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Sample records for 12-30 ev range

  1. Synchrotron radiation beam line for photons in the 700 eV - 7000 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, P.J.; Anderson, C.J.

    1985-04-01

    The design of a beam line for synchrotron radiation research is described. The 700 to 7000 eV energy range to be covered is determined at low energy by the 2d spacing of easily obtainable diffraction crystals and at high energy by the cutoff of specular reflection of a Pt mirror. Two mirrors are used, the first to collimate the x-ray beam through a double crystal monochromator and the second to focus the collimated monochromatic beam on target. In this way, high monochromatic x-ray throughput is achieved with energy resolution limited by crystal diffraction properties.

  2. Stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine in the energy range 20-3000 eV.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, R; Sanz, A G; Fuss, M C; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present new experimental electron energy loss distribution functions for pyrimidine (C4H4N2) measured for the incident energy range 30-2000 eV. Theoretical total and elastic cross sections for electron scattering from pyrimidine were calculated using the screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) method. Based on the mean energy loss observed in the experiment and the theoretical integral inelastic cross section, the stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine is calculated in the energy range 20-3000 eV.

  3. Elastic electron scattering in krypton in the energy range from 5 to 10 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Linert, Ireneusz; Mielewska, Brygida; Zubek, Mariusz; King, George C.

    2010-01-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering in krypton have been measured at the energies of 5,7.5, and 10 eV over the scattering angle range from 30 deg. to 180 deg. The measurements for backward scattering employed the magnetic angle-changing technique. These differential cross sections have been integrated to yield the elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections at the above energies. These new results are compared with the most recent measurements and calculations of the respective cross sections in krypton. The dependence of the differential cross sections on atomic polarizability of the heavier rare gas atoms argon, krypton, and xenon has also been investigated over the electron energy range 5-30 eV and for forward, backward, and intermediate scattering angles.

  4. A grazing incidence monochromator for the photon energy range 5 - 250 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Follath, R.; Schmidt, J.S.

    2004-05-12

    A new grazing incidence beamline at the U125/1-undulator at BESSY augments the beamtime capacity of high flux beamlines in the low energy range. The new beamline will deliver 1012 - 1013 photons/sec/0.1A with a resolving power of more than 10.000 in the energy range from 5 - 250 eV. The design minimizes depolarization effects on circularly polarized light available after a future upgrade of the undulator to an elliptical one. The start of user operation with linearly polarized light is envisaged for the end of 2004.

  5. Photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers in the 7-10 eV energy range.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Aurelie; Roncero, Octavio; Aguado, Alfredo; Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José

    2016-04-14

    The ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of the HCN and HNC isomers have been simulated in the 7-10 eV photon energy range. For this purpose, the three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 7 lowest electronic states, and the corresponding transition dipole moments, have been calculated, at multireference configuration interaction level. The spectra are calculated with a quantum wave packet method on these adiabatic potential energy surfaces. The spectra for the 3 lower excited states, the dissociative electronic states, correspond essentially to predissociation peaks, most of them through tunneling on the same adiabatic state. The 3 higher electronic states are bound, hereafter electronic bound states, and their spectra consist of delta lines, in the adiabatic approximation. The radiative lifetime towards the ground electronic states of these bound states has been calculated, being longer than 10 ns in all cases, much longer that the characteristic predissociation lifetimes. The spectra of HCN is compared with the available experimental and previous theoretical simulations, while in the case of HNC there are no previous studies to our knowledge. The spectrum for HNC is considerably more intense than that of HCN in the 7-10 eV photon energy range, which points to a higher photodissociation rate for HNC, compared to HCN, in astrophysical environments illuminated by ultraviolet radiation.

  6. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Poirier, M.; Serres, F.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Villette, B.

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ⟨E/δE⟩ ˜ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  7. Vibrational excitation in CO by electron impact in the energy range 10-90 eV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Truhlar, D. G.; Williams, W.; Trajmar, S.

    1972-01-01

    The ratio of the scattering intensity for the v double prime = 1 excitation to the elastic scattering intensity at 40- and 80-deg scattering angles has been determined for 10- to 90-eV impact energies for electron scattering by CO. These ratio curves exhibit broad peaks near 20-eV impact energy which cannot be accounted for by plane-wave calculations based on potential scattering models. The peaks are indicative of a resonant excitation process (or processes) in the v double prime = 1 channel in the range from 15 to 25 eV.

  8. Vibrational excitation in CO by electron impact in the energy range 10-90 eV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Truhlar, D. G.; Williams, W.; Trajmar, S.

    1972-01-01

    The ratio of the scattering intensity for the v double prime = 1 excitation to the elastic scattering intensity at 40- and 80-deg scattering angles has been determined for 10- to 90-eV impact energies for electron scattering by CO. These ratio curves exhibit broad peaks near 20-eV impact energy which cannot be accounted for by plane-wave calculations based on potential scattering models. The peaks are indicative of a resonant excitation process (or processes) in the v double prime = 1 channel in the range from 15 to 25 eV.

  9. Photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers in the 7-10 eV energy range

    PubMed Central

    Chenel, Aurelie; Roncero, Octavio; Aguado, Alfredo; Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of the HCN and HNC isomers have been simulated in the 7-10 eV photon energy range. For this purpose the three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 7 lowest electronic states, and the corresponding transition dipole moments, have been calculated, at multi reference configuration interaction level. The spectra are calculated with a quantum wave packet method on these adiabatic potential energy surfaces. The spectra for the 3 lower excited states, the dissociative electronic states, correspond essentially to predissociation peaks, most of them through tunneling on the same adiabatic state. The 3 higher electronic states are bound, hereafter electronic bound states, and their spectra consist of delta lines, in the adiabatic approximation. The radiative lifetime towards the ground electronic states of these bound states have been calculated, being longer than 10 ns in all cases, much longer that the characteristic predissociation lifetimes. The spectra of HCN is compared with the available experimental and previous theoretical simulations while in the case of HNC there are no previous studies to our knowledge. The spectrum for HNC is considerably more intense than that of HCN, which implies a much faster destruction of HNC than HCN in astrophysical environments illuminated by ultraviolet radiation. PMID:27083720

  10. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a

  11. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2014-04-15

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π* electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C-O σ* bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ* orbital ruptures the C-O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 1(3)A'(π2 → π3*) and 1(3)A″(n2 → π3*) of thymine and 1(3)A'(π → π*) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π* transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 1(3)A' (π → π*) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled configuration of the plasmid, which react with the circular form (i.e., DNA with a SSB) to produce a crosslink.

  12. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2014-04-01

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π* electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C-O σ* bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ* orbital ruptures the C-O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 13A' (π2 → π3*) and 13A″ (n2 → π3*) of thymine and 13A' (π → π*) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π* transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 13A' (π → π*) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled configuration of the plasmid, which react with the circular form (i.e., DNA with a SSB) to produce a crosslink.

  13. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2014-04-21

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π{sup *} electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C–O σ{sup *} bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ{sup *} orbital ruptures the C–O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) and 1{sup 3}A{sup ″} (n{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) of thymine and 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π{sup *} transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled

  14. Absolute Total Photoionization Cross Section of C60 in the Range of 25-120 eV: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, Bhim P.; Katayanagi, Hideki; Prodhan, Md. Serajul I.; Yagi, Hajime; Huang, Chaoqun; Mitsuke, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    The absolute total photoionization cross section σabs,I of gaseous C60 is measured in the photon energy hν range from 25 to 120 eV by photoionization mass spectrometry with synchrotron radiation. The absolute detection efficiencies of photoions in different charge states are evaluated. The present σabs,I curve is combined with the photoabsorption cross section curves of C60 at hν=3.5--26 eV in the literature, after appropriate alterations of the vapor pressure are taken into account. The oscillator strengths are computed from the composite curve to be 178.5 and 230.5 for the hν ranges from 3.5 to 40.8 eV and from 3.5 to 119 eV, respectively. These oscillator strengths agree well with those expected from the Thomas-Kuhn-Reiche sum rule and 60 times the photoabsorption cross section of a carbon atom. Moreover, the present σabs,I curve behaves similarly to the relative photoionization cross section curve reported by Reinköster et al.

  15. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0-20 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyn, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C32H66) has been studied in-situ in the range 0-20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes.

  16. Photodissociation of protonated leucine-enkephalin in the VUV range of 8-40 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, S.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Reitsma, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathoelter, T.; Werner, J.; Schippers, S.

    2011-01-14

    Until now, photodissociation studies on free complex protonated peptides were limited to the UV wavelength range accessible by intense lasers. We have studied photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin cations for vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons energies ranging from 8 to 40 eV. We report time-of-flight mass spectra of the photofragments and various photofragment-yields as a function of photon energy. For sub-ionization energies our results are in line with existing studies on UV photodissociation of leucine-enkephalin. For photon energies exceeding 10 eV we could identify a new dissociation scheme in which photoabsorption leads to a fast loss of the tyrosine side chain. This loss process leads to the formation of a residual peptide that is remarkably cold internally.

  17. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  18. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range.

    PubMed

    Ranković, M Lj; Canon, F; Nahon, L; Giuliani, A; Milosavljević, A R

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  19. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  20. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    DOE PAGES

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; ...

    2015-12-29

    We have studied the VUV photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4 and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insights into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. Furthermore, the photodissociation yields appear to bemore » very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending both on the type of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.« less

  1. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-29

    We have studied the VUV photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4 and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insights into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. Furthermore, the photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending both on the type of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  2. Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6-1220 eV spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis; Larruquert, Juan I.; Aznárez, José A.; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; García-Cortés, Sergio; Méndez, José A.; Poletto, Luca; Frassetto, Fabio; Marco Malvezzi, A.; Bajoni, Daniele; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2012-06-01

    Strontium (Sr) is a material with low-absorption bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV), which makes it a potential candidate for band pass filters and multilayer coatings. Yet, a better knowledge of the optical properties of Sr is required for these developments. The optical constants n and k of Sr thin films have been obtained in the 6-1220 eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. These are the first experimental optical constant data of Sr in most of the range. Thin films of Sr with various thicknesses were deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and their transmittance was measured in situ. Sr films were deposited onto grids coated with a thin C support film. Transmittance measurements were used to directly obtain the extinction coefficient k of Sr films. The refractive index n of Sr was calculated with Kramers-Krönig analysis. For this, k data were extrapolated both on the high- and on the low-energy sides by using experimental and calculated k data available in the literature. It was found that, similar to other alkaline-earth metals, Sr has a low absorption band in the EUV, which for Sr is below its N2,3 edge, with a minimum at ˜18.5 eV, a range where most materials in nature have a large absorption. A second spectral range of interest for the low absorption of Sr is below its M4,5 edge at 132 eV. In spite of these remarkable properties, Sr is a very reactive material and the stability of coatings encompassing Sr may be an issue. Good consistency of the data resulted from the application of f and inertial sum rules.

  3. Fine Structure of Silicon Carbide Transition Bands in the Energy Range 4-35 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Sobolev, V. Val.; Anisimov, D. V.

    2017-07-01

    The full spectral complex of optical functions of the 6H-SiC polytype was determined in the energy range 0-35 eV. Spectra of ɛ2( E), -Im ɛ-1, and -Im (1 + ɛ)-1 were deconvoluted into 15 simple bands, the main parameters of which, e.g., the energy maxima and oscillator strengths, were established. The calculations were based on the experimental reflectance spectrum and used the Kramers-Kronig relation and an improved nonparametric method of Argand diagrams.

  4. A search for the coherent production of axions in the milli eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Melissinos, A.C.; Semertzidis, Y. ); Cantatore, G.; Rizzo, C.; Ruoso, P.; Zavattini, E. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste ); Halama, H.; Lazarus, D.M.; Prodell, A. ); Nezrick, F. )

    1991-01-01

    Axions provide a natural explanation for the absence of CP violation in the strong interaction. As weakly interacting light particles they are also candidates for the much sought after dark matter allegedly responsible for our lack of understanding of galactic dynamics. Beam dump, particle decay and astrophysical measurements carried out over the past decade have failed to provide positive evidence for their existence over a wide range of masses and coupling strengths. This experiment attempts to produce and detect scalar and pseudoscalar particles coherently produced through the interaction of laser photons with the virtual photons of the magnetic fields of superconducting dipole magnets as manifested by small changes in the polarization state of the laser light. A limit on the coupling of the axion to 2 photons of g{sub a{gamma}{gamma}} < 6.67 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} GeV{sup {minus} 1} was achieved. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Aquila, A L; Salmassi, F; Fernandez-Perea, M; Gullikson, E M

    2008-05-21

    This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30-770 eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0 and 112.5 nm were performed for this purpose. These are the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160 eV, and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) regions around the boron K (188 eV), carbon K (284.2 eV) and oxygen K (543.1 eV) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry and morphology of the films in this manuscript were also investigated using Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance measurements.

  6. 19 CFR 12.30 - Whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whaling. 12.30 Section 12.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.30 Whaling. The importation and exportation of...

  7. 19 CFR 12.30 - Whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whaling. 12.30 Section 12.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.30 Whaling. The importation and exportation of...

  8. 19 CFR 12.30 - Whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whaling. 12.30 Section 12.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.30 Whaling. The importation and exportation of...

  9. 50 CFR 12.30 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 12.30 Section 12.30 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION... FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.30 Purpose. Upon forfeiture...

  10. 19 CFR 12.30 - Whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whaling. 12.30 Section 12.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.30 Whaling. The importation and exportation...

  11. 19 CFR 12.30 - Whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whaling. 12.30 Section 12.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.30 Whaling. The importation and exportation...

  12. Excitation cross sections for krypton by electrons in the 15-100-eV impact-energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trajmar, S.; Srivastava, S. K.; Tanaka, H.; Nishimura, H.; Cartwright, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections have been determined for the excitation of the 24 lowest electronic states of Kr (some of the transitions are unresolved). The inelastic-scattering cross sections were normalized to the absolute scale with the help of the elastic-scattering differential cross sections (DCS's) which in turn were normalized with respect to absolute He DCS's. The impact energies were 15, 20, 30, 50, and 100 eV and the DCS's were obtained over the range of 5-135 deg scattering angles. The error limits associated with the differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections have been estimated at 25%, 38%, and 46%, respectively.

  13. DEIMOS: A beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350–2500 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ohresser, P. Otero, E.; Choueikani, F.; Chen, K.; Stanescu, S.; Deschamps, F.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Lagarde, B.; Daguerre, J.-P.; Marteau, F.; Scheurer, F.; Joly, L.; Muller, B.; Kappler, J.-P.; Bunau, O.; Sainctavit, Ph.

    2014-01-15

    The DEIMOS (Dichroism Experimental Installation for Magneto-Optical Spectroscopy) beamline was part of the second phase of the beamline development at French Synchrotron SOLEIL (Source Optimisée de Lumière à Energie Intermédiaire du LURE) and opened to users in March 2011. It delivers polarized soft x-rays to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and x-ray linear dichroism in the energy range 350–2500 eV. The beamline has been optimized for stability and reproducibility in terms of photon flux and photon energy. The main end-station consists in a cryo-magnet with 2 split coils providing a 7 T magnetic field along the beam or 2 T perpendicular to the beam with a controllable temperature on the sample from 370 K down to 1.5 K.

  14. DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range.

    PubMed

    Ohresser, P; Otero, E; Choueikani, F; Chen, K; Stanescu, S; Deschamps, F; Moreno, T; Polack, F; Lagarde, B; Daguerre, J-P; Marteau, F; Scheurer, F; Joly, L; Kappler, J-P; Muller, B; Bunau, O; Sainctavit, Ph

    2014-01-01

    The DEIMOS (Dichroism Experimental Installation for Magneto-Optical Spectroscopy) beamline was part of the second phase of the beamline development at French Synchrotron SOLEIL (Source Optimisée de Lumière à Energie Intermédiaire du LURE) and opened to users in March 2011. It delivers polarized soft x-rays to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and x-ray linear dichroism in the energy range 350-2500 eV. The beamline has been optimized for stability and reproducibility in terms of photon flux and photon energy. The main end-station consists in a cryo-magnet with 2 split coils providing a 7 T magnetic field along the beam or 2 T perpendicular to the beam with a controllable temperature on the sample from 370 K down to 1.5 K.

  15. Collision Cross Sections for O + Ar(+) Collisions in the Energy Range 0.03-500 eV.

    PubMed

    Sycheva, A A; Balint-Kurti, G G; Palov, A P

    2016-07-14

    The interatomic potentials of the a(2)Π and b(2)Π states of the OAr(+) molecule are calculated using the relativistic complete-active space Hartree-Fock method followed by a multireference configuration interaction calculation with an aug-cc-pwCVNZ-DK basis sets where N is 4 and 5. The calculations were followed by an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. An avoided crossing between the two potential energy curves is found at an internuclear separation of 5.75 bohr (3.04 Å). As the transition probability between the curves is negligible in the relative collision energy range 0.03-500 eV of interest here, collisions on the lower adiabatic a(2)Π potential may be treated without reference to the upper state. For low energies and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers, the one-dimensional radial Schrödinger equation is solved numerically using a Numerov algorithm method to determine the phase shift. The semiclassical JWKB approximation was employed for relative energies greater than 5 eV and orbital angular quantum numbers higher than 500. Differential, integral, transport (diffusion), and viscosity cross sections for elastic collisions of oxygen atoms with argon ions are calculated for the first time for the range of relative collision energies studied. The calculated cross sections are expected to be of utility in the fields of nanotechnology and arc welding. The combination of an Ar(+)((2)P) ion and a O((3)P) atom gives rise to a total of 12 different molecular electronic states that are all coupled by spin-orbit interactions. Potential energy curves for all 12 states are computed at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level and scattering calculations performed. The results are compared with those obtained using just the lowest potential energy curve.

  16. Temperature dependence of the dielectric tensor of monoclinic Ga2O3 single crystals in the spectral range 1.0-8.5 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, C.; Schmidt-Grund, R.; Zviagin, V.; Grundmann, M.

    2017-08-01

    The full dielectric tensor of monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-phase) was determined by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry in the spectral range from 1.0 eV up to 8.5 eV and temperatures in the range from 10 K up to 300 K. By using the oriented dipole approach, the energies and broadenings of the excitonic transitions are determined as a function of the temperature, and the exciton-phonon coupling properties are deduced.

  17. High-accuracy detector calibration in the 3-1500 eV spectral range at the PTB radiometry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Scholze, F; Henneken, H; Kuschnerus, P; Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G

    1998-05-01

    State-of-the-art detector calibration in the UV/VUV and soft X-ray spectral ranges at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is based on the primary detector standard SYRES, a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer capable of measuring radiant power of a few micro W. At the PTB radiometry laboratory at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY, two dedicated beamlines are operated, providing monochromatic radiation of high spectral purity, high radiant power and tunable photon energy in the 3-1500 eV range. The spectral responsivity of detectors, e.g. photodiodes, can be measured with a relative uncertainty of about 1% by direct comparison with SYRES, as will be demonstrated for PtSi/Si and GaAsP/Au Schottky and silicon n-on-p photodiodes. The calibration of photon-counting detectors traceable to SYRES can by accomplished by exploiting the unique capability to scale the spectral photon flux over several orders of magnitude by changing the stored electron current. Calibrations of CCDs and photomultipliers are presented as examples.

  18. Optical constants of SrF2 thin films in the 25-780-eV spectral range

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez-de Marcos, Luis; Larraguert, Juan I.; Aznarez, Jose A.; ...

    2013-04-08

    The transmittance and the optical constants of SrF2 thin films, a candidate material for multilayer coatings operating in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-rays, have been determined in the spectral range of 25–780 eV, in most of which no experimental data were previously available. SrF2 films of various thicknesses were deposited by evaporation onto room-temperature, thin Al support films, and their transmittance was measured with synchrotron radiation. The transmittance as a function of film thickness was used to calculate the extinction coefficient k at each photon energy. A decrease in density with increasing SrF2 film thickness was observed. In themore » calculation of k, this effect was circumvented by fitting the transmittance versus the product of thickness and density. The real part of the refractive index of SrF2 films was calculated from k with Kramers-Krönig analysis, for which the measured spectral range was extended both to lower and to higher photon energies with data in the literature combined with interpolations and extrapolations. In conclusion, with the application of f- and inertial sum rules, the consistency of the compiled data was found to be excellent.« less

  19. Optical constants of SrF2 thin films in the 25-780-eV spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Luis Rodríguez-de; Larruquert, Juan I.; Aznárez, José A.; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Soufli, Regina; Méndez, José A.; Baker, Sherry L.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2013-04-01

    The transmittance and the optical constants of SrF2 thin films, a candidate material for multilayer coatings operating in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-rays, have been determined in the spectral range of 25-780 eV, in most of which no experimental data were previously available. SrF2 films of various thicknesses were deposited by evaporation onto room-temperature, thin Al support films, and their transmittance was measured with synchrotron radiation. The transmittance as a function of film thickness was used to calculate the extinction coefficient k at each photon energy. A decrease in density with increasing SrF2 film thickness was observed. In the calculation of k, this effect was circumvented by fitting the transmittance versus the product of thickness and density. The real part of the refractive index of SrF2 films was calculated from k with Kramers-Krönig analysis, for which the measured spectral range was extended both to lower and to higher photon energies with data in the literature combined with interpolations and extrapolations. With the application of f- and inertial sum rules, the consistency of the compiled data was found to be excellent.

  20. 18 CFR 12.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability. 12.30 Section 12.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  1. 18 CFR 12.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability. 12.30 Section 12.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  2. 18 CFR 12.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability. 12.30 Section 12.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  3. 18 CFR 12.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability. 12.30 Section 12.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  4. 18 CFR 12.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability. 12.30 Section 12.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  5. THE FERMI BUBBLE AS A SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS IN THE ENERGY RANGE >10{sup 15} eV

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K.-S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C.-M.; Wang, Y.; Ip, W.-H.

    2012-02-20

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope has recently discovered two giant gamma-ray bubbles that extend north and south of the Galactic center with diameters and heights of the order of H {approx} 10 kpc. We suggest that the periodic star capture processes by the Galactic supermassive black hole Sgr A*, with a capture rate of {tau}{sup -1}{sub cap} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1} and an energy release of W {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 52} erg per capture, can result in hot plasma injecting into the Galactic halo at a wind velocity of u {approx} 10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1}. The periodic injection of hot plasma can produce a series of shocks. Energetic protons in the bubble are re-accelerated when they interact with these shocks. We show that for energy larger than E > 10{sup 15} eV, the acceleration process can be better described by the stochastic second-order Fermi acceleration. We propose that hadronic cosmic rays (CRs) within the 'knee' of the observed CR spectrum are produced by Galactic supernova remnants distributed in the Galactic disk. Re-acceleration of these particles in the Fermi Bubble produces CRs beyond the knee. With a mean CR diffusion coefficient in this energy range in the bubble D{sub B} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, we can reproduce the spectral index of the spectrum beyond the knee and within it. The conversion efficiency from shock energy of the bubble into CR energy is about 10%. This model provides a natural explanation of the observed CR flux, spectral indices, and matching of spectra at the knee.

  6. Reevaluation and Validation of the {sup 241}Pu Resonance Parameters in the Energy Range Thermal to 20 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Courcelle, A.; Santamarina, A.

    2005-05-15

    A new SAMMY analysis of the {sup 241}Pu resonance parameters from thermal to 20 eV is presented. This evaluation takes into account the trends given by integral experiments [post-irradiation experiments performed in French pressurized water reactors (PWRs)]. Compared to the previous evaluations performed by Derrien and de Saussure, the capture cross section increases especially in the 0.26-eV resonance. It is shown that the new resonance parameters proposed in this work improve the prediction of the {sup 242}Pu buildup in a PWR, which was significantly underestimated with the previous evaluations.

  7. SAXES, a high resolution spectrometer for resonant x-ray emission in the 400-1600 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Dallera, C.; Trezzi, G.; Braicovich, L.; Schmitt, T.; Strocov, V. N.; Betemps, R.; Patthey, L.; Wang, X.; Grioni, M.

    2006-11-15

    We present a 5 m long spectrometer for soft x rays to be used at a synchrotron radiation beamline for resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in the 400-1600 eV energy range. It is based on a variable line spacing spherical grating (average groove density of 3200 mm{sup -1}, R=58.55 m) and a charge coupled device two dimensional detector. With an x-ray spot on the sample of 10 {mu}m, the targeted resolving power is higher than 10 000 at all energies below 1100 eV and better than 7000 at 1500 eV. The off-line tests made with Al and Mg K{alpha}{sub 1,2} fluorescence emissions indicate that the spectrometer can actually work at 12 000 and 17 000 resolving power at the L{sub 3} edges of Cu (930 eV) and of Ti (470 eV), respectively. SAXES (superadvanced x-ray emission spectrometer) is mounted on a rotating platform allowing to vary the scattering angle from 25 degree sign to 130 degree sign . The spectrometer will be operational at the ADRESS (advanced resonant spectroscopies) beamline of the Swiss Light Source from 2007.

  8. Single photoionization of the Zn ii ion in the photon energy range 17.5-90.0 eV: experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, G.; Davis, V. T.; Covington, A. M.; Thompson, J. S.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Antillón, A.; Hernández, E. M.; Calabrese, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Juárez, A. M.; Windelius, O.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of the single-photoionization cross-section of Cu-like Zn+ ions are reported in the energy (wavelength) range 17.5 eV (708 Å) to 90 eV (138 Å). The measurements on this trans-Fe element were performed at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility in Berkeley, California at a photon energy resolution of 17 meV using the photon-ion merged-beams end-station. Below 30 eV, the spectrum is dominated by excitation autoionizing resonance states. The experimental results are compared with large-scale photoionization cross-section calculations performed using a Dirac Coulomb R-matrix approximation. Comparisons are made with previous experimental studies, resonance states are identified and contributions from metastable states of Zn+ are determined.

  9. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  10. Development of an apparatus for obtaining molecular beams in the energy range from 2 to 200 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapier, R.; Devienne, F. M.; Roustan, A.; Roustan, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The formation and detection of molecular beams obtained by charge exchange from a low-energy ion source is discussed. Dispersion in energy of the ion source was measured and problems concerning detection of neutral beams were studied. Various methods were used, specifically secondary electron emissivity of a metallic surface and ionization of a gas target with a low ionization voltage. The intensities of neutral beams as low as 10 eV are measured by a tubular electron multiplier and a lock-in amplifier.

  11. The `PAMIR XXI' Project of a Complex Setup for the PCR Study in a Wide Energy Range 1014 - 1018 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alexander; Muminov, Khikmat; Galkin, Vladimir; Puchkov, Vitaly

    2013-06-01

    A new comprehensive EAS experiment for multi-component study of the energy spectrum behavior and composition of the PCR in a wide energy range 1014 - 1018 eV is launched at the Pamirs this year. The experimental setup of ~ 1 km2 in area combines conventional EAS array technique with those of X-Ray emulsion chamber, Cherenkov detector array and Cherenkov atmospheric imaging telescopes (IACT). The goals of the experiment and the experimental techniques are discussed.

  12. Isotopic and quantum-rovibrational-state effects for the ion-molecule reaction in the collision energy range of 0.03-10.00 eV.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chang, Yih Chung; Ng, C Y

    2017-03-29

    We report detailed quantum-rovibrational-state-selected integral cross sections for the formation of H3O(+)via H-transfer (σHT) and H2DO(+)via D-transfer (σDT) from the reaction in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.03-10.00 eV, where (vvv) = (000), (100), and (020) and . The Ecm inhibition and rotational enhancement observed for these reactions at Ecm < 0.5 eV are generally consistent with those reported previously for H2O(+) + H2(D2) reactions. However, in contrast to the vibrational inhibition observed for the latter reactions at low Ecm < 0.5 eV, both the σHT and σDT for the H2O(+) + HD reaction are found to be enhanced by (100) vibrational excitation, which is not predicted by the current state-of-the-art theoretical dynamics calculations. Furthermore, the (100) vibrational enhancement for the H2O(+) + HD reaction is observed in the full Ecm range of 0.03-10.00 eV. The fact that vibrational enhancement is only observed for the reaction of H2O(+) + HD, and not for H2O(+) + H2(D2) reactions suggests that the asymmetry of HD may play a role in the reaction dynamics. In addition to the strong isotopic effect favoring the σHT channel of the H2O(+) + HD reaction at low Ecm < 0.5 eV, competition between the σHT and σDT of the H2O(+) + HD reaction is also observed at Ecm = 0.3-10.0 eV. The present state-selected study of the H2O(+) + HD reaction, along with the previous studies of the H2O(+) + H2(D2) reactions, clearly shows that the chemical reactivity of H2O(+) toward H2 (HD, D2) depends not only on Ecm, but also on the rotational and vibrational states of H2O(+)(X(2)B1). The detailed σHT and σDT values obtained here with single rovibrational-state selections of the reactant H2O(+) are expected to be valuable benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical calculations on the chemical dynamics of the title reaction.

  13. Angular and energy distributions of fragment ions in dissociative double photoionization of acetylene molecules in the 31.9-50.0 eV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcinelli, Stefano; Alagia, Michele; Farrar, James M.; Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Pirani, Fernando; Richter, Robert; Schio, Luca; Stranges, Stefano; Rosi, Marzio; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The two-body dissociation reactions of the dication C2H2+2, initiated via double ionization of acetylene molecules by photons in the energy range 31.9-50.0 eV, have been studied by coupling photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence and ion imaging techniques. The angular distributions and kinetic energy of product ions, measured in the 31.9-50.0 eV energy range, exhibit significant differences for the three leading dissociation reactions with respect to a previous investigation carried out at a fixed energy of 39.0 eV, providing thus new information on the dynamical evolution of the system. The analysis of the results indicates that such dissociation reactions occur with a different mechanism. In particular, the symmetric dissociation in two CH+ ions is characterized by different dynamics, and the anisotropy of the angular distribution of ionic products increases with photon energy in a more pronounced way than the other two reactions. Moreover, the kinetic energy distribution of the symmetric dissociation reaction exhibits several components that change with photon energy. The new experimental findings cast light on the microscopic evolution of the system and can provide a laboratory reference for new theoretical calculations on specific features of the multidimensional potential energy surface, namely, the structure, energy and symmetry of dication states, the electronic state of dissociation products, energy barriers and their dependence on the geometry of the intermediate state.

  14. Stopping power and mean free path for low-energy electrons in ten scintillators over energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan

    2012-01-01

    Systematic calculations of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20-20,000eV electrons in a group of 10 important scintillators have been carried out. The calculations are based on the dielectric model including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction and the optical energy loss functions (OELFs) are empirically evaluated because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the scintillators under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by both the f-sum rule and the calculation of mean ionization potential. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the first results for the 10 scintillators over the energy range of 20-20,000eV, and are of key importance for the investigation of liquid scintillation counting.

  15. Total Electron Stopping Powers and CSDA-Ranges from 20 eV to 10 MeV Electron Energies for Components of DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akar, A.; Gümüs, H.; Okumusoglu, N. T.

    An appropriate formula for the total stopping power of electrons of initial kinetic energy from 20 eV to 10 MeV in some biological materials is presented. The continuous slowing down approximation-range (CSDA-range) from the total stopping power is also made. The collisional stopping power formula is evaluated using Generalized Oscillator Strength (GOS) model and exchange correction on the inelastic differential cross section (IDCS) given by [M. Inokuti, Rev. Mod. Phys. 43 (1971) 297-347] and the radiative stopping power formula is calculated from the bremsstrahlung differential cross section (DCS) given by [H.W. Koch, J.W. Motz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 31 (4) (1959) 920-955]. Calculation of the total stopping powers (SPs) and CSDA-range for biological compounds: C5H5N5 (adenine), C5H5N5O (guanine), C4H5N3O (cytosine), C5H6N2O2 (thymine), C4H4N2O2 (uracil), C4H8O (tetrahydrofuran), C4H8O2 (3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran), C5H10O2 ([alpha]-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol), H3PO4 (phosphoric acid), C19H26N8O13P2 (thymineadenineDNA) have been introduced for incident electrons in the 20 eV-10 MeV energy range. The calculated results have been compared with experimental data, PENELOPE program results and other theoretical results. The calculated results of total stopping power and CSDA-ranges for electrons in energy range from 20 eV to 10 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 8% with available data.

  16. Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range using 3-D multi-coincidence ion momentum imaging spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Oghbaie, Shabnam; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Laksman, Joakim; Månsson, Erik P.; Sankari, Anna; Sorensen, Stacey L.

    2015-09-21

    Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C–C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C–C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability for double-ionization to the “gateway states” for molecules with this orientation.

  17. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; hide

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  18. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  19. Specification of the plasma environment at geosynchronous orbit in the energy range 87 eV to 288 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, J.L.

    1994-08-15

    The particle measurements by the P78-2 SCATHA satellite at near geosynchronous altitudes have been analyzed to obtain average electron and proton fluxes in the energy range 87 eV to 288 keV. The variation of the fluxes about the average values is also reported and the average fluxes are compared to those measured during an intense spacecraft charging event on September 22, 1982. These calculations provide a representation of the plasma environment, which can be used to quantify the surface charging of spacecraft materials in geosynchronous orbit.

  20. Samarkand complex setup for investigation of cosmic ray variation in the energy range of 7 10 (9) - 10 (15) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    The Samarkand complex setup is aimed at the study of cosmic ray variations in a wide energy range from 7 billion eV (which corresponds to the geomagnetic threshold in the region of Samarkand) up to approx 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV. The setup consists of four 6-counter sections of neutron supermonitor with counters SNM-15 and 48 scintillator detectors (1 sq m each) placed under and above the supermonitor. The effective area of the setup for recording neutrons and muons is 24 sq m. The setup can register time variations of the following cosmic ray components: (1) the total neutron counting rate, (2) counting rates for neutrons of different multiplicity, (3) soft-muon fluxes, (4) hard-muon fluxes at various zenith and azimuth angles, (5) electron-photon component, (6) extensive air showers (EAS) induced by primary particles in a wide energy range and accompanied or not accompanied by muons and neutrons.

  1. Interaction model for electron scattering from ethylene in the energy range 1-10 000 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, M. C.; Sanz, A. G.; Muñoz, A.; Do, T. P. D.; Nixon, K.; Brunger, M. J.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Oller, J. C.; Blanco, F.; García, G.

    2013-02-01

    We present new experimental electron energy loss distribution functions for ethylene (C2H4) measured with two different apparatus (Liège and Madrid) in different incident electron energy ranges. Theoretical cross sections for electron scattering from C2H4 were calculated using the screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) method. Through a critical comparison of our new data and existing results from other groups, we obtain a self-consistent set of recommended interaction cross section values and energy loss spectra. Finally, electron tracks in C2H4 are simulated with our Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) in order to demonstrate the efficacy of our recommended data.

  2. Two-photon above-threshold ionization of hydrogen over the photon energy range from 15 eV to 50 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Florescu, Viorica; Budriga, Olimpia; Bachau, Henri

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the absorption of two identical photons from the ground state of hydrogen-like atoms over an energy range that extends beyond that explored up to now. Our approach is based on a hybrid formula, valid in second-order perturbation theory, in which the A{sup 2} contribution from the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian is treated exactly, while the A{center_dot}P contribution is calculated in dipole approximation. We find that, at least up to 50 keV, the nonrelativistic dipole approximation, based only on the A{center_dot}P contribution, determines the values of the total cross section. Our numerical results, covering photon energies from 90 nm (13.7 eV) to 0.0248 nm (50 keV) are in very good agreement with most previous theoretical works. Differences with recent results are discussed.

  3. Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Larruquert, Juan I; Aznárez, José A; Méndez, José A; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; Gullikson, Eric; Aquila, Andy; Soufli, Regina; Fierro, J L G

    2007-12-01

    The optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron from 6.8 to 900 eV were calculated through transmittance measurements of boron thin films deposited onto carbon-coated microgrids or LiF substrates in ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. In the low-energy part of the spectrum the measurements were performed in situ on freshly deposited samples, whereas in the high-energy range the samples were exposed to the atmosphere before the measurements. The extinction coefficient was calculated directly from the transmittance data, and a Kramers-Kronig analysis that combined the current data with data from the literature was performed to determine the dispersive part of the index of refraction. Finally, two different sum-rule tests were performed that indicated the good consistency of the data.

  4. R-matrix analysis of the {sup 240}Pu neutron cross sections in the thermal to 5700 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Bouland, O.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-08-01

    Resonance analysis of high resolution neutron transmission data and of fission cross sections were performed in the neutron energy range from the thermal regions to 5,700 eV by using the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY. The experimental data base is described and the method of analysis is given. The experimental data were carefully examined in order to identify more resonances than those found in the current evaluated data files. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are given. A new set of the average values of the parameters is proposed, which could be used for calculation of the average cross sections in the unresolved resonance region. The resonance parameters are available IN ENDF-6 format at the national or international data centers.

  5. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  6. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  7. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  8. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  9. Interactions of protons with furan molecules studied by collision-induced emission spectroscopy at the incident energy range of 50-1000 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Pranszke, Boguslaw

    2016-08-01

    Investigations of the ion-molecule reactions provide insight into many fields ranging from the stellar wind interaction with interstellar media, up to medicine and industrial applications. Besides the applications, the understanding of these processes is itself a problem of fundamental importance. Thus, interactions of protons with the gas-phase furan molecules have been investigated for the first time in the energy range of 50-1000 eV exploiting collision-induced emission spectroscopy. Recorded spectra reveal emission of the atomic H β to H θ lines of the hydrogen Balmer series and the molecular bands of vibrationally and rotationally excited diatomic CH fragments created in the A2 Δ and B2Σ- electronic states. The measurements of the emission yields of the excited fragments by recording their intensities at different projectile energies have been performed. The highest yields have been observed for production of hydrogen atoms which intensities rapidly decreased with increasing principal quantum number n . From the H ( n = 4-7) intensity ratios depopulation factors of hydrogen excited states have been determined at each impact energy and possible collisional mechanisms leading to enhanced production of the hydrogen atoms have been suggested. We compare and discuss our results with improved data set of proton collisions with tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecules, the hydrogenated derivatives of furan.

  10. Learning to Apply Metrology Principles to the Measurement of X-ray Intensities in the 500 eV to 110 keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J.; Pond, T.; Silbernagel, C.; Torres, P.; Marlett, K.; Goldin, F.; Cyr, S.

    2011-02-08

    National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by “the National Voluntary Laboratories Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which is the accrediting body of” the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTec’s starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories. This paper will serve as a teaching tool, by way of this example using the NSTec X-ray sources, for the process and methods used in developing an accredited traceable metrology.

  11. Optical constants of SrF2 thin films in the 25-780-eV spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-de Marcos, Luis; Larraguert, Juan I.; Aznarez, Jose A.; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Soufli, Regina; Mendez, Jose A.; Baker, Sherry L.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2013-04-08

    The transmittance and the optical constants of SrF2 thin films, a candidate material for multilayer coatings operating in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-rays, have been determined in the spectral range of 25–780 eV, in most of which no experimental data were previously available. SrF2 films of various thicknesses were deposited by evaporation onto room-temperature, thin Al support films, and their transmittance was measured with synchrotron radiation. The transmittance as a function of film thickness was used to calculate the extinction coefficient k at each photon energy. A decrease in density with increasing SrF2 film thickness was observed. In the calculation of k, this effect was circumvented by fitting the transmittance versus the product of thickness and density. The real part of the refractive index of SrF2 films was calculated from k with Kramers-Krönig analysis, for which the measured spectral range was extended both to lower and to higher photon energies with data in the literature combined with interpolations and extrapolations. In conclusion, with the application of f- and inertial sum rules, the consistency of the compiled data was found to be excellent.

  12. Exploring pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons by stimulated photon colliders in the mass range 0.1 eV to 10 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Kensuke; Toyota, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    Searching for pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) in weak-coupling domains is crucial for understanding the dark components in the universe. We propose searching for pNGBs coupled to 2 photons in the mass range from 0.1 eV to 10 keV. This could provide opportunities to test string-theory-based pNGBs beyond the GUT scale M ˜ 10^{16} GeV included in the weak coupling proportional to M^{-1}. We provide formulae that are applicable to photon-photon scattering via a pNGB resonance exchange with a stimulation process in an asymmetric head-on photon-photon collider by mixing 3 laser pulses in laboratory experiments. We discuss the quantum electrodynamic effects on the pNGB exchange in the same mass-coupling domain as a background process from the standard model. We find that a large unexplored mass-coupling domain is accessible by combining existing laser facilities, including free-electron lasers.

  13. Optical Constants Determination of Samarium Holmium and Erbium in the 1.5-850 eV Spectral Range using a Transmittance Method

    SciTech Connect

    B Kjornrattanawanich; D Windt; J Seely

    2011-12-31

    The optical constants {beta} and {sigma} of the complex refractive index {tilde n} = 1 - {delta} + i{beta} of Sm, Ho, and Er were obtained in the 1.5-850 eV energy range using a transmittance method. Thin films of Sm, Ho, and Dr were deposited by magnetron sputtering, and transmittance was measured using synchrotron radiation using a high vacuum condition. All films were directly coated on Si photodiodes, which were used as coating substrates, as well as photon detectors. Si was used as capping layer while a thin W layer was used as barrier against interface diffusion between Si and the highly reactive rare earth elements. The constants {beta} were extracted from transmittance results, and the constants {sigma} were calculated based on measured {beta} values using the Kramers-Kronig formalism. Small deficiencies determined from the present data using the partial sum rules were partially attributed to the sputtered film densities that could be slightly lower than the bulk values.

  14. Optical constants determination of samarium, holmium, and erbium in the 1.5-850 eV spectral range using a transmittance method

    SciTech Connect

    Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Windt, David L.; Seely, John F.

    2010-11-01

    The optical constants {beta} and {delta} of the complex refractive index n{approx}=1-{delta}+i{beta} of Sm, Ho, and Er were obtained in the 1.5-850eV energy range using a transmittance method. Thin films of Sm, Ho, and Er were deposited by magnetron sputtering, and transmittance was measured using synchrotron radiation under a high vacuum condition. All films were directly coated on Si photodiodes, which were used as coating substrates, as well as photon detectors. Si was used as capping layer while a thin W layer was used as barrier against interface diffusion between Si and the highly reactive rare earth elements. The constants {beta} were extracted from transmittance results, and the constants {delta} were calculated based on measured {beta} values using the Kramers-Kronig formalism. Small deficiencies determined from the present data using the partial sum rules were partly attributed to the sputtered film densities that could be slightly lower than the bulk values.

  15. Electron stopping power and inelastic mean free path in amino acids and protein over the energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong

    2006-07-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping power (SPs) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) values for 20-20,000 eV electrons in a group of 15 amino acids and a simple protein have been performed. The calculations are based on the dielectric response model and take into account the exchange effect between the incident electron and target electrons. The optical energy-loss functions for the 15 investigated amino acids and the protein are evaluated by using an empirical approach, because of the lack of experimental optical data. For all the considered materials, the calculated mean ionization potentials are in good agreement with those given by Bragg's rule, and the evaluated SP values at 20 keV converge well to the Bethe-Bloch predictions. The data shown represent the first results of SP and IMFP, for these 15 amino acids and the protein in the energy range below 20 keV, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials. In addition, the average energy deposited by inelastic scattering of the electrons on this group of 15 amino acids, on the protein, on Formvar and on DNA, respectively, has been estimated for energies below 20 keV. The dependences of the average energy deposition on the electron energy are given. These results are important for any detailed studies of radiation-induced inactivation of proteins and the DNA.

  16. Ion-pair dissociation dynamics of O2 in the range 17.2-17.5 eV studied by XUV laser and velocity map imaging method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chang; Mo, Yuxiang

    2013-08-28

    The ion-pair dissociation dynamics of O2, O2 + hv → O(+)((4)S) + O(-)((2)P(1/2, 3/2)), in the photon energy range 17.20-17.50 eV has been studied using extreme ultraviolet laser and velocity map imaging method. The ion-pair yield spectrum and the fine structure resolved photofragment O(-)((2)P(j)) velocity map images have been recorded. The branching ratios between the two spin-orbit components O(-)((2)P(3/2)) and O(-)((2)P(1/2)) and the corresponding anisotropy parameters describing their angular distributions have been determined. It is found that the fragments O(-)((2)P(1/2)) are all from parallel transitions, while the fragments O(-)((2)P(3/2)) are from both parallel and perpendicular transitions. The main products for most of the excitation photon energies are O(-)((2)P(1/2)). The dissociation dynamics has been discussed based on the ab initio potential energy curves of the ion-pairs. The major peaks in the ion-pair yield spectrum have been assigned based on the angular distribution of the photofragments. The experimental results suggest that the so-called strong and weak series of Rydberg states converging to O2(+)b(4)Σg(-) should have symmetries of (3)Σu(-) and (3)Πu, respectively. In addition to the Rydberg states converging to O2(+)b(4)Σg(-), the Rydberg states converging to O2(+)A(2)Πu should also play a role in the ion-pair dissociation of O2.

  17. 17 CFR 12.30 - Methods of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methods of discovery. 12.30... REPARATIONS Discovery § 12.30 Methods of discovery. (a) In general. Parties may obtain discovery by the...) Admissions (§ 12.33). (b) Scope of discovery. The scope of discovery is as follows: (1) Relevancy. Except...

  18. 17 CFR 12.30 - Methods of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methods of discovery. 12.30... REPARATIONS Discovery § 12.30 Methods of discovery. (a) In general. Parties may obtain discovery by the...) Admissions (§ 12.33). (b) Scope of discovery. The scope of discovery is as follows: (1) Relevancy. Except...

  19. 17 CFR 12.30 - Methods of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methods of discovery. 12.30... REPARATIONS Discovery § 12.30 Methods of discovery. (a) In general. Parties may obtain discovery by the...) Admissions (§ 12.33). (b) Scope of discovery. The scope of discovery is as follows: (1) Relevancy. Except...

  20. 17 CFR 12.30 - Methods of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of discovery. 12.30... REPARATIONS Discovery § 12.30 Methods of discovery. (a) In general. Parties may obtain discovery by the following methods in accordance with the procedures and limitations set forth in the section indicated:...

  1. BOLUX: A cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as high accuracy primary detector in the 150-11,000 eV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Coron, N.

    2010-03-01

    We have measured the electrical and radiometric properties of a cryogenic absolute radiometer BOLUX (Bolomètre pour l'Utilisation dans le domaine de rayons X). BOLUX is intended for use as a primary detector standard for radiant power measurement of a synchrotron beam from EUV to X-ray spectral ranges. The absolute radiometer uses a composite bolometer with a built-in electrical heating element. The bolometer's absorber, optimized for beam diameter and for X-ray absorption, is coupled both to a Ge doped thermometer and to the electrical resistance calibrator with similar thermal paths so that electrical and radiant heating are equivalent. This device operates between 4 K the liquid helium temperature, and 1.25 K obtained by pumping helium. The main advantage of BOLUX over other radiometers is its portability (weight 12 kg) which means it can be used with any synchrotron beamline. The second advantage is its very small time constant (20 ms) compared with other apparatus (typically a few min). We can use it in DC mode or in AC mode and Alpha sources calibration experiments have already been realized. We have measured synchrotron radiant power at the laboratory of the Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY II. We reported experiments in DC mode and showed the possibility to study the drift and the temporal stability at the exit of a synchrotron beamline. For a helium bath temperature of 1.33 K and in the spectral range of 150 eV-11 keV, we have measured a high limit of detection (in 1 s integrated) to be 10 -10 W, with a DC responsivity of 1.3×10 5 V/W, spatial nonuniformity over 4 mm diameter below 1% and possibility to use over five decades between a few nW and 100 μW with a good linearity (<1%). Typically available radiant power of 50 nW can be measured with a standard uncertainty as low as 1%. BOLUX response has been directly compared with qualified photodiodes [1]; we have observed a standard deviation between

  2. Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1-800 eV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; Larruquert, Juan I.; Aznárez, José A.; Méndez, José A.; Gullikson, Eric; Aquila, Andy; Soufli, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The transmittance of silicon monoxide films prepared by thermal evaporation was measured from 7.1 to 800 eV and used to determine the optical constants of the material. SiO films deposited onto C-coated microgrids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions were measured in situ from 7.1 to 23.1 eV. Grid-supported SiO films deposited in high vacuum conditions were characterized ex situ from 28.5 to 800 eV. At each photon energy, transmittance, and thickness data were used to calculate the extinction coefficient k. The obtained k values combined with data from the literature, and with interpolations and extrapolations in the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum provided a complete set of k values that was used in a Kramers-Kronig analysis to obtain the real part of the index of refraction, n. Two different sum-rule tests were performed that indicated good consistency of the data.

  3. Primary cosmic ray spectrum in the 10 to the 12th power - 10 to the 16th power eV energy range from the NUSEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, E.; Bloise, C.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiarella, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cundy, D.

    1985-01-01

    A primary cosmic ray spectrum was derived which fits both experimental multiple muon rates and the all-nucleon flux derived from the single muon intensities underground. In the frame of the interaction model developed by Gaisser, Elbert and Stanev, it is possible to reproduce NUSEX muon data with a primary composition in which the iron spectrum is only slightly flatter than the proton one. This result rules out the popular idea that the primary composition varies drastically with increasing energy, leading to the dominance of heavier nuclei at energies 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV.

  4. Overcoming the high cost of EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.R.

    1995-07-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV`s) are a solution to three major problems facing the US today. The commercialization of EV`s will reduce the growing trade deficit, provide economic gains from a new electric automobile industry, and help alleviate the air pollution problems encountered in many of America`s largest cities. The existence of EV`s is not the answer; their increasing use is. This increase in deployment will largely depend on vehicle price and not range limitations as many would have you believe. The price of an EV will be determined by the auto makers with their economics determining the ultimate price to the consumer. The cost of EV batteries is considered to be a major hurdle in achieving an affordable EV. Prices of EV batteries at this time cannot be controlled by the auto manufacturers. How high is this cost hurdle and what measures can be taken to reduce this obstacle and facilitate the successful commercialization of EV`s? This paper discusses a variety of alternatives. Each sector of industry may favor a particular solution, but, in order for the EV industry to thrive, all sectors must agree to work together to provide for customer needs.

  5. R-MATRIX RESONANCE ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESONANCE PARAMETERS OF 233U IN THE NEUTRON ENERGY RANGE FROM THERMAL TO 600 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.

    2001-02-27

    The R-matrix resonance analysis of experimental neutron transmission and cross sections of {sup 233}U, with the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY, was extended up to the neutron energy of 600 eV by taking advantage of new high resolution neutron transmission and fission cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). The experimental data base is described. In addition to the microscopic data (time-of-flight measurements of transmission and cross sections), some experimental and evaluated integral quantities were included in the data base. Tabulated and graphical comparisons between the experimental data and the SAMMY calculated cross sections are given. The ability of the calculated cross sections to reproduce the effective multiplication factors k{sub eff} for various thermal, intermediate, and fast systems was tested. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters were examined and recommended values of the average s-wave resonance parameters are given.

  6. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND...-inventoried designation within a certified wetland is subject to change when the soil, hydrology, and vegetation evaluation is completed and identified as to type of wetland or as a non-wetland. This change...

  7. CSDA range, stopping power and mean penetration depth energy relationships in some hydrocarbons and biologic materials for 10 eV to 100 MeV with the modified Rohrlich-Carlson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gümüş, Hasan; Bentabet, Abdelouahab

    2017-05-01

    In this study, for some hydrocarbons and biological compounds, stopping power formula are presented, being valid for low and intermediate electron energies. In addition, calculation of the continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA range) from the stopping power is also made. Calculation of the CSDA range for some hydrocarbons: C2H6 (ethane), C4H10 (butane), C6H14 (hexane) C8H18 (octane), C5H5N5 (adenine) and C5H5N5O (guanine) have been introduced for incident electrons in the energy range 30 eV to 1 MeV. The range of electrons has been calculated within the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) using modified Rohrlich and Carlson formula of stopping power. Besides, we have calculated the mean penetration depths using a spherical geometric model developed by Bentabet (Vacuum 86:1855-1859, 35). The results have been compared with the other theoretical results, Monte Carlo code such as PENELOPE predictions and semi-empirical results. The calculated results of CSDA ranges for electrons in the energy range from 20 eV to 100 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 10% with available date.

  8. Laminar and blazed type holographic gratings for a versatile soft x-ray spectrograph attached to an electron microscope and their evaluation in the 50-200 eV range.

    PubMed

    Imazono, Takashi; Koike, Masato; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Koeda, Masaru; Nagano, Tetsuya; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Oue, Yuki; Yonezawa, Zeno; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Terauchi, Masami; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Handa, Nobuo; Murano, Takanori; Sano, Kazuo

    2012-05-01

    Laminar and blazed type holographic varied-line-spacing spherical gratings for use in a versatile soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph attached to an electron microscope are designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The absolute diffraction efficiencies of laminar (or blazed) master and replica gratings at 86.00° incidence evaluated by synchrotron radiation show over 5% (or 8%) in the 50-200 eV range with the maxima of 22% (or 26%-27%). Also the resolving power evaluated by a laser produced plasma source is in excess of 700 at the energy near the K emission spectrum of lithium (~55 eV) for all gratings. Moreover, the K emission spectrum of metallic Li with high spectral resolution is successfully observed with the spectrograph attached to a transmission electron microscope.

  9. A quantum-rovibrational-state-selected study of the reaction in the collision energy range of 0.05-10.00 eV: translational, rotational, and vibrational energy effects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chang, Yih-Chung; Pan, Yi; Lo, Po Kam; Lau, Kai Chung; Ng, C Y

    2017-03-29

    We report detailed absolute integral cross sections (σ's) for the quantum-rovibrational-state-selected ion-molecule reaction in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.05-10.00 eV, where (vvv) = (000), (100), and (020), and . Three product channels, HCO(+) + OH, HOCO(+) + H, and CO(+) + H2O, are identified. The measured σ(HCO(+)) curve [σ(HCO(+)) versus Ecm plot] supports the hypothesis that the formation of the HCO(+) + OH channel follows an exothermic pathway with no potential energy barriers. Although the HOCO(+) + H channel is the most exothermic, the σ(HOCO(+)) is found to be significantly lower than the σ(HCO(+)). The σ(HOCO(+)) curve is bimodal, indicating two distinct mechanisms for the formation of HOCO(+). The σ(HOCO(+)) is strongly inhibited at Ecm < 0.4 eV, but is enhanced at Ecm > 0.4 eV by (100) vibrational excitation. The Ecm onsets of σ(CO(+)) determined for the (000) and (100) vibrational states are in excellent agreement with the known thermochemical thresholds. This observation, along with the comparison of the σ(CO(+)) curves for the (100) and (000) states, shows that kinetic and vibrational energies are equally effective in promoting the CO(+) channel. We have also performed high-level ab initio quantum calculations on the potential energy surface, intermediates, and transition state structures for the titled reaction. The calculations reveal potential barriers of ≈0.5-0.6 eV for the formation of HOCO(+), and thus account for the low σ(HOCO(+)) and its bimodal profile observed. The Ecm enhancement for σ(HOCO(+)) at Ecm ≈ 0.5-5.0 eV can be attributed to the direct collision mechanism, whereas the formation of HOCO(+) at low Ecm < 0.4 eV may involve a complex mechanism, which is mediated by the formation of a loosely sticking complex between HCO(+) and OH. The direct collision and complex mechanisms proposed also allow the rationalization of the vibrational inhibition at low Ecm and the vibrational enhancement at high

  10. The project of comprehensive cosmic ray investigations with mountain elevation experimental setups in the energy range 10 15-10 18eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavatinsky, S. A.; Pamir Collaboration; Tien Shan Collaboration

    2001-04-01

    The project of upgrading of two currently operating experimental setups, i.e., the Pamir and the Hadron setups, located at high mountain altitudes is proposed for comprehensive investigations of the primary cosmic rays (PCR) in the energy range 1-1000 PeV. The main goals of the project are the research of primary energy spectrum peculiarities, namely, the direct and feasible reverse bends of the spectrum and the study of the PCR mass composition as well as revealing the nature of some new phenomena in cosmic rays recently observed at mountain elevations.

  11. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, Donald; Garetson, Thomas; Francfort, Jim

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  12. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  13. Measurements of the total neutron cross-sections of Be, Ni and Cu at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures in the energy range from 2. 2 eV to 2. 2 meV

    SciTech Connect

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Eid, Y.; Shuriet, G.; Hamouda, I.

    1980-09-01

    The total neutron cross-sections of Be, Ni, and Cu are measured using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The measurements were carried out in the energy range from 2.2 eV to 2.2 meV at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature for neutron energies below 5 meV. The coherent scattering cross-sections of these elements were determined from the Bragg cut-offs observed in the behavior of the total cross-sections at cold neutron energies. The incoherent cross-sections of Be, Ni and Cu were obtained from the analysis of the total neutron cross-section data beyond the Bragg cut-off. The one phonon annihilation process was estimated at long neutron wavelengths and was found to be in reasonable agreement with the results of calculations.

  14. Measurement of the total cross section of heavy water in the 0.1 meV-1 eV energy range at 20 and 50 ° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez Damián, J. I.; Granada, J. R.; Baxter, D. V.; Parnell, S. R.; Evans, D. C.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of heavy water as a neutron moderator, there are few measurements of its total neutron cross section for cold and thermal energies, and none of them covers the range of temperature (40-70 ° C) used in moderator and reflector tanks in research reactors, and in CANDU nuclear power plants. To cover this deficit, we measured the total cross section of liquid heavy water at 20 ° C and 50 ° C using the SANS beamline at the LENS facility at Indiana University. The time-of-flight technique was used, in a sample-in/sample-out measurement. The use of the solid methane cold neutron source at LENS allowed measuring in a broad range in energy, from 0.1meV to 1eV. In this paper we present details of the measurement and processing of the data, and comparison with previous experimental measurements and calculation models. This work is included in the Action Plan of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project "Advanced Moderators for Intense Cold Neutron Beams in Materials Research".

  15. Valence and inner-valence shell dissociative photoionization of CO in the 26-33 eV range. I. Ion-electron kinetic energy correlation and laboratory frame photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebech, M.; Houver, J. C.; Dowek, D.

    2009-05-01

    The (VA +, Ve, ê) vector correlation method, combining imaging and time-of-flight resolved electron-ion coincidence techniques, is used to probe dissociative photoionization (DPI) of CO induced by vacuum ultra violet linearly or circularly polarized synchrotron radiation in the 26-33 eV photon excitation energy range. It provides original information about both the photoionization dynamics of the CO molecule and the dissociation dynamics of the CO+ molecular ions. The explored region corresponds to valence and inner-valence CO+ ionic states, which involve doubly or multiply excited electronic configurations. In this paper I we identify up to 17 DPI reaction pathways by the position of the intermediate CO+ molecular states in the Franck-Condon region and the (C++O) or (O++C) dissociation limits to which they correlate. For these processes we report the laboratory frame βC+/O+ and βe asymmetry parameters as well as the relative branching ratios in selected binding energy bands. The I(χ,θe,φe) molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions for selected PI processes will be reported in a companion paper II and compared with multichannel Schwinger configuration interaction ab initio calculations of these observables.

  16. Measurement of the partial photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters of S atoms in the photon energy range 10.0-30.0 eV using constant-ionic-state spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Innocenti, Fabrizio; Zuin, Lucia; Costa, Maria L.; Dias, Antonio A.; Morris, Alan; Stranges, Stefano; Dyke, John M.

    2007-04-21

    The partial photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters of S atoms have been measured using constant-ionic-state (CIS) spectroscopy in the photon energy range 10.0-30.0 eV. The ionizations investigated in these CIS experiments are the (3p){sup -1} ionizations S{sup +}({sup 4}S)(leftarrow)S({sup 3}P), S{sup +}({sup 2}D)(leftarrow)S({sup 3}P), and S{sup +}({sup 2}P)(leftarrow)S({sup 3}P). For the first time Rydberg series which converge to the fourth ionization limit have been observed and assignments of these series have been proposed. These correspond to excitations to Rydberg states that are parts of series which converge to the fourth ionization limit, S{sup +}({sup 4}P)(leftarrow)S({sup 3}P) (3s){sup -1}, and autoionize to the lower S{sup +}({sup 4}S), S{sup +}({sup 2}D), or S{sup +}({sup 2}P) states. For each series observed in the CIS spectra photoelectron angular distribution studies, combined with other evidence, has allowed the angular momentum character of the free electron on autoionization to be determined.

  17. Suramin inhibits EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40 μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.

  18. The All-Particle Spectrum of Primary Cosmic Rays in the Wide Energy Range from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV Observed with the Tibet-III Air-Shower Array

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, X. H.; Guo, H. W.; Hu, Haibing; Fan, C.; Feng, C. F.; He, M.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.

    2008-05-10

    We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV using 5.5 x 10{sup 7} events collected from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located 4300 m above sea level (an atmospheric depth of 606 g cm{sup -2}). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We discuss our extensive Monte Carlo calculations and the model dependencies involved in the final result, assuming interaction models QGSJET01c and SIBYLL2.1, and heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) primary composition models. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. A detector simulation was also performed to improve our accuracy in determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under various plausible model parameters are not significantly different from each other, which was the expected result given the characteristics of the experiment at high altitude, where the air showers of the primary energy around the knee reach near-maximum development, with their features dominated by electromagnetic components, leading to a weak dependence on the interaction model or the primary mass. This is the highest statistical and the best systematics-controlled measurement covering the widest energy range around the knee energy region.

  19. 28 CFR 12.30 - Burden of establishing availability of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of establishing availability of exemptions. 12.30 Section 12.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST...

  20. 28 CFR 12.30 - Burden of establishing availability of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burden of establishing availability of exemptions. 12.30 Section 12.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST...

  1. 28 CFR 12.30 - Burden of establishing availability of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burden of establishing availability of exemptions. 12.30 Section 12.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST...

  2. 28 CFR 12.30 - Burden of establishing availability of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burden of establishing availability of exemptions. 12.30 Section 12.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST...

  3. 28 CFR 12.30 - Burden of establishing availability of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burden of establishing availability of exemptions. 12.30 Section 12.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST...

  4. A guided-ion beam study of the hydrogen atom transfer reaction of state-selected N + 2 with H2 at collision energies ranging from subthermal to 2 eV (c.m.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, W. J.; Proch, D.; Kompa, K. L.; Rose-Petruck, Ch.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents detailed internal and kinetic energy dependent cross sections and reaction rates for the hydrogen atom transfer processes N+2(X 2Σ+g, v+=0-4, J+=2)+H2→N2H++H, which were obtained under single-collision conditions in a guided-ion beam/scattering gas experiment. Preparation of ions in specific states relied on single-color excitation within a resonantly enhanced (2+1) multiphoton ionization scheme. The translational energy of the ions, Elab, was varied from 0.1 eV to approximately 30 eV. A small activation barrier impedes the reaction. Vibronic state preparation of the nitrogen ion is influential on the nature of the energy surface—N+2+H2 or H+2+N2—along which the H atom transfer proceeds. Calculations of model potential energy surfaces suggest that the reaction pathway must involve several exoergic and endoergic channels which open successively as the collision energy increases. A purely collision determined cross section—as would be evidenced by the E-1/2 dependence formulated in the Langevin-Gioumousis-Stevenson model—is observed only within a narrow window of kinetic energies.

  5. July 22, 1936 12:30 P.M. DETAIL PALLADIAN WINDOW SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    July 22, 1936 12:30 P.M. DETAIL - PALLADIAN WINDOW SECOND FLOOR HALL - WEST WALL. - Poplar Hill, 7606 Woodyard Road (His Lordship's Kindness Road) (Rosaryville vicinity), Clinton, Prince George's County, MD

  6. Measurements of Excitation Functions and Line Polarizations for Electron Impact Excitation of the n = 2, 3 States of Atomic Hydrogen in the Energy Range 11 - 2000 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.; Kanik, I.; Slevin, J.; Franklin, B.; Shemansky, D.

    1993-01-01

    The electron-atomic hydrogen scattering system is an important testing ground for theoretical models and has received a great deal of attention from experimentalists and theoreticians alike over the years. A complete description of the excitation process requires a knowledge of many different parameters, and experimental measurements of these parameters have been performed in various laboratories around the world. As far as total cross section data are concerned it has been noted that the discrepancy between the data of Long et al. and Williams for n = 2 excitations needs to be resolved in the interests of any further refinement of theory. We report new measurements of total cross sections and atomic line polarizations for both n=2 and n=3 excitations at energies from threshold to 2000 eV...

  7. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  8. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  9. Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) Infections by a Novel Antiviral Peptide Derived from EV-71 Capsid Protein VP1

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sim, Kooi Mow; Tan, Eng Lee; Poh, Chit Laa

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers) overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC50 values ranging from 6–9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71. PMID:22563456

  10. Temperature dependence of the dielectric function in the spectral range (0.5–8.5) eV of an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt-Grund, R. Krauß, H.; Kranert, C.; Bonholzer, M.; Grundmann, M.

    2014-09-15

    We present the dielectric function of a bcc-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film in the wide spectral range from near-infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet and for temperatures 10 K–300 K, determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. From the temperature dependence of electronic transition energies, we derive electron-phonon coupling properties and found hints that the direct parabolic band-band transitions involve In-d states. Further we discuss possible excitonic contributions to the dielectric function.

  11. EV space suit gloves (passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, E. G.; Dodson, J. D.; Elkins, W.; Tickner, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A pair of pressure and thermal insulating overgloves to be used with an Extravehicular (EV) suit assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested. The design features extensive use of Nomex felt materials in lieu of the multiple layer insulation formerly used with the Apollo thermal glove. The glove theoretically satisfies all of the thermal requirements. The presence of the thermal glove does not degrade pressure glove tactility by more than the acceptable 10% value. On the other hand, the thermal glove generally degrades pressure glove mobility by more than the acceptable 10% value, primarily in the area of the fingers. Life cycling tests were completed with minimal problems. The thermal glove/pressure glove ensemble was also tested for comfort; the test subjects found no problems with the thermal glove although they did report difficulties with pressure points on the pressure glove which were independent of the thermal glove.

  12. Near Zero ev Subexcitation Energy Electrons Break DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Frederic; Cai, Zhongli; Cloutier, Pierre; Hunting, Darel; Sanche, Leon

    2004-03-01

    The passage of ionizing radiation through a living cell produces about 4 x 10^4 electrons/MeV, with more than 50% having energies well below the excitation threshold for water (7-8 eV) (M. Michaud et al, Physical Review, 44(9), 5623-5627, (1991)). We have previously shown that 5-20eV electrons cause DNA strand breaks via a resonant process with a maximum at 10eV (B. Boudaiffa et al, Science 287, 1658-1660, (2000)). The present results demonstrate that very low energy electrons in the range of 0 to 5eV cause single strand breaks (SSB) in DNA. Plasmid DNA is extracted from the host bacteria purified and resuspended in distilled and deionised water. It is deposited on a chemically clean tantalum, lyophilised and placed in an UHV chamber for 24 hours before irradiation. After irradiation, plasmid DNA is retrieved from the UHV chamber and the samples are dissolved in tris buffer. The different topological forms of DNA resulting from single strand break formation are separated by electrophoresis gel, stained by SYBR Green 1, scanned by laser and quantified with the imageQuant program. The quantification protocol has been optimized to maximize both sensitivity and linearity. Two resonant peaks are observed with maxima at 0,8 eV and 2,2 eV ( 10,5 and 7,5 ssb per 10^3 electrons, respectively).

  13. Calculation of electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3} over the energy range from 0.01 eV to 2 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Limbachiya, Chetan; Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Mason, Nigel

    2011-04-15

    This paper report results of calculation of the total cross section Q{sub T} for electron impact on NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3} over a wide range of incident energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. Total cross sections Q{sub T} (elastic plus electronic excitation) for incident energies below the ionization threshold of the target were calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package and cross sections at higher energies were derived using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to give self-consistent values where they overlap. The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results.

  14. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  15. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-02-26

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA.

  16. Absolute Integral Cross Sections for the State-selected Ion-Molecule Reaction N2+(X2Σg+ v+ = 0-2) + C2H2 in the Collision Energy Range of 0.03-10.00 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chung Chang, Yih; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion source, together with the double-quadrupole-double-octopole mass spectrometer developed in our laboratory, we have investigated the state-selected ion-molecule reaction {{{{N}}}2}+({X}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+; v + = 0-2, N+ = 0-9) + C2H2, achieving high internal-state selectivity and high kinetic energy resolution for reactant {{{{N}}}2}+ ions. The charge transfer (CT) and hydrogen-atom transfer (HT) channels, which lead to the respective formation of product {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+ and N2H+ ions, are observed. The vibrationally selected absolute integral cross sections for the CT [σ CT(v +)] and HT [[σ HT(v +)] channels obtained in the center-of-mass collision energy (E cm) range of 0.03-10.00 eV reveal opposite E cm dependences. The σ CT(v +) is found to increase as E cm is decreased, and is consistent with the long-range exothermic CT mechanism, whereas the E cm enhancement observed for the σ HT(v +) suggests effective coupling of kinetic energy to internal energy, enhancing the formation of N2H+. The σ HT(v +) curve exhibits a step at E cm = 0.70-1.00 eV, suggesting the involvement of the excited {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+({A}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+) state in the HT reaction. Contrary to the strong E cm dependences for σ CT(v +) and σ HT(v +), the effect of vibrational excitation of {{{{N}}}2}+ on both the CT and HT channels is marginal. The branching ratios and cross sections for the CT and HT channels determined in the present study are useful for modeling the atmospheric compositions of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. These cross sections and branching ratios are also valuable for benchmarking theoretical calculations on chemical dynamics of the titled reaction.

  17. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification as required by the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, and as driven by the 2010 Presidential Memorandum Regarding Fuel Efficiency and the 2005 Supreme Court ruling in Massachusetts v. EPA that supported the regulation of CO2 as a pollutant. Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes. This asset will be expanded to include medium and heavy duty vehicles in the future.The EPA performs targeted GHG emissions tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for certification. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules.Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, emissions information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, CBI data can accessed within EPA under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Pollutants data includes CO2, CH4, N2O. Datasets are divided by v

  18. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  19. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuenca, R. M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM (original equipment manufacturer) cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains, are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  20. Photoionization of Cl+ from the 3s23p4 3P2,1,0 and the 3s23p4 1D2,1S0 states in the energy range 19-28 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Brendan M.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-sections for the Cl+ ion in its ground and the metastable states, 3s23p4 3P2,1,0 and 3s23p4 1D2,1S0, were measured recently at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged beams photon-ion technique at a photon energy resolution of 15 meV in the energy range 19-28 eV. These measurements are compared with large-scale Dirac-Coulomb R-matrix calculations in the same energy range. Photoionization of this sulphur-like chlorine ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of auto-ionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionization continuum. A wealth of resonance features observed in the experimental spectra is spectroscopically assigned, and their resonance parameters are tabulated and compared with the recent measurements. Metastable fractions in the parent ion beam are determined from this study. Theoretical resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg series 3s23p3nd, identified in the spectra as 3p → nd transitions, are compared with the available measurements made on this element. Weaker Rydberg series 3s23p3ns, identified as 3p → ns transitions and window resonances 3s3p4(4P)np features, due to 3s → np transitions, are also found in the spectra.

  1. Anisotropy of cosmic rays of energy 10 (15) eV to 10 (17) eV observed at Akeno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kifune, T.; Nishijima, K.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Honda, M.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagano, M.; Tanahashi, G.

    1985-01-01

    Anisotropy of cosmic rays is studied with extensive air showers (EAS) data by muon trigger. The present results support those obtained by electron trigger which suggest the significant anisotropy of second harmonics with phase around 100 deg in right ascension for showers of 10 to the 16th power - 10 to the 17th power eV, and predominant arrival direction of 230 deg in right ascension for muon-rich showers. It seems that the phase of the first harmonics in the energy range below 10 to the 11th power eV is about 300 deg in right ascension and the second harmonics near 6 x 10 to the 14th power eV is statistically significant with an amplitude of 0.39 + or - 0.13% in direction of 83 + or - 10 deg in right ascension.

  2. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most

  3. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211–225 of VP1 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the

  4. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  5. A novel finding for enterovirus virulence from the capsid protein VP1 of EV71 circulating in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjuan; Fu, Chong; Wu, Suying; Chen, Xiong; Shi, Yingying; Zhou, Bingfei; Zhang, Lianglu; Zhang, Fengfeng; Wang, Zhihao; Zhang, Yingying; Fan, Chengpeng; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Wanhong; He, Xiaohua

    2014-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes various clinical manifestations in young children, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. Different pathotypes of EV71 notably differ in virulence. Several virulence determinants of EV71 have been predicted. However, these reported virulence determinants could not be used to identify the EV71 strains of subgenotype C4, which mainly circulate in China. In this study, VP1 sequences of 37 EV71 strains from severe cases (SC-EV71) and 192 EV71 strains from mild cases (MC-EV71) in mainland China were analyzed to determine the potential virulence determinants in the capsid protein VP1 of EV71. Although most SC-EV71 strains belonged to subgenotype C4a, no specific genetic lineages in C4a were correlated with EV71 virulence. Interestingly, amino acid substitutions at nine positions (H22Q, P27S, N31S/D, E98K, E145G/Q, D164E, T240A/S, V249I, and A289T) were detected by aligning the VP1 sequences of the SC-EV71 and MC-EV71 strains. Moreover, both the constituent ratios of the conservative or mutated residues in the MC-EV71 and SC-EV71 strains and the changes in the VP1 3D structure resulting from these mutations confirmed that the conservative residues (22H, 249V, and 289A) and the mutated residues (27S, 31S/D, 98K, 145G/Q, 164E, and 240A/S) might be potential virulence determinants in VP1 of EV71. Furthermore, these results led to the hypothesis that VP1 acts as a sandwich switch for viral particle stabilization and cellular receptors attachment, and specific mutations in this protein can convert mild cases into severe cases. These findings highlight new opportunities for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  6. Report to the DOE nuclear data committee. [EV RANGE 10-100; CROSS SECTIONS; PHOTONEUTRONS; NEUTRONS; GAMMA RADIATION; COUPLED CHANNEL THEORY; DIFFERENTIAL CROSS SECTIONS; MEV RANGE 01-10; ; CAPTURE; GAMMA SPECTRA; THERMAL NEUTRONS; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS; DECAY; FISSION PRODUCTS; FISSION YIELD; SHELL MODELS; NUCLEAR DATA COLLECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Haight, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    Topics covered include: studies of (n, charged particle) reactions with 14 to 15 MeV neutrons; photoneutron cross sections for /sup 15/N; neutron radiative capture; Lane-model analysis of (p,p) and (n,n) scattering on the even tin isotopes; neutron scattering cross sections for /sup 181/Ta, /sup 197/Au, /sup 209/Bi, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U inferred from proton scattering and charge exchange cross sections; neutron-induced fission cross sections of /sup 245/Cm and /sup 242/Am; fission neutron multiplicities for /sup 245/Cm and /sup 242/Am; the transport of 14 MeV neutrons through heavy materials 150 < A < 208; /sup 249/Cm energy levels from measurement of thermal neutron capture gamma rays; /sup 231/Th energy levels from neutron capture gamma ray and conversion electron spectroscopy; new measurements of conversion electron binding energies in berkelium and californium; nuclear level densities; relative importance of statistical vs. valence neutron capture in the mass-90 region; determination of properties of short-lived fission products; fission yield of /sup 87/Br and /sup 137/I from 15 nuclei ranging from /sup 232/Th to /sup 249/Cf; evaluation of charged particle data for the ECPL library; evaluation of secondary charged-particle energy and angular distributions for ENDL; and evaluated nuclear structure libraries derived from the table of isotopes. (GHT)

  7. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics.

  8. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics. PMID:25505956

  9. Smart cards for EV billing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    If electric vehicles are to gain widespread popularity, there will need to be public charging stations for refueling away from home. However, public charging raises some potentially complex issues regarding how individual EV owners will be billed for the electricity they use. It`s easy enough to meter the electricity used at a given battery charger, but the utility bill goes to the EV station merchant rather than the driver who consumed the electricity. So far this has not posed a problem, as many early charging sites have either been providing free electricity or billing only nominal flat fees. As the EV market grows, however, an effective point-of-sale (POS) billing mechanism will need to be established. In 1993, an investigation of POS billing systems for different types of non-home EV charging was conducted. Recently, the Cost Subcommittee of the Infrastructure Working Council`s (IWC) Load Management, Distribution, Power Quality Committee requested that an update be performed on the newest of these POS technologies--smart cards. The same size and shape as regular credit cards, smart cards use a microchip instead of a magnetic stripe to store information. The chip can hold significantly more information than a magnetic stripe, enabling greater security and flexible applications. Since 1993, there have been major advances in smart card technology, and smart card use has grown dramatically in both Europe and Asia. The US has been slower to embrace smart cards due to the entrenched infrastructure of traditional magnetic stripe credit cards. This paper reviews smart card technology and related POS transaction structures, and assesses the technical feasibility and economics of using these versatile cards for EV billing.

  10. Volatile Survival on Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Asteroid 2008 EV5 is currently one of the possible targets of NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The objective of this mission is to recover a boulder from the surface of an asteroid. The selection of the final target requires understanding the physical characteristics of the asteroid such as the size-frequency distribution of boulders on the asteroid's surface, the presence of volatiles on the surface and below, the strength of the surface materials and the degree of their alteration. In our work, we focus on the second criterion, the possibility of volatiles presence on 2008 EV5. These can be expected to survive embedded within the crystal lattice of various phyllosilicates. The positive presence of volatiles on the surface of and inside the asteroid is important especially for ISRU hardware demonstrations. Spectral data suggest that 2008 EV5 is a member of CI chondrite group which is characterized by high phyllosilicate content (~70%) but there is also the possibility of it being a CR chondrite where the phyllosilicate content ranges significantly, from samples with negligible phyllosilicate content to samples with almost 70% phyllosilicate content. If the dynamical history of the asteroid brought it close enough to the Sun, the lattice of phyllosilicates could have disintegrated and released the volatiles (water) and the material could have dehydrated. The depth at which the dehydration might have taken place depends on the characteristic depth of heat wave penetration which in turn depends on material characteristics such as density, heat capacity and heat conductivity. These are in turn are closely linked to the porosity. The characteristic heat penetration depth also depends on orbital geometry and rotational and orbital periods. Besides the temperature itself, the dehydration is also affected by the duration of the crystal lattice breakup temperatures. We use thermal model in conjunction with available experimental data on the dehydration of clays and

  11. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  12. An Optical Megaflare On EV Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a U-filter light curve of a very intensive flare on EV Lac, observed at 1 s time resolution with a 2 m telescope at BNAO. The monitoring lasted for 7.4 hours (UT 16:40-UT 24:04) on 01 November 1991, and EV Lac was affected by flaring throughout this time. The data have been corrected for atmospheric extinction and the presence of an optical companion in the photometer diaphragm.A ΔU=7.2 magnitude flare maximum (Lf,U = 4.6 · 1031 ergs s-1) represents an increase of 735 times the flux of the quiescent star. This is twice as large as a flare reported by Roizman and Shevchenko (1982, Sov. Astron. Lett. 8, 85-86) and is 88% of the bolometric luminosity of EV Lac. The eruptive phase of the rise took 72 seconds, and the flare returned to half its maximum value in t0.5 = 39 seconds. The classically peak-shaped flare went into a slow decay phase after about 20 minutes. Several secondary flares were superposed on the > 5 hours decay. The U-filter flare energy released during the major peak was 7.23 · 1033 ergs. It accounts for 93% of the energy released during the entire flare event (EU = 7.8 · 1033 ergs).The flare occurred close to maximum brightness of the 4.4 days rotational modulation of EV Lac, which had a V-amplitude 0.06 mag in 1991.

  13. The relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, G. C.; Samson, J. A. R.; Williams, G.

    1986-01-01

    The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

  14. Iron-plasma transmission measurements at temperatures above 150 eV.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J E; Rochau, G A; Iglesias, C A; Abdallah, J; Macfarlane, J J; Golovkin, I; Wang, P; Mancini, R C; Lake, P W; Moore, T C; Bump, M; Garcia, O; Mazevet, S

    2007-12-31

    Measurements of iron-plasma transmission at 156+/-6 eV electron temperature and 6.9+/-1.7 x 10(21) cm(-3) electron density are reported over the 800-1800 eV photon energy range. The temperature is more than twice that in prior experiments, permitting the first direct experimental tests of absorption features critical for understanding solar interior radiation transport. Detailed line-by-line opacity models are in excellent agreement with the data.

  15. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation, however concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remains, however little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.

  16. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    DOE PAGES

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; ...

    2015-05-15

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation; however, concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remain;, however, little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected tripsmore » with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.« less

  17. Severe paediatric conditions linked with EV-A71 and EV-D68, France, May to October 2016.

    PubMed

    Antona, Denise; Kossorotoff, Manoëlle; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Mirand, Audrey; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Bassi, Clément; Aubart, Mélodie; Moulin, Florence; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Henquell, Cécile; Lina, Bruno; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2016-11-17

    We report 59 cases of severe paediatric conditions linked with enterovirus (EV)-A71 and EV-D68 in France between May and October 2016. Fifty-two children had severe neurological symptoms. EV sequence-based typing for 42 cases revealed EV-A71 in 21 (18 subgenotype C1, detected for the first time in France) and EV-D68 in eight. Clinicians should be encouraged to obtain stool and respiratory specimens from patients presenting with severe neurological disorders for EV detection and characterisation. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  18. Severe paediatric conditions linked with EV-A71 and EV-D68, France, May to October 2016

    PubMed Central

    Antona, Denise; Kossorotoff, Manoëlle; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Mirand, Audrey; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Bassi, Clément; Aubart, Mélodie; Moulin, Florence; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Henquell, Cécile; Lina, Bruno; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    We report 59 cases of severe paediatric conditions linked with enterovirus (EV)-A71 and EV-D68 in France between May and October 2016. Fifty-two children had severe neurological symptoms. EV sequence-based typing for 42 cases revealed EV-A71 in 21 (18 subgenotype C1, detected for the first time in France) and EV-D68 in eight. Clinicians should be encouraged to obtain stool and respiratory specimens from patients presenting with severe neurological disorders for EV detection and characterisation. PMID:27918268

  19. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian…

  20. Chopper Circuits Developed for EV Drive Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Yukinori; Kawamura, Atsuo

    In this paper, the technical stream on a high efficiency and high frequency chopper for the automotive industry, new energy and energy conservation technology field is surveyed. QRAS (Quasi-resonant Regenerating Active Snubber) and SAZZ (Snubber Assisted Zero Voltage and Zero Current Transition) topologies aimed for the electric vehicle (EV) drive application are proposed. 25kHz-8kW QRAS, 100kHz-8kW SAZZ choppers and 50kHz-25kW bilateral SAZZ-1 chopper are constructed and tested under rating conditions. It is verified that SAZZ topology retains high efficiency even at the increased operating frequency of 100kHz. It is shown that high efficiency can be realized at high operating frequency even in high power converters by QRAS and newly proposed SAZZ soft switching topologies.

  1. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  2. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  3. Proteomics analysis of EV71-infected cells reveals the involvement of host protein NEDD4L in EV71 replication.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Han; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-I; Kao, Li-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2015-04-03

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human enterovirus that has seriously affected the Asia-Pacific area for the past two decades. EV71 infection can result in mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina and may occasionally lead to severe neurological complications in children. However, the specific biological processes that become altered during EV71 infection remain unclear. To further explore host responses upon EV71 infection, we identified proteins differentially expressed in EV71-infected human glioblastoma SF268 cells using isobaric mass tag (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Network analysis of proteins altered in cells infected with EV71 revealed that the changed biological processes are related to protein and ion transport, regulation of protein degradation, and homeostatic processes. We confirmed that the levels of NEDD4L and PSMF1 were increased and reduced, respectively, in EV71-infected cells compared to mock-infected control cells. To determine the physiological relevance of our findings, we investigated the consequences of EV71 infection in cells with NEDD4L or PSMF1 depletion. We found that the depletion of NEDD4L significantly reduced the replication of EV71, whereas PSMF1 knockdown enhanced EV71 replication. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence of proteome-wide dysregulation by EV71 infection and suggest a novel role for the host protein NEDD4L in the replication of this virus.

  4. Genomic characterization of two new enterovirus types, EV-A114 and EV-A121.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Jagadish M; Sharma, Deepa K; Saxena, Vinay K; Shetty, Sushmitha A; Qureshi, Tarique Husain I H; Nalavade, Uma P

    2016-12-01

    Enteroviruses cause a variety of illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences has identified 106 different human enteroviruses classified into four enterovirus species within the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. It is likely that not all enterovirus types have been discovered. Between September 2013 and October 2014, stool samples of 6274 apparently healthy children of up to 5 years of age residing in Gorakhpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India were screened for enteroviruses. Virus isolates obtained in RD and Hep-2c cells were identified by complete VP1 sequencing. Enteroviruses were isolated from 3042 samples. A total of 87 different enterovirus types were identified. Two isolates with 71 and 74 % nucleotide sequence similarity to all other known enteroviruses were recognized as novel types. In this paper we report identification and complete genome sequence analysis of these two isolates classified as EV-A114 and EV-A121.

  5. Recombination reactions of 5-eV O(3P) atoms on a MgF2 surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1990-01-01

    A source of hyperthermal, ground-state, impurity-free, atomic oxygen of an energy variable in the range 2-100 eV has been developed. Experimental results are presented of emission spectra in the wavelength range 250-850 nm produced by collisions of 5-eV O(3P) atoms with adsorbed NO and CO molecules on a MgF2 surface.

  6. Human SCARB2-mediated entry and endocytosis of EV71.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Wen; Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Chitra, Ebenezer; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Sia, Charles; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic. Recently, human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been reported to be a cellular receptor of EV71. We expressed human SCARB2 gene in NIH3T3 cells (3T3-SCARB2) to study the mechanisms of EV71 entry and infection. We demonstrated that human SCARB2 serves as a cellular receptor for EV71 entry. Disruption of expression of SCARB2 using siRNAs can interfere EV71 infection and subsequent inhibit the expression of viral capsid proteins in RD and 3T3-SCARB2 but not Vero cells. SiRNAs specific to clathrin or dynamin or chemical inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis were all capable of interfering with the entry of EV71 into 3T3-SCARB2 cells. On the other hand, caveolin specific siRNA or inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect, confirming that only clathrin-mediated pathway was involved in EV71 infection. Endocytosis of EV71 was also found to be pH-dependent requiring endosomal acidification and also required intact membrane cholesterol. In summary, the mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway. This study on the receptor and endocytic mechanisms of EV71 infection is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus.

  7. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  8. The Methods of Choice for Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Szatanek, Rafał; Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Zimoch, Jakub; Lekka, Małgorzata; Siedlar, Maciej; Baran, Jarek

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have become a subject of intense study. These membrane-enclosed spherical structures are secreted by almost every cell type and are engaged in the transport of cellular content (cargo) from parental to target cells. The impact of EVs transfer has been observed in many vital cellular processes including cell-to-cell communication and immune response modulation; thus, a fast and precise characterization of EVs may be relevant for both scientific and diagnostic purposes. In this review, the most popular analytical techniques used in EVs studies are presented with the emphasis on exosomes and microvesicles characterization. PMID:28555055

  9. Electron scattering from hexafluoride molecules: WF6 and C2F6. Absolute total cross section measurements from 1 to 250 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmytkowski, Czeslaw; Mozejko, Pawel; Kasperski, Grzegorz; Ptasinska-Denga, Elzbieta

    2000-01-01

    Electron-scattering absolute total cross sections for tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and hexafluorethane (C2F6) molecules have been measured in a linear transmission electron-beam experiment within the impact energy range from about 1 to 250 eV. For electron scattering from WF6 the cross section shows a prominent resonant-like peak centred at 3 eV and a very broad enhancement in the energy range between 20 and 70 eV overlaid with some much less pronounced features. The cross section for C2F6 has two resonant structures at 5 and 9 eV, respectively, and a very broad hump ranging from 20 to 60 eV with a distinct shoulder near 20 eV. Comparison of the e--C2F6 total cross section with available low-energy data from other experiments is made. The effect of fluorination is indicated.

  10. Cosmic rays: the spectrum and chemical composition from 1010 to 1020 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todero Peixoto, C. J.; de Souza, Vitor; Biermann, Peter L.

    2015-07-01

    The production of energetic particles in the universe remains one of the great mysteries of modern science. The mechanisms of acceleration in astrophysical sources and the details about the propagation through the galactic and extragalactic media are still to be defined. In recent years, the cosmic ray flux has been measured with high precision in the energy range from 1010 to 1020.5 eV by several experiments using different techniques. In some energy ranges, it has been possible to determine the flux of individual elements (hydrogen to iron nuclei). This paper explores an astrophysical scenario in which only our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A produce all particles measured on Earth in the energy range from 1010 to 1020.5 eV . Data from AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande and the Pierre Auger Observatories are considered. The model developed here is compared to the total and if available to the individual particle flux of the experiments considered.The flux of each element as determined by AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande and the mass sensitivity parameter Xmax measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10^ eV are also explored within the framework of the model. The transition from 1016 to 1018 eV is carefully analyzed. It is shown that the flux measured in this energy range suggest the existence of an extra component of cosmic rays yet to be understood.

  11. First Results from a Microwave Cavity Axion Search at 24 μ eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, B. M.; Zhong, L.; Gurevich, Y. V.; Cahn, S. B.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Simanovskaia, M.; Root, J. R.; Lewis, S. M.; Al Kenany, S.; Backes, K. M.; Urdinaran, I.; Rapidis, N. M.; Shokair, T. M.; van Bibber, K. A.; Palken, D. A.; Malnou, M.; Kindel, W. F.; Anil, M. A.; Lehnert, K. W.; Carosi, G.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the first results from a new microwave cavity search for dark matter axions with masses above 20 μ eV . We exclude axion models with two-photon coupling ga γ γ≳2 ×10-14 GeV-1 over the range 23.55 eV . These results represent two important achievements. First, we have reached cosmologically relevant sensitivity an order of magnitude higher in mass than any existing limits. Second, by incorporating a dilution refrigerator and Josephson parametric amplifier, we have demonstrated total noise approaching the standard quantum limit for the first time in an axion search.

  12. Immunological evaluation and comparison of different EV71 vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Lien, Shu-Pei; Guo, Meng-Shin; Tasi, Hau-Pong; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Liu, Shih-Jen; Sia, Charles; Wu, Suh-Chin; Lee, Min-Shi; Hsiao, Chia-Hsin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chong, Pele

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs), and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1) VP1 peptide (residues 211-225) formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer); (2) recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160); (3) individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3) formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4) the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640), but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions.

  13. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-04

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications.

  14. Energy levels of Th+ between 7.3 and 8.3 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Sancho, O. A.; Nemitz, N.; Okhapkin, M. V.; Peik, E.

    2013-07-01

    Using resonant two-step laser excitation of trapped 232Th+ ions, we observe 43 previously unknown energy levels within the energy range from 7.3 to 8.3 eV. The high density of states promises a strongly enhanced electronic bridge excitation of the 229mTh nuclear state that is expected in this energy range. From the observation of resonantly enhanced three-photon ionization of Th+, the second ionization potential of thorium can be inferred to lie within the range between 11.9 and 12.3 eV. Pulsed laser radiation in a wide wavelength range from 237 to 289 nm is found to provide efficient photodissociation of molecular ions that are formed in reactions of Th+ with impurities in the buffer gas, leading to a significantly increased storage time for Th+ in the ion trap.

  15. Digit ratio (2D:4D), sex differences, allometry, and finger length of 12-30-year olds: evidence from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Internet study.

    PubMed

    Manning, John T

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported digit ratio (2D:4D) to be sexually dimorphic, (males lower 2D:4D than females). However, Kratochvíl and Flegr ([2009]: Biol Lett 5:643-646) have suggested that 2D regressed on 4D has an allometric regression line with nonzero Y-intercept that is shared by males and females. Thus, 2D is shorter than expected when 4D is long, and males have lower 2D:4D than females because they have longer fingers. In this study, it is shown that this suggestion may be incorrect because sex differences in slope were not considered. Participants were recruited in an Internet study and had an age range of 12-30 years. The expected sex difference in 2D:4D was found, and the regression of 2D on 4D showed a significant sex difference in slope (males lower than females). A comparison of 10 age groups (12 years, 13 years..., 21-30 years) showed that sexual dimorphism for fingers was age dependent, varying from monomorphic to very dimorphic. Changes in sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D were much less marked, but there was a significant reduction in mean 2D:4D with age. The tendency for slopes of 2D regressed on 4D to be lower in males compared with females was significant in eight age groups. Sex difference in 2D:4D varied across the age groups and was positively related to the magnitude of the difference in female and male slopes. In contrast to the report of Kratochvíl and Flegr, it was found that the regression of 2D on 4D showed sex differences in slope, and such differences gave rise to the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D.

  16. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  17. Dielectric function in the spectral range (0.5–8.5)eV of an (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film with continuous composition spread

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt-Grund, R. Kranert, C.; Wenckstern, H. von; Zviagin, V.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.

    2015-04-28

    We determined the dielectric function of the alloy system (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the wide spectral range from 0.5 eV to 8.5 eV and for Al contents ranging from x = 0.11 to x = 0.55. For the composition range x < 0.4, we observe single phase material in the β-modification and for larger Al content also the occurrence of γ-(Al,Ga){sub 2}O{sub 3}. We derived spectra of the refractive index and the absorption coefficient as well as energy parameters of electronic band-band transitions by model analysis of the dielectric function. The dependence of the dielectric functions lineshape and the energy parameters on x is highly continuous, reflecting theoretical expectations. The data presented here provide a basis for a deeper understanding of the electronic properties of this material system and may be useful for device engineering.

  18. Anisotropic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of wurtzite GaN between 0.6 eV and 6 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokhovets, S.; Kirste, L.; Leach, J. H.; Krischok, S.; Himmerlich, M.

    2017-07-01

    We report the room-temperature anisotropic dielectric functions (DFs), refractive indices, and absorption coefficients as well as birefringence and dichroism of wurtzite GaN in the spectral range between 0.6 eV and 6 eV. They have been determined by combined spectroscopic ellipsometry, optical retardation, and transmission measurements on a series of m- and c-plane bulk substrates prepared from crystals grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The accuracy of the derived DFs is estimated by investigation of the role of mosaicity-related crystal imperfections, self-consistency test based on a Kramers-Kronig analysis, and examination of the influence of kind of overlayer. We also briefly discuss optical properties of a highly defective near-surface layer of GaN crystals introduced by their mechanical polishing.

  19. Experimental characterization of NIF hohlraum emission in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit (1 eV to 5 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. D.; Goyon, C. E.; Ross, J. S.; Swadling, G. F.; Moore, A. S.; Baker, K. L.; Thomas, C. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Landen, O. L.; Michel, P. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Divol, L.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We use several measurements to estimate NIF hohlraum emission in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit where hν <eV. The measurements are primarily optical, consisting of hohlraum emission which transmits through the capsule and is collected by an optical photodiode, optical emission emitted from the laser-entrance hole in the 4 eV range, and various other optical measurements. These measurements can help quantify the laser-plasma interaction processes occurring in the hohlraum and may provide insight into the atomic physics of the Au wall at long wavelength. We describe our findings and discuss interpretations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  1. Immunological Evaluation and Comparison of Different EV71 Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Lien, Shu-Pei; Guo, Meng-Shin; Tasi, Hau-Pong; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Liu, Shih-Jen; Sia, Charles; Wu, Suh-Chin; Lee, Min-Shi; Hsiao, Chia-Hsin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chong, Pele

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs), and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1) VP1 peptide (residues 211–225) formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer); (2) recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160); (3) individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3) formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4) the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640), but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions. PMID:23008736

  2. Laser Desorption 7.87 eV Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotics in Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacterial Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Gasper, Gerald L.; Carlson, Ross; Akhmetov, Artem; Moore, Jerry F.; Hanley, Luke

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of laser desorption 7.87 eV vacuum ultraviolet postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to detect antibiotics within intact bacterial colony biofilms. As >99% of the molecules ejected by laser desorption are neutrals, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of these neutrals can provide significantly increased signal compared to detection of directly emitted ions. Postionization with VUV radiation from the molecular fluorine laser single photon ionizes laser desorbed neutrals with ionization potentials below the 7.87 eV photon energy. Antibiotics with structures indicative of sub-7.87 eV ionization potentials were examined for their ability to be detected by 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tetracycline, sulfadiazine, and novobiocin were successfully detected neat as dried films physisorbed on porous silicon oxide substrates. Tetracycline and sulfadiazine were then detected within intact Staphylococcus epidermidis colony biofilms, the former with LOD in the micromolar concentration range. PMID:18704905

  3. PAH chemistry at eV internal energies. 1. H-shifted isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinquier, Georges; Simon, Aude; Rapacioli, Mathias; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2017-06-01

    The PAH family of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), involved in several fields of chemistry, has received particular attention in astrochemistry, where their vibrational spectroscopy, thermodynamics, dynamics, and fragmentation properties are now abundantly documented. This survey aims at drawing trends for low spin-multiplicity surfaces of PAHs bearing internal energies in the range 1-10 eV. It addresses some typical alternatives to the ground-state regular structures of PAHs, making explicit possible intramolecular rearrangements leading to high-lying minima. These isomerisations should be taken into consideration when addressing PAH processing in astrophysical conditions. The first part of this double-entry study focuses on the hydrogen-shifted forms, which bear both a carbene center and a saturated carbon. It rests upon DFT calculations mainly performed on two emblematic PAH representatives, coronene and pyrene, in their neutral and mono- and multi-cationic states. Systematically searched for in neutral species, these H-shifted minima are lying 4-5 eV above the regular all-conjugated forms, and are separated by barriers of about 1 eV. General hydrogen-shifting is found to be easier for cationic species as the relative energies of their H-shifted minima are 1-1.5 eV lower than those for neutral species. As much as possible, classical knowledge and concepts of organic chemistry such as aromaticity and Clar's rules are invoked for result interpretation.

  4. [Comparison of different molecular assays for the rapid detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71)].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Yan; Huang, Xue-Yong; Xu, Yu-Ling; Ma, Hong; Chen, Hao-Min; Xu, Bian-Li

    2012-11-01

    Molecular detection of enterovirus (EV)71 RNA based on PCR methods is a quick and sensitive approach. At present, different PCR-based methods for EV71 RNA detection are available, but comparisons of results obtained using different approaches are limited. This study is to compare the analytical sensitivity and specificity of different real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) assays for enterovirus and EV71 detection, Altogether, three rRT-PCR assays and one cRT-PCR assay targeting the 5'UTR gene for universal detection of enterovirus; two rRT-PCR assays andone cRT-PCR assay targeting the VP1 gene for specific detection of EV 71 were examined. All assays showed good specificity. The detection sensitivity ranged from 8.19 x 10 to 8.19 x 10(5) copy equivalents. In general, rRT-PCR assays were more sensitive than cRT-PCR assays. All rRT-PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity for clinical specimens.

  5. Battery management systems (BMS) optimization for electric vehicles (EVs) in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehen, P. M. W.; Su'ait, M. S.; Razali, H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-04-01

    Following the UN Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Malaysia seriously committed on "Go Green" campaign with the aim to reduce 40% GHG emission by the year 2020. Therefore, the National Green Technology Policy has been legalised in 2009 with transportation as one of its focused sectors, which include hybrid (HEVs), electric vehicles (EVs) and fuel cell vehicles with the purpose of to keep up with the worst scenario. While the number of registered cars has been increasing by 1 million yearly, the amount has doubled in the last two decades. Consequently, CO2 emission in Malaysia reaches up to 97.1% and will continue to increase mainly due to the activities in the transportation sector. Nevertheless, Malaysia is now moving towards on green car which battery-based EVs. This type of transportation mainly needs power performance optimization, which is controlled by the Batteries Management System (BMS). BMS is an essential module which leads to reliable power management, optimal power performance and safe vehicle that lead back for power optimization in EVs. Thus, this paper proposes power performance optimization for various setups of lithium-ion cathode with graphene anode using MATLAB/SIMULINK software for better management performance and extended EVs driving range.

  6. Smart EV Energy Management System to Support Grid Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin

    Under smart grid scenarios, the advanced sensing and metering technologies have been applied to the legacy power grid to improve the system observability and the real-time situational awareness. Meanwhile, there is increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as renewable generations, electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage system (BESS), etc., being integrated into the power system. However, the integration of EVs, which can be modeled as controllable mobile energy devices, brings both challenges and opportunities to the grid planning and energy management, due to the intermittency of renewable generation, uncertainties of EV driver behaviors, etc. This dissertation aims to solve the real-time EV energy management problem in order to improve the overall grid efficiency, reliability and economics, using online and predictive optimization strategies. Most of the previous research on EV energy management strategies and algorithms are based on simplified models with unrealistic assumptions that the EV charging behaviors are perfectly known or following known distributions, such as the arriving time, leaving time and energy consumption values, etc. These approaches fail to obtain the optimal solutions in real-time because of the system uncertainties. Moreover, there is lack of data-driven strategy that performs online and predictive scheduling for EV charging behaviors under microgrid scenarios. Therefore, we develop an online predictive EV scheduling framework, considering uncertainties of renewable generation, building load and EV driver behaviors, etc., based on real-world data. A kernel-based estimator is developed to predict the charging session parameters in real-time with improved estimation accuracy. The efficacy of various optimization strategies that are supported by this framework, including valley-filling, cost reduction, event-based control, etc., has been demonstrated. In addition, the existing simulation-based approaches do

  7. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a reliance EV-250AT motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Straight and chopped DC motor performances for a Reliance EV-250AT motor with an EV-1 controller were examined. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are shown. It is found that the maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight DC mode. Chopper efficiency is 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight DC mode.

  8. Composition of near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5: Potential target for robotic and human exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Hicks, Michael; Lawrence, Kenneth; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Abell, Paul A.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Hardersen, Paul S.

    2012-11-01

    We observed Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008 EV5 in the visible (0.30-0.92 μm) and near-IR (0.75-2.5 μm) wavelengths to determine its surface composition. This asteroid is especially interesting because it is a potential target for two sample return mission proposals (Marco Polo-R and Hayabusa-2) and human exploration due to its low delta-v for rendezvous. The spectrum of 2008 EV5 is essentially featureless with exception of a weak 0.48-μm spin-forbidden Fe3+ absorption band. The spectrum also has an overall blue slope. The albedo of 2008 EV5 remains uncertain with a lower limit at 0.05 and a higher end at 0.20 based on thermal modeling. The Busch et al. (Busch et al. [2011]. Icarus 212, 649-660) albedo estimate of 0.12 ± 0.04 is consistent with our thermal modeling results. The albedo and composition of 2008 EV5 are also consistent with a C-type taxonomic classification (Somers, J.M., Hicks, M.D., Lawrence, K.J. [2008]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 40, 440). The best spectral match is with CI carbonaceous chondrites similar to Orgueil, which also have a weak 0.48-μm feature and an overall blue slope. This 0.48-μm feature is also seen in the spectrum of magnetite. The albedo of CI chondrites is at the lower limit of our estimated range for the albedo of 2008 EV5.

  9. NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, A.; Denkins, T.; Allen, B. Danette; Braun, Scott A.; Crawford, James H.; Jensen, Eric J.; Miller, Charles E.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Maring, Hal

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, NASA announced the first Earth Venture (EV-1) selections in response to a recommendation made by the National Research Council for low-cost investigations fostering innovation in Earth science. The five EV-1 investigations span the Earth science focus areas of atmosphere, weather, climate, water and energy and, carbon and represent earth science researchers from NASA as well as other government agencies, academia and industry from around the world. The EV-1 missions are: 1) Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), 2) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), 3) Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), 4) Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ), and 5) Hurricane And Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The Earth Venture missions are managed out of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (Allen, et. al. 2010b)

  10. Electron impact excitation of the electronic states of N2. III - Transitions in the 12.5-14.2-eV energy-loss region at incident energies of 40 and 60 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Trajmar, S.; Cartwright, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of electron energy-loss data at incident electron energies of 40 and 60 eV has led to the determination of normalized absolute differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of five optically-allowed singlet states, two known triplet states, and two unknown triplet-like states of N2, lying in the energy-loss range 12.5-14.2 eV. The range of scattering angles was 5 to 138 deg. The optically allowed transitions and the known triplet excitations are identified. Cross sections for excitation to two unidentified triplet-like states at 13.155 and 13.395 eV were also obtained. The relationship of the generalized oscillator strength for the dipole-allowed states obtained from the described data to known optical oscillator strengths is discussed.

  11. Single ionization of helium by 730-eV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, M. A.; Lohmann, B.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2007-03-15

    We present fully differential measurements of 730-eV electron-impact single ionization of the ground state of helium with 205- or 100-eV outgoing electrons. Internormalized data are obtained for coplanar geometries with the fast electron detected at {theta}{sub A}=6 degree sign , 9 degree sign , and 12 degree sign . The data are compared, where possible, with the corresponding data of Catoire et al. [J. Phys. B 39, 2827 (2006)] and the convergent close-coupling theory. An improved agreement is found between the present measurements and the theory.

  12. The Jefferson Lab VUV-FEL at 10 eV and above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gwyn; Fel Team

    2011-03-01

    We will present details of the vacuum ultraviolet performance of the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser. The JLab FEL is oscillator-based and uses a superconducting energy recovered linac for CW RF operation at up to 75 MHz. Lasing at a fundamental wavelength of 372 nm, the third harmonic is at 124 nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 10 eV. The energy per pulse in the fundamental is 20 microJoules, which at 9 MHz yields an average power of 180 Watts. The pulses have a FWHM of order 300 fs, which essentially determines the optical bandwidth. The third harmonic, which is a 0.1 - 1% fraction of this, is considerably brighter than any other source in the region. Further, being an FEL, there is a wide range of tunability in the 1 eV to 15 eV range. Additional reach is possible with increased electron beam energy, and some options will be discussed in the talk. We acknowledge funding from ONR, AFRL and DOE-BES under contract AC05-060R23177.

  13. Sputtering of carbon using hydrogen ion beams with energies of 60-800 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, Dmitry S.; Chkhalo, Nikolay I.; Mikhailenko, Mikhail S.; Pestov, Alexey E.; Polkovnikov, Vladimir N.

    2016-11-01

    This article presents the result of a study on the sputtering of carbon films by low-energy hydrogen ions. In particular, the etching rate and surface roughness were measured. The range of energies where the sputtering switches from pure chemical to a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms was determined. It is shown that Sigmund's theory for ion etching does not work well for fields of energy less than 150 eV and that it accurately describes the dependence of a sputtering coefficient on ion energy for energies greater than 300 eV. A strong smoothing effect for the surface of carbon film was also found. This result is interesting in itself and for its significance for the manufacture of super-smooth surfaces for X-ray applications.

  14. EVS vs TIPS shunt for gastric variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; Qi, Xing-Shun; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Kai-Chun; Fan, Dai-Ming; Han, Guo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) in the management of gastric variceal (GV) bleeding in terms of variceal rebleeding, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and survival by meta-analysis. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and CNKI were searched. Studies compared TIPS with EVS in treating GV bleeding were identified and included according to our predefined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted independently by two of our authors. Studies with prospective randomized design were considered to be of high quality. Hazard ratios (HRs) or odd ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model when there was no inter-trial heterogeneity. Oppositely, a random-effects model was employed. RESULTS: Three studies with 220 patients who had at least one episode of GV bleeding were included in the present meta-analysis. The proportions of patients with viral cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis were 39% (range 0%-78%) and 36% (range 12% to 41%), respectively. The pooled incidence of variceal rebleeding in the TIPS group was significantly lower than that in the EVS group (HR = 0.3, 0.35, 95%CI: 0.17-0.71, P = 0.004). However, the risk of the development of any degree of HE was significantly increased in the TIPS group (OR = 15.97, 95%CI: 3.61-70.68). The pooled HR of survival was 1.26 (95%CI: 0.76-2.09, P = 0.36). No inter-trial heterogeneity was observed among these analyses. CONCLUSION: The improved effect of TIPS in the prevention of GV rebleeding is associated with an increased risk of HE. There is no survival difference between the TIPS and EVS groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the survival benefit of TIPS in cirrhotic patients with GV bleeding. PMID:24868490

  15. The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G + C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

  16. Observations from The EV Project in Q4 2013

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2014-02-01

    This is a summary report for The EV Project 4th quarter 2013 reports. It describes electric vehicle driver driving and charging behavior observed in Q4. It is the same report as the previously approved/published Q3 2013 report, only the numbers have been updated. It is for public release and does not have limited distribution.

  17. Philosophical Adventures in the Lands of Oz and Ev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gareth B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the philosophical adventures of the characters in L. Frank Baum's Lands of Oz and Ev stories and discusses how such stories can stimulate reflections on philosophically interesting questions. Frank Baum is considered as the first American writer of philosophical fantasy for children for writing "The…

  18. Philosophical Adventures in the Lands of Oz and Ev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gareth B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the philosophical adventures of the characters in L. Frank Baum's Lands of Oz and Ev stories and discusses how such stories can stimulate reflections on philosophically interesting questions. Frank Baum is considered as the first American writer of philosophical fantasy for children for writing "The…

  19. Effects of excess oxygen on the 4.5-6.3 eV absorption spectra of oxygen-rich high purity silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, R. H.; Robinson, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Type III silica samples were implanted with O using a multi-energy process that produced a layer of constant concentration to within ±5% beginning ∼80 nm from the surface and extending to ∼640 nm below the surfaces of the samples. The concentrations of excess oxygen in the layer ranged from 0.035 to ∼2.1at.%. In these samples we show that E‧ centers and NBOHCs, as well as the normal cadre of ODC (II) centers, were suppressed, and the optical absorption from 4.7 to 6.4 eV was primarily due to oxygen excess defects. Using Gaussian fitting techniques to examine the optical difference spectra, we have been able to identify four defect centers that are related to excess oxygen defect bands at 4.76 eV, 5.42 eV, 5.75 eV and 6.25 eV.

  20. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  1. Observation of vibrationally resolved charge transfer in H + +H2 at ECM=20 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedner, G.; Noll, M.; Toennies, J. P.; Schlier, Ch.

    1987-09-01

    The doubly differential cross sections for both the scattered protons and H atoms have been measured at ELAB=30 eV (ECM=20 eV) from θLAB=0° to 12° (θCM=0° to 18°) for the reactions H++H2(v=0)→H++H2(vf) and →H+H+2(vf) . The energy resolution is sufficient to resolve final vibrational states in both channels. The comparison of both the angular and energy loss distributions for the two product channels provides the first clear experimental evidence of a two-step charge transfer mechanism: Vibrational excitation on the lower H++H2 surface is followed by charge transfer in the outgoing collision for only those H2 molecules which are excited vibrationally high enough (vf≥4) to overcome the endoergic barrier (ΔE=1.83 eV). The final vibrational distributions of H+2 appear to be very similar to those of H2 for vf≥4 indicating that for the angular range observed the charge transfer probability is the same for all vibrational states with vf≥4. The comparison with classical trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations points to some disagreement which probably can be attributed to the potential surface used.

  2. Absolute vibrational cross sections for 1-19 eV electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-02-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-19 eV electrons impacting on condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer. Experiments were performed under ultra-high vacuum (3 × 10-11 Torr) at a temperature of about 20 K. The magnitudes of the vibrational CSs lie within the 10-17 cm2 range. Features observed near 4.5, 9.5, and 12.5 eV in the incident energy dependence of the CSs were compared to the results of theoretical calculations and other experiments on gas and solid-phase THF. These three resonances are attributed to the formation of shape or core-excited shape resonances. Another maximum observed around 2.5 eV is not found in the calculations but has been observed in gas-phase studies; it is attributed to the formation of a shape resonance.

  3. Two-photon double ionization of helium in the region of photon energies 42-50eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    We report the total integrated cross section (TICS) of two-photon double ionization of helium in the photon energy range from 42to50eV . Our computational procedure relies on a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation on a square-integrable basis and subsequent projection of this solution on a set of final field-free states describing correlation in the two-electron continuum. Our results suggest that the TICS grows monotonically as a function of photon energy in the region of 42-50eV , possibly reaching a maximum in the vicinity of 50eV . We also present fully resolved triple-differential cross sections for selected photon energies.

  4. Absolute vibrational cross sections for 1–19 eV electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF)

    PubMed Central

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-01-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1–19 eV electrons impacting on condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer. Experiments were performed under ultra-high vacuum (3 × 10−11 Torr) at a temperature of about 20 K. The magnitudes of the vibrational CSs lie within the 10−17 cm2 range. Features observed near 4.5, 9.5, and 12.5 eV in the incident energy dependence of the CSs were compared to the results of theoretical calculations and other experiments on gas and solid-phase THF. These three resonances are attributed to the formation of shape or core-excited shape resonances. Another maximum observed around 2.5 eV is not found in the calculations but has been observed in gas-phase studies; it is attributed to the formation of a shape resonance. PMID:26896993

  5. Two-photon double ionization of helium in the region of photon energies 42-50 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2007-03-15

    We report the total integrated cross section (TICS) of two-photon double ionization of helium in the photon energy range from 42 to 50 eV. Our computational procedure relies on a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation on a square-integrable basis and subsequent projection of this solution on a set of final field-free states describing correlation in the two-electron continuum. Our results suggest that the TICS grows monotonically as a function of photon energy in the region of 42-50 eV, possibly reaching a maximum in the vicinity of 50 eV. We also present fully resolved triple-differential cross sections for selected photon energies.

  6. Archaeology management system based on EV-Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Lu, Guo-nian; Pei, An-ping; Niu, Yu-gang; Luo, Tao

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, cultural relics were recorded in a 2D (2 dimensions) method such as paper maps, pictures, multi-media, micro-models and so on. This paper introduces the archaeology management system based on EV-Globe (Earth View-Globe - spatial information service platform on virtual 3D environment) for the cultural relics along the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD). Integrate the spatial and attribute data of the cultural relics along ERP of SNWD processed by SuperMap deskpro2005 with the relative basic geological data based on the platform of EV-Globe and develop a series of functions based on the SDK (Software Development Kit), and so the relics can be managed visually, at the same time the system may assist the archaeologists and some researchers in managing and studying the cultural relics. Some conception and conceiving of web and mobile version is put forward for next researching.

  7. Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Evaluation and Validation (E&V) Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    and metrics for assessing tools and APSEs, and techniques for performing such assessments. Chapters 1 through 3 provide a general introduction to the...Schema. The schema adopts a relational model of the subject and process of E&V. This model allows the user to arrive at E&V techniques through many...analyses and results. * Describing E&V procedures and techniques developed by the E&V Project. 3 . Assisting in the location of E&V procedures and

  8. Human HLA-Ev (147) Expression in Transgenic Animals.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, R; Maeda, A; Sakai, R; Eguchi, H; Lo, P-C; Hasuwa, H; Ikawa, M; Nakahata, K; Zenitani, M; Yamamichi, T; Umeda, S; Deguchi, K; Okuyama, H; Miyagawa, S

    2016-05-01

    In our previous study, we reported on the development of substituting S147C for HLA-E as a useful gene tool for xenotransplantation. In this study we exchanged the codon of HLA-Ev (147), checked its function, and established a line of transgenic mice. A new construct, a codon exchanging human HLA-Ev (147) + IRES + human beta 2-microgloblin, was established. The construct was subcloned into pCXN2 (the chick beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer) vector. Natural killer cell- and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicities were performed using the established the pig endothelial cell (PEC) line with the new gene. Transgenic mice with it were next produced using a micro-injection method. The expression of the molecule on PECs was confirmed by the transfection of the plasmid. The established molecules on PECs functioned well in regulating natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity. We have also successfully generated several lines of transgenic mice with this plasmid. The expression of HLA-Ev (147) in each mouse organ was confirmed by assessing the mRNA. The chick beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer resulted in a relatively broad expression of the gene in each organ, and a strong expression in the cases of the heart and lung. A synthetic HLA-Ev (147) gene with a codon usage optimized to a mammalian system represents a critical factor in the development of transgenic animals for xenotransplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion D.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  10. Observations from The EV Project in Q3 2013

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2013-12-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes results published in numerous other reports. It describes the usage of electric vehicles and charging units in the EV Project over the past 3 months. There is no new data or information provided in this report, only summarizing of information published in other reports (which have all been approved for unlimited distribution publication). This report will be posted to the INL/AVTA website for viewing by the general public.

  11. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  12. An ultrahigh-vacuum apparatus for resonant diffraction experiments using soft x rays (hnu=300-2000 eV).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Chainani, A; Takata, Y; Tanaka, Y; Oura, M; Tsubota, M; Senba, Y; Ohashi, H; Mochiku, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S

    2009-02-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh-vacuum instrument for resonant diffraction experiments using polarized soft x rays in the energy range of hnu=300-2000 eV at beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. The diffractometer consists of modified differentially pumped rotary feedthroughs for theta-2theta stages, a sample manipulator with motor-controlled x-y-z-, tilt (chi)-, and azimuth (phi)-axes, and a liquid helium flow-type cryostat for temperature dependent measurements between 30 and 300 K. Test results indicate that the diffractometer exhibits high reproducibility (better than 0.001 degrees ) for a Bragg reflection of alpha-quartz 100 at a photon energy of hnu=1950 eV. Typical off- and on-resonance Bragg reflections in the energy range of 530-1950 eV could be measured using the apparatus. The results show that x-ray diffraction experiments with energy-, azimuth-, and incident photon polarization-dependence can be reliably measured using soft x rays in the energy range of approximately 300-2000 eV. The facility can be used for resonant diffraction experiments across the L-edge of transition metals, M-edge of lanthanides, and up to the Si K-edge of materials.

  13. Electron-impact-ionization cross sections of H{sub 2} for low outgoing electron energies from 1 to 10 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hagan, Ola; Madison, D. H.; Murray, A. J.; Kaiser, C.; Colgan, J.

    2010-03-15

    Theoretical and experimental fully differential cross sections are presented for electron-impact ionization of molecular hydrogen in a plane perpendicular to the incident beam direction. The experimental data exhibit a maximum for 1-eV electrons detected 180 deg. apart and a minimum for 10-eV electrons. We investigate the different physical effects which cause back-to-back scattering and demonstrate that, over the energy range from 10 to 1 eV, a direct transition is observed from a region where Wannier threshold physics is essentially unimportant to where it completely dominates.

  14. Phylogenetic Characterizations of Highly Mutated EV-B106 Recombinants Showing Extensive Genetic Exchanges with Other EV-B in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Tang, Haishu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-02-23

    Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80.5-80.8% nucleotide identity and 95.4-97.3% amino acid identity with the Yunnan EV-B106 strain, indicating high mutagenicity. Similarity plots and bootscanning analyses revealed that frequent intertypic recombination occurred in all four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains in the non-structural region. These four strains may share a donor sequence with the EV-B85 strain, which circulated in Xinjiang in 2011, indicating extensive genetic exchanges between these strains. All Xinjiang EV-B106 strains were temperature-sensitive. An antibody seroprevalence study against EV-B106 in two Xinjiang prefectures also showed low titres of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting limited exposure and transmission in the population. This study contributes the whole genome sequences of EV-B106 to the GenBank database and provides valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology of EV-B106 in China.

  15. Phylogenetic Characterizations of Highly Mutated EV-B106 Recombinants Showing Extensive Genetic Exchanges with Other EV-B in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Tang, Haishu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80.5–80.8% nucleotide identity and 95.4–97.3% amino acid identity with the Yunnan EV-B106 strain, indicating high mutagenicity. Similarity plots and bootscanning analyses revealed that frequent intertypic recombination occurred in all four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains in the non-structural region. These four strains may share a donor sequence with the EV-B85 strain, which circulated in Xinjiang in 2011, indicating extensive genetic exchanges between these strains. All Xinjiang EV-B106 strains were temperature-sensitive. An antibody seroprevalence study against EV-B106 in two Xinjiang prefectures also showed low titres of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting limited exposure and transmission in the population. This study contributes the whole genome sequences of EV-B106 to the GenBank database and provides valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology of EV-B106 in China. PMID:28230168

  16. Total and dissociative photoionization cross sections of N2 from threshold to 107 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, James A. R.; Masuoka, T.; Pareek, P. N.; Angel, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    The absolute cross sections for the production of N(+) and N2(+) were measured from the dissociative ionization threshold of 115 A. In addition, the absolute photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections were tabulated between 114 and 796 A. The ionization efficiencies were also given at several discrete wave lengths between 660 and 790 A. The production of N(+) fragment ions are discussed in terms of the doubly excited N2(+) states with binding energies in the range of 24 to 44 eV.

  17. Circular intensity differential scattering measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (~16 EV to 500 EV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestre, Marcos F.; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Snyder, Patricia A.; Rowe, Ednor M.; Hansen, Roger W.

    1991-11-01

    We propose the use of recently developed technique of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object, e.g., the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light.

  18. Mass Absorption Coefficient of Tungsten and Tantalum, 1450 eV to 2350 eV: Experiment, Theory, and Application.

    PubMed

    Levine, Zachary H; Grantham, Steven; Tarrio, Charles; Paterson, David J; McNulty, Ian; Levin, T M; Ankudinov, Alexei L; Rehr, John J

    2003-01-01

    The mass absorption coefficients of tungsten and tantalum were measured with soft x-ray photons from 1450 eV to 2350 eV using an undulator source. This region includes the M3, M4, and M5 absorption edges. X-ray absorption fine structure was calculated within a real-space multiple scattering formalism; the predicted structure was observed for tungsten and to a lesser degree tantalum as well. Separately, the effects of dynamic screening were observed as shown by an atomic calculation within the relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation. Dynamic screening effects influence the spectra at the 25 % level and are observed for both tungsten and tantalum. We applied these results to characterize spatially-resolved spectra of a tungsten integrated circuit interconnect obtained using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The results indicate tungsten fiducial markers were deposited into silica trenches with a depths of 50 % and 60 % of the markers' heights.

  19. STS-54 EV1 Harbaugh carries EV2 Runco during DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's PLB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Mission Specialist (MS2) and extravehicular crewmember 1 (EV1) Gregory J. Harbaugh, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) (red stripes),carries EMU-suited MS1 and EV2 Mario Runco, Jr along Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB) starboard sill longeron during Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, extravehicular activity (EVA) operations procedure/ training. Harbaugh uses Runco's EMU mini-workstation as a handhold. The objective of this exercise is to simulate carrying a large object. It will also evaluate the ability of an astronaut to move about it space with a 'bulky' object in hand. The empty airborne support equipment (ASE) frames appear below the crewmembers and the PLB aft bulkhead behind them. This EVA is the first in a series to broaden EVA procedures and training experience bases and proficiency in preparation for future EVAs such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  20. Reactions in 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone triggered by low energy electrons (0-10 eV): from simple bond cleavages to complex unimolecular reactions.

    PubMed

    Illenberger, Eugen; Meinke, Martina C

    2014-08-21

    The impact of low energy electrons (0-10 eV) to 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone yields a variety of fragment anions which are formed via dissociative electron attachment (DEA) through three pronounced resonances located at 0.8 eV, near 4 eV, and in the energy range 8-9 eV. The fragment ions arise from different reactions ranging from the direct cleavage of one single or double bond (formation of F(-), CF3(-), O(-), (M-H)(-), and M-F)(-)) to remarkably complex unimolecular reactions associated with substantial geometric and electronic rearrangement in the transitory intermediate (formation of OH(-), FHF(-), (M-HF)(-), CCH(-), and HCCO(-). The ion CCH(-), for example, is formed by an excision of unit from the target molecule through the concerted cleavage of four bonds and recombination to H2O within the neutral component of the reaction.

  1. Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    PubMed Central

    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A–C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5′UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses. PMID:24722726

  2. Growth and morphology of 0.80 eV photoemitting indium nitride nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.C.; Lee, C.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.; Konsek, S.L.; Aloni, S.; Han, W.Q.; Zettl, A.

    2004-08-13

    InN nanowires with high efficiency photoluminescence emission at 0.80 eV are reported for the first time. InN nanowires were synthesized via a vapor solid growth mechanism from high purity indium metal and ammonia. The products consist of only hexagonal wurtzite phase InN. Scanning electron microscopy showed wires with diameters of 50-100nm and having fairly smooth morphologies. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed high quality, single crystal InN nanowires which grew in the <0001> direction. The group-III nitrides have become an extremely important technological material over the past decade. They are commonly used in optoelectronic devices, such as high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and low wavelength laser diodes (LDs), as well as high power/high frequency electronic devices. Recently InN thin films grown by MOCVD and MBE were found to have a bandgap energy in the range of 0.7-0.9 eV, much lower than the value of {approx}1.9 eV found for InN films grown by sputtering. This large decrease in the direct bandgap transition energy and the ability to form ternary (InGaN) and quaternary (AlInGaN) alloys increases the versatility of group-III nitride optoelectronic devices, ranging from the near IR to the UV. Additionally, InN has some promising transport and electronic properties. It has the smallest effective electron mass of all the group-III nitrides which leads to high mobility and high saturation velocity10 and a large drift velocity at room temperature. As a result of these unique properties, there has been a large increase in interest in InN for potential use in optoelectronic devices, such as LDs and high efficiency solar cells, as well as high frequency/high power electronic devices.

  3. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  4. Secondary Use of PHEV and EV Batteries: Opportunities & Challenges (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Howell, D.

    2010-05-01

    NREL and partners will investigate the reuse of retired lithium ion batteries for plug-in hybrid, hybrid, and electric vehicles in order to reduce vehicle costs and emissions and curb our dependence on foreign oil. A workshop to solicit industry feedback on the process is planned. Analyses will be conducted, and aged batteries will be tested in two or three suitable second-use applications. The project is considering whether retired PHEV/EV batteries have value for other applications; if so, what are the barriers and how can they be overcome?

  5. Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; Aznárez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.; Méndez, José A.; Poletto, Luca; Garoli, Denis; Malvezzi, A. Marco; Giglia, Angelo; Nannarone, Stefano

    2008-12-01

    The optical constants of Eu films were obtained in the 8.3-1400 eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. Thin films of Eu were deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and their transmittance was measured in situ. Eu films were deposited onto grids coated with a thin C support film. The refractive index n of Eu was calculated using the Kramers-Kronig analysis. Data were extrapolated both on the high- and low-energy sides by using experimental and calculated extinction coefficient values available in the literature. Eu, similar to other lanthanides, has a low-absorption band just below the O2,3 edge onset; the lowest absorption was measured at about 16.7 eV. Therefore, Eu is a promising material for filters and multilayer coatings in the energy range below the O2,3 edge in which materials typically have a strong absorption. The consistency of the composite optical constants was tested with the f and inertial sum rules and found to be good.

  6. Optical Constants of Uranium Nitride in the XUV (80--182 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, Marie; Allred, David D.; Adamson, Kristi; Bissell, Luke; Turley, R. Steven

    2003-10-01

    The reported optical constants of uranium differ from those of vacuum more than those of any other elements in the range 150--350 eV. Because of this, uranium could be used in high reflectance imaging mirrors for soft x-ray applications. Unfortunately, elemental uranium is chemically actrive and readily oxidizes. Uranium nitride is reported to have high density (14.3 g/cm^3) and to be more resistant to oxidation and hydrolysis. We computed the expected reflectance of uranium nitride films for low-angle reflectance. We reactively sputtered uranium in an argon/nitrogen ambient. Samples sputtered at a nitrogen partial pressure of >10-4 torr could be U_2N_3. Measured reflectances of these uranium nitride films (Beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) do not reach those predicted for UN. Measurements were over the range 80--182 eV and from 0 to 40 degrees grazing incidence. Sample reflectance was twice as great as that of nickel, the material used for low-angle mirrors, but less than that of our UO_x. XPS is being used to determine the composition of the films and we are testing samples deposited at lower nitrogen partial pressures.

  7. [Establishment of EV71 animal models with 2-week-old BALB/c mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2013-03-01

    Animal model is very important for anti-EV71 (enterovirus 71) drug and vaccine development. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse model is the main in vivo model used in China. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse is too small to perform antiviral experiment. And the route of administration and dosage capacity are also restricted. A strong virulence EV71 virus strain was selected after screening from five EV71 strains with 1-day-old suckling mice. A mouse-adapted EV71 strain with increased virulence in 12-day-old suckling mice, EV71-M5, was generated after five serial passages of the parental EV71 strain in mice. Virus titers of EV71 infected mice heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine, brain and muscle tissue were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. The virus used in this model is the first isolated EV71 strain in China. And 2-week-old suckling mice were used in this model. This is a supplement for the EV71 animal model in China. Establishment of this EV71 model will provide an attractive platform for anti-EV71 vaccine and drug development.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to VP1 recognize a broad range of enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lynn Yihong; Pierce, Christina; Gray-Johnson, Jennifer; DeLotell, Jill; Shaw, Carl; Chapman, Nate; Yeh, Elaine; Schnurr, David; Huang, Yung T

    2009-10-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are common seasonal viruses that are associated with a variety of diseases. High-quality monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed to improve the accuracy of EV diagnosis in clinical laboratories. In the present study, the full-length VP1 genes of poliovirus 1 (Polio 1) and coxsackievirus B3 (Cox B3) were cloned, and the encoded proteins were expressed and used as antigens in an attempt to raise broad-spectrum MAbs to EVs. Two pan-EV MAbs were isolated: one raised against Polio 1 VP1 and the other against Cox B3 VP1. The binding sites of both pan-EV MAbs were mapped to an amino acid sequence within a conserved region in the N terminus of Polio 1 VP1 by peptide and competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two additional MAbs, an EV70-specific MAb and an EV71/Cox A16-bispecific MAb, developed against EV70 and 71 VP1 proteins, were pooled with the two pan-EV MAbs (pan-EV MAb mix) and tested for their sensitivity and specificity in the staining of various virus-infected cells. The pan-EV MAb mix detected all 40 prototype EVs tested and showed no cross-reactivity to 18 different non-EV human viruses. Compared with two commercially available EV tests, the pan-EV MAb mix exhibited higher specificity than one test and broader spectrum reactivity than the other. Thus, our study demonstrates that full-length Polio 1 VP1 and Cox B3 VP1 can serve as effective antigens for developing a pan-EV MAb and that the pan-EV MAb mix can be used for the laboratory diagnosis of a wide range of EV infections.

  9. The approved pediatric drug suramin identified as a clinical candidate for the treatment of EV71 infection-suramin inhibits EV71 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peijun; Zou, Gang; Bailly, Benjamin; Xu, Shanshan; Zeng, Mei; Chen, Xinsheng; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Ying; Guillon, Patrice; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Buchy, Philippe; Li, Jian; von Itzstein, Mark; Li, Qihan; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe central nervous system infections, leading to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is an urgent unmet medical need for new pharmaceutical agents to control EV71 infections. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we found that the approved pediatric antiparasitic drug suramin blocked EV71 infectivity by a novel mechanism of action that involves binding of the naphtalentrisulonic acid group of suramin to the viral capsid. Moreover, we demonstrate that when suramin is used in vivo at doses equivalent to or lower than the highest dose already used in humans, it significantly decreased mortality in mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 and peak viral load in adult rhesus monkeys. Thus, suramin inhibits EV71 infection by neutralizing virus particles prior to cell attachment. Consequently, these findings identify suramin as a clinical candidate for further development as a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment for severe EV71 infection.

  10. NASA JSC EV2 Intern Spring 2016 - Jennie Chung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is a mission to resume the manned exploration of the Solar System. This mission is the first crewed mission of NASA’s Orion on the Space Launch System. The target for EM-2 is to perform a flyby of a captured asteroid in lunar orbit, which NASA plans to launch in 2023. As an intern working with EV-2 – Avionics Systems Division in Johnson Space Center, we are developing flight instrumentation systems for EM-2 (MISL & RFID). The Modular Integrated Stackable Layer (MISL) is a compact space-related computer system that is modular, scalable and reconfigurable. The RFID (radio frequency identification) sensors are used to take lower frequency (TC) type measurements and be able to stream data real-time to an RF (radio frequency) interrogator upon demand. Our job, in EV-2, is to certify, test, manufacture/assemble and deliver flight EM-2 DFI System (MISL & RFID). Our goal is to propose a development effort to design low-mass wire and wireless data acquisition and sensor solutions for EM-2 DFI (Development Flight Instrumentation). The team is tasked to provide the most effective use of 75 pounds to acquire DFI data and to collect sensor data for 100-200 high priority DFI channels (mass driven).

  11. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND ELEMENT FRACTIONATION IN EV Lac

    SciTech Connect

    Laming, J. Martin; Hwang, Una

    2009-12-10

    We present a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the dMe flare star EV Lac, in which the star was captured undergoing a moderate 1500 s flare. During the flare, the count rate increased by about a factor of 50 and the spectrum showed overall enhanced element abundances relative to quiescence. While the quiescent element abundances confirm the inverse first ionization potential (FIP) effect previously documented for EV Lac, with relatively higher depletions for low FIP elements, abundances during the flare spectra show a composition closer to that of the stellar photosphere. We discuss these results in the context of models that explain abundance fractionation in the stellar chromosphere as a result of the ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves. Stars with FIP or inverse FIP effects arising from differently directed ponderomotive forces may have quite different abundance signatures in their evaporated chromospheric plasma during flares, if the same ponderomotive force also affects thermal conduction downward from the corona. The regulation of the thermal conductivity by the ponderomotive force requires a level of turbulence that is somewhat higher than is normally assumed, but plausible in filamentary conduction models.

  12. Near 0 eV electrons attach to nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2006-02-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of the nascent stage of DNA strand breakage by low-energy electrons, theoretical investigations of electron attachment to nucleotides have been performed by the reliably calibrated B3LYP/DZP++ approach (Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 231). The 2'-deoxycytidine-3'-monophosphate (3'-dCMPH) and its phosphate-deprotonated anion (3'-dCMP(-)) have been selected herein as models. This investigation reveals that 3'-dCMPH is able to capture near 0 eV electrons to form a radical anion which has a lower energy than the corresponding neutral species in both the gas phase and aqueous solution. The excess electron density is primarily located on the base of the nucleotide radical anion. The electron detachment energy of this pyrimidine-based radical anion is high enough that subsequent phosphate-sugar C-O sigma bond breaking or glycosidic bond cleavage is feasible. Although the phosphate-centered radical anion of 3'-dCMPH is not stable in the gas phase, it may be stable in aqueous solution. However, an incident electron with kinetic energy less than 4 eV might not be able to effectively produce the phosphate-centered radical anion either in solution or in the gas phase. This research also suggests that the electron affinity of the nucleotides is independent of the counterion in aqueous solution.

  13. Energetic (above 60 eV) atmospheric photoelectrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winningham, J. D.; Decker, D. T.; Kozyra, J. U.; Nagy, A. F.; Jasperse, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Data from low altitude plasma instrument (LAPI) on Dynamics Explorer 2 document a population of high-energy (up to 800 eV) atmospheric photoelectrons that has not been reported in the published literature. The source of these photoelectrons is postulated to be the soft X-ray portion of the whole sun spectrum. This conclusion is supported by sunrise-sunset characteristics that track those of the classical (below 60 eV) EUV-produced photoelectrons, and theoretical results from two models that incorporate the soft X-ray portion of the solar spectrum. The models include K-shell ionization effects and predict peaks in the photoelectron spectrum due to Auger electrons emitted from oxygen and nitrogen. The peak for nitrogen is observed as predicted, but the peak for oxygen is barely observable. Excellent quantitative agreement is achieved between theory and experiment by using reasonable adjustments to the few published soft X-ray spectra based on solar activity. The upflowing energetic photoelectrons provide a heretofore unknown source of electrons to the magnetosphere. They occur whenever and wherever the sun is up, that is, at all invariant latitudes. Their density is low, but they are steady and ubiquitous. If scattering and trapping occur on closed field lines, then photoelectrons could contribute as a significant particle source and thus represent a new facet of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  14. Protective effect of enterovirus-71 (EV71) virus-like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model

    PubMed Central

    CAO, LEI; MAO, FENGFENG; PANG, ZHENG; YI, YAO; QIU, FENG; TIAN, RUIGUANG; MENG, QINGLING; JIA, ZHIYUAN; BI, SHENGLI

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine. PMID:25936344

  15. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine.

  16. Partial protection against enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in a mouse model immunized with recombinant Newcastle disease virus capsids displaying the EV71 VP1 fragment.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Wei-Choong; Stanbridge, Eric J; Ong, Kien-Chai; Wong, Kum-Thong; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shafee, Norazizah

    2011-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may cause severe neurological complications, particularly in young children. Despite the risks, there are still no commercially available EV71 vaccines. Hence, a candidate vaccine construct, containing recombinant Newcastle disease virus capsids that display an EV71 VP1 fragment (NPt-VP1(1-100) ) protein, was evaluated in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Previously, it was shown that this protein construct provoked a strong immune response in vaccinated adult rabbits. That study, however, did not address the issue of its effectiveness against EV71 infection in young animals. In the present study, EV71 viral challenge in vaccinated newborn mice resulted in more than 40% increase in survival rate. Significantly, half of the surviving mice fully recovered from their paralysis. Histological analysis of all of the surviving mice revealed a complete clearance of EV71 viral antigens from their brains and spinal cords. In hind limb muscles, the amounts of the antigens detected correlated with the degrees of tissue damage and paralysis. Findings from this study provide evidence that immunization with the NPt-VP1(1-100) immunogen in a newborn mouse model confers partial protection against EV71 infection, and also highlights the importance of NPt-VP1(1-100) as a possible candidate vaccine for protection against EV71 infections.

  17. Measurement of the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per fission of /sup 233/U relative to /sup 252/Cf for the energy region 500 eV to 10 MeV and below 0. 3 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Gwin, R.; Spencer, R.R.; Ingle, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    The energy dependence of the average number of prompt fission neutrons emitted per fission, anti ..nu../sub p/(E), has been measured for /sup 233/U relative to anti ..nu../sub p/ for /sup 252/Cf over the neutron energy ranges 500 eV to 10 MeV and below 0.3 eV. A large Gd-loaded liquid scintillator was used to detect neutrons and the samples of /sup 233/U and /sup 252/Cf were contained in fission chambers. The present results for anti ..nu../sub p/(E) for /sup 233/U are in accord with the experimental results of Boldeman and the evaluated results of Lemmel in the thermal energy range, but in the neutron energy region between 100 keV and 1 MeV the present data are 1% or more larger than other experimental values.

  18. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Michelle E.; Leonard, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general biophysical properties impact loading and delivery of RNA by EVs, we developed a platform for actively loading engineered cargo RNAs into EVs. In our system, the MS2 bacteriophage coat protein was fused to EV-associated proteins, and the cognate MS2 stem loop was engineered into cargo RNAs. Using this Targeted and Modular EV Loading (TAMEL) approach, we identified a configuration that substantially enhanced cargo RNA loading (up to 6-fold) into EVs. When applied to vesicles expressing the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) – gesicles – we observed a 40-fold enrichment in cargo RNA loading. While active loading of mRNA-length (>1.5 kb) cargo molecules was possible, active loading was much more efficient for smaller (~0.5 kb) RNA molecules. We next leveraged the TAMEL platform to elucidate the limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery of mRNA and protein to prostate cancer cells, as a model system. Overall, most cargo was rapidly degraded in recipient cells, despite high EV-loading efficiencies and substantial EV uptake by recipient cells. While gesicles were efficiently internalized via a VSVG-mediated mechanism, most cargo molecules were rapidly degraded. Thus, in this model system, inefficient endosomal fusion or escape likely represents a limiting barrier to EV-mediated transfer. Altogether, the TAMEL platform enabled a comparative analysis elucidating a key opportunity for enhancing EV-mediated delivery to prostate cancer cells, and this technology should be of

  19. Study of Cosmic Ray Primaries between 1012 and 1016 eV from EAS-TOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarra, Gianni; EAS-Top Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The EAS-TOP experiment has been in operation since January 1989 to May 2000 in the study of cosmic ray physics in the energy range between the direct measurements and the "giant" air shower arrays (E0 = 1012 ÷ 1016 eV, including the knee of the primary spectrum). The array was located at Camp o imperatore, 2000 m a.s.l., 300 with respect to the vertical of the underground Gran Sasso Laboratories, which allowed operation in stand alone mode, and in coincidence with the underground TeV muon detectors (MACRO, LVD). Different detectors and techniques: hadrons, EAS Cherenkov light and TeV muons, e.m., GeV, and TeV muon EAS components, and their correlated analysis, have been exploited, providing measurements in different energy ranges. The resulting scenario of the high energy galactic cosmic radiation concerning the primary spectrum, composition and anisotropies is presented.

  20. Electron Landau damping in toroidal plasma with Solov’ev equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, N. I. Azarenkov, N. A.

    2013-12-15

    The contribution of untrapped and two groups of trapped particles to the longitudinal (with respect to the magnetic field) elements of the dielectric susceptibility is determined by solving the drift-kinetic equations for such particles in axisymmetric tokamaks with Solov’ev equilibrium. The obtained dielectric characteristics are applicable for studying linear wave processes in the frequency range of Alfvén and fast magnetosonic waves in small- and large-aspect-ratio tokamaks with circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections of magnetic surfaces. The high-frequency power absorbed in plasma via electron Landau damping is estimated by summing up terms containing the imaginary parts of both diagonal and non-diagonal elements of the longitudinal susceptibility. The imaginary part of the longitudinal susceptibility is calculated numerically for spherical tokamaks in a wide range of wave frequencies and magnetic surface radii.

  1. Si-Ge-Sn alloys with 1.0 eV gap for CPV multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roucka, Radek Clark, Andrew; Landini, Barbara

    2015-09-28

    Si-Ge-Sn ternary group IV alloys offer an alternative to currently used 1.0 eV gap materials utilized in multijunction solar cells. The advantage of Si-Ge-Sn is the ability to vary both the bandgap and lattice parameter independently. We present current development in fabrication of Si-Ge-Sn alloys with gaps in the 1.0 eV range. Produced material exhibits excellent structural properties, which allow for integration with existing III-V photovoltaic cell concepts. Time dependent room temperature photoluminescence data demonstrate that these materials have long carrier lifetimes. Absorption tunable by compositional changes is observed. As a prototype device set utilizing the 1 eV Si-Ge-Sn junction, single junction Si-Ge-Sn device and triple junction device with Si-Ge-Sn subcell have been fabricated. The resulting I-V and external quantum efficiency data show that the Si-Ge-Sn junction is fully functional and the performance is comparable to other 1.0 eV gap materials currently used.

  2. Alternate Multilayer Gratings with Enhanced Diffraction Efficiency in the 500-5000 eV Energy Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, Francois; Lagarde, Bruno; Idir, Mourad; Cloup, Audrey Liard; Jourdain, Erick; Roulliay, Marc; Delmotte, Franck; Gautier, Julien; Ravet-Krill, Marie-Francoise

    2007-01-19

    An alternate multilayer (AML) grating is a 2 dimensional diffraction structure formed on an optical surface, having a 0.5 duty cycle in the in-plane and in the in-depth direction. It can be made by covering a shallow depth laminar grating with a multilayer stack. We show here that their 2D structure confer AML gratings a high angular and energetic selectivity and therefore enhanced diffraction properties, when used in grazing incidence. In the tender X-ray range (500eV - 5000 eV) they behave much like blazed gratings. Over 15% efficiency has been measured on a 1200 lines/mm Mo/Si AML grating in the 1.2 - 1.5 keV energy range. Computer simulations show that selected multilayer materials such as Cr/C should allow diffraction efficiency over 50% at photon energies over 3 keV.

  3. Electron and Positron Scattering from Chlorine Molecules in the Energy Region from 0.8 ev to 600 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Mineo

    2002-10-01

    ELECTRON AND POSITRON SCATTERING FROM CHLORINE MOLECULES IN THE ENERGY REGION FROM 0.8 eV TO 600 eV C. Makochekanwa, H. Kawate, O. Sueoka and M. Kimura Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan Total scattering cross sections for chlorine molecules by electron impact are determined experimentally for the impact energies from 0.8 eV to 600 eV. Elastic scattering cross sections are also determined theoretically. The results above 23 eV are the first report on these processes. The present results are in good accord in the energy-dependence with the previous measurements, although the absolute magnitude is found to be about 30% smaller than that of Gulley et al. [J. Phys. B31, 2971 (1998)]. Strong sharp peaks around 7.8 eV and 12 eV are observed and well separated, and the one at 7.8 eV is attributed to dissociative electron attachment, while the one at 12 eV is speculated to be due to ion-pair formation through direct dissociation. The present elastic cross sections are found to show the similar shape to the TCS although the magnitude is smaller by a few % below 30 eV to a factor of two at 100 eV. Small-scale experimental study is also carried out for determining total and positronium formation cross sections by positron impact as well to carry out the comparative study.

  4. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gavrin, Vladimir; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to the interference of an ˜1 eV sterile neutrino. The Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly, starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in search of a sterile neutrino mixed with an electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST), we find the region in the model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle) which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  5. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV

  6. Cosmic rays: the spectrum and chemical composition from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20} eV

    SciTech Connect

    Peixoto, C.J. Todero; De Souza, Vitor; Biermann, Peter L. E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2015-07-01

    The production of energetic particles in the universe remains one of the great mysteries of modern science. The mechanisms of acceleration in astrophysical sources and the details about the propagation through the galactic and extragalactic media are still to be defined. In recent years, the cosmic ray flux has been measured with high precision in the energy range from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20.5} eV by several experiments using different techniques. In some energy ranges, it has been possible to determine the flux of individual elements (hydrogen to iron nuclei). This paper explores an astrophysical scenario in which only our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A produce all particles measured on Earth in the energy range from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20.5} eV . Data from AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande and the Pierre Auger Observatories are considered. The model developed here is compared to the total and if available to the individual particle flux of the experiments considered.The flux of each element as determined by AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande and the mass sensitivity parameter X{sub max} measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10 eV are also explored within the framework of the model. The transition from 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 18} eV is carefully analyzed. It is shown that the flux measured in this energy range suggest the existence of an extra component of cosmic rays yet to be understood.

  7. Search for discrete gamma-ray sources emitting at energies greater than 10/sup 15/ eV

    SciTech Connect

    Samorski, M.; Stamm, W.

    1984-02-15

    The data of the extensive air shower experiment at Kiel have been scanned systematically for possible discrete ..gamma..-ray sources in the energy range E>10/sup 15/ eV and in the declination band delta = 25/sup 0/-75/sup 0/. Photon fluxes for celestial positions with the statistically most significant excesses of showers and 3 sigma upper limit photon fluxes for COS B ..gamma..-ray sources visible to the extensive air shower experiment at Kiel are presented.

  8. The EV Project Price/Fee Models for Publicly Accessible Charging

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward

    2015-12-01

    As plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are introduced to the market place and gain more consumer acceptance, it is important for a robust and self-sustaining non-residential infrastructure of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to be established to meet the needs of PEV drivers. While federal and state financial incentives for electric vehicles were in place and remain so today, future incentives are uncertain. In order for PEVs to achieve mainstream adoption, an adequate and sustainable commercial or publicly available charging infrastructure was pursued by The EV Project to encourage increased PEV purchases by alleviating range anxiety, and by removing adoption barriers for consumers without a dedicated overnight parking location to provide a home-base charger. This included determining a business model for publicly accessible charge infrastructure. To establish this business model, The EV Project team created a fee for charge model along with various ancillary offerings related to charging that would generate revenue. And after placing chargers in the field the Project rolled out this fee structure.

  9. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 100-400 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, Richard L.; Allred, David D.; Bissell, Luke J.; Johnson, Jed E.; Turley, R. Steven

    2004-05-12

    We present the measured reflectances (Beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium and naturally oxidized nickel thin films from 100-460 eV (2.7 to 11.6 nm) at 5 and 15 degrees grazing incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface reflector for this portion of the soft x-ray region, being nearly twice as reflective as nickel in the 124-250 eV (5-10 nm) region. This is due to its large index of refraction coupled with low absorption. Nickel is commonly used in soft x-ray applications in astronomy and synchrotrons. (Its reflectance at 10 deg. exceeds that of Au and Ir for most of this range.) We prepared uranium and nickel thin films via DC-magnetron sputtering of a depleted U target and resistive heating evaporation respectively. Ambient oxidation quickly brought the U sample to UO2 (total thickness about 30 nm). The nickel sample (50 nm) also acquired a thin native oxide coating (<2nm). Though the density of U in UO2 is only half of the metal, its reflectance is high and it is relatively stable against further changes.

  10. Analysis on influencing factors of EV charging station planning based on AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Ma, X. F.

    2016-08-01

    As a new means of transport, electric vehicle (EV) is of great significance to alleviate the energy crisis. EV charging station planning has a far-reaching significance for the development of EV industry. This paper analyzes the impact factors of EV charging station planning, and then uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to carry on the further analysis to the influencing factors, finally it gets the weight of each influence factor, and provides the basis for the evaluation scheme of the planning of charging stations for EV.

  11. RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication to accelerate the inhibition of the phosphorylation of AKT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengfeng; Liu, Yongjuan; Chen, Xiong; Dong, Lanlan; Zhou, Bingfei; Cheng, Qingqing; Han, Song; Liu, Zhongchun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2015-03-20

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), occasionally leading to death. As a member of the RAS association domain family (RASSFs), RASSF4 plays important roles in cell death, tumor development and signal transduction. However, little is known about the relationship between RASSF4 and EV71. Our study reveals for the first time that RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication and then accelerates AKT phosphorylation inhibition in EV71-infected 293T cells, suggesting that RASSF4 may be a potential new target for designing therapeutic measures to prevent and control EV71 infection.

  12. Delivery of human EV71 receptors by adeno-associated virus increases EV71 infection-induced local inflammation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  13. High-Resolution Study of 237Np Fission Cross Section from 5 eV to 1 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, W.; Cennini, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Goverdovski, A.; Konovalov, V.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bec̆vár̆, F.; Benlliure, J.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Cortina, D.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; David, S.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dorochenko, A.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Guerrero, C.; Goncalves, I.; Gallino, R.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kolokolov, D.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sedysheva, M.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; N Tof Collaboration

    2005-05-01

    A series of measurements of 237Np fission cross section have been performed at the CERN spallation neutron facility n_TOF which covers a wide energy range from 1 eV up to 250 MeV. A fast ionization chamber (FIC) was used as a fission fragment detector with registration efficiency of not less than 97 %. Particular attention was paid to correct the fission cross section with use of 235U standard. Total experimental uncertainties are determined to be at the level of 3%. Analysis of the experimental data in the restricted neutron energy from 5 eV up to 1 MeV showed a systematic deviation from evaluated data (ENDF/B-VI). This discrepancy amounts to up to a factor 3 for resolved resonances in the neutron energy range of 5 eV - 2 KeV, and is in good agreement with some previous experiments. A similar disagreement at the level of 6-7% was found for higher energies around the threshold (En = 300 keV-1 MeV). This energy range is essential for the transmutation of neptunium in ADS or fast reactors. It is concluded that an updated evaluation of nuclear data for 237Np is required.

  14. EvOligo: A Novel Software to Design and Group Libraries of Oligonucleotides Applicable for Nucleic Acid-Based Experiments.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Marek C; Kamel, Karol; Kurzynska-Kokorniak, Anna; Chmielewski, Marcin K; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2017-03-15

    Experimental methods based on DNA and RNA hybridization, such as multiplex polymerase chain reaction, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, or microarray analysis, require the use of mixtures of multiple oligonucleotides (primers or probes) in a single test tube. To provide an optimal reaction environment, minimal self- and cross-hybridization must be achieved among these oligonucleotides. To address this problem, we developed EvOligo, which is a software package that provides the means to design and group DNA and RNA molecules with defined lengths. EvOligo combines two modules. The first module performs oligonucleotide design, and the second module performs oligonucleotide grouping. The software applies a nearest-neighbor model of nucleic acid interactions coupled with a parallel evolutionary algorithm to construct individual oligonucleotides, and to group the molecules that are characterized by the weakest possible cross-interactions. To provide optimal solutions, the evolutionary algorithm sorts oligonucleotides into sets, preserves preselected parts of the oligonucleotides, and shapes their remaining parts. In addition, the oligonucleotide sets can be designed and grouped based on their melting temperatures. For the user's convenience, EvOligo is provided with a user-friendly graphical interface. EvOligo was used to design individual oligonucleotides, oligonucleotide pairs, and groups of oligonucleotide pairs that are characterized by the following parameters: (1) weaker cross-interactions between the non-complementary oligonucleotides and (2) more uniform ranges of the oligonucleotide pair melting temperatures than other available software products. In addition, in contrast to other grouping algorithms, EvOligo offers time-efficient sorting of paired and unpaired oligonucleotides based on various parameters defined by the user.

  15. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections. PMID:26670245

  16. EV71-infected CD14(+) cells modulate the immune activity of T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Jing; Huang, Hongtai; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Longding; Yang, Erxia; Zhou, Xiaofang; Ma, Na; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Xie, Zhenfeng; Tang, Donghong; Li, Qihan

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary studies of the major pathogen enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, have suggested that EV71 may be a major cause of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases. Currently, the role of the pathological changes induced by EV71 infection in the immunopathogenic response remains unclear. Our study focused on the interaction between this virus and immunocytes and indicated that this virus has the ability to replicate in CD14(+) cells. Furthermore, these EV71-infected CD14(+) cells have the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of T cells and to enhance the release of certain functional cytokines. An adaptive immune response induced by the back-transfusion of EV71-infected CD14(+) cells was observed in donor neonatal rhesus monkeys. Based on these observations, the proposed hypothesis is that CD14(+) cells infected by the EV71 virus might modulate the anti-EV71 adaptive immune response by inducing simultaneous T-cell activation.

  17. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-12-08

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3)-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv).

    PubMed

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2014-01-01

    Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  19. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Novel Mouse Cell Line (NIH/3T3)-Adapted Human Enterovirus 71 Strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv)

    PubMed Central

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2014-01-01

    Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus’s inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136–150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro. PMID:24671184

  20. Dynamics of H+ + CO at ELab = 30 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopera, Christopher; Maiti, Buddhadev; Grimes, Thomas V.; McLaurin, Patrick M.; Morales, Jorge A.

    2012-02-01

    The astrophysically relevant system H+ + CO (vi = 0) → H+ + CO (vf) at ELab = 30 eV is studied with the simplest-level electron nuclear dynamics (SLEND) method. This investigation follows previous successful SLEND studies of H+ + H2 and H+ + N2 at ELab = 30 eV [J. Morales, A. Diz, E. Deumens, and Y. Öhrn, J. Chem. Phys. 103(23), 9968 (1995), 10.1063/1.469886; C. Stopera, B. Maiti, T. V. Grimes, P. M. McLaurin, and J. A. Morales, J. Chem. Phys. 134(22), 224308 (2011), 10.1063/1.3598511]. SLEND is a direct, time-dependent, variational, and non-adiabatic method that adopts a classical-mechanics description for the nuclei and a single-determinantal wavefunction for the electrons. A canonical coherent-states (CS) procedure associated with SLEND reconstructs quantum vibrational properties from the SLEND classical dynamics. Present SLEND results include reactivity predictions, snapshots of the electron density evolution, average vibrational energy transfers, rainbow angle predictions, total and vibrationally resolved differential cross sections (DCS), and average vibrational excitation probabilities. SLEND results are compared with available data from experiments and vibrational close-coupling rotational infinite-order sudden (VCC-RIOS) approximation calculations. Present simulations employ four basis sets: STO-3G, 6-31G, 6-31G**, and cc-pVDZ to determine their effect on the results. SLEND simulations predict non-charge-transfer scattering and CO collision-induced dissociation as the main reactions. SLEND/6-31G, /6-31G**, and /cc-pVDZ predict rainbow angles and total DCS in excellent agreement with experiments and more accurate than their VCC-RIOS counterparts. SLEND/6-31G** and /cc-pVDZ predict vibrationally resolved DCS for vf = 0-2 in satisfactory experimental agreement, but less accurate than their comparable H+ + CO VCC-RIOS and H+ + H2 and H+ + N2 SLEND results. SLEND/6-31G** and /cc-pVDZ predict qualitatively correct average vibrational excitation probabilities

  1. The cosmic ray spectrum above 10(19) EV at Volcano Ranch and Haverah Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1986-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy per particle spectrum above 10 to the 19th power eV is measured the same way that energy spectra are measured at much lower energies, by counting all of the particles in a specified energy range that are incident per unit time with trajectories within specified geometrical limits. Difficulties with background or poorly known detection efficiency are markedly less than in some other cosmic ray measurements. The fraction of primary energy given to muons, neutrinos, and slow hadrons is less than 10% in this region, so the primary energy equals the track length integral of the secondary electrons with only a small correction for the energy given to other kinds of particles. Results from Volcano Ranch and Haverah Park are compared with results from the Yakutsk experiment.

  2. More is different: Reconciling eV sterile neutrinos with cosmological mass bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, Neff. In this paper we discuss a scenario that Neff can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch, but leading to a decrease of Neff. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced. To be consistent with the latest Planck results, at least 3 sterile species are needed.

  3. The Advanced Light Source U8 beam line, 20--300 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.; Warwick, T.; Howells, M.; McKinney, W.; Digennaro, D.; Gee, B.; Yee, D.; Kincaid, B.

    1991-10-01

    The U8 is a beam line under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The beam line will be described along with calculations of its performance and its current status. An 8 cm period undulator is followed by two spherical collecting mirrors, an entrance slit, spherical gratings having a 15{degree} deviation angle, a moveable exit slit, and refocusing and branching mirrors. Internal water cooling is provided to the metal M1 and M2 mirrors as well as to the gratings. Calculations have been made of both the flux output and the resolution over its photon energy range of 20--300 eV. The design goal was to achieve high intensity, 10{sup 12} photons/sec, at a high resolving power of 10,000. The U8 Participating Research Team (PRT) is planning experiments involving the photoelectron spectroscopy of gaseous atoms and molecules, the spectroscopy of ions and actinide spectroscopy.

  4. Determinants of EV71 immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junliang; Li, Jingliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Yang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Circulating enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region. An EV71 vaccine for HFMD prevention is currently being developed. However, viral determinants that could influence the vaccine's efficacy have not been well characterized. In this study, we isolated and characterized several EV71 strains that are currently circulating in northern and southern China. We determined that VP1 variation is a major determinant of EV71 immunogenicity. A single amino acid variation in VP1 can lead to significant differences in the breadth and potency of immune responses against primary EV71 isolates as well as the sensitivity of EV71 to heterologous neutralizing antibody responses. We also identified EV71 strains that could induce potent immunogenic and cross-neutralizing antibody responses against diverse EV71 strains. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies could protect neonatal mice from lethal dose challenge with various circulating EV71 viruses. Our study provides useful information for EV71 vaccine development and evaluation.

  5. Both ERK1 and ERK2 are required for enterovirus 71 (EV71) efficient replication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng; Duan, Hao; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Yihong

    2015-03-20

    It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%), progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40%) and protein synthesis (both by around 70%), indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  6. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenherg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX as an update of the state of the art in hybrid electric bicycles. The E-bike is seen as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The SX is a high performance, state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the SX's 36 V power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W, electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the SX, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the SX provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  7. Baseline Testing of The EV Global E-Bike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption and reduce Operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done Linder the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W. electric hub motor and a 7-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  8. A non-mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain exhibits neurotropism, causing neurological manifestations in a novel mouse model of EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Khong, Wei Xin; Yan, Benedict; Yeo, Huimin; Tan, Eng Lee; Lee, Jia Jun; Ng, Jowin K W; Chow, Vincent T; Alonso, Sylvie

    2012-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that has been consistently associated with the severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The lack of a relevant animal model has hampered our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, in particular the route and mode of viral dissemination. It has also hindered the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic approaches, making EV71 one of the most pressing public health concerns in Southeast Asia. Here we report a novel mouse model of EV71 infection. We demonstrate that 2-week-old and younger immunodeficient AG129 mice, which lack type I and II interferon receptors, are susceptible to infection with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain via both the intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral routes of inoculation. The infected mice displayed progressive limb paralysis prior to death. The dissemination of the virus was dependent on the route of inoculation but eventually resulted in virus accumulation in the central nervous systems of both animal groups, indicating a clear neurotropism of the virus. Histopathological examination revealed massive damage in the limb muscles, brainstem, and anterior horn areas. However, the minute amount of infectious viral particles in the limbs from orally infected animals argues against a direct viral cytopathic effect in this tissue and suggests that limb paralysis is a consequence of EV71 neuroinvasion. Together, our observations support that young AG129 mice display polio-like neuropathogenesis upon infection with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain, making this mouse model relevant for EV71 pathogenesis studies and an attractive platform for EV71 vaccine and drug testing.

  9. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  10. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  11. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  12. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  13. Large-scale Distribution of Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected Above 1018 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Messina, S.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-12-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 1018 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 1018 eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 1018 eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  14. Experimental investigations of low-energy (4-40 eV) collisions of O-(2P) ions and O(3P) atoms with surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1990-01-01

    Using a newly-developed, magnetically confined source, low-energy, ground state oxygen negative ions and neutral atoms are generated. The energy range is variable, and atom and neutrals have been generated at energies varying from 2 eV to 40 eV and higher. It was found that the interaction of these low-energy species with a solid magnesium fluoride target leads to optical emissions in the (at least) visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. Researchers describe y details of the photodetachment source, and present spectra of the neutral and ion glows in the wavelength range 250 to 850 nm (for O/-/) and 600 to 850 nm (for O), and discuss the variability of the emissions for incident energies between 4 and 40 eV.

  15. LARGE-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF COSMIC RAYS DETECTED ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 10{sup 18} eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  16. Experimental investigations of low-energy (4 to 40 eV) collisions of O(-)(P2) ions and O(P3) atoms with surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Orient, O. J.; Murad, E.

    1990-01-01

    Using a newly-developed, magnetically confined source, low-energy, ground state oxygen negative ions and neutral atoms are generated. The energy range is variable, and atom and neutrals have been generated at energies varying from 2 eV to 40 eV and higher. It was found that the interaction of these low-energy species with a solid magnesium fluoride target leads to optical emissions in the (at least) visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. Researchers describe y details of the photodetachment source, and present spectra of the neutral and ion glows in the wavelength range 250 to 850 nm (for O(-)) and 600 to 850 nm (for O), and discuss the variability of the emissions for incident energies between 4 and 40 eV.

  17. The NASA EV-2 CYGNSS Small Satellite Constellation Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, C. S.; Gleason, S.; Jelenak, Z.; Katzberg, S. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Rose, R.; Scherrer, J.; Zavorotny, V.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA EV-2 Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a spaceborne mission focused on tropical cyclone (TC) inner core process studies. CYGNSS attempts to resolve the principle deficiencies with current TC intensity forecasts, which lies in inadequate observations and modeling of the inner core. The inadequacy in observations results from two causes: 1) Much of the inner core ocean surface is obscured from conventional remote sensing instruments by intense precipitation in the eye wall and inner rain bands. 2) The rapidly evolving (genesis and intensification) stages of the TC life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. CYGNSS is specifically designed to address these two limitations by combining the all-weather performance of GNSS bistatic ocean surface scatterometry with the sampling properties of a constellation of satellites. The use of a dense constellation of nanosatellite results in spatial and temporal sampling properties that are markedly different from conventional imagers. Simulation studies will be presented which examine the sampling as functions of various orbit parameters of the constellation. Historical records of actual TC storm tracks are overlaid onto a simulated time series of the surface wind sampling enabled by the constellation. For comparison purposes, a similar analysis is conducted using the sampling properties of several past and present conventional spaceborne ocean wind scatterometers. Differences in the ability of the sensors to resolve the evolution of the TC inner core are examined. The spacecraft and constellation mission are described. The signal-to-noise ratio of the measured scattered signal and the resulting uncertainty in retrieved surface wind speed are also examined.

  18. MicroRNA-23b inhibits enterovirus 71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bai-ping; Dai, Hong-jian; Yang, Yue-huang; Zhuang, Yu; Sheng, Ru

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and effective antiviral agents and vaccines against this virus have, to date, not been available. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of RNAs with the function of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs play important roles in the complicated interaction network between virus and host, while few studies have explored the role of miRNAs in EV71 infection. A recent study showed that hsa-miR-23b was downregulated significantly in cell-infected viruses. To address this issue, biological software miRanda was first used to predict possible target sites of miR-23b at EV71 gene sequence, then to confirm it by luciferase assay. miR-23b mimics were transfected to verify its effects on infection of EV71. These results suggest that miR-23b and upregulation of miR-23b inhibited the replication of EV71 by targeting at EV71 3'UTR conserved sequence. Taken together, miR-23b could inhibit EV71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein. These results may enhance our understanding on the prevention and treatment of hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by EV71 infection.

  19. Extra virgin (EV) and ordinary (ON) olive oils: distinction and detection of adulteration (EV with ON) as determined by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and chemometric approaches.

    PubMed

    Alves, Júnia de O; Neto, Waldomiro B; Mitsutake, Hery; Alves, Paulo S P; Augusti, Rodinei

    2010-07-15

    Extra virgin (EV), the finest and most expensive among all the olive oil grades, is often adulterated by the cheapest and lowest quality ordinary (ON) olive oil. A new methodology is described herein that provides a simple, rapid, and accurate way not only to detect such type of adulteration, but also to distinguish between these olive oil grades (EV and ON). This approach is based on the application of direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode, ESI(+)-MS, followed by the treatment of the MS data via exploratory statistical approaches, PCA (principal component analysis) and HCA (hierarchical clustering analysis). Ten distinct brands of each EV and ON olive oil, acquired at local stores, were analyzed by ESI(+)-MS and the results from HCA and PCA clearly indicated the formation of two distinct groups related to these two categories. For the adulteration study, one brand of each olive oil grade (EV and ON) was selected. The counterfeit samples (a total of 20) were then prepared by adding assorted proportions, from 1 to 20% w/w, with increments of 1% w/w, of the ON to the EV olive oil. The PCA and HCA methodologies, applied to the ESI(+)-MS data from the counterfeit (20) and authentic (10) EV samples, were able to readily detect adulteration, even at levels as low as 1% w/w. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Irradiation effects of 12 eV oxygen ions on polyimide and fluorinated ethylene propylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, R. M. A.; Purohit, V. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mandale, A. B.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2006-08-01

    Polyimide (PI) and Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) samples (15mm x 15mm x 50 mu m ) were exposed to atomic oxygen ions of average energy similar to 12 eV and flux similar to 5x10(13) ions cm(-2) s(-1) , produced in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma. The energy and the flux of the oxygen ions at different positions in the plasma were measured by a retarding field analyzer. The fluence of the oxygen ions was varied from sample to sample in the range of similar to 5x10(16) to 2x10(17) ions cm(-2) by changing the irradiation period. The pre- and the post-irradiated samples were characterized by the weight loss, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. The weight of the PI and FEP samples decreased with increasing the ion fluence. However, the erosion yield for the PI is found to be higher, by almost a factor five, when compared with that of FEP. On the surface region of irradiated samples, the concentrations of the carbon, fluorine, and oxygen and their corresponding chemical bonds have changed appreciably. Moreover, blisters and nanoglobules were also observed even at a fluence of similar to 10(17) ions cm(-2) . This oxygen ion fluence is almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of the 5 eV atomic oxygen, which a satellite encounters in the space, at the low Earth orbit, during its mission period of about 7 years.

  1. Muon groups and primary composition at 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budko, E. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dogujaev, V. A.; Mihelev, A. R.; Padey, V. A.; Petkov, V. A.; Striganov, P. S.; Suvorova, O. V.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The data on muon groups observed at Baksan underground scintillation telescope is analyzed. In this analysis we compare the experimental data with calulations, based on a superposition model in order to obtain the effective atomic number of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  2. Electron scattering cross section data for tungsten and beryllium atoms from 0.1 to 5000 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, F.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; García, G.

    2017-08-01

    We report integral cross sections for electron interactions with tungsten and beryllium atoms in the incident electron energy range from 0.1 up to 5000 eV. The calculated cross sections are obtained for electron-atom scattering processes represented by a complex potential. For tungsten, ionization cross sections are discussed in the electron energy region from threshold up to 5000 eV against the available data from the Deutsch-Märk formalism and a semi-empirical complex scattering potential. Although a reasonable agreement for the ionization cross sections has been found in the overlapping energy region, inconsistencies on the integral inelastic cross sections from the previous semi-empirical approach based on a complex scattering potential ionization contribution, are now amended and comprehensively explained. For beryllium atoms an excellent agreement with previous ‘state-of-the-art’ scattering theory calculations has been found for the integral elastic cross sections. However, the partial contribution of the excitation and ionization channels to the inelastic part shows serious discrepancies which deserve further investigations. Calculated elastic differential cross sections for tungsten are also reported from 0.1 to 5000 eV for scattering angles from 0° to 180°. The present set of cross sectional data may be of relevance for the plasma fusion community.

  3. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  4. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  5. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrbaugh, David; Smart, John

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  6. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  7. [Inactivation of EV71 by Exposure to Heat and Ultraviolet Light].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Li, Dandi; Xie, Guangcheng; Hu, Yaqian; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Xiangyu; Guo, Nijun; Li, Yuning; Duan, Zhaojun

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that can cause a severe burden of disease to children. To identify an effective method for the control and prevention of EV71, we studied the effect of exposure to heat and ultraviolet (UV) light upon EV71 inactivation. We found that exposure to 50 degrees C could not inactivate the infectivity of EV71. However, exposure to 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C could inactivate EV71 effectively. EV71 could be inactivated after exposure to UV light at a distance between the sample and a lamp of 30 cm for 30 min or 60 min because viral genomic RNA was destroyed. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) could attenuate the inactivation proffered by heat and UV light. Attenuation effects of FBS were correlated positively with FBS concentration. Hence, EV71 can be inactivated by exposure to heat and UV light, and our results could provide guidance on prevention of the spread of EV71.

  8. Immunogenicity studies of bivalent inactivated virions of EV71/CVA16 formulated with submicron emulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg) emulsified in submicron particles was found (i) to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii) consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  9. Discovery of gramine derivatives that inhibit the early stage of EV71 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanhong; Shi, Liqiao; Wang, Kaimei; Liu, Manli; Yang, Qingyu; Yang, Ziwen; Ke, Shaoyong

    2014-06-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs), but the anti-EV71 activity of the lead compound gramine was not observed. Studies on the preliminary modes of action showed that these compounds functioned by targeting the early stage of the EV71 lifecycle after viral entry, rather than inactivating the virus directly, inhibiting virus adsorption or affecting viral release from the cells. Among these derivatives, one (compound 4s) containing pyridine and benzothiazole units showed the most potency against EV71. Further studies demonstrated that derivative 4s could profoundly inhibit viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and virus-induced apoptosis in RD cells. These results indicate that derivative 4s might be a feasible therapeutic agent against EV71 infection and that these gramine derivatives may provide promising lead scaffolds for the further design and synthesis of potential antiviral agents.

  10. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evaluation, and are in different stages of clinical trials. Among these organizations, three companies in Mainland China [Beijing Vigoo Biological Co., Ltd. (Vigoo), Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac) and Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS)] have recently completed Phase III trials for the vaccines they developed. In addition, the other two vaccines, developed by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan and Inviragen Pte., Ltd (Inviragen), of Singapore, have also completed Phase I clinical trials. Published clinical trial results indicate that the inactivated EV71 vaccines have good safety and immunogenicity in the target population (infants) and confer a relatively high rate of protection against EV71 infection-related diseases. The results of clinical trials suggest a promising future for the clinical use of EV71 vaccines. Here, we review and highlight the recent progress on the R&D of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

  11. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    PubMed

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  12. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  13. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration.

  14. An ultrahigh-vacuum apparatus for resonant diffraction experiments using soft x rays (h{nu}=300-2000 eV)

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, T.; Chainani, A.; Takata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Oura, M.; Tsubota, M.; Senba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Shin, S.

    2009-02-15

    We have developed an ultrahigh-vacuum instrument for resonant diffraction experiments using polarized soft x rays in the energy range of h{nu}=300-2000 eV at beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. The diffractometer consists of modified differentially pumped rotary feedthroughs for {theta}-2{theta} stages, a sample manipulator with motor-controlled x-y-z-, tilt ({chi})-, and azimuth ({phi})-axes, and a liquid helium flow-type cryostat for temperature dependent measurements between 30 and 300 K. Test results indicate that the diffractometer exhibits high reproducibility (better than 0.001 deg.) for a Bragg reflection of {alpha}-quartz 100 at a photon energy of h{nu}=1950 eV. Typical off- and on-resonance Bragg reflections in the energy range of 530-1950 eV could be measured using the apparatus. The results show that x-ray diffraction experiments with energy-, azimuth-, and incident photon polarization-dependence can be reliably measured using soft x rays in the energy range of {approx}300-2000 eV. The facility can be used for resonant diffraction experiments across the L-edge of transition metals, M-edge of lanthanides, and up to the Si K-edge of materials.

  15. Coherent excitation of Xe(3/2) sub 1 sup 0 6 s by 30-eV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Corr, J.J.; Plessis, P.; McConkey, J.W. )

    1990-11-01

    Electron-impact excitation of the (3/2){sub 1}{sup 0} 6{ital s} state of xenon has been studied at 30 eV and over a range of scattering angles up to 50{degree}. Linear and circular polarization correlation measurements show very good agreement with distorted-wave Born-approximation calculations. For the experimental parameters under consideration, the excitation is demonstrated to be completely coherent. Hyperfine depolarization of the excited-state charge cloud is found to be an important effect.

  16. Passive Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    1981). 5. R. Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. I, English ed., * Interscience, New York, 1953. 32 32 APPENDIX A CALCULATION...K Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. I, English ed., * Interscience, New York, 1953. A-8 APPENDIX B * RANGING ACCURACY IN

  17. Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, L. E.; Cuneo, M. E.; Porter, J. L.; Wenger, D. F.; Simpson, W. W.

    2001-01-01

    Three x-ray spectrometers, each with a transmission grating dispersion element, are routinely used at the Z soft x-ray facility to measure the spectrum and temporal history of the absolute soft x-ray power emitted from z-pinch and hohlraum radiation sources. Our goal is to make these measurements within an accuracy of {+-}10%. We periodically characterize the efficiency of the gratings used in the spectrometers by using an electron-impact soft x-ray source, a monochromator, grazing-incidence mirrors, thin filters, and an x-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We measure the transmission efficiency of the gratings at many photon energies for several grating orders. For each grating, we calculate efficiency as a function of photon energy using published optical constants of gold and multiple-slit Fraunhofer diffraction theory and fit the calculation to the measurements using the physical parameters of the grating as variables. This article describes the measurement apparatus and calibration techniques, discusses the grating efficiency calculation and fitting procedure, and presents recent results.

  18. Non-equilibrium GaNAs Alloys with Band Gap Ranging from 0.8-3.4 eV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    600 °C. The same active N flux with the total N beam equivalent pressure ( BEP ) ~1.5 10-5 Torr and the same deposition time (2hr) were used for the... BEP ~1.5x10-7 and ~7.5x10-6 Torr, respectively. A mono- tonic increase in the As incorporation in the film is ob- served as the growth temperature is

  19. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Minowa, M.; Inoue, Y. E-mail: horiemon@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: minowa@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-09-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼ 6× 10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ} = 3.1 ± 1.2 eV.

  20. Cross sections for 14-eV e-H{sub 2} resonant collisions: Isotope effect in dissociative electron attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Celiberto, R.; Janev, R. K.; Wadehra, J. M.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2011-07-15

    The process of dissociative attachment of electrons to molecular hydrogen and its isotopes in the energy range at approximately 14 eV is investigated. The dissociative electron attachment cross sections for all six hydrogen isotopes are calculated over an extended range of electron energies using the local complex potential model with the excited Rydberg {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} electronic state of H{sub 2}{sup -} acting as the intermediate resonant state. A significant isotope effect in theoretical electron attachment cross sections is observed, in agreement with previous predictions and experimental observations. A two-parameter analytic expression for the cross section is derived from the theory that fits accurately the numerically calculated cross sections for all isotopes. Similarly, an analytic mass-scaling relation is derived from the theory that accurately reproduces the numerically calculated rate coefficients for all isotopes in the 0.1-1000 eV temperature range by using the rate coefficient for the H{sub 2} isotope only. The latter is represented by an analytic fit expression with two parameters only.

  1. Dual baseline search for muon neutrino disappearance at 0.5eV2<Δm2<40eV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahn, K. B. M.; Nakajima, Y.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Franke, A. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Giganti, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Guzowski, P.; Hanson, A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jover-Manas, G.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobayashi, Y. K.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Kubo, H.; Kurimoto, Y.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Loverre, P. F.; Ludovici, L.; Mariani, C.; Marsh, W.; Masuike, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyachi, Y.; Mizugashira, S.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nakaya, T.; Napora, R.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Orme, D.; Osmanov, B.; Otani, M.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sanchez, F.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Takei, H.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, H.-K.; Tanaka, M.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; van de Water, R.; Walding, J. J.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; White, H. B.; Wilking, M. J.; Yokoyama, M.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2012-02-01

    The SciBooNE and MiniBooNE collaborations report the results of a νμ disappearance search in the Δm2 region of 0.5-40eV2. The neutrino rate as measured by the SciBooNE tracking detectors is used to constrain the rate at the MiniBooNE Cherenkov detector in the first joint analysis of data from both collaborations. Two separate analyses of the combined data samples set 90% confidence level (CL) limits on νμ disappearance in the 0.5-40eV2 Δm2 region, with an improvement over previous experimental constraints between 10 and 30eV2.

  2. Dual baseline search for muon neutrino disappearance at 0.5 eV2 < Delta m2 < 40 eV2

    DOE PAGES

    Mahn, K B.M.

    2011-06-01

    The SciBooNE and MiniBooNE collaborations report the results of a νμ disappearance search in the Δ'm2 region of 0.5-40 eV2. The neutrino rate as measured by the SciBooNE tracking detectors is used to constrain the rate at the MiniBooNE Cherenkov detector in the first joint analysis of data from both collaborations. Two separate analyses of the combined data samples set 90% confidence level (CL) limits on νμ disappearance in the 0.5-40 eV2 Δm2 region, with an improvement over previous experimental constraints between 10 and 30 eV2

  3. Geographical and temporal differences in electric vehicle range due to cabin conditioning energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambly, Kiran; Bradley, Thomas H.

    2015-02-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are vehicles that are propelled by electric motors powered by rechargeable battery. They are generally asserted to have GHG emissions, driveability and life cycle cost benefits over conventional vehicles. Despite this, EVs face significant challenges due to their limited on-board energy storage capacity. In addition to providing energy for traction, the energy storage device operates HVAC systems for cabin conditioning. This results in reduced driving range. The factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, duration and thermal soak have been identified to affect the cabin conditions. In this paper, the development of a detailed system-level approach to HVAC energy consumption in EVs as a function of transient environmental parameters is described. The resulting vehicle thermal comfort model is used to address several questions such as 1) How does day to day environmental conditions affect EV range? 2) How does frequency of EV range change geographically? 3) How does trip start time affect EV range? 4) Under what conditions does cabin preconditioning assist in increasing the EV range? 5) What percentage increase in EV range can be expected due to cabin preconditioning at a given location?

  4. Low-energy (<20 eV) and high-energy (1000 eV) electron-induced methanol radiolysis of astrochemical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Kristal K.; Boamah, Mavis D.; Shulenberger, Katie E.; Chapman, Sitara; Atkinson, Karen E.; Boyer, Michael C.; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2016-07-01

    We report the first infrared study of the low-energy (<20 eV) electron-induced reactions of condensed methanol. Our goal is to simulate processes which occur when high-energy cosmic rays interact with interstellar and cometary ices, where methanol, a precursor of several prebiotic species, is relatively abundant. The interactions of high-energy radiation, such as cosmic rays (Emax ˜ 1020 eV), with matter produce large numbers of low-energy secondary electrons, which are known to initiate radiolysis reactions in the condensed phase. Using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), we have investigated low-energy (5-20 eV) and high-energy (˜1000 eV) electron-induced reactions in condensed methanol (CH3OH). IRAS has the benefit that it does not require thermal processing prior to product detection. Using IRAS, we have found evidence for the formation of ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH), formaldehyde (CH2O), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and the hydroxyl methyl radical (·CH2OH) upon both low-energy and high-energy electron irradiation of condensed methanol at ˜85 K. Additionally, TPD results, presented herein, are similar for methanol films irradiated with both 1000 eV and 20 eV electrons. These IRAS and TPD findings are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that high-energy condensed phase radiolysis is mediated by low-energy electron-induced reactions. Moreover, methoxymethanol (CH3OCH2OH) could serve as a tracer molecule for electron-induced reactions in the interstellar medium. The results of experiments such as ours may provide a fundamental understanding of how complex organic molecules are synthesized in cosmic ices.

  5. Management Approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  6. Management approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) airborne science investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-09-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  7. A clinically authentic mouse model of enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)-induced neurogenic pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chua, Beng Hooi; Alonso, Sylvie; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that sporadically causes fatal neurologic illness among infected children. Animal models of EV-A71 infection exist, but they do not recapitulate in animals the spectrum of disease and pathology observed in fatal human cases. Specifically, neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE)—the main cause of EV-A71 infection-related mortality—is not observed in any of these models. This limits their utility in understanding viral pathogenesis of neurologic infections. We report the development of a mouse model of EV-A71 infection displaying NPE in severely affected animals. We inoculated one-week-old BALB/c mice with an adapted EV-A71 strain and identified clinical signs consistent with observations in human cases and other animal models. We also observed respiratory distress in some mice. At necropsy, we found their lungs to be heavier and incompletely collapsed compared to other mice. Serum levels of catecholamines and histopathology of lung and brain tissues of these mice strongly indicated onset of NPE. The localization of virally-induced brain lesions also suggested a potential pathogenic mechanism for EV-A71-induced NPE. This novel mouse model of virally-induced NPE represents a valuable resource for studying viral mechanisms of neuro-pathogenesis and pre-clinical testing of potential therapeutics and prophylactics against EV-A71-related neurologic complications. PMID:27357918

  8. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the differential elastic scattering cross sections for acetone by electron impact energy of 7.0-50 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastega, D. F.; Lange, E.; Ameixa, J.; Barbosa, A. S.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Ferreira da Silva, F.

    2016-03-01

    We report elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interactions with acetone, C3H6O . The incident electron energy range was 7.0-50 eV, and the scattered electron angular range for the differential measurements varied from 10° to 120°. The calculated cross sections were obtained with two different methodologies, the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP), and the independent-atom method with screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculations above 20 eV, and also with the SMC calculations below 30 eV. Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. Comparison with previous DCSs shows good agreement albeit the present data is extended down to lower electron impact energies. We find a low-lying π* shape resonance located at 2.6 eV, in agreement with recent results on electron collisions with acetone [M. G. P. Homem et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 032711 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.032711]. The presence of a σ* resonance is also discussed.

  9. Complete coding regions of the prototypes enterovirus B93 and C95: phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and P3 regions of EV-B and EV-C strains.

    PubMed

    Junttila, N; Lévêque, N; Magnius, L O; Kabue, J P; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Maslin, J; Lina, B; Norder, H

    2015-03-01

    Complete coding regions were sequenced for two new enterovirus genomes: EV-B93 previously identified by VP1 sequencing, derived from a child with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; and EV-C95 from a French soldier with acute gastroenteritis in Djibouti. The EV-B93 P1 had more than 30% nucleotide divergence from other EV-B types, with highest similarity to E-15 and EV-B80. The P1 nucleotide sequence of EV-C95 was most similar, 71%, to CV-A21. Complete coding regions for the new enteroviruses were compared with those of 135 EV-B and 176 EV-C strains representing all types available in GenBank. When strains from the same outbreak or strains isolated during the same year in the same geographical region were excluded, 27 of the 58 EV-B, and 16 of the 23 EV-C types were represented by more than one sequence. However, for EV-B the P3 sequences formed three clades mainly according to origin or time of isolation, irrespective of type, while for EV-C the P3 sequences segregated mainly according to disease manifestation, with most strains causing paralysis, including polioviruses, forming one clade, and strains causing respiratory illness forming another. There was no intermixing of types between these two clades, apart from two EV-C96 strains. The EV-B P3 sequences had lower inter-clade and higher intra-clade variability as compared to the EV-C sequences, which may explain why inter-clade recombinations are more frequent in EV-B. Further analysis of more isolates may shed light on the role of recombinations in the evolution of EV-B in geographical context.

  10. Mechanisms of photo double ionization of helium by 530 eV photons.

    PubMed

    Knapp, A; Kheifets, A; Bray, I; Weber, Th; Landers, A L; Schössler, S; Jahnke, T; Nickles, J; Kammer, S; Jagutzki, O; Schmidt, L Ph H; Osipov, T; Rösch, J; Prior, M H; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Cocke, C L; Dörner, R

    2002-07-15

    We have measured fully differential cross sections for photo double ionization of helium 450 eV above the threshold. We have found an extremely asymmetric energy sharing between the photoelectrons and an angular asymmetry parameter beta approximately 2 and beta approximately 0 for the fast and slow electrons, respectively. The electron angular distributions show a dominance of the shakeoff for 2 eV electrons and clear evidence of an inelastic electron-electron scattering at an electron energy of 30 eV. The data are in excellent agreement with convergent close-coupling calculations.

  11. Comparative analysis of EV isolation procedures for miRNAs detection in serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Zoraida; Rivas, Eva; Sanguino-Pascual, Aitana; Lamana, Amalia; Marazuela, Mónica; González-Alvaro, Isidoro; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; de la Fuente, Hortensia; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as potent non-invasive biomarkers. However, current methodologies are time consuming and difficult to translate to clinical practice. To analyse EV-encapsulated circulating miRNA, we searched for a quick, easy and economic method to enrich frozen human serum samples for EV. We compared the efficiency of several protocols and commercial kits to isolate EVs. Different methods based on precipitation, columns or filter systems were tested and compared with ultracentrifugation, which is the most classical protocol to isolate EVs. EV samples were assessed for purity and quantity by nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot or cytometry against major EV protein markers. For biomarker validation, levels of a set of miRNAs were determined in EV fractions and compared with their levels in total serum. EVs isolated with precipitation-based methods were enriched for a subgroup of miRNAs that corresponded to miRNAs described to be encapsulated into EVs (miR-126, miR-30c and miR-143), while the detection of miR-21, miR-16-5p and miR-19a was very low compared with total serum. Our results point to precipitation using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a suitable method for an easy and cheap enrichment of serum EVs for miRNA analyses. The overall performance of PEG was very similar, or better than other commercial precipitating reagents, in both protein and miRNA yield, but in comparison to them PEG is much cheaper. Other methods presented poorer results, mostly when assessing miRNA by qPCR analyses. Using PEG precipitation in a longitudinal study with human samples, we demonstrated that miRNA could be assessed in frozen samples up to 8 years of storage. We report a method based on a cut-off value of mean of fold EV detection versus serum that provides an estimate of the degree of encapsulation of a given miRNA. PMID:27330048

  12. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James J; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, C Michael; Moore, Robert G; Kirchmann, Patrick S; Merriam, Andrew J; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10(12) photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å(-1), respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å(-1), granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  13. PAH chemistry at eV internal energies. 2. Ring alteration and dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinquier, Georges; Simon, Aude; Rapacioli, Mathias; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2017-06-01

    Recognized as important interstellar constituents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been intensively studied in astrochemistry and their spectroscopy, thermodynamics, dynamics, and fragmentations are now amply documented. There exists typical alternatives to the ground-state regular planar structures of PAHs, as long as they bear internal energies in the range 1-10 eV. Resulting from intramolecular rearrangements, such high-lying minima on the potential-energy surfaces should be taken into consideration in the studies of PAH processing in astrophysical conditions. Resting upon DFT calculations mainly performed on two emblematic PAH representatives, coronene and pyrene, in their neutral and mono- and multi-cationic states, this second survey addresses the following alternatives: (1) opened forms containing ethynyl or 2-butynyl groups, (2) vinylidene isomers, in which phenanthrene patterns are reorganized into dibenzofulvene ones, (3) ;twisted; forms, where external CHdbnd CH bonds can be partly twisted, and (4) bicyclobutane forms, in which the latter are integrated in saturated bicyclic forms. A few scenarios for elimination of fragments H, H2, C2H2 and C2H4 are explored. As far as possible, familiar concepts of organic chemistry, such as aromaticity or Clar's rules, are invoked for interpretations.

  14. Resonant charge transfer between H+ and H from 1 to 5000 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killian, Benjamin J.; Cabrera-Trujillo, Remigio; Deumens, Erik; Öhrn, Yngve

    2004-12-01

    We employ the electron-nuclear dynamics (END) formalism to investigate the resonant charge transfer and scattering processes in the collision of protons on atomic hydrogen as an introduction to investigations of resonant charge transfer in larger atomic and molecular systems. The END method consists of an ab initio, non-adiabatic treatment of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. The results span an energy range from 1 eV to 5 keV. We present electron transfer probabilities, absolute charge transfer differential and integral cross sections, and state-to-state differential cross sections for principal energy levels n = 1 and 2. The present results compare favourably with experimental data and other theoretical results. For the total resonant charge transfer cross section, we confirm the relation σ1/2trans ~ ln E. The role of non-adiabatic couplings in transfer into the n = 2 level is confirmed, and the effect of basis set size on the dynamics of the transfer is probed.

  15. EvArnoldi: A New Algorithm for Large-Scale Eigenvalue Problems.

    PubMed

    Tal-Ezer, Hillel

    2016-05-19

    Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are an essential theme in numerical linear algebra. Their study is mainly motivated by their high importance in a wide range of applications. Knowledge of eigenvalues is essential in quantum molecular science. Solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the electrons composing the molecule are the basis of electronic structure theory. Electronic eigenvalues compose the potential energy surfaces for nuclear motion. The eigenvectors allow calculation of diople transition matrix elements, the core of spectroscopy. The vibrational dynamics molecule also requires knowledge of the eigenvalues of the vibrational Hamiltonian. Typically in these problems, the dimension of Hilbert space is huge. Practically, only a small subset of eigenvalues is required. In this paper, we present a highly efficient algorithm, named EvArnoldi, for solving the large-scale eigenvalues problem. The algorithm, in its basic formulation, is mathematically equivalent to ARPACK ( Sorensen , D. C. Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi/Lanczos Methods for Large Scale Eigenvalue Calculations ; Springer , 1997 ; Lehoucq , R. B. ; Sorensen , D. C. SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications 1996 , 17 , 789 ; Calvetti , D. ; Reichel , L. ; Sorensen , D. C. Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis 1994 , 2 , 21 ) (or Eigs of Matlab) but significantly simpler.

  16. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Liu, Zhongkai; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J.; Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S.

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  17. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, C. Michael; Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S.; Merriam, Andrew J.; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 1012 photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å-1, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å-1, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  18. Search for eV sterile neutrinos at a nuclear reactor — the Stereo project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haser, J.; Stereo Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The re-analyses of the reference spectra of reactor antineutrinos together with a revised neutrino interaction cross section enlarged the absolute normalization of the predicted neutrino flux. The tension between previous reactor measurements and the new prediction is significant at 2.7 σ and is known as “reactor antineutrino anomaly”. In combination with other anomalies encountered in neutrino oscillation measurements, this observation revived speculations about the existence of a sterile neutrino in the eV mass range. Mixing of this light sterile neutrino with the active flavours would lead to a modification of the detected antineutrino flux. An oscillation pattern in energy and space could be resolved by a detector at a distance of few meters from a reactor core: the neutrino detector of the Stereo project will be located at about 10 m distance from the ILL research reactor in Grenoble, France. Lengthwise separated in six target cells filled with 2 m3 Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in total, the experiment will search for a position-dependent distortion in the energy spectrum.

  19. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M.

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  20. Young Australians and alcohol: the acceptabllity of ready-to-drink (RTD) alcoholic beverages among 12-30-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Jan; Stevenson, Richard J; Gates, Peter; Dillon, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Concern has been expressed regarding the influence of the newer premixed alcohols, known as ready-to-drinks (RTDs), on adolescent alcohol use as a result of their sweet and milky flavours. Use of these flavours may reduce the natural barrier of the often strong and unpleasant flavour of alcohol to early experimentation and regular and heavy use. To determine the acceptability and alcohol detectability of a range of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages to young adolescents and young adults. A convenience sample of 350 participants was recruited, 70 in each of five age groups. Participants were grouped according to age into 12-13 years, 14-15 years, 16-17 years, younger adults of 18-23 years and older adults of 24-30 years, with even gender distribution in an experimental design comparing blind and labelled acceptability testing of a range of RTDs and their alcohol and soft drink components, beer, wine and a novel beverage. The acceptability of alcohol increased with age; however, chocolate 'Mudshake', and to a lesser extent watermelon 'Breezer', had acceptability scores more like their soft drink base than their alcohol component. There were no significant differences in the ability to detect the presence of alcohol in the RTDs across age or beverage types. Public policy makers and others concerned with preventing early initiation to alcohol use and binge drinking among adolescents should be aware that when using milk as a base for an RTD, particularly with an alcoholic base such as vodka, the drink may have high acceptance with young adolescents and equal palatability to milk, even though the presence of alcohol is not completely masked. Further research with a wider range of RTDs is required.

  1. Enterovirus type 71 neutralizing antibodies in the serum of macaque monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Li; Yu, Chun-I; Hu, Yu-Chen; Tsai, Tze-Jiun; Kuo, Yin-Chieh; Chi, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Ae-Ning; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2012-02-08

    Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is a virulent form of enteroviruses causing hospitalizations for children less than three years of age. Currently there are no anti-viral therapies or vaccines available for EV71. Due to the high risk of poliomyelitis-like paralysis and fatal encephalitis, an effective vaccine to EV71 could potentially prevent virus-induced morbidity and mortality. In this study, we first tested a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on virus-like particles (VLP). We vaccinated macaque monkeys to validate the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine to EV71. We detected the VLP or EV71-specific antibodies, neutralization titers, ELISPOT, and T cell response to find their immune responses to EV71. When the VLP vaccine adjuvanted with alum was given to macaque monkeys, these monkeys developed both specific humoral and cellular immune responses to EV71. Despite lower neutralizing antibodies to EV71 were found in sera of VLP-immunized monkeys than monkeys vaccinated with inactivated EV71, VLP-based vaccine generated a memory immune response to EV71. Hence, VLP-based EV71 vaccine is a potential vaccine against EV71 infection.

  2. The origin of 2.7 eV luminescence and 5.2 eV excitation band in hafnium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalov, T. V.; Aliev, V. Sh.; Gritsenko, V. A.; Saraev, A. A.; Kaichev, V. V.; Ivanova, E. V.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.

    2014-02-17

    The origin of a blue luminescence band at 2.7 eV and a luminescence excitation band at 5.2 eV of hafnia has been studied in stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric hafnium oxide films. Experimental and calculated results from the first principles valence band spectra showed that the stoichiometry violation leads to the formation of the peak density of states in the band gap caused by oxygen vacancies. Cathodoluminescence in the non-stoichiometric film exhibits a band at 2.65 eV that is excited at the energy of 5.2 eV. The optical absorption spectrum calculated for the cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} with oxygen vacancies shows a peak at 5.3 eV. Thus, it could be concluded that the blue luminescence band at 2.7 eV and HfO{sub x} excitation peak at 5.2 eV are due to oxygen vacancies. The thermal trap energy in hafnia was estimated.

  3. Commercial Electric Vehicle (EV) Development and Manufacturing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Leeve, Dion

    2014-06-30

    Navistar with the Department of Energy’s assistance undertook this effort to achieve the project objectives as listed in the next section. A wholly owned subsidiary of Navistar, Workhorse Sales Corporation was the original grant awardee and upon their discontinuation as a standalone business entity, Navistar assumed the role of principal investigator. The intent of the effort, as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was to produce zero emission vehicles that could meet the needs of the marketplace while reducing carbon emissions to zero. This effort was predicated upon the assumption that concurrent development activities in the lithium ion battery industry investigations would significantly increase their production volumes thus leading to substantial reductions in their manufacturing costs. As a result of this development effort much was learned about the overall system compatibility between the electric motor, battery pack, and charging capabilities. The original system was significantly revised and improved during the execution of this development effort. The overall approach that was chosen was to utilize a British zero emissions, class 2 truck that had been developed for their market, homologate it and modify it to meet the product requirements as specified in the grant details. All of these specific goals were achieved. During the course of marketing and selling the product valuable information was obtained as relates to customer expectations, price points, and product performance expectations, specifically those customer expectations about range requirements in urban delivery situations. While the grant requirements specified a range of 100 miles on a single charge, actual customer usage logs indicate a range of 40 miles or less is typical for their applications. The price point, primarily due to battery pack costs, was significantly higher than the mass market could bear. From Navistar’s and the overall industry’s perspective

  4. Structure and inhibition of EV-D68, a virus that causes respiratory illness in children

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Fokine, Andrei; ...

    2015-01-02

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of Picornaviridae and is a causative agent of recent outbreaks of respiratory illness in children in the United States. We report in this paper the crystal structures of EV-D68 and its complex with pleconaril, a capsid-binding compound that had been developed as an anti-rhinovirus drug. The hydrophobic drug-binding pocket in viral protein 1 contained density that is consistent with a fatty acid of about 10 carbon atoms. This density could be displaced by pleconaril. Finally, we also showed that pleconaril inhibits EV-D68 at a half-maximal effective concentration of 430 nanomolar and might, therefore, bemore » a possible drug candidate to alleviate EV-D68 outbreaks.« less

  5. Marshall Space Flight Center In-House Earned Value System (EVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donnie

    2004-01-01

    The Earned Value System (EVS) is a project management budgeting and scheduling process for in-house project and institutional applications. This viewgraph presentation includes images of the system's computer interface.

  6. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  7. Efficiency of coal use, electricity for EVs versus synfuels for ICEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. G.; Wouk, V.

    1980-02-01

    Data are presented to show how electric vehicles will travel approximately twice as far per ton of coal burned to produce electricity for EV propulsion, than will an ICE vehicle burning the synfuel produced from an equal amount of coal. These figures are based on pessimistic calculations of the efficiencies of electricity generation, transmission, battery charging and EV drivetrains. The synfuel calculations are based on optimistic upper limits of coal conversion efficiency and ICE systems' efficiencies. EVs are less harmful to the environment than conventional vehicles. The emissions from coal-burning power plants are more readily controlled than the pollutants from refineries that convert coal to synfuel. The emissions from EVs are negligible, whereas those from ICEs still have not been reduced to the levels originally mandated for 1976. Synfuels should be reserved mainly for those applications for which electricity is impractical or impossible, such as planes, long-haul trucks and buses, and the petrochemical industry.

  8. Structure and inhibition of EV-D68, a virus that causes respiratory illness in children

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Fokine, Andrei; Meng, Geng; Shin, Woong-Hee; Long, Feng; Kuhn, Richard J.; Kihara, Daisuke; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-01-02

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of Picornaviridae and is a causative agent of recent outbreaks of respiratory illness in children in the United States. We report in this paper the crystal structures of EV-D68 and its complex with pleconaril, a capsid-binding compound that had been developed as an anti-rhinovirus drug. The hydrophobic drug-binding pocket in viral protein 1 contained density that is consistent with a fatty acid of about 10 carbon atoms. This density could be displaced by pleconaril. Finally, we also showed that pleconaril inhibits EV-D68 at a half-maximal effective concentration of 430 nanomolar and might, therefore, be a possible drug candidate to alleviate EV-D68 outbreaks.

  9. Cultural and morphological properties of the vaccine strain Yersinia pestis EV NIIEG bacteria after photodynamic inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Lyapina, Anna M.; Khizhnyakova, Mariya A.; Laskavy, Vladislav N.; Feodorova, Valentina A.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.

    2015-03-01

    New method of photoinactivation of plague microbes (bacteria Yersinia pestis) has been suggested. Rate of growth of colonies of Y. pestis EV NIIEG at specific regimes of photo processing have been analyzed. Dependence of growth on exposure time and concentrations of photosensitizer (methylene blue) has been studied. Number of colony forming units of Y. pestis EV NIIEG bacteria as a function of intensity of light and concentration of methylene blue has been scrutinized.

  10. Advanced EV/HEV battery pack testing using the ABC-150 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.

    1997-12-01

    The ABC-150 battery test system is the first system designed for the demanding requirements of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery testing. With high accuracy, fast response and flexible test automation capabilities, the ABC-150 provides the most advanced set of capabilities for EV/HEV battery pack testing. These features are described and several examples of actual use are given.

  11. EV-077 in vitro inhibits platelet aggregation in type-2 diabetics on aspirin.

    PubMed

    Sakariassen, Kjell S; Femia, Eti A; Daray, Federico M; Podda, Gian M; Razzari, Cristina; Pugliano, Mariateresa; Errasti, Andrea E; Armesto, Arnaldo R; Nowak, Wanda; Alberts, Pēteris; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Sorensen, Alexandra S; Cattaneo, Marco; Rothlin, Rodolfo P

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to characterize the in vitro effect of EV-077, a compound that antagonises the binding of prostanoids and isoprostanes to the thromboxane receptor (TP) and inhibits the thromboxane synthase (TS), on platelet aggregation of patients with type-2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD) on chronic aspirin treatment. The effect of EV-077 on 8-iso-PGE(2)-mediated TP receptor contraction of human arteries was also investigated. Fifty-two type-2 diabetics with CAD on chronic aspirin (100 mg) treatment were studied. Arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was measured by impedance aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood anticoagulated with hirudin, and by light transmission aggregometry in citrate-anticoagulated PRP following 10-min in vitro exposure to EV-077 (100 nmol/l) or control. The effect of EV-077 was measured on isometric contraction of 24 human umbilical arteries induced by isoprostane 8-iso-PGE(2). Arachidonic acid (1 mmol/l) induced substantial aggregation in hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood (63 ± 4 AU), which was significantly reduced by in vitro exposure to EV-077 (38 ± 3 AU, P<0.001). Virtually no arachidonic acid-induced aggregation in citrate-anticoagulated or hirudin-anticoagulated PRP was observed. EV-077 potently, competitively and reversibly inhibited TP mediated contraction of umbilical arteries by 8-iso-PGE(2) (P<0.01). Aspirin did not completely inhibit arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood from type-2 diabetics with CAD. This aggregation is likely induced by prostanoids and/or isoprostanes produced by leukocytes, because it was significantly reduced by EV-077. The TP receptor-mediated contraction of human arteries induced by isoprostane 8-iso-PGE(2) was effectively inhibited by EV-077. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in human HFMD serum with an EV71 pseudovirus-based assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huafei; An, Dong; Liu, Wei; Mao, Qunying; Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Li, Xiaojun; Shao, Jie; Ma, Hongxia; Huang, Xueyong; Guo, Shijie; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lisheng; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  13. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  14. O(1) eV sterile neutrino in f( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudaykin, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    We refer [1] to the role of an additional O(1) eV sterile neutrino in modified gravity models. We find parameter constraints in particular f( R) gravity model using following up-to-dated cosmological data: measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, the CMB lensing potential, the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), the cluster mass function and the Hubble constant. It was obtained for the sterile neutrino mass 0.47 eV < m ν,sterile < 1 eV (2σ) assuming that the sterile neutrinos are thermalized and the active neutrinos are massless, not significantly larger than in the standard cosmology model within the same data set: 0.45 eV < m ν,sterile < 0.92 eV (2σ). But, if the mass of sterile neutrino is fixed and equals ≈ 1.5 eV according to various anomalies in neutrino oscillation experiments, f( R) gravity is much more consistent with observation data than the CDM model.

  15. A comparison of the biological characteristics of EV71 C4 subtypes from different epidemic strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-chun; Tang, Song-qing; Li, Yan-mei; Zhao, Hong-lin; Dong, Cheng-hong; Cui, Ping-fang; Ma, Shao-hui; Liao, Yun; Liu, Long-ding; Li, Qi-han

    2010-04-01

    The comparative analysis of the biological characterization and the genetic background study of EV71 circulating strains is commonly recognized as basic work necessary for development of an effective EV71 vaccine. In this study, we sequenced five EV71 circulating strains, isolated from Fuyang, Hefei, Kunming and Shenzhen city of China and named them FY-23, FY-22, H44, K9 and S1 respectively. The sequence alignment demonstrated their genotypes be C4. The genetic distance of the VP1 gene from these isolates suggested that they were highly co-related with genetic identity similar to other previously reported EV71 strains in China. Additionally, these strains were identified to display some obvious proliferation dynamics and plaque morphology when propagated in Vero cells. However, a distinctive difference in pathogenic ability in neonatal mice was found. Some differences in cross neutralization test & immunogenic analysis were also found. All these results are related to the biological characterization of circulating EV71 strains in China and aid in the development of an EV71 vaccine in the future.

  16. miR-27a suppresses EV71 replication by directly targeting EGFR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianglu; Chen, Xiong; Shi, Yingying; Zhou, Bingfei; Du, Chen; Liu, Yongjuan; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, has broken out several times and was accompanied by neurological disease. microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that are approximately 20 nucleotides long, play important roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including antiviral defense. However, the roles of miRNAs in EV71 replication and pathogenesis are not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-27a was significantly decreased in EV71-infected cells. Interestingly, the over-expression of miR-27a could inhibit EV71 replication, as measured by virus titration, qPCR, and Western blotting. We identified EGFR mRNA is a bona fide target of miR-27a by computational analysis and luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, miR-27a could decrease EGFR expression, as measured by qPCR and Western blotting. Moreover, the inhibition of EGFR expression by miR-27a decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, which facilitate EV71 replication. These results suggest that miR-27a may have antiviral activity against EV71 by inhibiting EGFR.

  17. Two models for changes of EV71 immunity in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Fengcai; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been associated with outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in China. Susceptibility to EV71 is associated with age, but few studies have been accomplished to measure such a relationship. A better understanding of the connection between susceptibility and age is necessary to develop strategies for control of HFMD. In 2010, a survey of an epidemic of EV71 was conducted in a northern city of Jiangsu Province in China. Samples were tested serologically to identify the EV71 neutralizing antibody. Two different mathematical models have now been employed to describe how this antibody varied with age, and parameters in the model were estimated from survey data. Both models depicted the variations in EV71-neutralizing antibody. Seroprevalence was high for neonates but decreased to near zero at 5 months of age. Subsequently, the EV71 antibody levels increased and then remained stable after about 36 months. For models 1 and 2, values for the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9458 and 0.9576, and values for root mean square error (RMSE) were 0.0755 and 0.0752, respectively. Model 2, formulated from the characteristics of development of the immune system, was more reliable than model 1, formulated from survey data, because the impact of the survey on the structure of the model was removed. Moreover, model 2 provided the possibility to define the parameters in a biological sense.

  18. A Soft X-Ray (300-1000 eV) Active Grating Monochromator Beamline at NSRRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, H. S.; Yuh, J. Y.; Huang, L. J.; Tseng, T. C.; Perng, S. Y.; Wang, D. J.; Tsang, K. L.; Chung, S. C.

    2007-01-01

    To accommodate the growing number of users in the soft X-ray spectroscopy research at NSRRC, we have developed a modified Dragon-type beamline, namely the active grating monochromator (AGM) beamline. In this beamline, a selected photon beam of 9 mrad radiation fan in the horizontal direction from a bending magnet is focused horizontally by a tangential elliptical mirror to a position 1.7 m after exit slit, and vertically by a cylindrical vertical focusing mirror (VFM) onto the entrance slit. After the entrance slit, the photon beam is energy-dispersed and vertically focused by an active grating onto the fixed exit slit. During the energy scan, the radius and shape of the active grating are adjusted accordingly, and therefore the defocus and coma aberrations terms can be effectively eliminated, and hence the energy resolution is optimized. Following the exit slit, the dispersed photon beam is refocused by a toroidal mirror onto the sample. Shadow ray-tracing program is employed to simulate the beamline performance. Results show that the energy resolution can reach 10000, 6000, and 3500 in the energy ranges of 300-400 eV, 400-600 eV, and above 600 eV, respectively. The total photon flux at sample position should reach 1×1012 phs/sec/200mA/0.1%BW, and the focused beam size at sample position is estimated to be 1 mm × 0.2 mm (H × V, FWHM). This beamline is currently under construction and will be ready for commission in December, 2006.

  19. An ultra-low energy (30-200 eV) ion-atomic beam source for ion-beam-assisted deposition in ultrahigh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mach, Jindrich; Kolibal, Miroslav; Sikola, Tomas; Samoril, Tomas; Voborny, Stanislav; Zlamal, Jakub; Spousta, Jiri; Dittrichova, Libuse

    2011-08-15

    The paper describes the design and construction of an ion-atomic beam source with an optimized generation of ions for ion-beam-assisted deposition under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The source combines an effusion cell and an electron impact ion source and produces ion beams with ultra-low energies in the range from 30 eV to 200 eV. Decreasing ion beam energy to hyperthermal values ({approx_equal}10{sup 1} eV) without loosing optimum ionization conditions has been mainly achieved by the incorporation of an ionization chamber with a grid transparent enough for electron and ion beams. In this way the energy and current density of nitrogen ion beams in the order of 10{sup 1} eV and 10{sup 1} nA/cm{sup 2}, respectively, have been achieved. The source is capable of growing ultrathin layers or nanostructures at ultra-low energies with a growth rate of several MLs/h. The ion-atomic beam source will be preferentially applied for the synthesis of GaN under UHV conditions.

  20. Transfer Excitation Processes Observed in N3+-He and O3+-He Collisions at Elab = 33 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yoh

    2016-09-01

    We measured the relative state-selective differential cross sections (DCSs) for one-electron capture reactions using a crossed-beam apparatus. The scattering angle θlab studied in the laboratory frame ranged from -3.0 to 22° and the laboratory collision energy Elab was 33 eV. Only the transfer excitation processes, i.e., the electron capture reactions with the simultaneous excitation of the projectile, were observed. The DCSs were determined for the following reactions: N3+ (1s2 2s2 1S) + He (1s2 1S) → N2+ (1s2 2s2p2 2D) + He+ (1s 2S) + 10.3 eV, O3+ (1s2 2s2 2p 2P) + He (1s2 1S) → O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3P) + He+ (1s 2S) + 12.7 eV, and O3+ (1s2 2s2 2p 2P) + He (1s2 1S) → O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3D) + He+ (1s 2S) + 15.5 eV. In the N3+-He system, the DCSs for the reaction are zero at the center-of-mass angle θcm = 0 and show a peak at a certain angle and a shoulder at a larger angle. In the O3+-He system, the DCSs are again zero at θcm = 0. The capture process to the O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3P) state is mainly observed at smaller scattering angles, and the reaction to the O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3D) state becomes dominant with increasing scattering angle. A classical trajectory analysis within the two-state approximation based on the ab initio potentials for (NHe)3+ revealed that the transfer excitation of a two-electron process takes place through a single crossing of the relevant potentials.

  1. Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A.; Meng, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 11–21 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 1–5 and 51–100 contain epitopes shared with human coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and human echovirus 6 (E-6). The N-terminal truncated protein of VP1, VP16–43, exhibited good stability and was recognized by anti-EV-71 specific rabbit sera. Alignment analysis showed that VP16–43 is highly conserved among EV-71 strains from different genotypes but was heterologous among other enteroviruses. When the GST-VP16–43 fusion protein was incorporated as antibody-capture agent in a WB assay and an ELISA for detecting anti-EV-71 IgM in human sera, sensitivities of 91.7% and 77.8% were achieved, respectively, with 100% specificity for both. The characterized EV-71 VP1 protein truncated to positions 6–43 aa has potential as an antigen for detection of anti-EV-71 IgM for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection in a WB format. PMID:24952304

  2. A study of the photoelectron spectra of α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol over the outer valence energy region (9-25 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dampc, Marcin; Mielewska, Brygida; Siggel-King, Michele R. F.; King, George C.; Zubek, Mariusz

    2017-07-01

    Photoelectron spectra of α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA) molecules, the threshold spectrum and spectra for constant photoelectron energies, have been measured over the photon energy range 9-25 eV. Analysis of the photoelectron spectra has allowed overlapping photoionization bands to be separated, tentatively assigned and their vertical photoionization energies to be determined. These energies are compared with existing theoretical calculations. The photoelectron spectra indicate the predominance of one conformer in the population of gas-phase THFA.

  3. Cosmic ray composition between 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV obtained by air shower experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the air shower data, the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV was obtained. The method is based on a well known N sub e-N sub mu and N sub e-N sub gamma. The simulation is calibrated by the CERN SPS pp collider results.

  4. Demonstration experiment of a laser synchrotron source for tunable, monochromatic x-rays at 500 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, A.; Fischer, R.; Fisher, A.

    1995-12-31

    A Laser Synchrotron Source (LSS) was proposed to generate short-pulsed, tunable x-rays by Thomson scattering of laser photons from a relativistic electron beam. A proof-of-principle experiment was performed to generate x-ray photons of 20 eV. A demonstration experiment is being planned and constructed to generate x-ray photons in the range of {approximately}500 eV. Laser photons of {lambda}=1.06 {mu}m are Thomson backscattered by a 4.5 MeV electron beam which is produced by an S-band RF electron gun. The laser photons are derived from either (i) a 15 Joules, 3 nsec Nd:glass laser, (ii) the uncompressed nsec: pulse of the NRL table-top terawatt (T{sup 3}) laser, or (iii) the compressed sub-picosec pulse of the T{sup 3} laser. The RF electron gun is being constructed with initial operation using a thermionic cathode. It will be upgraded to a photocathode to produce high quality electron beams with high current and low emittance. The x-ray pulse structure consists of {approximately}10 psec within an envelope of a macropulse whose length depends on the laser used. The estimated x-ray photon flux is {approximately}10{sup 18} photons/sec, and the number of photons per macropulse is {approximately}10{sup 8}. Design parameters and progress of the experiment will be presented.

  5. Quantification of Antibiotic in Biofilm-Inhibiting Multilayers by 7.87 eV Laser Desorption Postionization MS Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Blaze, Melvin M. T.; Akhmetov, Artem; Aydin, Berdan; Edirisinghe, Praneeth D.; Uygur, Gulsah; Hanley, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The potential of laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) imaging for small molecule quantification is demonstrated here. The N-methylpiperazine acetamide of (MPA) ampicillin was adsorbed into polyelectrolyte multilayer surface coatings composed of chitosan and alginate, both high molecular weight biopolymers. These MPA-ampicillin spiked multilayers were then shown to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis biofilms that play a role in early stage infection of implanted medical devices. Finally, LDPI-MS imaging using 7.87 eV single photon ionization was found to detect MPA-ampicillin with the multilayers before and after biofilm growth with limits of quantification and detection of 0.6 and 0.3 nmoles, respectively. The capabilities of LDPI-MS imaging for small molecule quantification are compared to those of MALDI-MS. Furthermore, these results indicate that 7.87 eV LDPI-MS imaging should be applicable to quantification of a range of small molecular species on a variety of complex organic and biological surfaces. Finally, while MS imaging for quantification was demonstrated here using LDPI, it is a generally useful strategy that can be applied to other methods. PMID:23017064

  6. A new Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope at the ALS for operation up to 2500eV

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcoyne, David; McKean, Pat; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Warwick, Tony; Ade, Harald; Attwood, David; Hitchcock, Adam; Mitchell, Gary; Monteiro, Paulo

    2010-06-23

    We report on the design and construction of a higher energy Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope on a new bend magnet beam line at the Advanced Light Source. Previously we have operated such an instrument on a bend magnet for C, N and O 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The new instrument will have similar performance at higher energies up to and including the S 1s edge at 2472eV. A new microscope configuration is planned. A more open geometry will allow a fluorescence detector to count emitted photons from the front surface of the sample. There will be a capability for zone plate scanning in addition to the more conventional sample scanning mode. This will add the capability for imaging a massive sample at high resolution over a limited field of view, so that heavy reaction cells may be used to study processes in-situ, exploiting the longer photon attenuation length and the longer zone plate working distances available at higher photon energy. The energy range will extend down to include the C1s edge at 300eV, to allow high energy NEXAFS microscopic studies to correlate with the imaging of organics in the same sample region of interest.

  7. Electron Impact Ionization: A New Parameterization for 100 eV to 1 MeV Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Randall, Cora E.; Lummerzheim, Dirk; Solomon, Stanley C.; Mills, Michael J.; Marsh, Daniel; Jackman, Charles H.; Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Low, medium and high energy electrons can penetrate to the thermosphere (90-400 km; 55-240 miles) and mesosphere (50-90 km; 30-55 miles). These precipitating electrons ionize that region of the atmosphere, creating positively charged atoms and molecules and knocking off other negatively charged electrons. The precipitating electrons also create nitrogen-containing compounds along with other constituents. Since the electron precipitation amounts change within minutes, it is necessary to have a rapid method of computing the ionization and production of nitrogen-containing compounds for inclusion in computationally-demanding global models. A new methodology has been developed, which has parameterized a more detailed model computation of the ionizing impact of precipitating electrons over the very large range of 100 eV up to 1,000,000 eV. This new parameterization method is more accurate than a previous parameterization scheme, when compared with the more detailed model computation. Global models at the National Center for Atmospheric Research will use this new parameterization method in the near future.

  8. Electron impact total cross sections for Furan, Tetrahedrofuran and 2, 5-Dimethylefuran (0.1 eV - 5000 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbachiya, Chetan; Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Swadia, Mohit

    2013-09-01

    Furan may serve as a prototype of a furanose-form building unit of biomolecules. Electron interactions with tetrahydrofuran (THF), that links the phosphate groups in the DNA backbone, have been studied by both experimental and computational methods. We have calculated various total cross sections for electron interactions with Furan, Tetrahedrofuran and an industrially relevant molecule 2, 5 - Dimethylefuran. We have used R-matrix code below 15 eV and Spherical Complex optical Potential (SCOP) and Complex Scattering Potential - ionization contribution (CSP-ic) formalisms beyond 15 eV. CGL thanks UGC (F.No.40-429/2011 (SR)) and MVK thanks DST, New Delhi for Major Research Project Grant No: SR/S2/LOP-26/2008

  9. Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (@16 eV to 500 eV)

    SciTech Connect

    Maestre, M.F. ); Bustamante, C. . Dept. of Chemistry); Snyder, P. . Dept. of Chemistry); Rowe, E.; Hansen, R. . Synchrotron Radiation Center)

    1991-03-01

    We propose the use of recently developed techniques of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object eg. the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Cosmic ray chemical composition estimated between 2 × 10 14 eV and 2 × 10 16 eV using muon size fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, K.; Aoki, T.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Muraki, Y.; Maehara, O.; Kojima, H.; Shibata, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Capdevielle, J. N.

    1995-03-01

    Accurate measurement of the total number of muons in an air shower is important for estimating the cosmic ray chemical composition. In order to translate this view into action, we have constructed an air shower array at Ohya. Many large muon detectors have been deployed in the stone mine and the total area amounts to about 400 m 2. At the ground surface, scintillation counters have been deployed for determining the shower size and arrival direction of an air shower. From the data obtained, we estimated the cosmic ray chemical composition between 2 × 10 14 eV and 2 × 10 16 eV, which includes the well known spectrum's "knee". As a method of estimation, we took the muon size fluctuation. The estimated rate of protons becomes relatively low, and that of helium nuclei increases, above an energy of 2 × 10 15 eV. Also, the fraction of very heavy nuclei such as iron increases above this energy.

  11. ORNL Experience and Challenges Facing Dynamic Wireless Power Charging of EV's

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, John M.; Jones, Perry T.; Li, Jan-Mou; ...

    2015-05-21

    As visionary as dynamic, or in-motion, wireless charging of electric vehicles appears the concept is well over a century old as this paper will show. This is because the concept of magnetic induction dates back to the pioneering work of physicist Michael Faraday in the early 19th century. Today wireless power transfer (WPT) is being standardized for stationary and quasi-stationary charging of electric vehicles (EV). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has undertaken the standardization of stationary charging and will make this public during 2016. In addition to this the IEEE-SA (Standards Activities) initiated standards development for EV?s in theirmore » EVWPT working group in 2012. This study introduces the many challenges facing EVWPT in not only high power transfer to a moving vehicle and energy management at a utility scale, but communications in a vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) environment and management of high data rates, ultra-low latency, and dealing with communications loss in dense urban areas. Finally, future concepts such as guideway powering of EV?s are presented to illustrate one technical trajectory EVWPT may take.« less

  12. Progress on the research and development of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Fan; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which can cause severe complications, have become one of the serious public health issues in the Western Pacific region and China. To date, a number of pharmaceutical companies and institutes have initiated the research and development of EV71 vaccines as a countermeasure. As is the case with innovative vaccine development, there are several critical bottlenecks in EV71 vaccine development that must be overcome before the clinical trials, including the selection of vaccine strain, standardization of the procedure for quantifying neutralizing antibody (NTAb) and antigen, establishment and application of a reference standard and biological standards, development of animal models for the evaluation of protective efficacy, and identification of the target patient population. To tackle these technical obstacles, researchers in Mainland of China have conducted a series of studies concerning the screening of vaccine strains and the establishment of criteria, biological standards and detection methods, thereby advancing EV71 vaccine development. This review summarizes recent worldwide progress on the quality control and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  13. ORNL Experience and Challenges Facing Dynamic Wireless Power Charging of EV's

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John M.; Jones, Perry T.; Li, Jan-Mou; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-21

    As visionary as dynamic, or in-motion, wireless charging of electric vehicles appears the concept is well over a century old as this paper will show. This is because the concept of magnetic induction dates back to the pioneering work of physicist Michael Faraday in the early 19th century. Today wireless power transfer (WPT) is being standardized for stationary and quasi-stationary charging of electric vehicles (EV). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has undertaken the standardization of stationary charging and will make this public during 2016. In addition to this the IEEE-SA (Standards Activities) initiated standards development for EV?s in their EVWPT working group in 2012. This study introduces the many challenges facing EVWPT in not only high power transfer to a moving vehicle and energy management at a utility scale, but communications in a vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) environment and management of high data rates, ultra-low latency, and dealing with communications loss in dense urban areas. Finally, future concepts such as guideway powering of EV?s are presented to illustrate one technical trajectory EVWPT may take.

  14. Identification, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel anti-EV71 agents via cyclophilin A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenzhong; Qing, Jie; Mei, Hanbing; Nong, Junxiu; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Jin; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Linqi; Li, Jian

    2015-12-15

    In this work, the relationship between cyclophilin A (CypA) and EV71 prompted us to screen a series of small molecular CypA inhibitors which were previously reported by our group. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were discovered as non-immunosuppressive anti-EV71 agents with an EC50 values of 1.07±0.17μM and 3.36±0.45μM in virus assay, respectively, which were desirably for the further study. The subsequent chemical modifications derived a novel class of molecules, among which compound 11 demonstrated the most potent anti-EV71 activity in virus assay (EC50=0.37±0.17μM), and low cytotoxicity (CC50>25μM). The following CypA enzyme inhibition studies indicated that there was not only the enzyme inhibition activity, undoubtedly important, functioning in the antiviral process, but also some unknown mechanisms worked in combination, and the further study is underway in our laboratory. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, compound 11 was probably the most potent small molecular anti-EV71 agent via CypA inhibitory mechanism to date. Consequently, our study provided a new potential small molecule for curing EV71 infection.

  15. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  16. The Evolution of Vp1 Gene in Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group That Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    PubMed Central

    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2014-01-01

    Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae,) consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes). The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes). An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21), CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95), EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific ‘signature’ amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific ‘signature’ amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent) positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared. PMID:24695547

  17. Development of Lattice-Matched 1.7 eV GalnAsP Solar Cells Grown on GaAs by MOVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Nikhil; Oshima, Ryuji; France, Ryan; Geisz, John; Norman, Andrew; Dippo, Pat; Levi, Dean; Young, Michelle; Olavarria, Waldo; Steiner, Myles A.

    2016-11-21

    To advance the state-of-the-art in III-V multijunction solar cells towards high concentration efficiencies approaching 50%, development of a high-quality ~1.7 eV second junction solar cell is of key interest for integration in five or more junction devices. Quaternary GalnAsP solar cells grown lattice-matched on GaAs allows bandgap tunability in the range from 1.42 to 1.92 eV and offers an attractive Al-free alternative to conventional AlGaAs solar cells. In this work, we investigate the role of growth temperature towards understanding the optimal growth window for realizing high-quality GalnAsP alloys. We demonstrate bandgap tunability from 1.6 to 1.8 eV in GalnAsP alloys for compositions close to the miscibility gap, while still maintaining lattice-matched condition to GaAs. We perform an in-depth investigation to understand the impact of varying base thickness and doping concentration on the carrier collection and performance of these 1.7 eV GalnAsP solar cells. The photo-response of these cells is found to be very sensitive to p-type zinc dopant incorporation in the base layer. We demonstrate prototype 1.7 eV GalnAsP solar cell designs that leverage enhanced depletion width as an effective method to overcome this issue and boost long-wavelength carrier collection. Short-circuit current density (JSC) measured in field-aided devices were as high as 17.25 m A/cm2. The best GalnAsP solar cell in this study achieved an efficiency of 17.2% with a JSC of 17 m A/cm2 and a fill-factor of 86.4%. The corresponding open-circuit voltage (VOC) 1.7 eV measured on this cell represents the highest Voc reported for a 1.7 eV GalnAsP solar cell. These initial cell results are encouraging and highlight the potential of Al-free GalnAsP solar cells for integration in the next generation of III-V multijunction solar cells.

  18. EV Charging Through Wireless Power Transfer: Analysis of Efficiency Optimization and Technology Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John M; Rakouth, Heri; Suh, In-Soo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at reviewing the technology trends for wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles (EV). It also analyzes the factors affecting its efficiency and describes the techniques currently used for its optimization. The review of the technology trends encompasses both stationary and moving vehicle charging systems. The study of the stationary vehicle charging technology is based on current implementations and on-going developments at WiTricity and Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). The moving vehicle charging technology is primarily described through the results achieved by the Korean Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST) along with on-going efforts at Stanford University. The factors affecting the efficiency are determined through the analysis of the equivalent circuit of magnetic resonant coupling. The air gap between both transmitting and receiving coils along with the magnetic field distribution and the relative impedance mismatch between the related circuits are the primary factors affecting the WPT efficiency. Currently the industry is looking at an air gap of 25 cm or below. To control the magnetic field distribution, Kaist has recently developed the Shaped Magnetic Field In Resonance (SMFIR) technology that uses conveniently shaped ferrite material to provide low reluctance path. The efficiency can be further increased by means of impedance matching. As a result, Delphi's implementation of the WiTricity's technology exhibits a WPT efficiency above 90% for stationary charging while KAIST has demonstrated a maximum efficiency of 83% for moving vehicle with its On Line Vehicle (OLEV) project. This study is restricted to near-field applications (short and mid-range) and does not address long-range technology such as microwave power transfer that has low efficiency as it is based on radiating electromagnetic waves. This paper exemplifies Delphi's work in powertrain electrification as part of its innovation for the real world program geared

  19. MSC secretes at least 3 EV types each with a unique permutation of membrane lipid, protein and RNA.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Tan, Soon Sim; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Choo, Andre Boon Hwa; Reiner, Agnes T; Su, Yan; Shen, Yang; Fu, Zhiyan; Alexander, Lezhava; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), a widely used adult stem cell candidate for regenerative medicine, has been shown to exert some of its therapeutic effects through the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs). These homogenously sized EVs of 100-150 ηm exhibited many exosome-like biophysical and biochemical properties and carry both proteins and RNAs. Recently, exosome-associated proteins in this MSC EV preparation were found to segregate primarily to those EVs that bind cholera toxin B chain (CTB), a GM1 ganglioside-specific ligand, and pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that these EVs have endosomal origin and carried many of the exosome-associated markers. Here, we report that only a fraction of the MSC EV proteome was found in CTB-bound EVs. Using Annexin V (AV) and Shiga toxin B subunit (ST) with affinities for phosphatidylserine and globotriaosylceramide, respectively, AV- and a ST-binding EV were identified. CTB-, AV- and ST-binding EVs all carried actin. However, the AV-binding EVs carried low or undetectable levels of the exosome-associated proteins. Only the ST-binding EVs carried RNA and EDA-containing fibronectin. Proteins in AV-binding EVs were also different from those released by apoptotic MSCs. CTB- and AV-binding activities were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of MSCs, while ST-binding activity was localized to the nucleus. Together, this study demonstrates that cells secrete many types of EVs. Specifically, MSCs secrete at least 3 types. They can be differentially isolated based on their affinities for membrane lipid-binding ligands. As the subcellular sites of the binding activities of these ligands and cargo load are different for each EV type, they are likely to have a different biogenesis pathway and possibly different functions.

  20. miR-21 in the Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): A Platform for Glioblastoma Biomarker Development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ryan; Skog, Johan; Nakano, Ichiro; Pingle, Sandeep; Kalinina, Juliya; Hua, Wei; Kesari, Santosh; Mao, Ying; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Hochberg, Fred H.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Carter, Bob S.; Chen, Clark C.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells secrete extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs (miRNAs). Analysis of these EV miRNAs in the bio-fluids of afflicted patients represents a potential platform for biomarker development. However, the analytic algorithm for quantitative assessment of EV miRNA remains under-developed. Here, we demonstrate that the reference transcripts commonly used for quantitative PCR (including GAPDH, 18S rRNA, and hsa-miR-103) were unreliable for assessing EV miRNA. In this context, we quantitated EV miRNA in absolute terms and normalized this value to the input EV number. Using this method, we examined the abundance of miR-21, a highly over-expressed miRNA in glioblastomas, in EVs. In a panel of glioblastoma cell lines, the cellular levels of miR-21 correlated with EV miR-21 levels (p<0.05), suggesting that glioblastoma cells actively secrete EVs containing miR-21. Consistent with this hypothesis, the CSF EV miR-21 levels of glioblastoma patients (n=13) were, on average, ten-fold higher than levels in EVs isolated from the CSF of non-oncologic patients (n=13, p<0.001). Notably, none of the glioblastoma CSF harbored EV miR-21 level below 0.25 copies per EV in this cohort. Using this cut-off value, we were able to prospectively distinguish CSF derived from glioblastoma and non-oncologic patients in an independent cohort of twenty-nine patients (Sensitivity=87%; Specificity=93%; AUC=0.91, p<0.01). Our results suggest that CSF EV miRNA analysis of miR-21 may serve as a platform for glioblastoma biomarker development. PMID:24205116

  1. 77 FR 51983 - Availability of Department of Energy EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Initial Framing Document and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...The EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is a U.S. Department of Energy ``Clean Energy Grand Challenge'' with the goal of enabling U.S. companies to be the first in the world to produce plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today's gasoline-powered vehicles within the next 10 years. President Obama announced the EV Everywhere Challenge on March 7, 2012. The EV Everywhere Initial Framing Document (framing document) has been developed as a principal means of facilitating stakeholder engagement in the planning process. The framing document describes three potential combinations of PEVs and charging infrastructures, among other possible scenarios, and identifies preliminary technical targets for each of these vehicle and infrastructure scenarios. The framing document is intended to serve as the common framework for stakeholder engagement through public information exchanges and public comment.

  2. Origin of the -4.4 eV band in CdTe(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguín, D.; Baquero, R.

    1994-07-01

    We calculate the bulk (infinite system), (100)-bulk-projected and (100)-surface-projected Green's functions using the surface-Green's-function matching method and an empirical tight-binding Hamiltonian with tight-binding parameters that describe well the bulk band structure of CdTe. In particular, we analyze the band (B-4) arising at -4.4 eV from the top of the valence band at Γ according to the results of Niles and Höchst and at -4.6 eV according to Gawlik et al., both obtained by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. We give a theoretical description of this band.

  3. Application features and considerations in advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.F.; Rajan, J.B.; Lee, T.S.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries, major efforts have focussed on improving specific energy, specific power, cycle life, and cost. Nonetheless, other battery characteristics related to application needs are also important features which must be considered during the battery development process. This paper describes various application features and improvements incorporated in these advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries. Their volumetric energy density and packaging flexibility are presented: their charged-stand capabilities and energy efficiencies are reported; and development work on the safe control of battery off-gases and the implementation of single-point watering systems is discussed.

  4. Electron and positron scattering on rubidium at 200 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J. H.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-03-05

    The recent implementation of the coupled-channels-optical method (CCOM) [1,2], in the study of the electron and positron-Rubidium(Rb) scattering at intermediate energies [3,4], shows that the continuum effect remains important as the energy increases, even to 100 eV. Here, we study the effect of the continuum in electron and positron scattering on Rb at an even higher energy namely 200 eV. The total, elastic and inelastic integral and differential cross sections are therefore calculated and compared to the available experimental [5] and theoretical data [6,7].

  5. Electron Transport Calculations Between 1MeV and 1 eV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    field term in the same manner as Wienke. Since our multigroup discrete ordinates equation solves for the flux as a function of energy, i.e. tg(Zp) ; O...L can be simplified as follows: eo =* _0.; 0 = v v 0- (6) Our multigroup -SN calculation requires that the flux be expressed in terms of energy rather... flux curves at energies in excess of 5 eV. 1 5 eV Isotropic Source Uniformly Distributed (.04-.06Mm) 10 5::: i Slee~ I 10 -=;•0 Z’• .04 .06 .AlM 10 - x

  6. The level at a few EV of excitation in [sup 229]Th

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several years ago, we reported that there was an excited state of [sup 229]Th that occurred within a few electron volts of the ground state. Since that time, we have carried out an extensive series of measurements in an effort to obtain a value, rather than merely a limit, for the excitation energy of this level. This study has now been completed. Analysis of these data, which is still in progress, indicates that this level energy is 4.5 eV, with an estimated uncertainty of 1 eV.

  7. The level at a few EV of excitation in {sup 229}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    Several years ago, we reported that there was an excited state of {sup 229}Th that occurred within a few electron volts of the ground state. Since that time, we have carried out an extensive series of measurements in an effort to obtain a value, rather than merely a limit, for the excitation energy of this level. This study has now been completed. Analysis of these data, which is still in progress, indicates that this level energy is 4.5 eV, with an estimated uncertainty of 1 eV.

  8. Limits on deeply penetrating particles in the 10(17) eV cosmic ray flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, J. W.; Loh, P. R.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    Deeply penetrating particles in the 10 to the 17th power eV cosmic ray flux were investigated. No such events were found in 8.2 x 10 to the 6th power sec of running time. Limits were set on the following: quark-matter in the primary cosmic ray flux; long-lived, weakly interacting particles produced in p-air collisions; the astrophysical neutrino flux. In particular, the neutrino flux limit at 10 to the 17th power eV implies that z, the red shift of maximum activity is 10 in the model of Hill and Schramm.

  9. Large transverse momenta in nuclear interaction at E{sub 0} > 10{sup 16} eV detected in stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Managadze, A. K. Osedlo, V. I.; Roganova, T. M.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Galkin, V. I.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Goncharova, L. A.; Kotelnikov, K. A.; Polukhina, N. G.

    2007-01-15

    A gamma-hadron superfamily of cosmic-rays created by a primary cosmic-ray particle with energy above 10{sup 16} eV was detected at an altitude of 30 km by a stratospheric balloon-borne emulsion chamber. Being of superhigh energy, this event is the unique example in the world statistics of practically pure nuclear interactions in the energy range unattainable for modern accelerators. The present analysis allowed one to estimate the interaction height above the chamber and transverse momenta of the secondaries produced in the interaction. The mean value of transverse momenta appears to be very large ( > 2.5 GeV/c)

  10. The Cosmic Ray spectrum in the energy region between 1012 and 1016 eV measured by ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montini, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in full and stable data taking at the Yangbajing cosmic ray observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l.) for more than five years. The detector has been designed in order to explore the Cosmic Ray (CR) spectrum in an energy range from few TeV up to several PeV. The high segmentation of the detector allows a detailed measurement of the lateral particle distribution which can be exploited on order to identify showers produced by primaries of different mass. The results of the measurement of the all-particle and proton plus helium energy spectra in the energy region between 1012 and 1016 eV are discussed.

  11. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections for He - A proposed calibration standard from 5 to 200 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    Absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for electrons elastically scattered from helium are reported for the impact energy range of 5 to 200 eV. Angular distributions for elastically scattered electrons are measured in a crossed-beam geometry using a collimated, differentially pumped atomic-beam source which requires no effective-path-length correction. Below the first inelastic threshold the angular distributions were placed on an absolute scale by use of a phase-shift analysis. Above this threshold, the angular distributions from 10 to 140 deg were fitted using the phase-shift technique, and the resulting integral cross sections were normalized to a semiempirically derived integral elastic cross section. Depending on the impact energy, the data are estimated to be accurate to within 5 to 9%.

  12. The GZK bound and strong neutrino-nucleon interactions above 1019 eV: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, John P.; Jain, Pankaj; McKay, Douglas W.; Panda, S.

    2000-12-01

    Cosmic ray events above 1019 eV have posed a fundamental problem for more than thirty years. Recent measurements indicate that these events do not show the features predicted by the GZK bound. The events may, in addition, display angular correlations with points sources. If these observations are confirmed for point sources further than 50-100 Mpc, then strong interactions for the ultra-high energy neutrino are indicated. Recent work on extra space-time dimensions provides a context for massive spin-2 exchanges which are capable of generating cross sections in the 1-100 mb range indicated by data. Some recent controversies on the applicability of extra-dimension physics are discussed. .

  13. Measurement of energy muons in EAS at energy region larger thean 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hayashida, N.; Kamata, K.; Nagano, M.; Ohoka, H.; Tanahasni, G.; Teshima, T.

    1985-01-01

    A measurement of low energy muons in extensive air showers (EAS) (threshold energies are 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.38 GeV) was carried out. The density under the concrete shielding equivalent to 0.25 GeV at core distance less than 500 m and 0.5 GeV less than 150 m suffers contamination of electromagnetic components. Therefore the thickness of concrete shielding for muon detectors for the giant air shower array is determined to be 0.5 GeV equivalence. Effects of photoproduced muons are found to be negligible in the examined ranges of shower sizes and core distances. The fluctuation of the muon density in 90 sq m is at most 25% between 200 m and 600 m from the core around 10 to the 17th power eV.

  14. Diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by EV71 and other enteroviruses by a one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bingfu; Zhang, Jianhua; You, Xianhui; Dong, Chen; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dai, Xing; Meng, Jihong

    2012-11-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused mainly by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses (EVs) such as Coxsackie A16 in China. EV71 infection can lead to severe clinical manifestations and even death. Other EVs, however, generally cause mild symptoms. Thus, early and accurate distinction of EV71 from other EVs for HFMD will offer significant benefits. A one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR assay is described in the present study to detect simultaneously EV71 and other EVs. The primers used for the duplex RT-PCR underwent screening and optimization. The detection threshold was 0.001 TCID(50)/ml for EV71 and 0.01 TCID(50)/ml for other EVs. The positive rate of enterovirus detection in 165 clinical samples reached 68.5%, including 46.1% for EV71 and 22.4% for other EVs. Of all the severe HFMD cases, EV71 was responsible for 85.3% cases. The positive rate of EV71 fell markedly by day 8 after onset. In addition, sequencing of EV71 specific amplicons from duplex RT-PCR revealed that C4a was the predominant subgenotype of EV71 circulating in Nanjing, China. The accuracy and reliability of the assay suggest strongly that the one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR will be useful for early diagnosis and monitoring of EV71 and other EV infections.

  15. SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5'UTR RNA.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Wang, Lvyin; Cui, Jin; Song, Yu; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Junbo; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Ho, Wenzhe; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-12-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) possesses a single-stranded positive RNA genome that contains a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and a polyadenylated 3'UTR. Here, we demonstrated that EV71 activates the production of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase (HDAC). EV71 further stimulates SIRT1 sumoylation and deacetylase activity, and enhances SIRT1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. More interestingly, activated SIRT1 subsequently binds with the EV71 3D(pol) protein (a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp) to repress the acetylation and RdRp activity of 3D(pol), resulting in the attenuation of viral genome replication. Moreover, SIRT1 interacts with the cloverleaf structure of the EV71 RNA 5'UTR to inhibit viral RNA transcription, and binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the EV71 5'UTR to attenuate viral RNA translation. Thus, EV71 stimulates SIRT1 production and activity, which in turn represses EV71 genome replication by inhibiting viral polymerase, and attenuates EV71 RNA transcription and translation by interfering with viral RNA. These results uncover a new function of SIRT1 and reveal a new mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Genetic variations of live attenuated plague vaccine strains (Yersinia pestis EV76 lineage) during laboratory passages in different countries.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yujun; Yang, Xianwei; Xiao, Xiao; Anisimov, Andrey P; Li, Dongfang; Yan, Yanfeng; Zhou, Dongsheng; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Carniel, Elisabeth; Achtman, Mark; Yang, Ruifu; Song, Yajun

    2014-08-01

    Plague, one of the most devastating infectious diseases in human history, is caused by the bacterial species Yersinia pestis. A live attenuated Y. pestis strain (EV76) has been widely used as a plague vaccine in various countries around the world. Here we compared the whole genome sequence of an EV76 strain used in China (EV76-CN) with the genomes of Y. pestis wild isolates to identify genetic variations specific to the EV76 lineage. We identified 6 SNPs and 6 Indels (insertions and deletions) differentiating EV76-CN from its counterparts. Then, we screened these polymorphic sites in 28 other strains of EV76 lineage that were stored in different countries. Based on the profiles of SNPs and Indels, we reconstructed the parsimonious dissemination history of EV76 lineage. This analysis revealed that there have been at least three independent imports of EV76 strains into China. Additionally, we observed that the pyrE gene is a mutation hotspot in EV76 lineages. The fine comparison results based on whole genome sequence in this study provide better understanding of the effects of laboratory passages on the accumulation of genetic polymorphisms in plague vaccine strains. These variations identified here will also be helpful in discriminating different EV76 derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure of Piglets to Enteroviruses Investigated by an Immunoassay Based on the EV-G1 VP4 Peptide.

    PubMed

    Benkahla, Mehdi A; Sane, Famara; Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure of piglets to enteroviruses-G (EV-G) through the presence of antibodies in their serum. Serum samples were obtained from the vena cava of 10 piglets at 9 weeks of age and again 39 days later (day 39). They were tested using an immunoassay based on the EV-G1 VP4 peptide, since VP4 is highly conserved among the four Enterovirus capsid proteins, and by using a seroneutralization assay. For each serum collected on day 39 the optical density was high compared to the value obtained in serum collected earlier (p = 0.002). However, the titers of anti-EV-G1 serum neutralizing activity were not different in paired samples (p > 0.999). The sequence alignment of the EV-G1 VP4 peptide, encompassing 50 amino acids, used in the immunoassay showed 88% homology with EV-G, suggesting that antibodies directed toward other EV-G than EV-G1 may be detected. An immunoassay based on EV-G1 VP4 can detect an increased level of EV-G antibodies in piglet serum samples. Further studies are needed to determine whether this immunoassay may be useful for diagnosis and/or epidemiological studies and to monitor EV-G infection in pigs to evaluate strategies aimed to prevent enterovirus infections. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effective cross sections for production of single-strand breaks in plasmid DNA by 0.1 to 4.7 eV electrons.

    PubMed

    Panajotovic, Radmila; Martin, Frédéric; Cloutier, Pierre; Hunting, Darel; Sanche, Léon

    2006-04-01

    We determined effective cross sections for production of single-strand breaks (SSBs) in plasmid DNA [pGEM 3Zf(-)] by electrons of 10 eV and energies between 0.1 and 4.7 eV. After purification and lyophilization on a chemically clean tantalum foil, dry plasmid DNA samples were transferred into a high-vacuum chamber and bombarded by a monoenergetic electron beam. The amount of the circular relaxed DNA in the samples was separated from undamaged molecules and quantified using agarose gel electrophoresis. The effective cross sections were derived from the slope of the yield as a function of exposure and had values in the range of 10(-15)- 10(-14) cm2, giving an effective cross section of the order of 10(-18) cm2 per nucleotide. Their strong variation with incident electron energy and the resonant enhancement at 1 eV suggest that considerable damage is inflicted by very low-energy electrons to DNA, and it indicates the important role of pi* shape resonances in the bond-breaking process. Furthermore, the fact that the energy threshold for SSB production is practically zero implies that the sensitivity of DNA to electron impact is universal and is not limited to any particular energy range.

  19. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-07-20

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases.

  20. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases. PMID:27436364

  1. Probing royal demolition explosive (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazocyclohexane) by low-energy electrons: Strong dissociative electron attachment near 0 eV.

    PubMed

    Sulzer, P; Mauracher, A; Ferreira da Silva, F; Denifl, S; Märk, T D; Probst, M; Limão-Vieira, P; Scheier, P

    2009-10-14

    Low energy electron attachment to gas phase royal demolition explosive (RDX) (and RDX-A3) has been performed by means of a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment in an electron energy range from 0 to 14 eV with an energy resolution of approximately 70 meV. The most intense signals are observed at 102 and 46 amu and assigned to C(2)H(4)N(3)O(2) (-) and NO(2) (-), respectively. Anion efficiency curves of 16 anions have been measured. Product ions are observed mainly in the low energy region, near 0 eV arising from surprisingly complex reactions associated with multiple bond cleavages and structural and electronic rearrangement. The remarkable instability of RDX to electron attachment with virtually thermal electrons reflects the highly explosive nature of this compound. The present results are compared to other explosive aromatic nitrocompounds studied in our laboratory recently.

  2. Constraints on the Origin of Cosmic Rays above 1018 eV from Large-scale Anisotropy Searches in Data of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Messina, S.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 1018 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 1018 eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  3. Calculations of stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Systematic calculations are performed for determining the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue. The calculations are based on a dielectric model, including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction. The optical energy loss functions (OELF) are empirically evaluated, because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the 11 tissues under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by the f-sum rule expected from the dielectric response theory, and by calculation of the mean excitation energy. The calculated SPs are compared with those for PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate, a tissue equivalent material) and liquid water. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the results for the 11 human tissues over the energy range of 20 eV-20 keV, and are of importance in radiotherapy planning and for studies of various radiation effects on human tissues.

  4. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV FROM LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY SEARCHES IN DATA OF THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  5. How many electric miles do Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project travel?

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents travel statistics and metrics describing the driving behavior of Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt drivers in the EV Project. It specifically quantifies the distance each group of vehicles drives each month. This paper will be published to INL's external website and will be accessible by the general public.

  6. On the Variation of Eta with Energy in the 100-1000 ev Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1949-11-01

    Fluctuations in the fission yield in the 100- to 1000-ev region led to an investigation of the influencing variables. Changes in fission width from level to level and higher angular momentum phenomena are seen as possible explanations. (D.E.B.)

  7. Cosmology based on f(R) gravity admits 1 eV sterile neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2013-03-22

    It is shown that the tension between recent neutrino oscillation experiments, favoring sterile neutrinos with masses of the order of 1 eV, and cosmological data which impose stringent constraints on neutrino masses from the free streaming suppression of density fluctuations, can be resolved in models of the present accelerated expansion of the Universe based on f(R) gravity.

  8. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Shawn

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  9. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, John G.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  10. Periodic gamma-ray emissions from Geminga at or = 10(12) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R. K.; Rawat, H. S.; Sanecha, V. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Sapru, M.; Tickoo, A. K.; Qazi, R. A.; Bhat, C. L.; Razdan, H.; Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of data from an atmospheric Cerenkov telescope indicated the periodic emission of gamma rays of energy 10 to the 12th power eV, at 60.25 second period, from 2CG 195+4. The gamma ray flux at 99% confidence level is estimated to be 9.5 x 10 to 12 photons/sq cm/s.

  11. Crystal structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) recombinant virus particles provide insights into vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ke; Wang, Guang-Chuan; He, Ya-Ling; Han, Jian-Feng; Ye, Qing; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Rong

    2015-02-06

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) remains a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific regions, and its major causative agents include human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16. A desirable vaccine against HFMD would be multivalent and able to elicit protective responses against multiple HFMD causative agents. Previously, we have demonstrated that a thermostable recombinant EV71 vaccine candidate can be produced by the insertion of a foreign peptide into the BC loop of VP1 without affecting viral replication. Here we present crystal structures of two different naturally occurring empty particles, one from a clinical C4 strain EV71 and the other from its recombinant virus containing an insertion in the VP1 BC loop. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that the inserted foreign peptide is well exposed on the particle surface without significant structural changes in the capsid. Importantly, such insertions do not seem to affect the virus uncoating process as illustrated by the conformational similarity between an uncoating intermediate of another recombinant virus and that of EV71. Especially, at least 18 residues from the N terminus of VP1 are transiently externalized. Altogether, our study provides insights into vaccine development against HFMD.

  12. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Carbon Dioxide via the 8.2 eV Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, Dan; Adaniya, Hidihito; Rescigno, Tom; Haxton, Dan; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-08-17

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CO{sub 2} are combined with the results of ab initio calculations to provide a detailed and consistent picture of the dissociation dynamics through the 8.2 eV resonance, which is the major channel for DEA in CO{sub 2}. The present study resolves several puzzling misconceptions about this system.

  13. Arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays of energy 10 (18) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eames, P. V.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Morello, C.; Reid, R. J. O.; Watson, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Haverah Park air-shower experiment recorded over 8500 events with primary energy 10 to the 18th power eV between 1963 and 1983. An analysis of these events for anisotropies in celestial and galactic coordinates is reported. No very striking anisotropies are observed.

  14. On galactic origin of cosmic rays with energy up to 10(19) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efimov, N. N.; Mikhailov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on ultrahigh energy cosmic ray anisotropy are considered. In supposed models of galactic magnetic field the main characteristics of expected anisotropy are estimated and are compared with the experimental data. It is shown that particles with energy up to 10 to the 19th power eV are of galactic origin.

  15. An EVS Clicker Based Hybrid Assessment to Engage Students with Marking Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Steve; Barker, Trevor; Lilley, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Over 4 iterations of a large course (>180 students) in introductory emedia design in a first year computer science course we have seen a year on year improvement. We believe this is due to the use of EVS clickers for feed-forward assessment: that is to say a method of getting the whole class to evaluate previous cohorts' submissions in public…

  16. Pure rotational excitation of H2 at electron impact energies of 3 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Hall, R. I.; Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.

    1975-01-01

    Cross sections for pure rotational excitation in H2 are obtained using two different crossed-beam type electron-impact spectrometers with three sets of conditions: at electron energies of 15-100 eV and scattering angles of 115 deg; 3-40 eV at 20 deg; 40 eV at 10-135 deg. For intermediate-energy electrons the pure rotational excitation cross section at large scattering angles exceeds the elastic scattering cross section at electron energies greater than about 30 eV. Rotational cross sections are found to decrease slowly with decreasing electron energy, with a magnitude at their peak (at 4 eV) about 20 times that at 100 eV. It is suggested that these results may account in part for the large population of excited rotational states observed in interstellar H2.

  17. Development of nickel/metal-hydride batteries for EVs and HEVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fujioka, Noriyuki; Ikoma, Munehisa; Ohta, Akira

    This paper is to introduce the nickel/metal-hydride (Ni/MH) batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) developed and mass-produced by our company. EV-95 for EVs enables a vehicle to drive approximately 200 km per charge. As the specific power is extremely high, more than 200 W/kg at 80% depth of discharge (DOD), the acceleration performance is equivalent to that of gasoline fuel automobiles. The life characteristic is also superior. This battery gives the satisfactory result of more than 1000 cycles in bench tests and approximately 4-year on-board driving. EV-28 developed for small EVs comprises of a compact and light battery module with high specific power of 300 W/kg at 80% DOD by introducing a new technology for internal cell connection. Meanwhile, our cylindrical battery for the HEV was adopted into the first generation Toyota Prius in 1997 which is the world's first mass-product HEV, and has a high specific power of 600 W/kg. Its life characteristic was found to be equivalent to more than 100,000 km driving. Furthermore, a new prismatic module in which six cells are connected internally was used for the second generation Prius in 2000. The prismatic battery comprises of a compact and light battery pack with a high specific power of 1000 W/kg, which is approximately 1.7 times that of conventional cylindrical batteries, as a consequence of the development of a new internal cell connection and a new current collection structure.

  18. Control Strategies for Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Using Renewables and Local Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C; LaClair, Tim J; Maxey, L Curt

    2014-01-01

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption creates a need for more EV supply equipment (EVSE) infrastructure (i.e., EV chargers). The impact of EVSE installations could be significant due to limitations in the electric grid and potential demand charges for residential and commercial customers. The use of renewables (e.g., solar) and local storage (e.g., battery bank) can mitigate loads caused by EVSE on the electric grid. This would eliminate costly upgrades needed by utilities and decrease demand charges for consumers. This paper aims to explore control systems that mitigate the impact of EVSE on the electric grid using solar energy and battery banks. Three control systems are investigated and compared in this study. The first control system discharges the battery bank at a constant rate during specific times of the day based on historical data. The second discharges the battery bank based on the number of EVs charging (linear) and the amount of solar energy being generated. The third discharges the battery bank based on a sigmoid function (non-linear) in response to the number of EVs charging, and also takes into consideration the amount of renewables being generated. The first and second control systems recharge the battery bank at night when demand charges are lowest. The third recharges the battery bank at night and during times of the day when there is an excess of solar. Experiments are conducted using data from a private site that has 25 solar-assisted charging stations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN and 4 at a public site in Nashville, TN. Results indicate the third control system having better performance, negating up to 71% of EVSE load, compared with the second control system (up to 61%) and the first control system (up to 58%).

  19. Isotropy Constraints on Powerful Sources of Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays at 1019 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) produced by powerful sources is numerically evaluated. We show that nondetection of significant anisotropy at ≈ {10}19 eV at present and in future experiments imposes general upper limits on UHECR proton luminosity of steady sources as a function of source redshifts. The upper limits constrain the existence of typical steady {10}19 eV UHECR sources in the local universe and limit their local density to ≳ {10}-3 Mpc {}-3, assuming average intergalactic magnetic fields less than {10}-9 G. This isotropy, being stronger than that measured at the highest energies, may indicate the transient generation of UHECRs. Our calculations are applied for extreme high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 0347-121, to test the UHECR-induced cascade model, in which beamed UHECR protons generate TeV radiation in transit from sources. While the magnetic-field structure surrounding the sources affects the required absolute cosmic-ray luminosity of the blazars, the magnetic-field structure surrounding the Milky Way directly affects the observed anisotropy. If these magnetic fields are weak enough, significant UHECR anisotropy from these blazars is detectable by the Pierre Auger Observatory unless the maximum energy of UHECR protons is below 1019 eV. Furthermore, if these are the sources of UHECRs above 1019 eV, a local magnetic structure surrounding the Milky Way is needed to explain the observed isotropy at ˜ {10}19 eV, which may be incompatible with large magnetic structures around all galaxies for the UHECR-induced cascade model to work with reasonable jet powers.

  20. Time-Resolved UV-Pump (4.8eV) and Vacuum-UV (8eV) Probe Experiments of Neutral Excited State Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Spencer; Liu, Yusong; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Excited state dynamics in polyatomic molecules involve a rich mixture of internal conversion, intersystem crossing, isomerization, and dissociation. Probing these dynamics with ultrafast laser pulses poses a number of challenges, in terms of both the execution of the measurements and their interpretation. We have developed an apparatus for probing excited state dynamics using a 260nm UV-pump pulse and a 156nm Vacuum-UV (VUV) probe pulse. For many systems of interest, an 8eV probe pulse can ionize the molecule from essentially any position along the excited state potential, while not having a background ionization yield from the ground state. Furthermore, given the perturbative interaction of each pulse with the molecule, it is possible interpret and model the experimental results with greater ease and confidence than more complicated probe interactions such as strong field ionization. We compare UV-IR strong-field ionization pump-probe experiments previously conducted directly with our 8eV probing and explore the differences between the two.

  1. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence of antibody responses against all three capsid proteins was demonstrated, and anti-EV71 VP1 showed the main antibody response. Anti-EV71 VP1 antibody response was found to predominantly target to epitopes based on the common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. Moreover, inhibition pattern against anti-EV71 VP1 reactions in three groups was obviously different. Taken together, these results firstly characterized the anti-EV71 antibody responses which are predominantly against VP1 epitopes based on common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. This finding could be helpful for the better understanding of anti-EV71 humoral immunity and useful for seroepidemiological surveillance. PMID:26023863

  2. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage.

  3. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Xianyu, Lingzhi; Lyu, Songya

    2015-06-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing mAbs (D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect >95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 µg/mL solution (lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing mAbs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for mAbs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  4. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-05-29

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence of antibody responses against all three capsid proteins was demonstrated, and anti-EV71 VP1 showed the main antibody response. Anti-EV71 VP1 antibody response was found to predominantly target to epitopes based on the common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. Moreover, inhibition pattern against anti-EV71 VP1 reactions in three groups was obviously different. Taken together, these results firstly characterized the anti-EV71 antibody responses which are predominantly against VP1 epitopes based on common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. This finding could be helpful for the better understanding of anti-EV71 humoral immunity and useful for seroepidemiological surveillance.

  5. Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengqi; Pan, Ziye; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yudong

    2014-11-04

    Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection.

  6. 0.7-eV GaInAs Junction for a GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs(1-eV)/GaInAs(0.7-eV) Four-Junction Solar Cell: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D. J.; Geisz, J. F.; Norman, A. G.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2006-05-01

    We discuss recent developments in III-V multijunction solar cells, focusing on adding a fourth junction to the Ga0.5In0.5P/GaAs/Ga0.75In0.25As inverted three-junction cell. This cell, grown inverted on GaAs so that the lattice-mismatched Ga0.75In0.25As third junction is the last one grown, has demonstrated 38% efficiency, and 40% is likely in the near future. To achieve still further gains, a lower-bandgap GaxIn1-xAs fourth junction could be added to the three-junction structure for a four-junction cell whose efficiency could exceed 45% under concentration. Here, we present the initial development of the GaxIn1-xAs fourth junction. Junctions of various bandgaps ranging from 0.88 to 0.73 eV were grown, in order to study the effect of the different amounts of lattice mismatch. At a bandgap of 0.88 eV, junctions were obtained with very encouraging {approx}80% quantum efficiency, 57% fill factor, and 0.36 eV open-circuit voltage. The device performance degrades with decreasing bandgap (i.e., increasing lattice mismatch). We model the four-junction device efficiency vs. fourth junction bandgap to show that an 0.7-eV fourth-junction bandgap, while optimal if it could be achieved in practice, is not necessary; an 0.9-eV bandgap would still permit significant gains in multijunction cell efficiency while being easier to achieve than the lower-bandgap junction.

  7. A new measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum between 3 x 10 to the 15th power eV and 3 x 10 to the 16th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, A. G.; Patterson, J. R.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new Cerenkov photon density spectrum measurement is reported. The derivation of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum for energies from 3x10 to the 15th power eV to 3x10 to the 16th power eV are presented.

  8. A model calculation of coherence effects in the elastic backscattering of very low energy electrons (1-20 eV) from amorphous ice.

    PubMed

    Liljequist, David

    2012-01-01

    Backscattering of very low energy electrons in thin layers of amorphous ice is known to provide experimental data for the elastic and inelastic cross sections and indicates values to be expected in liquid water. The extraction of cross sections was based on a transport analysis consistent with Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories. However, at electron energies below 20 eV, quantum coherence effects may be important and trajectory-based methods may be in significant error. This possibility is here investigated by calculating quantum multiple elastic scattering of electrons in a simple model of a very small, thin foil of amorphous ice. The average quantum multiple elastic scattering of electrons is calculated for a large number of simulated foils, using a point-scatterer model for the water molecule and taking inelastic absorption into account. The calculation is compared with a corresponding trajectory simulation. The difference between average quantum scattering and trajectory simulation at energies below about 20 eV is large, in particular in the forward scattering direction, and is found to be almost entirely due to coherence effects associated with the short-range order in the amorphous ice. For electrons backscattered at the experimental detection angle (45° relative to the surface normal) the difference is however small except at electron energies below about 10 eV. Although coherence effects are in general found to be strong, the mean free path values derived by trajectory-based analysis may actually be in fair agreement with the result of an analysis based on quantum scattering, at least for electron energies larger than about 10 eV.

  9. Action spectroscopy of a protonated peptide in the ultraviolet range.

    PubMed

    Canon, Francis; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R; Nahon, Laurent; Giuliani, Alexandre

    2015-10-21

    Action spectroscopy of protonated substance P, a model undecapeptide, has been probed from 5.2 eV to 20 eV. For photon energy above the ionization threshold measured at 10.3 ± 0.1 eV, the radical dication is observed along with side chain losses and abundant formation of all kinds of sequence ions. Below the photoionization threshold, the photoproducts involve side chain cleavages and backbone cleavages into a-, b-/y-, and c-sequence ions. Different electronic excited states appear to produce different fragment ions. Norrish type I and II reactions are proposed to account for some photoproducts. This study bridges the gap between laser activation and electron-induced dissociation of peptides. Moreover, our results report for the first time a comprehensive picture of the photochemical fragmentation of a gas phase peptide in a wide photon energy range.

  10. High-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy of Ni at 1s : 6-eV satellite at 4 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karis, O.; Svensson, S.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Gorgoi, M.; Schäfers, F.; Braun, W.; Eberhardt, W.; Mårtensson, N.

    2008-12-01

    Electron correlations are responsible for many profound phenomena in solid-state physics. A classical example is the 6-eV satellite in the photoelectron spectrum of Ni. Until now the satellite structure has only been investigated at the L shell and more shallow levels. Here we report a high-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy (HIKE) investigation of Ni metal. We present 1s and 2p photoelectron spectra, obtained using excitation energies up to 12.6 keV. Our investigation demonstrates that the energy position of the satellite relative to the main line is different for the 1s and the 2p levels. In combination with electronic structure calculations, we show that this energy shift is attributed to unique differences in the core-valence coupling for the K and L2,3 shells in 3d transition metals, resulting in different screening of the core holes.

  11. Dual baseline search for muon antineutrino disappearance at 0.1eV2<Δm2<100eV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G.; Huelsnitz, W.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Church, E. D.; Conrad, J. M.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Franke, A. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Giganti, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Grange, J.; Guzowski, P.; Hanson, A.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ignarra, C.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jover-Manas, G.; Karagiorgi, G.; Katori, T.; Kobayashi, Y. K.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kubo, H.; Kurimoto, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Loverre, P. F.; Ludovici, L.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mariani, C.; Marsh, W.; Masuike, S.; Matsuoka, K.; McGary, V. T.; Metcalf, W.; Mills, G. B.; Mirabal, J.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyachi, Y.; Mizugashira, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Nakaya, T.; Napora, R.; Nienaber, P.; Orme, D.; Osmanov, B.; Otani, M.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sanchez, F.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sorel, M.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Takei, H.; Tanaka, H.-K.; Tanaka, M.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; Uchida, Y.; Van de Water, R. G.; Walding, J. J.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; White, H. B.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Yokoyama, M.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2012-09-01

    The MiniBooNE and SciBooNE collaborations report the results of a joint search for short baseline disappearance of ν¯μ at Fermilab’s Booster Neutrino Beamline. The MiniBooNE Cherenkov detector and the SciBooNE tracking detector observe antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. Uncertainties in the νμ background were constrained by neutrino flux and cross section measurements performed in both detectors. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on ν¯μ disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior limits in the Δm2=0.1-100eV2 region.

  12. Multipole character of the proposed 220 eV transition in [sup 229]Pa

    SciTech Connect

    Dragoun, O.; Rysavy, M. ); Guenther, C. )

    1993-02-01

    Internal conversion coefficients (ICC's) have been calculated for protactinium and transition energies between 170 eV and 10 keV. The ICC's for [ital E]1 multipolarity show an unusual behavior, which cannot be approximated by an exponential dependence on the transition energy, whereas the ICC's for [ital M]1 and [ital E]2 multipolarities closely follow such a dependence. Using the newly calculated ICC's the unusually strong enhancement'' of a possible 220 eV [ital E]1 transition in [sup 229]Pa proposed earlier is reduced by a factor of [similar to]5, yielding an induced electric dipole moment similar to that observed in the neighboring octupole-deformed isotopes.

  13. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 1018eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, Xmax⁡, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 1018eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106-21+35)g/cm2/decade below 1018.24±0.05eV, and (24±3)g/cm2/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26g/cm2. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  14. A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I; Fry, Elizabeth E; Rao, Zihe

    2012-03-04

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major agent of hand, foot and mouth disease in children that can cause severe central nervous system disease and death. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. High-resolution structural analysis of the mature virus and natural empty particles shows that the mature virus is structurally similar to other enteroviruses. In contrast, the empty particles are markedly expanded and resemble elusive enterovirus-uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic pockets in the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. These structures provide a model for enterovirus uncoating in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for cellular receptor attachment, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, highlighting new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  15. A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J.; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Rao, Zihe

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, can cause severe central nervous system disease and mortality. At present no vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. We have determined high-resolution structures for the mature virus and natural empty particles. The structure of the mature virus is similar to that of other enteroviruses, whilst the empty particles are dramatically expanded, with notable fissures, resembling elusive enterovirus uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic capsid pockets within the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. The results provide a paradigm for enterovirus uncoating, in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for the attachment of cellular receptors, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, spotlighting novel points for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22388738

  16. A Fusion of Sensors Information for Autonomous Driving Control of an Electric Vehicle (EV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, Hasri; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.

    2013-12-01

    The study uses the environment of the road as input variables for the main system to control steering wheel, brake and acceleration pedals. A camera is installed on the roof of the Electric Vehicles (EV) and is used to obtain image information of the road. On the other hand, users or drivers do not have to directly contact with the main system because it will autonomously control the devices by using fuzzy information of the road conditions. A fuzzy information means in the preliminary experiments, reasoning of the various environments will be done by using fuzzy approach. At the end of the study, several existing algorithms for controlling motors and image processing technique could be combined into an algorithm that could be used to move EV without assist from human.

  17. Modeling cosmic ray anisotropies near 10(18) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommers, P.; Elbert, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A galactic magnetic field reversal near the Sagittarius spiral arm may be responsible for the southern excess (or northern shortage) of cosmic rays near 10 to the 18th power eV. The north-south asymmetry produced by such a reversal would increase with energy in the same manner as the observed asymmetry. The existence of a reversal has been inferred from analyses of Faraday rotation measures.

  18. Electron nuclear dynamics of proton collisions with methane at 30 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemin, D.; Morales, J. A.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.

    1997-10-01

    The reactive collisions of protons with methane molecules at 30 eV in the laboratory frame are studied with the electron nuclear dynamics (END). The results from this theoretical approach, which does not invoke the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and does not impose any constraints on the nuclear dynamics, are compared to the results from time-of-flight measurements. Total differential cross sections and integral cross sections as well as fragmentation ratios and energy loss spectra are discussed.

  19. Electron-impact excitation of the 31. 4-eV band in N sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, G.G.B.; Bielschowsky, C.E.; Lucas, C.A.; Souza, A.C.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Generalized oscillator strengths (GOS) for the dipole-forbidden 31.4-eV band in N{sub 2} have been determined both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental values for the GOS were obtained using a crossed-beam electron spectrometer at 1-keV impact energy. The theoretical results were determined using the first Born approximation with {ital ab} {ital initio} configuration-interaction target wave functions.

  20. NREL's PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Secondary-Use Project

    SciTech Connect

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-06-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the Li-ion battery's cost via reuse in other applications after it is retired from service in the vehicle, when the battery may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy storage applications.

  1. Evaluation and Validation (E&V) Team Public Report. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-30

    a variety of computers (e.g., IBM 370, VAX, Motorola 68000, and IBM PC). D-43 %. 28 August 1984 4.20.2 Relationship to the E&V Task The products of...SUBACS) Program. The SUBACS Ada compiler was to be hosted on an IBM 370 and targeted to an M68000 and AN/UYK-44. In August 1983, IBM contracted Telesoft to

  2. EV71 3D Protein Binds with NLRP3 and Enhances the Assembly of Inflammasome Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Pin; Pan, Pan; Zhang, Yecheng; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is important for effective host defense against invading pathogen. Together with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD domain (ASC), NLRP3 induces the cleavage of caspase-1 to facilitate the maturation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-1β subsequently plays critical roles in inflammatory responses by activating immune cells and inducing many secondary pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in immune response is well defined, the mechanism underlying its assembly modulated by pathogen infection remains largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel mechanism by which enterovirus 71 (EV71) facilitates the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results show that EV71 induces production and secretion of IL-1β in macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. EV71 replication and protein synthesis are required for NLRP3-mediated activation of IL-1β. Interestingly, EV71 3D protein, a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was found to stimulate the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, the cleavage of pro-caspase-1, and the release of IL-1β through direct binding to NLRP3. More importantly, 3D interacts with NLRP3 to facilitate the assembly of inflammasome complex by forming a 3D-NLRP3-ASC ring-like structure, resulting in the activation of IL-1β. These findings demonstrate a new role of 3D as an important player in the activation of inflammatory response, and identify a novel mechanism underlying the modulation of inflammasome assembly and function induced by pathogen invasion. PMID:28060938

  3. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1981-01-15

    Charge efficiencies were determined for ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state-of-charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  4. EV71 3D Protein Binds with NLRP3 and Enhances the Assembly of Inflammasome Complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbiao; Xiao, Feng; Wan, Pin; Pan, Pan; Zhang, Yecheng; Liu, Fang; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is important for effective host defense against invading pathogen. Together with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD domain (ASC), NLRP3 induces the cleavage of caspase-1 to facilitate the maturation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-1β subsequently plays critical roles in inflammatory responses by activating immune cells and inducing many secondary pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in immune response is well defined, the mechanism underlying its assembly modulated by pathogen infection remains largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel mechanism by which enterovirus 71 (EV71) facilitates the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results show that EV71 induces production and secretion of IL-1β in macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. EV71 replication and protein synthesis are required for NLRP3-mediated activation of IL-1β. Interestingly, EV71 3D protein, a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was found to stimulate the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, the cleavage of pro-caspase-1, and the release of IL-1β through direct binding to NLRP3. More importantly, 3D interacts with NLRP3 to facilitate the assembly of inflammasome complex by forming a 3D-NLRP3-ASC ring-like structure, resulting in the activation of IL-1β. These findings demonstrate a new role of 3D as an important player in the activation of inflammatory response, and identify a novel mechanism underlying the modulation of inflammasome assembly and function induced by pathogen invasion.

  5. Different EV enrichment methods suitable for clinical settings yield different subpopulations of urinary extracellular vesicles from human samples

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Felix; Zuñiga-Garcia, Patricia; Sanchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Egia, Ainara; Perez, Amparo; Loizaga, Ana; Arceo, Raquel; Lacasa, Isabel; Rabade, Ainara; Arrieta, Edurne; Bilbao, Roberto; Unda, Miguel; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample analysis is irreplaceable as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and follow-up. However, in urine samples, non-degraded protein and RNA may be only found in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs). In recent years, various methods of uEV enrichment using low volumes of urine and unsophisticated equipment have been developed, with variable success. We compared the results of the differential ultracentrifugation procedure with 4 of these methods. The methods tested were a lectin-based purification, Exoquick (System Biosciences), Total Exosome Isolation from Invitrogen and an in-house modified procedure employing the Exosomal RNA Kit from Norgen Biotek Corp. The analysis of selected gene transcripts and protein markers of extracellular vesicles (EVs) revealed that each method isolates a different mixture of uEV protein markers. In our conditions, the extraction with Norgen's reagent achieved the best performance in terms of gene transcript and protein detection and reproducibility. By using this method, we were able to detect alterations of EVs protein markers in urine samples from prostate cancer adenoma patients. Taken together, our results show that the isolation of uEVs is feasible from small volumes of urine and avoiding ultracentrifugation, making easier the analysis in a clinical facility. However, caution should be taken in the selection of the enrichment method since they have a differential affinity for protein uEVs markers and by extension for different subpopulation of EVs. PMID:26895490

  6. 7.87 eV Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Adsorbed and Covalently Bound Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Manshui; Wu, Chunping; Akhmetov, Artem; Edirisinghe, Praneeth D.; Drummond, James L.; Hanley, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) was adsorbed onto or covalently bound to a porous silicon oxide surface. Laser desorption 10.5 eV postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) was previously demonstrated for surface analysis of adsorbed and surface bound Bis-GMA, but signal to noise levels were low and ion fragmentation was extensive. 7.87 eV postionization using the fluorine laser was demonstrated here for Bis-GMA. However, signal levels remained low for LDPI-MS of Bis-GMA as its ionization potential was only ∼7.8 eV, near threshold for single photon ionization by the 7.87 eV fluorine laser. It is known that aromatic tagging of molecular analytes can lower the overall IP of the tagged molecular complex, allowing 7.87 eV single photon ionization. Therefore, Bis-GMA was also derivatized with several tags whose IPs were either below or above 7.87 eV: the tag with an IP below 7.87 eV enhanced single photon ionization while the tags with higher IPs did not. However, signal intensities were enhanced by resonant laser desorption for two of the derivatized Bis-GMAs. Intact ions of Bis-GMA and its derivatives were generally observed by 7.87 eV LDPI-MS, consistent with the formation of ions with relatively little internal energy upon threshold single photon ionization. PMID:17449273

  7. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Robert Y. L.; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections. PMID:27052555

  8. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Robert Y L; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-04-07

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

  9. Establishing China's national standards of antigen content and neutralizing antibody responses for evaluation of enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Qiang; Li, Xiuling; Dong, Chenghong; Yu, Xiang; Yao, Xin; Li, Fengxiang; Yin, Weidong; Li, Qihan; Shen, Xinliang; Wang, Junzhi

    2011-12-06

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious agent that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in humans. Effective vaccination against EV71 infection is critically important, given the recent outbreak of HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region, where it has shown significant mortality and morbidity. There is currently no approved anti-viral therapy available to treat the disease. While several vaccine manufacturers are actively developing EV71 vaccines, there are no international reference standards available to conduct quality control on EV71 vaccines or to assess the effectiveness of EV71 vaccines in immunized populations. In the current report, antigen reference standard based on the C4 subtype of the EV71 vaccine strain was developed. In addition, neutralizing antibody (NTAb) reference panels were analyzed and standards with various neutralizing titers were selected. These reference antigens were used to calibrate vaccine samples from several producers and found that five EV71 antigens and the national reference standards showed good linearity and parallelism. Moreover, mice immunized with various vaccines at doses standardized by these national references showed comparable NTAb responses. Finally, the national NTAb reference panels were found to effectively reduce assay discrepancy between different labs. Taken together, these national reference standards are highly valuable for the standardization and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  10. Enterovirus71 (EV71) utilise host microRNAs to mediate host immune system enhancing survival during infection.

    PubMed

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection.

  11. Examining the effect of EVS spending on HCAHPS scores: a value optimization matrix for expense management.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Stalley, Samantha; Williams, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Using the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Value-Based Purchasing program has now linked patient care experience rating to hospital revenue reimbursement, thereby establishing a key relationship between revenue cycle management and the patient experience. However, little data exist on the effect of hospital resource spending on patient HCAHPS ratings. This article examines environmental services (EVS) expenses and HCAHPS ratings on hospital cleanliness and overall patient experience ratings to determine how these variables are related. No linear relationship between EVS expense spending and HCAHPS ratings was found, but post hoc analysis identified a matrix that differentiated on hospital cleanliness ratings and overall EVS spending. A value score was calculated for each quadrant of the matrix, and it was determined that organizational value derives from management of expense spending rather than pursuit of high HCAHPS scores. A value optimization matrix is introduced, and its four quadrants are described. With increased emphasis on subjective patient experience measures attached to financial consequences, leaders in the healthcare industry must understand the link between expense management and HCAHPS performance. This study has shown that effective operations are derived from the efficient use of resources and are supported by strong leadership, strategic management, and a culture of patient-centered achievement. The capacity of healthcare organizations to identify their unique costs-to-outcomes balance through the value optimization matrix will help provide them with a means to ensure that optimal value is extracted from all expense spending.

  12. [Genetic characteristics of EV71 in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Jun; Wu, Yan; Tian, Bing-Jun; Cun, Jian-Ping; Yin, Jie; Jiang, Li-Li; Ma, Yue; Lu, Lin; Xu, Wen

    2012-06-01

    In order to learn about the genetic characteristic of human enterovirus type71 (HEV71) isolated from cases of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2010. 50 isolates form HFMD cases were performed entire VP1 coding region amplification by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing the nucleotide sequences; then the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The complete nucleotide sequences of region VP1 of the 50 strains were all 891nt length coding 297 amino acids. The result of molecular identification of the 50 strains is HEV71. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 48 EV71 isolates belonged to subgenotype C4a and 2 EV71 isolates belonged to genotype A. From 2009 to 2010, the pathogen of HFMD cases were EV71 strains in Yunnan province, which were co-evolved with isolates from other provinces in mainland of China. There was no significant difference found in the whole sequence of VP1 gene of the strains isolated from different regions or under different diseases occurred, but the spread of genetype A appared in Yunnan Province in 2009.

  13. Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupeza, I.; Holzberger, S.; Eidam, T.; Carstens, H.; Esser, D.; Weitenberg, J.; Rußbüldt, P.; Rauschenberger, J.; Limpert, J.; Udem, Th.; Tünnermann, A.; Hänsch, T. W.; Apolonski, A.; Krausz, F.; Fill, E.

    2013-08-01

    Coherently enhancing laser pulses in a passive cavity provides ideal conditions for high-order harmonic generation in a gas, with repetition rates around 100 MHz (refs 1,2,3). Recently, extreme-ultraviolet radiation with photon energies of up to 30 eV was obtained, which is sufficiently bright for direct frequency-comb spectroscopy at 20 eV (ref. 4). Here, we identify a route to scaling these radiation sources to higher photon energies. We demonstrate that the ionization-limited attainable intracavity peak intensity increases with decreasing pulse duration. By enhancing nonlinearly compressed pulses of an Yb-based laser and coupling out the harmonics through a pierced cavity mirror, we generate spatially coherent 108 eV (11.45 nm) radiation at 78 MHz. Exploiting the full potential of the demonstrated techniques will afford high-photon-flux ultrashort-pulsed extreme-ultraviolet sources for a number of applications in science and technology, including photoelectron spectroscopy, coincidence spectroscopy with femtosecond to attosecond resolution and characterization of components and materials for nanolithography.

  14. Distribution of EV71 receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiao-Yang; Guo, Li; Huang, Dong-Yang; Chang, Xiao-Lan; Qiu, Qian-Cheng

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues. The samples were chosen from archived specimens, and the profiles of two receptors were detected in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain in situ by immunohistochemistry. SCARB2 was detected in all the tissues studied, and strong staining was observed in the gastric fundus gland, mucosal and glandular epithelia of the intestine. Similar expression was found in bronchial epithelia and pneumocytes. In addition, SCARB2 was observed in the esophagus/gastric mucosal epithelia, neuron, glial cells, and blood vessels and the perivascular tissues of the brain. By comparison, PSGL-1 was expressed weakly in the mucosal and glandular epithelia of the small intestine and colon. PSGL-1 was expressed in a few bronchial epithelia, and weak staining was observed in the pneumocytes. However, PSGL-1 was found easily in the lamina propria of all the tissues studied, and strong staining of PSGL-1 was also observed in the neurons and glial cells. The distribution of the SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain tissues correlated with the distribution of pathological changes seen in EV71 infection. The widespread prevalence of these receptors may help explain the multiple organ involvement in infection with EV71.

  15. High efficiency carbon-based multilayers for LAMP at 250 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mingwu; Huang, Qiushi; She, Rui; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Feng, Hua; Spiga, Daniele; Giglia, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    X-ray reflection near the Brewster's angle by multilayer mirrors can be used to detect the polarization from X-ray sources. The photon emission spectra from some isolated neutron stars and AGN/blazars etc. show that their emission is peaked at low energies near 250eV, which is just below carbon K-absorption edge. The Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe (LAMP) is proposed as a micro-satellite mission dedicated for astronomical X-ray polarimetry working at 250 eV and is currently under early phase study. Co/C multilayers are selected and designed at the energy near 250eV with a grazing incident angle of 45°. The carbon layer thickness ratio is optimized to get the highest integral reflectivity which means larger effective signals in the astrophysics observation. The multilayer coatings were manufactured by direct current magnetron sputtering on D263 glasses and electroformed nickels and characterized using Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8keV. Reactive sputtering with 4%, 6% and 8% nitrogen were used to improve the Co/C multilayer interfaces respectively. Reflectivity for s-polarization and p-polarization light was measured at BEAR beamline in Elettra synchtron facility. Co/C multilayer deposited with 6% nitrogen exhibits the best performance comparing to other multilayers with different nitrogen content.

  16. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an EV71 virus-like particle vaccine against lethal challenge in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyang; Gao, Fan; Mao, Qunying; Shao, Jie; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Dawei; Wang, Yiping; Yao, Xin; Wu, Xing; Sun, Bo; Zhao, Dandan; Ma, Youlei; Lu, Jingcai; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) has caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and pre-school children. It has become a serious public health threat, as currently there are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for EV71 infection. Many EV71 vaccines have been under development worldwide, however the main focus is inactivated EV71 vaccines. For example, the inactivated EV71 vaccine has recently finished phase III clinical trial in Mainland China. There have been very few studies on EV71 virus like particles (VLPs). In this study, the immunogenicity and protective potency of the EV71 VLPs produced in insect cells were evaluated in mice with different dosages. Our results showed that EV71 VLPs could elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) in a dose-dependent manner and NTAbs were sustained after the second injection with an average GMT (geometric mean titer) level from 19 to 2960 in immunized mice. Survival rates were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 40% after challenge with 15 LD50 (median lethal dose) of EV71 in these newborn mice, respectively. ED50 (50% effective dose) of VLPs was 0.20 μg/dose in newborn mice, while NTAb titer under this dosage was about 50. Passive protection was determined with 2 methods and demonstrated that the survival rates were positively correlated with NTAb titers, which at 24 and 54 induced 50% survival rates in experimental animals. The ED50 of VLP vaccines and the passive NTAb titers were also analyzed. The maternal NTAb titer was similar as the passive NTAb titer in the mouse model challenged with our lethal mouse EV71 strain. Hence, our work has provided preliminary data on the protection potency of VLPs as a vaccine candidate and would facilitate future VLP vaccine development.

  17. The size and range effect: lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager-Wick Ellingsen, Linda; Singh, Bhawna; Hammer Strømman, Anders

    2016-05-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effect of increasing battery size and driving range to the environmental impact of electric vehicles (EVs). To this end, we compile cradle-to-grave inventories for EVs in four size segments to determine their climate change potential. A second objective is to compare the lifecycle emissions of EVs to those of conventional vehicles. For this purpose, we collect lifecycle emissions for conventional vehicles reported by automobile manufacturers. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are calculated per vehicle and over a total driving range of 180 000 km using the average European electricity mix. Process-based attributional LCA and the ReCiPe characterisation method are used to estimate the climate change potential from the hierarchical perspective. The differently sized EVs are compared to one another to find the effect of increasing the size and range of EVs. We also point out the sources of differences in lifecycle emissions between conventional- and electric vehicles. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis assesses the change in lifecycle emissions when electricity with various energy sources power the EVs. The sensitivity analysis also examines how the use phase electricity sources influences the size and range effect.

  18. Adipogenic RNAs are transferred in osteoblasts via bone marrow adipocytes-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs).

    PubMed

    Martin, Perrine J; Haren, Nathalie; Ghali, Olfa; Clabaut, Aline; Chauveau, Christophe; Hardouin, Pierre; Broux, Odile

    2015-03-18

    In osteoporosis, bone loss is accompanied by increased marrow adiposity. Given their proximity in the bone marrow and their shared origin, a dialogue between adipocytes and osteoblasts could be a factor in the competition between human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) differentiation routes, leading to adipocyte differentiation at the expense of osteoblast differentiation. The adipocyte/osteoblast balance is highly regulated at the level of gene transcription. In our work, we focused on PPARgamma, CEBPalpha and CEBPdelta, as these transcription factors are seen as master regulators of adipogenesis and expressed precociously, and on leptin and adiponectin, considered as adipocyte marker genes. In 2010, our group has demonstrated, thanks to a coculture model, that in the presence of hMSC-derived adipocytes (hMSC-Adi), hMSC-derived osteoblasts (hMSC-Ost) express lesser amounts of osteogenic markers but exhibit the expression of typical adipogenic genes. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying this modulation of gene expression are not clarified. Recently, adipocytes were described as releasing extracellular vesicles (EVs), containing and transferring adipocyte specific transcripts, like PPARgamma, leptin and adiponectin. Here, we investigated whether EVs could be the way in which adipocytes transfer adipogenic RNAs in our coculture model. We observed in hMSC-Ost incubated in hAdi-CM an increase in the adipogenic PPARγ, leptin, CEBPα and CEBPδ transcripts as well as the anti-osteoblastic miR-138, miR30c, miR125a, miR-125b, miR-31 miRNAs, probably implicated in the observed osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OP) expression decrease. Moreover, EVs were isolated from conditioned media collected from cultures of hMSC at different stages of adipocyte differentiation and these specific adipogenic transcripts were detected inside. Finally, thanks to interspecies conditioned media exposition, we could highlight for the first time a horizontal transfer of adipogenic transcripts

  19. Differential, total, and transport cross sections for elastic scattering of low energy positrons by neutral atoms (Z = 1--92, E = 500--4000 eV)

    SciTech Connect

    Dapor, M. |; Miotello, A. |

    1998-05-01

    The authors present tables of the differential, total, and transport cross sections for the elastic scattering of 500--4000 eV positrons by neutral atoms in the atomic number range Z = 1--92. The cross sections were computed by numerically solving the Dirac equation for a central electrostatic field up to a large radius where the atomic potential becomes negligible. The atomic potential used was Hartree-Fock for Z = 1--18 and Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater for Z = 19--92.

  20. Deriving the characteristics of warm electrons (100-500 eV) in the magnetosphere of Saturn with the Cassini Langmuir probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, P.; Holmberg, M. K. G.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lewis, G. R.; Schippers, P.; Coates, A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Waite, J. H.; Dandouras, I.

    2014-12-01

    Though Langmuir probes (LP) are designed to investigate cold plasma regions (e.g. ionospheres), a recent analysis revealed a strong sensitivity of the Cassini LP measurements to hundreds of eV electrons. These warm electrons impact the surface of the probe and generate a significant current of secondary electrons, that impacts both the DC level and the slope of the current-voltage curve of the LP (for negative potentials) through energetic contributions that may be modeled with a reasonable precision. We show here how to derive information about the incident warm electrons from the analysis of these energetic contributions, in the regions where the cold plasma component is small with an average temperature in the range ~ [ 100 - 500 ] eV. First, modeling the energetic contributions (based on the incident electron flux given by a single anode of the CAPS spectrometer) allows us to provide information about the pitch angle anisotropies of the incident hundreds of eV electrons. The modeling reveals indeed sometimes a large variability of the estimated maximum secondary electron yield (which is a constant for a surface material) needed to reproduce the observations. Such dispersions give evidence for strong pitch angle anisotropies of the incident electrons, and using a functional form of the pitch angle distribution even allows us to derive the real peak angle of the distribution. Second, rough estimates of the total electron temperature may be derived in the regions where the warm electrons are dominant and thus strongly influence the LP observations, i.e. when the average electron temperature is in the range ~ [ 100 - 500 ] eV. These regions may be identified from the LP observations through large positive values of the current-voltage slope at negative potentials. The estimated temperature may then be used to derive the electron density in the same region, with estimated densities between ~ 0.1 and a few particles /cm3 (cc). The derived densities are in better

  1. Recombinant VP1 protein expressed in Pichia pastoris induces protective immune responses against EV71 in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Yefu

    2013-01-04

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological diseases in children. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against EV71 infection. VP1, one of the major immunogenic capsid proteins of EV71, is widely considered to be the candidate antigen for an EV71 vaccine. In this study, VP1 of EV71 was expressed as a secretory protein with an N-terminal histidine tag in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of the recombinant VP1 were assessed in mouse models. The results showed that the recombinant VP1 could efficiently induce anti-VP1 antibodies in BALB/c mice, which were able to neutralize EV71 viruses in an in vitro neutralization assay. Passive protection of neonatal mice further confirmed the prophylactic efficacy of the antisera from VP1 vaccinated mice. Furthermore, VP1 vaccination induced strong lymphoproliferative and Th1 cytokine responses. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the yeast-expressed VP1 protein retained good immunogenicity and was a potent EV71 vaccine candidate.

  2. [Analysis on the preference of synonymous codon in VP1 nucleotide sequence of the EV71 based on RSCU method].

    PubMed

    Qi, Bin; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Ping

    2009-11-01

    Based on RSCU method and by analyzing the preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 isolated in Chinese mainland and Taiwan region from 1998 to 2008, it is clear that there is an obvious time discrimination in RSCU calculated from EV71 VP1 strain between two different regions of China and it is more obvious in Taiwan region, therefore, according to the diversity of RSCU, the years can be divided into 2 intervals in Chinese mainland and 4 intervals in Taiwan region, especially, the number of intervals in one region have a positive co-relation with the activity of variation of the EV71 in the same region. The change of the preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 can significantly embody the Variation of the EV71, so we can make use of the analysis on preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 to predict the possible variation trend of the EV71.

  3. InterEvDock: a docking server to predict the structure of protein–protein interactions using evolutionary information

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinchao; Vavrusa, Marek; Andreani, Jessica; Rey, Julien; Tufféry, Pierre; Guerois, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The structural modeling of protein–protein interactions is key in understanding how cell machineries cross-talk with each other. Molecular docking simulations provide efficient means to explore how two unbound protein structures interact. InterEvDock is a server for protein docking based on a free rigid-body docking strategy. A systematic rigid-body docking search is performed using the FRODOCK program and the resulting models are re-scored with InterEvScore and SOAP-PP statistical potentials. The InterEvScore potential was specifically designed to integrate co-evolutionary information in the docking process. InterEvDock server is thus particularly well suited in case homologous sequences are available for both binding partners. The server returns 10 structures of the most likely consensus models together with 10 predicted residues most likely involved in the interface. In 91% of all complexes tested in the benchmark, at least one residue out of the 10 predicted is involved in the interface, providing useful guidelines for mutagenesis. InterEvDock is able to identify a correct model among the top10 models for 49% of the rigid-body cases with evolutionary information, making it a unique and efficient tool to explore structural interactomes under an evolutionary perspective. The InterEvDock web interface is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/InterEvDock/. PMID:27131368

  4. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngo-laryngeal mucosa in children.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingchang; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Xiaoyi; Yu, Jie; Yan, Hu; Yan, Huimin

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal IgG antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 IgG were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral IgG mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  5. InterEvDock: a docking server to predict the structure of protein-protein interactions using evolutionary information.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinchao; Vavrusa, Marek; Andreani, Jessica; Rey, Julien; Tufféry, Pierre; Guerois, Raphaël

    2016-07-08

    The structural modeling of protein-protein interactions is key in understanding how cell machineries cross-talk with each other. Molecular docking simulations provide efficient means to explore how two unbound protein structures interact. InterEvDock is a server for protein docking based on a free rigid-body docking strategy. A systematic rigid-body docking search is performed using the FRODOCK program and the resulting models are re-scored with InterEvScore and SOAP-PP statistical potentials. The InterEvScore potential was specifically designed to integrate co-evolutionary information in the docking process. InterEvDock server is thus particularly well suited in case homologous sequences are available for both binding partners. The server returns 10 structures of the most likely consensus models together with 10 predicted residues most likely involved in the interface. In 91% of all complexes tested in the benchmark, at least one residue out of the 10 predicted is involved in the interface, providing useful guidelines for mutagenesis. InterEvDock is able to identify a correct model among the top10 models for 49% of the rigid-body cases with evolutionary information, making it a unique and efficient tool to explore structural interactomes under an evolutionary perspective. The InterEvDock web interface is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/InterEvDock/.

  6. Single dose of an adenovirus vectored mouse interferon-α protects mice from lethal EV71 challenge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jialei; Ennis, Jane; Turner, Jeffrey D; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth diseases as well as neurological complications in young children. Interferon (IFN) can inhibit the replication of many viruses with low cytotoxic effects. Previously, an adenovirus vectored mouse interferon-α (DEF201), subtype 5, was generated by Wu et al, 2007. In this study, the antiviral effects of DEF201 against EV71 were evaluated in a murine model. 6-day-old BALB/c mice were administered a single dose of DEF201 before or after infection with lethal dose of EV71. The survival rate, clinical symptoms, tissue viral loads and histology pathogenesis were evaluated. IFN gene expression following a single dose of DEF201 maintained high concentrations of 100-9000 pg/mL for more than 7 days in mice serum. Pre-infection administration of a single dose of 10(6) PFU of DEF201 offered full protection of the mice against EV71 infection compared with the empty Ad5 vector control. In addition, virus load in DEF201-treated mice muscle tissue was significantly decreased as compared with empty vector control. Histopathology analysis revealed that DEF201 significantly prevented the development of severe tissue damage with reduction of viral antigen in the murine muscle tissue. Post-infection treatment at 6 h offered full protection and partial protection at 12 h, indicating that DEF201 could be used as an anti-EV71 therapeutic agent in early stage of EV71 infection. In addition, our study showed that DEF201 enhanced the neutralization ability of serum in EV71-vaccinated mice, implying that DEF201 could promote the production of specific anti-EV71 antibodies. In conclusion, single dose of DEF201 is highly efficacious as a prophylactic agent against EV71 infection in vivo.

  7. [The assemblage, purification and characterization of EV71 VLPs expressed in baculovirus].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Yi, Yao; Song, Jing-Dong; Tian, Miao-Miao; Tian, Rui-Guang; Meng, Qing-Ling; Qiu, Feng; Jia, Zhi-Yuan; Bi, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    To construct a recombinant expression plasmid Bacmid-P1-3CD containing the P1 and 3CD genes of enterovirus 71(EV71), the P1 and 3CD genes were cloned into the same baculovirus shuttle vector (Bacmid). Recombinant AcMNPV-P1-3CD was obtained by transfecting the Bacmid-P1-3CD into the insect cell line of S f9. With the IFA and Western-blot methods for identification of expression products confirmed that the target protein was expressed in interior of infected S f9 cells. Electron microscopy showed that the structural protein capsid P1 was cut by virus-encoded protease 3CD and assembled into EV71 virus like particles (VLPs) about 27nm diameter. Different values of MOI and time points of expression were compared to explore the optimal expression condition, and the results showed that the time point could be a more important factor. Then we used S f9 cells with serum-free medium in CellSTACK-10 Culture Chambers to produce EV71 VLPs in the confirmed condition. After purification of VLPs by density gradient centrifugation, we observed on SDS-PAGE profile the purified sample contained three major proteins whose molecular masses corresponded to those of VP1 (39kD), VP0 (34kD) and VP3 (26kD) as well as the intact structure, which can be greatly used for further study in protein structure and genetic engineering vaccine research.

  8. Double photoionization of tribromoborazine from 25 to 138 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehlitz, R.; MacDonald, M.; Zuin, L.; Santos, A. C. F.; Appathurai, N.

    2017-02-01

    We have measured the yield for the photoproduction of singly and doubly charged parent ions of the inorganic molecule tribromoborazine [(BrBNH)3] , a molecule in which three bromine atoms replace three hydrogen atoms in borazine [(BH)3(NH)3] . Borazine is isoelectronic and isostructural to benzene. We compare the ratio of doubly to singly charged parent ions as a function of the photon energy to the ratio for benzene. We find similarities but also marked differences between the two molecules. The first double-ionization threshold was found to be at 28.5(4) eV.

  9. Properties of 10 (18)-10 (19)eV EAS at far core distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Nagano, M.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of 10 to the 18th power - 10 to the 19th power eV EAS showers such as the electron lateral distribution, the muon lateral distribution ( 1Gev), the ratio of muon density to a electron density, the shower front structure and the transition effects in scintillator of 5cm thickness are investigated with the Akeno 4 sq km/20sq km array at far core distances between 500m and 3000m. The fluctuation of densities and arrival time increase rapidly at core distances greater than 2km.

  10. Electron nuclear dynamics of H + +H2 collisions at Elab=30 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jorge; Diz, Agustin; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Yngve

    1995-12-01

    Proton collisions with hydrogen molecules at 30 eV in the laboratory frame is a simple ion-molecule system exhibiting a number of distinct processes such as inelastic scattering, charge transfer, rearrangement, and dissociation. The electron nuclear dynamics (END) theory which allows full electron nuclear coupling and which does not restrict the system from reaching any of the possible product channels, is applied to this sytem to produce transition probabilities, differential, and integral (vibrationally resolved) cross sections. Comparisons with experiment demonstrate that END, even in its simplest implementation, with a single determinantal state for the electrons and with classical nuclei, yields results that are competitive with other theoretical approaches.

  11. Electron inelastic mean free path at energies below 100 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen-Truong, Hieu T.

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) is important for electron spectroscopy and microscopy studies. Here, we determine the IMFPs at energies below 100 eV for 10 elemental solids (V, Fe, Ni, Mo, Pd, Ag, Ta, W, Pt, and Au) within the dielectric formalism, using the energy-loss function calculated in the adiabatic local-density approximation of time-dependent density-functional theory. The resulting IMFPs at a few eV above the Fermi energy are comparable to those from ab initio calculations in the GW approximation of many-body theory. The present approach provides an alternative to evaluate hot-electron inelastic lifetimes.

  12. Opportunities for optimizing EV battery performance, battery specific power, and vehicle equivalent electrical circuit considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, W. C.; Driggans, R. L.; Christianson, C. C.

    This paper addresses the possibilities for improving the interfaces between the battery, drive train, and charger in the design of EVs for commercial fleet uses. It shows that the optimum power condition may occur at about 75 percent of the open circuit voltage rather than the maximum power point of about 50 percent of the open circuit voltage. This paper proposes a need to determine the specifications for battery specific power (W/kg) by taking into account the loss characteristics of the motor and final drive in addition to the battery loss characteristics.

  13. The measurement of elemental abundances above 10 sup 15 eV at a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Swordy, S.P. )

    1990-03-15

    At {approx}10{sup 15} eV the slope of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays becomes significantly steeper than at lower energies. The measurement of relative elemental abundances at these energies is expected to provide a means to resolve the origin of this feature and greatly contribute to the understanding of the sources of cosmic rays. We describe a moon based detector for making well resolved elemental measurements at these energies using hadronic calorimetry. This detector is particularly well suited for a site on the lunar surface because there is no overlying layer of atmosphere and the large mass required can be provided by the lunar regolith.

  14. ODMR experiments on the 1.65eV luminescence in GaP:Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; van Roosmalen, J. T. C.

    1987-03-01

    Optically detected magnetic resonance experiments on the 1.65eV emission band in a Cu-doped LPE-grown GaP layer are reported. A strong resonance with a g-value of g = 2.006 ± 0.003 is observed. The linewidth depends on both microwave and laser excitation power. Other resonances, appearing at two and three times the field of the strong resonance, have also been measured. An interpretation of the measurements is given, based on the recombination of exchange coupled donor-acceptor pairs.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Immunogenicity and Protective Effects of Inactivated EV71 Vaccines in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qunying; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Xiuling; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Zengbing; Yao, Xin; Wang, Yiping; Gao, Fan; Li, Fengxiang; Xu, Miao; Yin, Weidong; Li, Qihan; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China. Methods and Findings This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated), final container products (FCPs) without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As) produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs), especially at 14–21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U) showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90–100% survival), while the ED50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As. Conclusions These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and assessment

  16. A comprehensive procedure for antiviral inhibitor discovery using EV71 as an example.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lin; Zhu, Shouhai; Wang, Yaxin; Lou, Zhiyong; Sun, Yuna

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic viral infectious diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of new viral infections, and in particular, resistance to currently used antiviral drugs have led to increased demand for new antiviral strategies and reagents. Increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms of viral infection has provided great potential for the discovery of new antiviral agents that target viral proteins or host factors. In this work, we introduce a comprehensive system using enteroviruses 71 (EV71) as an example for leading compound discovery to develop new antiviral.

  17. Single and double photoionization of beryllium below 40 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Wehlitz, R.; Bluett, J.B.; Lukic, D.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the double-to-single photoionization ratio of beryllium (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}) between 28 and 40 eV and determined the relative single- and double-photoionization cross sections. In this energy region only simultaneous but not sequential emission of both 2s electrons can take place. We also compare our data with recent theoretical calculations and find good agreement with our data. The previously found scaling law for the double-to-single photoionization ratio is confirmed with high accuracy.

  18. Measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; van Kessel, L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy reconstruction of extensive air showers measured with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is presented in detail. LORA is a particle detector array located in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate and independent energy measurement for the air showers measured through their radio signal with the LOFAR antennas. The energy reconstruction is performed using a parameterized relation between the measured shower size and the cosmic-ray energy obtained from air shower simulations. In order to illustrate the capabilities of LORA, the all-particle cosmic-ray energy spectrum has been reconstructed, assuming that cosmic rays are composed only of protons or iron nuclei in the energy range between ∼2 × 1016 and 2 × 1018 eV. The results are compatible with literature values and a changing mass composition in the transition region from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

  19. The atomic branching ratios in the photodissociation N2, CO, and CO2 in the deep VUV from 11.50-15.15 eV is used to discuss the chemistry in comets, planetary atmospheres, protoplanetary disk, and dense molecular clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, William M.; Song, Yu; Lu, Zhou; Gao, Hong; Chang, Yih C.; Zhou, Jingang; Shi, Xiayou; Pan, Yang; Yang, Lei; Yin, Qing Z.; Ng, Cheuk Y.

    2014-11-01

    The only pulsed molecular beam apparatus in the world with two tunable VUV lasers coupled to a time of flight mass spectrometer and a time-slice velocity imaging detector is used to determine the state of atomic products produced in the photodissociation of N2, CO, and CO2. This information is extremely important in modeling the chemistry in comets, planetary atmospheres, protoplanetary disk, and dense molecular clouds. For N2 reactions 2-4 are directly observed.N2 + hν → N(4S) + N(4S) hν ≥ 9.76 eV (1)→ N(4S) + N(2D) hν ≥ 12.14 eV (2)→ N(4S) + N(2P) hν ≥ 13.34 eV (3)→ N(2D) + N(2D) hν ≥ 14.53 eV (4)No evidence is found for the lowest energy channel that produces two N(4S) anywhere in this wavelength range.The products from the photodissociation of CO between 12.361-13.180 eV are determined and discussed.CO + hν → C(3PJ) + O(3PJ) hν ≥ 11.09 eV (5)→ C(1D) + O(3PJ) hν ≥ 12.35 eV (6)→ C(3PJ) + O(1D) hν ≥ 13.06 eV (7) In the photodissociation of CO2 over the wavelength range from 94,000- 98,496 cm-1 (11.655-12.212eV) and (13.540-13.678 eV) CO2 reactions 8-15 occur.CO2 + hν → (O3PJ) + CO(X1Σ +) hν ≥ 5.45 eV (8)→ O(1D) + CO(X1Σ+) hν ≥ 7.42 eV (9)→ O(1S) + CO(X1Σ+) hν ≥ 9.64 eV (10)→ O(3PJ) + CO(a3Π) hν ≥ 11.46 eV (11)→ O(1D) + CO(a3Π) hν ≥ 13.43 eV (12)→ O(3PJ) + CO(a'3Σ+) hν ≥ 12.31 eV (13)→ O(3PJ) + CO(d 3Δ) hν ≥ 12.97 eV (14)→ O(3PJ) + CO(e 3Σ-) hν ≥ 13.35 eV (15)The implications of these results to planetary science in terms of the chemical reactions of the long lived metastable N(2D), N(2P), O(1D), O(1S), and C(1D) will be discussed. Acknowledgements:William M. Jackson, Yu Song, Hong Gao, Xiayou Shi and Zhou Lu were supported NSF under Grants No. CHE-1301501 and CHE-957872. Cheuk Y. Ng was supported by US-DOE under Contract No. DE-FG02-02ER15306.

  20. Antigenic analysis of divergent genotypes human Enterovirus 71 viruses by a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yixin; Li, Chuan; He, Delei; Cheng, Tong; Ge, Shengxiang; Shih, James Wai-Kuo; Zhao, Qinjian; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-01-02

    In recent year, Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an important public health issue in China. EV71 has been classified into genotypes A, B1-B5 and C1-C5. With such genetic diversity, whether the convalescent or recovery antibody responses can cross-protect infections from other genotypes remains a question. Understanding of the antigenicity of such diverse genetic EV71 isolates is crucial for the EV71 vaccine development. Here, a total of 186 clones anti-EV71 MAbs was generated and characterized with Western blot and cell-based neutralization assay. Forty neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs were further used to analyze the antigenic properties of 18 recent EV71 isolates representing seven genotypes in neutralization assay. We found that most neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs are specific to conformational epitopes. We also classified the 40 neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs into two classes according to their reactivity patterns with 18 EV71 isolates. Class I MAb can neutralize all isolates, suggesting conserved epitopes are present among EV71. Class II MAb includes four subclasses (IIa-IId) and neutralizes only subgroups of EV71 strains. Conversely, 18 EV71 strains were grouped into antigenic types 1 and four antigenic subtypes (2.1-2.4). These results suggest that the current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity which may be important in the selection of EV71 vaccine strains. This panel of neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs may be useful for the recognition of emerging antigenic variants of EV71 and vaccine development.

  1. Electron impact cross sections for v = 0-1 vibrational excitation in CO at electron energies of 3 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Tanaka, H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the measurements of normalized, absolute differential cross-sections for electron-impact vibrational transition in CO. Integral and momentum-transfer cross-sections were obtained from these differential results; incident electron energies were in the 3 to 100 eV range, and the scattering angles were 10 to 135 deg. A comparison of these results with measurements made with pure vibrationally elastic cross-sections in N2, and with the data based on a two-potential theory for electron scattering from diatomic molecules showed that the present CO cross-sections are similar to those in N2. This indicates that the long-range effect of the small CO dipole moment is negligible in promoting vibrational excitation; moreover, a significant peak in the integral and momentum-transfer cross-sections is observed at 20 eV. Finally, the low-energy integral cross-sections are compared with a recent set of swarm data for vibrational excitation.

  2. Lessons Learned about Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure from The EV Project and ChargePoint America

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, John Galloway; Salisbury, Shawn Douglas

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes key findings in two national plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstrations: The EV Project and ChargePoint America. It will be published to the INL/AVTA website for the general public.

  3. Determination of the optical constants of amorphous carbon in the EUV spectral region 40-450 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskii, Yu. A.; Seely, J. F.; Kjornrattanawanich, B.; Windt, D. L.; Bugayev, Ye. A.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Artyukov, I. A.; Titov, A. A.; Kulatov, E. T.; Vinogradov, A. V.

    2006-08-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical constants δ(ω) and β(ω) of amorphous carbon were determined on the basis of transmission measurements at hω=18-450 eV, the first-principles calculation of the dielectric tensor at hω<25 eV, and the Kramers-Kronig calculation of δ(ω). Our optical constants generally agree with the CXRO data, excluding the vicinity of the K-edge. First-principles analysis shows that two thresholds of absorption (at 284 eV and 291 eV) found in the present study are caused, respectively, by the π- and σ- bonds. Their weights are controlled by an orientation of graphene sheets in a-carbon.

  4. Composition of primary cosmic rays at energies 10(15) to approximately 10(16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amenomori, M.; Konishi, E.; Hotta, N.; Mizutani, K.; Kasahara, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Mikumo, E.; Sato, K.; Yuda, T.; Mito, I.

    1985-01-01

    The sigma epsilon gamma spectrum in 1 approx. 5 x 1000 TV observed at Mt. Fuji suggests that the flux of primary protons 10 to the 15 approx 10th eV is lower by a factor of 2 approx. 3 than a simple extrapolation from lower energies; the integral proton spectrum tends to be steeper than around to the power V and the spectral index tends to be steeper than Epsilon to the -17th power around 10 to the 14th power eV and the spectral index becomes approx. 2.0 around 10 to the 15th power eV. If the total flux of primary particles has no steepening up to approx 10 to the 15th power eV, than the fraction of primary protons to the total flux should be approx 20% in contrast to approx 45% at lower energies.

  5. Cucumis melo endornavirus: Genome organization, host range and co-divergence with the host.

    PubMed

    Sabanadzovic, Sead; Wintermantel, William M; Valverde, Rodrigo A; McCreight, James D; Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina

    2016-03-02

    A high molecular weight dsRNA was isolated from a Cucumis melo L. plant (referred to as 'CL01') of an unknown cultivar and completely sequenced. Sequence analyses showed that dsRNA is associated with an endornavirus for which a name Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) is proposed. The genome of CmEV-CL01 consists of 15,078 nt, contains a single, 4939 codons-long ORF and terminates with a stretch of 10 cytosine residues. Comparisons of the putative CmEV-encoded polyprotein with available references in protein databases revealed a unique genome organization characterized by the presence of the following domains: viral helicase Superfamily 1 (Hel-1), three glucosyltransferases (doublet of putative capsular polysaccharide synthesis proteins and a putative C_28_Glycosyltransferase), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The presence of three glycome-related domains of different origin makes the genome organization of CmEV unique among endornaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of viral RdRp domains showed that CmEV belongs to a specific lineage within the family Endornaviridae made exclusively of plant-infecting endornaviruses. An RT-PCR based survey demonstrated high incidence of CmEV among melon germplasm accession (>87% of tested samples). Analyses of partial genome sequences of CmEV isolates from 26 different melon genotypes suggest fine-tuned virus adaptation and co-divergence with the host. Finally, results of the present study revealed that CmEV is present in plants belonging to three different genera in the family Cucurbitaceae. Such diverse host range is unreported for known endornaviruses and suggests a long history of CmEV association with cucurbits predating their speciation.

  6. Torque blending and wheel slip control in EVs with in-wheel motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Ricardo; Araújo, Rui E.; Tanelli, Mara; Savaresi, Sergio M.; Freitas, Diamantino

    2012-01-01

    Among the many opportunities offered by electric vehicles (EVs), the design of power trains based on in-wheel electric motors represents, from the vehicle dynamics point of view, a very attractive prospect, mainly due to the torque-vectoring capabilities. However, this distributed propulsion also poses some practical challenges, owing to the constraints arising from motor installation in a confined space, to the increased unsprung mass weight and to the integration of the electric motor with the friction brakes. This last issue is the main theme of this work, which, in particular, focuses on the design of the anti-lock braking system (ABS). The proposed structure for the ABS is composed of a tyre slip controller, a wheel torque allocator and a braking supervisor. To address the slip regulation problem, an adaptive controller is devised, offering robustness to uncertainties in the tyre-road friction and featuring a gain-scheduling mechanism based on the vehicle velocity. Further, an optimisation framework is employed in the torque allocator to determine the optimal split between electric and friction brake torque based on energy performance metrics, actuator constraints and different actuators bandwidth. Finally, based on the EV working condition, the priorities of this allocation scheme are adapted by the braking supervisor unit. Simulation results obtained with the CarSim vehicle model, demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  7. Latency Requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Trey Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s Aviation Safety Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project is conducting research in advanced flight deck concepts, such as Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems (S/EVS), for commercial and business aircraft. An emerging thrust in this activity is the development of spatially-integrated, large field-of-regard information display systems. Head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems are being proposed as one method in which to meet this objective. System delays or latencies inherent to spatially-integrated, head-worn displays critically influence the display utility, usability, and acceptability. Research results from three different, yet similar technical areas flight control, flight simulation, and virtual reality are collectively assembled in this paper to create a global perspective of delay or latency effects in head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems. Consistent definitions and measurement techniques are proposed herein for universal application and latency requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS applications are drafted. Future research areas are defined.

  8. Photoabsorption spectra of tetramethylsilane in the energy region 6-11.5 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A. K.; Rajasekhar, B. N.; Sunanda, K.

    2016-09-01

    Assignments of photoabsorption spectra of tetramethylsilane (TMS) recorded in 6-11.5 eV region using synchrotron radiation are reexamined. The broad band spectra up to first ionization potential at 10.6 eV is explained to consists of mixed valence-Rydberg character arising from first two occupied molecular orbitals to 4 s, 4 p, 3 d, 5 s and 5 p Rydberg states with the help of computational calculations, using TDDFT methodology. TMS is found to have two stable conformers viz. staggered and eclipsed, where the eclipsed conformer lies higher in energy by 6.88 kcal/mol. Presence of a broad continuum devoid of vibronic features is attributed to large change in geometry of molecule, high density of states due to triply degenerated highest occupied molecular orbitals and unimolecular dissociation of molecule as it is excited to its molecular ionization limit. Results from theoretical computations help in relating observed photoabsorption spectra of TMS on the basis of geometry changes in the ground and electronically excited states on excitation of molecule up to its first ionization potential.

  9. [Sequence and antigenicity analysis for VP4s of EV71 strains isolated from Children in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Qian, Yuan; Deng, Jie; Sun, Yu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Liu, Li-Ying

    2011-05-01

    In order to learn about the correlation between the sequences of VP4 of EV71 and clinical symptoms of patients and analyze the antigenicity of VP4 of EV71, as well as the cross-reactivity with VP4 of CA16, the sequences of VP4 gene from 10 EV71 strains isolated from infants and children with hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) during 2007 to 2009 were determined through standard molecular cloning protocols, and the results were analyzed by EditSeq and MegAlign of DNAStar. Full-length genes of VP4s of EV71 and CA16 were amplified from virus isolates and expressed in E. coli. Then the expressed VP4s were used as antigens to detect IgG antibody in 189 sera samples from people taking health check up and patients of non-HFMD by Western-Blot. They were also used to detect IgM antibody in 14 of sera samples from infants and children with EV71 infection and 12 of sera samples from those with CA16 infection. The nucleotides identities among these 10 sequences of VP4s isolated in our lab were 94.20% - 100.00% and the deduced amino acids were identical. There was no consistent divergence between the sequences of serious cases and those from general HFMD cases. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP4s indicated that these 10 VP4s of EV71 belonged to C4. The nucleotide identities between EV71 VP4 (s67) and CA16 VP4 (s401) was 69.60% and the deduced amino acids identities was 78.60%. In the detection of IgG, the sera-positive rate for EV71 VP4 was 38.10% and the sera-positive rate of CA16 VP4 was 58.20%. The difference in the sera-positive rate between them was significant (chi2 = 15.30, P < 0.01), suggesting that the expressed VP4s of EV71 and CA16 were of good antigenicity and not cross-reactive. There was no positive reaction detected for IgM against VP4s for EV71 or CA16. The data from this study reveal important information for the further study of EV71.

  10. Influence of organic ions on DNA damage induced by 1 eV to 60 keV electrons.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2010-10-21

    We report the results of a study on the influence of organic salts on the induction of single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA by electrons of 1 eV to 60 keV. Plasmid DNA films are prepared with two different concentrations of organic salts, by varying the amount of the TE buffer (Tris-HCl and EDTA) in the films with ratio of 1:1 and 6:1 Tris ions to DNA nucleotide. The films are bombarded with electrons of 1, 10, 100, and 60 000 eV under vacuum. The damage to the 3197 base-pair plasmid is analyzed ex vacuo by agarose gel electrophoresis. The highest yields are reached at 100 eV and the lowest ones at 60 keV. The ratios of SSB to DSB are surprisingly low at 10 eV (∼4.3) at both salt concentrations, and comparable to the ratios measured with 100 eV electrons. At all characteristic electron energies, the yields of SSB and DSB are found to be higher for the DNA having the lowest salt concentration. However, the organic salts are more efficient at protecting DNA against the damage induced by 1 and 10 eV electrons. DNA damage and protection by organic ions are discussed in terms of mechanisms operative at each electron energy. It is suggested that these ions create additional electric fields within the groove of DNA, which modify the resonance parameter of 1 and 10 eV electrons, namely, by reducing the electron capture cross-section of basic DNA units and the lifetime of corresponding transient anions. An interstrand electron transfer mechanism is proposed to explain the low ratios for the yields of SSB to those of DSB produced by 10 eV electrons.

  11. [Study of combined effects of DES and EV on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by two experimental designs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Lei, Bing-Li; An, Jing; Shang, Yu; Zhong, Yu-Fang; Kang, Jia; Wen, Yu

    2013-08-01

    The single toxicity of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and beta-estradiol 17-valerate (EV) and the joint toxicity of their binary mixtures in equiconcentration to the proliferation of MCF-7 cells were investigated, respectively. Additive index (AI) method was adopted to evaluate the joint toxicity effect. At the same time, 3 x 3 factorial experimental design was used to verify the joint toxiciy types derived from equiconcentration of DES and EV. The results show that the EC50 values of single EV and DES for 24, 48 and 72 h are 6.02, 0.40 and 0.33 nmol x L(-1) and 5.90, 6.98 and 2.90 nmol x L(-1), respectively. The EC50 values of the binary mixtures of DES and EV for 24, 48 and 72 h are 2.33, 0.71 and 0.39 nmol x L(-1). The binary joint effects of DES and EV for 24 h were synergistic, and the joint effects of DES and EV for 48 and 72 h were antagonistic. But synergistic and antagonistic effects are not strong; their values can be found close to the values of additive effects. Factorial experiment results show that combined effects of DES and EV to proliferation of MCF-7 cells for 24, 48 and 72 h three exposure periods are additive effect types. The consistent joint combined effect types can be drawn from both factorial experimental design and equiconcentration ratio of DES and EV to the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. However, the factorial experimental design is simpler and more convenient, and can avoid unnecessary mistakes due to the derivation of EC50 values.

  12. Long non-coding RNA expression profiles in different severity EV71-infected hand foot and mouth disease patients.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Yao, Zhenyu; He, Yaqing; Zhang, Renli; Yang, Hong; Yao, Xiangjie; Chen, Long; Zhang, Hailong; Cheng, Jinquan

    2017-10-06

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with the severe hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outcomes, however the host-virus interaction mechanism and the pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in variety physiological and pathological processes, but the functions of lncRNAs in EV71 infection remain elusive. Here we profiled the expression of lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected mild patients, severe patients as well as the healthy controls, and identified 8541 lncRNAs were differentially expressed. Focused on the dynamic changed lncRNAs, we performed systematic bioinformatics analysis with Series Test of Cluster (STC) algorithm, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, pathway analysis and lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network analysis, and revealed the potential functions and related pathways of these lncRNAs were associated with immunity and inflammation during the clinical process of EV71-infected HFMD. Among the significant dynamic changed lncRNAs, ten lncRNAs were screened whose expression were further validated in EV71-infected mild patients, severe patients and healthy control. These results shed light on the potential roles of lncRNAs in EV71-infected HFMD, especially in distinguishing the mild and severe cases for early diagnose and treatment, moreover, provide deeper insight into the mechanism of EV71-induced immune and inflammatory responses, as well as the pathogenesis of the imbalanced inflammation in severe EV71 infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. EV-D68 infection in children with asthma exacerbation and pneumonia in Mexico City during 2014 autumn.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Perez, Joel A; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Jose E; Moreno-Valencia, Yazmin; Hernandez-Hernandez, Victor A; Romero-Espinoza, Jose A I; Castillejos-Lopez, Manuel; Hernandez, Andres; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Oropeza-Lopez, Lizbeth E; Escobar-Escamilla, Noe; Gonzalez-Villa, Maribel; Alejandre-Garcia, Alejandro; Regalado-Pineda, Justino; Santillan-Doherty, Patricio; Lopez-Martínez, Irma; Diaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Salas-Hernandez, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) recently caused an increase in mild-to-severe pediatric respiratory cases in North America and some European countries. Even though few of these children presented with acute paralytic disease, direct causal relationship cannot yet be assumed. The purposes of this report were to describe the clinical findings of an outbreak of EV-D68 infection in Mexico City and identify the genetic relationship with previously reported strains. Between September and December 2014, 126 nasopharyngeal samples (NPS) of hospitalized children <15 years of age with ARI were tested for the presence of respiratory viruses using a multiplex RT-qPCR and EV-D68-specific RT-qPCR. Clinical, epidemiological, and demographic data were collected and associated with symptomatology and viral infections. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using VP1 region. Enterovirus/rhinovirus infection was detected in 40 patients (31·7%), of which 24 patients were EV-D68-positive. EV-D68 infection prevailed over September and October 2014 and was associated with neutrophilia and lymphopenia, and patients were more likely to develop hypoxemia. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Mexican EV-D68 belongs to the new B1 clade. This is the first EV-D68 outbreak described in Mexico and occurred few weeks after the United States reported similar infections. Although EV-D68 belongs to new B1 clade, no neurological affection was observed. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Influence of organic ions on DNA damage induced by 1 eV to 60 keV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Yi; Sanche, Leon

    2010-10-21

    We report the results of a study on the influence of organic salts on the induction of single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA by electrons of 1 eV to 60 keV. Plasmid DNA films are prepared with two different concentrations of organic salts, by varying the amount of the TE buffer (Tris-HCl and EDTA) in the films with ratio of 1:1 and 6:1 Tris ions to DNA nucleotide. The films are bombarded with electrons of 1, 10, 100, and 60 000 eV under vacuum. The damage to the 3197 base-pair plasmid is analyzed ex vacuo by agarose gel electrophoresis. The highest yields are reached at 100 eV and the lowest ones at 60 keV. The ratios of SSB to DSB are surprisingly low at 10 eV ({approx}4.3) at both salt concentrations, and comparable to the ratios measured with 100 eV electrons. At all characteristic electron energies, the yields of SSB and DSB are found to be higher for the DNA having the lowest salt concentration. However, the organic salts are more efficient at protecting DNA against the damage induced by 1 and 10 eV electrons. DNA damage and protection by organic ions are discussed in terms of mechanisms operative at each electron energy. It is suggested that these ions create additional electric fields within the groove of DNA, which modify the resonance parameter of 1 and 10 eV electrons, namely, by reducing the electron capture cross-section of basic DNA units and the lifetime of corresponding transient anions. An interstrand electron transfer mechanism is proposed to explain the low ratios for the yields of SSB to those of DSB produced by 10 eV electrons.

  15. Influence of organic ions on DNA damage induced by 1 eV to 60 keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2010-10-01

    We report the results of a study on the influence of organic salts on the induction of single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA by electrons of 1 eV to 60 keV. Plasmid DNA films are prepared with two different concentrations of organic salts, by varying the amount of the TE buffer (Tris-HCl and EDTA) in the films with ratio of 1:1 and 6:1 Tris ions to DNA nucleotide. The films are bombarded with electrons of 1, 10, 100, and 60 000 eV under vacuum. The damage to the 3197 base-pair plasmid is analyzed ex vacuo by agarose gel electrophoresis. The highest yields are reached at 100 eV and the lowest ones at 60 keV. The ratios of SSB to DSB are surprisingly low at 10 eV (˜4.3) at both salt concentrations, and comparable to the ratios measured with 100 eV electrons. At all characteristic electron energies, the yields of SSB and DSB are found to be higher for the DNA having the lowest salt concentration. However, the organic salts are more efficient at protecting DNA against the damage induced by 1 and 10 eV electrons. DNA damage and protection by organic ions are discussed in terms of mechanisms operative at each electron energy. It is suggested that these ions create additional electric fields within the groove of DNA, which modify the resonance parameter of 1 and 10 eV electrons, namely, by reducing the electron capture cross-section of basic DNA units and the lifetime of corresponding transient anions. An interstrand electron transfer mechanism is proposed to explain the low ratios for the yields of SSB to those of DSB produced by 10 eV electrons.

  16. Influence of organic ions on DNA damage induced by 1 eV to 60 keV electrons

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the influence of organic salts on the induction of single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA by electrons of 1 eV to 60 keV. Plasmid DNA films are prepared with two different concentrations of organic salts, by varying the amount of the TE buffer (Tris-HCl and EDTA) in the films with ratio of 1:1 and 6:1 Tris ions to DNA nucleotide. The films are bombarded with electrons of 1, 10, 100, and 60 000 eV under vacuum. The damage to the 3197 base-pair plasmid is analyzed ex vacuo by agarose gel electrophoresis. The highest yields are reached at 100 eV and the lowest ones at 60 keV. The ratios of SSB to DSB are surprisingly low at 10 eV (~4.3) at both salt concentrations, and comparable to the ratios measured with 100 eV electrons. At all characteristic electron energies, the yields of SSB and DSB are found to be higher for the DNA having the lowest salt concentration. However, the organic salts are more efficient at protecting DNA against the damage induced by 1 and 10 eV electrons. DNA damage and protection by organic ions are discussed in terms of mechanisms operative at each electron energy. It is suggested that these ions create additional electric fields within the groove of DNA, which modify the resonance parameter of 1 and 10 eV electrons, namely, by reducing the electron capture cross-section of basic DNA units and the lifetime of corresponding transient anions. An interstrand electron transfer mechanism is proposed to explain the low ratios for the yields of SSB to those of DSB produced by 10 eV electrons. PMID:20969428

  17. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  18. Development of 1.25 eV InGaAsN for triple junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    LI,N.Y.; SHARPS,P.R.; HILLS,J.S.; HOU,H.; CHANG,PING-CHIH; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-05-16

    Development of next generation high efficiency space monolithic multifunction solar cells will involve the development of new materials lattice matched to GaAs. One promising material is 1.05 eV InGaAsN, to be used in a four junction GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/InGaAsN/Ge device. The AMO theoretical efficiency of such a device is 38--42%. Development of the 1.05 eV InGaAsN material for photovoltaic applications, however, has been difficult. Low electron mobilities and short minority carrier lifetimes have resulted in short minority carrier diffusion lengths. Increasing the nitrogen incorporation decreases the minority carrier lifetime. The authors are looking at a more modest proposal, developing 1.25 eV InGaAsN for a triple junction GaInP{sub 2}/InGaAsN/Ge device. The AMO theoretical efficiency of this device is 30--34%. Less nitrogen and indium are required to lower the bandgap to 1.25 eV and maintain the lattice matching to GaAs. Hence, development and optimization of the 1.25 eV material for photovoltaic devices should be easier than that for the 1.05 eV material.

  19. A functional polymorphism in IFNAR1 gene is associated with susceptibility and severity of HFMD with EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rongrong; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shaoyuan; Wang, Wenfei; Yuan, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Yanrong; Lin, Yimin; Deng, Yong; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-12-18

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major pathogens of Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), results in millions of infections and hundreds of deaths each year in Southeast Asia. Biased infection and variable clinical manifestations of EV71 HFMD indicated that host genetic background played an important role in the occurrence and development of the disease. We identified the mRNA profiles of EV71 HFMD patients, which type I interferon (IFN) pathway related genes were down-regulated. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) were chosen to analyze their relationships to EV71 infection. We found that genotype GG of promoter variant rs2843710 was associated with the susceptibility and severity to EV71 HFMD. In addition, we assessed the regulatory effects of rs2843710 to IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), and found that the expressions of IFNAR1, OAS1 and MX1 were significantly lower in patients with rs2843710 genotype GG. And rs2843710 allele G showed weaker transcriptional activity compared with allele C. Our study indicated that rs2843710 of IFNAR1 was associated with the susceptibility and severity of EV71 HFMD in Chinese Han populations, acting as a functional polymorphism by regulating ISGs expression, such as OAS1 and MX1.

  20. A functional polymorphism in IFNAR1 gene is associated with susceptibility and severity of HFMD with EV71 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Rongrong; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shaoyuan; Wang, Wenfei; Yuan, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Yanrong; Lin, Yimin; Deng, Yong; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major pathogens of Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), results in millions of infections and hundreds of deaths each year in Southeast Asia. Biased infection and variable clinical manifestations of EV71 HFMD indicated that host genetic background played an important role in the occurrence and development of the disease. We identified the mRNA profiles of EV71 HFMD patients, which type I interferon (IFN) pathway related genes were down-regulated. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) were chosen to analyze their relationships to EV71 infection. We found that genotype GG of promoter variant rs2843710 was associated with the susceptibility and severity to EV71 HFMD. In addition, we assessed the regulatory effects of rs2843710 to IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), and found that the expressions of IFNAR1, OAS1 and MX1 were significantly lower in patients with rs2843710 genotype GG. And rs2843710 allele G showed weaker transcriptional activity compared with allele C. Our study indicated that rs2843710 of IFNAR1 was associated with the susceptibility and severity of EV71 HFMD in Chinese Han populations, acting as a functional polymorphism by regulating ISGs expression, such as OAS1 and MX1. PMID:26679744

  1. Observation of vibrationally resolved charge transfer in H/sup +/+H/sub 2/ at E/sub CM/ = 20 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Niedner, G.; Noll, M.; Toennies, J.P.; Schlier, C.

    1987-09-01

    The doubly differential cross sections for both the scattered protons and H atoms have been measured at E/sub LAB/ = 30 eV (E/sub CM/ = 20 eV) from theta/sub LAB/ = 0/sup 0/ to 12/sup 0/ (theta/sub CM/ = 0/sup 0/ to 18/sup 0/) for the reactions H/sup +/+H/sub 2/(v = 0)..-->..H/sup +/+H/sub 2/(v/sub f/) and ..-->..H+H/sup +//sub 2/(v/sub f/) . The energy resolution is sufficient to resolve final vibrational states in both channels. The comparison of both the angular and energy loss distributions for the two product channels provides the first clear experimental evidence of a two-step charge transfer mechanism: Vibrational excitation on the lower H/sup +/+H/sub 2/ surface is followed by charge transfer in the outgoing collision for only those H/sub 2/ molecules which are excited vibrationally high enough (v/sub f/greater than or equal to4) to overcome the endoergic barrier (..delta..E = 1.83 eV). The final vibrational distributions of H/sup +//sub 2/ appear to be very similar to those of H/sub 2/ for v/sub f/greater than or equal to4 indicating that for the angular range observed the charge transfer probability is the same for all vibrational states with v/sub f/greater than or equal to4. The comparison with classical trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations points to some disagreement which probably can be attributed to the potential surface used.

  2. Recombination of 5-eV O(3P) atoms with surface-adsorbed NO - Spectra and their dependence on surface material and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Martus, K. E.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted of the 300-850 nm recombination spectra associated with 5-eV collisions of O(3P) atoms with NO adsorbed on surfaces of MgF2, Ni, and Ti. Attention is given to the dependence of chemiluminescence intensity on surface temperature over the 240-340 K range. While all three materials tend to emit at the lower temperatures, MgF2 exhibits the greatest tendency to chemiluminescence. Both results are reflective of the greater packing density of surface-adsorbed NO at the lower temperatures for each surface. The activation energy for each surface is independent of emission wavelength, so that the same species is emitting throughout the wavelength range.

  3. Measurement of high-energy (10–60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J. F. Feldman, U.; Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert; Pereira, N.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10–60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 μm in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10–60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

  4. Polarization of Lyman-Alpha Radiation from Atomic Hydrogen Excited by Electron Impact form Near Threshold to 1800 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. K.; Slevin, J. A.; Dziczek, D.; McConkey, J. W.; Bray, Igor

    1998-01-01

    The polarization of Lyman-a radiation, produced by electron-impact excitation of atomic hydrogen, has been measured over the extended energy range from near threshold to 1800 eV. Measurements were obtained in a crossed-beam experiment using a silica-reflection linear polarization analyzer in tandem with a vacuum-ultraviolet monochromator to isolate the emitted line radiation. Comparison with various theoretical calculations shows that the present experimental results are in good agreement with theory over the entire range of electron-impact energies and, in particular, are in excellent agreement with theoretical convergent-close-coupling (CCC) calculations performed in the present work. Our polarization data are significantly different from the previous experimental measurements of Ott, Kauppila, and Fite.

  5. DYNAMICS OF THE REACTION OF N{sup +} WITH H{sub 2}. V. REACTIVE AND NON-REACTIVE SCATTERING OF N{sup +}({sup 3}p) AT RELATIVE ENERGIES BELOW 3.6 eV.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Steven G.; Farrar, James M.; Mahan, Bruce H.

    1980-05-01

    We have measured product velocity vector distributions for the processes N{sup +}({sup 3}P)(H{sub 2},H)NH{sup +} and N{sup +}({sup 3}P)(H{sub 2},H{sub 2})N+ in the initial relative energy ranges of 0.98~3.60 eV and 0.66~ 2.50 eV respectively using the crossed beam technique. At energies below about 1.9 eV the predominance of a long-lived NH{sub 2}{sup +} complex is inferred from isotropic reactive scattering and a backscattered peak in the non-reactive distributions. Above 1.9 eV there is still a substantial interaction between all three atoms. The dynamics are adequately explained by a mechanism which involves accessing the deep {sup 3}B{sub 1} potential well through an avoided crossing with the {sup 3}A{sub 2} surface when the ·symmetry is relaxed from C{sub 2v} to C{sub s}. The reaction of electronically excited metastable ions, probably N{sup +}({sup 1}D), is seen as a forward peak in the reactive distributions.

  6. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  7. IGSN e.V.: Registration and Identification Services for Physical Samples in the Digital Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Klump, J.; Arko, R. A.; Bristol, S.; Buczkowski, B.; Chan, C.; Chan, S.; Conze, R.; Cox, S. J.; Habermann, T.; Hangsterfer, A.; Hsu, L.; Milan, A.; Miller, S. P.; Noren, A. J.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Wyborn, L. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    -for-profit organization, the IGSN e.V. (e.V. = 'Eingetragener Verein', legal status for a registered voluntary association in Germany), that defines the IGSN scope and syntax and maintains the IGSN Handle system, and (b) a Science Advisory Board that guides policies, technology, and best practices of the SESAR Sample Metadata Clearinghouse and Local Registration Agents. The IGSN e.V. is being incorporated in Germany at the GFZ Potsdam, a founding event is planned for the AGU Fall Meeting.

  8. Low-latitude 10 eV electrons: Nighttime plasma line as a new research capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Djuth, Frank T.; Perillat, Phil; Sulzer, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The incoherent scatter radar (ISR) plasma line (PL) in daylight is excited by photoelectrons. Measurement of its intensity (κTp) has long been used for their study. At night, despite the absence of any other excitation mechanism, the PL intensity should have a thermal amplitude level κTe, determined by the electron gas temperature Te. To the contrary Carlson et al. (1982) found nighttime PLs over Arecibo enhanced >3 times above thermal intensities despite the absence of any known causative mechanism. Here we present discovery that nighttime PLs frequently recur, with quite variable enhancement. In the absence of direct solar EUV, these enhanced PLs must be produced by particle precipitation, manifested by the presence of variable recurring F region ~10 eV electron fluxes. We see this as offering a new tool for space environment studies, opening a new era of particle precipitation research and ISR calibration.

  9. Dynamics of proton-acetylene collisions at 30 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, S. A.; Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Sabin, John. R.; Deumens, E.; Ohrn, Y.

    2002-07-01

    Collisions of protons with ground state acetylene molecules at 30 eV are studied using the electron nuclear dynamics (END) theory. This time-dependent methodology for the study of molecular processes is a nonadiabatic approach to direct dynamics, which has been successfully applied to ion-atom and ion-molecule reactive collisions. Using the minimal END theory, we calculate the direct and charge-transfer differential cross sections. Different initial conditions lead to diverse product channels, such as charge transfer, proton exchange, and collision induced dissociation. Projectile energy loss is analyzed in terms of transfer into target electronic, translational, and rovibrational excitations. The comparison of the computed results with time-of-flight measurements is discussed.

  10. Comparative performance evaluation of advanced AC and DC EV propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, R. D.; Crumley, R. L.

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) evaluates EV propulsion systems and components for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Program. In this study, experimental data were used to evaluate the relative performances of the benchmark Chrysler/GE ETV-1 DC and the Ford/GE First Generation Single-Shaft AC (ETX-I) propulsion systems. Tests were conducted on the INEL's chassis dynamometer using identical aerodynamic and rolling resistance road-load coefficients and vehicle test weights. The results allowed a direct comparison of selected efficiency and performance characteristics for the two propulsion system technologies. The ETX-I AC system exhibited slightly lower system efficiency during constant speed testing than the ETV-1 DC propulsion system.

  11. Characterization of a 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Linton, R. C.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Whitaker, A. F.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort to characterize an existing 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is described. This characterization effort includes atomic oxygen flux and flux distribution measurements using a catalytic probe, energy determination using a commercially designed quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and the exposure of oxygen-sensitive materials in this beam facility. Also, comparisons were drawn between the reaction efficiencies of materials exposed in plasma ashers, and the reaction efficiencies previously estimated from space flight experiments. The results of this study show that the beam facility is capable of producing a directional beam of neutral atomic oxygen atoms with the needed flux and energy to simulate low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions for real time accelerated testing. The flux distribution in this facility is uniform to +/- 6 percent of the peak flux over a beam diameter of 6 cm.

  12. Theory of Multiphoton Multielectron Ionization of Xenon under Strong 93-eV Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Makris, M. G.; Lambropoulos, P.; Mihelic, A.

    2009-01-23

    We present a theoretical interpretation of recent experimental results on multiphoton multiple ionization of xenon by soft-x-ray radiation of photon energy {approx}93 eV and intensity up to 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}[A. A Sorokin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213002 (2007)]. The data are interpreted within multiphoton perturbation theory, taking into account the spatiotemporal distribution of the radiation. Multiphoton cross sections have been obtained through a technique of scaling, with occasional adjustment to the data, provided the two prove to be compatible. Whatever discrepancies between theory and experiment persist can be reasonably attributed to some uncertainty in the experimental conditions and possibly to the value of some cross sections, without, however, any evidence for nonperturbative behavior.

  13. Reaction dynamics of H + O2 at 1.6 eV collision energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronikowski, Michael J.; Rong, Zhang; Rakestraw, David J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1989-01-01

    The hot hydrogen atom reaction, H + O2 yields OH + O, has been studied at a center of mass collision energy of 1.6 eV. H atoms were generated by 266 nm photolysis of HI in a mixture of HI and O2 at 293 K. The OH product was probed by laser induced fluorescence and the nascent OH vibrational, rotational, and fine structure distributions were determined. The OH(v=0/OH(v=1) vibrational branching ratio was measured to be 1.72 + or - 0.09. The data suggest that the H + O2 reaction at this collision energy proceeds via two competing mechanisms: reaction involving a long-lived complex and direct reaction.

  14. Polarization sensitivity of x-ray photocathodes in the 60-200eV band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, George W.; Pain, M. D.; Pearson, James F.; Lees, John E.; Binns, C. R.; Shaw, Ping S.; Fleischman, Judith R.

    1991-11-01

    In this paper, we briefly describe measurements of the 60 - 200 eV photoemission from Caesium Iodide, Gold, and Aluminum photocathodes made on beamline 6.1 of the SERC Daresbury synchrotron radiation source (SRS). Measurements were made near grazing incidence using both s- (electric vector perpendicular to the plane of incidence) and p- polarized (electric vector parallel to the plane of incidence) radiation. Our data supports the existence of an 'x-ray vectorial effect'--a pronounced linear polarization dependence of the photoyield--observed in earlier experiments at Leicester and Columbia Universities and elsewhere. For CsI, novel measurements are also reported of: radiation damage and annealing, and the temperature dependence of the photoyield.

  15. On the global anisotropy of cosmic ray data above 4 × 1019 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaque, Soebur; Ralston, John P.

    2003-07-01

    The distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays may yield clues to their mysterious origin. We introduce a method of invariant statistics to analyse cosmic ray data which eliminates coordinate-dependent artifacts. When combined with maximum likelihood analysis, the method is capable of quantifying deviations of the distribution from isotropy with high reliability. We test our method against published AGASA events with energies above 4 × 1019 eV. Angular cuts from observational limitations are taken into account. A model based on the Fisher distribution reveals the rotation of the Earth with the axis hat n along the direction (5h 53.36m, 85.78°) in (RA, DEC) coordinates, which is within 5° of the equatorial north pole. Global anisotropy of the data, if any, hinges on finer understanding of detector acceptance than what is available from the published literature.

  16. Double-photoionization of CO few eV above threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Hertlein, M.; Prior, M.; Adaniya, H.; Feinberg, B.; Weber, Th.; Jahnke, T.; Dorner, R.; Schmidt, L.; Schoffler, M.; Jagutzki, O.; Cocke, C. L.; Landers, A.

    2006-05-01

    We measured double photoionization of CO molecules at 48 eV photon energy. The double ionization of CO produces mostly C^+ + O^+ fragments with non-measurable amounts of CO^2+. The formation of C^+ + O^+ can proceed through two possible channels: a) Direct ionization of two electron into the continuum -- similar to the H2 double ionization -- direct channel. b) Ionization of one electron into the continuum followed by autoionization of a second electron -- Indirect channel. The electron distribution measured with a COLTRIMS shows a very clear distinction of the direct and indirect channels. The kinetic energy release spectrum shows a series of peaks corresponding to the transient vibrational states of the various electronic states of (CO^2+)*. These states are similar to previous measurements at higher energies (K-shell photoionization). (CO^2+)* is found to predissociate through a ^3σ^- and ^1δ dissociative states leading to considerably faster dissociation times than natural lifetimes of the electronic bound states.

  17. Damage of DNA by Low Energy Electrons (< 3 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bald, Ilko; Illenberger, Eugen; Kopyra, Janina

    2012-07-01

    Recent experiments on low energy electron attachment to DNA and its components in the condensed phase and in the gas phase are reviewed and analysed. From different condensed phase experiments the sensitivity of DNA towards low energy electrons is well documented and strand breaks in DNA are observed at subexcitation energies (< 3 eV) and also in ultrafast electron transfer experiments involving electrons in presolvated states. Gas phase experiments indicate that all building blocks of DNA (the nucleobases, the sugar and the phosphate moiety) undergo resonant dissociative electron attachment (DEA) in the subexcitation regime which may ultimately lead to strand breaks. From very recent gas phase experiments on an entire nucleotide it can be concluded that most strand breaks result from direct electron attachment to the DNA backbone, but also initial electron capture by the nucleobase following electron transfer to the backbone contributes.

  18. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Campbell, Steven L; Tolbert, Leon M

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.1% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~320 W/ .

  19. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Campbell, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.05% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~302 W/ .

  20. Formation of protons from dissociative ionization of methane induced by 54 eV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Ma, X.; Ren, X.; Senftleben, A.; Pflueger, T.; Dorn, A.; Ullrich, J.

    2011-05-15

    The production mechanisms of protons in dissociation of methane by 54 eV electron impact is investigated using the reaction microscope. By measuring all three charged particles in the final state in triple coincidence, the energy deposited in the target is determined. It is found that the (2a{sub 1}){sup -1}(npt{sub 2}){sup 1}, (2a{sub 1}){sup -1}, (1t{sub 2}){sup -2}(3a{sub 1}){sup 1}, and (2a{sub 1}){sup -2}(3a{sub 1}){sup 1} states of the intermediate CH{sub 4}{sup +} make the major contributions to the formation of protons at this incident energy. The decay of each state results in a different kinetic energy distribution of protons. Possible decay mechanisms of these states are analyzed.

  1. Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 1017 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic Rays above 1017 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet. At the same time hadronic interaction models have to be applied to the cosmic-ray induced air-shower cascades in atmosphere to infer the nature of cosmic rays. The reliability of air-shower simulations has become the source of one of the largest systematic uncertainty in the interpretation of cosmic-ray data due to the uncertainties in modeling the hadronic interaction driving the air-shower development. This paper summarises in the first part the recent results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy from the knee region to the GZK cutoff [1, 2] of the spectrum by means of ground-based experiments. Most of the information reported in this contribution is taken from [3-5]. Aspects interconnecting cosmic ray and particle physics are reviewed in the second part of the paper.

  2. Fluorescence light emission at 1 eV from a conjugated polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzamalis, Georgios; Lemaur, Vincent; Karlsson, Fredrik; Holtz, Per Olof; Andersson, Mats; Crispin, Xavier; Cornil, Jérôme; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-04-01

    While polymer light-emitting diodes are currently finding commercial applications in displays and lighting, the development of low bandgap polymers emitting in the infrared has received much less attention in spite of potential applications for instance in the field of communication technologies. We report here a light emission at 1 eV from a low bandgap polymer made of an alternation of dialkoxy-phenylene units and a low bandgap monomer composed of an electron accepting 2-thia-1,3,5,8-tetraaza-cyclopenta[ b]naphthalene group fenced with electron donating thiophene units. The electronic structure of the polymer chains has been characterized at a quantum-chemical level to shed light into the experimental results.

  3. Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-02-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti˜0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  4. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  5. Surface collisions of small cluster ions at incident energies 10-102 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Zdenek

    2004-04-01

    A short review of the field of collisions of slow cluster ions with surfaces is presented. The main subject of the paper is a survey of results of a series of studies on slow cluster ion collisions with surfaces carried out in Innsbruck. In these studies the incident ions were fullerene multiply-charged ions and small cluster ions of polyatomic molecules (acetone and acetonitrile radical cations, protonated ethanol, clustered by 2-4 monomer molecules). For collisions of multiply-charged fullerene cations C60z+ (z from 1 to 5, incident energies 100-500 eV) only singly-charged product ions were observed which were formed by sequential loss of C2 units. The effect of multiple-charge of the projectile on its fragmentation was less pronounced than expected from a full conversion of electronic energy gained in the surface neutralization process. Fragmentation upon surface collision excitation of acetone, acetonitrile and protonated ethanol cluster ions (incident energies 10-80 eV) was found to follow the unimolecular dissociation kinetics. Formation of protonated monomers in collisions of acetone and acetonitrile stoechiometric clusters resulted both from an intra-cluster reaction and from a reaction of the monomer product ion with the surface hydrogen; it could be rationalized using the double-well potential model. Incident energy dependence of relative abundance of dissociation products from surface collisions of protonated ethanol trimers, dimers and monomers could be mutually rationalized, if the fraction of energy transformed in the surface collision into internal energy was related to one internal degree of freedom. A diagram resembling a break-down pattern of the projectile ion was obtained in this way. All internal degrees of freedom of the projectile ion seemed to be involved in the unimolecular dissociation kinetics.

  6. Histopathological features and distribution of EV71 antigens and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model of enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pin; Gao, Zifen; Zong, Yuanyuan; Bao, Linlin; Xu, Lili; Deng, Wei; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gao, Zhancheng; Xu, Yanfeng; Yao, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-08-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease. While infection is usually self-limiting, a minority of patients infected with EV71 develop severe neurological complications. In humans, EV71 has been reported to utilize the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) as a receptor for infectious cellular entry. In this study, we define the pathological features of EV71-associated disease as well as the distribution of EV71 antigen and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model. Histopathologically, human fatal cases showed severe central nervous system (CNS) changes, mainly in the brainstems, spinal cords, and thalamus. These patient further exhibited pulmonary edema and necrotic enteritis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human fatal cases demonstrated that EV71 antigen and SCARB2 were observed mainly in neurons, microglia cells and inflammatory cells in the CNS, and epithelial cells in the intestines. However, skeletal muscle tissue was negative for EV71 antigen. In a mouse model of EV71 infection, we observed massive necrotic myositis, different degrees of viral diseases in CNS, and extensive interstitial pneumonia. In mice, EV71 exhibits strong myotropism compared to the neurotropism seen in humans. EV71 antigen was detected in the spinal cord and brainstem of mice. However, there was no clear correlation between mouse SCARB2 and EV71 antigen distribution in the mouse model, consistent with previous results that SCARB2 functions as a receptor for EV71 in humans but not mice. The EV71-induced lesions seen in the mouse model resembled the pathological changes seen in human samples. These results increase our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis and will inform further work developing a mouse model for EV71 infection.

  7. Reactive scattering of O and H2 and quenching of OH at collision energies up to 4.4 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, Marko; Kharchenko, Vasili

    2016-05-01

    We report new cross sections for the O(3 P) + H2 reactive scattering as well as quenching rates for rotationally and vibrationally excited OH by H atoms for a range of collision energies from 0.4 and 4.4 eV. These processes are important for understanding non-local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE) regime in astrophysical environment such as photon-dominated regions (PDRs) and evolution of planetary atmospheres in time, including the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. The cross sections were calculated quantum mechanically using coupled-channel formalism implemented in MOLSCAT and ABC computer codes on refitted recent potential energy surfaces for 3A' and 3A'' , while the surface-hopping effects were estimated from models and similar atom-molecule reactions. A large basis set was used to ensure the convergence at higher energies. Our results agree well with the published data at lower energies and indicate that reduced-dimensionality approach at collision energies higher than about 1.5 eV may not be adequate. Differential cross sections and diffusion cross sections, of interest in transport calculations, are also reported. This work was been supported by NASA grant NNX10AB88G.

  8. Analysis of Carrier Recombination Processes in 0.6 eV InGaAs Epitaxial Materials for Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    D Donetsky; F Newman; M Dashiell

    2006-10-30

    Minority carrier lifetime was measured by time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) method in sets of p-type and n-type InGaAs double heterostructures (DH) moderately doped with Zn and Te, respectively. Contributions of the radiative and non-radiative recombination terms were separated by fitting experimental data to temperature dependences of the radiative term. The latter was modeled with measured fundamental absorption spectrum and the temperature dependence of the photon recycling effect was taken into account. Different temperature dependences of radiative terms for electron and hole materials were obtained. It was concluded that in 0.6 eV Te-doped InGaAs structures the radiative recombination controls the hole lifetime at liquid nitrogen temperatures, while Auger recombination dominates at room and above room temperatures. In similar 0.6 eV InGaAs with Zn-doped active regions Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination was found dominant in a wide temperature range from liquid nitrogen to above-room temperatures. Rapid decrease of electron lifetime with decrease of excess carrier concentration was observed and attributed to recombination through partially-ionized deep donor centers. The obtained data allows for more adequate modeling of the performance and design optimization of narrow-gap photonic devices based on InGaAs Indium-rich compounds.

  9. Superthermal over 36-eV ions observed in the near-tail region of Venus by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Niemann, H. B.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The PVO neutral mass spectrometer has measured the over 36-eV ions in the 1300-3700 km altitude range for solar zenith angles greater than 120 deg. The composition is mainly O(+), but He(+), N(+), NO(+), and O2(+) have been identified. The average O(+) flux is about 100,000/sq cm/s, but higher fluxes from 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 8th/sq cm/s are observed about 10 percent of the time. The directions of the apparent O(+) flow in the ecliptic plane show predominantly tailward components with a smaller number of nontailward components. The over 36-eV O(+) escape flux in the ionotail is estimated to be about 100,000/sq cm/s. The O(+) flux data show a factor of 2.5 increase from solar minimum to maximum, implying a photoionization source for these ions. The composition of the superthermal ions in the ionotail suggests that their source is most likely the high-altitude nightside ionosphere. Transport of superthermal O(+) across the terminator to the nightside has been observed.

  10. Electron scattering cross sections for SF{sub 6} and SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3} at intermediate and high energies (100-10000 eV)

    SciTech Connect

    Limao-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; Vinodkumar, M.; Garcia, G.; Mason, N.J.

    2005-03-01

    A modified experimental apparatus with improved angular resolution and stability has been used to measure the total electron scattering cross sections for SF{sub 6} and SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3} in the energy range of 100-5000 eV. A detailed analysis of the experimental error sources is provided. The experimental results are compared with integral elastic and inelastic cross sections calculated using the independent atom model approximation and a modified single-center additivity rule for electron energies ranging from 1 to 10,000 eV. The accuracy of these approximations method is discussed through a comparison with the experimental results. Previous cross-sectional data for SF{sub 6} are compared with the present theoretical and experimental results. For SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3}, we present the first electron scattering cross-sectional data for the 100-10,000 eV energy range, as well as the first empirical determination of the molecular polarizability.

  11. Endogenous Retrovirus ev21 Dose Not Recombine with ALV-J and Induces the Expression of ISGs in the Host.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Tan, Yan; Dai, Manman; Li, Yuanfang; Xie, Tingting; Li, Hongmei; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94.8% nucleotide identity with reference ALV-J strains. Compared with the env gene and the LTR of ev21 and M180, the nucleotide identity of LTR was 69.7% and env gene was 58.4%, respectively, especially the amino acid identity of env gene as low as 14.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the 3'LTR showed that M180 was closely related to ALV-J, and was located in a distinct group with ev21 in the phylogenetic tree. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), we next demonstrate that the envelope protein of ev21 does not interact with the M180 envelope protein. We further show that the envelope protein of ev21 cannot activate ALV-J LTR promoter activity using luciferase-reporter assays. qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that envelope protein of endogenous ev21 can facilitate the expression of PKR at 6h post ALV-J infection (hpi) and facilitate the expression of ISG12 and CH25H at 24 hpi. However, the expression of the env gene of M180 strain was not significantly at 6 and 24 hpi. We conclude that there is no evidence of recombination between endogenous retrovirus ev21 and ALV-J strain M180 in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken, and envelope protein of ev21 can affect the expression of host ISGs, but appears not to influence the replication of ALV-J strain M180. This is the first report of interaction among the endogenous retrovirus ev21, ALV-J and the late-feathering chicken.

  12. Identification of immunodominant VP1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (EV71) using synthetic peptides for detecting human anti-EV71 IgG antibodies in Western blots.

    PubMed

    Foo, D G W; Ang, R X; Alonso, S; Chow, V T K; Quak, S H; Poh, C L

    2008-03-01

    A major IgG-specific immunodominant VP1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain 41 (5865/SIN/00009), defined by the core sequence LEGTTNPNG, was identified by Pepscan analysis. Oligonucleotides corresponding to the amino-acid sequence of synthetic peptide SP32 were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-SP32 fusion protein. In ELISAs, this protein did not react with human anti-EV71 IgG antibodies, but there was significant immunoreactivity according to western blot analysis. The amino-acid sequence of SP32 was highly specific for detecting EV71 strains in western blot analysis, and showed no immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies raised against other enteroviruses, e.g., CA9 and Echo 6.

  13. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    PubMed

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders.

  14. Ab initio study of electron energy loss spectra of bulk bismuth up to 100 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timrov, Iurii; Markov, Maxime; Gorni, Tommaso; Raynaud, Michèle; Motornyi, Oleksandr; Gebauer, Ralph; Baroni, Stefano; Vast, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    The dynamical charge-density response of bulk bismuth has been studied within time-dependent density functional perturbation theory, explicitly accounting for spin-orbit coupling. The use of the Liouville-Lanczos approach allows us to calculate electron energy loss spectra for excitation energies as large as 100 eV. Effects of 5 d semicore electronic states, spin-orbit coupling, exchange and correlation, local fields, and anisotropy are thoroughly investigated. The account of the 5 d states in the calculation turns out to be crucial to correctly describe the loss spectra above 10 eV and, in particular, the position and shape of the bulk-plasmon peak at 14.0 eV at vanishing transferred momentum. Our calculations reveal the presence of interband transitions at 16.3 eV, which had never been discussed before. The origin of the peak at 5.8 eV is revisited as due to mixed interband and collective excitations. Finally, our study supplements the lack of experiments at finite transferred momenta.

  15. A new animal model containing human SCARB2 and lacking stat-1 is highly susceptible to EV71.

    PubMed

    Liou, An-Ting; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, Chun-Che; Chang, Ya-Shu; Chang, Chih-Shin; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-08-08

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2(+/+)/stat-1(-/-)) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice. Virus-encoded VP1 protein can be detected in the streaking nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. This hybrid mouse strain at 2-week-old age can still be infected with different genotypes of EV71 at 1000-fold lower titer via an ip route. Infected hybrid mice developed earlier onset of CNS disease, paralysis, and death at a higher incidence. These advantages of this novel model meet the urgent need from the scientific community in basic and preclinical research in therapeutics and pathogenesis.

  16. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model

    PubMed Central

    YUE, YINGYING; LI, PENG; SONG, NANNAN; LI, BINGQING; LI, ZHIHUI; GUO, YUQI; ZHANG, WEIDONG; WEI, MING Q.; GAI, ZHONGTAO; MENG, HONG; WANG, JIWEN; QIN, LIZENG

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post-inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection. PMID:27035332

  17. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71.

    PubMed

    Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S; Toosa, Haryanti; Foo, Hooi Ling; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Arbab, Ali S; Yusoff, Khatijah; Abdul Rahim, Raha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1) gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  18. A new animal model containing human SCARB2 and lacking stat-1 is highly susceptible to EV71

    PubMed Central

    Liou, An-Ting; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, Chun-Che; Chang, Ya-Shu; Chang, Chih-Shin; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2+/+/stat-1−/−) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice. Virus-encoded VP1 protein can be detected in the streaking nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. This hybrid mouse strain at 2-week-old age can still be infected with different genotypes of EV71 at 1000-fold lower titer via an ip route. Infected hybrid mice developed earlier onset of CNS disease, paralysis, and death at a higher incidence. These advantages of this novel model meet the urgent need from the scientific community in basic and preclinical research in therapeutics and pathogenesis. PMID:27499235

  19. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yingying; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Li, Zhihui; Guo, Yuqi; Zhang, Weidong; Wei, Ming Q; Gai, Zhongtao; Meng, Hong; Wang, Jiwen; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post‑inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection.

  20. Comparing the Primary and Recall Immune Response Induced by a New EV71 Vaccine Using Systems Biology Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Zhang, Junnan; Wu, Xing; Mao, Qunying; Chen, Pan; Zhu, Fengcai; Xu, Miao; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines have completed Phase III clinical trials in mainland China, with high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity. However, the molecular mechanisms how this new vaccine elicit potent immune response remain poorly understood. To characterize the primary and recall responses to EV71 vaccines, PBMC from 19 recipients before and after vaccination with EV71 vaccine are collected and their gene expression signatures after stimulation with EV71 antigen were compared. The results showed that primary and recall response to EV71 antigen have both activated an IRF7 regulating type I interferon and antiviral immune response network. However, up-regulated genes involved in T cell activation regulated by IRF1, inflammatory response, B-cell activation and humoral immune response were only observed in recall response. The specific secretion of IL-10 in primary response and IL-2,IP-10,CCL14a, CCL21 in recall response was consistent with the activation of immune response process found in genes. Furthermore, the expression of MX1 and secretion of IP-10 in recall response were strongly correlated with NTAb level at 180d after vaccination (r = 0.81 and 0.99). In summary, inflammatory response, adaptive immune response and a stronger antiviral response were indentified in recall response.