

    1996-01-01

    To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes after 12 or 24 hours of expectant management in healthy nulliparous women with a ripe cervix and PROM at term. A prospective, randomized study. Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Two hundred and five healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, cephalic presentation, gestational duration 36 to 42 weeks, randomized to 12 or 24 hours of expectant management after evaluation of the cervical score (> 5). If spontaneous labor did not occur, induction was performed with oxytocin after 12 or 24 hours, respectively. MAIN PARAMETERS: Maternal early morbidity and neonatal infections, obstetric intervention rate (cesarean section or instrumental delivery). The cesarean section rate was 4% in each group. The vacuum extraction rate was 21% in each group. Induction of labor was performed in 47% of the women allocated to 12 hours of expectant management vs 17% of the women allocated to 24 hours of expectant management (p < 0.05). The maternal morbidity rate was almost negligible. Only a few fetal infections occurred and no difference was noted between the groups. In healthy nulliparous women at term with a ripe cervix, expectant management over 24 hours vs 12 hours resulted in fewer inductions of labor and no increase in instrumental deliveries, without any increase in neonatal or maternal morbidity.

  8. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24 hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24 hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent. PMID:21566692

  9. Very preterm infants show earlier emergence of 24-hour sleep-wake rhythms compared to term infants.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Caroline; Huber, Reto; Fontijn, Jehudith; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Nicolai, Heide; Werner, Helene; Molinari, Luciano; Latal, Beatrice; Jenni, Oskar G

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show contradictory results about the emergence of 24-h rhythms and the influence of external time cues on sleep-wake behavior in preterm compared to term infants. To examine whether very preterm infants (<32 weeks of gestational age) differ in their emergence of the 24-h sleep-wake rhythm at 5, 11 and 25 weeks corrected age compared to term infants and whether cycled light conditions during neonatal intermediate care affects postnatal 24-h sleep-wake rhythms in preterm infants. Prospective cohort study with nested interventional trial. 34 preterm and 14 control term infants were studied. During neonatal hospitalization, preterm infants were randomly assigned to cycled light [7 am-7 pm lights on, 7 pm-7 am lights off, n=17] or dim light condition [lights off whenever the child is asleep, n=17]. Sleep and activity behavior recorded by parental diary and actigraphy at 5, 11 and 25 weeks corrected age. Sleep at nighttime and the longest consolidated sleep period between 12 pm-6 am was longer (mixed model analysis, factor group: p=0.02, resp. p=0.01) and activity at nighttime was lower (p=0.005) at all ages in preterm compared to term infants. Cycled light exposed preterm infants showed the longest nighttime sleep duration. Dim light exposed preterm infants were the least active. Preterm infants show an earlier emergence of the 24-h sleep-wake rhythm compared to term infants. Thus, the length of exposure to external time cues such as light may be important for the maturation of infant sleep-wake rhythms. Trial registry number: This trial has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier NCT01513226). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio compared with 24-hour urinary protein in patients with kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Wahbeh, Ayman M

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to determine the correlation between protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour urinary protein excretion, to examine agreement between the 2 methods, and to determine the discriminant value for protein-to-creatinine ratio that reliably determines significant threshold levels of proteinuria. Proteinuria was assessed by 24-hour urine protein excretion and protein-to-creatinine ratio. Correlation and limits of agreement between the 2 methods were evaluated. The discriminant cutoff values for spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio in predicting 24-hour urine protein excretion were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. A positive correlation (r=0.7459, P < .0001) was found between spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein excretion. A Bland-Altman plot shows that the 2 tests have reasonable limits of agreement at a low level of protein excretion, but the limits become wider as protein excretion increases. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine protein-to-creatinine ratio at various cutoffs was 0.967 (95% confidence interval: 0.880-0.996; P < .0001). The cutoff level of 0.433 had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 90%. We conclude that the protein-to-creatinine ratio in spot urine specimens in patients undergoing a kidney transplant is a convenient and reliable method of estimating protein excretion in urine.

  11. Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-Hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium John W. Obringer Martin D. Johnson Laser and Optics...Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 12-hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Lightl2-hours...Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial USAFA F05611-02-P-0471 Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser-Light and 1064nm, 170 ps Pulsed

  12. Proportion of children meeting recommendations for 24-hour movement guidelines and associations with adiposity in a 12-country study.

    PubMed

    Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-11-25

    The Canadian 24-h movement guidelines were developed with the hope of improving health and future health outcomes in children and youth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to the 3 recommendations most strongly associated with health outcomes in new 24-h movement guidelines and their relationship with adiposity (obesity and body mass index z-score) across countries participating in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Cross-sectional results were based on 6128 children aged 9-11 years from the 12 countries of ISCOLE. Sleep duration and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using accelerometry. Screen time was measured through self-report. Body weight and height were measured. Body mass index (BMI, kg · m(-2)) was calculated, and BMI z-scores were computed using age- and sex-specific reference data from the World Health Organization. Obesity was defined as a BMI z-score > +2 SD. Meeting the overall 24-h movement guidelines was defined as: 9 to 11 h/night of sleep, ≤2 h/day of screen time, and at least 60 min/day of MVPA. Age, sex, highest parental education and unhealthy diet pattern score were included as covariates in statistical models. Associations between meeting vs. not meeting each single recommendation (and combinations) with obesity were assessed with odds ratios calculated using generalized linear mixed models. A linear mixed model was used to examine the differences in BMI z-scores between children meeting vs. not meeting the different combinations of recommendations. The global prevalence of children meeting the overall recommendations (all three behaviors) was 7%, with children from Australia and Canada showing the highest adherence (15%). Children meeting the three recommendations had lower odds ratios for obesity compared to those meeting none of the recommendations (OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.18-0.45). Compared to not meeting the 24-h movement

  13. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  14. The BpTRU automatic blood pressure monitor compared to 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the assessment of blood pressure in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Linda; Godwin, Marshall

    2005-06-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that ABPM more closely predicts target organ damage than does clinic measurement. Future guidelines may suggest ABPM as routine in the diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension. This would create difficulties as this test is expensive and often difficult to obtain. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree to which the BpTRU automatic blood pressure monitor predicts results on 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). A quantitative analysis comparing blood pressure measured by the BpTRU device with the mean daytime blood pressure on 24 hour ABPM. The study was conducted by the Centre for Studies in Primary Care, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada on adult primary care patients who are enrolled in two randomized controlled trials on hypertension. The main outcomes were the mean of the blood pressures measured at the three most recent office visits, the initial measurement on the BpTRU-100, the mean of the five measurements on the BpTRU monitor, and the daytime average on 24 hour ABPM. The group mean of the three charted clinic measured blood pressures (150.8 (SD10.26) / 82.9 (SD 8.44)) was not statistically different from the group mean of the initial reading on BpTRU (150.0 (SD21.33) / 83.3 (SD12.00)). The group mean of the average of five BpTRU readings (140.0 (SD17.71) / 79.8 (SD 10.46)) was not statistically different from the 24 hour daytime mean on ABPM (141.5 (SD 13.25) / 79.7 (SD 7.79)). Within patients, BpTRU average correlated significantly better with daytime ambulatory pressure than did clinic averages (BpTRU r = 0.571, clinic r = 0.145). Based on assessment of sensitivity and specificity at different cut-points, it is suggested that the initial treatment target using the BpTRU be set at <135/85 mmHG, but achievement of target should be confirmed using 24 hour ABPM. The BpTRU average better predicts ABPM than does the average of the blood pressures recorded on the patient chart from the three

  15. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 24 hours prior to curtain.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S; Rosen, C A; Murry, T

    2000-03-01

    A retrospective review was conducted of 40 singers presenting with acute voice problems prior to performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for seeking emergent voice treatment, the types of acute voice disorders, and the performance outcome. The patients were assessed by age, singing style, years of experience, chief complaint, laryngovideostroboscopic findings, and treatment regimens. The outcomes were classified as full, restricted, or no performance. The majority of patients were classical singers. Laryngovideostroboscopy frequently revealed a pattern of early glottic contact at the mid-portion of the membranous vocal fold in patients with acute laryngitis. Experienced singers uniformly sought treatment many days before their performance compared with inexperienced singers who presented closer in time to performance. Six patients initially withheld information, which had a bearing on their acute management. The results of this study suggest that there is a need to accurately diagnose and treat the singer's emergent problem and educate singers regarding early evaluation of medical problems. With modern evaluation techniques and multi-modality treatment, 85% of the singers proceeded to full performance without negative sequelae.

  17. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  18. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  19. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Gu, Yu-Mei; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Liu, Yan-Ping; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Mena, Luis; Maestre, Gladys E.; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; O’Brien, Eoin; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. Methods and Results We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mm Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs≤1.54; P≥0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs≥1.75; P≤0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24≥130 mm Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P≤0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR≤0.92; P≥0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR≥1.19; P≤0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96≤HR≤1.14; P≥0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P≤0.043). Conclusions The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors. PMID:24906822

  20. A prospective randomized trial to compare immediate and 24-hour delayed catheter removal following total abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Chai, Joyce; Pun, Ting-Chung

    2011-05-01

    To assess whether early or immediate removal of a 12F in-dwelling Foley catheter after total abdominal hysterectomy affects the level of subjective pain assessment postoperatively. Randomized controlled trial. University Hospital. Seventy women underwent total abdominal hysterectomies for various benign gynecological diseases. Women were randomized to have the urinary catheter removed in the operating room after the surgical procedure or to have it removed on postoperative day 1. The primary outcome was patients' pain assessment and the secondary outcomes were rate of re-catheterization and symptomatic urinary tract infection. There was no difference in the pain assessment between the two groups. A significantly higher number of urinary retention episodes requiring re-catheterization were found in the immediate removal group compared with the delayed removal group (20 vs. 0%; p= 0.011). The incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection did not differ between the two groups. There are pros and cons regarding the policy of one-day in-dwelling catheterization compared to immediate catheter removal. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. What are 12-hour shifts good for?

    PubMed

    In the UK many hospitals use 12-hour shifts, believing it to be a cost-efficient means of providing 24-hour nursing care on wards. While healthcare organisations need to find ways to deliver nursing care around the clock and efficiency is a key consideration, nurse leaders have raised concerns about ' whether nurses can function effectively and safely when working long hours (Calkin, 2012; Rogers et al, 2004). In this Policy Plus, we focus specifically on what is known about the impact of shift length on patient safety, employee health and quality of care.

  2. [24 hours at Johannesburg Hospital Trauma Unit].

    PubMed

    Østerballe, Lene; Asbury, Sarah; Boffard, Kenneth D

    2011-05-02

    This paper describes the hectic work as a doctor at the Trauma Unit of Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, a highly regarded and well-visited trauma unit worldwide. A trauma junior doctor is followed on a 24-hour-call through a full casualty to urgent operations and complicated postoperative management of the trauma patient. In a diary fashion the paper describes the evidence-based guidelines of management of certain trauma cases brought into the trauma unit during the 24-hour-shift.

  3. Computerized portion size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist, and might be improved both in terms of accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR; averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (N = 205) from Lane County, OR completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24HR. Summary scores from the ten-item NCI Fruit and Vegetable Scan (FVS) and the 18-item Block Fat Screener (BFS) were compared to multiple 24HR-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24HR of paper and CD-ROM administrations of FVS fruit intake, FVS vegetable intake, FVS fruit and vegetable intake, and BFS fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24HR-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P ≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with the 24HR (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for further enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies. PMID:21963026

  4. Low adherence to exclusive breastfeeding in Eastern Uganda: A community-based cross-sectional study comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour recall

    PubMed Central

    Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S; Wamani, Henry; Karamagi, Charles; Semiyaga, Nulu; Tumwine, James; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2007-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the best feeding alternative for infants up to six months and has a protective effect against mortality and morbidity. It also seems to lower HIV-1 transmission compared to mixed feeding. We studied infant feeding practices comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour dietary recall. Methods A cross-sectional survey on infant feeding practices was performed in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003 and 727 mother-infant (0–11 months) pairs were analysed. Four feeding categories were made based on WHO's definitions: 1) exclusive breastfeeding, 2) predominant breastfeeding, 3) complementary feeding and 4) replacement feeding. We analyzed when the infant fell into another feeding category for the first time. This was based on the recall since birth. Life-table analysis was made for the different feeding categories and Cox regression analysis was done to control for potential associated factors with the different practices. Prelacteal feeding practices were also addressed. Results Breastfeeding was practiced by 99% of the mothers. Dietary recall since birth showed that 7% and 0% practiced exclusive breastfeeding by 3 and 6 months, respectively, while 30% and 3% practiced predominant breastfeeding and had not started complementary feeding at the same points in time. The difference between the 24-hour recall and the recall since birth for the introduction of complementary feeds was 46 percentage points at two months and 59 percentage points at four months. Prelacteal feeding was given to 57% of the children. High education and formal marriage were protective factors against prelacteal feeding (adjusted OR 0.5, 0.2 – 1.0 and 0.5, 0.3 – 0.8, respectively). Conclusion Even if breastfeeding is practiced at a very high rate, the use of prelacteal feeding and early introduction of other food items is the norm. The 24-hour recall gives a higher estimate of exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding than

  5. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  6. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  7. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  8. Disproportional decrease in office blood pressure compared with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment: dependency on pretreatment blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Schmidt, Stephanie T; Riemer, Thomas; Dechend, Ralf; Hagedorn, Ina; Senges, Jochen; Messerli, Franz H; Zeymer, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    The long-term relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP in patients on therapy is not well documented. From a registry we included all patients in whom antihypertensive therapy needed to be uptitrated. Drug treatment included the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or drugs not blocking the renin-angiotensin system, alone or on top of an existing drug regimen. In all patients, office BP and 24-hour ABP were obtained at baseline and after 1 year with validated devices. In the study population of 2722 patients, there was a good correlation between the change in office BP and 24-hour ABP (systolic: r=0.39; P<0.001; diastolic: r=0.34; P<0.001). However, the numeric decrease in office BP did not correspond to the decrease in ABP in a 1:1 fashion, for example, a decrease of 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg corresponded to a decrease of ≈7.2, 10.5, and 13.9 mm Hg in systolic ABP, respectively. The disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP compared with ABP was dependent on the level of the pretreatment BP, which was consistently higher for office BP than ABP. The white coat effect (difference between office BP and ABP) was on average 10/5 mm Hg lower 1 year after intensifying treatment and the magnitude of that was also dependent on pretreatment BP. There was a disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP than in ABP, which for both office BP and ABP seemed to depend on the pretreatment BP level. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. [A 24-hour solid state Holter recording and analyzing system].

    PubMed

    Jia, C; Duan, H; Yan, X; Lu, W

    1998-01-01

    The design and functions of a new type of multi-channel solid-state Holter system were introduced in this paper. The flash memory card based recorder can record 24 hours or more of data from up to all 12 leads. The full function scanner software can analysis automatically and archive with complete editing capabilities.

  10. High serum lactate level may predict death within 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Abd Almajid; Kuria, Shiran; Blum, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Background Unexpected death within 24 hours of admission is a real challenge for the clinician in the emergency room. How to diagnose these patients and the right approach to prevent sudden death with 24 hours is still an enigma. The aims of our study were to find the independent factors that may affect the clinical outcome in the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective study defining unexpected death within 24 hours of admission in our Department of Medicine in the last 6 years. We found 43 patients who died within 24 hours of admission, and compared their clinical and biochemical characteristics to 6055 consecutive patients who were admitted in that period of time and did not die within the first 24 hours of admission. The parameters that were used include gender, age, temperature, clinical and laboratory criteria for SIRS, arterial blood lactate, and arterial blood pH. Results Most of the patients who died within 24 hours had sepsis with SIRS. These patients were older (78.6±14.7 vs. 65.2±20.2 years [p<.0001]), had higher lactate levels (8.0±4.8 vs. 2.1±1.8mmol/L [p<.0001]), and lower pH (7.2±0.2 vs. 7.4±0.1 [p<.0001]). Logistic regression analysis found that lactate was the strongest independent parameter to predict death within 24 hours of admission (OR 1.366 [95% CI 1.235–1.512]), followed by old age (OR 1.048 [95% CI 1.048–1.075] and low arterial blood pH (OR 0.007 [CI <0.001–0.147]). When gender was analyzed, pH was not an independent variable in females (only in males). Conclusions The significant independent variable that predicted death within 24 hours of admission was arterial blood lactate level on admission. Older age was also an independent variable; low pH affected only males, but was a less dominant variable. We suggest use of arterial blood lactate level on admission as a bio-marker in patients with suspected sepsis admitted to the hospital for risk assessment and prediction of death within 24

  11. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  12. 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures in refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; Santos, Ana Catarina; Peralta, Rita; Paiva, Teresa; Bentes, Carla

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of seizures in specific types of epilepsies can follow a 24-hour nonuniform or nonrandom pattern. We described the 24-hour pattern of clinical seizures in patients with focal refractory epilepsy who underwent video-electroencephalography monitoring. Only patients who were candidates for epilepsy surgery with an unequivocal seizure focus were included in the study. A total of 544 seizures from 123 consecutive patients were analyzed. Specific time of seizures were distributed along 3- or 4-hour time blocks or bins throughout the 24-hour period. The mean age of the subjects was 37.7 years, with standard deviation of 11.5 years, median of 37. The majority were females (70/56%). The majority of patients had a seizure focus located in the mesial temporal lobe (102/83%) and in the neocortical temporal lobe (13/11%). The remaining patients had a seizure focus located in the extratemporal lobe (8/6%). The most common etiology was mesial temporal sclerosis (86/69.9%). Nonuniform seizure distribution was observed in seizures arising from the temporal lobe (mesial temporal lobe and neocortical temporal lobe), with two peaks found in both 3- and 4-hour bins: 10:00-13:00/16:00-19:00 and 08:00-12:00/16:00-20:00 respectively (p=0.004). No specific 24-hour pattern was identified in seizures from extratemporal location. The 24-hour rhythmicity of seizure distribution is recognized in certain types of epilepsy, but studies on the topic are scarce. Their replication and validation is therefore needed. Our study confirms the bimodal pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy independently of the nature of the lesion. However, peak times differ between different studies, suggesting that the ambient, rhythmic exogenous factors or environmental/social zeitgebers, may modulate the 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures. Characterization of these 24-hour patterns of seizure occurrence can influence diagnosis and treatment in selected types of epilepsy, such as the case of temporal lobe

  13. Dosing interval of 24hours versus 48hours between mifepristone and misoprostol administration for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Picklu; Mandal, Apurba; Das, Chandana; Mazumdar, Arindam

    2014-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of a shorter interval (24hours) between misoprostol and mifepristone administration with that of the conventional dosing interval (48hours) for second-trimester termination of pregnancy (TOP). This was a prospective randomized, controlled, open-label study of 98 healthy women opting for mid-trimester TOP. The women were randomized to receive 200mg mifepristone orally, followed 24hours (Group 1) or 48hours (Group 2) later by misoprostol (800μg, then 400μg every 3hours). The primary outcome measure was the percentage of successful abortions within 24hours. Secondary outcome measures were the induction-to-abortion interval (measured from misoprostol administration) and the frequencies of complications and adverse effects. The rate of successful abortions was similar with the 24-hour and 48-hour dosing intervals (95.8% and 93.6%, respectively; P=0.38). The mean induction-to-abortion interval was also comparable between the 2 groups (8.6±4.1hours versus 8.7±3.9hours; P=0.37). Nulliparous women and women with a pregnancy duration of 16weeks or more had a longer induction-to-abortion interval in both groups. The 24-hour dosing interval between misoprostol and mifepristone administration seems to be as effective as the 48-hour dosing interval for second trimester TOP. Clinical Trial Registry India: CTRI/2011/05/001770. © 2013.

  14. [Serum cannabinoid levels 24 to 48 hours after cannabis smoking].

    PubMed

    Skopp, Gisela; Richter, Barbara; Pötsch, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Low concentrations of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples are often claimed not to result from recent cannabis use. Prediction of time of exposure is difficult, especially if distinctive features of drug use could not be observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples as well as to obtain preliminary data on the analyte profile for a time window of 24-48 hours after discontinuation of cannabis smoking. Serum samples from heavy (n = 12, > 1 joint/day), moderate (n = 11, < or = 1 joint/day) and light (n = 6, < 1 joint/week) smokers of cannabis were analyzed for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and free THC-COOH by GC/MS as well as for glucuronidated THC-COOH by LC/MS-MS. The blood samples were collected 24-48 hours after abstaining from cannabis use. Additionally, 8 specimens were obtained from persons after discontinuation of the drug for more than 48 hours. During collection of the blood samples, distinctive effects due to drug use could not be observed. For heavy users of cannabis, THC was detectable in 8 samples, and in 5 cases both biologically active compounds, THC and 11-hydroxy-THC, were present (1.3-6.4 ng THC/mL serum, 0.5-2.4 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum). Among moderate users, in 1 sample 1.8 ng THC/mL serum and 1.3 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum were determined, and another sample was tested positive with low concentrations close to the limit of detection. In serum samples of light users both analytes could not be detected, indicating that in those persons a positive finding of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC may rather result from recent consumption than from cannabis use 1 or 2 days prior to blood sampling. The concentrations of THC-COOH and its glucuronide covered a wide range in all groups of cannabis users. However, there was a trend to higher concentrations in heavy users compared to moderate users, and the mean concentration was smaller in light smokers than in moderate smokers. Overall, the findings

  15. A comparison of biochemical tests for pheochromocytoma: measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines compared with the combination of 24-hour urinary metanephrines and catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Anna M; Jaeschke, Roman; Singh, Ravinder J; Young, William F

    2003-02-01

    We compared the diagnostic efficacy of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements to measurements of 24-h urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines in outpatients tested for pheochromocytoma at Mayo Clinic Rochester from January 1, 1999, until November 27, 2000. Catecholaminesecreting tumors were histologically proven. The sensitivity of fractionated plasma metanephrines was 97% (30 of 31 patients), compared with a sensitivity of 90% (28 of 31) for urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines (P = 0.63). The specificity of fractionated plasma metanephrines was 85% (221 of 261), compared with 98% (257 of 261; P < 0.001) for urinary measurements. The likelihood ratios for positive tests were 6.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.7 to 8.5) for fractionated plasma metanephrines and 58.9 (95% confidence interval, 22.1 to 156.9) for urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines. An adrenal pheochromocytoma was missed by urinary testing in two patients with familial syndromes and one asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. An extra-adrenal paraganglioma was missed by plasma testing in one patient. In conclusion, measurements of 24-h urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines yield fewer false-positive results, an attribute preferred for testing low-risk patients, but fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements may be preferred in high-risk patients with familial endocrine syndromes.

  16. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  17. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  18. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  19. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  20. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of plasma free metanephrines in a seated position compared with 24-hour urinary metanephrines in the investigation of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Ji In; Cho, Yoon Young; Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Jung Han; Jung, Byong Chang; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Min, Yong-Ki; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of free metanephrines in plasma samples drawn in the seated position compared with 24-h urinary metanephrines in detecting pheochromocytomas in Asian patients. This prospective study was conducted at Samsung Medical Center between May 2010 and July 2011. The study contained 245 subjects, including 28 patients with histologically-proven pheochromocytoma, 44 with histologically-proven non-pheochromocytoma, 112 controls suspected of having tumors but with negative investigations during two or more years of follow-up, and 45 healthy normotensive volunteers. Plasma-free metanephrines were measured by LC-MS/MS. The cut-off values with optimal sensitivity and specificity for plasma metanephrine and plasma normetanephrine were 0.33 nmol/L and 0.61 nmol/L, respectively. Both the plasma metanephrines measurement and urinary metanephrines measurement had a sensitivity of 96.4% (p = 1.00). However, the urinary metanephrines measurement was significantly more specific than the plasma metanephrines measurement (94.2% vs. 75.6%; p < 0.001). When we applied cut-off values based on BMI, specificity improved from 75.6% to 87.2%, with a comparable gain in sensitivity. From a diagnostic perspective, measurement of free metanephrines in plasma drawn in the seated position is highly sensitive but insufficiently specific when compared with measurement of 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrines. The specificity may be improved by applying cut-off values based on BMI. We suggest that free metanephrines in plasma drawn from seated position can also be used as an initial screening test to ensure that pheochromocytomas are not missed in Asian patients.

  2. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  3. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  4. [Comparative study] of beclomethasone and budesonide, with same posology (400 micrograms every 12 hours), in the control of cortico-dependent intrinsic asthma].

    PubMed

    Hernández, J; García-Sellés, F J; Negro, J M; Pascual, A; Sola, J; Miralles, J C; Mora, A; López, J D; Pagán, J A; Sarrió, F

    1995-01-01

    Inhaled steroids have rendered an undoubtful benefit in the control of airway inflammation of the asthmatic patients. Our objective was to compare clinical efficacy between budesonide (BUD) and beclomethasona depropionate (BDP), when administered at equal doses (800 micrograms/24 hours). A two ways crossed open clinical trial was designed. Thirty-three steroid dependent chronic asthmatic patients (18 females, 15 males) were included. Ages ranged from 29 to 73 years (mean = 52.5 +/- 11.7). All subjects suffered a severe asthma, with several years of activity (mean = 11.7 +/- 7.8), insufficiently controlled by inhaled steroids and bronchodilators, who required regular systemic steroids supply. The parameters compared were: the patients subjective symptoms punctuation (cough, expectoration, thoracic noises, exercise induce dyspnea and dyspnea at rest), salbutamol needs (number of inhalations/day), additional prednisone needs, sputum eosinophil counts, FEV1 measurement and inespecific bronchial reactivity control (PD20 methacoline). After a baseline week patients received one of the drugs for 6 weeks and, after a lavage week, the other drug was administered for another 6 weeks. All patients improved with both therapies. We got the following conclusions: 1) a significative decrease in salbutamol (p < 0.05-0.001) and prednisone needs (p < 0.05-0.001); 2) this decrease has been more important during BUD therapy, although without significative differences; 3) no significant variations in sputum eosinophils, FEV1 or bronchial reactivity were observed; 4) both drugs, when administered at equal doses, have probed to be equally effective in severe steroid dependent asthma control.

  5. Correlation of 2 Hours and 24 Hours Creatinine Clearance in Renal Donors After Unilateral Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Devanand, Viji; Chithrapavai, S.U.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The kidney performs numerous specialised functions in an effort to maintain constancy of the internal composition of body fluids. Aim: This study was done to ascertain the feasibility of estimating creatinine clearance as an outpatient procedure over a 2 hours period instead of doing the study over a 24 hours period. Material and Methods: Eighteen renal donors, Twelve females and Six males, who were closely related to recipients, were chosen. This study was done on renal donors who attended the Nephrology Department of Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Madras Medical College, Chennai–03 India. To estimate creatinine clearance in 24 hours urine, 24 hours urine sample was collected from 9 am on the first day to 9 am on the next day, after first emptying the bladder. Then, creatinine clearance was calculated by using standard formula, CC=UV/ Pt X 1.73m2/BSA of the individual. Results: There was no significant differences in mean creatinine clearance values by collecting 2 hours and 24 hours urine samples from renal donors in different stages of post nephrectomy period. It has been shown that 2 hours collection of urine sample is as good as 24 hours urine sample for estimating creatinine clearance. Conclusion: Hence it was proved that measurement of creatinine clearance could be done as an outpatient procedure, as the patient needed only 2 hours of hospital stay. PMID:24298453

  6. Safe orthotopic transplantation of hearts harvested 24hours after brain death and preserved for 24hours

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Stig; Paskevicius, Audrius; Liao, Qiuming; Sjöberg, Trygve

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to demonstrate safe orthotopic transplantation of porcine donor hearts harvested 24hours after brain death and preserved for 24hours before transplantation. Design. Circulatory normalization of brain dead (decapitated) pigs was obtained using a new pharmacological regimen (n = 10). The donor hearts were perfused at 8 °C in cycles of 15 min perfusion followed by 60 min without perfusion. The perfusate consisted of an albumin-containing hyperoncotic cardioplegic nutrition solution with hormones and erythrocytes. Orthotopic transplantation was done in 10 recipient pigs after 24 hours’ preservation. Transplanted pigs were monitored for 24hours, then an adrenaline stress test was done. Results. All transplanted pigs were stable throughout the 24-hour observation period with mean aortic pressure around 80 mmHg and normal urine production. Mean right and left atrial pressures were in the range of 3–6 and 5–10 mmHg, respectively. Blood gases at 24hours did not differ from baseline values. The adrenaline test showed a dose dependent response, with aortic pressure increasing from 98/70 to 220/150 mmHg and heart rate from 110 to 185 beats/min. Conclusion. Orthotopic transplantation of porcine hearts harvested 24hours after brain death and preserved for 24hours can be done safely. PMID:26882241

  7. [Langer-Giedion syndrome with 8q23.1-q24.12 deletion diagnosed by comparative genomic hybridization].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Botero, Felipe; Pachajoa, Harry

    2016-08-01

    The Langer-Giedion syndrome, also known as trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II, is a hereditary multisystemic disease part of the group of contiguous gene deletion syndromes. The cause of this syndrome is a heterozygous deletion that involves the chromosomal region 8q23.3-q24.11 and mainly affects genes TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1. This syndrome is characterized by the presence of multiple osteochondromas in limbs, hypertrichosis, and facial phenotype that includes sparse scalp hair, large laterally protruding ears, a long nose with a bulbous tip. We report the case of a Colombian patient with finding of an 8q23.1-q24.12 deletion by comparative genomic hybridization array technique and classical clinical findings, being the first case reported in Colombia.

  8. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  9. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M; Handrakis, John P; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Jensen, A Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n=20; TETRA: C4-C8), high paraplegia (n=10; HP: T2-T5), low paraplegia (n=9; LP: T7-T12), and non-SCI controls (n=10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R-R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P<0.05); daytime HR was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P<0.01) and nighttime HR was significantly elevated in the LP group compared to the TETRA and control groups (P<0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P<0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P<0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated.

  10. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  11. Effect of caffeine intake 12 or 24 hours prior to melatonin intake and CYP1A2*1F polymorphism on CYP1A2 phenotyping by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Härtter, Sebastian; Korhonen, Tuomas; Lundgren, Stefan; Rane, Anders; Tolonen, Ari; Turpeinen, Miia; Laine, Kari

    2006-10-01

    Earlier evidence suggests that melatonin is almost exclusively metabolised by CYP1A2 and could serve as a probe drug for CYP1A2 phenotyping. However, caffeine inhibits the metabolism of melatonin by CYP1A2 and dietary caffeine could be a potential confounder for the measurement of CYP1A2 activity with melatonin. We undertook a 3-phase cross-over study in 12 healthy volunteers to examine whether caffeine (200 mg single dose), taken 12 hr or 24 hr prior to melatonin intake, would affect the results of CYP1A2 phenotyping results as assessed by a spot sample melatonin concentration 1.5 hr after intake of 6 mg of melatonin orally. In addition we examined the influence of the CYP1A2*1F polymorphism on the phenotyping results by combining the present material with another 12 persons from a previous study. Caffeine, co-administered 12 or 24 hr prior to melatonin intake, did not have any significant effect on the 1.5 hr melatonin concentration (P=0.086 for ANOVA), but in two volunteers about 4 times increase in melatonin concentration was observed after caffeine intake 12 hr (but not 24 hr) before phenotyping with melatonin. Also, individuals homozygous for the CYP1A2*1A allele had clearly higher 1.5 hr melatonin concentration compared with the *1F/*1F or the *1F/*1A genotypes. Abstinence from caffeine for 24 hr prior to melatonin intake should be enough to overcome the possible confounding effect of caffeine on the CYP1A2 phenotyping with melatonin. Also, melatonin may be a sensitive probe to detect phenotypic differences with regard to CYP1A2*1F polymorphism. Melatonin might be, thus, advantageous for CYP1A2 phenotyping compared to the standard probe caffeine.

  12. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  13. Accuracy of 24- and 48-Hour Forecasts of Haines' Index

    Treesearch

    Brian E. Potter; Jonathan E. Martin

    2001-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison produces Web-accessible, 24- and 48-hour forecasts of the Haines Index (a tool used to measure the atmospheric potential for large wildfire development) for most of North America using its nonhydrostatic modeling system. The authors examined the accuracy of these forecasts using data from 1999 and 2000. Measures used include root-...

  14. Is 24-hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring Necessary in Glaucoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2013-01-01

    Although intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, its 24-hour behavior is poorly understood. Conflicting information is available in the literature with regard to the importance and predictive value of IOP peaks and fluctuations on the risk of glaucoma development and progression. This may be secondary to lack of prospective studies designed to address this issue. This article critically reviews the current evidence for the importance of 24-h IOP measurements in glaucoma and discusses shortcomings of current methods to assess 24-h IOP data, drawing attention to new developments in this field. PMID:23697618

  15. Pharmacist-physician co-management of hypertension reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Cynthia A.; Ernst, Michael E.; Sezate, Genesis S.; Zheng, Shimin; Carter, Barry L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacist-physician co-management of hypertension has been shown to improve office blood pressures (BP). We sought to describe the effect of such a model on 24-hour ambulatory BPs. Methods We performed a prospective, cluster-randomised controlled clinical trial in 179 patients with uncontrolled hypertension from five primary care clinics in Iowa City, Iowa. Patients were randomized by clinic to receive pharmacist-physician collaborative management of hypertension (intervention) or usual care (control) for a 9-month period. In the intervention group, pharmacists helped patients identify barriers to BP control, counselled on lifestyle and dietary modifications, and adjusted antihypertensive therapy in collaboration with the patient’s primary care provider. Patients were seen by pharmacists a minimum every 2 months. Ambulatory BP was obtained at baseline and study end. Results Baseline and end of study ambulatory BP profiles were evaluated for 175 patients. Ambulatory BPs were reduced to a greater extent in the intervention compared to control group (daytime ΔSBP [SD] 15.2[11.5] vs 5.5[13.5], p<0.001; nighttime ΔSBP [SD] 12.2[14.8] vs 3.4[13.3], p<0.001; 24-hour ΔSBP [SD] 14.1[11.3] vs 5.5[12.5], p<0.001). More patients in the intervention group had BP controlled at the end of the study (75% vs 50.7%, p<0.001) as defined by overall 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Conclusions Pharmacist-physician collaborative management of hypertension achieved consistent and significantly greater reduction in 24-hour BP and a high rate of BP control. PMID:20937921

  16. Early Indicators of Autism Spectrum Disorders at 12 and 24 Months of Age: A Prospective, Longitudinal Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veness, Carly; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Eadie, Patricia; Cini, Eileen; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Prospective questionnaire data from a longitudinal population sample on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), developmental delay, specific language impairment, or typical development (TD), were collected at ages eight, 12 and 24 months, via the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale Developmental Profile (CSBS)--Infant Toddler…

  17. International 24-Hour LEO Space Debris Measurement Campaign 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Joseph; Letsch, Klemens; Blackwell, Christopher; McSheehy, Richard; Quanette, Juarez

    2017-01-01

    The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) provides the organizational framework for sponsoring periodic international measurement campaigns of the space debris environment. The IADC has conducted two types of campaigns: high altitude campaigns designed to measure the debris environment at near-geostationary altitudes using mostly optical telescopes, and low altitude campaigns using primarily radars. One of the goals of the low altitude campaigns is to collect data for 24 contiguous hours. This way, all orbit planes can be sampled. Multiple sensors are used, each with its own strengths and weaknesses, to provide a more complete understanding of the environment. Comparing results between sensors also provides a better understanding of the potential biases resulting from any one sensor. Conducting the campaigns at roughly regular intervals over a long period also allows researchers to examine trends and growth of the environment over time. For this reason, low altitude campaigns are anticipated at two-year intervals. This is the eighth IADC low altitude campaign conducted. The first campaign was conducted in 1996 and two campaigns were conducted in 1999. The 2002 campaign was delayed until January 2003 because of scheduling conflicts, and the fifth, sixth, and seventh campaigns were conducted in 2004, 2008, and 2013 respectively. The eighth campaign was conducted on 8 December 2015.

  18. A comparison of overnight and 24 hour collection to measure urinary catecholamines.

    PubMed

    White, I R; Brunner, E J; Barron, J L

    1995-02-01

    The period of urine collection used to measure excretion of catecholamines varies in epidemiological practice. We set out to compare overnight with 24 hour collection. Twenty-four subjects each collected urine for 24 hours, with the overnight urine being separately collected. The correlation of overnight and 24 hour catecholamines was highest when both measures were standardised for creatinine excretion and when creatinine excretion was adjusted for urine flow rate. The observed correlations were 0.74 for dopamine, 0.81 for noradrenaline and 0.54 for adrenaline. The use of overnight collections may therefore require a sample size up to 1.5 times as large (for noradrenaline) or 3.4 times as large (for adrenaline) to achieve the same power as with 24 hour collections. However, the figures given exaggerate the advantage of 24 hour collections if these incorporate measurement errors that are not present in overnight collections.

  19. Fertility comparison between breeding at 24 hours or at 24 and 48 hours after collection with cooled equine semen.

    PubMed

    Shore, M D; Macpherson, M L; Combes, G B; Varner, D D; Blanchard, T L

    1998-10-01

    It has become a common practice in the equine breeding industry to send 2 insemination doses for breeding with transported cooled semen, one to be used for the initial insemination upon arrival, and the other to be held a second insemination the next day. One fertile stallion and 36 fertile mares were used to determine if breeding once with 1 dose of semen cooled for 24 h would improve fertility compared with breeding twice, 1 d apart, with half the dose of semen cooled for 24 h on the first day of breeding and half cooled for 48 h on the second day of breeding. Mares were given two intramuscular injections of 10 mg PGF2 alpha 14 d apart. Following the second injection, mares were teased with a stallion and their ovaries were scanned by transrectal ultrasonography daily. When a dominant follicle (> 35 mm diameter) was detected, 1500 units hCG were injected intravenously, and the mares were inseminated. Semen was collected in advance of anticipated breeding, mixed in nonfat dry milk solids-glucose extender to a concentration of 25 million sperm/mL, and placed in 2 commercial cooling containers for 24 or 48 h of storage prior to breeding. Mares were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 insemination treatment groups: 1) Group T1 (n = 18), in which mares were inseminated on the day of hCG injection with 500 million spermatozoa cooled for 24 h, or 2) Group T2 (n = 18), in which mares were inseminated on the day of hCG injection with 250 million spermatozoa cooled for 24 h, and again on the following day with 250 million spermatozoa cooled for 48 h. Pregnancy status was confirmed by transrectal ultrasonographic examination at 14 and 16 d after ovulation. Pregnancy rates were the same for both insemination treatment groups (12/18; 67%). There was no advantage to holding half of the insemination dose for rebreeding on the following day.

  20. Spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall over China with hourly through 24-hour accumulation periods based on national-level hourly rain gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiong; Tao, Zuyu

    2016-11-01

    Hourly rainfall measurements of 1919 national-level meteorological stations from 1981 through 2012 are used to document, for the first time, the climatology of extreme rainfall in hourly through 24-h accumulation periods in China. Rainfall amounts for 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-h periods at each station are constructed through running accumulation from hourly rainfall data that have been screened by proper quality control procedures. For each station and for each accumulation period, the historical maximum is found, and the corresponding 50-year return values are estimated using generalized extreme value theory. Based on the percentiles of the two types of extreme rainfall values among all the stations, standard thresholds separating Grade I, Grade II and Grade III extreme rainfall are established, which roughly correspond to the 70th and 90th percentiles for each of the accumulation periods. The spatial characteristics of the two types of extreme rainfall are then examined for different accumulation periods. The spatial distributions of extreme rainfall in hourly through 6-h periods are more similar than those of 12- and 24-h periods. Grade III rainfall is mostly found over South China, the western Sichuan Basin, along the southern and eastern coastlines, and in the large river basins and plains. There are similar numbers of stations with Grade III extreme hourly rainfall north and south of 30°N, but the percentage increases to about 70% south of 30°N as the accumulation period increases to 24 hours, reflecting richer moisture and more prolonged rain events in southern China. Potential applications of the extreme rainfall climatology and classification standards are suggested at the end.

  1. Assessment of heart rate variability in breath holding children by 24 hour Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Osman; Ciftel, Murat; Ozturk, Kezban; Kilic, Omer; Kahveci, Hasan; Laloğlu, Fuat; Ceylan, Ozben

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism in children with breath holding may be generalised autonomic dysregulation. Thus, we performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability analyses using 24-hour Holter monitoring to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. We performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate analyses using 24-hour Holter monitors to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children during a breath-holding spell. Our study group consisted of 68 children with breath-holding spells - 56 cyanotic type and 12 pallid type - and 39 healthy controls. Clinical and heart rate variability results were compared between each spell type - cyanotic or pallid - and the control group; significant differences (p<0.05) in standard deviation of all NN intervals, mean of the standard deviations of all NN intervals for all 5-minute segments, percentage of differences between adjacent RR intervals >50 ms, and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals values were found between the pallid and cyanotic groups. Holter monitoring for 24 hours and heart rate variability parameters, particularly in children with pallid spells, are crucial for evaluation of cardiac rhythm changes.

  2. Relationship between 24-hour blood pressure pattern and left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Nwafor, Chibuike E; Adebiyi, Adewole A; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Falase, Ayodele O

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure variation throughout the day is known to have cardiovascular consequences. Left ventricular (LV) mass is more closely related to 24-hour blood pressure than casual blood pressure. Daytime blood pressure expectedly is higher than that of nighttime under normal circumstances. The effect of 24-hour blood pressure pattern on the left ventricular structure and function has not been examined in hypertensive Nigerians. The aim of our study was to assess the 24-hour blood pressure pattern and its relationship to the LV structure and function in newly diagnosed hypertensives in Nigeria. We hypothesized that 24-hour blood pressure was more related to left ventricular structure than casual blood pressure in hypertensive Nigerians. Cross-sectional study. The study was carried out at the Cardiology Unit of the Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, South West Nigeria. Three casual blood pressure measurements were taken, while the participants were resting, using standardized digital blood pressure machine. Mean of the 3 measurements was used to categorize the participants as hypertensives or normotensives (controls). A calibrated Schiller BR-102 ABPM machine was used to measure the 24-hour blood pressure in 210 hypertensives and 202 normotensives (controls). Daytime and nighttime systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were acquired every 20 minutes. Left ventricular mass was indexed by the allometric power of height (height 2.7) and left ventricular hypertrophy was considered present if LVM was > or = 49.2 g/m2.7 in males or > or = 46.7 g/m2.7 in females. The hypertensives and the controls were comparable in their demographic characteristics. Among the hypertensives, mean casual blood pressure and mean 24-hour blood pressure (SD) were 165(16)/96(8) mm Hg and 132(22)/84(15) mm Hg, respectively (P < .0001). 24-hour, day- and nighttime blood pressure were statistically related to left ventricular mass and indexed left ventricular

  3. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Helen; Walsh, Kevin J; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-08-24

    Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of children in communities with similar

  4. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  5. TURN Score Predicts 24-Hour Cerebral Edema After IV Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, David; Nyström, Karin; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Schindler, Joseph; Wira, Charles; Greer, David; Halliday, Janet; Kimberly, W Taylor; Sheth, Kevin N

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral edema is associated with poor outcome after IV thrombolysis. We recently described the TURN score (Thrombolysis risk Using mRS and NIHSS), a predictor of severe outcome after IV thrombolysis. Our purpose was to evaluate its ability to predict 24-h cerebral edema. We retrospectively analyzed data from 303 patients who received IV rt-PA during the NINDS rt-PA trial. Measures of brain swelling included edema, mass effect and midline shift assessed at baseline, at 24 h and new onset at 24 h. Outcome was assessed using intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), 90-day severe outcome, and 90-day mortality. Statistical associations were assessed by logistic regression reporting odds ratios (OR) and by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Baseline brain swelling did not predict poor outcome; however, 24-h brain swelling predicted ICH (OR 5.69, P < 0.001), sICH (OR 9.50, P = 0.01), 90-day severe outcome (OR 7.10, P < 0.001), and 90-day mortality (OR 5.65, P = 0.01). Similar results were seen for new brain swelling at 24 h. TURN predicted 24-hour brain swelling (OR 2.5, P < 0.001; AUROC 0.69, 95 % CI 0.63-0.75) and new brain swelling at 24 h (OR 2.1, P < 0.001; AUROC 0.67, 95 % CI 0.61-0.73). Cerebral edema at 24 h is associated with poor outcome and 90-day mortality. TURN predicts ischemic stroke patients who will develop 24-h cerebral edema after IV thrombolysis.

  6. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  7. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  8. Efficacy of fesoterodine over 24 hours in subjects with overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Staskin, David; Michel, Martin C; Nitti, Victor; Morrow, Jon D; Wang, Joseph; Guan, Zhonghong

    2010-04-01

    Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic agent indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fesoterodine versus placebo over selected intervals during a 24-hour period in subjects with OAB. In a post hoc analysis, data were analyzed from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week phase III trials in which subjects with a history of OAB symptoms for >or=6 months were treated with morning doses of fesoterodine 4 mg, fesoterodine 8 mg, or placebo. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723). Changes were evaluated in number of micturitions, urgency episodes, urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, and mean voided volume (MVV) divided into three 8-hour intervals: 08:00-15:59 (daytime), 16:00-23:59 (evening), and 00:00-07:59 (nighttime). Comparisons with placebo were made using analysis of covariance (for least squares mean changes) and Wilcoxon rank sum test (for median percent changes); differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. Data from 1674 subjects, 80% of whom were women, were included in the analysis. At the end of treatment, the least squares mean change from baseline for all efficacy endpoints was significantly greater with fesoterodine 4 mg and fesoterodine 8 mg compared with placebo during each 8-hour time interval (all p < 0.05). Median percent change in number of micturitions, urgency episodes, and UUI episodes also was significantly greater with both fesoterodine doses compared with placebo during all time intervals (all p < 0.05). Fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg given once daily demonstrated efficacy over placebo for OAB symptoms during all three 8-hour intervals of a 24-hour period, thus providing clinical support for once-daily dosing. Limitations include that this was a post hoc analysis.

  9. Thallium-201 myocardial redistribution imaging 24 hours following stress exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, S.N.; Flynn, M.J.; Edelstein, J.

    1981-03-01

    Twenty-four-hour 201-thallium chloride redistribution images in conjunction with immediate postexercise images were evaluated to determine their value in distinguishing coronary artery ischemia from remote infarction. Cardiac angiography, including selective right and left coronary angiography and left ventriculography, was also performed. For 43 patients with a prevalence of coronary artery disease of 0.58, 24-h redistribution images indicated the presence of remote infraction with a predictive value of 0.75 and the absence of infarction with a predictive value of 0.92. Twenty-four-hour redistribution images are considered to be clinically efficacious, convenient for scheduling purposes, and useful as an alternative to other redistribution intervals.

  10. 24hours stay after hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Van Den Eeden, Yannick N T; De Turck, Bruno J G; Van Den Eeden, Frank M C

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose - The length of stay after total hip arthroplasty has been reduced to 2-4 days after implementing fast-track surgery. We investigated whether a new time-based patient-centered primary direct anterior approach (DAA) total hip arthroplasty (THA) treatment protocol in a specialized clinic, with a planned length of stay of about 24hours, could be achieved in all patients or only in a selected group of patients. Patients and methods - We analyzed prospectively collected data in a cohort of 378 consecutive patients who underwent a primary direct anterior THA as a patient-centered time-based procedure between March 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015. Patients with complicated medical comorbidity and those over the age of 85 were excluded from the study. The average length of stay was recorded and all complications, re-admissions, and reoperations were registered and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were length of stay and complication rate, at discharge and 90 days postoperatively. Results - The average length of stay for all patients was 26 hours. All patients were discharged from the clinic on the day after the operation and were able to continue their recovery at home or in a rehabilitation facility. The overall complication rate within 3 months of surgery was 6%. The 3-month re-admission rate and the 3-month reoperation rate were both 2%. Interpretation - Performing a time-based, patient-centered fast-track program for DAA total hip arthroplasty can result in a standardized length of stay of about 24hours and a high level of patient satisfaction with few complications, re-admissions, and reoperations.

  11. Comparisons of Office and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2017-03-01

    To compare office blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring to facilitate the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Children aged 4-16 years with OSA-related symptoms were recruited from a tertiary referral medical center. All children underwent overnight polysomnography, office BP, and 24-hour ABP studies. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to elucidate the association between the apnea-hypopnea index and BP. Correlation and consistency between office BP and 24-hour ABP were measured by Pearson correlation, intraclass correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses. In the 163 children enrolled (mean age, 8.2 ± 3.3 years; 67% male). The prevalence of systolic hypertension at night was significantly higher in children with moderate-to-severe OSA than in those with primary snoring (44.9% vs 16.1%, P = .006). Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation analyses revealed associations between office BP and 24-hour BP, and Bland-Altman analysis indicated an agreement between office and 24-hour BP measurements. However, multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that 24-hour BP (nighttime systolic BP and mean arterial pressure), unlike office BP, was independently associated with the apnea-hypopnea index, after adjustment for adiposity variables. Twenty-four-hour ABP is more strongly correlated with OSA in children, compared with office BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  13. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  14. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours. The...

  15. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners. Methods The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites), previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time), and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05), had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05) and thigh (P < 0.01), and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05) compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001) and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001), but were running slower (P < 0.01) compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05). In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001) and running speed during training (P < 0.0001) were related to marathon race times. Conclusion In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners for race performance. PMID:24198595

  16. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population: can spot urine substitute 24-hour urine samples?

    PubMed

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Laurberg, Peter; Ovesen, Lars; Perrild, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-10-01

    A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two different prediction methods in a Danish population. Overall, 473 Danish individuals provided a para-aminobenzoic acid-validated complete 24-hour urine collection and a spot urine sample. Data were collected in the DanThyr study (248 women aged 25-30 years and 60-65 years) and the Inter99 study (102 men and 113 women aged 30-60 years), respectively. The measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion was compared with the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion from a causal urine specimen, using both the Tanaka prediction method and a prediction model developed in a Danish population. The measured 24-hour sodium excretion (median, 5th to 95th percentile) was men 195 (110 to 360) and women 139 (61 to 258), whereas the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion for the Tanaka model was men 171 (117 to 222) and women 153 (92 to 228) and for the Danish model was men 207 (146 to 258); women 134 (103 to 163). The Spearman correlation between predicted and measured 24-hour sodium excretion was 0.39 and 0.49 for the Tanaka and the Danish model, respectively. For both prediction models, the proportion of individuals classified in the same or adjacent quintile was 74% for men and 64% for women. Both prediction models gave a reasonable classification of individuals according to their sodium excretion. However, the median daily sodium intake was estimated more precisely by the Danish model, especially among men. © Authors 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Provision of 24 hour acute neurology care by neurologists: manpower requirements in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, C; Zajicek, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The ABN has published standards of care for patients with acute neurological disease. Derriford Hospital provides a 24 hour neurology intake service to a population of 500 000 with the equivalent of four consultants, three specialist registrars (SpRs), and four senior house officers (SHOs) with a 37 bed ward. The authors undertook a prospective study of all neurology admissions to enable calculation of manpower necessary to meet the ABN guidelines. Methods: All admissions to the neurology department were analysed prospectively for a three month period (March to May 2002). Results: There were 629 admissions (equating to 2500 per year); data were collected for 93%. 78% of admissions were emergency, 16% elective. The mean number of neurology inpatients at any time was 76, with three (4%) being elective. The main diagnostic categories were stroke (29%), headache syndrome (13%), and epilepsy or seizures (12%). With regard to emergency admissions, 94% were seen by a neurology SHO within 6 hours and 81% by an SpR or consultant within 24 hours. Twenty five percent of emergency admissions were not seen by a consultant. 55% of patients were cared for on non-neurological wards for their entire admission. Median length of stay for stroke patients was 9.5 days, compared with 4 days for other patients. 37% of patients received a neurology follow up appointment. Currently each SpR spends 18 hours per week involved in the care of acute neurology admissions. Conclusion: Meeting the ABN guidelines will require an increase in total neurology bed provision to at least 15 per 100 000 population, with the equivalent of 3 consultant sessions (11 hours/week). Meeting the European Working Time Directive will require a minimum of 8–10 SpRs working a full shift system, which will have a significant impact on training and other aspects of service delivery. PMID:14966156

  18. Ex Situ Perfusion of Human Limb Allografts for 24 Hours.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole L; Alghanem, Fares; Rakestraw, Stephanie L; Sarver, Dylan C; Nicely, Bruce; Pietroski, Richard E; Lange, Paul; Rudich, Steven M; Mendias, Christopher L; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Magee, John C; Bartlett, Robert H; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-03-01

    Vascularized composite allografts, particularly hand and forearm, have limited ischemic tolerance after procurement. In bilateral hand transplantations, this demands a 2 team approach and expedited transfer of the allograft, limiting the recovery to a small geographic area. Ex situ perfusion may be an alternative allograft preservation method to extend allograft survival time. This is a short report of 5 human limbs maintained for 24 hours with ex situ perfusion. Upper limbs were procured from brain-dead organ donors. Following recovery, the brachial artery was cannulated and flushed with 10 000 U of heparin. The limb was then attached to a custom-made, near-normothermic (30-33°C) ex situ perfusion system composed of a pump, reservoir, and oxygenator. Perfusate was plasma-based with a hemoglobin concentration of 4 to 6 g/dL. Average warm ischemia time was 76 minutes. Perfusion was maintained at an average systolic pressure of 93 ± 2 mm Hg, flow 310 ± 20 mL/min, and vascular resistance 153 ± 16 mm Hg/L per minute. Average oxygen consumption was 1.1 ± 0.2 mL/kg per minute. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation continually displayed contraction until the end of perfusion, and histology showed no myocyte injury. Human limb allografts appeared viable after 24 hours of near-normothermic ex situ perfusion. Although these results are early and need validation with transplantation, this technology has promise for extending allograft storage times.

  19. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.

  20. 24hours stay after hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Eeden, Yannick N T; De Turck, Bruno J G; Van Den Eeden, Frank M C

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — The length of stay after total hip arthroplasty has been reduced to 2–4 days after implementing fast-track surgery. We investigated whether a new time-based patient-centered primary direct anterior approach (DAA) total hip arthroplasty (THA) treatment protocol in a specialized clinic, with a planned length of stay of about 24hours, could be achieved in all patients or only in a selected group of patients. Patients and methods — We analyzed prospectively collected data in a cohort of 378 consecutive patients who underwent a primary direct anterior THA as a patient-centered time-based procedure between March 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015. Patients with complicated medical comorbidity and those over the age of 85 were excluded from the study. The average length of stay was recorded and all complications, re-admissions, and reoperations were registered and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were length of stay and complication rate, at discharge and 90 days postoperatively. Results — The average length of stay for all patients was 26 hours. All patients were discharged from the clinic on the day after the operation and were able to continue their recovery at home or in a rehabilitation facility. The overall complication rate within 3 months of surgery was 6%. The 3-month re-admission rate and the 3-month reoperation rate were both 2%. Interpretation — Performing a time-based, patient-centered fast-track program for DAA total hip arthroplasty can result in a standardized length of stay of about 24hours and a high level of patient satisfaction with few complications, re-admissions, and reoperations. PMID:27658640

  1. Validation of a dietary questionnaire assessed with multiple weighed dietary records or 24-hour recalls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The authors evaluated the validity of a 152-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) by comparing it with two 7-day dietary records (7DDRs) or up to 4 automated self-administered 24-hour recalls (ASA24s) over a 1-year period in the women's Lifestyle Validation Study (2010-2012), con...

  2. Effect of a 12-hour/day shift on performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1988-06-01

    The operating crews at the Fast Flux Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to 12- hour/day work schedule. The primary reason for the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. Plant performance and safety were not adversely affected. A statistical analysis of 53 operator-related, off-normal events in 28 months concluded that there was no significant difference in either the number or the severity of off-normal events on the 12-hour shift. A statistical analysis of 200,000 log entries concluded that the error rate in completing logs actually declined by 25 percent on the 12-hour shift. Alertness, which was measured using computerized tests of mathematics and logical reasoning, reach a nadir on the first night shift for the 8- and 12-hour schedules alike, which indicates that the primary cause of fatigue was sleep disruption, not cumulative hours of work. All supervisors and 52 percent of the operators believe their crews work more effectively on the 12-hour shift; only 12 percent of the operators believe that their crews work less effectively. The evaluation indicated that the 12-hour shift scheduled is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility. 2 refs.

  3. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: Implications for cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M.; Handrakis, John P.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Jensen, A. Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A.; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n = 20; TETRA: C4–C8), high paraplegia (n = 10; HP: T2–T5), low paraplegia (n = 9; LP: T7–T12), and non-SCI controls (n = 10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R–R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R–R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.05); daytime HR was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01) and nighttime HR was significantly elevated in the LP group compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P < 0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated. PMID:21903013

  4. Impact of 24-hour helpline service for people with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Farrukh; Asim-Bin-Zafar; Riaz, Musarrat; Ghafoor, Erum; Rehman, Rabia Abdul; Uddin, Qutub

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact and effectiveness of 24-hour helpline service in providing information and educating patients about self-management of diabetes. Method: The study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE), a tertiary diabetes care center, Karachi, Pakistan. People with diabetes attending the outpatient department from November 2012 to October 2014 were included in this study. After providing diabetes education, a helpline number was provided for emergency situations. Calls of registered patients were received by diabetes educators stationed at the BIDE around the clock. Data was collected through specially designed interface of HMS (health management system) in which the current complaint of caller and the advice of educator was recorded. Result: A total of 4842 calls were received. Out of those, 4268 (88%) were made by Type-2 diabetics and 526 calls (10%) were made by Type-1 diabetics. The average age of patients was 47.6 years. Three seventy-four calls (7.7%) were received with complaint of Hypoglycemia (72-80mg/dl). Six hundred and ninety-eight calls (14.4%) were received with complaint of hyperglycemia (>200mg/dl). Insulin dose was adjusted on 935 calls (19.3%). Calls regarding other special situations such as (insulin handling, technique, medicine information) 2014 (41.6%) were received. Conclusion: Station based 24-hour telephonic helpline service is an effective tool for providing continuous support to people with diabetes and their families, for the self-management of diabetes. It can help in the management of various acute complication of diabetes, thereby preventing unnecessary hospital visits and admission. PMID:28811807

  5. Assessing response to stroke thrombolysis: validation of 24-hour multimodal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce C V; Tu, Hans T H; Christensen, Søren; Desmond, Patricia M; Levi, Christopher R; Bladin, Christopher F; Hjort, Niels; Ashkanian, Mahmoud; Sølling, Christine; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Davis, Stephen M; Ostergaard, Leif; Parsons, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Imaging is used as a surrogate for clinical outcome in early-phase stroke trials. Assessment of infarct growth earlier than the standard 90 days used for clinical end points may be equally accurate and more practical. To compare assessment of the effect of reperfusion therapies using 24-hour vs day 90 magnetic resonance imaging. Infarct volume was assessed on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at baseline and 24 hours after stroke onset and on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images at day 90. The DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesions were manually outlined by 2 independent raters, and the volumes were averaged. Interrater consistency was assessed using the median difference in lesion volume between raters. Referral center. Patients  Imaging data were available for 83 patients; 77 of these patients received thrombolysis. Infarct volume at 24 hours and 90 days. The 24-hour DWI infarct volume had a strong linear correlation with day 90 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery infarct volume (r = 0.98, 95% confidence interval, 0.97-0.99). Recanalization had a significant effect on infarct evolution between baseline and 24 hours but not between 24 hours and day 90. Infarct growth from baseline was significantly reduced by recanalization, whether assessed at 24 hours or day 90. Infarct volume at either time point predicted functional outcome independent of age and baseline stroke severity. Interrater agreement was better for DWI than fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (1.4 mL [8%] vs 1.8 mL [17%]; P = .002). Assessment of final infarct volume using DWI at 24 hours captures the effect of reperfusion therapies on infarct growth and predicts functional outcome similarly to imaging at day 90. This has the potential to reduce loss to follow-up in trials and may add early prognostic information in clinical practice.

  6. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  7. Correlations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in 8 hour and 24 hour urinary samples determined by dual column gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sjölin, K E; Nyholm, K K

    1980-05-01

    The correlations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid values in 8 hour and 24 hour urinary samples from 23 healthy persons were determined. beta-AIB in the 8 hour urinary samples was measured by gas chromatography and the 24 hour excretion was calculated from the results of three 8 hour determinations. Simultaneous determinations of urinary creatinine were performed by Jaffe's reaction. Based on the 8 hour values of urinary beta-AIB the results demonstrated a constant excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid within the 24 hour periods in both low and high excretors. The precision in distinguishing low and high 24 hour excretors of beta-AIB by using 8 hour values was 91%. If 8 hour values of beta-AIB were related to creatinine the same precision for this calculated ratio was 96.5%. However, for high excretors of beta-AIB, failures were 24.5% by using the 8 hour excretion of beta-AIB as indicator, but only 6.5% by using the ratio.

  8. [24-hour simultaneous esophagogastric pH-metry in children].

    PubMed

    Angulo, J M; Gorostiaga, L; Tovar, J A

    1992-07-01

    Twenty-four-hour pH-monitoring of the lower oesophagus is the best test for diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) because it is the only one allowing its quantification. Unfortunately, it is limited by the fact that acid exposure is not the only mechanism by which GER harms the oesophagus. In the last 12 months we have introduced in our Institution simultaneous oeso-gastric pH-metering using a double-channel recorder and gastric and oesophageal electrodes. This procedure enables us to know when gastric pH turns alkaline because od diet, mucus, hypoacidity or duodeno-gastric reflux (DGR) to the point of making oesophageal pH-metering useless. We report 7 illustrative cases of GER with prolonged episodes of gastric alkalinization leading to oesophageal pH-metering false negatives. In the near future, double pH-metering will very probably modify our current interpretation of conventional tracings.

  9. [Seven hour shifts versus 12 hours in intensive nursing care: going against the tide].

    PubMed

    Moreno Arroyo, M C; Jerez González, J A; Cabrera Jaime, S; Estrada Masllorens, J M; López Martín, A

    2013-01-01

    Working in shifts has an impact on the well being of health care professionals, affecting their quality of life. The main objective of this study is to describe the consequences of 12hours work shifts versus 7hours for nursing professionals working in intensive care units. A cost-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals of Barcelona, these being the Hospital Clínico and Hospital Vall d'Hebron (of 7hour and 12hour shifts, respectively). The data was collected through a questionnaire having 29 closed questions that was anonymous and self-administered. The questionnaire was based on two scales: Standard Shiftwork Index and Shiftwork. locus of control. Data was processed through SPSS V.18.0. The target population consisted of 85 people, for whom 52 surveys were valid: 22 in Hospital Clínico of Barcelona and 30 in Hospital Vall d'Hebron. Professionals working a 12-hour shift express higher levels of work and family conciliation, especially in the case of leisure time to enjoy (×2: 10.635 p=0.031) and family-friends time dedication as well as lower levels of perceived fatigue. No differences were found between type of shift and ease of development of professional work, even though the 12-hour shift has higher levels.

  10. Esential oils extraction: a 24-hour steam distillation systematic methodology.

    PubMed

    Božović, Mijat; Navarra, Alberto; Garzoli, Stefania; Pepi, Federico; Ragno, Rino

    2017-10-01

    Steam distillation is known to be the most prevalent method of essential oil extraction. Despite many studies on extraction methods, there is no report about the impact of distillation process duration on the yield and oil quality. A new 24-h steam distillation process for extraction of plant essential oils is presented. For improving the total yield, prolonged and continued isolation was used. A selection of plant species from Lamiaceae and Apiaceae families was subjected to direct steam distillation and essential oils were collected at different times (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h). The analysis included either annual or perennial species monitored in terms of different harvesting time. From these studies, it is conclusively that there is no rule about appropriate extraction time, and different plants need different periods for the essential oils to achieve the desired quality or quantity of extract. Thus, extraction duration is directly dependent on what the study is conducted for.

  11. Temporal Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells at 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24 Hours Post-Exposure to 1064 nm, 3.6 ns Pulsed Laser Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    USAFA TR 2005-05 Temporal Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells at 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24 Hours...AIR FORCE ACADEMY COLORADO 80840 20050630 417 USAFA TR 2005-05 This article, "Temporal Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal...Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment USAFA F05611-02-P-0471 Epithelial Cells at 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24-Hours Post-Exposure

  12. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, MJE; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  13. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  14. Validity of 24-hour dietary recall interviews conducted among volunteers in an adult working community.

    PubMed

    Kahn, H A; Whelton, P K; Appel, L J; Kumanyika, S K; Meneses, J L; Hebert, P R; Woods, M

    1995-11-01

    There is considerable uncertainty regarding the validity of dietary data collected from free-living populations. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to validate dietary assessment instruments. To address this issue, we compared average daily protein intake estimated from 24-hour dietary recall interviews to protein intake estimated from urinary nitrogen excretion in 24-hour samples. Among 244 community-dwelling adults who volunteered for a hypertension study, men (n = 139) overreported dietary protein intake by 12 to 19%. In contrast, women (n = 105) reported a dietary protein intake almost exactly in agreement with estimates based on urinary nitrogen levels. Thin men reported about one-third more protein intake than was reflected in their urinary nitrogen measurements. Our results suggest that the accuracy of dietary recall estimates may vary across subgroups of the population. Additional information from sufficiently large validation studies would be helpful in determining the role of dietary assessment instruments which are already in wide use in epidemiologic research. Until such information is obtained, doubts will remain regarding the validity of inferences drawn from nutritional epidemiologic studies.

  15. Prediction of late (24-hour) radioactive iodine uptake using early (3-hour) uptake values in Japanese patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Yoshinori; Sakurai, Kanako; Arihara, Zenei; Hata, Masahiro; Fukazawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), which is commonly used to calculate the dose of radioiodine (RI) therapy, cannot be accomplished in a single day. The purpose of this study was to predict 24-hour RAIU from 3-hour RAIU in Japanese patients with Graves' disease, and to investigate other factors that could be used to predict 24-hour RAIU. A total of 66 Japanese patients (14 men and 52 women; age, 17-83 years) with Graves' disease who had undergone both 3-hour and 24-hour ¹²³I RAIU measurements between January 2006 and September 2011 were included in this study. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed in order to identify factors that could be used to predict 24-hour RAIU. The investigated factors were gender, age, thyroid volume, TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), serum creatinine, second generation assay TSH receptor antibody (TRAb2), antithyroid drugs discontinuation period (ADP), iodine restriction period and 3-hour RAIU. The ADP was converted to an ordinal scale ADP score (ADPS) for multiple regression analyses. Multiple regression analyses showed that 3-hour RAIU (P < 0.001), FT3 (P < 0.001) and ADPS (P < 0.001) were statistically significant predictive factors of 24-hour RAIU. The relationship between 24-hour RAIU (LU) and 3-hour RAIU (EU), FT3 and ADPS was: LU = 11.5 + 29.1 × log₁₀ EU + 23.0 × log₁₀ FT3 - 2.7 × ADPS (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). The present results indicate that prediction of LU from EU, FT3 and ADPS is feasible in Japanese patients with Graves' disease.

  16. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials.

  17. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  18. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  19. Evaluation of a 12-hour/day shift schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-06-01

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to a 12-hour/day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility.

  20. 24-Hour Urine Phosphorus Excretion and Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Heather L.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Results Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Conclusions Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant. PMID:23539231

  1. Variation of 24-hour intraocular pressure in healthy individuals: right eye versus left eye.

    PubMed

    Liu, John H K; Sit, Arthur J; Weinreb, Robert N

    2005-10-01

    An assumption for the one-eye therapeutic trial of ocular hypotensive drugs is the symmetrical variation of intraocular pressure (IOP) between the two eyes. We evaluated whether or not 24-hour variations of IOP in the two eyes are similar in healthy individuals. Experimental study with human subjects. Ninety-one healthy individuals. We reviewed bilateral IOP data collected from 38 younger (18-25 years) and 53 older (40-74 years) experimental subjects housed for 24 hours in a sleep laboratory. Intraocular pressure was measured every 2 hours using a pneumatonometer in the sitting and supine positions during the 16-hour diurnal/wake period and in the supine position during the 8-hour nocturnal/sleep period. Measurements were always taken first in the right eye. For each age group, the two eyes' means, peaks, troughs, and ranges of IOP during office hours, the diurnal period, the nocturnal period, and the 24-hour period were compared. The coefficient of determination was used to examine the strength of association between the right and left IOPs. Bilateral IOP. For each age group, the profiles of IOP variations were similar in the two eyes with either the habitual body positions (diurnal sitting and nocturnal supine) or the 24-hour supine position. Mean, peak, and trough IOPs in the right eye were slightly higher than those in the left eye during the defined periods. There was no difference in the IOP range, except for the supine IOP in the younger group during the diurnal period. Cosine fits of the 24-hour supine IOP indicate no difference in the estimated phase timing or the 24-hour variation between the two eyes. Coefficients of determination for single pairs of right and left IOPs were in the range of 0.311 to 0.741. Variations of 24-hour IOP in the right and left eyes are similar. However, because the strength of association between the two eyes is only moderate, it may be difficult to perform a one-eye therapeutic trial using single pairs of right and left eye

  2. The possible advantages of cryoprecipitate prepared from fresh frozen plasma from blood stored for 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Philip, Joseph; Kumarage, Samantha; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Kumar, Sudeep; Mallhi, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    To compare the coagulation-factor profile of cryoprecipitate produced from fresh frozen plasma from whole blood (WB) stored for 24 hours at room temperature (24CP) with that of standard cryoprecipitate (CP). We collected 80 units of WB from healthy volunteers, of which 20 units were of each blood group. Each unit of blood was divided into 2 parts. One part was used for preparation and quality-control evaluation of CP within 8 hours of collection; the other part was stored at room temperature for 24 hours and then subjected to CP preparation. Coagulation studies were carried out on each batch of CP after production. Fibrinogen, Factor VIII (FVII), and von Willibrand factor (vWF) were measured, and the blood groups were determined. We used the Student's t-test to perform comparisons and considered results to be significant at P < .005. Overall, all 3 clotting factors were increased in 24CP compared with CP, with a statistically significant increase in the level of FVIII. Blood group AB had significantly increased levels of fibrinogen and vWF in 24CP compared with CP. Our study showed that 24CP has equal or greater levels of coagulation factors compared with CP. His indicates that our alternate approach for preparation of CP may enable more efficient use of blood collected in satellite blood collection centers and during blood drives.

  3. Does clofazimine prevent erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) in leprosy? A retrospective study, comparing the experience of multibacillary patients receiving either 12 or 24 months WHO-MDT.

    PubMed

    Balagon, Marivic; Saunderson, Paul R; Gelber, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    To compare the occurrence, duration and severity of ENL in leprosy patients treated with either 12 or 24 months of standard multi-drug therapy (MDT). 296 patients treated with MDT for 2 years, between 1985 and 1992 and followed up as part of a relapse study; and 293 patients, treated between 1998 and 2004, with MDT for 1 year and also followed up as part of a relapse study. The Chi squared test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to test for statistical significance. ENL was not significantly more common, but it was longer-lasting and more severe in patients receiving only 12 months of MDT, as compared with those receiving 24 months treatment. A high BI at the start of treatment significantly increased the risk of severe ENL by a factor of between 6 and 12, while treatment with 12 instead of 24 months of MDT significantly increased the risk by a factor of between 3 and 10. This study provides further evidence that a high initial BI is the key risk factor for ENL. It also suggests that the difference between these two cohorts in their experience of ENL as demonstrated in this study, may be related to the different amounts of clofazimine which the two cohorts were given in the early years of their treatment. Further studies are needed to determine whether clofazimine could be used more specifically to reduce the severity of ENL in the small group of patients at high risk for the condition.

  4. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    PubMed Central

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. PMID:28099585

  5. Neurologic Examination at 24 to 48 Hours Predicts Functional Outcomes in Basilar Artery Occlusion Stroke.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Jovin, Tudor G; Frankel, Michael; Schonewille, Wouter J; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap; Nogueira, Raul G

    2016-10-01

    Accurate long-term outcome prognostication in basilar artery occlusion strokes may guide clinical management in the subacute stage. We determine the prognostic value of the follow-up neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) and identify 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories in basilar artery occlusion patients. Participants of an observational registry of radiologically confirmed acute basilar artery occlusion (BASICS [Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study]) with prospectively collected 24- to 48-hour NIHSS and 1-month modified Rankin scale scores were included. Uni- and multivariable modeling were performed to identify independent predictors of poor outcome. Predictive powers of baseline and 24- to 48-hour NIHSS for poor outcome (modified Rankin scale, 4-6) and 1-month mortality were determined by receiver operating characteristic analyses. Classification and regression tree analysis was performed to identify risk groups. Three hundred seventy-six of 619 BASICS participants were included, of whom 65.4% had poor outcome. In multivariable analyses, 24- to 48-hour NIHSS (odds ratio=1.28 [1.21-1.35]), history of minor stroke (odds ratio=2.64 [1.04-6.74], time to treatment >6 hours (odds ratio=3.07 [1.35-6.99]), and age (odds ratio=1.02 [0.99-1.04]) were retained in the final model as predictors of poor outcome. Prognostic power of 24- to 48-hour NIHSS was higher than baseline NIHSS for 1-month poor outcome (area under the curve, 0.92 versus 0.75) and mortality (area under the curve, 0.85 versus 0.72). Classification and regression tree analysis identified five 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories with poor outcome rates of 9.4% (NIHSS 0-4), 36% (NIHSS 5-11), 84.3% (NIHSS 12-22), 96.1% (NIHSS 23-27), and 100% (NIHSS≥28). Twenty-four- to 48-hour NIHSS accurately predicts 1-month poor outcome and mortality and represents a clinically valuable prognostic tool for the care of basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2016

  6. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms.

    PubMed

    St Hilaire, Melissa A; Lockley, Steven W

    2015-06-01

    Totally blind individuals are highly likely to suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder due to a failure of light to reset the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. In this outpatient case series, we investigated whether daily caffeine administration could entrain the circadian pacemaker in non-entrained blind patients to alleviate symptoms of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. Three totally blind males (63.0 ± 7.5 years old) were studied at home over ~4 months. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythms were measured for 48 h every 1-2 weeks. Participants completed daily sleep-wake logs, and rated their alertness and mood using nine-point scales every ~2-4 h while awake on urine sampling days. Caffeine capsules (150 mg per os) were self-administered daily at 10 a.m. for approximately one circadian beat cycle based on each participant's endogenous circadian period τ and compared to placebo (n = 2) or no treatment (n = 1) in a single-masked manner. Non-24-h aMT6s rhythms were confirmed in all three participants (τ range = 24.32-24.57 h). Daily administration of 150 mg caffeine did not entrain the circadian clock. Caffeine treatment significantly improved daytime alertness at adverse circadian phases (p <0.0001) but did not decrease the occurrence of daytime naps compared with placebo. Although caffeine was able to improve daytime alertness acutely and may therefore provide temporary symptomatic relief, the inability of caffeine to correct the underlying circadian disorder means that an entraining agent is required to treat Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder in the blind appropriately. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [24-hour pulse pressure in children with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Zaniew, Marcin; Drozdz, Dorota; Mroziński, Bartłomiej; Rudziński, Andrzej; Blumczyński, Andrzej; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Zachwieja, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess 24-h pulse pressure (PP) and to determine relationships between PP and echocardiographic parameters of left ventricle in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study population included 47 children (mean age: 13.11 yrs) with CKD treated conservatively (n=14), with hemodialysis (HD) (n=13) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) (n=20). Retrospectively, antropometrical data, office blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) variables and LV parameters in echocardiogaphy were analyzed. In study subjects, hypertension (HTN) was present in 25 (53.19%) and in 29 (61.7%) when based on office blood pressure and ABPM respectively. The prevalence of HTN was the highest in predialysis patients. 21 (44.6%) of children had left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which was the most frequently found in HD group. The mean PP value was 45.26 +/- 7.56 mmHg and was similar in all groups. Positive correlations were found between PP and weight (p < 0.001), height (p < 0.05), body surface area (p < 0.01) and LV measures (LV mass, LV posterior wall thickness and diastolic diameter of LV, all p < 0.05). Children with PP above median had tendency for greater LV mass (p = 0.06). There was no difference in severity of blood pressure and PP in children with/without LVH. However, in 45% of patients LVH was noted in whom the value of PP was greater than calculated normative value of PP (95 centile). HTN and LVH is common in children with CKD. A mean PP in children with CKD is lower when compared to adult population with CKD. The results confirm that PP increases with the age and an increasing PP has an influence on the changes of LV geometry. Assessment of PP in ABPM might help in identifying those with abnormal LV geometry.

  8. [24-hour heart rate profile in assessment of target organs in women with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Shipilova, T; Pshenichnikov, I; Karaĭ, D; Ripul'k, E; Kaĭk, Iu

    2013-01-01

    To study relationships of 24-hour heart rate (HR) profile with involvement of the heart and kidney in women with arterial hypertension (AH). We examined women (n=273) aged 40-70 years with essential 2-3 degree AH. Blood pressure (BP) measurements (8 times in a week), electrocardiography, echocardiography, ambulatory BP monitoring, complex laboratory diagnostics. Less than 10% HR lowering was registered in 22.7% of patients. Compared with the group with normal HR profile this group was characterized by high levels of clinical systolic and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP), mean 24-hour BP, nocturnal BP, SBP time index, as well as low levels of 24-hour SBP, HR, and HR variability. Same group had also significantly greater left atrial dimensions, and higher values of NT-proBNP and total risk according to SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Estimation). Correlation analysis revealed significant reverse association between 24-hour HR index which reflected circadian character of cardiac rhythm, left atrial dimension (r=-0.212) and NT-proBNP (r=-0.346). Flat HR profile was not statistically significant for detection of cardiac pathology (odds ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval from 0.67 to 2.14). Insufficient nocturnal HR lowering in women with AH was not associated with significant changes of the myocardium and kidney and clear cat links with dyslipidemia, obesity, and smoking.

  9. A step towards using urinary nitrogen as a tool for validating 24-hour dietary recall interviews.

    PubMed

    Kahn, H A

    1987-09-01

    In an active population, can urinary nitrogen output provide a satisfactory basis for estimating protein intake without preliminary screening to rule out metabolic disease? A successful demonstration would justify comparing average protein intake for active groups derived from 24-hour recall interviews with that obtained from 24-hour urine specimens. This could then be a practical test of the hypothesis that 24-hour recall data provide valid estimates for groups. Volunteers (45) from a university population limited their diet for four days to a commercially prepared liquid diet and provided a 24-hour urine specimen beginning on the morning of the fourth day. For men, average daily intake of protein was 112.8 grams and the estimated intake based on urinary nitrogen was 114.5. Corresponding data for women were 84.6 and 83.9. Screening for metabolic disease seems unnecessary but persons restricting their intake to less than their caloric needs will have their protein intake overestimated on the basis of urinary nitrogen measurement.

  10. Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour Holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Rizos, Timolaos; Güntner, Janina; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Marquardt, Lars; Reichardt, Christine; Becker, Rüdiger; Reinhardt, Roland; Hepp, Thomas; Kirchhof, Paulus; Aleynichenko, Elena; Ringleb, Peter; Hacke, Werner; Veltkamp, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Cardioembolism in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pxAF) is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Sensitive detection of pxAF after stroke is crucial for adequate secondary stroke prevention; the optimal diagnostic modality to detect pxAF on stroke units is unknown. We compared 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) with continuous stroke unit ECG monitoring (CEM) for pxAF detection. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. After a 12-channel ECG on admission, all patients received 24-hour Holter ECG and CEM. Additionally, ECG monitoring data underwent automated analysis using dedicated software to identify pxAF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation or with atrial fibrillation on the admission ECG were excluded. Four hundred ninety-six patients (median age, 69 years; 61.5% male) fulfilled all inclusion criteria (ischemic stroke: 80.4%; transient ischemic attack: 19.6%). Median stroke unit stay lasted 88.8 hours (interquartile range, 65.0-122.0). ECG data for automated CEM analysis were available for a median time of 64.0 hours (43.0-89.8). Paroxysmal AF was documented in 41 of 496 patients (8.3%). Of these, Holter detected pxAF in 34.1%; CEM in 65.9%; and automated CEM in 92.7%. CEM and automated CEM detected significantly more patients with pxAF than Holter (P<0.001), and automated CEM detected more patients than CEM (P<0.001). Automated analysis of CEM improves pxAF detection in patients with stroke on stroke units compared with 24-hour Holter ECG. The comparative usefulness of prolonged or repetitive Holter ECG recordings requires further evaluation.

  11. The Effect of Ex Situ Perfusion in a Swine Limb Vascularized Composite Tissue Allograft on Survival up to 24 Hours.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Kagan; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Mendias, Christopher L; Bryner, Benjamin S; Toomasian, Cory; Bartlett, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    To test the potential for the ex situ limb perfusion system to prolong limb allograft survival up to 24 hours. We used 20 swine for the study. In group 1 (control), 4 limbs were perfused with heparin solution and preserved at 4°C for 6 hours. In group 2, 4 limbs were perfused with autologous blood at 27°C to 32°C for 24 hours. In both groups, limbs were transplanted orthotopically to recipients and monitored for 12 hours. In addition to perfusion parameters, we recorded perfusate gases and electrolytes (pH, pCO2, pO2, O2 saturation, Na, K, Cl, Ca, HCO3, glucose, and lactate) and obtained functional electrostimulation hourly throughout the experiment. Histology samples were obtained for TUNEL staining and single-muscle fiber contractility testing. In both groups, hemodynamic variables of circulation remained stable throughout the experiment. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation remained intact until the end of reperfusion in group 2 vs no response in group 1. In group 2, a gradual increase in lactate levels during pump perfusion returned to normal after transplantation. Compared with the contralateral limb in group 2, single-muscle fiber contractility testing showed no significant difference at the end of the experiment. We demonstrated extended limb survival up to 24 hours using normothermic pulsatile perfusion and autologous blood. Successful prolongation of limb survival using ex situ perfusion methods provides with more time for revascularization of an extremity. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 24 hours on-call and acute fatigue no longer worsen resident mood under the 80-hour work week regulations.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Michael; Civetta, Joseph; Bartus, Christine; Walsh, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Studies in on-call residents have shown that mood is worsened by fatigue as indicated by increased scores on measures of depression, anxiety, confusion, and anger using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). In prior sleep deprivation studies, mood has been shown to be more affected than either cognitive or motor performances. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the 80-hour work week regulations on resident mood in general and in a post-call period (PC). Institutional Review Board approval was obtained to survey the residents and publish the results. POMS is a 65-item adjective questionnaire that includes subscales for measuring tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-dejection, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, with the summation of the scales forming a total mood disturbance score. Surgical residents were tested at a 9 am didactic curriculum session (9 am has been shown to correlate with the nadir of performance). Residents were tested after nights off call (NOC) or after PC. Time asleep in the preceding 24 hours and other demographic data were also collected. Acute fatigue (AF) was defined as <4 hours sleep. The two-sample t-test and linear regression were used to assess differences between groups. A total of 123 standardized POMS mood questionnaires were administered on 4 occasions to 51 surgical residents, 35 men and 16 women at levels PGY-1 through PGY-5. Overall, 33 tests (27%) were taken after PC and 90 (73%) were taken after NOC. Acute fatigue residents had a mean sleep time of 2.2 (+/-1.5) hours, whereas rested (R) residents had a mean sleep time of 6.7 (+/-2.2) hours (whether PC or NOC). No statistical differences in mean values of vigor, anger, depression, concentration, fatigue, tension, or total score were observed between PC and NOC or between AF and R residents. There was no significant relationship between acute sleep deprivation and total mood disturbance, whether PC or NOC. In linear relationships

  13. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953

  14. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  15. Attenuated sympathetic nerve responses after 24 hours of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Davidson, William R Jr; Ray, Chester A.; Gray, Kristen S.; Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2002-01-01

    Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR), cardiac output (HR x stroke volume obtained by echo Doppler), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during a progressive and graded LBNP paradigm. Negative pressure was increased by 10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncope or completion of -60 mmHg. After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016). These findings suggest that 24 h of bed rest reduces sympathetic nerve responses to LBNP.

  16. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from dogs and cats after 24 and 48 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Bienzle, D; McDonnell, J J; Stanton, J B

    2000-06-01

    To compare differential cell counts and cell characteristics of CSF samples analyzed immediately or after storage for 24 and 48 hours at 4 C with and without the addition of autologous serum. Prospective study. 36 dogs and 6 cats. CSF samples were collected from the cerebellomedullary cistern and divided into 250-microliter aliquots. Slides of CSF samples were prepared by use of cytocentrifugation immediately and after 24 and 48 hours of storage with addition of autologous serum (final concentrations, 11 and 29%). Differential cell counts and number of unrecognizable cells were compared among preparations. Significant differences in the differential cell counts were not detected among samples analyzed before or after storage. Although the number of unrecognizable cells increased with storage time, this did not result in a significant effect on cell distribution or diagnosis. Cells in CSF samples stored with 11% serum more closely resembled cells in fresh samples than did cells in samples stored with 29% serum. CSF samples collected at veterinary clinics remote from a diagnostic laboratory or during nonoperational hours may be preserved through the addition of autologous serum. Evaluation of such samples is likely to result in an accurate diagnosis for at least 48 hours after collection.

  17. [24-hour energy metabolism in the human: circadian rhythm, relation to body weight and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Steiniger, J

    1985-04-15

    In 7 men with normal weight and 9 man with overweight and healthy metabolism the resting and fasting energy expenditure was indirectly calorimetrically pursued in the open system over 24 hours. The total energy expenditure over 24 hours revealed an ascertained dependence on body-weight and nutrition. The persons with overweight had a higher absolute energy expenditure, however, the activity of the energy metabolism of the body mass free from fat and the active body mass, respectively, decreased with increasing overweight. The resting and fasting energy expenditure showed in all measured parameters (oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient and nitrogen excretion in the urine) an ascertained daily periodicity (circadian rhythm), which was widely independent of body weight. Only the average daily level C0 (rhythm adjusted level) of the resting and fasting energy expenditure was positively correlated with the body weight and the food energy intake. A negative energy balance (reduction 1.2 MJ/d over 28 days) influenced only the total energy and substrate balance over 24 hours and the daily average level, respectively. The circadian conditions remained unchanged (Chossat's phenomenon). The variability in daily rhythm of the energy expenditure of nearly 25% of the daily average should be taken into consideration in the judgment of exogenically stimulated changes in the energy metabolism.

  18. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In

  19. Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (Δ) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.001), FM (P < 0.001), %BF (P < 0.001) and ECF (P < 0.05) decreased whereas SM and TBW did not change (P > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In female ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.05), %BF (P < 0.05) and FM (P < 0.001) decreased, whereas SM, ECF and TBW remained stable (P > 0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to Δ%BM (P < 0.001) and Δ%FM in men (P < 0.001) and to Δ%BM (P < 0.05) in women. In male ultra-MTBers, increased post-race plasma urea (P < 0.001) was negatively related to absolute ranking in the race, Δ%BM, post-race FM and Δ%ECF (P < 0.05). Foot volume remained stable in both sexes (P > 0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema

  20. Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers.

    PubMed

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Žákovská, Alena; Tomášková, Ivana; Shortall, Marcus; Tomášková, Iva

    2014-03-24

    The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (Δ) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.001), FM (P < 0.001), %BF (P < 0.001) and ECF (P < 0.05) decreased whereas SM and TBW did not change (P > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In female ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.05), %BF (P < 0.05) and FM (P < 0.001) decreased, whereas SM, ECF and TBW remained stable (P > 0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to Δ%BM (P < 0.001) and Δ%FM in men (P < 0.001) and to Δ%BM (P < 0.05) in women. In male ultra-MTBers, increased post-race plasma urea (P < 0.001) was negatively related to absolute ranking in the race, Δ%BM, post-race FM and Δ%ECF (P < 0.05). Foot volume remained stable in both sexes (P > 0.05). Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema of the lower limbs occurred.

  1. Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, D N

    2015-01-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz®), a melatonin receptor agonist, is the first, and, at the time of the publication, the only drug to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24). This circadian rhythm disorder occurs most commonly in blind individuals without light perception, and it results from their inability to entrain to the 24-hour photoperiod, although the indication does not specify a particular patient population. Non-24 is characterized by a persistent cycle of nighttime insomnia and daytime sleepiness, alternating with asymptomatic periods depending on an individual's degree of circadian rhythm synchronization with the photoperiod at any particular time. Phase II clinical trials in healthy individuals confirmed the circadian phase-shifting potential of tasimelteon. Phase III trials in totally blind subjects diagnosed with non-24 demonstrated the efficacy of tasimelteon in reducing both nighttime wakefulness and daytime napping. Physiologic monitoring revealed that tasimelteon resulted in a higher proportion of individuals becoming entrained to the 24-hour cycle compared with placebo. Safety assessments indicated that tasimelteon is well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being headache, alanine aminotransferase elevation, nightmares or unusual dreams, and upper respiratory or urinary tract infections. Tasimelteon is available as a capsule in a single 20-mg dose and it must be obtained through Vanda Pharmaceutical's HetliozSolutions program with dispensing through a specialty pharmacy. Safety studies in blind individuals diagnosed with non-24 are ongoing and a future clinical trial with Smith-Magenis syndrome patients is planned. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  3. Circadian variations in salivary chromogranin a concentrations during a 24-hour period in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Kazutaka; Hino, Mariko; Hori, Yasutomo; Nakao, Ruriko; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if salivary chromogranin a secretion in dogs exhibits a circadian rhythm. Saliva sampling was performed during three different sessions occurring in three nonconsecutive 24-h periods. Sixteen healthy adult beagle dogs (8 males and 8 females) were moved to a sampling room and housed individually in cages. Saliva samples were obtained every 4 h from 12:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. the following day. In the interest of habituation, saliva was obtained hourly from each dog 3 h before the experiment was started. Salivary chromogranin A concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No circadian rhythm was detected for salivary chromogranin A secretion, and no differences in salivary chromogranin A concentrations measured every 4 h were demonstrated during the 24-h cycle in dogs. PMID:19052500

  4. Circadian variations in salivary chromogranin a concentrations during a 24-hour period in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Kazutaka; Hino, Mariko; Hori, Yasutomo; Nakao, Ruriko; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if salivary chromogranin a secretion in dogs exhibits a circadian rhythm. Saliva sampling was performed during three different sessions occurring in three nonconsecutive 24-h periods. Sixteen healthy adult beagle dogs (8 males and 8 females) were moved to a sampling room and housed individually in cages. Saliva samples were obtained every 4 h from 12:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. the following day. In the interest of habituation, saliva was obtained hourly from each dog 3 h before the experiment was started. Salivary chromogranin A concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No circadian rhythm was detected for salivary chromogranin A secretion, and no differences in salivary chromogranin A concentrations measured every 4 h were demonstrated during the 24-h cycle in dogs.

  5. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Wester, Per; Sandström, Herbert; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II-III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1-8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2-22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia episodes. Intermittent short ECG recording during four weeks is more effective in detecting AF and PSVT in

  6. Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Cain, Sean W.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Münch, Mirjam Y.; Gronfier, Claude; Wyatt, James K.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature are set to an earlier hour in women than in men, even when the women and men maintain nearly identical and consistent bedtimes and wake times. Moreover, women tend to wake up earlier than men and exhibit a greater preference for morning activities than men. Although the neurobiological mechanism underlying this sex difference in circadian alignment is unknown, multiple studies in nonhuman animals have demonstrated a sex difference in circadian period that could account for such a difference in circadian alignment between women and men. Whether a sex difference in intrinsic circadian period in humans underlies the difference in circadian alignment between men and women is unknown. We analyzed precise estimates of intrinsic circadian period collected from 157 individuals (52 women, 105 men; aged 18–74 y) studied in a month-long inpatient protocol designed to minimize confounding influences on circadian period estimation. Overall, the average intrinsic period of the melatonin and temperature rhythms in this population was very close to 24 h [24.15 ± 0.2 h (24 h 9 min ± 12 min)]. We further found that the intrinsic circadian period was significantly shorter in women [24.09 ± 0.2 h (24 h 5 min ± 12 min)] than in men [24.19 ± 0.2 h (24 h 11 min ± 12 min); P < 0.01] and that a significantly greater proportion of women have intrinsic circadian periods shorter than 24.0 h (35% vs. 14%; P < 0.01). The shorter average intrinsic circadian period observed in women may have implications for understanding sex differences in habitual sleep duration and insomnia prevalence. PMID:21536890

  7. Perceptually relevant remapping of human somatotopy in 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Kolasinski, James; Makin, Tamar R; Logan, John P; Jbabdi, Saad; Clare, Stuart; Stagg, Charlotte J; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent reorganisation of functional maps in the cerebral cortex is well described in the primary sensory cortices. However, there is relatively little evidence for such cortical reorganisation over the short-term. Using human somatosensory cortex as a model, we investigated the effects of a 24 hr gluing manipulation in which the right index and right middle fingers (digits 2 and 3) were adjoined with surgical glue. Somatotopic representations, assessed with two 7 tesla fMRI protocols, revealed rapid off-target reorganisation in the non-manipulated fingers following gluing, with the representation of the ring finger (digit 4) shifted towards the little finger (digit 5) and away from the middle finger (digit 3). These shifts were also evident in two behavioural tasks conducted in an independent cohort, showing reduced sensitivity for discriminating the temporal order of stimuli to the ring and little fingers, and increased substitution errors across this pair on a speeded reaction time task. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17280.001 PMID:28035900

  8. Health associations with meeting new 24-hour movement guidelines for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Tremblay, Mark S

    2017-02-01

    The study objective was to examine whether meeting the new Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines was associated with health indicators in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. Cross-sectional findings are based on 4157 (1239 fasting subsample) children and youth aged 6-17years from cycles 1-3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Sleep and screen time were subjectively measured while moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was accelerometer-determined. Health indicators in the full sample (body mass index (BMI) z-scores, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioral strengths and difficulties score (lower=better), and aerobic fitness) and fasting subsample (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin) were measured. Meeting the overall guidelines was defined as: 9-11 hour/night (5-13years) or 8-10 hour/day (14-17years) of sleep, ≤2 hour/day of screen time, and ≥60 minute/day of MVPA. Compared to meeting all three recommendations, meeting none, one, and two recommendations were associated with a higher BMI z-score, waist circumference, and behavioral strengths and difficulties score and lower aerobic fitness in a gradient pattern (Ptrend<0.05). Additionally, compared to meeting all three recommendations, meeting none and one recommendation were associated with higher systolic blood pressure and insulin (Ptrend<0.05). Finally, compared to meeting all three recommendations, meeting no recommendations was associated with higher triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol (Ptrend<0.05). Collectively, meeting more recommendations within the 24-hour movement guidelines was associated with better overall health. Since a small proportion (17%) of this representative sample was meeting the overall guidelines, efforts to promote adoption are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Fibrinogen Concentrate on Thrombin Generation, Thromboelastometry Parameters, and Laboratory Coagulation Testing in a 24-Hour Porcine Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Zentai, Christian; Solomon, Cristina; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Schnabel, Jonas; Rossaint, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In a 24-hour porcine model of liver injury, we showed that fibrinogen supplementation does not downregulate endogenous fibrinogen synthesis. Here we report data from the same study showing the impact of fibrinogen on coagulation variables. Materials and Methods: Coagulopathy was induced in 20 German land race pigs by hemodilution and blunt liver injury. Animals randomly received fibrinogen concentrate (100 mg/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters were assessed and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. Results: Fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the prolongations of EXTEM clotting time, EXTEM clot formation time, and prothrombin time induced by hemodilution and liver injury. A decrease in clot strength was also ameliorated. Endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the fibrinogen group than in the control group, 20 minutes (353 ± 24 vs 289 ± 22 nmol/L·min; P < .05) and 100 minutes (315 ± 40 vs 263 ± 38 nmol/L·min; P < .05) after the start of infusion. However, no significant between-group differences were seen in other thrombin generation parameters or in d-dimer or thrombin–antithrombin levels. Fibrinogen–platelet binding was reduced following liver injury, with no significant differences between groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in any parameter at ∼12 and ∼24 hours. Conclusion: This study suggests that, in trauma, fibrinogen supplementation may shorten some measurements of the speed of coagulation initiation and produce a short-lived increase in endogenous thrombin potential, potentially through increased clotting substrate availability. Approximately 12 and 24 hours after starting fibrinogen concentrate/saline infusion, all parameters measured in this study were comparable in the 2 study groups. PMID:25948634

  10. Effects of Fibrinogen Concentrate on Thrombin Generation, Thromboelastometry Parameters, and Laboratory Coagulation Testing in a 24-Hour Porcine Trauma Model.

    PubMed

    Zentai, Christian; Solomon, Cristina; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Spronk, Henri M H; Schnabel, Jonas; Rossaint, Rolf; Grottke, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    In a 24-hour porcine model of liver injury, we showed that fibrinogen supplementation does not downregulate endogenous fibrinogen synthesis. Here we report data from the same study showing the impact of fibrinogen on coagulation variables. Coagulopathy was induced in 20 German land race pigs by hemodilution and blunt liver injury. Animals randomly received fibrinogen concentrate (100 mg/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters were assessed and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. Fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the prolongations of EXTEM clotting time, EXTEM clot formation time, and prothrombin time induced by hemodilution and liver injury. A decrease in clot strength was also ameliorated. Endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the fibrinogen group than in the control group, 20 minutes (353 ± 24 vs 289 ± 22 nmol/L·min; P < .05) and 100 minutes (315 ± 40 vs 263 ± 38 nmol/L·min; P < .05) after the start of infusion. However, no significant between-group differences were seen in other thrombin generation parameters or in d-dimer or thrombin-antithrombin levels. Fibrinogen-platelet binding was reduced following liver injury, with no significant differences between groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in any parameter at ∼12 and ∼24 hours. This study suggests that, in trauma, fibrinogen supplementation may shorten some measurements of the speed of coagulation initiation and produce a short-lived increase in endogenous thrombin potential, potentially through increased clotting substrate availability. Approximately 12 and 24 hours after starting fibrinogen concentrate/saline infusion, all parameters measured in this study were comparable in the 2 study groups. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury.

    PubMed

    Eliya, Martha C; Banda, Grace W

    2011-09-07

    Acute traumatic wounds are one of the common reasons why people present to the emergency department. Primary closure has traditionally been reserved for traumatic wounds presenting within six hours of injury and considered 'clean' by the attending surgeon, with the rest undergoing delayed primary closure as a means of controlling wound infection. Primary closure has the potential benefit of rapid wound healing but poses the potential threat of increased wound infection. There is currently no evidence to guide clinical decision-making on the best timing for closure of traumatic wounds. To determine the effect on time to healing of primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. To explore the adverse effects of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 14 July 2011); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to July Week 1 2011); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, July 13, 2011); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 27); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 14 July 2011). There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials comparing primary closure with delayed closure of non bite traumatic wounds. Two review authors independently evaluated the results of the searches against the inclusion criteria. No studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Since no studies met the inclusion criteria, neither a meta-analysis nor a narrative description of studies was possible. There is currently no systematic evidence to guide clinical decision-making regarding the timing for closure of traumatic wounds. There is a need for robust research to investigate the effect of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non

  12. Primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury.

    PubMed

    Eliya-Masamba, Martha C; Banda, Grace W

    2013-10-22

    Acute traumatic wounds are one of the common reasons why people present to the emergency department. Primary closure has traditionally been reserved for traumatic wounds presenting within six hours of injury and considered 'clean' by the attending surgeon, with the rest undergoing delayed primary closure as a means of controlling wound infection. Primary closure has the potential benefit of rapid wound healing but poses the potential threat of increased wound infection. There is currently no evidence to guide clinical decision-making on the best timing for closure of traumatic wounds. To determine the effect on time to healing of primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. To explore the adverse effects of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. In May 2013, for this first update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials comparing primary closure with delayed closure of non bite traumatic wounds. Two review authors independently evaluated the results of the searches against the inclusion criteria. No studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Since no studies met the inclusion criteria, neither a meta-analysis nor a narrative description of studies was possible. There is currently no systematic evidence to guide clinical decision-making regarding the timing for closure of traumatic wounds. There is a need for robust research to investigate the effect of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours of injury.

  13. Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, we aimed to verify associations between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a hospital-based population. This was a cross-sectional observational study on children aged 4 to 16 years with OSA-related symptoms from a tertiary referral medical center. All children received overnight polysomnography and 24-hour recording of ABP. Severity of the disease was classified as primary snoring (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI <1), mild OSA (AHI 1–5), and moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI >5). For 195 children enrolled in this study (mean age, 7.8 ± 3.4 years; 69% boy), ABP increased as severity of OSA increased. During daytime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (117.0 ± 12.7 vs 110.5 ± 9.3 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (85.6 ± 8.1 vs 81.6 ± 6.8 mmHg), and diastolic BP load (12.0 ± 9.6 vs 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg) compared with children with primary snoring. During nighttime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic BP (108.6 ± 15.0 vs 100.0 ± 9.4 mmHg), MAP (75.9 ± 9.6 vs 71.1 ± 7.0 mmHg), systolic BP load (44.0 ± 32.6 vs 26.8 ± 24.5 mmHg), systolic BP index (0.5 ± 13.1 vs −6.8 ± 8.5 mmHg), and higher prevalence of systolic hypertension (47.6% vs 14.7 %) compared with children with primary snoring. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed an independent association between AHI and nighttime systolic BP and MAP after adjusting for adiposity variables. This large hospital-based study showed that children with moderate-to-severe OSA had a higher ABP compared with children who were primary snorers. As elevated BP in childhood predicts future cardiovascular risks, children with severe OSA should be treated properly to prevent further adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26448004

  14. New method for assessing cardiac parasympathetic activity using 24 hour electrocardiograms.

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, D J; Neilson, J M; Travis, P

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac parasympathetic activity was assessed using 24 hour electrocardiographic recordings by measuring the incidence of larger changes in successive RR intervals, which in normal subjects occur frequently but irregularly. In 25 normal subjects the mean number of times per hour in which the change in successive RR interval was greater than 50 ms was 150-250 during waking and 350-450 during sleeping. By contrast, 30 diabetics with medically denervated hearts (12 with cardiovascular reflex evidence of parasympathetic damage and 18 with additional sympathetic damage) and six cardiac transplant patients with surgically denervated hearts had extremely low counts. Additionally, of 20 diabetics with normal cardiovascular reflexes, about half had abnormally low counts, suggesting that this method is better than currently available reflex tests in detecting early cardiac parasympathetic damage. This technique provides a valid and sensitive way of monitoring cardiac parasympathetic activity over prolonged periods. PMID:6383446

  15. Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations and 24-Hour Continuous Monitoring for Glaucoma Risk in Wind Instrument Players.

    PubMed

    de Crom, Ronald M P C; Webers, Carroll A B; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina A W; Michiels, Agnes C; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of playing a wind instrument on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to monitor 24-hour (IOP) fluctuations in wind musicians of symphony and wind orchestras to compare IOP levels during normal daily activities with IOP levels during playing. Professional and amateur musicians of symphony and wind orchestras were invited to participate. A total of 42 participants, 9 with glaucoma, underwent a routine ophthalmologic examination. IOP measurements were taken before and immediately after 20 minutes of playing wind instruments. In addition, 6 participants underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring with the Triggerfish (Sensimed AG, Switzerland) sensing contact lens, during which they kept an activity logbook. Eleven professionals and 31 amateur musicians participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes of 6 patients underwent additional 24-hour IOP monitoring. Mean IOP before playing was 13.6±2.6 mm Hg, IOP change after playing was +1.5±2.2 mm Hg with a significant difference between professionals (2.5±1.5 mm Hg) and amateurs (1.1±2.3 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in IOP change between subjects with or without glaucoma. During 24-hour IOP monitoring there were slight increases in IOP while playing an instrument, but also during other activities and overnight. These latter IOP levels were similar or even higher than the IOP rise caused by playing a wind instrument. IOP often rises after playing wind instruments, but similar or even higher IOP levels seem to occur during common other daily activities or at night. These peaks may be relevant for glaucomatous field progression and treatment of glaucoma patients.

  16. 28 CFR 12.24 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forms. 12.24 Section 12.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST 1, 1956 § 12.24 Forms. (a) Every person required...

  17. 28 CFR 12.24 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forms. 12.24 Section 12.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST 1, 1956 § 12.24 Forms. (a) Every person required...

  18. 28 CFR 12.24 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forms. 12.24 Section 12.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST 1, 1956 § 12.24 Forms. (a) Every person required...

  19. Mifepristone and misoprostol administered simultaneously versus 24 hours apart for abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Creinin, Mitchell D; Schreiber, Courtney A; Bednarek, Paula; Lintu, Hanna; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Meyn, Leslie A

    2007-04-01

    Mifepristone and oral misoprostol are typically used for medical abortion in women up to 49 days of gestation, with a 36- to 48-hour interval between the medications. Alternative routes of misoprostol administration allow for use beyond 49 days of gestation. We designed this randomized, noninferiority trial to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and acceptability of misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally administered simultaneously with, or 24 hours after, mifepristone 200 mg orally for abortion in women up to 63 days of gestation. The 1,128 participants swallowed mifepristone 200 mg and were then randomized to self-administer misoprostol intravaginally immediately in the office (group 1) or 24 hours later at home (group 2). Subjects returned for an evaluation, including transvaginal ultrasonography, 7+/-1 days after initiating treatment. Women who had not aborted were offered a second dose of misoprostol and returned for another evaluation in approximately 1 week. A phone contact was also attempted approximately 5 weeks after treatment. Treatment was considered a failure if a suction aspiration was performed for any indication. The complete abortion rate for group 1 (95.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 93.0-96.8%) was statistically noninferior to that for group 2 (96.9%, 95% CI 95.1-98.2%) (P=.003). The abortion rates between groups did not significantly differ by gestational age. Adverse effects were mostly similar, although nausea, diarrhea, and warmth or chills were significantly more common in group 1. Mifepristone 200 mg and misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally used simultaneously is as effective for abortion as compared with regimens using a 24-hour dosing interval. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00269568 I.

  20. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg) of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg) of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg) of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012). Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion) and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed). Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite that dietary

  1. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder in Sighted and Blind Patients.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Makoto; Lockley, Steven W

    2015-12-01

    Non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD) is a cyclic debilitating circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by an inability to sleep on a 24-hour schedule. Individuals isolated from a 24-hour light-dark cycle exhibit sleep-wake cycles different from 24 hours. Relatively rare in sighted patients, it may be associated with delayed sleep-wake rhythm disorder or psychiatric disorders. It is more common in totally blind individuals owing to the lack of light information reaching the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus. We review the clinical characteristics of patients with N24SWD, discuss the biological mechanisms that may underlie its development, and describe treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Intradermal and Subcutaneous Infusion Set Performance Under 24-Hour Basal and Bolus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Elaine; Keith, Steven; Herr, Joshua K.; Sutter, Diane; Pettis, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to assess the function and delivery reliability of intradermal (ID) infusion sets used with commercial insulin pumps. Method: Healthy subjects (n = 43) were randomized to either ID or subcutaneous (SC) arms, and received basal/bolus placebo delivery for 24 hours. Subjects received 4 of 8 infusion set combinations (ID: microneedle design A or B, with 2 pump brands [Animas or MiniMed]; SC: Teflon Quickset or steel Rapid-D, Animas pump only, with or without overtaping) and were evaluated for pump occlusion alarms, fluid leakage, pain, and tissue tolerability. A novel algorithm was developed to determine flow consistency based on fluid pressure, and the duration and occurrence rate for periods of unalarmed but interrupted flow (“silent occlusions’”) were compared. Results: ID delivery was successfully maintained over the 24-hour infusion period. The number of silent occlusions was lower for ID microneedle cannula design B than A (P < .01) and lower for Rapid-D SC device compared to Quick-set (P = .03). There was no significant difference in the number of occlusion alarms between the ID and SC devices with the Animas pump. However, the pumps tested with ID devices had significantly different alarm rates (MiniMed 29.5%, Animas 0%, P < .001). Leakage and tissue tolerability were comparable across devices. Conclusion: The ID infusion set reliably delivered diluent for an extended 24-hour period in healthy subjects and was well tolerated. Silent occlusion flow interruptions could be detected in both ID and SC infusion sets using a proprietary algorithm. This algorithm is a promising method for quantitatively evaluating infusion set flow performance. PMID:26319228

  3. Early postoperative patient-controlled analgesia ratio predicts 24-hour morphine consumption and pain in children undergoing scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Matava, Clyde T; Crawford, Mark W; Pehora, Carolyne; Naser, Basem; McDonnell, Conor

    2014-01-01

    The identification of patients at risk for developing severe postoperative pain and/or opioid-related side effects is difficult due to a lack of sensitive indicators. The patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) ratio of demands to deliveries is a potential tool for early identification of patients who experience severe postoperative pain. The authors hypothesized that the PCA ratio is able to predict morphine requirement in the first 24 hours after scoliosis surgery. The authors performed a retrospective study of adolescents who had surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. They collected data describing PCA demands and deliveries, morphine consumption, numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores, opioid related side effects, and duration of hospital stay. Spearman rank analysis assessed association among 4-hour PCA ratios, NRS pain score, and 24-hour morphine consumption. Patients were divided into groups on the basis of PCA ratios <1.5 and ≥1.5. Univariate analysis and multiple regression were used to identify independent factors predictive for increased 24-hour morphine. Mann-Whitney rank-sum and Fisher exact tests were used to compare data. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. One hundred forty-seven patients were included in the analysis, mean (SD) age and weight were 15 (1.8) years and 55 (27) kg, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the 4-hour PCA ratio and initial 24-hour cumulative morphine consumption (r = 0.33, p = 0.0002). Patients with a 4-hour PCA ratio ≥1.5 demonstrated a significantly greater initial 24-hour morphine consumption (p = 0.0002), greater pain scores at 24 hours after surgery (p = 0.02), a greater incidence of at least one opioid-related side effect within the initial 24 hours after surgery, and a longer duration of hospital stay (p = 0.04) compared with those patients with a 4-hour PCA ratio <1.5. PCA ratio ≥1.5, age, and patient sex were predictive for 24-hour morphine consumption. The authors have

  4. The bioequivalence of frozen plasma prepared from whole blood held overnight at room temperature compared to fresh-frozen plasma prepared within eight hours of collection.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Larry J; Cancelas, Jose A; Maes, Lou Ann; Rugg, Neeta; Whitley, Pamela; Herschel, Louise; Siegel, Alan H; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Hess, John R; Zia, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Overnight, room temperature hold of whole blood (WB) before leukoreduction and component processing offers significant logistic and cost advantages over WB processed within 8 hours. Plasma prepared from WB held at room temperature overnight (PF24RT24WB) may result in a degradation of plasma coagulation protein activities compared to plasma frozen within 8 hours of collection. In this study, we intended to evaluate the bioequivalence (BE) of PF24RT24WB prepared using a new WB collection, leukoreduction, and storage system compared to fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) after 12 months of frozen storage. We conducted a three-center, three-arm evaluation of the LEUKOSEP HWB-600-XL test system (Hemerus Medical LLC) compared to the RZ2000 control (Fenwal, Inc.). FFP was prepared from WB held at room temperature more than 6 hours and placed at less than -18 °C by 8 hours for control (n = 60) and test (n = 60) arms. PF24RT24WB (n = 60) was prepared with the test system from WB held at room temperature and then filtered and processed 20 to 24 hours postcollection. Frozen plasma was tested at 3, 6, and 12 months using a comprehensive panel of protein and coagulation factor assays. The test FFP was BE for all coagulation factors and tested proteins at 12 months. As expected, PF24RT24WB had a reduced Factor (F)VIII activity compared to control FFP (87.1%; 90% confidence interval, 79.4%-93.3%) with the lower confidence limit less than 80%. All other factors were within the BE region. Leukoreduced FFP and PF24RT24WB prepared using the LEUKOSEP HWB-600-XL system has been shown to be BE to control leukoreduced FFP with an expected decrease in FVIII activity after overnight hold. © 2014 AABB.

  5. Lack of effect of a 24-hour infusion of iloprost in intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Hay, C R; Waller, P C; Carter, C; Cameron, H A; Parnell, L; Ramsay, L E; Preston, F E; Greaves, M

    1987-04-15

    24 hour infusion of iloprost was compared with placebo infusion in 19 patients with stable intermittent claudication using a double blind, balanced crossover design. Despite significant inhibition of platelet aggregation to ADP and collagen (p less than 0.001) and the typical cardiovascular and gastrointestinal side effects, there was no significant effect on treadmill exercise times at any time up to 6 weeks after infusion. The 95% confidence limits indicated that an improvement of more than 25% was unlikely to occur. No significant changes in B thromboglobulin, platelet aggregate ratio, bleeding time, whole blood viscosity and euglobulin clot lysis time were demonstrated.

  6. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  7. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses without affecting information processing and judgment

  8. Heterogeneity of Prognostic Studies of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn S.; Heneghan, Carl J.; Stevens, Richard J.; Adams, Emily C.; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2–7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods. PMID:25984791

  9. Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn S; Heneghan, Carl J; Stevens, Richard J; Adams, Emily C; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods.

  10. Correlation of blood pressure readings from 6-hour intervals with the daytime period of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    King-Schultz, Leslie; Weaver, Amy L; Cramer, Carl H

    2012-06-01

    Shorter-interval (6-hour) ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has been shown to correlate well with 24-hour ABPM in adults, but this has not been studied in children. The authors selected 131 patients aged 9 to 18 who underwent 24-ABPM from 2000-2008. Six-hour intervals beginning at different start times were compared with the daytime and 24-hour period, with subset analysis for normotensive and hypertensive patients. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were used to assess for agreement. Among normotensive patients, the mean difference between daytime and 6-hour intervals ranged from -0.1 mm Hg to 0.0 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and -1.1 mm Hg to 0.6 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) with CCCs of 0.88 to 0.93 for DBP and 0.93 to 0.96 for SBP. For hypertensive patients, mean difference ranged from -0.6 to 1.3 mm Hg for DBP and -0.8 to 1.1 mm Hg for SBP with CCCs of 0.89 to 0.98 for DBP and 0.86 to 0.95 for SBP. Shorter-interval monitoring correlates significantly with full daytime monitoring in children, allowing for assessment of blood pressure with improved convenience. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Salt taste threshold, 24 hour natriuresis and blood pressure variation in normotensive individuals].

    PubMed

    Antonello, Vicente Sperb; Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira; Santos, Carlos Abaeté de Los

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluates salt taste sensibility, urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP) in normotensive persons. The hypothesis was that a higher salt taste threshold (STT) can be associated to a higher 24 hour natriuresis and increased BP levels. Twenty four not hypertensive volunteers were selected. To evaluate STT, different concentrations of sodium chloride were used. Individuals were submitted to 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and the 24 hour urine was collected for sodium dosage. Patients were divided in two groups related to higher or normal STT. Both groups did not differ regarding age or body mass index (BMI). There was no difference between the groups regarding demographic variables, alcohol or tobacco use, and ABPM. Twenty-four hour natriuresis was significantly higher in the group with increased STT. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient, with the significance determined by Student-t test, there was a strong correlation between 24 hour Systolic BP and BMI, Diastolic BP and BMI, and a regular correlation between STT with 24 hour natriuresis and Systolic BP with 24 hour natriuresis. Twenty four hour natriuresis was significantly higher in individuals with higher STT, suggesting that this avidity for salt is followed by higher ingestion of sodium. There was strong association between BP and BMI. The association between STT and BP levels was not confirmed. Increasing the number of persons, the age bracket, and of hypertensive patients may lead to a better understanding of the relations between STT, natriuresis and BP variation.

  12. A validation study of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids) among 9 to 11-year-old youth

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Hingle, Melanie; Chen, Tzu-An; Dadabhoy, Hafza R.; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Subar, Amy F.; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Valid methods of diet assessment are important for nutrition research and practice but can be difficult with children. Objective To validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9-11-year-old children, in two sites. Design Quasi-experimental Participants/setting In one site, trained staff observed and recorded foods and drinks consumed by children (n=38) during school lunch. The next day, the observed children completed both ASA24-Kids-2012 and an interviewer-administered 24hDR in a randomized order. Procedures in a second site (n=31) were similar, except observations occurred during dinner in a community location. Statistical analyses Foods were classified as matches (reported and consumed), intrusions (reported, but not consumed), or omissions (not reported, but consumed) for each participant. Rates of matches, intrusions, and omissions were calculated. Rates were compared between each recall method using repeated measures analysis of covariance. For matched foods, the authors determined correlation coefficients between observed and reported serving sizes. Results Match, intrusion, and omission rates between ASA24-Kids-2012 and observed intakes in site 1 were 37%, 27%, and 35%, respectively. Comparable rates for interviewer-administered 24hDRs were 57%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. In site 2, match, intrusion, and omission rates between ASA24-Kids-2012 and observed intakes were 53%, 12%, and 36%, respectively, vs. 76% matches, 9% intrusions, and 15% omissions for interviewer-administered 24hDRs. The relationship strength between reported and observed serving sizes for matched foods was 0.18 in site 1 and 0.09 in site 2 for ASA24-Kids-2012, and 0.46 in site 1 and 0.11 in site 2 for interviewer-administered 24hDRs. Conclusions ASA24-Kids-2012 was less accurate than interviewer-administered 24hDRs when compared to observed intakes, but both performed poorly. Additional research should assess the age at which

  13. Physician-pharmacist co-management and 24-hour blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare indices of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 patients) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 patients) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) was significantly lower in the co-managed vs the control group: daytime BP 122.8 mm Hg vs 134.4 mm Hg (P<.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg vs 123.7 mm Hg (P<.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg vs 131.8 mm Hg (P<.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 vs 1.1 changes per patient, P<.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed patients (79.6% vs 62.6%, P<.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the patients who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (P<.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with the control group. Antihypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for patients in the co-managed group.

  14. Disaggregation of Rainy Hours: Compared Performance of Various Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Haha, M.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    In the urban environment, the response times of catchments are usually short. To de- sign or to diagnose waterworks in that context, it is necessary to describe rainfall events with a good time resolution: a 10mn time step is often necessary. Such in- formation is not always available. Rainfall disaggregation models have thus to be applied to produce from rough rainfall data that short time resolution information. The communication will present the performance obtained with several rainfall dis- aggregation models that allow for the disaggregation of rainy hours into six 10mn rainfall amounts. The ability of the models to reproduce some statistical character- istics of rainfall (mean, variance, overall distribution of 10mn-rainfall amounts; ex- treme values of maximal rainfall amounts over different durations) is evaluated thanks to different graphical and numerical criteria. The performance of simple models pre- sented in some scientific papers or developed in the Hydram laboratory as well as the performance of more sophisticated ones is compared with the performance of the basic constant disaggregation model. The compared models are either deterministic or stochastic; for some of them the disaggregation is based on scaling properties of rainfall. The compared models are in increasing complexity order: constant model, linear model (Ben Haha, 2001), Ormsbee Deterministic model (Ormsbee, 1989), Ar- tificial Neuronal Network based model (Burian et al. 2000), Hydram Stochastic 1 and Hydram Stochastic 2 (Ben Haha, 2001), Multiplicative Cascade based model (Olsson and Berndtsson, 1998), Ormsbee Stochastic model (Ormsbee, 1989). The 625 rainy hours used for that evaluation (with a hourly rainfall amount greater than 5mm) were extracted from the 21 years chronological rainfall series (10mn time step) observed at the Pully meteorological station, Switzerland. The models were also evaluated when applied to different rainfall classes depending on the season first and on the

  15. Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Casual Urinary Sodium Concentrations in Western Populations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ian J.; Dyer, Alan R.; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984–1987 at the ages of 20–59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were −1.6 mmol per 24 hours and 2.3 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the individual level and −1.8 mmol per 24 hours and 2.2 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity. PMID:23673246

  16. Comparison of 24-hour intragastric pH using four liquid formulations of lansoprazole and omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K

    1999-12-01

    The results of previous studies evaluating the effect of four liquid formulations of proton-pump inhibitors on 24-hour intragastric pH are described. Patients with a gastrostomy who were resident in a Veterans Affairs medical center or its affiliated nursing home were eligible for enrollment in one of four open-label studies in which each patient served as his own control. Patients underwent 24-hour intragastric pH studies before and after receiving seven consecutive days of one of the following liquid formulations of a proton-pump inhibitor administered once daily: omeprazole granules 20 mg in orange juice, lansoprazole granules 30 mg in orange juice, simplified omeprazole suspension 20 mg, and simplified lansoprazole suspension 30 mg. The suspensions were prepared with 10 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution. Mean intragastric pH was measured, as was the time pH stayed above 3.0 and 4.0 during the 24-hour period. Six to 14 patients participated in each study. The mean posttreatment pH was 4.9+/-0.8, 4.7+/-0.6, 4.1+/-1.5, and 5.1+/-1.1 for omeprazole granules in orange juice, lansoprazole granules in orange juice, simplified omeprazole suspension, and simplified lansoprazole suspension, respectively. Both drugs in orange juice maintained pH above 4.0 longer than 14 hours and above 3.0 for close to 20 hours, which are the levels deemed optimal for healing erosive esophagitis and duodenal ulcers, respectively. Simplified lansoprazole suspension maintained pH above those thresholds for the optimal times, but simplified omeprazole suspension did not (20 and 15 hr above 3.0, 17 and 12 hr above 4.0 for lansoprazole and omeprazole, respectively). Further development of liquid formulations of proton-pump inhibitors may have important implications for the treatment of acid-related diseases in patients, including children, who are unable to swallow capsules.

  17. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level.

    PubMed

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. A hipertensão arterial sistêmica é um fator de risco importante para

  18. Distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems: impacts on health, wellbeing, and on shift alertness

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, P.; Smith, L.; Macdonald, I.; Folkard, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate of the effects of distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems. Although several studies have examined the effects of compressing work schedules by comparing 8 and 12 hour shift systems, there is little published research examining the various forms of 12 hour shift system. METHODS: An abridged version of the standard shiftwork index which included retrospective alertness ratings was completed by a large sample of industrial shiftworkers. The respondents worked 12 hour shift systems that either did or did not incorporate breaks of > 24 hours between the blocks of day and night shifts. For the purposes of the analysis, each of these two groups were further subdivided into those who started their morning shift at 0600 and those who started at 0700. RESULTS: Systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts were associated with slightly higher levels of on shift alertness, slightly lower levels of chronic fatigue, along with longer sleep durations when working night shifts and between rest days. Early changeovers were associated with shorter night sleeps between successive day shifts, but longer and less disturbed day sleeps between night shifts. These effects of changeover time were broadly in agreement with previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems had only limited effects on the outcome measures, although the few modest differences that were found favoured systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts. It is conceded that the design of the study may have obscured some subtle differences between the shift systems. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the impact of distribution of rest days seems to be minor relative to previously found effects of other features of shift systems--for example, shift duration.   PMID:10448331

  19. The comparison of QT dispersion and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring amongst diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Yeo, C K; Hapizah, M N; Khalid, B A K; Wan Nazainimoon, W M; Khalid, Y

    2004-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an important coronary artery disease risk factor. The presence of microalbuminuria, which indicates renal involvement in diabetic patients, is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. There are suggestions that diabetic patients with microalbuminuria have more adverse risk profile such as higher ambulatory blood pressure and total cholesterol levels to account for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. QT dispersion is increasingly being recognized as a prognostic factor for coronary artery disease and sudden death. Some studies have suggested that QT dispersion is an important predictor of mortality in Type II diabetic patients. Our cross sectional study was to compare the QT dispersion and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring between diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and those without microalbuminuria. Diabetic patients with overt coronary artery disease were excluded from the study. A total of 108 patients were recruited of which 57 patients had microalbuminuria and 51 were without microalbuminuria. The mean value of QT dispersion was significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria than in patients without microalbuminuria (58.9 +/- 27.9 ms vs. 47.1 +/- 25.0 ms, p < 0.05). The mean 24 hour systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria than in patients without microalbuminuria (129.5 +/- 12.3 mm Hg vs 122.3 +/- 10.2 mm Hg, p < 0.05 and 78.4 +/- 6.9 mm Hg vs 75.3 +/- 6.8 mm Hg, p < 0.05, respectively). Our study suggests that QT dispersion prolongation, related perhaps to some autonomic dysfunction, is an early manifestation of cardiovascular aberration in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. The higher blood pressure levels recorded during a 24-hour period min diabetics with microalbuminuria could also possibly account for the worse cardiovascular outcome in this group of patients.

  20. Is it time to pull the plug on 12-hour shifts? Part 3. harm reduction strategies if keeping 12-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Trinkoff, Alison M

    2010-09-01

    This article is part 3 of the series "Pulling the Plug on 12-Hour Shifts." In part 1 (March 2010), the authors provided an update on recent evidence that challenges the current scheduling paradigm and supports the lack of safety of long work hours. Part 2 (April 2010) described the barriers to change and challenges for the nurse executive in moving away from the practice of 12-hour shifts. This article presents strategies for mitigating the effects of 12-hour shifts for nurses who continue to work 12-hour shifts despite the potential risks to their health and to patient safety.

  1. Neonatal mortality within 24 hours of birth in six low- and lower-middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Baqui, Abdullah H; Mitra, Dipak K; Begum, Nazma; Hurt, Lisa; Soremekun, Seyi; Edmond, Karen; Kirkwood, Betty; Bhandari, Nita; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Jehan, Fyezah; Ilyas, Muhammad; Ali, Murtaza; Ahmed, Imran; Ariff, Shabina; Soofi, Sajid B; Sazawal, Sunil; Dhingra, Usha; Dutta, Arup; Ali, Said M; Ame, Shaali M; Semrau, Katherine; Hamomba, Fern M; Grogan, Caroline; Hamer, Davidson H; Bahl, Rajiv; Manu, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate neonatal mortality, particularly within 24 hours of birth, in six low- and lower-middle-income countries. Methods We analysed epidemiological data on a total of 149 570 live births collected between 2007 and 2013 in six prospective randomized trials and a cohort study from predominantly rural areas of Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Pakistan, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. The neonatal mortality rate and mortality within 24 hours of birth were estimated for all countries and mortality within 6 hours was estimated for four countries with available data. The findings were compared with published model-based estimates of neonatal mortality. Findings Overall, the neonatal mortality rate observed at study sites in the six countries was 30.5 per 1000 live births (range: 13.6 in Zambia to 47.4 in Pakistan). Mortality within 24 hours was 14.1 per 1000 live births overall (range: 5.1 in Zambia to 20.1 in India) and 46.3% of all neonatal deaths occurred within 24 hours (range: 36.2% in Pakistan to 65.5% in the United Republic of Tanzania). Mortality in the first 6 hours was 8.3 per 1000 live births, i.e. 31.9% of neonatal mortality. Conclusion Neonatal mortality within 24 hours of birth in predominantly rural areas of six low- and lower-middle-income countries was higher than model-based estimates for these countries. A little under half of all neonatal deaths occurred within 24 hours of birth and around one third occurred within 6 hours. Implementation of high-quality, effective obstetric and early newborn care should be a priority in these settings. PMID:27843165

  2. Optimal dose of oral omeprazole for maximal 24 hour decrease of intragastric acidity.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, B K; Walt, R P; Pounder, R E; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H

    1984-01-01

    In a series of 59 experiments in nine duodenal ulcer patients, 24 hour intragastric acidity was measured before, during, and after treatment with daily oral omeprazole. Omeprazole 10, 20, and 30 mg/day for one week caused a 37, 90, and 97% decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity, respectively. No further decrease of acidity was observed when the dose of omeprazole was doubled to 60 mg/day, or after a second week of treatment with 30 mg/day. One week after stopping treatment with omeprazole (14 doses) there was a significant 26% decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity, with full recovery seven weeks later. Fasting plasma gastrin concentration was significantly raised during treatment with all doses of omeprazole. Omeprazole 30 mg/day is the optimal dose for a maximal decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:6469081

  3. Serial ASPECTS from Baseline to 24 Hours in SWIFT: A Novel Surrogate Endpoint for Revascularization in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, David S; Jahan, Reza; Nogueira, Raul G; Jovin, Tudor G; Lutsep, Helmi L; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose ASPECTS on baseline imaging is an established predictor of acute ischemic stroke outcomes. We analyzed change on serial ASPECTS at baseline and 24-hour imaging in the SOLITAIRE™ FR With the Intention For Thrombectomy (SWIFT) Study to determine prognostic value and to identify subgroups with extensive injury after intervention. Methods ASPECTS at baseline and 24 hours was independently scored in all anterior circulation SWIFT cases, blind to all other trial data. ASPECTS at baseline, at 24 hours, and serial changes were analyzed with univariate and multivariate approaches. Results 139 patients (mean age 67 years (SD 12), 52% female, median NIHSS 18 (IQR 8–28)) with complete data at both time points were studied. Multivariate analyses showed higher 24-hour ASPECTS predicted good clinical outcome (Day 90 mRS 0–2): OR 1.67, p<0.001. Among patients with high baseline ASPECTS (8–10; n=109), dramatic infarct progression (decrease in ASPECTS ≥ 6 points at 24 hours) was noted in 31/109 (28%). Such serial ASPECTS change was predicted by higher baseline SBP (p=0.019), higher baseline blood glucose (p=0.133), and failure to achieve TICI 2b/3 reperfusion (p<0.001), culminating in worse Day 90 mRS outcomes (mean mRS 4.4 vs. 2.7, p<0.001). Conclusions 24-hour ASPECTS provides better prognostic information than baseline ASPECTS. Predictors of dramatic infarct progression on ASPECTS are hyperglycemia, hypertension and non-reperfusion. Serial ASPECTS change from baseline to 24 hours predicts clinical outcome, providing an early surrogate endpoint for thrombectomy trials. Clinical Trial Registration-URL http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01054560. PMID:24525954

  4. Full-mouth treatment modalities (within 24 hours) for chronic periodontitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Joerg; Jepsen, Sören; Jervøe-Storm, Pia-Merete; Needleman, Ian; Worthington, Helen V

    2015-04-17

    Periodontitis is chronic inflammation that causes damage to the soft tissues and bones supporting the teeth. Mild to moderate periodontitis affects up to 50% of adults. Conventional treatment is quadrant scaling and root planing. In an attempt to enhance treatment outcomes, alternative protocols for anti-infective periodontal therapy have been introduced: full-mouth scaling (FMS) and full-mouth disinfection (FMD), which is scaling plus use of an antiseptic. This review updates our previous review of full-mouth treatment modalities, which was published in 2008. To evaluate the clinical effects of 1) full-mouth scaling (over 24 hours) or 2) full-mouth disinfection (over 24 hours) for the treatment of chronic periodontitis compared to conventional quadrant scaling and root planing (over a series of visits at least one week apart). A secondary objective was to evaluate whether there was a difference in clinical effect between full-mouth disinfection and full-mouth scaling. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 26 March 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 26 March 2015), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 26 March 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 26 March 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing studies. There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication in the searches of the electronic databases. We scanned reference lists from relevant articles and contacted the authors of eligible studies to identify trials and obtain additional information. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least three months of follow-up that evaluated full-mouth scaling and root planing within 24 hours with adjunctive use of an antiseptic such as chlorhexidine (FMD) or without the use of

  5. Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome improved by low-dose valproic acid: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Masatake; Moriya, Takahiro; Nishino, Satoshi; Hirata, Eishin; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Okubo, Yoshiro; Sato, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    A woman was diagnosed with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome and depressive symptoms. Her depressive symptoms did not respond to standard doses of several antidepressants or mood stabilizers. Furthermore, her sleep-wake cycle remained non-entrained despite treatment with a melatonin-related drug, vitamin B12, and phototherapy. Ultimately, her sleep-wake rhythm was restored to a 24-hour pattern with a low dose of valproic acid, and her depressive symptoms tended to improve as a result of synchronization without antidepressants. Low-dose valproic acid appears to be one of the effective means of entraining circadian rhythms in patients with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome, which in turn likely improves associated depressive symptoms.

  6. Non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome improved by low-dose valproic acid: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Masatake; Moriya, Takahiro; Nishino, Satoshi; Hirata, Eishin; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Okubo, Yoshiro; Sato, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    A woman was diagnosed with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome and depressive symptoms. Her depressive symptoms did not respond to standard doses of several antidepressants or mood stabilizers. Furthermore, her sleep–wake cycle remained non-entrained despite treatment with a melatonin-related drug, vitamin B12, and phototherapy. Ultimately, her sleep–wake rhythm was restored to a 24-hour pattern with a low dose of valproic acid, and her depressive symptoms tended to improve as a result of synchronization without antidepressants. Low-dose valproic acid appears to be one of the effective means of entraining circadian rhythms in patients with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome, which in turn likely improves associated depressive symptoms. PMID:28008257

  7. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  8. 12 CFR 561.24 - Immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immediate family. 561.24 Section 561.24 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.24 Immediate family. The term immediate family of any...

  9. 12 CFR 345.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service test. 345.24 Section 345.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service...

  10. 12 CFR 228.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service test. 228.24 Section 228.24 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment area(s)...

  11. 12 CFR 25.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service test. 25.24 Section 25.24 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  12. 12 CFR 563e.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service test. 563e.24 Section 563e.24 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 563e.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a...

  13. 12 CFR 345.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service test. 345.24 Section 345.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service...

  14. 12 CFR 195.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service test. 195.24 Section 195.24 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 195.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a...

  15. 12 CFR 228.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Service test. 228.24 Section 228.24 Banks and...) COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  16. 12 CFR 563e.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service test. 563e.24 Section 563e.24 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 563e.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a...

  17. 12 CFR 228.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service test. 228.24 Section 228.24 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment area(s)...

  18. 12 CFR 228.24 - Service test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service test. 228.24 Section 228.24 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment area(s)...

  19. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  20. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  1. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  2. 12 CFR 1102.24 - Filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing requirements. 1102.24 Section 1102.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Rules of Practice for Proceedings § 1102.24 Filing requirements. (a) Filing. All papers filed with the ASC in...

  3. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  4. 12 CFR 1026.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.24 Section 1026.24 Banks and....24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific credit... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  5. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and...) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  6. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  7. 12 CFR 1026.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.24 Section 1026.24 Banks and....24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific credit... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  8. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and...) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  9. 12 CFR 1207.24 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enforcement. 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and the Office of Finance § 1207.24...

  10. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  11. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  12. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of directors... legal holiday if emergency conditions exist. That day is a legal holiday for national banks or their offices in the affected geographic area (i.e., throughout the country, in a state, or in part of a state...

  13. Antiplatelet Effect Durability of a Novel, 24-Hour, Extended-Release Prescription Formulation of Acetylsalicylic Acid in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gurbel, Paul A; Bliden, Kevin P; Chaudhary, Rahul; Patrick, Jeff; Liu, Fang; Chen, Gailing; McLeod, Christopher; Tantry, Udaya S

    2016-12-15

    High platelet reactivity and high platelet turnover have been implicated in incomplete platelet inhibition during immediate-release acetylsalicylic acid therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). An extended-release acetylsalicylic acid (ER-ASA; Durlaza) formulation was developed to provide 24-hour antithrombotic effects with once-daily dosing. The objective of the study was to evaluate the antiplatelet effects of ER-ASA in patients with DM. In this open-label, single-center study, patients with DM (n = 40) and multiple cardiovascular risk factors received ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day for 14 ± 4 days. Multiple platelet function tests, serum and urinary thromboxane B2 metabolites, prostacyclin metabolite, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels were assessed at 1, 12, 16, and 24 hours post-dose. Patients with high platelet turnover and/or high platelet reactivity were treated with ER-ASA 325 mg/day for 14 ± 4 days, and laboratory analyses were repeated. All patients responded to ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day as measured by arachidonic acid-induced aggregation, and there was no loss of the platelet inhibitory effect of ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day over 24 hours post-dose (p = not significant). The antiplatelet effect was sustained over 24 hours for all platelet function measurements. Mean 1- to 24-hour serum thromboxane B2 levels were low with both doses and were lower with ER-ASA 325 mg/day compared with 162.5 mg/day therapy (p = 0.002). In conclusion, ER-ASA 162.5 mg daily dose provided sustained antiplatelet effects over 24 hours in patients with type 2 DM and multiple cardiovascular risk factors and had a favorable tolerability profile.

  14. Body Mass Index Predicts 24-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Levels in Patients With Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Ghazi, Lama; Liu, Mingchun; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2016-10-01

    Prospective studies indicate that hyperaldosteronism is found in 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. A small number of observational studies in normotensive and hypertensive patients suggest a correlation between aldosterone levels and obesity while others could not confirm these findings. The correlation between aldosterone levels and body mass index (BMI) in patients with resistant hypertension has not been previously investigated. Our objective was to determine whether BMI is positively correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone in black and white patients. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a large diverse cohort (n=2170) with resistant hypertension. The relationship between plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, 24-hour urinary aldosterone, and BMI was investigated for the entire cohort, by sex and race (65.3% white, 40.3% men). We demonstrate that plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone:renin ratio were significantly correlated to BMI (P<0.0001) across the first 3 quartiles, but not from the 3rd to 4th quartile of BMI. Plasma renin activity was not correlated with BMI. Twenty-four-hour urinary aldosterone was positively correlated across all quartiles of BMI for the cohort (P<0.0001) and when analyzed by sex (men P<0.0001; women P=0.0013) and race (P<0.05), and stronger for men compared with women (r=0.19, P<0.001 versus r=0.05, P=0.431, P=0.028) regardless of race. In both black and white patients, aldosterone levels were positively correlated to increasing BMI, with the correlation being more pronounced in black and white men. These findings suggest that obesity, particularly the abdominal obesity typical of men, contributes to excess aldosterone in patients with resistant hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Associations of Ischemic Lesion Volume With Functional Outcome in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 24-Hour Versus 1-Week Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bucker, Amber; Boers, Anna M; Bot, Joseph C J; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Lingsma, Hester F; Yoo, Albert J; van Zwam, Wim H; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; van der Lugt, Aad; Dippel, Diederik W J; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Majoie, Charles B L M; Marquering, Henk A

    2017-05-01

    Ischemic lesion volume (ILV) on noncontrast computed tomography at 1 week can be used as a secondary outcome measure in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-four-hour ILV on noncontrast computed tomography has greater availability and potentially allows earlier estimation of functional outcome. We aimed to assess lesion growth 24 hours after stroke onset and compare the associations of 24-hour and 1-week ILV with functional outcome. We included 228 patients from MR CLEAN trial (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands), who received noncontrast computed tomography at 24-hour and 1-week follow-up on which ILV was measured. Relative and absolute lesion growth was determined. Logistic regression models were constructed either including the 24-hour or including the 1-week ILV. Ordinal and dichotomous (0-2 and 3-6) modified Rankin scale scores were, respectively, used as primary and secondary outcome measures. Median ILV was 42 mL (interquartile range, 21-95 mL) and 64 mL (interquartile range: 30-120 mL) at 24 hours and 1 week, respectively. Relative lesion growth exceeding 30% occurred in 121 patients (53%) and absolute lesion growth exceeding 20 mL occurred in 83 patients (36%). Both the 24-hour and 1-week ILVs were similarly significantly associated with functional outcome (both P<0.001). In the logistic analyses, the areas under the curve of the receiver-operator characteristic curves were similar: 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.91) for including the 24-hour and 1-week ILV, respectively. Growth of ILV is common 24-hour poststroke onset. Nevertheless, the 24-hour ILV proved to be a valuable secondary outcome measure as it is equally strongly associated with functional outcome as the 1-week ILV. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN10888758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Activity-adjusted 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and cardiac remodeling in children with sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Amin, Raouf; Somers, Virend K; McConnell, Keith; Willging, Paul; Myer, Charles; Sherman, Marc; McPhail, Gary; Morgenthal, Ashley; Fenchel, Matthew; Bean, Judy; Kimball, Thomas; Daniels, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Questions remain as to whether pediatric sleep disordered breathing increases the risk for elevated blood pressure and blood pressure-dependent cardiac remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that activity-adjusted morning blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and diurnal and nocturnal blood pressure are significantly higher in children with sleep disordered breathing than in healthy controls and that these blood pressure parameters relate to left ventricular remodeling. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure parameters were compared between groups. The associations between blood pressure and left ventricular relative wall thickness and mass were measured. 140 children met the inclusion criteria. In children with apnea hypopnea index <5 per hour, a significant difference from controls was the morning blood surge. Significant increases in blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were evident in those whom the apnea hypopnea index exceeded 5 per hour. Sleep disordered breathing and body mass index had similar effect on blood pressure parameters except for nocturnal diastolic blood pressure, where sleep disordered breathing had a significantly greater effect than body mass index. Diurnal and nocturnal systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure predicted the changes in left ventricular relative wall thickness. Therefore, sleep disordered breathing in children who are otherwise healthy is independently associated with an increase in morning blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. The association between left ventricular remodeling and 24-hour blood pressure highlights the role of sleep disordered breathing in increasing cardiovascular morbidity.

  17. Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Normal and Abnormal 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, P.; Stevenson, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) plays an important role in assessing cardiovascular prognosis, through presence or absence of ABPM-related prognostic features. Objectives. To study relationship between 24-hour ABPM and cardiovascular outcomes in patients from Chesterfield Royal Hospital. Material and Methods. Over 12 months from the 1st of August 2002, 1187 individuals had 24-hour ABPM performed. Cardiovascular outcomes were studied in a subset (297) of the original cohort, made up by every 4th consecutive subject. The following ABPM-related prognostic features were studied—high day time systolic and diastolic BP (≥135, ≥85 mmHg), high night time systolic and diastolic BP (≥120 mmHg, ≥75 mmHg), absence of nocturnal dip (≤10% fall in night time SBP), high early morning SBP (≥140 mmHg), and morning surge (≥20/15 mmHg). The cardiovascular outcomes studied in the fourth table included fatal and nonfatal MI, new diagnosis of angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmias, acute LVF, cerbrovascular events, peripheral vascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and CKD stage 3 or above. Results. Over a followup period of 2015 ± 116 days (1720–2305 days) 82 cardiovascular events occurred in 61 subjects. Cardiac arrhythmias were the most common CV outcome (34 events) followed by cerebrovascular events (15). Statistically significant associations found were between cerebrovascular events and absent nocturnal dip ≤ 10% (P = .05) and high day time DBP (P = .029), peripheral vascular disease and morning surge ≥ 20/15 mmHg (P = .014), cardiac arrhythmias and high day time and night time DBP (P = .009 and .033, resp.). Conclusion. Significant associations were found between cerebrovascular events and absent nocturnal dip ≤ 10% and high day time DBP, peripheral vascular disease and morning surge ≥ 20/15 mmHg, cardiac arrhythmias and high day time and night time DBP. PMID

  18. Stress relaxation properties of four orthodontic aligner materials: A 24-hour in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Luca; Martines, Elisa; Mazzanti, Valentina; Arreghini, Angela; Mollica, Francesco; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the stress release properties of four thermoplastic materials used to make orthodontic aligners when subjected to 24 consecutive hours of deflection. Four types of aligner materials (two single and two double layered) were selected. After initial yield strength testing to characterize the materials, each sample was subjected to a constant load for 24 hours in a moist, temperature-regulated environment, and the stress release over time was measured. The test was performed three times on each type of material. All polymers analyzed released a significant amount of stress during the 24-hour period. Stress release was greater during the first 8 hours, reaching a plateau that generally remained constant. The single-layer materials, F22 Aligner polyurethane (Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, Padova, Italy) and Duran polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (SCHEU, Iserlohn, Germany), exhibited the greatest values for both absolute stress and stress decay speed. The double-layer materials, Erkoloc-Pro (Erkodent, Pfalzgrafenweiler, Germany) and Durasoft (SCHEU), exhibited very constant stress release, but at absolute values up to four times lower than the single-layer samples tested. Orthodontic aligner performance is strongly influenced by the material of their construction. Stress release, which may exceed 50% of the initial stress value in the early hours of wear, may cause significant changes in the behavior of the polymers at 24 hours from the application of orthodontic loads, which may influence programmed tooth movement.

  19. Estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-06-20

    The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24-70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24-70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p < 0.001). In the validation group, the estimated 24-HUNa showed significant correlations with measured 24-HUNa values. The estimated 24-HUNa by the linear, quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual's 24-HUNa.

  20. Underuse of 24-hour urine collection among children with incident urinary stones: a quality-of-care concern?

    PubMed

    Ellison, Jonathan S; Kaufman, Samuel R; Kraft, Kate H; Wolf, J Stuart; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of 24-hour urine collection among first-time pediatric stone formers and investigate factors associated with its use. Using data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database (2002-2006), children presenting to the emergency department with an incident episode of upper urinary tract stone disease were identified through a diagnosis code-based algorithm. The number of patients performing a 24-hour urine collection within 6 months of this encounter was calculated. Temporal trends in the prevalence of use were assessed. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to examine factors associated with testing. In total, 1848 children presented with an incident upper tract stone, of which 12.0% submitted a 24-hour urine collection. This percentage remained stable over the study period. Testing was more common among younger patients (P <.001) and those who visited urologists (P <.001) or nephrologists (P <.001). The odds of testing were nearly 4-fold or 7-fold higher if the patient saw a urologist (odds ratio, 3.99; 95% confidence interval, 2.83-5.62) or a nephrologist (odds ratio, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 3.95-12.41), respectively. Despite rates of stone recurrence, 24-hour urine collection appears to be underused among children. Efforts to increase its use are therefore likely to benefit pediatric patients with urinary stone disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Dietary restraint and disinhibition do not affect accuracy of 24-hour recall in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Desmond, Renee Ann; Allison, David B; Conway, Joan Marie

    2006-03-01

    Some psychological predictors of eating behaviors have been shown to affect usefulness of methods for dietary assessment. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association of dietary restraint and disinhibition with dietary recall accuracy for total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 79 male and 71 female non-Hispanic whites and African-American volunteers. Participants selected and consumed all foods for a 1-day period under observation and actual intake was determined. The following day, each participant completed a telephone 24-hour recall using the US Department of Agriculture Multiple-Pass method to obtain recalled intake. The Eating Inventory, which measures dietary restraint and disinhibition, was administered prior to eating any food in the study. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to determine if dietary restraint or disinhibition were independent predictors of recall accuracy. The mean (+/-standard deviation) age and body mass index of the participants was 43+/-12 years and 29+/-5.5 (calculated as kg/m2), respectively. On average, men overreported intake of energy by 265 kcal and women by 250 kcal; both groups also overreported intake of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. When controlling for body mass index, sex, and race, restraint was a significant independent predictor of energy intake (P=0.004) and negatively correlated with energy intake (r=-0.23, P<0.001). Unlike intake of carbohydrate or protein, fat intake was significantly and negatively associated with dietary restraint (P<0.001; r=-0.3). Dietary restraint did not affect accuracy of recall of intake of energy, fat, carbohydrate, or protein, but was significantly associated with intake of energy and fat. Disinhibition was not related to intake or accuracy. Dietetics professionals should consider dietary restraint a possible reason for a lower than expected estimate of energy intake when using 24-hour recalls.

  2. Association between symptoms and frequency of arrhythmias on 24-hour Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Ghazala; Ahmad, Mansoor; Khan, Abdul Rasheed

    2009-11-01

    To determine association between patient's symptoms and incidence of arrhythmia on 24-hour electrocardiographic Holter monitoring. A cross-sectional descriptive study. The Cardiology Department, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from January to June 2007. Patients above 15 years of age, of either gender, referred for Holter monitoring with symptoms of palpitations, dizziness and syncope were evaluated for arrhythmia. The symptoms were documented by the patients in their symptom diaries (historical logs) during Holter monitoring. Patients who had permanent pacemaker implants were excluded. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the frequencies and percentages of different symptoms, different arrhythmias were noted on Holter monitoring and the age of patients was noted. Chi-square test was applied to calculate p-values with significant at value less than 0.05. The mean age of patients was 53.71 +/- 15.52 years. There were 54% females and 46% males. Eighty two percent had documented arrhythmias on their Holter monitoring reports. The complaints for which patients were referred included dizziness in 24%, palpitations in 61% and syncope in 15%. On analysis of the historical logs of patients only 64% had symptoms during Holter monitoring and 23% had concurrence of their symptoms with an arrhythmia. Patients who had sinus exit block (p=0.02) and sinus arrest (p=0.002) had significant association with arrhythmia. Twenty percent patients with dizziness, 50% patients with palpitations and 12% of patients who presented with syncope had documented arrhythmias. Twenty four hour Holter monitoring is an important investigation for evaluation of patients with palpitation, dizziness and syncope. Arrhythmias were detected frequently in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. One must be careful to avoid attributing a symptom to an arrhythmia until a close temporal relationship is demonstrated.

  3. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Rasaaq Ayodele; Ikwu, Amanze Nkemjika; Balogun, Michael Olabode; Akintomide, Anthony Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olufemi Eyitayo; Adeyeye, Victor Oladeji; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo Omasan; Bamikole, Olaniyi James; Ogunyemi, Suraj Adefabi; Ajibare, Adeola Olubunmi; Oketona, Omolola Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases. To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV) among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit. Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females) were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2%) and 176 were females (56.8%). The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23%) and 49 (15.8%) of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%). The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively. Palpitation and syncope were the commonest indications for Holter ECG among our subjects. The commonest arrhythmic patterns were premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex, with ventricular arrhythmia being more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy. There was a reduction in HRV in patients with stroke and diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

  4. 24 CFR 16.12 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees. 16.12 Section 16.12 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.12 Fees. (a) The only fees to be charged to or collected from...

  5. Overnight versus 24 hours of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion as supplement to oral antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Parkner, Tina; Laursen, Torben; Chen, Jian-Wen; Møller, Marianne K; Thomsen, Henrik F; Jørgensen, Christina; Smedegaard, Jørgen S; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christiansen, Jens S

    2007-09-01

    Basal continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy at a fixed rate may effectively improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes when oral antidiabetic treatment fails. Regimens of simple constant subcutaneous delivery of insulin may provide theoretical advantages in type 2 diabetes. Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes who obtained insufficient glycemic control on oral antidiabetic drugs were included. Following an initial control day, two periods of 3 days with CSII of a rapid-acting insulin analogue, 1.5 IU/h (dose obtained from a preceding study), for 8 hours overnight and for 24 hours, respectively, were carried out in random order. Profiles of serum insulin aspart, serum endogenous insulin, and plasma glucose were recorded. Compared to the control day, an 8-hour overnight insulin infusion during a 3-day period improved fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mean differences +/- SEM; Delta59.0 +/- 10.1 mg/dl; p < 0.01) and 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) (Delta57.8 +/- 10.6 mg/dl; p < 0.01) after breakfast. Compared to an 8-hour overnight infusion, a 24-hour infusion further improved all three PPPG values after breakfast, lunch, and dinner (Delta28.8 +/- 8.1 mg/dl, Delta30.6 +/- 8.1 mg/dl, and Delta35.1 +/- 7.9 mg/dl; p < 0.01). During insulin infusion, only one hypoglycemic episode with PG <55.8 mg/dl and mild symptoms was recorded. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with a rapid-acting insulin analogue at a fixed rate of 1.5 IU/h, either overnight or for 24 hours, improved glycemic control without safety concerns in patients with type 2 diabetes who had secondary failure to oral antidiabetic drugs. The effect on FPG was similar for both treatments, whereas the effect on PPPG was superior when insulin was infused during the entire 24 hours.

  6. Effect of variable energy served on 24-hour energy intake in 16 preschools, Chicago, Illinois, 2007.

    PubMed

    Lown, Debbie A; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Dyer, Alan; Schiffer, Linda; Gomez, Sandra; Braunschweig, Carol L

    2011-05-01

    The effect of varying portion size in a natural environment on the self-regulation of 24-hour energy intake has not been evaluated. We studied students at 16 preschools in Chicago to determine the effect of meals with variable energy and macronutrients on the amount consumed over a 24-hour period (ie, at preschool and outside of preschool). The food items and portion sizes served at 16 preschools in the Chicago Public Schools early childhood education programs were observed for 3 to 8 days. Children were assessed for total energy and selected macronutrients consumed at preschool and outside of preschool for a 24-hour period; their data were pooled and reported by school. The students were predominantly African American (96%); on average, 32 students (range, 21-38) participated at each of the 16 preschools, and the age range of students was 4.0 to 4.5 years. The energy served at preschools ranged from 48% to 90% of the daily recommended energy allowance (REA). The mean energy intake at school was significantly higher (39% of REA) at 2 preschools, including 1 that served 90% of the REA. Mean energy consumption outside of preschool and total 24-hour energy consumption did not differ by preschool, adjusting for body mass index z score and sex. The preschools served meals that widely varied by portion size and energy; however, this variation did not result in differences in mean 24-hour nutrient intakes for the students attending these schools.

  7. Spot urine tests in predicting 24-hour urine sodium excretion in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Srinivas; Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Koh, Yun Yin; Li, Jialiang; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J C

    2013-11-01

    The control of hypertension is often suboptimal, and it is frequently due to excessive sodium intake. Monitoring sodium intake is cumbersome and involves 24-hour collection of urine. We hypothesize that a spot urine test can accurately predict 24-hour urine sodium excretion in an Asian population. This is a prospective, observational study. We used stored urine specimens (n = 333) from the Asian Kidney Disease Study and Singapore Kidney Function Study Phase I. We measured spot urine tests and correlated these variables to the previously measured 24-hour urine sodium measurements. Age, gender, ethnicity, diastolic blood pressure, height, weight, body mass index, serum creatinine, spot urine sodium, spot urine chloride, and spot urine osmolality were associated with 24-hour urine sodium excretion. The final model for predicting 24-hour urine sodium less than 100 mmol included age, gender, ethnicity, weight, and spot urine sodium. Spot urine sodium can help monitor a patient's sodium intake when used in the derived 5-variable equation. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  9. A multiregional Italian cohort of 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Esperto, Francesco; Marangella, Martino; Trinchieri, Alberto; Petrarulo, Michele; Miano, Roberto

    2017-09-07

    Nephrolithiasis is a common condition with several studies documenting an increased prevalence over the past four decades. EAU and AUA guidelines recommend 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in high-risk stone formers. Aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the first three years of experience with Lithotest® (Biohealth Italia Srl, Turin, Italy) through the analysis of demographic, clinical and biochemical data collected from a large cohort of patients with kidney stones. We retrospectively analysed data from the LithoCenter database, including data from outpatient consultations, between January 2007 and December 2009 from all over Italy. Lithotest® was performed through a 24-h urine collection and included measurements of urine volume and pH, 24-h excretion of creatinine as well as main cations and anions, including calcium, magnesium sodium potassium, ammonium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, phosphate, inorganic sulphate and chloride. Urine state of saturation for calcium oxalate (ßCaOx), calcium hydrogen phosphate or brushite (ßbsh) and uric acid (ßUA) were also calculated by means of the computer program Lithorisk. Brand's test for cystinuria was also carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using the S-PSS 22.0 software. The number of patients with data available for analysis was 435, 236 males (54%) and 199 females (46%). Complete 24-h urine measurements were available for all 435 patients. Compared to men, women had significantly lower values for creatinine, irate, oxalate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride excretion, whereas 24-hour pH and citrate excretion were higher. No significant differences were found for the other examined variables. ßCaOx and ßUA were significantly higher in men than women, whereas no significant difference was found for ßbsh. There was a direct relationship between calcium and sodium urine excretion. Excessive sodium excretion was recorded in 191 patients (44%) and low urine volumes in 201

  10. Pentazocine Alone Versus Pentazocine Plus Diclofenac for Pain Relief in the First 24 Hours after Caesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Egede, John Okafor; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Obuna, Johnson Akuma; Ekem, Napoleon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative pain is one of the main postoperative adverse outcomes following caesarean section. Its management still remains a challenge especially in a low resource setting. Aim To compare the efficacy of intramuscular pentazocine alone and combined intramuscular pentazocine with diclofenac for pain relief within 24 hours after caesarean section. Materials and Methods This was a double blind randomized control study of post caesarean section pain management of 140 participants between April and December, 2015 at the Federal Teaching hospital, Abakaliki. Inclusion criteria involved consenting and low risk parturients who had caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. The participants were randomly grouped into Pentazocine-Placebo (PP) group and Pentazocine-Diclofenac (PD) group. The PP group received pentazocine 30 mg every 4 hours for 24 hours and 3 milliliters of water for injection as placebo 12 hourly for 24 hours while the PD group received pentazocine 30 mg every 4 hours and diclofenac 75 mg every 12 hours for 24 hours. The level of pain control was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The data was analysed with IBM SPSS version 20.0. The level of significance was set at < 0.05. Results The use of PD for 24 hour post caesarean section analgesia achieved better pain relief, faster onset of postoperative ambulation, bowel sound auscultation and oral feeding than the use of PP (p-value ≤0.002). However, the use of PD is more expensive than PP (p-value =0.0001). There was no difference between the two groups of participants on the passage of flatus and duration of hospital stay (p-value≥0.05). The use of PP was associated with more maternal side effects (p-value=0.009). There was no difference on the level of satisfaction between the two groups of participants (p-value≥0.05). Conclusion The use of PD for post caesarean section analgesia is more effective in achieving a satisfactory pain relief and has less side effects. PMID

  11. 12 CFR 5.24 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion. 5.24 Section 5.24 Banks and Banking...) Prefiling communications. The applicant should consult with the appropriate district office prior to filing... advised by the OCC in a prefiling communication, include an opinion of counsel that, in the case of...

  12. 12 CFR 1207.24 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enforcement. 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and the Office of Finance §...

  13. 12 CFR 1207.24 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enforcement. 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION (Eff. Jan. 27, 2011) Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and the Office of...

  14. 12 CFR 1207.24 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enforcement. 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and the Office of Finance §...

  15. 12 CFR 561.24 - Immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immediate family. 561.24 Section 561.24 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS... person means the following (whether by the full or half blood or by adoption): (a) Such person's...

  16. 12 CFR 161.24 - Immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immediate family. 161.24 Section 161.24 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS... person means the following (whether by the full or half blood or by adoption): (a) Such person's...

  17. 12 CFR 161.24 - Immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immediate family. 161.24 Section 161.24 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS... person means the following (whether by the full or half blood or by adoption): (a) Such person's...

  18. 12 CFR 561.24 - Immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Immediate family. 561.24 Section 561.24 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS... person means the following (whether by the full or half blood or by adoption): (a) Such person's...

  19. 12 CFR 561.24 - Immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Immediate family. 561.24 Section 561.24 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS... person means the following (whether by the full or half blood or by adoption): (a) Such person's...

  20. 12 CFR 161.24 - Immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immediate family. 161.24 Section 161.24 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS... person means the following (whether by the full or half blood or by adoption): (a) Such person's...

  1. 12 CFR 561.24 - Immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immediate family. 561.24 Section 561.24 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS... person means the following (whether by the full or half blood or by adoption): (a) Such person's...

  2. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777 F...

  3. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect. ...

  4. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect. ...

  5. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect. ...

  6. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect. ...

  7. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect. ...

  8. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777...

  9. Asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever: 24-hour electrocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Mehmet; Işıkay, Sedat; Olgun, Haşim; Ceviz, Naci

    2010-12-01

    Some rhythm and conduction abnormalities can occur in children with acute rheumatic fever. These abnormalities have been defined based on standard electrocardiography; however, the real prevalence of these abnormalities has not been investigated previously by the evaluation of long-term electrocardiographic recordings. In this study, we evaluated the asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever by evaluating the 24-hour electrocardiography. We evaluated the standard electrocardiography and the 24-hour electrocardiography of 64 children with acute rheumatic fever. On standard electrocardiography, the frequency of the first-degree atrioventricular block was found to be 21.9%. Electrocardiography at 24 hours detected three additional and separate patients with a long PR interval. Mobitz type I block and atypical Wenckebach periodicity were determined in one patient (1.56%) on 24-hour electrocardiography. While accelerated junctional rhythm was detected in three patients on standard electrocardiography, it was present in nine patients according to 24-hour electrocardiography. Premature contractions were present in 1.7% of standard electrocardiography, but in 29.7% of 24-hour electrocardiography. Absence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of accelerated junctional rhythm (p > 0.05), and the presence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of premature contractions (p = 0.000). In conclusion, our results suggest that in children with acute rheumatic fever, the prevalence of rhythm and conduction abnormalities may be much higher than determined on standard electrocardiography. Further studies are needed to clarify whether or not these abnormalities are specific to acute rheumatic fever.

  10. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  11. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  12. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    For in vitro studies assessing the interaction of platelets with implant materials, common and standardized protocols for the preparation of platelet rich plasma (PRP) are lacking, which may lead to non-matching results due to the diversity of applied protocols. Particularly, the aging of platelets during prolonged preparation and storage times is discussed to lead to an underestimation of the material thrombogenicity. Here, we study the influence of whole blood- and PRP-storage times on changes in platelet morphology and function. Blood from apparently healthy subjects was collected according to a standardized protocol and examined immediately after blood collection, four hours and twenty four hours later. The capability of platelets to adhere and form stable aggregates (PFA100, closure time) was examined in sodium citrate anticoagulated whole blood (WB) using the agonists equine type I collagen and epinephrine bitartrate (collagen/epinephrine) as well as equine type I collagen and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (collagen/ADP). Circulating platelets were quantified at each time point. Morphology of platelets and platelet aggregates were visualized microscopically and measured using an electric field multi-channel counting system (CASY). The percentage of activated platelets was assessed by means of P-selectin (CD62P) expression of circulating platelets. Furthermore, platelet factor 4 (PF4) release was measured in platelet poor plasma (PPP) at each time point. Whole blood PFA100 closure times increased after stimulation with collagen/ADP and collagen/epinephrine. Twenty four hours after blood collection, both parameters were prolonged pathologically above the upper limit of the reference range. Numbers of circulating platelets, measured in PRP, decreased after four hours, but no longer after twenty four hours. Mean platelet volumes (MPV) and platelet large cell ratios (P-LCR, 12 fL - 40 fL) decreased over time. Immediately after blood collection, no debris or platelet

  13. [Assessment of arterial wall stiffness by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Korneva, V A; Kuznetsova, T Yu

    2016-01-01

    Arterial wall stiffness is an early marker of cardiovascular diseases. The gold standard for assessment of the stiffness of large vessels is presently pulse wave velocity (PWV). Work is in progress on the study of the reference values of PWV in people of different genders and ages. 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring is not only a procedure that can estimate diurnal BP variability, but also monitor the indicators of vascular wall stiffness in a number of cases over a 24-hour period. The given review highlights the pathophysiology of arterial stiffness, methods for its assessment, and the aspects of use in therapeutic practice.

  14. Continual 24-hour observations of thermospheric winds made with the SOFDI instrument from Huancayo, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrard, Andrew; Meriwether, John W.

    The Second generation Optimized Fabry-Perot Doppler Imager (SOFDI), a state-of-the-art triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer, has been sucessfully relocated to Huancayo, Peru and is making continual 24-hour observations. The 630-nm data, originating from layer-integrated OI emission with centroid heights of 250 km at night and 220 km during the day, are analyzed so as to obtain measurements of horizontal winds in the thermosphere. In this paper we report the most recent results from continuous 24-hour observations of these thermospheric parameters.

  15. Accuracy and Usefulness of Select Methods for Assessing Complete Collection of 24-Hour Urine: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Campbell, Norm R; Nowson, Caryl A; Legetic, Branka; Hennis, Anselm J M; Patel, Sheena M

    2016-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collection is the recommended method for estimating sodium intake. To investigate the strengths and limitations of methods used to assess completion of 24-hour urine collection, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on the accuracy and usefulness of methods vs para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) recovery (referent). The percentage of incomplete collections, based on PABA, was 6% to 47% (n=8 studies). The sensitivity and specificity for identifying incomplete collection using creatinine criteria (n=4 studies) was 6% to 63% and 57% to 99.7%, respectively. The most sensitive method for removing incomplete collections was a creatinine index <0.7. In pooled analysis (≥2 studies), mean urine creatinine excretion and volume were higher among participants with complete collection (P<.05); whereas, self-reported collection time did not differ by completion status. Compared with participants with incomplete collection, mean 24-hour sodium excretion was 19.6 mmol higher (n=1781 specimens, 5 studies) in patients with complete collection. Sodium excretion may be underestimated by inclusion of incomplete 24-hour urine collections. None of the current approaches reliably assess completion of 24-hour urine collection.

  16. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Dolan, Eamon; Gao, Ping-Jin; Guo, Hui-Feng; Nawrot, Tim; Stanton, Alice V; Zhu, Ding-Liang; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that 1 minus the slope of diastolic on systolic pressure during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring (ambulatory arterial stiffness index [AASI]) might reflect arterial stiffness. We compared AASI with established measures of arterial stiffness and studied its distribution in Chinese and European populations. We used 90207 SpaceLabs monitors and the SphygmoCor device to measure AASI, central and peripheral pulse pressures, the central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) systolic augmentation indexes, and aortic pulse wave velocity. In 166 volunteers, the correlation coefficient between AASI and pulse wave velocity was 0.51 (P<0.0001). In 348 randomly recruited Chinese subjects, AASI correlated (P<0.0001) with CAIx (r=0.48), PAIx (r=0.50), and central pulse pressure (r=0.50). AASI increased with age and mean arterial pressure but decreased with body height. Both before and after adjustment for arterial wave reflections by considering height and heart rate as covariates, AASI correlated more (P<0.0001) closely with CAIx and PAIx than 24-hour pulse pressure. Among normotensive subjects, the 95th percentile of AASI was 0.55 in Chinese and 0.57 in 1617 Europeans enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring. The upper boundary of the 95% prediction interval of AASI in relation to age ranged from 0.53 at 20 years to 0.72 at 80 years. In conclusion, AASI is a new index of arterial stiffness that can be easily measured under ambulatory conditions. Pending additional validation in outcome studies, normal values of AASI are probably <0.50 and 0.70 in young and older subjects, respectively.

  17. Assessment of Dietary Sodium and Potassium in Canadians Using 24-Hour Urinary Collection.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Dagenais, Gilles; Wielgosz, Andreas; Lear, Scott A; McQueen, Matthew J; Zeidler, Johannes; Fu, Lily; DeJesus, Jane; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; De Bluts, Anne Leblanc; Corber, Erica; de Jong, Veronica; Boomgaardt, Jacob; Shane, Alexandra; Jiang, Ying; de Groh, Margaret; O'Donnell, Martin J; Yusuf, Salim; Teo, Koon

    2016-03-01

    Although salt intake derived from data on urinary sodium excretion in free-living populations has been used in public policy, a population study on urinary sodium excretion has not been done in Canada. We assessed dietary sodium and potassium intake using a 24-hour urine collection in a large survey of urban and rural communities from 4 Canadian cities and determined the association of these electrolytes with blood pressure (BP). One thousand seven hundred consecutive individuals, aged 37-72 years, attending their annual follow-up visits of the ongoing Prospective and Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study in Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Quebec City, Canada, collected a 24-hour urine sample using standardized procedures. Mean sodium excretion was 3325 mg/d and mean potassium excretion was 2935 mg/d. Sodium excretion ranged from 3093 mg/d in Vancouver to 3642 mg/d in Quebec City, after adjusting for covariates. Potassium excretion ranged from 2844 mg/d in Ottawa to 3082 mg/d in Quebec City. Both electrolytes were higher in men than in women and in rural populations than in urban settings (P < 0.001 for all). Sodium excretion was between 3000 and 6000 mg/d in 48.3% of the participants, < 3000 mg/d in 46.7%, and > 6000 mg/d in only 5%. No significant association between sodium or potassium excretion and BP was found. Sodium consumption in these Canadians is within a range comparable to other Western countries, and intake in most individuals is < 6000 mg/d, with only 5% at higher levels. Within this range, sodium or potassium levels were not associated with BP. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic value of 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring in Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    Mõtsküla, P F; Linney, C; Palermo, V; Connolly, D J; French, A; Dukes McEwan, J; Fuentes, V Luis

    2013-01-01

    Boxer dogs are reported to be predisposed to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), but the natural history has not been well characterized and inconsistent diagnostic criteria have been applied to identify affected dogs. Echocardiographic examination findings are unremarkable in many affected Boxer dogs, and in these dogs, 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring often is used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, despite limited information available relating Holter findings to outcome. Boxers with complex ventricular arrhythmias at initial presentation will have shorter survival times. The objective was to investigate the prognostic value of Holter monitoring in Boxer dogs. One hundred and twenty-two Boxer dogs seen at 3 university referral hospitals. Retrospective study. Survival times were obtained for Boxer dogs evaluated by echocardiography and a 24-hour Holter ECG. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the median survival time and Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with cardiac mortality. Outcome data were obtained for 122/163 dogs meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 70 dogs that had died, 45 were considered to have suffered cardiac-related deaths. Median survival was significantly longer in dogs with a left ventricular systolic diameter (LVIDs) ≤ 35 mm compared with those with LVIDs > 35 mm (P < .001). Multivariable analysis in dogs with LVIDs ≤ 35 mm showed that the presence of ventricular tachycardia, age >4.5 years, and male sex were independent predictors of cardiac mortality. Holter monitoring in Boxer dogs provides valuable prognostic information. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Tasimelteon: a melatonin receptor agonist for non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnsa, Jessica D; Neville, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    To examine the efficacy of tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder using evidence from controlled clinical trials. Citations in Google Scholar and PubMed from January 1, 2008, to May 31, 2014, were identified using tasimelteon as the search term. Results were limited to human trials published in English. Trials that compared tasimelteon with placebo were included. A phase II trial (n = 39) evaluated the effects of tasimelteon versus placebo on improvements in sleep efficiency and the ability to shift circadian rhythms over 3 days. Significant shifts in circadian rhythm were only observed for 100-mg tasimelteon. A phase III trial (n = 412) evaluated the effects of tasimelteon versus placebo on assessment of latency to persistent sleep and wake after sleep onset; significant advantages were observed in tasimelteon recipients. The SET (Safety and Efficacy of Tasimelteon) trial (n = 84) enrolled blind men and women with Non-24. They received placebo or tasimelteon 20 mg daily. Tasimelteon recipients had significantly (P = 0.0025) better entrainment and N24CRS scores. The RESET (Randomized Withdrawal Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Tasimelteon) trial (n = 20) enrolled entrained participants from the SET trial who received 20 mg of tasimelteon or placebo daily for 8 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the maintenance of effect of tasimelteon to entrain circadian rhythms. Tasimelteon was associated with significantly (P = 0.0055) greater entrainment than placebo. Tasimelteon improves sleep initiation and maintenance in patients with Non-24 who have a shift in endogenous circadian rhythms. However, the cost of this agent limits its use. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

  1. Self-renewal and differentiation capacity of urine-derived stem cells after urine preservation for 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ren; Liu, Guihua; Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20-54 years old). About 6 × 10(4) cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a "rice grain" shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis.

  2. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  3. Comparison of rate assessment between resting heart rate and 24-hour Holter monitoring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Srisukwattana, Akanis; Krittayaphong, Rungroj

    2012-02-01

    Target heart rate in rate control strategy has been proposed by the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. There is limited data on the correlation of measured heart rate at rest and during Holter monitoring. To evaluate the proportion of achieved target heart rate between resting heart rate measuring and 24-hour Holter monitoring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who receive rate control strategy. Patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who archived target resting heart rate under rate control strategy at Siriraj Hospital and who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring were studied to evaluate the correlation between two methods of heart rate control. 47 patients were enrolled. Underlying cardiac conditions were as follows: hypertensive heart disease 44.7%, valvular heart disease 25%, coronary artery disease 17% and dilated cardiomyopathy 12.8%. There were 10 patients (21.3%) whose achieving target resting heart rate was not correlated with 24-hour Holter monitoring. Three patients (6.4%) underwent permanent pacemaker implantation due to sick sinus syndrome (SSS) or tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. In chronic atrial fibrillation patients that receive rate control strategy, evaluation of only resting heart rate might not be enough for long-term evaluation and treatment and 24-hour monitoring may be an additional helpful test in order to more precisely adjust medication for long-term treatment and detection of SSS.

  4. 24 CFR 1710.12 - Intrastate exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrastate exemption. 1710.12 Section 1710.12 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION General...

  5. 24 CFR 202.12 - Title II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Title II. 202.12 Section 202.12 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  6. 24 CFR 202.12 - Title II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Title II. 202.12 Section 202.12 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  7. 24 CFR 202.12 - Title II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Title II. 202.12 Section 202.12 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  8. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  11. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  12. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  13. Validation of dietary applications of Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) against a 24-hour recall method in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dary, Omar; Jariseta, Zo Rambeloson

    2012-09-01

    The benefits of food fortification depend on the proportion of the population that uses the fortified food (coverage), the amount of the food being consumed, and the additional content of micronutrients in the food. Coverage and amounts consumed can be determined by 24-hour recall or Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). However, these methods are rarely applied. Secondary analysis of data from Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) can be used for these purposes; however, such data analysis has not been validated. To compare the results of HCES and 24-hour recall for estimating the consumption profile of potential fortification vehicles in Uganda. Food intake estimates for 24- to 59-month-old children and 15- to 49-year-old women derived from a one-day 24-hour recall carried out in Uganda (Kampala, North, and Southwest) were compared with data from two HCES (2006, nationwide, and 2008, coupled with the 24-hour recall). The analyzed foods were vegetable oil, sugar, wheat flour, maize flour, and rice. Food consumption estimates calculated from HCES may be less accurate than estimates derived by 24-hour recall. Nevertheless, the HCES results are sensitive enough to differentiate consumption patterns among population strata. In Uganda, HCES predicted proportion of the population that consumes the foods, and approximated intakes of main food vehicles by the "observed" consumers (those who reported using the foods), although estimates for the latter were lower for wheat flour and rice. HCES data offer the basic information needed to provide a rationale for, and help design, food fortification programs. Individual intake surveys are still needed, however, to assess intrahousehold use of foods.

  14. Polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion removes endotoxin throughout a 24-hour treatment period.

    PubMed

    Mitaka, Chieko; Fujiwara, Naoto; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Haraguchi, Go; Tomita, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of endotoxin adsorption by polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion (PMX) performed for a 24-hour treatment period in patients with septic shock. Nineteen patients with septic shock were retrospectively studied. The plasma endotoxin concentrations of blood drawn from the radial artery and from the outlet circuit of the PMX column were measured by kinetic turbidimetric limulus assay using an MT-358 Toxinometer (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) after 24 hours of PMX treatment. The endotoxin removal rate was defined by the following equation: ([radial artery endotoxin concentration - outlet circuit of PMX column endotoxin concentration]/radial artery endotoxin concentration) × 100%. The patients had a median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 29 at intensive care unit admission and a 28-day mortality of 47%. Before the start of the PMX treatment, the median radial arterial plasma endotoxin concentration was 16.48 pg/mL. After 24 hours of PMX treatment, the median radial plasma endotoxin concentration had decreased to 1.857 pg/mL, and the concentration at the outlet circuit of the PMX column was further decreased to 0.779 pg/mL. The median endotoxin removal rate was 74.4%. These findings suggest that 24-hour PMX treatment was effective in removing endotoxin continuously throughout the entire treatment period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  16. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  17. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  18. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  19. Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Duffy, J. F.; Shanahan, T. L.; Brown, E. N.; Mitchell, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Ronda, J. M.; Silva, E. J.; Allan, J. S.; Emens, J. S.; hide

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of circadian period in humans was thought to differ from that of other species, with the period of the activity rhythm reported to range from 13 to 65 hours (median 25.2 hours) and the period of the body temperature rhythm reported to average 25 hours in adulthood, and to shorten with age. However, those observations were based on studies of humans exposed to light levels sufficient to confound circadian period estimation. Precise estimation of the periods of the endogenous circadian rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, and cortisol in healthy young and older individuals living in carefully controlled lighting conditions has now revealed that the intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker averages 24.18 hours in both age groups, with a tight distribution consistent with other species. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of disrupted sleep in older people.

  20. Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Duffy, J. F.; Shanahan, T. L.; Brown, E. N.; Mitchell, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Ronda, J. M.; Silva, E. J.; Allan, J. S.; Emens, J. S.; Dijk, D. J.; Kronauer, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of circadian period in humans was thought to differ from that of other species, with the period of the activity rhythm reported to range from 13 to 65 hours (median 25.2 hours) and the period of the body temperature rhythm reported to average 25 hours in adulthood, and to shorten with age. However, those observations were based on studies of humans exposed to light levels sufficient to confound circadian period estimation. Precise estimation of the periods of the endogenous circadian rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, and cortisol in healthy young and older individuals living in carefully controlled lighting conditions has now revealed that the intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker averages 24.18 hours in both age groups, with a tight distribution consistent with other species. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of disrupted sleep in older people.

  1. 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in young healthy subjects evaluated with continuous monitoring using a contact lens sensor.

    PubMed

    Mottet, Benjamin; Aptel, Florent; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Hubanova, Ralitsa; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Chiquet, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates a new device that has been proposed to continuously monitor intraocular pressure (IOP) over 24 hours. To evaluate 24-hour IOP rhythm reproducibility during repeated continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring with noncontact tonometry (NCT) and a contact lens sensor (CLS) in healthy participants. Cross-sectional study of 12 young healthy volunteers at a referral center of chronobiology. Participants were housed in a sleep laboratory and underwent four 24-hour sessions of IOP measurements over a 6-month period. After initial randomized attribution, the IOP of the first eye was continuously monitored using a CLS and the IOP of the fellow eye was measured hourly using NCT. Two sessions with NCT measurements in 1 eye and CLS measurements in the fellow eye, 1 session with CLS measurements in only 1 eye, and 1 session with NCT measurements in both eyes were performed. A nonlinear least squares, dual-harmonic regression analysis was used to model the 24-hour IOP rhythm. Comparison of acrophase, bathyphase, amplitude, midline estimating statistic of rhythm, IOP values, IOP changes, and agreement were evaluated in the 3 tonometry methods. A significant nyctohemeral IOP rhythm was found in 31 of 36 sessions (86%) using NCT and in all sessions (100%) using CLS. Hourly awakening during NCT IOP measurements did not significantly change the mean phases of the 24-hour IOP pattern evaluated using CLS in the contralateral eye. Throughout the sessions, intraclass correlation coefficients of the CLS acrophase (0.6 [95% CI, 0.0 to 0.9]; P = .03), CLS bathyphase (0.7 [95% CI, 0.1 to 0.9]; P = .01), NCT amplitude (0.7 [95% CI, 0.1 to 0.9]; P = .01), and NCT midline estimating statistic of rhythm (0.9 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.0]; P < .01) were significant. When performing NCT measurements in 1 eye and CLS measurements in the contralateral eye, the IOP change at each point normalized from the first measurement (9 am) was not symmetric individually or within the population. The CLS is

  2. MEASUREMENT ERROR CORRECTED SODIUM AND POTASSIUM INTAKE ESTIMATION USING 24-HOUR URINARY EXCRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Van Horn, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Carbone, Laura; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Prentice, Ross L.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the association of sodium and potassium intake with cardiovascular disease risk have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data. Here, 24-hour urinary excretion assessments are used to correct the dietary self-report data for measurement error, under the assumption that 24-hour urine recovery provides a biomarker that differs from usual intake according to a ‘classical’ measurement model. Under this assumption, dietary self-reports underestimate sodium by 0–15%, overestimate potassium by 8–15%, and underestimates the sodium-to-potassium ratio by about 20% using food frequency questionnaires, 4-day food records, or three 24-hour dietary recalls, in Women’s Health Initiative studies. ‘Calibration’ equations are developed by linear regression of log-transformed 24-hour urine assessments on corresponding log-transformed self-report assessments, and several study subject characteristics. For each self-report method the calibration equations turned out to depend on race and age, and strongly on body mass index. Following adjustment for temporal variation, calibration equations using food records or recalls explained 45–50% of the variation in (log-transformed) 24-hour urine assessments for sodium, 60–70% of the variation for potassium, and 55–60% of the variation for the sodium-to-potassium ratio. These equations may be suitable for use in epidemiologic disease association studies among postmenopausal women. The corresponding ‘signals’ from food frequency questionnaire data were weak, but calibration equations for the ratios of sodium and potassium to total energy explained about 35%, 50%, and 45% of log-biomarker variation for sodium, potassium, and their ratio, respectively, following adjustment for temporal biomarker variation, and may be suitable for cautious use in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24277763

  3. The relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure load and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Çimen, Tolga; Sunman, Hamza; Efe, Tolga Han; Erat, Mehmet; Şahan, Haluk Furkan; Algül, Engin; Guliyev, İlkin; Akyel, Ahmet; Doğan, Mehmet; Açıkel, Sadık; Yeter, Ekrem

    2017-02-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is established as a reliable marker of systemic inflammation. Low-grade inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of hypertension (HTN). Blood pressure (BP) load, defined as the percentage of abnormally elevated BP readings, is a good marker of HTN severity. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between HTN severity and NLR using averaged ambulatory BP readings and BP load. A total of 300 patients with untreated essential HTN were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into quartiles according to NLR values (first: <1.55; second: 1.55-1.92; third: 1.92-2.48; and fourth: >2.48). Averaged ambulatory BP values and BP load were assessed for each quartile. In the interquartile evaluation there were no differences between quartiles in terms of baseline demographic, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics (p>0.05). Daytime systolic BP (SBP), 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP), daytime DBP, daytime SBP load, 24-hour DBP load and daytime DBP load were found to be significantly higher in the upper two quartiles (p<0.05 for all). In correlation analysis, log NLR values were found to be positively correlated with 24-hour SBP, DBP, SBP load and DBP load (Pearson coefficients of 0.194, 0.197, 0.157 and 0.181, respectively; p<0.01 for all). In multivariate analysis, log NLR had an independent association with 24-hour SBP and DBP and 24-hour SBP and DBP load. This study showed for the first time that increased NLR is independently associated with HTN severity in untreated essential HTN patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A 24-hour dental plaque prevention study with a stannous fluoride dentifrice containing hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    White, Donald J; Kozak, Kathy M; Gibb, Roger; Dunavent, John; Klukowska, Malgorzata; Sagel, Paul A

    2006-07-01

    Recently, a novel antibacterial fluoride dentifrice containing stannous fluoride and sodium hexametaphosphate (CrestPRO-HEALTH) was introduced. A digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) technique was used to quantify in situ plaque formation in a population carrying out a phased intervention protocol that included: (1) an initial treatment regimen including toothbrushing with standard sodium fluoride dentifrice in conventional bid brushing, (2) a second treatment regimen where a modified hygiene regimen was applied using standard sodium fluoride dentifrice including a period of 24 hours of non-brushing, and (3) a third treatment regimen where the 24-hour non-brushing regimen was continued using the antimicrobial stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice. The quantitative evaluation of plaque formation was assessed in morning measurements following either standard evening hygiene (treatment period 1) or 24 hours since brushing (treatment periods 2 and 3). Post-brushing plaque measurements were also taken in each treatment regimen. Sixteen subjects completed all three treatment regimens with no side effects or oral complaints. Morning plaque coverage in treatment period 1 was 13.3%. Plaque coverage significantly increased in treatment period 2 when pre-bedtime brushing was discontinued, with 24-hour growth covering 18.4% of the dentition. Intervention of the antimicrobial stannous fluoride/hexametaphosphate dentifrice in treatment period 3 provided significant inhibition of plaque regrowth over 24 hours (15.2% coverage, a 17% reduction vs. sodium fluoride dentifrice control). These results support the strong retention and lasting antimicrobial efficacy of high stabilized stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrices.

  5. Assessing Child Nutrient Intakes Using a Tablet-Based 24-Hour Recall Tool in Rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Bess L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Dyer, Brian; Siamusantu, Ward; Klemm, Rolf D W; Palmer, Amanda C

    2015-12-01

    Detailed dietary intake data in low-income populations are needed for research and program evaluation. However, collection of such data by paper-based 24-hour recall imposes substantial demands for staff time and expertise, training, materials, and data entry. To describe our development and use of a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool for conducting dietary intake surveys in remote settings. We designed a 24-hour recall tool using Open Data Kit software on an Android tablet platform. The tool contains a list of local foods, questions on portion size, cooking method, ingredients, and food source and prompts to guide interviewers. We used this tool to interview caregivers on dietary intakes of children participating in an efficacy trial of provitamin A-biofortified maize conducted in Mkushi, a rural district in central Zambia. Participants were children aged 4 to 8 years not yet enrolled in school (n = 938). Dietary intake data were converted to nutrient intakes using local food composition and recipe tables. We developed a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool and used it to collect dietary data among 928 children. The majority of foods consumed were maize, leafy vegetable, or small fish dishes. Median daily energy intake was 6416 kJ (1469 kcal). Food and nutrient intakes assessed using the tablet-based tool were consistent with those reported in prior research. The tool was easily used by interviewers without prior nutrition training or computing experience. Challenges remain to improve programming, but the tool is an innovation that enables efficient collection of 24-hour recall data in remote settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  7. Resistance training decreases 24-hour blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) on 24 hour blood pressure (BP) in patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Seventeen women volunteered to participate in this study, 9 with MetS (37.0 ± 8.7 yrs; body mass 77.3 ± 9.7 kg; body mass index 30.3 ± 4.2 kg · m-2) and 8 without MetS (35.1 ± 7.2 yrs; body mass 61.3 ± 8.1 kg; body mass index 24.2 ± 2.5 kg · m-2). Individuals were subjected to eight weeks (3 times/week) of whole body RT comprised of one exercise for each main muscle group with three sets of 8–12 repetitions of each subject’s maximal load . A rest interval of one minute was allowed between sets and exercises. Twenty-four hour BP was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Mean and diastolic night-time BP decreased (−3.9 mmHg, p = 0.04; -5.5 mmHg, p = 0.03, respectively) after eight weeks of training in MetS patients. This decrease was observed at 11:00 pm, 02:00 am (only diastolic), 07:00 am, and 6:00 pm. There was no training effect on BP in women without MetS. Conclusions Considering the elevation of BP as a contributor to the pathogenesis of MetS, and also to the increase of cardiovascular risk, this study supports RT as a non-pharmacological therapy in the management of BP control for MetS. PMID:23711286

  8. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  9. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  10. Abnormalities in the 24-hour rhythm of skin temperature in cirrhosis: Sleep-wake and general clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Maria; Saccardo, Desy; De Rui, Michele; Vettore, Elia; Verardo, Alberto; Carraro, Paolo; Di Vitofrancesco, Nicola; Mani, Ali R; Angeli, Paolo; Bolognesi, Massimo; Montagnese, Sara

    2017-07-21

    Sleep preparation/onset are associated with peripheral vasodilatation and a decrease in body temperature. The hyperdynamic syndrome exhibited by patients with cirrhosis may impinge on sleep preparation, thus contributing to their difficulties falling asleep. The aim of this study was the assessment of skin temperature, in relation to sleep-wake patterns, in patients with cirrhosis. Fifty-three subjects were initially recruited, and 46 completed the study. Of the final 46, 12 were outpatients with cirrhosis, 13 inpatients with cirrhosis, 11 inpatients without cirrhosis and 10 healthy volunteers. All underwent baseline sleep-wake evaluation and blood sampling for inflammatory markers and morning melatonin levels. Distal/proximal skin temperature and their gradient (DPG) were recorded for 24 hours by a wireless device. Over this period subjects kept a sleep-wake diary. Inpatients with cirrhosis slept significantly less well than the other groups. Inpatients and outpatients with cirrhosis had higher proximal temperature and blunted rhythmicity compared to the other groups. Inpatients with/without cirrhosis had higher distal temperature values and blunted rhythmicity compared to the other groups. Inpatients and outpatients with cirrhosis had significantly lower DPG values compared to the other groups, and DPG reached near-zero values several hours later. Significant correlations were observed between temperature and sleep-wake variables and inflammatory markers. Alterations of distal/proximal skin temperature, their gradient and their time-course were observed in patients with cirrhosis, which may contribute to their sleep disturbances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure during sleep on 24-hour blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, I; Grunstein, R R; Hedner, J A; Doyle, J; Collins, F L; Fletcher, P J; Kelly, D T; Sullivan, C E

    1993-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured noninvasively (Oxford Medilog ABP) at 15-minute intervals for 24 hours before and after 8 weeks of treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in 19 men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We included both normotensive and hypertensive patients, but hypertensives were studied after withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs. Ambulatory BP before and after treatment was compared using patients as their own controls. Treatment with nCPAP was successfully established in 14 of the 19 patients (74%). Blood pressure fell significantly in patients who were successfully treated: 24-hour mean BP (systolic/diastolic) decreased from 141 +/- 18/89 +/- 11 mm Hg to 134 +/- 19/85 +/- 13 mm Hg (p < 0.05). The reduction in 24-hour mean systolic BP occurred during both day and night, but a significant fall in mean diastolic BP was only observed during the day. The mean blood pressure fell in both normotensive and hypertensive patients. Patients who were inadequately treated with nCPAP had no reduction in mean 24-hour BP. Effective treatment of sleep apnea with nCPAP was associated with a significant fall in both systolic and diastolic BP independent of changes in body weight or alcohol consumption, suggesting that sleep apnea was an independent factor contributing to elevated nighttime and daytime BP in these patients.

  12. [How does sleep deprivation during 24 hours on call duty affect the cognitive performance orthopaedic residents?].

    PubMed

    Albergo, J I; Fernández, M C; Zaifrani, L; Giunta, D H; Albergo, L

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is usually present in residents during their training program. The purpose of our study was to analyze the cognitive performance of a group of orthopaedic residents before and after 24 hours on call duty. We include orthopaedic residents and their cognitive functions were evaluated by the following tests: Continuous Performance Test (CPT 2), Digit Spam (Versión 5), 1 letter Fonologic Fluence y Pasat Test. All the tests were done after a sleeping period at home of at least 6 hours and after being on call (sleeping less than 3 hours). Nineteen residents were included in the study. The median age was 27 ± 1.89 and 15 were male. The mean hours of sleeping at home was 6.5 (range 6-8) and after on call duty was 1.5 (range 0.5-3). Statistical difference were found in CPT 2 test en terms of correct answers (p=0.007), omissions (p=0.004) and perseverations (p=0.036). No significant differences were found in the other tests. Sleep deprivation after 24 hours on call duty affects cognitive performance of orthopaedic residents, increasing the number of errors and omissions. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma--time for a paradigm change.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, K; Weinreb, R

    2012-03-28

    Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness and intraocular pressure (IOP) is its only modifiable risk factor. The importance of robust lowering of IOP for prevention of glaucoma onset and progression is well established. Although IOP is a dynamic parameter with individual circadian rhythms, current management usually relies on single IOP measurements during regular clinic hours performed a few times a year. Recent technological advances have provided clinicians with tools for continuous IOP monitoring during a 24 hour period in an ambulatory setting. There are two approaches being investigated. The first is permanent IOP monitoring through an implantable sensor and the other is temporary monitoring through a contact lens sensor. In this article, we discuss the shortcomings of the current gold standard for tonometry (Goldmann Applanation Tonometry) and the current experience with the first commercially available continuous 24 hour IOP monitoring technology (SENSIMED Triggerfish®); a telemetric contact lens sensor produced by a Swiss start-up company (Sensimed AG, Lausanne, Switzerland). Recent studies suggest that 24 hour continuous monitoring of IOP can be integrated into clinical practice and have the potential to contribute to the reduction of glaucoma-related vision loss.

  14. Assessment of patients with office hypertension by 24-hour noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1986-11-01

    To assess the discrepancy between casual (office) and home blood pressure readings in patients performing home blood pressure monitoring, we analyzed office, home, and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rates in 19 patients in a prospective four-week study. After the month of study, the average difference between mean office and manual home blood pressures in this office hypertensive group was 30 +/- 17/20 +/- 6 mm Hg. The blood pressures taken in the office were substantially greater than the 24-hour average blood pressures and ambulatory blood pressures during work or while at home (awake). An analysis of the automatic monitor readings while in the doctor's office and at 15-minute intervals after leaving the office showed a progressive reduction in blood pressure and heart rate during the first hour after leaving the office. A mean 24-hour blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg was found in 13 (68%) patients. These data suggest that patients with office hypertension are usually normotensive but may have a persistent and recurrent pressor response in a medical care setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides confirmation of not only the office-home disparity, but also suggests that stress other than office visits fails to elicit a hypertensive response.

  15. Tasimelteon: A Review in Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder in Totally Blind Individuals.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-05-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz(®)) is a dual melatonin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (Non-24) (free-running disorder). In two randomized, double-masked, multicentre, phase III trials, totally blind individuals with Non-24 who received oral tasimelteon 20 mg once nightly were significantly more likely than those receiving placebo to entrain the circadian pacemaker (the SET trial) and maintain entrainment (the RESET trial). Sleep/wake parameters and functioning were also improved with tasimelteon. Oral tasimelteon was generally well tolerated in totally blind patients with Non-24. In conclusion, tasimelteon is a useful drug for the treatment of Non-24 in totally blind individuals.

  16. Low Diagnostic Utility of Rechecking Hemoglobins Within 24 Hours in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Rajkomar, Alvin; McCulloch, Charles E; Fang, Margaret C

    2016-11-01

    Clinicians often repeat hemoglobin tests within a 24 hour period to detect or monitor anemia. We sought to determine the percentage of hemoglobin tests repeated within a single hospital day that were at least 1.0 g/dL lower than the first test. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of hospitalized adults on medical or surgical services over 1 year at a single academic hospital. Using patient and laboratory data in the electronic health record, we analyzed the proportion of repeated hemoglobin test results that were at least 1 g/dL less than the initial hemoglobin value of that day, excluding days when transfusions were administered. A total of 88,722 hemoglobin tests were obtained from 12,877 unique patients, who contributed a total of 86,859 hospitalization days. In 12,230 (14.1%) of those days, 2 or more hemoglobin tests were obtained within a single day. In the 6969 days with 2 hemoglobin tests obtained and no transfusions given, 949 (13.5%) were ≥1 g/dL lower than the initial hemoglobin value of that day, and 260 (3.7%) were ≥2 g/dL lower. Repeated tests did not often reach transfusion thresholds: 482 (6.9%) of repeat hemoglobin values were <8 g/dL, and 64 (0.9%) were <7 g/dL. Hemoglobin tests were repeated in 14% of hospital days. For patients who had 2 hemoglobin tests obtained on the same day, 13.5% demonstrated a clinically significant drop. This information may be helpful to clinicians when considering whether repeat testing is appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitation of 24-Hour Moisturization by Electrical Measurements of Skin Hydration.

    PubMed

    Wickett, R Randall; Damjanovic, Bronson

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of several moisturizers on hydration of the stratum corneum by measuring their effect on electrical conductance over a 24-hour period. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers aged 18 to 65 years with dry skin on the lower legs and no other known dermatologic pathology participated in the study. Additional exclusion criteria were pregnant or taking anti-inflammatory steroids. The study was carried out in a clinical research facility in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Subjects underwent a 3-day conditioning period using a natural soap bar on the lower legs and no application of moisturizer to the skin. Participants then came to the test site and equilibrated for at least 30 minutes under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. After baseline hydration measurements on test sites on the lower legs of each subject, a single application of each of 5 test products at a dose of 2 mg/cm was made. Skin hydration was assessed by electrical conductance measurements with a specialized probe. The probe was briefly placed on the skin surface with light pressure, and the measurement recorded in units of microsiemens (μS). Conductance was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after product applications. Although all but 1 of the test products increased conductance at 2 hours, only 2 moisturizers containing high levels of glycerin (products C and E) maintained increased conductance relative to baseline at 24 hours, +37.8 (P < .001) and +103.5 (P < .001), respectively. Moisturizers containing high levels of glycerin can provide a measurable moisturization benefit as determined by skin conductance for at least 24 hours after a single application.

  18. Transition to 12-hour shifts - The process and the product

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, P. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines Yankee Atomic Electric Company's (YAEC's) transition to a 12-h shift schedule for the operations department staff. It presents the approach to implementation, reactions of both shift workers and management to the new schedule (including perceived benefits and shortcomings), and provides recommendations to others considering this change. Experience demonstrates the ease of any transition when the desire for change originates with the individuals directly affected. Close cooperation with any union representation is also vital to its success. When all parties are in apparent agreement (e.g., that a 12-h rotation should commence), this allows for a trial period (in this case of at least two shift cycles) in order to evaluate and refine the program, thus leaving the option open to revert back to the previous condition if things prove unsatisfactory. At all costs, mutual respect must be maintained for all parties.

  19. Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac functions in newborns of mildly preeclamptic pregnant women within postnatal 24-48 hours.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Kadir; Karadas, Ulas; Yozgat, Yilmaz; Meşe, Timur; Demirol, Mustafa; Coban, Senay; Karadeniz, Cem; Özdemir, Rahmi; Orbatu, Dilek; Karaarslan, Utku; Tavli, Vedide

    2017-06-20

    The aim of this study is to detect preeclampsia-related cardiac dysfunction within 24-48 hours of delivery in newborns born from preeclamptic mothers. Forty newborns from mildly preeclamptic mothers formed the study group and the control group was formed by 40 healthy newborns. Cardiac function for the groups were evaluated using conventional echocardiography and myocardial performance index (MPI) within the first 24-48 hours of their lifetime and the results of both groups were compared. A significant difference between the groups was observed especially in the PW Doppler MPI measurements (the left ventricle MPI 0.37 ± 0.09 and 0.26 ± 0.11, p < .001; the right ventricle MPI 0.29 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07, p < .035) for the control group and the study group. Elongation in the left and right ventricle MPI was detected to be more significant in terms of comparing systolic and diastolic functions to determine preeclampsia-related cardiac injury in newborns from preeclamptic mothers within the first 24-48 hours of their lifetime. Impact statement Today, the methods which may detect cardiac injury earlier than conventional echocardiographic methods are used for evaluating cardiac functions. Among them, myocardial performance index (MPI) measurement with PW Doppler is the most common ones. While studies are available in the literature evaluating foetal cardiac functions with MPI in foetuses of preeclamptic women, studies evaluating cardiac functions with MPI index within the first 24-48 hours in postnatal period are not available. This is the first study to detect cardiac injury by measuring cardiac functions of the newborns of preeclamptic babies using conventional echocardiography (EF, SF, mitral and tricuspid E/A) and myocardial performance index within the first 24-48 hours of life and compare these values with those of a control group composed of healthy newborns with similar demographic characteristics. According to the results of the

  20. Study on Operation Optimization of Pumping Station's 24 Hours Operation under Influences of Tides and Peak-Valley Electricity Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gong; Jilin, Cheng; Lihua, Zhang; Rentian, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    According to different processes of tides and peak-valley electricity prices, this paper determines the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation between the rating state and adjusting blade angle state respectively based on the optimization objective function and optimization model for single-unit pump's 24 hours operation taking JiangDu No.4 Pumping Station for example. In the meantime, this paper proposes the following regularities between optimal start up time of pumping station and the process of tides and peak-valley electricity prices each day within a month: (1) In the rating and adjusting blade angle state, the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation which depends on the tide generation at the same day varies with the process of tides. There are mainly two kinds of optimal start up time which include the time at tide generation and 12 hours after it. (2) In the rating state, the optimal start up time on each day in a month exhibits a rule of symmetry from 29 to 28 of next month in the lunar calendar. The time of tide generation usually exists in the period of peak electricity price or the valley one. The higher electricity price corresponds to the higher minimum cost of water pumping at unit, which means that the minimum cost of water pumping at unit depends on the peak-valley electricity price at the time of tide generation on the same day. (3) In the adjusting blade angle state, the minimum cost of water pumping at unit in pumping station's 24 hour operation depends on the process of peak-valley electricity prices. And in the adjusting blade angle state, 4.85%˜5.37% of the minimum cost of water pumping at unit will be saved than that of in the rating state.

  1. Mysteries in the Night: An Exploratory Study of Student Use and Perceptions of 24/5 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Steven L.; Nutefall, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The Oregon State University Valley Library has been open 24 hours per day, five days per week, during regular academic terms since 2010. The authors collected survey data during 2012 to explore how students used the hours and whether they perceived that the provision of 24/5 hours contributes to their academic success. Nearly 90% of the…

  2. 12 CFR 24.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.2 Definitions. For... economic development entity (CEDE) means an entity that makes investments or conducts activities that... investments” under 12 CFR 25.23. The following is a non-exclusive list of examples of the types of...

  3. 12 CFR 24.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.2 Definitions. For... economic development entity (CEDE) means an entity that makes investments or conducts activities that... investments” under 12 CFR 25.23. The following is a non-exclusive list of examples of the types of...

  4. 12 CFR 24.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.2 Definitions. For... economic development entity (CEDE) means an entity that makes investments or conducts activities that... investments” under 12 CFR 25.23. The following is a non-exclusive list of examples of the types of...

  5. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  6. How sustained is 24-hour diffusion-weighted imaging lesion reversal? Serial magnetic resonance imaging in a patient cohort thrombolyzed within 4.5 hours of stroke onset.

    PubMed

    Soize, Sebastien; Tisserand, Marie; Charron, Sylvain; Turc, Guillaume; Ben Hassen, Wagih; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Legrand, Laurence; Mas, Jean-Louis; Pierot, Laurent; Meder, Jean-François; Baron, Jean-Claude; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Here, we assessed how sustained is reversal of the acute diffusion lesion (RAD) observed 24 hours after intravenous thrombolysis, and the relationships between RAD fate and early neurological improvement. We analyzed 155 consecutive patients thrombolyzed intravenously 152 minutes (median) after stroke onset and who underwent 3 MR sessions: 1 before and 2 after treatment (median times from onset, 25.6 and 54.3 hours, respectively). Using voxel-based analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)1, DWI2, and DWI3 lesions on coregistered image data sets, we assessed the outcome of RAD voxels (hyperintense on DWI1 but not on DWI2) as transient or sustained on DWI3, and their relationships with early neurological improvement, defined as ΔNational Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥8 or National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤1 at 24 hours. Tmax and apparent diffusion coefficient values were compared between sustained and transient RAD voxels. The median (interquartile range) baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and DWI1 lesion volume were 11 (7-18) mL and 15.6 (6.0-50.9) mL, respectively. The median (interquartile range) RAD volume on DWI2 was 2.8 (1.1-6.6) mL, of which 70% was sustained on DWI3. Sixteen (10.3%) patients had sustained RAD ≥10 mL. As compared with transient RAD voxels, sustained RAD voxels had nonsignificantly higher baseline apparent diffusion coefficient values (median [interquartile range], 793 [717-887] versus 777 [705-869]×10(-6) mm(2)·s (-1), respectively; P=0.08) and significantly better perfusion (Tmax, mean±SD, 6.3±3.2 versus 7.8±4.0 s; P<0.001). At variance with transient RAD, the volume of sustained RAD was associated with early neurological improvement in multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, [1.01-1.17], per 1-mL increase; P=0.03). After thrombolysis, over two-thirds of the DWI lesion reversal captured on 24-hour follow-up MR is sustained. Sustained DWI lesion reversal volume is a

  7. The clinical significance of platelet counts in the first 24 hours after severe injury.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Lynn G; Hess, Aaron S; Thompson, Kwaku; Kramer, Betsy; Scalea, Thomas M; Hess, John R

    2013-04-01

    Admission platelet (PLT) counts are known to be associated with all-cause mortality for seriously injured patients admitted to a trauma center. The course of subsequent PLT counts, their implications, and the effects of PLT therapy are less well known. Trauma center patients who were directly admitted from the scene of injury, received 1 or more units of uncrossmatched red blood cells in the first hour of care, survived for at least 15 minutes, and had a PLT count measured in the first hour were analyzed for the association of their admission and subsequent PLT counts in the first 24 hours with injury severity and hemorrhagic and central nervous system (CNS) causes of in-hospital mortality. Over an 8.25-year period, 1292 of 45,849 direct trauma admissions met entry criteria. Admission PLT counts averaged 228×10(9) ±90×10(9) /L and decreased by 104×10(9) /L by the second hour and 1×10(9) /L each hour thereafter. The admission count was not related to time to admission. Each 1-point increase in the injury severity score was associated with a 1×10(9) /L decrease in the PLT count at all times in the first 24 hours of care. Admission PLT counts were strongly associated with hemorrhagic and CNS injury mortality and subsequent PLT counts. Effects of PLT therapy could not be ascertained. Admission PLT counts in critically injured trauma patients are usually normal, decreasing after admission. Low PLT counts at admission and during the course of trauma care are strongly associated with mortality. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Transfusions and 24-Hour Chest-Tube Output

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Heather R.; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    An increasing obese population in the United States focuses attention on the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes. Our objective was to see if obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI), contributed to bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as measured by intraoperative and postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion frequency and amount and 24-hour chest-tube output. A retrospective chart review examined 150 subjects undergoing single-surgeon off-pump or on-pump CABG surgery between September 2006 and April 2009. BMI groups included normal-weight (BMI <25), overweight (BMI 25 to 29), and obese (BMI ≥30). Analyses used a chi-square test to determine variances in number of transfusions, and ANOVA for transfusion amount and 24-hour chest-tube amount. The percentage of subjects receiving intraoperative transfusions varied significantly by BMI group (p = 0.022). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the combined intraoperative or 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The transfusion amount during the 72-hour postoperative period varied significantly between BMI groups (p = 0.021), and the test for a linear decrease across groups was significant (p = 0.020). Twenty-four hour chest-tube output showed variation across all three BMI categories (p = 0.018) with chest-tube output decreasing with increasing obesity in a linear fashion (p = 0.006). Transfusion rate and amount indicate total blood loss is decreased in the obese, and chest-tube output findings give a direct measurable indicator of blood loss from the surgical site indicating increasing BMI is linearly correlated with decreasing postoperative bleeding. PMID:22654469

  9. [24-hour systolic wave increment index monitoring in patients with low-renin arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Valieva, Z S; Chikhladze, N M; Rogoza, A N; Iarovaia, E B; Bosykh, E G; Chazova, I E

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) and daily reflected wave values in patients with low-renin hypertension with normal and elevated aldosterone production. The investigation included 66 patients. 24-hour BP monitoring was carried out and arterial wall rigidity and reflected wave values were assessed in all the patients. The patients with hyperaldosteronemia were found to have not only statistically significant severer hypertension, impaired circadian rhythms of BP, but also impaired augmentation index (Aix)--mainly its nocturnal increase. A positive correlation was found between nocturnal Aix and resting plasma aldosterone concentrations (r = -0.31; p = 0.002). The findings suggest the expediency of 24-hour systolic wave increment index monitoring in hypertensive patients ofthis category.

  10. Experiences of 24-hour advice line services: a framework for good practice and meeting NICE guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah J; Codling, Jan; Roberts, Dai; O Donnell, Valerie; Taylor, Sue

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the practical implementation of a 24-hour specialist palliative care advice line, illustrated by two case examples from the authors' experience. In the UK, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidance requires provision of 24-hour access to specialist palliative care advice for healthcare professionals and carers regardless of a patient's location. Effective implementation of a telephone advice line for specialist advice is one approach to addressing the current variability in palliative care service provision, both in the UK and elsewhere. The authors were unable to identify a model with documentation for ensuring adequate clinical governance of an advice line in the literature and so present their own. The accompanying case examples demonstrate the difference between 'evolution of services by demand' and taking a systemic approach to service design. Key recommendations for practice are outlined for an effective advice line service which incorporates training and education into the clinical governance structures of the host organization.

  11. Comparison of 24-hour Holter monitoring with 14-day novel adhesive patch electrocardiographic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Paddy M; Komatireddy, Ravi; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Sheard, Judith; Encinas, Jackie; Fought, Angela J; Topol, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are remarkably common and routinely go undiagnosed because they are often transient and asymptomatic. Effective diagnosis and treatment can substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. The Zio Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, Calif) is a novel, single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG), lightweight, Food and Drug Administration-cleared, continuously recording ambulatory adhesive patch monitor suitable for detecting cardiac arrhythmias in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. A total of 146 patients referred for evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia underwent simultaneous ambulatory ECG recording with a conventional 24-hour Holter monitor and a 14-day adhesive patch monitor. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the detection arrhythmia events over total wear time for both devices. Arrhythmia events were defined as detection of any 1 of 6 arrhythmias, including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause greater than 3 seconds, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. McNemar's tests were used to compare the matched pairs of data from the Holter and the adhesive patch monitor. Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected 96 arrhythmia events compared with 61 arrhythmia events by the Holter monitor (P < .001). Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected more events than the Holter monitor. Prolonged duration monitoring for detection of arrhythmia events using single-lead, less-obtrusive, adhesive-patch monitoring platforms could replace conventional Holter monitoring in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 Version, for Youth Aged 9 to 11 Years: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cassandra S; Hingle, Melanie; Chen, Tzu-An; Dadabhoy, Hafza R; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Subar, Amy F; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-10-01

    Valid methods of diet assessment are important for nutrition research and practice, but can be difficult with children. To validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites. Quasiexperimental. In one site, trained staff members observed and recorded foods and drinks consumed by children (n=38) during school lunch. The next day, the observed children completed both ASA24-Kids-2012 and an interviewer-administered 24hDR in a randomized order. Procedures in a second site (n=31) were similar, except observations occurred during dinner in a community location. Foods were classified as matches (reported and consumed), intrusions (reported, but not consumed), or omissions (not reported, but consumed) for each participant. Rates of matches, intrusions, and omissions were calculated. Rates were compared between each recall method using repeated measures analysis of covariance. For matched foods, the authors determined correlation coefficients between observed and reported serving sizes. Match, intrusion, and omission rates between ASA24-Kids-2012 and observed intakes in Site 1 were 37%, 27%, and 35%, respectively. Comparable rates for interviewer-administered 24hDRs were 57%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. In Site 2, match, intrusion, and omission rates between ASA24-Kids-2012 and observed intakes were 53%, 12%, and 36%, respectively, vs 76% matches, 9% intrusions, and 15% omissions for interviewer-administered 24hDRs. The relationship strength between reported and observed serving sizes for matched foods was 0.18 in Site 1 and 0.09 in Site 2 for ASA24-Kids-2012, and 0.46 in Site 1 and 0.11 in Site 2 for interviewer-administered 24hDRs. ASA24-Kids-2012 was less accurate than interviewer-administered 24hDRs when compared with observed intakes, but both performed poorly. Additional research

  13. [The changes in mental working capacity of operators during 24-hour shift work conditions].

    PubMed

    Kal'nysh, V V; Shvets', A V; Ieshchenko, O I

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysiological peculiarities of influence of a 24-hour shift work on the efficiency of operators have been discussed. It was shown that servicemen operators develop significant fatigue as a result of 24 hrs duty services. The informative psychophysiological characteristics which can be reliable indicators of fatigue level are highlighted. Individual psychophysiological indicators of fatigue level, according to different mechanisms of its development, have been proposed. The hypothesis about the existence of several compensatory mechanisms for maintenance of long duty operators' working capacity has been formulated.

  14. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression.

  15. Bilateral Subretinal Fluid Mimicking Subretinal Neovascularization Within 24 Hours After Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty.

    PubMed

    Phillis, Charles A; Bourke, Robert D

    2016-02-01

    Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), which is widely regarded as a safe procedure, is a frequently used treatment for open-angle glaucoma. Although it is presumed to be associated with an inflammatory cascade and possible postoperative inflammation, only 2 cases of SLT complicated by cystoid macular edema have been previously reported. Until now there are no previous reports of SLT causing subretinal fluid (SRF). Clinical examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography demonstrated a previously unreported clinical entity consisting of bilateral SRF, developing within 24 hours of bilateral inferior 180-degree SLT for open-angle glaucoma. Rapid bilateral, subjective loss of vision occurred within 24 hours post-SLT. This was associated with bilateral SRF resulting in 48 μm (OD) and 35 μm (OS) increase in macular thickness on optical coherence tomography. Fundus fluorescein angiography demonstrated profuse, well-demarcated subfoveal leakage. SRF resolved within 4 days, but eventual best corrected visual acuity was subjectively and objectively decreased. The sudden onset of loss of vision and the development of subfoveal SRF within 24 hours of SLT strongly suggests cause and effect. This previously unreported clinical entity of bilateral SRF within 24 hours of SLT may be secondary to an intraocular inflammatory cascade, similar to previous hypotheses regarding 3 cases of cystoid macular edema post-SLT. Given the dramatic initial loss of vision and compromised long-term visual outcome, clinicians and patients need to be informed of this new clinical entity of SLT associated with SRF and permanent retinal pigment epithelial changes.

  16. Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ≤50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = −0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = −0.37), subscapula (r = −0.28), abdomen (r = −0.31), and suprailiaca (r = −0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = −0.32); percentage body fat (r = −0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = −0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = −0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners. PMID:21566757

  17. 24-Hour Pharmacokinetic Relationships for Vancomycin and Novel Urinary Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J Nicholas; Rhodes, Nathaniel J; Lodise, Thomas P; Prozialeck, Walter C; Miglis, Cristina M; Joshi, Medha; Venkatesan, Natarajan; Pais, Gwendolyn; Cluff, Cameron; Lamar, Peter C; Briyal, Seema; Day, John Z; Gulati, Anil; Scheetz, Marc H

    2017-08-14

    Introduction: Vancomycin has been associated with acute kidney injury in preclinical and clinical settings, however the precise exposure profiles associated with vancomycin induced acute kidney injury has not been defined. We sought to determine pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics indices associated with the development of acute kidney injury using sensitive urinary biomarkers.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received clinical grade vancomycin or normal saline as an intraperitoneal injection. Total daily doses between 0 and 400 mg/kg/day were administered as single or 2 divided doses over a 24-hour period. At least five rats were utilized for each dosing protocol. A maximum of 8 plasma samples per rat were obtained and urine was collected over the 24-hour period. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), clusterin, osteopontin, cystatin-c and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were determined using MILLIPLEX MAP Rat Kidney Panels. Vancomycin plasma concentrations were determined via a validated HPLC methodology. Pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted using Pmetrics for R. Bayesian maximal a posteriori concentrations were generated and utilized to calculate 24-hour AUC, Cmax, and Cmin. Spearman's rho (rs) was used to assess correlations between exposure parameters, biomarkers and histopathologic damage.Results: Forty-seven rats contributed pharmacokinetic and toxicodynamic data. KIM-1 was the only urinary biomarker marker that correlated with both composite histopathologic damage (rs=0.348, p=0.017) and proximal tubule damage (rs=0.342, p=0.0.19). Vancomycin AUC and Cmax were most predictive of KIM-1 increases (rs=0.438, p=0.002, rs= 0.451, p=0.002, respectively).Conclusions: Novel urinary biomarkers demonstrate that kidney injury can occur within 24 hours with vancomycin exposures, either as a function of AUC or Cmax. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. [Development of software of the 24-hour dynamic ECG monitoring and analyzing system].

    PubMed

    An, Y; Fang, K R; Ren, C S

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a PC-computer program of a digital remote ECG monitoring system. In addition to current monitor's capabilities of real time displaying of dynamic ECG wave, over-limit alarming, and so on, it has developed most functions of the Holter system, that are recording the data of ECG more than 24 hours, reviewing and analyzing the ECG data, and giving out reports.

  19. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  20. Association between an increase in blood urea nitrogen at 24 hours and worse outcomes in acute nonvariceal upper GI bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navin L; Claggett, Brian L; Cohen, Aaron J; Nayor, Jennifer; Saltzman, John R

    2017-04-02

    An increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) at 24 hours is a solitary and significant predictor of mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis, which may predict worse outcomes in the similarly resuscitation-requiring condition of acute nonvariceal upper GI bleeding (UGIB). The aim of our study was to assess whether an increase in BUN at 24 hours is predictive of worse clinical outcomes in acute nonvariceal UGIB. A retrospective cohort study including patients admitted to an academic hospital from 2004 to 2014 was conducted. An increase in BUN was defined as an increase in BUN at 24 hours of hospitalization compared with BUN at presentation. The primary outcome was a composite of inpatient death, inpatient rebleeding, need for surgical or radiologic intervention, or endoscopic reintervention. Associations between BUN change and outcomes were assessed via the Pearson χ(2) test and the Fisher exact test and via logistic regression for adjusted analyses. There were 357 patients included in the analysis with a mean age of 64 years; 54% were men. The mean change in BUN was -10.1 mg/dL (standard deviation, 12.7 mg/dL). Patients with an increased BUN (n = 37 [10%]) were significantly more likely to experience the composite outcome (22% vs 9%, P = .014), including an increased risk of inpatient death (8% vs 1%, P = .004), compared with patients with a decreased or unchanged BUN (n = 320 [90%]). In a logistic regression model adjusting for the AIMS65 score, an increase in BUN was independently associated with an increased risk for the composite outcome (odds ratio, 2.75; P = .026). Increasing BUN at 24 hours likely reflects under resuscitation and is a predictor of worse outcomes in patients with acute nonvariceal UGIB. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "Simple febrile seizures plus (SFS+)": more than one febrile seizure within 24 hours is usually okay.

    PubMed

    Grill, Marie F; Ng, Yu-Tze

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether children with recurrent febrile seizures within a 24-hour period need to be worked up differently from children with simple febrile seizures. Inclusion criteria included the following: (i) children with first seizure cluster between 4 months and 3 years of age, (ii) children who had more than one febrile seizure within 24 hours, and (iii) children who returned to baseline between and after each event. Thirty-two patients met the inclusion criteria over a 3-year period. All patients underwent brain CT and/or MRI and EEG. All head CTs were normal. Two children had abnormal MRI findings - both benign: one is thought to represent postictal changes, and the other one is an incidental arachnoid cyst. Of the 4 abnormal EEGs, one showed epileptiform discharges, while the others showed generalized ictal or postictal features. We propose the term "simple febrile seizures plus (SFS+)" to describe children who have more than one seizure within 24 hours but who are otherwise not different in presentation from children with SFS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  3. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-09-09

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders.

  4. Physiological Load and Psychological Stress During a 24-hour Work Shift Among Finnish Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, Piia; Lindholm, Harri; Lusa, Sirpa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe physiological load and psychological stress of Finnish firefighters during a 24-hour work shift. R-R intervals were recorded during 24-hour work shifts. Short-time Fourier transform was used to analyze heart rate variability during shifts. HRmean, HRpeak, and square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of the differences between adjacent R-to-R peak intervals of the 24-hour shift was 73 ± 7 bpm (38 ± 4% of HRmax), 156 ± 16 bpm (82 ± 8% of HRmax), and 42 ± 14 ms. Mean VO2 was 11 ± 2 (% of VO2max) and VO2peak 72 ± 11 (% of VO2max). Physiological load and psychological stress were temporarily high, even in young, fit firefighters. As the relative work load may increase and recovery processes slow down among aging employees, fatigue may occur unless work arrangements are well-designed.

  5. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children with familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Nussinovitch, Naomi; Nussinovitch, Moshe; Peleg, Edna; Rosenthal, Talma

    2005-04-01

    Familial dysautonomia (Riley Day syndrome) is a genetic disease. The present study of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children with familial dysautonomia was carried out to investigate the pattern of blood pressure in this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only description of patients with 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. Vasomotor instability reflected in extreme hypertension and hypotension was recorded by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in three patients with familial dysautonomia: a 16-year old girl, a 14-year old boy and a 3-year old boy. Recordings were taken on a routine school day in the first two patients and during hospitalization in the third. Patients 1 and 2 displayed circadian rhythm but with significantly higher than normal blood pressure and heart rate. Patient 3 exhibited these fluctuations to a lesser degree. Postural hypotension without compensatory tachycardia was frequently seen in all three patients. Unusual variability in blood pressure was recorded during routine activities in patients 1 and 2 and during an acute attack in patient 3. Close monitoring of antihypertensive therapy should be considered in familial dysautonomia patients in whom blood pressure reaches excessive levels.

  6. Overnight versus 24 Hours of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion as Supplement to Oral Antidiabetic Drugs in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Parkner, Tina; Laursen, Torben; Chen, Jian-Wen; Møller, Marianne K.; Thomsen, Henrik F.; Jørgensen, Christina; Smedegaard, Jørgen S.; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christiansen, Jens S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Basal continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy at a fixed rate may effectively improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes when oral antidiabetic treatment fails. Regimens of simple constant subcutaneous delivery of insulin may provide theoretical advantages in type 2 diabetes. Methods Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes who obtained insufficient glycemic control on oral antidiabetic drugs were included. Following an initial control day, two periods of 3 days with CSII of a rapid-acting insulin analogue, 1.5 IU/h (dose obtained from a preceding study), for 8 hours overnight and for 24 hours, respectively, were carried out in random order. Profiles of serum insulin aspart, serum endogenous insulin, and plasma glucose were recorded. Results Compared to the control day, an 8-hour overnight insulin infusion during a 3-day period improved fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mean differences ± SEM; Δ59.0 ± 10.1 mg/dl; p < 0.01) and 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) (Δ57.8 ± 10.6 mg/dl; p < 0.01) after breakfast. Compared to an 8-hour overnight infusion, a 24-hour infusion further improved all three PPPG values after breakfast, lunch, and dinner (Δ28.8 ± 8.1 mg/dl, Δ30.6 ± 8.1 mg/dl, and Δ35.1 ± 7.9 mg/dl; p < 0.01). During insulin infusion, only one hypoglycemic episode with PG <55.8 mg/dl and mild symptoms was recorded. Conclusion Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with a rapid-acting insulin analogue at a fixed rate of 1.5 IU/h, either overnight or for 24 hours, improved glycemic control without safety concerns in patients with type 2 diabetes who had secondary failure to oral antidiabetic drugs. The effect on FPG was similar for both treatments, whereas the effect on PPPG was superior when insulin was infused during the entire 24 hours. PMID:19885138

  7. Effect of an L- and T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker on 24-Hour Systolic Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Ebado, Mio; Takeyama, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an L- and T-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) on 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP) and heart rate (24-hour HR) profiles in essential hypertensive patients. Subjects and Methods Thirty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. The 24-hour SBP and HR were recorded before and after treatment with efonidipine (L- and T-type CCB, 40 mg), after waking. Changes in 24-hour SBP and HR and the diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio were measured. The best-fit curves of changes in SBP and HR were depicted using a periodic function. Results The mean 24-hour SBP and HR decreased significantly after treatment. The diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio in dipper-type hypertension cases decreased from 16.7±6.1% to 8.3±9.8% (p<0.05), whereas in non-dipper hypertension cases, it increased from 2.3±2.9% to 7.7±5.1% (p<0.01). The antihypertensive effect was minimal at 5.0 hours after drug administration and it slowly recovered at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) over 12 hours in dipper cases. The median 24-hour changes in HR in the dipper and non-dipper cases were -2.3/min and -5.4/min, respectively. A continuous reduction in the change in HR was seen from 3.5 to 23 hours after drug administration. Conclusion The antihypertensive action of efonidipine was characterized by a slow recovery of the SBP decrease at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) and a non-administration time dependent reduction in 24-hour HR. PMID:22563335

  8. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Grübler, Martin R; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension.We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1-3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM.Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38-12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = -0.133; P = 0.01).In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted.

  9. Effects of exenatide and liraglutide on 24-hour glucose fluctuations in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Jo; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Taguri, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Hirohisa; Shigematsu, Erina; Suzuki, Jun; Morita, Satoshi; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of short-term treatment with exenatide twice daily or liraglutide once daily on daily blood glucose fluctuations in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulfonylureas. The patients in a multicenter, open-label trial were randomly assigned to receive add-on exenatide (10 μg/day, n = 21) or add-on liraglutide (0.3-0.9 mg/day, n = 19), and underwent 24-hour continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring. There was no significant between-group difference in glucose fluctuations during the day, as assessed by calculating mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and standard deviation (SD). However, the mean blood glucose levels at 3 hours after breakfast and dinner were significantly lower in the exenatide group than the liraglutide group (breakfast: 127.3 ± 24.1 vs. 153.4 ± 28.7 mg/dL; p = 0.006, dinner: 108.7 ± 17.3 vs. 141.9 ± 24.2 mg/dL; p < 0.001). In contrast, mean blood glucose levels and their SD were significantly lower between 0000 h and 0600 h in the liraglutide group than the exenatide group (average glucose: 126.9 ± 27.1 vs. 107.1 ± 24.0 mg/dL; p = 0.029, SD: 15.2 ± 10.5 vs. 8.7 ± 3.8; p = 0.020). Both groups had similar glucose fluctuations despite differences in 24-hour blood glucose profiles. Therefore, each of these agents may have advantages or disadvantages and should be selected according to the blood glucose profile of the patient.

  10. 24 CFR 3.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparable facilities. 3.410....410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to...

  11. Low correlation between visit-to-visit variability and 24-hour variability of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Newman, Jonathan; Sloan, Richard P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the need for obtaining blood pressure (BP) at multiple visits to calculate VVV, substituting BP variability from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may be a practical alternative. We assessed the correlation between VVV of BP and BP variability from ABPM using data from 146 untreated, mostly normotensive participants (mean age 47.9 years) in a substudy of the ongoing Masked Hypertension Study. VVV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was estimated by the standard deviation (SDvvv) and average real variability (ARVvvv) from 6 study visits over a median of 216 days. ABPM data were used to calculate the day-night SD (SDdn) and the ARV of SBP and DBP over 24 hours (ARV24). For SBP, the mean SDvvv and SDdn were 6.3 (SD=2.5) and 8.8 (SD=1.8) mmHg, respectively, and mean ARVvvv and ARV24 were 7.2 (SD=3.2) and 8.4 (SD=2.1) mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between SDvvv and SDdn of SBP was rs=0.25 and between ARVvvv and ARV24 was rs=0.17. Participants in the highest quartile of SDdn of SBP were 1.66 (95% CI: 0.93 – 2.75) times more likely to be in the highest quartile of SDvvv of SBP. The observed-to-expected ratio between the highest quartiles of ARVvvv and ARV24 of SBP was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.41 – 1.69). The correlations for SDvvv and SDdn and ARVvvv and ARV24 of DBP were minimal. These data suggest VVV and 24-hour variability are weakly correlated and not interchangeable. PMID:23784506

  12. The effect of Operation 24 Hours on reducing collision in the City of Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Halim, Siana; Jiang, Heming

    2013-09-01

    In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24 Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24 Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability of 24-Hour Dietary Recalls as a Measure of Diet in African-American Youth.

    PubMed

    St George, Sara M; Van Horn, M Lee; Lawman, Hannah G; Wilson, Dawn K

    2016-10-01

    Although it is a common practice to estimate dietary intake using three random 24-hour dietary recalls, some studies have suggested up to nine may be necessary to reliably estimate usual intake in youth. Given the resulting increase in resources and participant burden, more research is needed to determine whether this method is reliable, particularly in African-American youth at increased risk for obesity and other chronic diseases. This study estimated the reliability with which 24-hour dietary recalls measure energy, fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in African-American youth and examined how reliability changes as a function of the number of recalls. This study used cross-sectional data collection across three studies. Participants were African-American youth (n=456, mean±standard deviation age 13.28±1.86 years, 64% were girls, mean±standard deviation body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 31.45±7.94) who completed random 24-hour dietary recalls (67% completed three) conducted by research assistants using the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour recall system (n=258) or registered dietitian nutritionists using the Nutrition Data System for Research (n=198). Estimates provided by multilevel models were used to calculate the proportion of variance accounted for between individuals and the reliability of means within individuals as a function of the number of recalls. Reliability estimates for assessing dietary outcomes using one to three recalls ranged from 11% to 62%. To achieve 80% reliability, the following number of recalls would need to be conducted: 8 for energy intake, 13 for fat intake, 21 to 32 for fruit intake, and 21 to 25 for vegetable intake. The common practice of assessing dietary intake with three recalls does so with low reliability in African-American youth. Until more objective methods for reliably estimating usual intake are developed, researchers who choose to use 24-hour dietary recalls are encouraged to include estimates of the measure

  14. Mediterranean diet reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids: one-year randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Mónica; Roman, Pilar; Lapetra, José; García de la Corte, Francisco J; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de la Torre, Rafael; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa-María; Toledo, Estefania; Estruch, Ramón; Coca, Antonio; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) supplemented with either extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, compared with a control, lower fat diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection remain unclear. We evaluated the 1-year effects of supplemented MedDiets on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, and lipids. Randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial was conducted in 2 PREDIMED sites. Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on increasing physical activity or reducing sodium intake was given. Participants were 235 subjects (56.5% women; mean age, 66.5 years) at high cardiovascular risk (85.4% with hypertension). Adjusted changes from baseline in mean systolic BP were -2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -0.5) mm Hg and -2.6 (95% CI, -4.3 to -0.9) mm Hg in the MedDiets with olive oil and the MedDiets with nuts, respectively, and 1.7 (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.5) mm Hg in the control group (P<0.001). Respective changes in mean diastolic BP were -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), and 0.7 (95% CI, -0.4 to 1.7) mm Hg (P=0.017). Daytime and nighttime BP followed similar patterns. Mean changes from baseline in fasting blood glucose were -6.1, -4.6, and 3.5 mg/dL (P=0.016) in the MedDiets with olive oil, MedDiets with nuts, and control diet, respectively; those of total cholesterol were -11.3, -13.6, and -4.4 mg/dL (P=0.043), respectively. In high-risk individuals, most with treated hypertension, MedDiets supplemented with extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced 24-hour ambulatory BP, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Comparison of the effects of energy drink versus caffeine supplementation on indices of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Franks, Amy M; Schmidt, Julia M; McCain, Keith R; Fraer, Mony

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular events associated with energy drink consumption have been reported, but few data exist to delineate the hemodynamic effects of energy drinks. To compare the effects of an energy drink versus caffeine supplementation on blood pressure (BP) indices as measured by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Healthy, nonsmoking, normotensive volunteers (aged 18-45 years) taking no medications were enrolled in a single-center, open-label, 2-period crossover pilot study. During each study period, subjects received either an energy drink (Red Bull Energy Drink, each dose containing 80 mg of caffeine and 1000 mg of taurine in an 8.3-oz serving) or a control (compounded caffeine solution, each dose containing 80 mg of caffeine solution in 8 oz of bottled water) at 0800, 1100, 1500, and 1900 hours and underwent 24-hour ABPM. The study periods were separated by a washout period (4-30 days). Mean 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) BP; BP load; and percent nocturnal dipping were compared between study periods. Nine subjects (5 females, mean [SD] age 27.7 [5.0] years) completed the study. Mean 24-hour SBP (123.2 vs 117.4 mm Hg, p = 0.04), DBP (73.6 vs 68.2 mm Hg, p = 0.02), and MAP (90.1 vs 84.8 mm Hg, p = 0.03) were significantly higher during energy drink supplementation versus caffeine supplementation. Daytime DBP (77.0 vs 72.0 mm Hg, p = 0.04) also was significantly higher with the energy drink versus caffeine supplementation. Trends in higher daytime SBP (127.0 vs 121.9 mm Hg, p = 0.05) and MAP (93.6 vs 88.6 mm Hg, p = 0.05) were recorded with energy drink supplementation versus caffeine supplementation. Nighttime SBP and DBP loads were significantly higher with the energy drink, but nocturnal dipping did not differ significantly between study periods. Single-day energy drink supplementation increased mean 24-hour and daytime BP compared to caffeine control in this pilot study. Additional research is

  16. Thyroid uptake and imaging with iodine-123 at 4-5 hours: replacement of the 24-hour iodine-131 standard

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Rosen, P.R.; Borchert, R.D.; Jackson, D.E.; Weiland, F.L.

    1985-08-01

    A study was carried out to determine the suitability of utilizing a 4 to 5 hr interval from administration of Iodine-123 to imaging and uptake measurement as a replacement for the 24-hr standard originally established with Iodine-131. In 55 patients who underwent scintigraphy at 4 and 24 hr, there was no discrepancy between paired images. In 55 patients who had uptake measured at 4 and 24 hr and in 191 patients who had uptake measured at 5 and 24 hr, the early measurements proved equal or better discriminants of euthyroid from hyperthyroid patients. In our institutions, these findings and the logistical advantages of completing the exam in 4-5 hr led us to abandon the 24-hr study in the majority of patients.

  17. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Totally blind individuals are highly likely to suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder due to a failure of light to reset the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. In this outpatient case series, we investigated whether daily caffeine administration could entrain the circadian pacemaker in non-entrained blind patients to alleviate symptoms of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder. Patients/Methods Three totally blind males (63.0 ± 7.5 years old) were studied at home over ~4 months. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythms were measured for 48 h every 1–2 weeks. Participants completed daily sleep–wake logs, and rated their alertness and mood using nine-point scales every ~2–4 h while awake on urine sampling days. Caffeine capsules (150 mg per os) were self-administered daily at 10 a.m. for approximately one circadian beat cycle based on each participant's endogenous circadian period τ and compared to placebo (n = 2) or no treatment (n = 1) in a single-masked manner. Results Non-24-h aMT6s rhythms were confirmed in all three participants (τ range = 24.32–24.57 h). Daily administration of 150 mg caffeine did not entrain the circadian clock. Caffeine treatment significantly improved daytime alertness at adverse circadian phases (p < 0.0001) but did not decrease the occurrence of daytime naps compared with placebo. Conclusions Although caffeine was able to improve daytime alertness acutely and may therefore provide temporary symptomatic relief, the inability of caffeine to correct the underlying circadian disorder means that an entraining agent is required to treat Non-24-Hour Sleep–Wake Disorder in the blind appropriately. PMID:25891543

  18. Efficacy of a high bioavailable cetylpyridinium chloride mouthrinse over a 24-hour period: a plaque imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Kathy M; Gibb, Roger; Dunavent, John; White, Donald J

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the antiplaque benefits of a 0.07% high bioavailable, alcohol-free cetylpyridium chloride (CPC) rinse used after toothbrushing versus toothbrushing alone. A digital plaque image analysis technique was used to quantify in situ plaque formation in a subject population carrying out modified hygiene using standard fluoridated dentifrice or standard dentifrice augmented with 30 seconds mouthrinsing with an alcohol-free mouthrinse containing 700 ppm CPC. Comparison of plaque formation 24 hours following "last hygiene" revealed that brushing followed by CPC mouthrinse use provided a statistically significant decrease in plaque coverage on teeth averaging 42% as compared with brushing only. Moreover, toothbrushing with a standard dentifrice in the morning resulted in 34% less plaque when subjects used the CPC mouthrinse 24 hours prior to examination. These results support the strong retention and lasting antiplaque efficacy of high bioavailable CPC mouthrinse and suggest that the plaque biofilms formed during CPC use are susceptible to more efficient debridement.

  19. Routine 24-Hour Computed Tomography Brain Scan is not useful in stable patients Post Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Guhwe, Mary; Utley-Smith, Queen; Blessing, Robert; Goldstein, Larry B

    2016-03-01

    Obtaining a routine computed tomography (CT) brain scan 24 hours after treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is included in the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association acute stroke guidelines. The usefulness of the test in stable patients is not known. We hypothesized that the results of routine, 24-hour post-treatment neuroimaging (CT or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] brain scans) would not alter the management of clinically stable patients. Patients treated with IV-tPA between January 2011 and December 2013 were identified from a single hospital's stroke registry. All patients were closely monitored for changes in stroke severity. Demographics, changes in neurological status, neuroimaging results, and changes in therapy were abstracted from the patients' medical records. Patients having a neuroimaging study because of neurological deterioration were excluded. Of 136 patients treated with IV-tPA, 131 met criteria for inclusion. Of these, 86.7% had moderate to severe neurological deficits (i.e., initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score > 5 points; median 8 points). All patients had routine imaging ~24 hours after treatment (CT brain 62.6%, MRI brain 12.4%, both CT and MRI brain 25%). Asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation occurred in 6.7% and potentially changed management in a single patient (target systolic blood pressure was lowered from 185 to 180 mmHg). Over a 3-year period, routine neuroimaging ~24-hours after IV-tPA in clinically stable patients was associated with a change in therapy in only 1 (.95%) patient. If confirmed in other cohorts, these results suggest that routine neuroimaging after IV-tPA may be safely avoided in clinically stable patients, eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure in those having CT brain and reducing costs. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A linear programming model for determining efficient combinations of 8-, 10-, and 12-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R B

    1981-11-01

    I have formulated a linear programming model to determine changes in efficiency and productivity that would result from scheduling personnel to work combinations of 8-, 10-, and 12-hour shifts in a section of our pulmonary medicine department. My objective was to minimize the number of staff hours worked each day, subject to the constraints imposed by the levels of staffing required during each hour of the day. I found that a combination of 8-, 10- and 12-hour shifts could increase productivity 8.1% and reduce personnel requirements by one full-time equivalent. Salary expenses would decrease 7.5% if overtime were not paid for the extended hours of the 10- and 12-hour shifts. Two considerations in implementing the proposed schedule are the willingness of staff to work extended hours and the necessity of developing a format for communication between therapists who work discontinuous shifts.

  1. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from cattle with central nervous system disorders after storage for 24 hours with autologous serum.

    PubMed

    Bellino, C; Miniscalco, B; Bertone, I; Cagnasso, A; Occhiena, E; Gianella, P; D'Angelo, A

    2015-08-13

    We compared the changes in cell morphology, total and differential cell counts between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples analyzed within an hour of collection (fresh sample) and after the addition of autologous serum and storage for 24 h (stored sample) in 27 cattle with central nervous system disorders. There was a positive linear correlation between total and differential cell counts in the fresh and the stored samples. Cell morphology was preserved in all stored samples, except for increased vacuolization of mononuclear cells and cleaved nuclei of some small mononuclear cells. In the stored CSF samples, the total nucleated cell count and monocyte percentage were decreased (P = 0.01; P = 0.03), while the lymphocyte percentage was increased (P = 0.04). Mononuclear pleocytosis diagnosed in 20 fresh samples was cytologically confirmed in 12 of the 20 stored samples. In the remaining eight stored samples, the number of total nucleated cells was within the normal range. Neutrophilic pleocytosis was confirmed in all seven stored samples. The overall agreement rate between cytologic interpretation of the fresh and the stored CSF samples was 70 % (100 % for neutrophilic pleocytosis and 60 % for mononuclear pleocytosis). Adding 11 % of autologous serum to CSF samples might allow delayed analysis with a good agreement rate for CSF cytological interpretation. Caution is nonetheless warranted, as animal age, anamnesis, and neurological presentation need to be considered when interpreting stored CSF without pleocytosis.

  2. One 24-hour frequency-volume chart in a woman with objective urinary motor urge incontinence is sufficient.

    PubMed

    van Melick, H H; Gisolf, K W; Eckhardt, M D; van Venrooij, G E; Boon, T A

    2001-08-01

    To determine whether one 24-hour frequency-volume (FV) chart in a woman with objective urinary motor urge incontinence is sufficient to gain insight into her voiding habits. Retrospectively, women 18 years old and older with urodynamically confirmed urinary motor urge incontinence without neurologic disease or other urologic pathologic findings, who correctly completed two or three 24-hour FV charts during normal daily life, were studied. For each patient, we compared the voiding parameters (mean voided volume, diuria, nocturia, minimum and maximum voided volumes, and total voided volume) and fluid intake calculated from the first FV chart with the same data calculated from all the FV charts. Ninety-eight adult women were recruited. A marked dropout occurred, and 60 patients remained to be evaluated (mean age 54.5 +/- 15.5 years). The calculated voiding parameters agreed with those in published reports. Strong associations existed between all voiding parameters and fluid intake calculated from the first FV chart and those calculated from all FV charts (P <0.001 for all parameters). Compared with the well-known variability, the differences between the voiding parameters calculated from the first FV chart and those from all charts were small. These results agreed with studies in other patient groups (benign prostatic hyperplasia and interstitial cystitis) that analyzed the use of only one 24-hour FV chart. The use of only one 24-hour FV chart completed during normal daily life by a woman with objective urinary motor urge incontinence is sufficient to gain insight into her voiding habits.

  3. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  4. The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (Δ) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). Δ body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. Δ body mass (p < 0.001) and %Δ body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries

  5. 24-hour bronchodilation following a single dose of the novel β(2)-agonist olodaterol in COPD.

    PubMed

    van Noord, J A; Smeets, J J; Drenth, B M; Rascher, J; Pivovarova, A; Hamilton, A L; Cornelissen, P J G

    2011-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend long-acting bronchodilators as maintenance therapy in COPD when symptoms are not adequately controlled with short-acting agents. Olodaterol is a novel long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist with a pre-clinical profile that suggests 24-h bronchodilation may be achieved with once-daily administration. To assess dose- and time-response in terms of bronchodilator efficacy, and to evaluate pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of single doses of olodaterol administered via Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ Inhaler in COPD patients. A single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 5-way crossover study including 24-h spirometry (FEV(1), FVC), safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (in a subset of patients) following dosing of olodaterol 2 μg, 5 μg, 10 μg and 20 μg; the washout period between test-days was at least 14 days. Primary endpoint of the study was the 24-h post-dosing FEV(1). Patients participating in the pharmacokinetic assessments continued in an open-label extension phase to establish pharmacokinetics of olodaterol 40 μg. 36 patients were assigned to treatment; mean baseline prebronchodilator FEV(1) was 1.01 L (37% predicted normal). All doses of olodaterol provided significantly greater bronchodilation compared to placebo in 24-h FEV(1) post-dose (p < 0.001); a clear dose-response relationship was observed, with values ranging from 0.070 L for olodaterol 2 μg to 0.119 L for olodaterol 20 μg. Similarly, olodaterol was superior to placebo (p < 0.001) in peak FEV(1) (0.121 L to 0.213 L) and average FEV(1) both during the daytime (0-12 h; ranging from 0.099 L to 0.184 L) and night-time (12-24 h; ranging from 0.074 L to 0.141 L). FVC results were consistent with those observed for FEV(1). Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the peak plasma concentrations and renal excretion suggested no obvious deviation from dose-proportionality over the investigated dose range of 2 μg-40 μg; in most patients, no plasma

  6. Comparison of observation level versus 24-hour average atmospheric loading corrections in VLBI analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.; van Dam, T. M.

    2009-04-01

    Variations in the horizontal distribution of atmospheric mass induce displacements of the Earth's surface. Theoretical estimates of the amplitude of the surface displacement indicate that the predicted surface displacement is often large enough to be detected by current geodetic techniques. In fact, the effects of atmospheric pressure loading have been detected in Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate time series [van Dam et al., 1994; Dong et al., 2002; Scherneck et al., 2003; Zerbini et al., 2004] and very long baseline interferometery (VLBI) coordinates [Rabble and Schuh, 1986; Manabe et al., 1991; van Dam and Herring, 1994; Schuh et al., 2003; MacMillan and Gipson, 1994; and Petrov and Boy, 2004]. Some of these studies applied the atmospheric displacement at the observation level and in other studies, the predicted atmospheric and observed geodetic surface displacements have been averaged over 24 hours. A direct comparison of observation level and 24 hour corrections has not been carried out for VLBI to determine if one or the other approach is superior. In this presentation, we address the following questions: 1) Is it better to correct geodetic data at the observation level rather than applying corrections averaged over 24 hours to estimated geodetic coordinates a posteriori? 2) At the sub-daily periods, the atmospheric mass signal is composed of two components: a tidal component and a non-tidal component. If observation level corrections reduce the scatter of VLBI data more than a posteriori correction, is it sufficient to only model the atmospheric tides or must the entire atmospheric load signal be incorporated into the corrections? 3) When solutions from different geodetic techniques (or analysis centers within a technique) are combined (e.g., for ITRF2008), not all solutions may have applied atmospheric loading corrections. Are any systematic effects on the estimated TRF introduced when atmospheric loading is applied?

  7. Sleep Architecture in Unrestrained Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Synchronized to 24-Hour Light-Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Kung-Chiao; Robinson, Edward L.; Fuller, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize the sleep patterns of unrestrained, diurnal nonhuman primates entrained to 24-hour light-dark cycles. Design: EEG, EMG, and EOG were recorded continuously via implanted telemetry from 5 unrestrained male rhesus monkeys housed individually under a 16:8 light-dark cycle (LD 16:8; L = 13 lux; D = 0 lux). Results: In a LD 16:8 cycle, all 5 monkeys demonstrated a long period of consolidated sleep during the 8-h dark period. On average, sleep accounted for 89.2% of the 8-h dark period and 25.2% of the 16-hour light period. REM sleep occupied 23% of total sleep time over 24 h, or 10.7% of the total time. The average length of the consolidated sleep (CS) period was 10.5 h, although the time of CS onset was variable. In contrast, the end of CS, and thus the onset of consolidated wakefulness (CW) demonstrated very little variation, typically occurring within 2 min of light onset. Ultradian NREM-REM cycles with periods of approximately 60 min were also observed. EEG delta activity during NREM sleep, thought to reflect the homeostatic sleep process, peaked at 3–4 h after CS onset. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the feasibility of long-term, unrestrained sleep monitoring in nonhuman primates using fully-implantable biotelemetry. With minor exceptions, most notably a delay in peak delta activity, sleep-wake architecture, regulation, and consolidation in rhesus monkeys strongly resembles that of humans. These results demonstrate that the unrestrained rhesus monkey is an excellent biomedical model for human sleep. Citation: Hsieh KC; Robinson EL; Fuller CA. Sleep architecture in unrestrained rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) synchronized to 24-hour light-dark cycles. SLEEP 2008;31(9):1239-1250. PMID:18788649

  8. Bioenergetical and Cardiac Adaptations of Pilots to a 24-Hour Team Kart Race.

    PubMed

    Durand, Sylvain; Ripamonti, Michael; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Beaune, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) response in kart pilots to successive driving bouts during a 24-hour team race. Eight adult male pilots (22.8 ± 4.1 years) participated to a team 24-hour speedway kart race in Le Mans (France). They alternatively piloted a 390 cm kart. Each relay was 45 minutes long and each pilot performed 4 relays. For each pilot, mean speeds were calculated from lap-to-lap duration recordings using a telemetric infrared timing device. Heart rate values were recorded continuously on 5-second intervals using a portable cardiometric device. Total energy expenditure (EET) and physical activity ratio (PAR) were determined by accelerometry. To pilot a kart during 45 minutes at a mean speed around 62 km·h induces a 300-kcal EET, corresponding to a 5.6-Mets PAR. This effort is responsive for a 73 b·min increase in HR, from 84.1 ± 7.6 to 157.4 ± 11.0 b·min (82% maximal heart rate intensity). However, during this relay period, HR values seemed independent to mean speed performance and bioenergetical values. Thus, in the context of the 24-hour team race, the variability in effort made during each relay and relay succession did not alter bioenergetical adaptation of pilots to kart driving. The high EE and HR values would be better explained by both emotional stress and environmental constraints such as speedway configuration and vibrations. The way how these factors specifically influence bioenergetical demand, and their relative importance, has to be specified to optimize training procedure and recommendations.

  9. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  10. Implementation of a 24-hour pharmacy service with prospective medication review in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sin, Billy; Yee, Linda; Claudio-Saez, Maria; Halim, Qazi; Marshall, Lewis; Hayes-Quinn, Mary

    2015-02-01

    It is reported that more than 128 million patients are seen in emergency departments (EDs) annually. Patient overcrowding had been associated with an increased occurrence of medication errors. Due to increased patient volume and the need for improved patient safety, a 24-hour pharmacy service was established for our institution's ED. The purpose of the study is to quantify and demonstrate the impact of a 24-hour pharmacy service in an urban ED. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at a regional level 1 trauma center. The study period occurred between December 2012 and July 2013. The following variables were quantified and analyzed: number of medication orders reviewed, number of intravenous medications compounded, and number of clinical interventions that were recommended by the ED pharmacy team (EDPT) and accepted by ED clinicians. A total of 3,779 medication orders were reviewed by the EDPT. Of these orders, 3,482 (92%) were prospectively reviewed. A total of 3,068 (81.2%) and 711 (18.8%) orders were reviewed for the adult and pediatric ED, respectively. During the study period, the EDPT procured 549 intravenous admixtures and conducted 642 clinical interventions. Most of the interventions involved providing drug information for physicians and nurses (45.9%), adjusting drug dosages (21.1%), and recommending antimicrobial therapy (15.1%). The implementation of a 24-hour pharmacy service at our institution was an innovative practice that increased the role of pharmacists in the ED. The EDPT conducted prospective medication review, procured intravenous admixtures from a sterile environment, and provided therapeutic recommendations for the ED interdisciplinary team.

  11. Vanilmandelic acid and homovanillic acid levels in patients with neural crest tumor: 24-hour urine collection versus random sample.

    PubMed

    Gregianin, L J; McGill, A C; Pinheiro, C M; Brunetto, A L

    1997-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and is the most frequent neural crest tumor (NCT). More than 90% of the patients excrete high levels of vanilmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the urine. Original biochemical methods for measuring these two metabolites of catecholamines employed a collection of urine for 24 hours to avoid errors related to circadian cycle variations. More recently, attempts have been made to replace the 24-hour collections by random samples (RSs). This has practical advantages particularly for young children. The objective of this study is to assess whether urinary VMA related to urinary creatinine levels can be determined reliably by the method of Pisano et al. from RSs in patients with NCT. The determination of the consumption of VMA in urine stored for prolonged periods of time was also studied. We found a good correlation between the values of metabolites of catecholamines in RSs compared with 24-hour urine collections. There was consumption of VMA in urine samples after storage. We conclude that determination of VMA in RSs of urine by Pisano's method may identify NCT production of catecholamines and that the consumption of these catecholamines is an important factor to consider in the interpretation of values obtained with stored urine specimens.

  12. Assessment of Microvolt T Wave Alternans in Children with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot during 24-Hour Holter Electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Doksöz, Önder; Meşe, Timur; Karaarslan, Utku; Ceylan, Gökhan; Demirpençe, Savaş; Tavlı, Vedide; Ünal, Nurettin

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to examine microvolt T wave alternans (MTWA) in 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) of children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) to assess associations of MTWA with ventricular arrhythmias, ECG parameters, and echocardiographic findings. Holter ECG records and archive files of 56 repaired TOF patients (62.5% male) who were analyzed retrospectively. Subjects' ECG parameters and MTWA values were compared with age-sex-matched control group. T wave changes were analyzed by time-domain-modified moving average method from the three channels of 24-hour Holter ECG. Mean age was 123.4 ± 48.3 months. Median MTWA value was 55.5 μV in the control group, whereas 95.5 μV in patients group (P < 0.001). A significant weak positive correlation was found between the presence of ventricular extrasystoles and tricuspid regurgitation. There was no correlation between ECG parameters, echocardiographic findings, and MTWA. MTWA was increased in children with repaired TOF as reported before. To our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing MTWA with 24-hour Holter ECG in repaired TOF patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pharmacist provided medicines reconciliation within 24hours of admission and on discharge: a randomised controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, Brit; Wright, David; Bale, Amanda; Barton, Garry; Desborough, James; Hammad, Eman A; Holland, Richard; Howe, Helen; Nunney, Ian; Irvine, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background The UK government currently recommends that all patients receive medicines reconciliation (MR) from a member of the pharmacy team within 24hours of admission and subsequent discharge. The cost-effectiveness of this intervention is unknown. A pilot study to inform the design of a future randomised controlled trial to determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmacist-delivered service was undertaken. Method Patients were recruited 7 days a week from 5 adult medical wards in 1 hospital over a 9 month period and randomised using an automated system to intervention (MR within 24hours of admission and at discharge) or usual care which may include MR (control). Recruitment and retention rates were determined. Length of stay (LOS), quality of life (EQ-5D-3L), unintentional discrepancies (UDs) and emergency readmission (ER) within 3 months were tested as outcome measures. The feasibility of identifying and measuring intervention-associated resources was determined. Result 200 patients were randomised to either intervention or control. Groups were comparable at baseline. 95 (99%) patients in the intervention received MR within 24hours, while 62 (60.8%) control patients received MR at some point during admission. The intervention resolved 250 of the 255 UDs identified at admission. Only 2 UDs were identified in the intervention group at discharge compared with 268 in the control. The median LOS was 94 hours in the intervention arm and 118 hours in the control, with ER rates of 17.9% and 26.7%, respectively. Assuming 5% loss to follow-up 1120 patients (560 in each arm) are required to detect a 6% reduction in 3-month ER rates. Conclusions The results suggest that changes in outcome measures resulting from MR within 24hours were in the appropriate direction and readmission within 3 months is the most appropriate primary outcome measure. A future study to determine cost-effectiveness of the intervention is feasible and warranted

  14. 24 Hour pumping test of production well 905-120P

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    As part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Aquifer Characterization Program, the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is attempting to determine the water transmitting characteristics of the different aquifer units underlying the SRS by conducting single well pumping tests on wells installed as part of the SRS Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. In April 1990, while performing the single well pumping test, an opportunity became available to collect data on aquifer properties utilizing a production well and observation wells. At this time the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) was completing a new production well (well 905-120P) in P-Area. This well, located in close proximity to well cluster P-24, was to undergo a 24-hour performance test by the COE. ESS arranged with the subcontractor working on the Single Well pumping Test project. Dames & Moore, to instrument the appropriate observation wells and to coordinate data collection with the COE.

  15. 24 Hour pumping test of production well 905-120P

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    As part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Aquifer Characterization Program, the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is attempting to determine the water transmitting characteristics of the different aquifer units underlying the SRS by conducting single well pumping tests on wells installed as part of the SRS Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. In April 1990, while performing the single well pumping test, an opportunity became available to collect data on aquifer properties utilizing a production well and observation wells. At this time the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) was completing a new production well (well 905-120P) in P-Area. This well, located in close proximity to well cluster P-24, was to undergo a 24-hour performance test by the COE. ESS arranged with the subcontractor working on the Single Well pumping Test project. Dames Moore, to instrument the appropriate observation wells and to coordinate data collection with the COE.

  16. Impact of the Acquisition Corps Membership Requirement 24 Business-Credit Hours on the Navy Acquisition Workforce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    obtain 24 business -related semester hours in accounting, business , finance, law , contracts, purchasing, economics, industrial management, marketing...and One of the following: 24 semester credit hours from among the following disciplines: accounting, business , finance, law , contracts...following disciplines: accounting, business finance, law , contracts, purchasing, economics, industrial management, marketing, quantitative methods

  17. 24 Hours in the Children's Section: An Observational Study at the Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patronage and usage of the children's section of a public library. Patrons of the children's section of a public library in a small Northern Arizona city were observed for a total of 24 h over 12 sessions. Analytic induction was used to formulate categories based on field notes made during these…

  18. 24 Hours in the Children's Section: An Observational Study at the Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patronage and usage of the children's section of a public library. Patrons of the children's section of a public library in a small Northern Arizona city were observed for a total of 24 h over 12 sessions. Analytic induction was used to formulate categories based on field notes made during these…

  19. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  20. CSEP Evaluations of 24-Hour Earthquake Forecasting Models for California: New Results and Ensemble Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, M.; Werner, M. J.; Liukis, M.; Marzocchi, W.; Rhoades, D. A.; Zechar, J. D.; Jordan, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    Operational Earthquake Forecasting requires reliable and validated earthquake probability estimates at short time scales. The objective of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is to evaluate earthquake forecasting models and hypotheses in a blind, automated and prospective manner. CSEP supports OEF efforts by independently and rigorously evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of candidate OEF models and ensemble OEF models. CSEP has been evaluating over a dozen 24-hour forecasting models in California since 2009. Models include the STEP model, various ETAS model flavors, non-parametric models and other statistical clustered seismicity models. Here, we report on new results from CSEP's 24-hour earthquake forecasting experiment in California. The data set consists of 132 earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.95. Relative probability gains indicate that the predictive skills of the recent models are improving. This suggests progress in modelling future earthquake potential. In addition, we explore protocols for constructing ensemble models. These are a powerful forecasting tool when several informative models are available.

  1. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  2. A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

    2013-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

  3. 24-hour rhythm of aquaporin-3 function in the epidermis is regulated by molecular clocks.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Naoya; Itcho, Kazufumi; Hamamura, Kengo; Ikeda, Eriko; Ikeyama, Hisako; Furuichi, Yoko; Watanabe, Miyako; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2014-06-01

    Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is located in the basal layer of the epidermis and regulates biological functions of skin such as water content and trans-epidermal water loss. A recent study showed that the biological function of skin exhibits a 24-hour rhythm, but the molecular mechanism of the variation remains poorly understood. Here we show that mice mutated in the core clock component CLOCK (Clk/Clk) show decreased stratum corneum hydration. An extensive search for the underlying cause led us to identify AQP3 as a new regulator to control the 24-hour variation in biological functions of skin. In mouse epidermis of wild-type mice, mAqp3 exhibits circadian rhythms; however, these are significantly decreased in Clk/Clk. Luciferase reporter gene analysis revealed that transcription of mAqp3 is activated by D-site-binding protein, a clock gene. A human homolog, hAQP3, also exhibited significant oscillation in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells synchronized with medium containing 50% serum, and this rhythm was regulated by the endogenous CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer. These data indicate that although the molecular mechanisms underlying the rhythmic expression of mAqp3 and hAQP3 are different, clock genes are involved in time-dependent skin hydration. Our current findings provide a molecular link between the circadian clock and AQP3 function in mouse dorsal skin and HaCaT cells.

  4. Methodology for adding glycemic index and glycemic load values to 24-hour dietary recall database

    PubMed Central

    Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Griffith, Jennifer A.; Hafner, Andrea R.; Hebert, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily GI and GL values from the 24HR. Methods Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts who completed 9067 24HRs. The 24HR-derived food data were matched to the International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values. The GI values for specific foods not in the table were estimated against similar foods according to physical and chemical factors that determine GI. Mixed foods were disaggregated into individual ingredients. Results Of 1261 carbohydrate-containing foods in the database, GI values of 602 foods were obtained from a direct match (47.7%), accounting for 22.36% of dietary carbohydrate. GI values from 656 foods (52.1%) were estimated, contributing to 77.64% of dietary carbohydrate. The GI values from three unknown foods (0.2%) could not be assigned. The average daily GI was 84 (SD 5.1, white bread as referent) and the average GL was 196 (SD 63). Conclusion Using this methodology for adding GI and GL values to nutrient databases, it is possible to assess associations between GI and/or GL and body weight and chronic disease outcomes (diabetes, cancer, heart disease). This method can be used in clinical and survey research settings where 24HRs are a practical means for assessing diet. The implications for using this methodology compel a broader evaluation of diet with disease outcomes. PMID:17029903

  5. Unregistered health care staff's perceptions of 12 hour shifts: an interview study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Louise; Schneider, Justine; Hare Duke, Laurie

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore unregistered health care staff's perceptions of 12 hour shifts on work performance and patient care. Many unregistered health care staff work 12 hour shifts, but it is unclear whether these are compatible with good quality care or work performance. Twenty five health care assistants from a range of care settings with experience of working 12 hour shifts took part in interviews or focus groups. A wide range of views emerged on the perceived impact of 12 hour shifts in different settings. Negative outcomes were perceived to occur when 12 hour shifts were combined with short-staffing, consecutive long shifts, high work demands, insufficient breaks and working with unfamiliar colleagues. Positive outcomes were perceived to be more likely in a context of control over shift patterns, sufficient staffing levels, and a supportive team climate. The perceived relationship between 12 hour shifts and patient care and work performance varies by patient context and wider workplace factors, but largely focuses on the ability to deliver relational aspects of care. Nursing managers need to consider the role of other workplace factors, such as shift patterns and breaks, when implementing 12 hour shifts with unregistered health care staff. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  7. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have

  8. Reliability and predictive validity of energy intake measures from the 24-hour dietary recalls of homebound older adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L; Ritchie, Christine S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Locher, Julie L

    2010-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults' eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total energy intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. Two hundred thirty homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two subsamples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n=52), sufficient test-retest reliability of energy intake was observed (r=0.59), but energy intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r=0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n=143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient energy intake (odds ratio 3.49, P=0.009), and in white participants compared to African-American participants (odds ratio 3.13, P=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals is needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of energy intake measures for this population.

  9. Fasting for 24 Hours Heightens Reward from Food and Food-Related Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Jameason D.; Goldfield, Gary S.; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E.; Doucet, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) ‘wanting’, as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) ‘liking’, as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Methods Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m2 were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food ‘liking’ (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. Results There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of ‘liking’, and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (p<0.05). Under the FASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ significantly increased for all food categories. ‘Liking’ of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Conclusion Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED. PMID:24454949

  10. Perceptions of Bedside Cardiac Critical Care Registered Nurses on 24 Hour Attending Intensivist Coverage.

    PubMed

    Alfares, Fahad A; Jones, Melissa B; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Endicott, Kendal M; Zurakowski, David; Shankar, Venkat; Nath, Dilip S

    2016-07-01

    To elicit the perceptions of bedside critical care nurses toward continual in-house attending coverage and its effect on patient safety, communication, and nursing education. A 5-point Likert-type questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perception of bedside nurses in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) toward the presence of a 24 hour in-house attending physician. Single tertiary referral PCICU in Washington, DC SUBJECTS: The 46 PCICU nurses who participated in the study were separated into two groups based on exposure to the recent implementation of continual in-house attending coverage at our institution. Group one consisted of 14 nurses with only exposure to the new 24/7 in-house coverage while group two encompassed 32 nurses who had experienced both the new and old system (off-site on-demand attending physician). Surveys demonstrated that both groups found that the new system has a positive impact on nursing education (median score of 5) as well as a positive impact on the communication between multidisciplinary teams and between care team and families (median score of 5). Nurses who experienced only the new system scored one point lower (median score of 4) regarding the effect of this staffing model on patient outcomes than nurses who had experienced both systems (median score of 5, P = .016). Between 83% and 98% of all 46 nurses who participated indicated they agree or strongly agree with each of the questions regarding the benefit of 24 hour in-house attending coverage. Our study suggests that regardless of differences in experience, pediatric cardiac nurses believe the presence of an on-site intensivist to be beneficial to both nursing and patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fasting for 24 hours heightens reward from food and food-related cues.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) 'wanting', as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) 'liking', as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit 'liking' and 'wanting' (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food 'liking' (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of 'liking', and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (p<0.05). Under the FASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit 'wanting' and 'liking' significantly increased for all food categories. 'Liking' of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED.

  12. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  13. Mixed martial arts induces significant fatigue and muscle damage up to 24 hours post-combat.

    PubMed

    Ghoul, Nihel; Tabben, Montassar; Miarka, Bianca; Tourny, Claire; Chamari, Karim; Coquart, Jeremy

    2017-06-22

    This study investigates the physiological/physical responses to a simulated mixed martial arts (MMA) competition over 24 hr. Twelve fighters performed a simulated MMA competition, consisting of three 5-min MMA matches. Physiological/physical data were assessed before (Trest), directly after round 1 (Trd1), round 2 (Trd2) and round 3 (Trd3), and then 30-min (Trecovery30min) and/or 24-hr (Trecovery24h) post-competition. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were assessed at Trest, Trd1, Trd2 and Trd3. Biological data were collected at Trest, Trd3, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h. Physical tests were performed at Trest, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h. HR, RPE and [La] were high during competition. Leukocytes, hemoglobin, total protein and glycemia were increased at Trd3 compared with all other time points (p<0.05). Cortisol was increased at Trd3 compared with Trest and Trecovery24h (p<0.05). Testosterone was higher at Trd3 and Trecovery30min than Trest (p<0.001). Higher values of uric acid were noted during recovery periods (p<0.001). Lactate dehydrogenase was lower at Trest compared with Trd3, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h (p<0.05). Countermovement jump was higher at Trest than Trecovery30min (p=0.020). Consequently, MMA is a high-intensity intermittent combat sport that induces significant fatigue and muscle damage, both of which are still present 24-hr post-competition.

  14. A study examining the impact of 12-hour shifts on critical care staff.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Annette; Turnock, Christopher; Harris, Liz; Finley, Alison; Carson, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    Twelve-hour shifts contribute to flexible patterns of work, but the effects on delivery of direct care and staff fatigue are important topics for deeper examination. To examine the impact and implications of 12-hour shifts on critical care staff. A staged dual approach using two focus groups (n = 16) and questionnaires (n = 147) with critical care staff from three critical care units. Positive effects were found with planning and prioritizing care, improved relationships with patients/relatives, good-quality time off work and ease of travelling to work. Less favourable effects were with caring for patients in isolation cubicles and the impact on staff motivation and tiredness. Acceptable patterns of work were suggested for 'numbers of consecutive shifts' and 'rest periods between shifts'. Most participants believed 12-hour shifts should continue. The challenge is to ensure existing systems and practices develop to improve on the less positive effects of working 12-hour shifts. This study provides nurse managers with important and relevant staff views on the impact of working 12-hour shifts. In particular to those working within a critical care environment and suggests the challenge is to ensure existing systems and practices develop to improve on the less encouraging effects of working 12-hour shifts. It adds an understanding of the senior nurse's view on the positive and negative effects of managing and organizing staff off duty to safely run a department with 12-hour shifts.

  15. Incidence of and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

    2014-01-01

    To determine the incidence of and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. This retrospective cohort study was approved by the ethical committee of Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand. We reviewed the data of 44,339 patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery during the period from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2011. The data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, location of anesthesia performed, and outcomes. Data of patients who had received topical anesthesia or monitoring anesthesia care were excluded. Factors associated with cardiac arrest were identified by univariate analyses. Multiple regressions for the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to determine the strength of factors associated with cardiac arrest. A forward stepwise algorithm was chosen at a P-value <0.05. The incidence (within 24 hours) of perioperative cardiac arrest in patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was 163 per 10,000. Factors associated with 24-hour perioperative cardiac arrest in emergency surgery were age of 2 years or younger (RR =1.46, CI =1.03-2.08, P=0.036), ASA physical status classification of 3-4 (RR =5.84, CI =4.20-8.12, P<0.001) and 5-6 (RR =33.98, CI =23.09-49.98, P<0.001), the anatomic site of surgery (upper intra-abdominal, RR =2.67, CI =2.14-3.33, P<0.001; intracranial, RR =1.74, CI =1.35-2.25, P<0.001; intrathoracic, RR =2.35, CI =1.70-3.24, P<0.001; cardiac, RR =3.61, CI =2.60-4.99, P<0.001; and major vascular; RR =3.05, CI =2.22-4.18, P<0.001), respiratory or cardiovascular comorbidities (RR =1.95, CI =1.60-2.38, P<0.001 and RR =1.38, CI =1.11-1.72, P=0.004, respectively), and patients in shock prior to receiving anesthesia (RR =2.62, CI =2.07-3.33, P<0.001). The perioperative incidence of cardiac arrest within 24 hours of

  16. A Pre-Screening Questionnaire to Predict Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24HSWD) among the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    predictive utility sufficient to serve as a pre-screening questionnaire for N24HSWD among the blind. Citation: Flynn-Evans EE, Lockley SW. A pre-screening questionnaire to predict non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24HSWD) among the blind. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):703–710. PMID:26951421

  17. Using Secondary 24-Hour Dietary Recall Data to Estimate Daily Dietary Factor Intake From the FLASHE Study Dietary Screener.

    PubMed

    Smith, Teresa M; Calloway, Eric E; Pinard, Courtney A; Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April Y; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute's 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study utilized a 27-item Dietary Screener tailored to adolescent eating patterns that assessed the frequency of intake of several foods and beverages in parent-adolescent dyads. This study estimated intake of fruits and vegetables (FVs), dairy, added sugars, and whole grains for screener respondents using existing, nationally representative, 24-hour dietary recall data. Dietary Screener items were converted from frequency responses to daily intake. Intake (dependent variable) was estimated using regression coefficients and portion sizes of foods and beverages (independent variables) generated from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2-day 24-hour recall data set. Means (SDs) were used to examine daily dietary factor intake among parent and adolescents. Analysis was conducted in 2015-2016. The analytic sample consisted of 1,732 parents (aged ≥18 years) and their adolescent aged 12-17 years (n=1,632). Male parents consumed 3.6 cups of FVs, 1.8 cups of dairy, 22.6 teaspoons of added sugars, and 2.1 ounces of whole grains daily; female parents consumed 2.8 cups of FVs, 1.3 cups of dairy, 14.8 teaspoons of added sugars, and 1.4 ounces of whole grains daily. Male adolescents consumed 2.2 cups of FVs, 1.9 cups of dairy, 17.9 teaspoons of added sugars, and 1.0 ounces of whole grains daily; female adolescents consumed 2.2 cups FVs, 1.6 cups of dairy, 14.2 teaspoons of added sugars, and 0.8 ounces of whole grains daily. Utilizing a dietary screener tailored to adolescent eating patterns in parent-adolescent dyads provided estimated dietary factor intake, underscoring existing 24-hour dietary recall data can be used to calibrate dietary habits. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Benchmarking benzodiazepines and antipsychotics in the last 24 hours of life.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Brian; Cohen, Daphne

    2012-05-25

    To document benzodiazepines and antipsychotics (BDZ/APS) given to patients in the last 24 hours of life to establish normal prescribing patterns in hospices across New Zealand (NZ). A cross-sectional benchmarking design with retrospective chart review was carried out across 14 NZ hospices. Data (n=351) on medication use and dosages was analysed for inter-hospice variability. Analysis was shared with participating hospices for reflection. There are significant differences in how these predominantly sedative medications are used within hospices in NZ, though the reasons for this cannot be commented on in this study. Diagnosis, place of death and use of the Liverpool Care Pathway influence how medications are used. NZ hospices are willing to submit data to enable the description of usual medication use in NZ, and have established that variations in prescribing and administration exist. This enables self reflection on the variations and the establishment of an ongoing benchmarking exercise.

  19. Variability in 24 hour excretion of cyanuric acid: implications for water exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Grist, Stephen; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Cyanuric acid (CYA) excretion in urine has been used to estimate the volume of water ingested during swimming and other recreational activities in outdoor pools containing this chemical. These estimates of water ingestion are based on the assumption of 100% excretion within 24 hours, but the supporting evidence for this is scant. While adapting this methodology to investigate other water ingestion scenarios, we observed a high degree of variability in cyanuric acid excretion among experimental subjects, with over 25% of individuals excreting less than 80% of an ingested dose. Use of cyanuric acid to measure inadvertent water ingestion may be a valuable tool to generate data for health risk assessment of non-potable water sources, but our observations indicate that this technique carries an inherent degree of underestimation that should be taken into account when calculating water exposure.

  20. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  1. Comparison of effects of amphotericin B deoxycholate infused over 4 or 24 hours: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Urs; Seifert, Burkhard; Schaffner, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that amphotericin B deoxycholate is less toxic when given by continuous infusion than by conventional rapid infusion. Design Randomised, controlled, non-blinded, single centre study. Setting University hospital providing tertiary clinical care. Patients 80 mostly neutropenic patients with refractory fever and suspected or proved invasive fungal infections. Intervention Patients were randomised to receive 0.97 mg/kg amphotericin B by continuous infusion over 24 hours or 0.95 mg/kg by rapid infusion over four hours. Main outcome measures Patients were evaluated for side effects related to infusion, nephrotoxicity, and mortality up to three months after treatment. Analysis was on an intention to treat basis. Results Patients in the continuous infusion group had fewer side effects and significantly reduced nephrotoxicity than those in the rapid infusion group. Overall mortality was higher during treatment and after three months' follow up in the rapid infusion than in the continuous infusion group. Conclusion Continuous infusions of amphotericin B reduce nephrotoxicity and side effects related to infusion without increasing mortality. PMID:11238151

  2. 24-hour rhythm to the onset of term and preterm labour in twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rabindran, R; Kanwar, S; Lindow, S W

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the time of onset of contractions in twin pregnancies that result in delivery, so as to investigate whether there is a diurnal influence. A UK maternity department database was used to identify twin deliveries over a 5-year period, and the time of onset of labour was retrieved from these records. Two hundred and eleven women with spontaneous onset of labour in twin pregnancies were studied. A significant diurnal rhythm in the timing of contractions was noted, with 45% of deliveries occurring in labour that commenced between midnight and 08.00 hours. This periodicity is similar for twin pregnancies that end in preterm (24-36 weeks of gestation; χ² = 17.2; P < 0.01) or term deliveries (37-40 weeks of gestation; χ² = 13; P < 0.05). The periodicity of onset of labour in multiple pregnancies demonstrates a similar rhythm to singleton pregnancies, where labour most commonly begins between midnight and 08.00 hours.

  3. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations: the INTERSALT study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-06-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were -1.6 mmol per 24 hours and 2.3 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the individual level and -1.8 mmol per 24 hours and 2.2 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity.

  4. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kalliolia, Eirini; Silajdžić, Edina; Nambron, Rajasree; Costelloe, Seán J; Martin, Nicholas G; Hill, Nathan R; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary C; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes. We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting), 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed. 24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington's disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington's disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington's disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls. The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack of significant results despite many variables being

  5. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.

    PubMed

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Christoforou, Anthea; Johnson, Claire; Trevena, Helen; Hodgins, Frances; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Barzi, Federica; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Jeffery, Paul; Nowson, Caryl; Neal, Bruce

    2014-04-04

    Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20-88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p=0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed "too much" 8.9(3.3) g/d "just the right amount" 8.4(2.6) g/d or "too little salt" 9.1(3.7) g/d (p=0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p=0.4). The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy.

  6. Mice increased target biting behaviors 24 hours after co-administration of alcohol and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping Chao; Matray-Devoti, Judith; Fisher, Hans; Wagner, George C

    2017-02-10

    Increased alcohol consumption has been linked to social isolation. Individuals showed heightened aggression following social isolation. Animals treated with alcohol following social separation showed higher aggression and lower serotonin transmission. Although reduced serotonin transmission in the brain may be related to alcohol induced heightened aggression, it remains unclear whether there are specific brain regions where changes in serotonin transmission are critical for animal aggression following alcohol treatment. In the present study, we isolated mice for 4 - 6 weeks and injected them with alcohol, fluoxetine and alcohol with fluoxetine. We studied their aggression by using two types of behavioral paradigms: isolation-induced attack behavior towards a naïve mouse in a neutral cage, or shock-induced target biting aggression. We observed that alcohol administered at 500 mg/kg significantly increased animal attack behaviors towards naïve mice 30 minutes after injections. This dose of alcohol co-administered with a low dose of fluoxetine (2 mg/kg) further increased the attack behaviors, but with higher doses of fluoxetine decreased the attack behaviors. Alcohol administered at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased the shock-induced target biting rates 24 hours after injections. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in target biting rates when alcohol was co-administered with fluoxetine at a dose of 16 mg/kg 24 hours after injections. We also observed the same heightened target biting rates when animals were injected with fluoxetine alone. This heightened biting attack engendered by the fluoxetine (alone or in combination with the alcohol) occurred at a time when brain serotonin activity was reduced by these drugs in the frontal lobe and hypothalamus. These observations indicate that heightened biting attack behavior may be associated with reduced serotonergic activity in brain regions regulating aggression.

  7. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. Methods A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Results Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20–88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p = 0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed “too much” 8.9(3.3) g/d “just the right amount” 8.4(2.6) g/d or “too little salt” 9.1(3.7) g/d (p = 0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p = 0.4). Conclusion The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy. PMID:24708561

  8. Normal limits for heart rate as established using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Aida; Gebauer, Roman A; Grollmuss, Oswin; Vít, Pavel; Reich, Oleg; Janousek, Jan

    2008-10-01

    To the best of our knowledge, normal limits of heart rate with respect to gender, and as established using 24-hour ambulatory Holter electrocardiography, have yet to be published for the entire age range of children and adolescents. To establish the normal limits for heart rate in newborns, infants, children, and adolescents of both genders. We obtained 24-hour Holter recordings from 616 healthy subjects aged from birth to 20 years with structurally normal hearts. The subjects were not receiving medication, and had not been submitted to prior cardiac intervention. Off-line analysis was performed with Mars 8000 scanners, analysing 5 consecutive RR intervals by the software available for automatic calculation of heart rate. All subjects were in sinus rhythm. Best-fit non-linear regressions were applied to correlate age and gender with minimum and mean heart rate, as well as with maximal RR-interval, and to calculate the 5th, 25th, 75th and 95th percentiles. We observed significant gender-dependent differences in heart rate for persons aged 10 years and older, with the males exhibiting lower minimal and mean heart rates, and higher RR-intervals, than the females. Correlation of heart rate with age and gender could be established with sufficient accuracy using non-linear regression (p less than 0.0001): Minimum heart rate (male: R(2)=0.778, female: R(2) = 0.664) and mean heart rate (male: R(2) = 0.820, female: R(2) = 0.736) decreased with age, while the maximal RR-interval prolonged (male: R(2) = 0.562, female: R(2) = 0.486). Age and gender-related graphs of centiles were constructed. Heart rate, as documented using Holter recodings, can be correlated with age and gender, permitting establishments of normal gender-specific limits for children and adolescents.

  9. Associations between active video gaming and other energy-balance related behaviours in adolescents: a 24-hour recall diary study.

    PubMed

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-03-05

    Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not other physical activity, and when it is not associated with a higher energy intake. The current study therefore examines the association between active video gaming and other energy-balance-related behaviours (EBRBs). Adolescents (12-16 years) with access to an active video game and who reported to spend at least one hour per week in active video gaming were invited to participate in the study. They were asked to complete electronic 24-hour recall diaries on five randomly assigned weekdays and two randomly assigned weekend-days in a one-month period, reporting on time spent playing active and non-active video games and on other EBRBs. Findings indicated that adolescents who reported playing active video games on assessed days also reported spending more time playing non-active video games (Median = 23.6, IQR = 56.8 minutes per week) compared to adolescents who did not report playing active video games on assessed days (Median = 10.0, IQR = 51.3 minutes per week, P < 0.001 (Mann Whitney test)). No differences between these groups were found in other EBRBs. Among those who played active video games on assessed days, active video game time was positively yet weakly associated with TV/DVD time and snack consumption. Active video game time was not significantly associated with other activities and sugar-sweetened beverages intake. The results suggest that it is unlikely that time spent by adolescents in playing active video games replaces time spent in other physically active behaviours or sedentary activities. Spending more time playing active video games does seem to be associated with a small, but significant increase in intake of snacks. This suggests that

  10. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery evolution within 12 hours from stroke onset: a reliable tissue clock?

    PubMed

    Ebinger, Martin; Galinovic, Ivana; Rozanski, Michal; Brunecker, Peter; Endres, Matthias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-02-01

    It has recently been proposed that fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging may serve as a surrogate marker for time of symptom onset after stroke. We assessed the hypothesis that FLAIR imaging could be used to decide if an MRI was performed within 4.5 hours from symptom onset or later. All consecutive patients with presumed stroke who underwent an MRI within 12 hours after known symptom onset were included regardless of stroke subtype and severity between May 2008 and May 2009. Blinded to time of symptom onset, 2 raters judged the visibility of lesions on FLAIR. Apparent diffusion coefficient values, lesion volume on diffusion-weighted imaging, and relative signal intensity of FLAIR lesions were determined. In 94 consecutive patients with stroke, we found that median time from symptom onset for FLAIR-positive patients (189 minutes; interquartile range, 110 to 369 minutes) was significantly longer compared with FLAIR-negative patients (103 minutes; interquartile range, 75 to 183 minutes; P=0.011). Negative FLAIR had a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 79% for allocating patients to a time window of less than 4.5 hours. FLAIR positivity increased with diffusion-weighted imaging lesion volume (P<0.001) but showed no correlation with apparent diffusion coefficient values (P=0.795). There was no significant correlation between relative signal intensity and time from symptom onset (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.152, P=0.128). Based on our findings, we cannot recommend the use of FLAIR visibility as an estimate of time from symptom onset within the first 4.5 hours.

  11. Effect of one week of CPAP treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea on 24-hour profiles of glucose, insulin and counter-regulatory hormones in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mokhlesi, Babak; Grimaldi, Daniela; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Van Cauter, Eve

    2017-03-01

    Studies examining the impact of CPAP treatment on glycaemic control have yielded conflicting results, partly because of insufficient nightly CPAP use. We examined the 24-hour profiles of glucose, insulin and counter-regulatory hormones in 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes and OSA before and after 1 week of effective in-laboratory CPAP therapy over an entire 8-hour night thus ensuring optimal CPAP compliance. Blood samples were collected every 15 to 30 minutes for 24 hours under controlled conditions. The 24-hour mean glucose decreased from 153.2 ± 33.0 to 139.7 ± 24.2 mg/dL with CPAP (-13.5 ± 13.5 mg/dL; P = .005) without change in insulin levels. Morning fasting glucose levels decreased by 14.6 ± 3 mg/dL (P = .001) and the dawn phenomenon decreased by 7.8 ± 9.8 mg/dL (P = .019). CPAP treatment decreased norepinephrine levels while the 24-hour profiles of growth hormone and cortisol remained unchanged. In conclusion, 1 week of effective treatment of OSA over an entire 8-hour night results in a clinically significant improvement in glycaemic control via an amelioration of evening fasting glucose metabolism and a reduction in the dawn phenomenon, a late-night glucose increase that is not adequately treated by oral medications. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01136785.

  12. Irregular 24-hour Activity Rhythms and the Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Shahmir; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Lim, Andrew S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms – near 24-hour intrinsic biological rhythms – modulate many aspects of human physiology and hence disruption of circadian rhythms may have an important impact on human health. Experimental work supports a potential link between irregular circadian rhythms and several key risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, collectively termed the metabolic syndrome. While several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between shift-work and the components of the metabolic syndrome in working-age adults, there is a relative paucity of data concerning the impact of non-occupational circadian irregularity in older women and men. To address this question, we studied 7 days of actigraphic data from 1137 older woman and men participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of the chronic conditions of aging. The regularity of activity rhythms was quantified using the nonparametric interdaily stability metric, and was related to the metabolic syndrome and its components obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. More regular activity rhythms were associated with a lower odds of having the metabolic syndrome (OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.60–0.80, p=5.8×10−7), being obese (OR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.85, p=2.5×10−5), diabetic (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.65–0.90, p=9.3×10−4), hypertensive (OR=0.78, 95%CI=0.66–0.91, p=2.0×10−3), or dyslipidemic (OR=0.82, 95%CI=0.72–0.92, p=1.2×10−3). These associations were independent of differences in objectively measured total daily physical activity or rest, and were not accounted for by prevalent coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral artery disease. Moreover, more regular activity rhythms were associated with lower odds of having cardiovascular disease (OR=0.83; 95%CI=0.73–0.95, p=5.7×10−3), an effect that was statistically mediated by the metabolic syndrome. We conclude that irregular activity

  13. Serial Alberta Stroke Program early CT score from baseline to 24 hours in Solitaire Flow Restoration with the Intention for Thrombectomy study: a novel surrogate end point for revascularization in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Jahan, Reza; Nogueira, Raul G; Jovin, Tudor G; Lutsep, Helmi L; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2014-03-01

    The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on baseline imaging is an established predictor of acute ischemic stroke outcomes. We analyzed change on serial ASPECTS at baseline and 24-hour imaging in the Solitaire Flow Restoration with the Intention for Thrombectomy (SWIFT) study to determine prognostic value and to identify subgroups with extensive injury after intervention. ASPECTS at baseline and 24 hours was independently scored in all anterior circulation SWIFT cases, blinded to all other trial data. ASPECTS at baseline, at 24 hours, and serial changes were analyzed with univariate and multivariate approaches. One hundred thirty-nine patients (mean age, 67 [SD, 12] years; 52% women; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 18 [interquartile range, 8-28]) with complete data at both time points were studied. Multivariate analyses showed that higher 24-hour ASPECTS predicted good clinical outcome (day 90 modified Rankin Scale, 0-2; odds ratio, 1.67; P<0.001). Among patients with high baseline ASPECTS (8-10; n=109), dramatic infarct progression (decrease in ASPECTS ≥6 points at 24 hours) was noted in 31 of 109 (28%). Such serial ASPECTS change was predicted by higher baseline systolic blood pressure (P=0.019), higher baseline blood glucose (P=0.133), and failure to achieve Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score of 2b/3 reperfusion (P<0.001), culminating in worse day 90 modified Rankin Scale outcomes (mean modified Rankin Scale, 4.4 versus 2.7; P<0.001). Twenty-four-hour ASPECTS provides better prognostic information compared with baseline ASPECTS. Predictors of dramatic infarct progression on ASPECTS are hyperglycemia, hypertension, and nonreperfusion. Serial ASPECTS change from baseline to 24 hours predicts clinical outcome, providing an early surrogate end point for thrombectomy trials. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01054560.

  14. [Postoperative closed suction drainage following hip and knee aloarthroplasty: drain removal after 24 or after 48 hours?].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marinko; Becić, Kristijan

    2008-01-01

    The use of closed-suction drainage systems after total hip and knee replacement is a common practice. It is believed that drainage reduces the haematomas and infection. The usual time to remove drains is 48 hours. Usefulness of the long time drainage of the haematomas and possible harmfulness of infection is still a subject of discussion. In this article, using our own operative material, we want to show the justification of the 48 hour duration of closed-suction drainage. The investigation was done on the patients with hip replacement (45 patients) and knee replacement (11 patients). The amount of blood in the drainage systems in the first 24 hours after the surgery and after 24 hours till the removal of drainage was observed. The results show that the amount of blood lost in the drainage system in the first 24 hours was on average 95.29%, and only 4.71% in the next 24 hours. This article supports the opinion that postoperative drainage has to be removed after 24 hours, i.e. the 48 hours-drainage seems not to be justified.

  15. [Is It Time to Implement a 12-Hour Shift for Nurses in Taiwan?

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Fung; Chang, Shiow-Ru; Wang, Li-Ting

    2017-04-01

    The twelve-hour shift system, first introduced in the U.S. in 1967 to address a nursing shortage, is now the main system of shift rotation used in numerous countries. In recent years, several hospitals in Taiwan have implemented the 12-hour shift model as one initiative to improve the problems of overtime and high turnover rate among nursing staff. Under this model, nurses work only three to four days per week for 12-hour shifts per day. Despite the increase in numbers of days off, there is growing concern that long shift hours may harm both the safety of patients and the well being of the nurses. The aim of the present article is to explain the application of the 12-hour shift system and to review the potential impacts of this model. Benefits of the 12-hour shift system include improving quality of life for nursing staff, reducing the turnover rate, and increasing job satisfaction. Primary concerns regarding this system include patient safety, nurse fatigue, and the potential negative effects on the sleep quality of nurses. These findings may be referenced by policymakers considering the development / implementation of flexible work schedules in Taiwan. The government must set a ceiling on work hours allowed per week and impose limits on overtime in order to prevent burnout in nursing staff.

  16. Evaluation of pirenzepine on gastric acidity in healthy volunteers using ambulatory 24 hour intragastric pH-monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, A; Fimmel, C J; Bron, B A; Loizeau, E; Blum, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of pirenzepine on 24 hour intragastric acidity was studied in 10 healthy volunteers using ambulatory 24 hour intragastric pH-monitoring in a double blind crossover study. Tests were performed on the seventh day of ingestion of either placebo, 75 mg pirenzepine or 150 mg pirenzepine per day. The drugs were given at two doses at 8.30 am and 8.30 pm. Mean nocturnal hydrogen ion activity during placebo treatment was 68 mmol/l +/- 9 SEM and was reduced by 75 mg (26%, p less than 0.01) and 150 mg of pirenzepine (36%, p less than 0.01), respectively. Mean diurnal hydrogen ion activity was 32 mmol/l +/- 6 SEM and was not significantly reduced (p greater than 0.1) by either dose of pirenzepine (4% and 12% respectively). Thus, the effect of pirenzepine on intragastric acidity is small, even with high doses of the drug, and becomes apparent only during the night. PMID:3882525

  17. Circadian Melatonin and Temperature Taus in Delayed Sleep-wake Phase Disorder and Non-24-hour Sleep-wake Rhythm Disorder Patients: An Ultradian Constant Routine Study.

    PubMed

    Micic, Gorica; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael; Burgess, Helen J; Ferguson, Sally A; Lack, Leon

    2016-08-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the period lengths (i.e., taus) of the endogenous core body temperature rhythm and melatonin rhythm in delayed sleep-wake phase disorder patients (DSWPD) and non-24-h sleep-wake rhythm disorder patients (N24SWD) compared with normally entrained individuals. Circadian rhythms were measured during an 80-h ultradian modified constant routine consisting of 80 ultrashort 1-h "days" in which participants had 20-min sleep opportunities alternating with 40 min of enforced wakefulness. We recruited a community-based sample of 26 DSWPD patients who met diagnostic criteria (17 males, 9 females; age, 21.85 ± 4.97 years) and 18 healthy controls (10 males, 8 females; age, 23.72 ± 5.10 years). Additionally, 4 full-sighted patients (3 males, 1 female; age, 25.75 ± 4.99 years) were diagnosed with N24SWD and included as a discrete study group. Ingestible core temperature capsules were used to record minute temperatures that were averaged to obtain 80 hourly data points. Salivary melatonin concentration was assessed every half-hour to determine time of dim light melatonin onset at the beginning and end of the 80-h protocol. DSWPD patients had significantly longer melatonin rhythm taus (24 h 34 min ± 17 min) than controls (24 h 22 min ± 15 min, p = 0.03, d = 0.70). These results were further supported by longer temperature rhythm taus in DSWPD patients (24 h 34 min ± 26 min) relative to controls (24 h 13 min ± 15 min, p = 0.01, d = 0.80). N24SWD patients had even longer melatonin (25 h ± 19 min) and temperature (24 h 52 min ± 17 min) taus than both DSWPD (p = 0.007, p = 0.06) and control participants (p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). Between 12% and 19% of the variance in DSWPD patients' sleep timing could be explained by longer taus. This indicates that longer taus of circadian rhythms may contribute to the DSWPD patients' persistent tendency to delay, their frequent failure to respond to treatment, and their relapse following treatment

  18. Racial Differences in Misclassification of Healthy Eating Based on Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Procter-Gray, E; Magee, M F; Youssef, G; Kane, K; Churchill, L; Ockene, J; Li, W

    2017-01-01

    To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternate healthy eating indices (AHEI) between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) measurements of diet by race, among urban older women. Cross-sectional observational study. Urban neighborhoods in Washington, DC, USA. Community-dwelling White and Black women aged 65 and older. In 2014 and 2015, 49 White and 44 Black older women were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24-hour recalls. The correlation coefficients of 55 nutrient intake measures and agreements on healthy eating classification between the two instruments were compared overall and by race. The mean correlation coefficient (rho) was 0.46 for Whites and 0.23 for Blacks. For 47 measures, rho was lower for Blacks. Whites had a strong correlation of ≥0.5 for 28 items, while Blacks had strong correlations for only 3 items. Based on FFQ, the mean (SD) of AHEI were 54.0 (10.3) for Whites and 45.9 (8.8) for Blacks (p<0.001). Based on 24HR, the mean (SD) were 43.9 (10.8) for Whites and 33.2 (9.6) for Blacks (p<0.001). Using 32 as the cutoff (40% of maximum AHEI score), 50% of Blacks and 14% of Whites were classified as eating unhealthy based on the 24HR, versus 2.6% and 0% based on the FFQ. The FFQ has limited ability to accurately assess nutrient intake among older Black women, and tends to underestimate racial differences in healthy eating. The FFQ should be further improved for use in racial disparities research of healthy eating in older age, using a larger sample of older women with racial and geographic diversities.

  19. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies.

  20. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m2, had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab® device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens® algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for “24-hour”, “awake”, and “asleep” periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  1. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  2. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  3. Relationship between silent atrial fibrillation and the maximum heart rate in the 24-hour Holter: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Kruse, José Cláudio Lupi; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Boris, Douglas; Mantovani, Augusto; Lima, Gustavo Glotz de

    2014-12-01

    Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence.

  4. Relationship between silent atrial fibrillation and the maximum heart rate in the 24-hour Holter: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Kruse, José Cláudio Lupi; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Boris, Douglas; Mantovani, Augusto; Lima, Gustavo Glotz de

    2014-09-02

    Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence.

  5. Office and 24-hour heart rate and target organ damage in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between heart rate and its variability with the parameters that assess vascular, renal and cardiac target organ damage. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including a consecutive sample of 360 hypertensive patients without heart rate lowering drugs (aged 56 ± 11 years, 64.2% male). Heart rate (HR) and its standard deviation (HRV) in clinical and 24-hour ambulatory monitoring were evaluated. Renal damage was assessed by glomerular filtration rate and albumin/creatinine ratio; vascular damage by carotid intima-media thickness and ankle/brachial index; and cardiac damage by the Cornell voltage-duration product and left ventricular mass index. Results There was a positive correlation between ambulatory, but not clinical, heart rate and its standard deviation with glomerular filtration rate, and a negative correlation with carotid intima-media thickness, and night/day ratio of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There was no correlation with albumin/creatinine ratio, ankle/brachial index, Cornell voltage-duration product or left ventricular mass index. In the multiple linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age, the association of glomerular filtration rate and intima-media thickness with ambulatory heart rate and its standard deviation was lost. According to the logistic regression analysis, the predictors of any target organ damage were age (OR = 1.034 and 1.033) and night/day systolic blood pressure ratio (OR = 1.425 and 1.512). Neither 24 HR nor 24 HRV reached statistical significance. Conclusions High ambulatory heart rate and its variability, but not clinical HR, are associated with decreased carotid intima-media thickness and a higher glomerular filtration rate, although this is lost after adjusting for age. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01325064 PMID:22439900

  6. The impact of weight loss on the 24-hour profile of circulating peptide YY and its association with 24-hour ghrelin in normal weight premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brenna R.; De Souza, Mary Jane; Wagstaff, David A.; Williams, Nancy I.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin exhibit a reciprocal association and antagonistic physiological effects in the peripheral circulation. Research has yet to clarify the effect of weight loss on the 24h profile of PYY or its association to 24h ghrelin. We sought to determine if diet- and exercise-induced weight loss affects the 24h profile of PYY and its association with 24h ghrelin in normal weight, premenopausal women. Participants (n=13) were assessed at baseline (BL) and after a 3-month diet and exercise intervention (Post). Blood samples obtained q10 min for 24h were assayed for total PYY and total ghrelin q60 min from 0800–1000h and 2000–0800h and q20 min from 1000–2000h. The ghrelin/PYY ratio was used as an index of hormonal exposure. Statistical analyses included paired t-tests and linear mixed effects modeling. Body weight (−1.85±0.67kg; p=0.02), and body fat (−2.53±0.83%; p=0.01) decreased from BL to post. Ghrelin AUC (5252±2177pg/ml/24hr; p=0.03), 24h mean (216±90pg/ml; p=0.03) and peak (300±134pg/ml; p=0.047) increased from BL to post. No change occurred in PYY AUC (88.2±163.7pg/ml; p=0.60), 24h mean (4.8±6.9pg/ml; p=0.50) or peak (3.6±6.4pg/ml; p=0.58). The 24h association between PYY and ghrelin at baseline (p=0.04) was weakened at post (p=0.14); however, the ghrelin/PYY lunch ratio increased (p=0.01) indicating the potential for ghrelin predominance over PYY in the circulation. PYY and ghrelin are reciprocally associated during a period of weight stability, but not following weight loss. An “uncoupling” may have occurred, particularly at lunch, due to factors that modulate ghrelin in response to weight loss. PMID:24012997

  7. Differences in the Slope of the QT-RR Relation Based on 24-Hour Holter ECG Recordings between Cardioembolic and Atherosclerotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Akira; Sakabe, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Objective Detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke presenting in sinus rhythm is difficult because such episodes are often short, and they are also frequently asymptomatic. It is possible that the ventricular repolarization dynamics may reflect atrial vulnerability and cardioembolic stroke. Hence, we compared the QT-RR relation between cardioembolic stroke and atherosclerotic stroke during sinus rhythm. Methods The subjects comprised 62 consecutive ischemic stroke patients including 31 with cardioembolic strokes (71.8±12.7 years, 17 men) and 31 with atherosclerotic strokes (74.8±10.8 years, 23 men). The QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-sec averaged ECG during 24-hour Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT]=A[RR]+B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). Results The mean slope of the QT-RR relation was significantly greater in cardioembolic stroke than in atherosclerotic stroke (0.187±0.044 vs. 0.142±0.045, p<0.001). The mean QT, RR, or QTc during 24-hour Holter recordings did not differ between them. An increased slope (≥0.14) of the QT-RR regression line could predict cardioembolic stroke with 97% sensitivity, 55% specificity and a positive predictive value of 64%. Conclusion The increased slope of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-hour Holter ECG in patients with ischemic stroke presenting in sinus rhythm may therefore be a simple and useful marker for cardioembolic stroke. PMID:27746427

  8. Differences in the Slope of the QT-RR Relation Based on 24-Hour Holter ECG Recordings between Cardioembolic and Atherosclerotic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Akira; Sakabe, Masao

    Objective Detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke presenting in sinus rhythm is difficult because such episodes are often short, and they are also frequently asymptomatic. It is possible that the ventricular repolarization dynamics may reflect atrial vulnerability and cardioembolic stroke. Hence, we compared the QT-RR relation between cardioembolic stroke and atherosclerotic stroke during sinus rhythm. Methods The subjects comprised 62 consecutive ischemic stroke patients including 31 with cardioembolic strokes (71.8±12.7 years, 17 men) and 31 with atherosclerotic strokes (74.8±10.8 years, 23 men). The QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-sec averaged ECG during 24-hour Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT]=A[RR]+B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). Results The mean slope of the QT-RR relation was significantly greater in cardioembolic stroke than in atherosclerotic stroke (0.187±0.044 vs. 0.142±0.045, p<0.001). The mean QT, RR, or QTc during 24-hour Holter recordings did not differ between them. An increased slope (≥0.14) of the QT-RR regression line could predict cardioembolic stroke with 97% sensitivity, 55% specificity and a positive predictive value of 64%. Conclusion The increased slope of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-hour Holter ECG in patients with ischemic stroke presenting in sinus rhythm may therefore be a simple and useful marker for cardioembolic stroke.

  9. Exercise thermoregulation in men after 1 and 24-hours of 6 degrees head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weidhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise thermoregulation is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that 24 h of head down tilt (HDT24) would alter thermoregulatory responses to a submaximal exercise test and result in a higher exercise rectal temperature (Tre) when compared with exercise Tre after 1 h of head down tilt (HDT1). METHODS: Seven men (31+/-SD 6 yr, peak oxygen uptake (VpO2peak) of 44+/-6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) were studied during 70 min of supine cycling at 58+/-SE 1.5% VO2peak at 22.0 degrees C Tdb and 47% rh. RESULTS: Relative to pre-tilt sitting chair rest data, HDT1 resulted in a 6.1+/-0.9% increase and HDT24 in a 4.3+/-2.3% decrease in PV (delta = 10.4% between experiments, p<0.05) while plasma osmolality remained unchanged (NS). Pre-exercise Tre was elevated after HDT24 (36.71 degrees C +/-0.06 HDT1 vs. 36.93 degrees C+/-0.11 HDT24, p<0.05). The 70 min of exercise did not alter this relationship (p<0.05) with respective end exercise increases in Tre to 38.01 degrees C and 38.26 degrees C (degrees = 1.30 degrees C (HDT1) and 1.33 degrees C (HDT24)). While there were no pre-exercise differences in mean skin temperature (Tsk), a significant (p<0.05) time x treatment interaction occurred during exercise: after min 30 in HDT24 the Tsk leveled off at 31.1 degrees C, while it continued to increase reaching 31.5 degrees C at min 70 in HDT1. A similar response (NS) occurred in skin blood velocity. Neither local sweating rates nor changes in body weight during exercise of -1.63+/-0.24 kg (HDT1) or - 1.33+/-0.09 kg (HDT24) were different (NS) between experiments. CONCLUSION: While HDT24 resulted in elevated pre-exercise Tre, reduced PV

  10. Exercise thermoregulation in men after 1 and 24-hours of 6 degrees head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weidhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise thermoregulation is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that 24 h of head down tilt (HDT24) would alter thermoregulatory responses to a submaximal exercise test and result in a higher exercise rectal temperature (Tre) when compared with exercise Tre after 1 h of head down tilt (HDT1). METHODS: Seven men (31+/-SD 6 yr, peak oxygen uptake (VpO2peak) of 44+/-6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) were studied during 70 min of supine cycling at 58+/-SE 1.5% VO2peak at 22.0 degrees C Tdb and 47% rh. RESULTS: Relative to pre-tilt sitting chair rest data, HDT1 resulted in a 6.1+/-0.9% increase and HDT24 in a 4.3+/-2.3% decrease in PV (delta = 10.4% between experiments, p<0.05) while plasma osmolality remained unchanged (NS). Pre-exercise Tre was elevated after HDT24 (36.71 degrees C +/-0.06 HDT1 vs. 36.93 degrees C+/-0.11 HDT24, p<0.05). The 70 min of exercise did not alter this relationship (p<0.05) with respective end exercise increases in Tre to 38.01 degrees C and 38.26 degrees C (degrees = 1.30 degrees C (HDT1) and 1.33 degrees C (HDT24)). While there were no pre-exercise differences in mean skin temperature (Tsk), a significant (p<0.05) time x treatment interaction occurred during exercise: after min 30 in HDT24 the Tsk leveled off at 31.1 degrees C, while it continued to increase reaching 31.5 degrees C at min 70 in HDT1. A similar response (NS) occurred in skin blood velocity. Neither local sweating rates nor changes in body weight during exercise of -1.63+/-0.24 kg (HDT1) or - 1.33+/-0.09 kg (HDT24) were different (NS) between experiments. CONCLUSION: While HDT24 resulted in elevated pre-exercise Tre, reduced PV

  11. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  13. 24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index

    PubMed Central

    van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes), which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD) were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1), however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals. PMID:25093276

  14. The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment with Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-26

    The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment With Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours R.R. Leslie-Holt and V. W...EFFECT ON APHERESIS PLATELET QUALITY DURING SHIPMENT WITH CONTINUED INTERRUPTION OF AGITATION FOR 24 AND 48 HOURS. 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT LESLIEHOLT RONNI...maintaining an oxidative metabolism. Key Words: Agitation, apheresis , lactate, pH, platelet , quality 4 INTRODUCTION The Armed Services Blood Program

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of 24-hour urine chemistry levels for detecting elevated calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M. Adrian; Singer, Eric A; Golijanin, Dragan J; Monk, Rebeca D; Erturk, Erdal; Bushinsky, David A

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The gold standard for determining likelihood of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaPhos) stone formation in urine is supersaturation of CaOx and CaPhos. Our objective was to investigate whether traditional measurement of total calcium, oxalate and phosphate in a 24-hour urine collection is sufficiently sensitive and specific for detecting elevated supersaturation to preclude the more expensive supersaturation test. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 150 consecutive patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent measurement of CaOx supersaturation (CaOxSS) and CaPhos supersaturation (CaPhosSS), as well as total calcium, oxalate and phosphate in a 24-hour urine collection. We used various cut-off values to determine sensitivity and specificity of 24-hour urine measurements for detecting elevated CaOxSS and CaPhosSS. Results In men and women, the sensitivity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaOxSS was 71% and 79%, respectively; for oxalate, sensitivity was 59% and 36%, respectively. In men and women, the sensitivity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaPhosSS was 74% and 88%, respectively; for phosphate, sensitivity was 57% and 8%, respectively. In men and women, the specificity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaOxSS was 55% and 48%, respectively; it was 60% for detecting elevated CaPhosSS in both men and women. Conclusion Traditional 24-hour urine analysis is sensitive, but not specific, for detecting elevated CaOxSS and CaPhosSS. Most patients with abnormal 24-hour urine analysis have normal supersaturation, and treatment decisions based on traditional urine analysis would lead to overtreatment in these patients. PMID:18542745

  16. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  17. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hongu, Nobuko; Pope, Benjamin T; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C; Roe, Denise J

    2015-04-01

    The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies.

  18. Improved 24-hour blood pressure control with sirolimus versus calcineurin inhibitor based immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Steigerwalt, S P; Brar, N; Dhungel, A; Butcher, D; Steigerwalt, S; El-Ghouroury, M; Provenzano, R

    2009-12-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) have brought dramatic improvements in early renal allograft survival. However, CNI are associated with posttransplant hypertension (PTHTN), a risk factor for mortality from cardiovascular disease and graft failure. Sirolimus (SRL) is emerging as an alternative to CNI. SRL effects on blood pressure (BP) in humans are unclear. We compared the prevalence of PTHTN among patients receiving SRL as maintenance immunosuppression with a group receiving CNI by using 24-hour ambulatory BP (AMBP). AMBP has been shown to predict cardiovascular events and progression of kidney disease better than casual office BP measurements in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Renal transplant recipients with office hypertension (defined as BP > 130/80 or on antihypertensive medications), receiving stable immunosuppression and displaying consistent serum creatinine values for > or =6 months were eligible. We enrolled the first 40 patients to consent. Office BP was measured twice using a BP-Tru machine. AMBP was then analyzed for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and nocturnal blood pressure fall (NF; "dipping"). Patients were placed in the SRL group (n = 18) and the CNI group (n = 20) based on their maintenance immunosuppressive protocol. Two patients were excluded because of incomplete data. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil, and 14/38, maintenance steroids. We collected, demographics as well as type and date of renal allograft, medications, comorbidities, CKD stage, proteinuria, and plasma creatinine at the time of study enrollment. Patients in the SRL group displayed lower 24-hour SBP than the CNI group (128.0 +/- 10.8 vs 137.7 +/- 14; P = .029). Nightime MAP, nightime SBP, and nighttime DBP were all lower in the SRL group. NF did not reach significance between the SRL and CNI groups (44% vs 15%; P = .074). Patient demographics and number of antihypertensive medications did not differ. The lower 24-hour SBP seen in the SRL group by AMBP may

  19. Mean 24-hours sympathetic nervous system activity decreases during head-down tilted bed rest but not during microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Nj; Heer, M.; Ivanova, K.; Norsk, P.

    Sympathetic nervous system activity is closely related to gravitational stress in ground based experiments. Thus a high activity is present in the standing-up position and a very low activity is observed during acute head-out water immersion. Adjustments in sympathetic activity are necessary to maintain a constant blood pressure during variations in venous return. Head-down tilted bed rest is applied as a model to simulate changes observed during microgravity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that mean 24-hours sympathetic activity was low and similar during space flight and in ground based observation obtained during long-term head-down tilted bed rest. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline was measured by a radioenzymatic technique as an index of muscle sympathetic activity and thrombocyte noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured as indices of mean 24-hours sympathoadrenal activity. Previous results have indicated that thrombocyte noradrenaline level has a half-time of 2 days. Thus to reflect sympathetic activity during a specific experiment the study period must last for at least 6 days and a sample must be obtained within 12 hours after the experiment has ended. Ten normal healthy subjects were studied before and during a 14 days head-down tilted bed rest as well as during an ambulatory study period of a similar length. The whole experiment was repeated while the subjects were on a low calorie diet. Thrombocyte noradrenaline levels were studied in 4 cosmonauts before and within 12 hours after landing after more than 7 days in flight. Thrombocyte noradrenaline decreased markedly during the head-down tilted bed rest (p<0.001), whereas there were no significant changes in the ambulatory study. Plasma noradrenaline decreased in the adaptation period but not during the intervention. During microgravity thrombocyte noradrenaline increased in four cosmonauts and the percentage changes were significantly different in cosmonauts and in subjects

  20. Platelet concentrates prepared after a 20- to 24-hour hold of the whole blood at 22°C.

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bolgiano, Doug

    2012-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that red blood cells must be refrigerated within 8 hours of whole blood collection. Longer storage of whole blood at 22°C before component preparation would have many advantages. Two methods of holding whole blood for 20 to 24 hours at room temperature were evaluated, refrigerated plates or a 23°C incubator. After extended whole blood storage, platelet (PLT) concentrates were prepared from PLT-rich plasma on Day 1 postdonation, and the PLTs were stored for 6 more days. On Day 7 of PLT storage, blood was drawn from each subject to prepare fresh PLTs. The stored and fresh PLTs were radiolabeled and transfused into their donor. Eleven subjects' whole blood was stored using refrigerated butanediol plates (Compocool, Fresenius), and 10 using an incubator. Poststorage PLT recoveries averaged 47 ± 13% versus 53 ± 11% and survivals averaged 4.6 ± 1.7 days versus 4.7 ± 0.9 days for Compocool versus incubator storage, respectively (p = NS). With all results, poststorage PLT recoveries averaged 75 ± 10% of fresh and survivals 57 ± 13% of fresh; PLT recoveries met FDA guidelines for poststorage PLT viability but not survivals. Seven-day poststorage PLT viability is comparable when whole blood is stored for 22 ± 2 hours at 22°C using either refrigerated plates or an incubator to maintain temperature before preparing PLT concentrates. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Energy and nutrient intake of Tongan adults estimated by 24-hour recall: the importance of local food items.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Shoko; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    Tongan adults show one of the highest prevalences of obesity in the world. The present study aims to estimate Tongans' energy and nutrient intakes and food sources using a 24-hour recall survey for 14 days targeting 15 men and 19 women. The mean (SD) daily energy intake was 12.2 (2.3) MJ for men and 10.6 (2.2) MJ for women. Imported foods accounted for about half of their energy and macronutrient intakes, but for much less of their micronutrients. Some local food items, specifically pork, kava, and sea hare, contributed significantly to their vitamin, Fe, and Ca intakes, respectively. These findings suggest that heavy reliance on imported foods can lead not only to a high prevalence of obesity, but also to micronutrient deficiencies.

  2. Fentanyl, but not haloperidol, entrains persisting circadian activity episodes when administered at 24- and 31-hour intervals

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Joseph K.; Kosobud, Ann E; Timberlake, William

    2009-01-01

    Administration of several drugs of abuse on a 24-hour schedule has been shown to entrain both pre-drug (anticipatory) and post-drug (evoked) circadian activity episodes that persist for several days when the drug is withheld. The present tested the entrainment effects of fentanyl, an opioid agonist with a noted abuse liability, and haloperidol, an antipsychotic dopamine antagonist without apparent abuse liability. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats housed under constant light in cages with attached running wheels received repeated low, medium, or high doses of either fentanyl or haloperidol on a 24-hour administration schedule followed by a 31-hour schedule (Experiment 1) or solely on a 31-hour schedule (Experiment 2). The results showed that all three doses of fentanyl entrained both pre-drug and post-drug episodes of wheel running when administered every 24hours, and the combined pre- and post-fentanyl activity episodes persist for at least 3 days when the drug is withheld during test days. On the 31-hour schedule, fentanyl produced an ``ensuing" activity episode approximately 24hours post-administration, but failed to produce an anticipatory episode 29–31░hours post-administration. In contrast, haloperidol injections failed to produce both pre-drug episodes on the 24-hour schedule and circadian ensuing episodes on the 31-hour schedule, and post-haloperidol suppression of activity appeared to mask the freerunning activity rhythm. Taken together, these results provide additional evidence that drugs of abuse share a common ability to entrain circadian activity episodes. PMID:19595707

  3. The Impact of Using Different Methods to Assess Completeness of 24-Hour Urine Collection on Estimating Dietary Sodium.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, Andreas; Robinson, Christopher; Mao, Yang; Jiang, Ying; Campbell, Norm R C; Muthuri, Stella; Morrison, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The standard for population-based surveillance of dietary sodium intake is 24-hour urine testing; however, this may be affected by incomplete urine collection. The impact of different indirect methods of assessing completeness of collection on estimated sodium ingestion has not been established. The authors enlisted 507 participants from an existing community study in 2009 to collect 24-hour urine samples. Several methods of assessing completeness of urine collection were tested. Mean sodium intake varied between 3648 mg/24 h and 7210 mg/24 h depending on the method used. Excluding urine samples collected for longer or shorter than 24 hours increased the estimated urine sodium excretion, even when corrections for the variation in timed collections were applied. Until an accurate method of indirectly assessing completeness of urine collection is identified, the gold standard of administering para-aminobenzoic acid is recommended. Efforts to ensure participants collect complete urine samples are also warranted.

  4. Biomechanical evaluation of three fixation modalities for preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a 24-hour postoperative study in pigs.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Gaëtan; Bourges, Xavier; Turquier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Tacks and sutures ensure a strong fixation of meshes, but they can be associated with pain and discomfort. Less invasive methods are now available. Three fixation modalities were compared: the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh; the fibrin glue Tisseel™ with Bard™ Soft Mesh; and the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system with Bard™ Soft Mesh. Meshes (6 cm ×6 cm) were implanted in the preperitoneal space of swine. Samples were explanted 24 hours after surgery. Centered defects were created, and samples (either ten or eleven per fixation type) were loaded in a pressure chamber. For each sample, the pressure, the mesh displacement through the defect, and the measurements of the contact area were recorded. At all pressures tested, the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh both exhibited a significantly lower displacement through the defect and retained a significantly higher percentage of its initial contact area than either the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system or the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. Dislocations occurred with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system and with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system at physiological pressure (,225 mmHg). No dislocation was recorded for the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh. At 24 hours after implantation, the mechanical fixation of the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh was found to be significantly better than the fixation of the Tisseel™ system or the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system.

  5. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  6. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  7. Metabolic Control With the Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A 24-Hour Randomized Controlled Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Monika; Herrero, Pau; Sharkawy, Mohamed El; Pesl, Peter; Jugnee, Narvada; Pavitt, Darrell; Godsland, Ian F; Alberti, George; Toumazou, Christofer; Johnston, Desmond G; Georgiou, Pantelis; Oliver, Nick S

    2015-11-17

    The Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas (BiAP) is a closed-loop insulin delivery system based on a mathematical model of beta-cell physiology and implemented in a microchip within a low-powered handheld device. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the BiAP over 24 hours, followed by a substudy assessing the safety of the algorithm without and with partial meal announcement. Changes in lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were investigated for the first time during closed-loop. This is a prospective randomized controlled open-label crossover study. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either a 24-hour closed-loop visit connected to the BiAP system or a 24-hour open-loop visit (standard insulin pump therapy). The primary outcome was percentage time spent in target range (3.9-10 mmol/l) measured by sensor glucose. Secondary outcomes included percentage time in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/l) and hyperglycemia (>10 mmol/l). Participants were invited to attend for an additional visit to assess the BiAP without and with partial meal announcements. A total of 12 adults with type 1 diabetes completed the study (58% female, mean [SD] age 45 [10] years, BMI 25 [4] kg/m(2), duration of diabetes 22 [12] years and HbA1c 7.4 [0.7]% [58 (8) mmol/mol]). The median (IQR) percentage time in target did not differ between closed-loop and open-loop (71% vs 66.9%, P = .9). Closed-loop reduced time spent in hypoglycemia from 17.9% to 3.0% (P < .01), but increased time was spent in hyperglycemia (10% vs 28.9%, P = .01). The percentage time in target was higher when all meals were announced during closed-loop compared to no or partial meal announcement (65.7% [53.6-80.5] vs 45.5% [38.2-68.3], P = .12). The BiAP is safe and achieved equivalent time in target as measured by sensor glucose, with improvement in hypoglycemia, when compared to standard pump therapy. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Metabolic effects of isoenergetic nutrient exchange over 24 hours in relation to obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Lean, M E; James, W P

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four hour whole body indirect calorimetry has been used to study the effects of feeding, during a sedentary test day, isoenergetic diets which varied in fat (3 or 40 per cent of total energy) and carbohydrate (82 or 45 per cent) content. Three groups of women were studied: lean, obese and 'post-obese' after slimming. Energy expenditure was greater in absolute terms in the obese women. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure was lower by only 3-7 per cent when fasting compared to that when fed to achieve energy balance. There were no large differences in energy expenditure between the two diets or between the groups but the thermogenic effect of the high carbohydrate diet was significantly greater than that of the high fat diet (5.8 vs 3.5 per cent of energy expenditure: P less than 0.01). The post-obese tended to have lower energy expenditure per kg FFM than controls when fasting and when high-fat fed, but this pattern was not shown by the obese. Sleeping energy expenditure was particularly low in the post-obese group when high-fat fed. Dirunal variations in RQ appear to show more marked rise in morning RQ from the nocturnal minimum in the obese and post-obese, which might be evidence for an energy-saving mechanism through greater availability of stored dietary carbohydrate.

  9. Comparisons of psychosomatic health and unhealthy behaviors between cleanroom workers in a 12-hour shift and those in an 8-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Kameda, M; Noborisaka, Y; Suzuki, H; Honda, M; Yamada, S

    2001-12-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and physical fitness tests were administered to 338 workers in clean rooms producing electronic parts in 12-h shifts. The results were compared to those in 95 workers in 8-h shifts and 284 daytime management, clerical and engineering workers. The 12-h shift workers complained of poor health, dissatisfaction with life and poor recuperation from fatigue more than the 8-h shift workers although the rates of complaints were highest in the daytime workers. The GHQ scores were similar in the two shift groups, and much better than those in the daytime workers. However, the 12-h shift workers showed significantly lower fitness levels than the 8-h shift workers, and the levels were even worse than the daytime workers who had higher mean age and BMI levels compared with the shift workers. The tendency to have sedentary freetime activities and larger alcohol and cigarette consumption were observed in the 12-h shift workers. The 12-h shift work may have contributed to the unhealthy behaviors resulting in lower physical fitness levels. Health promotion services at the workplace should devote greater attention to long-hour shift workers, together with devising the ways to improve working conditions and environments for reducing fatigue at work.

  10. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A Self-Completed 24 Hour Dietary Recall for Children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Douglass, Deirdre; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4(FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24 hour dietary recall (24hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSST4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in U.S. national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (for example questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and FIRSSt4 incorporate 10,000+ food images with up to eight images per food to assist in portion size estimation. This paper reviews the formative research conducted during the development of FIRSSt4. When completed, FIRSSt4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute’s ASA24 website. PMID:22616645

  11. Psychogenetically selected (Roman high- and low-avoidance) rats differ in 24-hour sleep organization.

    PubMed

    Steimer, T; Python, A; Driscoll, P; de Saint Hilaire, Z

    1999-06-01

    A comparison of sleep organization in Roman high-(RHA/Verh) and low-(RLA/Verh) avoidance rats, which differ in the way they respond to environmental stimuli and in several neuroendocrine and neurochemical parameters, was carried out. EEG-sleep recordings were obtained from adult males over 12:12 light-dark periods to determine how these two psychogenetically selected rat lines might also differ in their sleep-wake cycle. There was no significant difference in total sleep time between the two lines. However, the (hypoemotional) RHA/Verh rats showed an overall increase (percentage of total sleep) in paradoxical sleep (PS) duration, with a concomitant decrease in slow-wave sleep (SWS). During the dark phase, RHA/Verh rats showed a shorter PS latency and a larger number of PS episodes. Hourly sleep scoring also revealed a more discontinuous pattern (total sleep and PS vs. SWS) during the dark phase in RHA/Verh rats. In relation to recognized neurochemical and neuroendocrine differences between them, these rat lines may prove useful in investigations of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep regulation.

  12. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust launches on time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Flames sear the pristine blue sky behind the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft after the 4:04:15 p.m. launch from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. A 24- hour scrub postponed the launch from the originally scheduled date of Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  13. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Implications for practitioners, professionals, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Copeland, Jennifer L; Fowles, Jonathon; Zehr, Lori; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth emphasize the integration of all movement behaviours that occur over a whole day (i.e., light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep). These guidelines shift the paradigm away from considering each behaviour in isolation. This concept of the "whole day matters" not only calls for a change in thinking about movement but also for redevelopment of dissemination and implementation practice. Past guideline launch activities largely have aimed to create awareness through passive dissemination strategies (e.g., Website posts, distribution of print resources). For the integrated guidelines to have public health impact, we must move beyond dissemination and raising of awareness to implementation and behaviour change. Shifting this focus requires new, innovative approaches to intervention, including interdisciplinary collaboration, policy change, and refocused service provision. The purpose of this paper is to identify practitioners, professionals, and organizations with potential to disseminate and/or implement the guidelines, discuss possible implementation strategies for each of these groups, and describe the few resources being developed and those needed to support dissemination and implementation efforts. This discussion makes readily apparent the need for a well-funded, comprehensive, long-term dissemination, implementation, and evaluation plan to ensure uptake and activation of the guidelines.

  14. Low mean impedance in 24-hour tracings and esophagitis in children: a strong connection.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Salvatoni, A; Ummarino, D; Ghanma, A; Van der Pol, R; Rongen, A; Fuoti, M; Meneghin, F; Benninga, M Alexander; Vandenplas, Y

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal multiple intraluminal impedance baseline is an additional impedance parameter that was recently related to esophageal integrity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between mean esophageal impedance value and endoscopic findings in a large group of children. Children with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux submitted to both endoscopy and impedance were included. Esophagitis was graded according to the Los Angeles classification. Mean impedance value was automatically calculated over 24-hour tracings. Data were adjusted for age through z-score transformation using percentiles normalized by the LMS (Lambda for the skew, Mu for the median, and Sigma for the generalized coefficient of variation) method. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, multiple, and stepwise regression were used. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. A total of 298 impedance tracings were analyzed. Endoscopic and histological esophagitis were detected in 30 and 29% patients, respectively. Median baseline z-score was significantly decreased both in proximal (P = 0.02) and distal (P = 0.01) esophagus in patients with endoscopic (but not histological) esophagitis. Patients with more severe esophagitis showed the lowest z-score. Bolus exposure index and the number of reflux episodes were the variables that were significantly associated with the baseline z-score. Impedance z-score is significantly decreased in infants and children with endoscopic esophagitis. Severity of esophagitis, bolus exposure index, and number of reflux episodes are factors influencing mean esophageal impedance. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the late morning light at Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Cananveral Air Station, the fixed utility tower (right) casts a long shadow across the base of the Boeing Delta II rocket (left) waiting to launch the Stardust spacecraft. After a 24-hour scrub, the new targeted launch time is 4:04 p.m. EST. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  16. Study of 10 year-24 hour rainfall distribution Warrior Coal Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Brasfield, B.A.

    1984-12-01

    The use of computer models to predict storm runoff and sediment basin response has greatly increased in recent years, due largely to increased sophistication of regulatory performance requirements. This study has been conducted to develop an accurate estimate of Warrior Coal Basin (WCB) rainfall distribution for a 10 year-24 hour event. Time distribution relations have been developed for heavy storms and presented in probability terms to show extreme and average distributions with respect to time. Relations were best represented by relating percent of storm rainfall to percent of storm duration. The data was then grouped according to the quartile in which rainfall was the heaviest. The most extreme relations derived were then used to predict the effluent from a watershed with a sediment basin. In comparison to the US Soils Conservation Service (SCS) Type II storm distribution the WCB storm distributions showed the predicted effluent to be significantly less. The derived relations are applicable to all of the Warrior Coal Basin in Alabama and other areas of similar climate.

  17. High energy deficit in an ultraendurance athlete in a 24-hour ultracycling race

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ferran A.; Iglesias, Xavier; Benítez, Adolfo; Marina, Míchel; Padullés, Josep M.; Torrado, Priscila; Vázquez, Jairo; Knechtle, Beat

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined the nutritional behavior and energy balance in an official finisher of a 24-hour ultracycling race. The food and beverages consumed by the cyclist were continuously weighed and recorded to estimate intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and caffeine. In addition, during the race, heart rate was continuously monitored. Energy expenditure was assessed using a heart rate–oxygen uptake regression equation obtained previously from a laboratory test. The athlete (39 years, 175.6 cm, 84.2 kg, maximum oxygen uptake, 64 mL/kg/min) cycled during 22 h 22 min, in which he completed 557.3 km with 8760 m of altitude at an average speed of 25.1 km/h. The average heart rate was 131 beats/min. Carbohydrates were the main macronutrient intake (1102 g, 13.1 g/kg); however, intake was below current recommendations. The consumption of protein and fat was 86 g and 91 g, respectively. He ingested 20.7 L (862 mL/h) of fluids, with sport drinks the main fluid used for hydration. Sodium concentration in relation to total fluid intake was 34.0 mmol/L. Caffeine consumption over the race was 231 mg (2.7 mg/kg). During the race, he expended 15,533 kcal. Total energy intake was 5571 kcal, with 4058 (73%) and 1513 (27%) kcal derived from solids and fluids, respectively. The energy balance resulted in an energy deficit of 9915 kcal. PMID:22481841

  18. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After a 24-hour postponement, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for its scheduled launch at 4:04 p.m. EST. Umbilical lines (at top) still attached to the fixed utility tower (at right) feed electricity, air conditioning and coolants for the Stardust spacecraft inside the fairing (enclosing the upper stage) before launch. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  19. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust launches on time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Flames sear the pristine blue sky behind the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft after the 4:04:15 p.m. launch from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. A 24- hour scrub postponed the launch from the originally scheduled date of Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  20. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    PubMed

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  1. Validation of a self-monitoring device for estimating 24-hour urinary salt excretion.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Sawano, Kayoko; Shono, Naoko; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between salt intake and urinary salt excretion and to examine the validity of a self-monitoring device for estimating 24-h urinary salt excretion from overnight urine samples. Twelve young, healthy female volunteers consumed test meals from days 1 to 14 and estimated urinary salt excretion on days 2-15 by using a self-monitoring device. The salt content of the test meals was as follows: 10 g (days 1-5), 6 g (days 6-8), 13 g (days 9-11), 6 g (day 12), 13 g (day 13), and 6 g (day 14). The average 24-h urinary salt excretion (the ratio of urinary salt excretion to salt intake of the previous day) estimated from the overnight urine samples was as follows: 8.01±1.15 g (0.73±0.11) on days 2-6, 5.86±0.85 g (1.01±0.15) on days 7-9, 9.69±1.64 g (0.74±0.13) on days 10-12, 6.51±1.56 g (1.03±0.25) on day 13, 8.60±3.25 g (0.71±0.14) on day 14, and 6.28±1.31 (1.05±0.22) on day 15. Thus, the salt excretion/salt intake ratio was approximately 0.8 during the high-salt phase and 1.0 during the low-salt phase. The estimation of 24-h urinary salt excretion from overnight urine samples by using a self-monitoring device is a reasonably valid method in this young and healthy female population for detecting daily changes in salt intake.

  2. Toward a New Paradigm in Graduate Medical Education in the United States: Elimination of the 24-Hour Call

    PubMed Central

    Mautone, Susan G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation negatively affects resident performance, education, and safety. Concerns over these effects have prompted efforts to reduce resident hours. This article describes the design and implementation of a scheduling system with no continuous 24-hour calls. Aims included meeting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour requirements without increasing resident complement, maximizing continuity of learning and patient care, maintaining patient care quality, and acceptance by residents, faculty, and administration. Methods Various coverage options were formulated and discussed. The final schedule was the product of consensus. After re-engineering the master rotation schedule, service-specific conversion of on-call schedules was initiated in July 2003 and completed in July 2004. Annual in-training and certifying examination performance, length of stay, patient mortalities, resident motor vehicle accidents/near misses, and resident satisfaction with the new scheduling system were tracked. Results Continuous 24-hour call has been eliminated from the program since July 2004, with the longest assigned shift being 14 hours. Residents have at least 1 free weekend per month, a 10-hour break between consecutive assigned duty hours, and a mandatory 4-hour “nap” break if assigned a night shift immediately following a day shift. Program-wide, duty hours average 66 hours per week for first-year residents, 63 hours per week for second-year residents, and 60 hours per week for third-year residents. Self-reported motor vehicle accidents and/or near misses of accidents significantly decreased (P < .001) and resident satisfaction increased (P  =  .42). The change was accomplished at no additional cost to the institution and with no adverse patient care or educational outcomes. Conclusions Pediatric residency training with restriction to 14 consecutive duty hours is effective and well accepted by stakeholders. Five years later, the re

  3. 24-hour control of body temperature in rats. I. Integration of behavioral and autonomic effectors.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J

    1994-07-01

    Some studies suggest that the nocturnal elevation in core temperature (Tc) of the rat is mediated by an elevation in the set point. The role of set point can be assessed if behavioral effectors are measured simultaneously with other thermoregulatory effectors and Tc over a 24-h period. Selected ambient temperature (STa) and motor activity (MA) were measured in rats housed in a temperature gradient system with a 12:12-h photoperiod (lights on 0600 h). Tc and heart rate (HR) were monitored by telemetry. During the light phase, STa, Tc, HR, and MA were relatively stable with values 29.0 degrees C, 37.1 degrees C, 310 beats/min, and 1-2 m/h, respectively. During the light-to-dark transition there were abrupt elevations in Tc, HR, and MA but no change in STa. STa decreased during the dark phase and reached a nadir of 23 degrees C at 0500 h. All variables recovered to basal levels within 3-4 h after the onset of the light phase. Overall, autonomic effectors control the elevation in Tc during the onset of the dark phase while behavioral effectors have little if any role. Behavioral thermoregulation is important in two ways: 1) the selection of cooler Ta values at night to prevent an excess elevation in Tc and 2) a preference for cooler Ta values before the light phase to facilitate the recovery of Tc.

  4. Tasimelteon (Hetlioz™): A New Melatonin Receptor Agonist for the Treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Janene M; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-10-01

    In January 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved tasimelteon (Hetlioz™), a melatonin-receptor agonist for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. This article provides an overview of the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic properties, as well as the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of tasimelteon. Relevant information was identified through a comprehensive literature search of several databases using the key words tasimelteon, Non-24-hour Sleep-Wake disorder, Non-24, and melatonin. Further information was obtained from the tasimelteon package insert, fda.gov, clinicaltrials.gov, briefing materials provided by Vanda Pharmaceuticals, and posters from scientific meetings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. 24-hour pattern of work-related injury risk of French firemen: nocturnal peak time.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Marc; Berrez, Stéphane; Pelisse, Didier; Brousse, Eric; Forget, Coralie; Marlot, Michel; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan; Reinberg, Alain

    2011-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to assess clock-time patterning of work-related injuries (WRIs) of firemen (FM) of Saône et Loire-71 (France) during the 4-yr span of 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2007. FM of this service are legally required to log every WRI and seek its evaluation by the medical service, whether the WRI was the result of worksite duties or exercise/sport activities at the station. WRI was defined specifically as a (nonexercise, nonsport, and nonemotional/stress) work-associated trauma, verified both by log book and medical records. For the corresponding years, the 24-h pattern of emergency calls (Calls) plus road traffic (Traffic) on the main roads of the service area was also assessed. Relative risk (R) of WRI was calculated as the quantity of WRIs/h divided by the quantity of Call responses/h × 1000, which takes into account the number of at-risk FM/unit time, since each dispatched emergency vehicle is staffed with 4 FM. Comparably trained regular (RFM) and volunteer (VFM) FM experienced a total of 187 WRIs. The 24-h WRI curve patterns of RFM and VFM were correlated (r = 0.4, p < .05), with no histogram difference (p > .05). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) validated comparable clock-time patterns in WRIs of RFM and VFM each year and each season (all p < .0001). Thus, time series of the RFM and VFM were pooled, revealing a statistical significant 24-h variation in WRIs (ANOVA, p > .0006; Cosinor analysis, p < .0001), with peak at 16:00 h and trough at 04:00 h. The 24-h pattern in Traffic, which mirrors that of human activity, with peak ∼18:00 h and trough ∼03:00 h, was also verified (ANOVA, p < .0001; Cosinor, p < .0001). Calls (n = 112,059) resulting in FM responses also exhibited statistically significant 24-h variation, with peak at ∼20:00 h and trough at ∼06:00 h. The 24-h pattern of R showed a nocturnal peak at 02:00 h (R = 2.87 ± 0.46; mean ± SEM) and diurnal trough 14

  6. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance.

  7. Experience with noninvasive ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure recording in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    van de Weijgert, E J; Braun, J J

    1992-04-01

    In 40 subjects (23 treated with antihypertensive medication), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric blood pressure monitor (Spacelabs model 90202). We studied applicability in the out-patient department with regard to patient tolerance, correlation with mercury manometer measurements, 24-h blood pressure variability and the use in detecting "white-coat" hypertension. The measurements were tolerated quite well except for complaints of sleep disturbance and local irritation from the cuff. The average percentage of missed measuring points was 9.2%. Correlation between blood pressure with the mercury manometer and the Spacelabs monitor (averages of three consecutive readings) was: systolic 0.87 and diastolic 0.73 (P less than 0.001). No evidence for systematic error between the two methods was found. Diurnal blood pressure variation was significant with an average night-time drop of 12 +/- 15 mmHg systolic and 12 +/- 11 mmHg diastolic. "Office" blood pressure measured with the Spacelabs monitor was in the hypertensive range for 28 patients (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mmHg). Only 15 of these subjects still met the hypertension criteria on the basis of mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure values. When ambulatory blood pressures during arbitrary 3-h periods of the daytime were studied, the number of patients with established hypertension did not change. The patients with this "office" or "white-coat" hypertensive response could not be distinguished on the basis of variability in daytime blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sara J.; Cole, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor

  9. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sara J; Cole, Kelly J

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor

  10. Intravenous Home Infusion Therapy Instituted From a 24-Hour Clinical Decision Unit For Patients With Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Rentala, Manjusha; Andrews, Shari; Tiberio, Allison; Alagappan, Kumar; Tavdy, Tammy; Sheppard, Patrick; Silverman, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate whether patients with cellulitis can be safely discharged from a 24-hour clinical decision unit (CDU) with home infusion of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Clinical decision unit patients receiving IV antibiotics for cellulitis were screened for enrollment in a home infusion therapy (HIT) program. Inclusion criteria were patient ability and willingness to administer IV antibiotics at home and insurers' approval of home infusion services. Patients were discharged home with a peripheral IV and care coordinated with a home infusion provider. Of 213 patients with cellulitis transferred from the emergency department to the CDU over an 8-month study period, a total of 32 (15%) were discharged from the CDU with HIT. The average duration of home IV antibiotic treatment was 3.4 days. There were a total of 9 complications (28%), including IV infiltration (n = 5), allergic reactions (n = 2), nontolerance to the antibiotic (n = 1, this patient developed severe nausea and was switched to oral antibiotics after 2 days of HIT), and 1 patient required readmission for lack of clinical improvement. Among the 181 patients with cellulitis who did not receive HIT, 39 (22%) were hospitalized from the CDU, and 1 additional patient refused admission. We avoided admission for 31 (97%) of 32 patients who were enrolled in HIT. Home infusion therapy has the potential to prevent hospitalizations, alleviate overcrowding of hospital beds, and decrease health care costs. Further studies are needed to determine the full impact of HIT on CDU patients with acute cellulitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 24-Hour IOP Telemetry in the Nonhuman Primate: Implant System Performance and Initial Characterization of IOP at Multiple Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Claude F.; Seigfreid, William P.; Reynaud, Juan F.; Strouthidis, Nicholas G.; Sallee, Verney

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. IOP is the most common independent risk factor for development and progression of glaucoma, but very little is known about IOP dynamics. Continuous IOP telemetry was used in three nonhuman primates to characterize IOP dynamics at multiple time scales for multiple 24-hour periods. Methods. An existing implantable telemetric pressure transducer system was adapted to monitoring anterior chamber IOP. The system records 500 IOP, ECG, and body temperature measurements per second and compensates for barometric pressure in real time. The continuous IOP signal was digitally filtered for noise and dropout and reported using time-window averaging for 19, 18, and 4 24-hour periods in three animals, respectively. Those data were analyzed for a nycthemeral pattern within each animal. Results. Ten-minute time-window averaging for multiple 24-hour periods showed that IOP fluctuated from 7 to 14 mm Hg during the day, and those changes occurred frequently and quickly. Two-hour time-window averages of IOP for multiple 24-hour periods in three animals showed a weak nycthemeral trend, but IOP was not repeatable from day-to-day within animals. Conclusions. The measured IOP was successfully measured continuously by using a new, fully implantable IOP telemetry system. IOP fluctuates as much as 10 mm Hg from day to day and hour to hour in unrestrained nonhuman primates, which indicates that snapshot IOP measurements may be inadequate to capture the true dynamic character of IOP. The distributions, magnitudes, and patterns of IOP are not reproducible from day to day within animals, but IOP tends to be slightly higher at night when IOP data are averaged across multiple 24-hour periods within animals. PMID:21791586

  12. An evaluation of excision with application of autografts or porcine xenografts within 24 hours of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Still, J M; Law, E J; Craft-Coffman, B

    1996-02-01

    An evaluation of feasibility and safety of excising burn wounds within 24 hours of injury was carried out. Over a 2-year period, 124 patients were admitted and taken to the operating room within 24 hours of initial burn injury. All cases were from one surgeon's practice. There were 99 males and 28 females. Age ranged from 8 months to 93 years. Burn size ranged from 0.5% to 70%, with a mean of 17.59%. Time from injury to surgery varied from 2 hours 10 minutes to 23 hours 40 minutes, with a mean of 14.42 hours. All patients admitted within 24 hours of injury were considered for immediate excision. Patients admitted too late in their course to receive excision within 24 hours were not included in the evaluation. Second-degree burns were treated with tangential debridement and porcine xenografts. If third-degree burns were obviously present, electrocautery excision was carried out followed by cadaver grafting or autografting as appropriate. Blood loss ranged from 0 to 2000 cc (mean, 215.08 cc) for the first surgery. The mean number of operations per patient was 1.72. Very large burns underwent staged procedures. There were five deaths (4.0%) in the group. There were no operative deaths. Twenty-three patients required readmission for further treatment, usually including surgery. It appears that excision within 24 hours of injury is safe. There is the obvious benefit of a reduced hospital stay by decreasing the time to surgery and the theoretical advantage obtained by early removal of sources of infection.

  13. A Fall in Systolic Blood Pressure 24 Hours after Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke Is Associated with Early Neurological Recovery.

    PubMed

    Gill, Dipender; Cox, Thomas; Aravind, Adarsh; Wilding, Peter; Korompoki, Eleni; Veltkamp, Roland; Kar, Arindam

    2016-06-01

    Outcomes are worse in patients who underwent thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with persistent hypertension. The objective of this study is to investigate whether fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) has any relationship with neurological outcome 24 hours after thrombolysis, after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Retrospective analysis of a single-center database of consecutive thrombolysis cases for AIS. Multivariate regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between fall in SBP and reduction in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 24 hours after thrombolysis. Other potentially confounding predictor variables used in the model were SBP on thrombolysis, blood glucose level on thrombolysis, NIHSS score on thrombolysis, administration of antihypertensive medications, and the time to thrombolysis after symptom onset. A fall in SBP 24 hours after thrombolysis is independently associated with greater improvement in NIHSS score 24 hours after thrombolysis (coefficient .051, 95% confidence interval .023-.078, P < .001). Thus, a reduction of 10 mmHg in SBP after 24 hours is associated with a .51 point reduction in the NIHSS score. Restoration of SBP toward normal limits after thrombolysis for AIS is associated with greater early neurological improvement. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall relative to a measure of true intakes and to an interviewer-administered 24-h recall123

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Subar, Amy F; Douglass, Deirdre; Zimmerman, Thea P; Thompson, Frances E; Kahle, Lisa L; George, Stephanie M; Dodd, Kevin W; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24), a freely available Web-based tool, was developed to enhance the feasibility of collecting high-quality dietary intake data from large samples. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion validity of ASA24 through a feeding study in which the true intake for 3 meals was known. Design: True intake and plate waste from 3 meals were ascertained for 81 adults by inconspicuously weighing foods and beverages offered at a buffet before and after each participant served him- or herself. Participants were randomly assigned to complete an ASA24 or an interviewer-administered Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) recall the following day. With the use of linear and Poisson regression analysis, we examined the associations between recall mode and 1) the proportions of items consumed for which a match was reported and that were excluded, 2) the number of intrusions (items reported but not consumed), and 3) differences between energy, nutrient, food group, and portion size estimates based on true and reported intakes. Results: Respondents completing ASA24 reported 80% of items truly consumed compared with 83% in AMPM (P = 0.07). For both ASA24 and AMPM, additions to or ingredients in multicomponent foods and drinks were more frequently omitted than were main foods or drinks. The number of intrusions was higher in ASA24 (P < 0.01). Little evidence of differences by recall mode was found in the gap between true and reported energy, nutrient, and food group intakes or portion sizes. Conclusions: Although the interviewer-administered AMPM performed somewhat better relative to true intakes for matches, exclusions, and intrusions, ASA24 performed well. Given the substantial cost savings that ASA24 offers, it has the potential to make important contributions to research aimed at describing the diets of populations, assessing the effect of interventions on diet, and elucidating diet and health

  15. Influence of mild cold on the components of 24 hour thermogenesis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D; Livesey, G; Dauncey, M J

    1991-01-01

    1. The influence of two weeks' acclimation to either 28 degrees C (thermal neutrality) or 21 degrees C (mild cold) on 24 h heat production and motor activity has been investigated in male Wistar rats. Food intake was controlled and provided as a single meal of approximately 170 kJ per day. Mathematical modelling was used to relate metabolic rate to measured movement and time of day. 2. For animals at thermal neutrality it was clear that metabolic rate increased during periods of substantial measured movement and returned to baseline during periods of minimal activity. Total heat production could therefore be divided into two components: underlying and movement-induced thermogenesis. 3. At 21 degrees C, a more complex model was needed. During periods of substantial activity, the relation between metabolic rate and movement was similar to that at 28 degrees C and total heat production could be divided into the same two components of underlying and movement-induced thermogenesis. However, during periods of prolonged inactivity, a different model was required, which included a component of extra metabolic activity, termed supplementary thermogenesis. By fitting this model to data at 28 and 21 degrees C, it was possible to partition 24 h heat production into the three possible sources of underlying, movement-induced and supplementary thermogenesis. 4. Total 24 h heat production was approximately 25% higher for rats at 21 compared with 28 degrees C (P less than 0.01) and underlying thermogenesis was approximately 20% higher for those in the mild cold (P less than 0.01). Measured movement was significantly reduced in the mild cold (P less than 0.05) although it was energetically less efficient since there was no difference in movement-induced thermogenesis, which accounted for 18 and 15% of total heat production at 28 and 21 degrees C respectively. Supplementary thermogenesis was observed only in the mild cold and it accounted for approximately 6% of 24 h heat production

  16. 12 CFR 24.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT... calculated under the OCC's risk-based capital standards set out in appendix A to 12 CFR part 3 as reported in... purposes of the calculation of risk-based capital under appendix A to 12 CFR part 3, as reported in the...

  17. 12 CFR 24.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... capitalized; (2) Has a composite rating of 1 or 2 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System; (3... calculated under the OCC's risk-based capital standards set out in appendix A to 12 CFR part 3 as reported in... purposes of the calculation of risk-based capital under appendix A to 12 CFR part 3, as reported in the...

  18. COMBINED 24-HOURS ESOPHAGEAL PH MONITORING AND MULTICHANNEL INTRALUMINAL IMPEDANCE FOR COMPARISON OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL VERSUS ATYPICAL SYMPTOMS OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Nasri, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    - Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common esophageal disorder in pediatrics. - The aim of this study was to compare reflux parameters of typical and atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease using 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance in pediatric population. - In this prospective study, 43 patients aged less than 18 year with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups based on the main presenting symptoms (typical versus atypical). Twenty four-hour pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance were performed in all the patients for comparing these two group regarding association of symptoms and reflux. Number of refluxes, pH related reflux, total reflux time, reflux more than 5 minutes, longest time of the reflux, lowest pH at reflux, reflux index were recorded and compared. Data comparison was done using SPSS. - The mean age of the patients was 5.7±3.4 years and 65.1% were male. Out of 43 patients 24 cases had typical symptoms and 19 had atypical symptoms. The mean reflux events detected by multichannel intraluminal impedance was more than mean reflux events detected by pH monitoring (308.4±115.8 vs 69.7±66.6) with P value of 0.037, which is statistically significant. The mean symptom index and symptom association probability were 35.01% ± 20.78% and 86.42% ± 25.79%, respectively in multichannel intraluminal impedance versus 12.73% ± 12.48% and 45.16% ± 42.29% in pH monitoring (P value <0.001). Number of acid reflux was 46.26±47.16 and 30.9±22.09 for atypical and typical symptoms respectively. The mean symptom index was 18.12% ± 13.101% and 8.30% ± 10.301% in atypical and typical symptoms respectively (P=0.034). Bolus clearance was longer in atypical symptoms compared typical symptoms(P<0.05). - Symptom index was significantly higher in atypical symptoms compared to typical symptoms. Higher number of acid reflux was found in children

  19. Metformin induces cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the rat heart 24 hours after administration.

    PubMed

    Solskov, Lasse; Løfgren, Bo; Kristiansen, Steen B; Jessen, Niels; Pold, Rasmus; Nielsen, Torsten T; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Schmitz, Ole; Lund, Sten

    2008-07-01

    The UK Prospective Diabetes Study demonstrated that the hypoglycaemic drug metformin is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events in a group of obese type 2 diabetes patients. The energy sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been indicated to play an important protective role in the ischaemic heart and is activated by metformin. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of metformin protects the myocardium against experimentally induced ischaemia 24 hr after the administration, and furthermore to determine whether a single dose of metformin results in an acute increase in myocardial AMPK activity. Wistar rats were given either a single oral dose of metformin (250 mg/kg body weight), or a single oral dose of saline. After 24 hr, the hearts were Langendorff-perfused and subjected to 45 min. of coronary artery occlusion. Infarct size was determined by staining with triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC) and Evans Blue and expressed as a percentage of the risk zone (IS/AAR %). Isoform specific AMPK activity was measured 2 hr after administration of metformin or saline. Infarct size was significantly reduced in the metformin treated (I/R: 19.9 +/- 3.9%versus 36.7 +/- 3.6%, P < 0.01, n = 8-14) compared to the control group. A single oral dose of metformin resulted in an approximately ~2-fold increase in AMPK-alpha2 activity 2 hr after administration (P < 0.015, n = 10). In conclusion, a single dose of metformin results in an acute increase in myocardial AMPK activity measured 2 hr after administration and induces a significant reduction in myocardial infarct size 24 hr after metformin administration. Increased AMPK activity may be an important signal mediator involved in the mechanisms behind the cardioprotective effects afforded by metformin.

  20. Effects of Occupational Noise Exposure on 24-Hour Ambulatory Vascular Properties in Male Workers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Su, Ta-Chen; Lin, Shou-Yu; Jain, Ruei-Man; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that occupational noise exposure is associated with hypertension, but the related mechanism in vascular structural changes is unclear. Objective This panel study aimed to investigate effects of occupational noise exposure on ambulatory vascular structural properties in male workers. Methods We recruited 20 volunteers and divided them into a high-noise–exposure group of 15 and a low-noise–exposure group of 5 based on environmental noise measurement in an automobile manufacturing company. We determined individual noise exposure and measured personal ambulatory vascular property parameters simultaneously during 24 hr. Linear mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate transient and sustained effects of noise exposure on vascular parameters by adjusting some confounders collected from self-administrated questionnaires and health checkups. Results The high-noise–exposed (85 ± 8 dBA) workers had significantly higher systemic vascular resistance (SVR) than the low-noise–exposed workers (59 ± 4 dBA) during work and sleep periods. Contrarily, low-noise–exposed workers had significantly higher brachial artery compliance (BAC), brachial artery distensibility (BAD), and systemic vascular compliance (SVC; marginal, p = 0.07) than high-noise–exposed workers during off-duty periods. We also found that high-noise–exposed workers had significantly lower BAC (1.38 ± 0.55 %mL/mmHg) and BAD (1.29 ± 0.51 %/mmHg), as well as lower SVC (0.24 ± 0.10 mL/L/mmHg), but higher SVR (1.93 ± 0.67 mL/L/min) compared with low-noise–exposed workers over a 24-hr period. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in automobile workers, occupational noise exposure may have sustained, not transient, effects on vascular properties and also enhances the development of hypertension. PMID:18008000

  1. Response to Acute Psychophysical Stress and 24-Hour Glycemic Control in Healthy Older People

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Loretta; Yeckel, Catherine W.; Gribok, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relation between stress reactivity and 24 h glycemic control in 17 inactive, healthy older people (≥60 years) under both a novel psychophysical stress and a seated control condition. Plasma cortisol was measured over the course of the stress and recovery periods. Glycemic control was determined over the subsequent 3 h from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and over 24 h via continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). We observed significant (P < 0.05) elevations in perceived stress, cardiovascular activity, and peak cortisol response at 30 min (10.6 ± 3.1 versus 8.6 ± 2.6 μg·dL−1, resp.) during the stress compared with the control condition; however, 3 h OGTT glucose and insulin responses were similar between conditions. The CGM data suggested a 30–40 min postchallenge delay in peak glucose response and attenuated glucose clearance over the 6 h following the stress condition, but these alterations were not statistically significant. Healthy older people may demonstrate minimal disruption in metabolic resiliency following everyday psychological stress. PMID:22830023

  2. Effect of cimetidine and pirenzepine in combination on 24 hour intragastric acidity in subjects with previous duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J G; Deakin, M; Ramage, J K

    1986-01-01

    Intragastric pH was monitored during 24 hours in eight volunteers with duodenal ulcer disease in remission, while on placebo, cimetidine 400 mg bd, pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 400 mg bd + pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 200 mg bd + pirenzepine 25 mg bd. The control of intragastric acidity during the 24 hour period by the combination of low dose cimetidine and pirenzepine was significantly better than with cimetidine, or pirenzepine alone in full dosage. This difference was most apparent after breakfast but was still present after lunch when cimetidine had no significant effect. Combination treatment is a logical approach when continuous control of intragastric acidity is needed, but a three times daily regimen will be necessary to cover the 24 hours. PMID:3754233

  3. Relationship of sodium and magnesium intakes to hypertension proven by 24-hour urianalysis in a South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Natesan; Sethupathy, Subramaniyam; Saravanan, Nadanam; Mori, Mari; Yamori, Yukio; Garg, Arun Kumar; Chockalingam, Arun

    2014-08-01

    The Healthy Eating Asians Remain Together (HEART) study was carried out to investigate the relationship between 24-hour urine nutritional biomarkers and cardiometabolic risks in India. A total of 168 participants underwent health examination to assess body mass index, blood pressure, and 24-hour urine samples. The participants were divided into normotensive and hypertensive. The average blood pressure, weight, and body mass index were significantly high in patients considered to be hypertensive, and 24-hour urine biomarkers showed significant differences in sodium and magnesium/creatinine ratios in patients aged 40 and older. High sodium intake and reduction in magnesium consumption are associated with increased blood pressure in patients from India. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Assessing daily management of childhood diabetes using 24-hour recall interviews: reliability and stability.

    PubMed

    Freund, A; Johnson, S B; Silverstein, J; Thomas, J

    1991-01-01

    Conducted 24-hr recall interviews concerning daily diabetes management with seventy-eight 6- to 19-year-old patients and their parents. Patients and parents were interviewed independently nine times over 3 months. Data obtained were used to construct 13 adherence measures. All measures yielded statistically significant estimates of parent-child concordance. Parent-child agreement was higher for weekday versus weekend behaviors and when based on nine versus three interviews. For the sample as a whole, parent-child concordance remained stable over the course of the study. Compared to the older patients, the 6- to 9-year-olds exhibited poorer parent-child agreement on measures involving time (e.g., injection and exercise-duration measures). This deficit disappeared, however, as the children became more practiced with the interview procedure. The dietary and glucose-testing measures exhibited moderate stability over the 3-month study. Lower stability estimates were obtained for the exercise and injection measures.

  5. 24 CFR 320.12 - Integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.12 Integrity. (a) Background. Issuers shall disclose the...

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury Has Not Prominent Effects on Cardiopulmonary Indices of Rat after 24 Hours: Hemodynamic, Histopathology, and Biochemical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Siahposht Khachaki, Ali; Khaksari, Mohammad; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Joukar, Siyavash; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accidents are the second reason for mortality and morbidity in Iran. Among them, brain injuries are the most important damage. Clarification of the effects of brain injuries on different body systems will help physicians to prioritize their treatment strategies. In this study, the effect of pure brain trauma on the cardiovascular system and lungs 24 hours post trauma was assessed. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into sham control and traumatic brain injury (TBI) groups. In TBI animals, under deep anesthesia, a blow to the head was induced by the fall of a 450 g weight from 2 m height. Twenty four hours later, heart electrocardiogram and functional indices, cardiac troponin I, IL-6, TNF-, IL-Iβ in tissue and serum, and the histopathology of heart and lung were assessed. Results: The results showed that none of the functional, biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathology indices was statistically different between the two groups at 24 hours post TBI. Indices of impulse conduction velocity in atrium (P wave duration and P-R interval) were significantly longer in the TBI group. Conclusion: Overall, no important functional and histopathologic disturbances were found in heart and lung of TBI group after 24 hours. If the data is reproduced in human studies, the medical team could allocate their priority to treatment of brain disorders of the victim in the first 24 hours of pure TBI and postpone extensive assessment of heart and lung health indices to later time, thus reducing patient and health system expenditures. PMID:25326021

  7. PLATELET CONCENTRATES PREPARED AFTER A 20 TO 24 HOUR HOLD OF THE WHOLE BLOOD AT 22°C

    PubMed Central

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bolgiano, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Background The FDA requires that red cells must be refrigerated within 8 hours of whole blood collection. Longer storage of whole blood at 22°C before component preparation would have many advantages. Study Design And Methods Two methods of holding whole blood for 20 to 24 hours at room temperature were evaluated; i.e., refrigerated plates or a 23°C incubator. After extended whole blood storage, platelet concentrates were prepared from platelet-rich-plasma on day 1 post-donation, and the platelets were stored for 6 more days. On day 7 of platelet storage, blood was drawn from each subject to prepare fresh platelets. The stored and fresh platelets were radiolabeled and transfused into their donor. Results Eleven subjects’ whole blood was stored using refrigerated Compocool plates and 10 using an incubator. Post-storage platelet recoveries averaged 47 ± 13% versus 53 ± 11% and survivals averaged 4.6 ± 1.7 days versus 4.7 ± 0.9 days for Compocool versus incubator storage, respectively (p=N.S.). Using all results, post-storage platelet recoveries averaged 75 ± 10% of fresh and survivals 57 ± 13% of fresh; platelet recoveries met FDA guidelines for post-storage platelet viability but not survivals. Conclusion Seven-day post-storage platelet viability is comparable when whole blood is stored for 22 ± 2 hour at 22°C using either refrigerated plates or an incubator to maintain temperature prior to preparing platelet concentrates. PMID:22320682

  8. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the

  9. Interchangeability between 24-hour collection and single spot urines for vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acid levels in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Giuliana; Barco, Sebastiano; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Viscardi, Elisabetta; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Garaventa, Alberto; Melioli, Giovanni; Conte, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    The determination of the two urinary catecholamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is of crucial importance for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma (NB). The standard practice for their measurement requires the use of 24-hour collections that are time consuming and difficult to obtain. In this article, we directly demonstrate that 24-hour collections and single spot urines are interchangeable for the determination of HVA and VMA expressed as ratio on creatinine concentration. This study can be useful for a faster management of NB at onset.

  10. Biomechanical evaluation of three fixation modalities for preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a 24-hour postoperative study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Gaëtan; Bourges, Xavier; Turquier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tacks and sutures ensure a strong fixation of meshes, but they can be associated with pain and discomfort. Less invasive methods are now available. Three fixation modalities were compared: the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh; the fibrin glue Tisseel™ with Bard™ Soft Mesh; and the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system with Bard™ Soft Mesh. Materials and methods Meshes (6 cm ×6 cm) were implanted in the preperitoneal space of swine. Samples were explanted 24 hours after surgery. Centered defects were created, and samples (either ten or eleven per fixation type) were loaded in a pressure chamber. For each sample, the pressure, the mesh displacement through the defect, and the measurements of the contact area were recorded. Results At all pressures tested, the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh both exhibited a significantly lower displacement through the defect and retained a significantly higher percentage of its initial contact area than either the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system or the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. Dislocations occurred with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system and with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system at physiological pressure (,225 mmHg). No dislocation was recorded for the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh. Conclusion At 24 hours after implantation, the mechanical fixation of the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh was found to be significantly better than the fixation of the Tisseel™ system or the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. PMID:25525396

  11. Process for straightening and drying southern pine 2 by 4's in 24 hours

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1971-01-01

    In 21 hours under mechanical restraint and in a kiln providing a cross-circulation velocity of 1,000 f.p.m. at dry-and wet-bulb temperatures of 240 and 160oF., followed by 3 hours at 195 and 185oF., southern pine 2 by 4 studs cut from steamed veneer cores or small logs were dried to 9-percent moisture content (Standard...

  12. Evaluation of in-hospital electrocardiography versus 24-hour Holter for rate control in dogs with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Gelzer, A R; Kraus, M S; Rishniw, M

    2015-07-01

    To determine if the in-clinic ECG-derived heart rate could predict the at-home Holter-derived 24-hour average heart rate (Holter24h ), and whether it is useful to identify slow versus fast atrial fibrillation in dogs. 82 pairs of 1-minute ECGs and 24-hour Holter recordings were acquired in 34 dogs with atrial fibrillation. The initial 24-hour Holter was used to test if the ECG heart rate can identify dogs with "slow" versus "fast" atrial fibrillation based on a Holter24h threshold value of 140 bpm. ECG heart rate overestimated Holter24h by 26 bpm (95% CI: 3 bpm, 48 bpm; P < 0 · 015) with a 95% limit of agreement of -21 to 83 bpm. The in-clinic ECG-derived heart rate Ä155 bpm had a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 100% for identifying a Holter24h HR Ä140 bpm; an in-clinic ECG-derived HR <160 bpm had a sensitivity and specificity of 91% each. In-clinic ECG assessment of heart rate in dogs with atrial fibrillation does not reliably predict the heart rate in their home environment. However, an in-clinic heart rate greater than 155 bpm is useful in identifying "fast" atrial fibrillation, allowing clinicians to stratify which case may benefit from antiarrhythmic therapy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Physiological biochemical, and performance responses to a 24-hour crash diet.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E A; Mertens, H W; McKenzie, J M; Funkhouser, G E

    1982-03-01

    Twelve overweight male subjects were evaluated on both a normal diet and a 24-h crash diet. During approximately 2 1/4-h complex performance tests subjects breathed an O2/N2 mixture equivalent to 3810 m. (12,500 ft). There were no significant findings due to diet for heart rate, blood pressure, serum electrolytes, subjective fatigue and urinary excretion of K+, epinephrine and norepinephrine. body temperatures were lower (p less than 0.05) for the crash diet than for the normal diet. Serum glucose levels increased during the normal diet and decreased during the crash diet. Hematocrit increased more for the crash diet (p less than 0.05) than for the normal diet. Urinary excretion of 17-ketogenic steroids was less (p less than 0.001) during sleep for the crash diet than for the normal diet. Complex performance showed no significant differences when subjects were tested under low workloads. Performance was enhanced during the crash diet when subjects were tested under the medium and high workload conditions.

  14. Effects of red wine on 24-hour esophageal pH and pressures in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Grande, L; Manterola, C; Ros, E; Lacima, G; Pera, C

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of red wine taken with meals on esophageal motility, esophageal exposure to acid, and gastric pH. Following a randomized design, 14 healthy male volunteers (mean age 25 years, range 18-35 years were given 360 ml of red wine or tap water during lunch or dinner. All subjects underwent ambulatory 24-hr esophageal motility and esophagogastric pH monitoring studies. Three different periods were analyzed: during meals (30 min), postprandial (3 hr), and 8-hr supine. Two volunteers complained of heartburn after wine ingestion. An increase in the number of high amplitude waves (> 125 mm Hg, 95th percentile of our motility unit controls) was observed during meals accompanied by wine: water 1.2 (0-10.2), wine 1.6 (0-32.6), P = 0.02 [median (range)]. No other esophageal motility changes occurred. Percent reflux time increased during the postprandial period after wine ingestion in comparison with water: 1.7 (0-14.9) vs 0.1 (0-0.8), P < 0.05. Gastric pH was unaffected by the type of drink. Ingestion of moderate amounts of red wine with meals increases postprandial esophageal exposure to gastric acid in healthy persons.

  15. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  16. Full-scale biofilter reduction efficiencies assessed using portable 24-hour sampling units.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Neslihan; Janni, Kevin A

    2012-02-01

    Portable 24-hr sampling units were used to collect air samples from eight biofilters on four animal feeding operations. The biofilters were located on a dairy, a swine nursery, and two swine finishing farms. Biofilter media characteristics (age, porosity, density, particle size, water absorption capacity, pressure drop) and ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) reduction efficiencies of the biofilters were assessed. The deep bed biofilters at the dairy farm, which were in use for a few months, had the most porous media and lowest unit pressure drops. The average media porosity and density were 75% and 180 kg/m3, respectively. Reduction efficiencies of H2S and NH3 (biofilter 1: 64% NH3, 76% H2S; biofilter 2: 53% NH3, 85% H2S) were close to those reported for pilot-scale biofilters. No N2O production was measured at the dairy farm. The highest H2S, SO2, NH3, and CH4 reduction efficiencies were measured from a flat-bed biofilter at the swine nursery farm. However, the highest N2O generation (29.2%) was also measured from this biofilter. This flat-bed biofilter media was dense and had the lowest porosity. A garden sprinkler was used to add water to this biofilter, which may have filled media pores and caused N2O production under anaerobic conditions. Concentrations of H2S and NH3 were determined using the portable 24-hr sampling units and compared to ones measured with a semicontinuous gas sampling system at one farm. Flat-bed biofilters at the swine finishing farms also produced low amounts of N2O. The N2O production rate of the newer media (2 years old) with higher porosity was lower than that of older media (3 years old) (P = 0.042).

  17. Estimating 24-hour urine sodium level with spot urine sodium and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Yong Chul; Ahn, Shin Young; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun; Park, Jung Hwan

    2014-09-01

    The 24-hr urine sodium excretion level was estimated based on the spot urine sodium, and the efficacy of the formula was validated to determine the status of low salt intake <100 mEq Na/day. The 24-hr urine samples were collected from 400 patients. The 24-hr urine creatinine level was estimated with the use of three formulas: a newly derived Korean equation (E24UCR_K), and Tanaka (E24UCR_T) and Cockcroft-Gault (E24UCR_CG) equations. The correlation coefficients between the estimated and measured 24-hr urine creatinine for these three equations were 0.863, 0.846, and 0.896, respectively (All P<0.001). After estimating the 24-hr urine sodium levels, the correlation coefficients between the estimated and measured 24-hr urine sodium levels were 0.466, 0.490, and 0.516, respectively (All P<0.001). The sensitivity of three formulas to estimate the measured 24-hr urine sodium≥100 mEq/day using the estimated amount≥100 mEq/day was 84.3%, 87.6%, and 84.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the three equations used to estimate the 24-hr urine sodium content were useful to determine the status of low salt intake.

  18. Computer system for analysis of ST segment changes on 24 hour Holter monitor tapes: comparison with other available systems.

    PubMed

    Gallino, A; Chierchia, S; Smith, G; Croom, M; Morgan, M; Marchesi, C; Maseri, A

    1984-08-01

    The accuracy of a computer system that was developed for the analysis of ST segment changes recorded on Holter ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring tapes was compared with conventional visual scrutiny, beat by beat analog printouts and a commercial J point trend system. The program calculates and plots multiple electrocardiographically derived variables in a high temporal resolution trend format. Fifty tapes of good recording quality obtained from 19 patients (13 with chronic stable angina and 6 with variant angina) were assessed visually and with the computer system; of these, 20 were analyzed by all four techniques. In the 50 tapes, 629 episodes of diagnostic ST segment changes (all true positive results) were identified by using the computer system. In contrast, only 507 were identified by visual scrutiny; none of these 507 episodes was missed by computer analysis. On the 20 tapes assessed using computer, visual, beat by beat analog and J point trend system analysis, 268, 221, 230 and 178 episodes, respectively, were documented. For the four techniques, false negative and positive results were 0, 47, 38 and 90 and 0, 10, 6 and 24, respectively. The results indicate that, of the systems assessed in this study, the computer program provides the highest accuracy for detection of transient ST segment changes. This is probably accreditable to the compact presentation of multiple electrocardiographically derived variables, allowing a detailed quantitative assessment of 24 hour tapes. It is of particular value for pathophysiologic and pharmacologic studies.

  19. Indacaterol provides