Science.gov

Sample records for 12-arm radial maze

  1. Sex Differences in a Human Analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: The ''17-Box Maze Test''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Q.; Abrahams, S.; Jussab, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated sex differences in spatial memory using a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: a revision on the Nine Box Maze originally developed by Abrahams, Pickering, Polkey, and Morris (1997) called the 17-Box Maze Test herein. The task encourages allocentric spatial processing, dissociates object from spatial memory, and…

  2. Radial maze performance in three strains of mice - Role of the fimbria/fornix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinstein, D. K.; Deboissiere, T.; Robinson, N.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three strains of mice were tested on an 8-arm radial maze, an index of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Levels of performance differed betweens strains with C57Br/cdj greater than Balb/cj greater than C57B1/6j. Lesions of the fimbria/fornix disrupted performance in the C57Br and Balb strains: the C57Bl mice never performed better than chance before or after surgery. Choline acetyltransferase activity in hippocampus was not correlated with radial maze performance. These findings suggest a possible genetic contribution towards radial maze behavior.

  3. Effects of metrifonate on radial arm maze acquisition in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Dachir, S; Schmidt, B; Levy, A

    1997-11-28

    The efficacy of metrifonate, a well-tolerated cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, in attenuating the normal aging- and corticosterone-induced impairments of radial maze performance of rats was compared. Middle-aged Fischer 344 rats were screened for their spatial orientation performance in the Morris water escape task. Good and bad performers were selected: good performers (N= 22) were treated with subcutaneous sustained-release corticosterone pellets, resulting in hippocampal cell damage and impaired spatial orientation in the radial maze; age-induced bad performers (N = 20) were tested without additional pharmacological intervention. Metrifonate (MFT), administered daily during radial maze testing, 30 min before training, at a dose of 15 mg/kg p.o., facilitated the acquisition of the task in age-impaired rats, but not in corticosterone-impaired rats. PMID:9449438

  4. Radial Maze Analog for Pigeons: Evidence for Flexible Coding Strategies May Result from Faulty Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipson, Cassandra D.; DiGian, Kelly A.; Miller, Holly C.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research with the radial maze has found evidence that rats can remember both places that they have already been (retrospective coding) and places they have yet to visit (prospective coding; Cook, R. G., Brown, M. F., & Riley, D. A. (1985). Flexible memory processing by rats: Use of prospective and retrospective information in the radial…

  5. EFFECTS OF SCOPOLAMINE ON REPEATED ACQUISITION OF RADIAL-ARM MAZE PERFORMANCE BY RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats repeatedly acquired the performance of selecting only the four baited arms in an automated eight-arm radial maze, with the arms containing food pellets randomly assigned prior to each session. During each 14-trial (trial: obtain all four pellets) daily session, the number of...

  6. EFFECTS OF SELECTION DELAYS ON RADIAL MAZE PERFORMANCE: ACQUISITION AND EFFECTS OF SCOPOLAMINE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of post-selection confinement (delays) on both the acquisition of performance and the response to the muscarinic blocker scopolamine were examined in an automated version of the eight arm radial maze. Long-Evans rats exposed to post-selection delays of 0.5 sec (n=4) o...

  7. EFFECTS OF TRIMETHYLTIN ON REPEATED ACQUISITION (LEARNING) IN THE RADIAL-ARM MAZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A repeated acquisition procedure for the 8-arm radial maze was evaluated with trimethyltin (TNT). en male Long-Evans rats were trained to collect a single food pellet at the end of each baited arm on each trial of a daily 12-trial test session. our of the eight arms were baited o...

  8. TRIMETHYLTIN, A SELECTIVE LIMBIC SYSTEM NEUROTOXICANT, IMPAIRS RADIAL-ARM MAZE PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats were trained for fifteen sessions in an automated eight arm radial maze prior to treatment with 6 mg/kg trimethyltin chloride. This compound is a neurotoxicant which primarily damages the limbic system, in particular pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Foll...

  9. 7-NI and ODQ Disturbs Memory in the Elevated Plus Maze, Morris Water Maze, and Radial Arm Maze Tests in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Oguz; Akar, Furuzan; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an atypical neurotransmitter that causes changes in cognition. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors have been shown to exert some effects on cognition in previous studies; however, the findings have been controversial. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on spatial memory in modified elevated plus maze (mEPM), Morris water maze (MWM), and radial arm maze (RAM) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated via intraperitoneal injections with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (3 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the second-day latency in the mEPM test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the escape latency in second, third, and fourth sessions, decreased the time spent in the escape platform’s quadrant, and increased the mean distance to the platform in the probe trial of the MWM test. ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the number of errors, whereas only 7-NI increased the latency in the RAM test. The administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) prior to 7-NI inverted the effects of 7-NI, which supports the role of NO on cognition. Our study shows that the NO/cGMP/GS pathway can regulate spatial memory in mice. PMID:25788830

  10. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and the radial arm maze: spatial memory and serial position effects.

    PubMed

    Craig, Marlyse; Rand, Jacquie; Mesch, Rita; Shyan-Norwalt, Melissa; Morton, John; Flickinger, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated spatial memory in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) through the use of a radial arm maze. The study consisted of a total of three separate experiments. In the first two experiments, the ability of the dogs to successfully remember previously unentered arms was evaluated. The third experiment was similar to the first two, but also examined the nature of the serial position effect. Performance in all three experiments was better than expected solely by random choices. Dogs showed a much better memory for spatial locations presented earlier in a spatial list compared with those presented in the middle. Based on the present results, we suggest that the radial arm maze assesses canine spatial memory and that dogs show a primacy effect. PMID:22905996

  11. Radial-arm-maze behavior of the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    PubMed

    Mueller-Paul, Julia; Wilkinson, Anna; Hall, Geoffrey; Huber, Ludwig

    2012-08-01

    The radial-arm maze is an established method for testing an animal's spatial win-shift behavior. Research on mammals, birds, and fish has shown that the mastery of this task is commonly mediated, to different degrees, by two types of strategy: those based on external cues and those based on response stereotypy. In the present study we trained four red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) to navigate an eight-arm radial maze while providing different levels of access to visual room cues. The results indicate that response stereotypy is the more prevalent mechanism in these tortoises, although navigation based on landmarks can also occur if learned initially. The findings suggest that tortoise spatial navigation may be more similar to that observed in mammals and birds than previously thought. PMID:22390619

  12. Role of hippocampal H1 receptors in radial maze performance and hippocampal theta activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Takayoshi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2007-07-12

    Histamine H1 antagonists impaired the spatial memory performance. On the other hand, it is well recognized that the hippocampal theta rhythm plays a critical role in spatial memory. However, little work has been done the effect of H1 antagonists on the hippocampal theta rhythm which was associated with the memory performance. We investigated the effect of pyrilamine, a selective H1 receptor antagonist, on spatial memory performance as well as hippocampal theta rhythm during the memory task in rats. Effect of pyrilamine on spatial memory was measured using eight-arm radial maze with four arms baited. Hippocampal theta rhythm during the radial maze task was recorded with a polygraph system with a telemetric technique. Intraperitoneal injection of pyrilamine resulted in impairments of both reference and working memory on the radial maze task. The working memory deficit induced by pyrilamine was antagonized by the intrahippocampal injection of histamine and 6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)heptanecarboxamide (HTMT), a histamine H1 agonist. Intraperitoneal injection of pyrilamine decreased the hippocampal theta power at a dose that impaired reference and working memory. This effect was antagonized by the intrahippocampal injection of histamine and HTMT at a dose that ameliorated the working memory deficit. Intrahippocampal injection of pyrilamine impaired working memory and simultaneously decreased the hippocampal theta power. These results suggest that: (i) the hippocampal H1 receptors play an important role in the working memory processes on the radial maze performance and (ii) the decrease in the hippocampal theta power is associated with the working memory deficit induced by the blocking of H1 receptors. PMID:17562388

  13. Effects of scopolamine on repeated acquisition of radial-arm maze performance by rats.

    PubMed Central

    Peele, D B; Baron, S P

    1988-01-01

    Rats repeatedly acquired the performance of selecting only the four baited arms in an automated eight-arm radial maze, with the arms containing food pellets randomly assigned prior to each session. During each 14-trial (trial: obtain all four pellets) daily session, the number of errors (selecting nonbaited arms or repeating arm selections) showed a within-session decline, and choice accuracy for the first four arm selections showed a positive acceleration across trials for all rats. An index-of-curvature statistic, calculated for total errors, was used to quantify both the within- and between-session improvement of performance. Scopolamine (0.03 to 0.3 mg/kg, ip), but not methylscopolamine (0.3 mg/kg), reduced the accuracy of the first four selections of each trial and increased total within-session errors for all rats. Session times also were increased by scopolamine. An examination of within-session accuracy showed only slight signs of improvement at the higher dosages of scopolamine. The results indicate that behavior in transition states maintained by reinforcement contingencies in the radial maze is similar to that maintained by extended chained schedules, despite the fact that some of the stimuli controlling behavior in the maze are absent at the moment behavior is emitted. PMID:3361268

  14. Branched chain amino acids improve radial-arm maze acquisition and water maze forced-choice learning in rat offspring exposed in utero to hyperphenylalaninemia.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V; Acuff-Smith, K D; Weisenburger, W P; Minck, D R; Berry, H K

    1992-01-01

    Maternal phenylketonuria results in a high incidence of children born mentally retarded. We showed that the large neutral amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine (VIL) ameliorate the effects of intrauterine hyperphenylalaninemia in rats on a test of complex maze learning. To further test the ameliorative effects of VIL on intrauterine CNS development during hyperphenylalaninemia, gravid rats were administered a phenylalanine/p-chlorophenylalanine (index group) supplemented diet with or without VIL added. Controls were given standard diet with or without VIL. All groups were pair-fed to the index group. As adults, the progeny exposed in utero to hyperphenylalaninemia showed characteristic learning impairments in a complex water (Cincinnati) maze on forced and elective-choice phases of the task and deficits in radial-arm maze and Morris maze acquisition, whereas those exposed to hyperphenylalaninemia combined with VIL showed no deficits in the forced-choice phase of Cincinnati maze learning and no evidence of radial-arm maze deficits. However, the improvement was not complete, with no ameliorative effects obtained on the elective-choice phase of the Cincinnati maze or on the Morris hidden platform test. No deficits were seen on phases containing test trials for memory function (Olton and Morris mazes). The acquisition differences occurred in the absence of any effects of VIL on maternal weight gain during gestation, maternal serum amino acid concentrations of phenylalanine or tyrosine, or effects on offspring growth. VIL alone produced no adverse or enhancing effects on learning or memory. Based on these data it was concluded that the VIL supplement continues to show promise as a potential treatment for intrauterinely acquired mental deficiency associated with maternal phenylketonuria. PMID:1593977

  15. Prenatal opiate exposure impairs radial arm maze performance and reduces levels of BDNF precursor following training.

    PubMed

    Schrott, Lisa M; Franklin, La 'Tonya M; Serrano, Peter A

    2008-03-10

    Prenatal exposure to opiates, which is invariably followed by postnatal withdrawal, can affect cognitive performance. To further characterize these effects, we examined radial 8-arm maze performance and expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male rats prenatally exposed to the opiate l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM). Female rats received 1.0 mg/kg/day LAAM or water via daily oral gavage for 28 days prior to breeding, during breeding, and throughout pregnancy. Pups were fostered to non-treated lactating dams at birth and underwent neonatal opiate withdrawal. At 5-6 months, prenatal water- and LAAM-exposed males (n=6 each; non-littermates) received radial arm maze training consisting of ten trials a day for five days and three retention trials on day six. Rats prenatally exposed to LAAM had poorer maze performance, decreased percent correct responding and more reference and working memory errors than prenatal water-treated controls. However, they were able to acquire the task by the end of training. There were no differences between the groups on retention 24 h after testing. Following retention testing, hippocampi were removed and protein extracted from cytosol and synaptic fractions. Western blots were used to measure levels of mature and precursor BDNF protein, as well as the BDNF receptor TrkB. BDNF precursor protein was significantly decreased in the synaptic fraction of trained prenatal LAAM-treated rats compared to prenatal water-treated trained controls. No effects were found for the full-length or truncated TrkB receptor. In untrained rats, prenatal treatment did not affect any of the measures. These data suggest that prenatal opiate exposure and/or postnatal withdrawal compromise expression of proteins involved in the neural plasticity underlying learning. PMID:18262500

  16. The interaction between working and reference spatial memories in rats on a radial maze.

    PubMed

    Guitar, Nicole A; Roberts, William A

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of reference and working memory was studied in rats on an eight-arm radial maze. Each trial involved a two-phase procedure in which a rat was forced to enter four arms on the maze in a study phase and then was allowed to choose among all eight arms in a test phase given 5-s later, with choice of only the previously unvisited arms rewarded. For each rat, two arms on the maze were designated as reference memory arms because they were never entered in the study phase and were always rewarded in the test phase. The other two arms never entered in the study phase and rewarded in the test phase were working memory arms and varied randomly from trial to trial. In Experiment 1, rats showed acquisition of equivalent preference for entering the reference and working memory arms in their first four choices of the test phase. Subsequent tests carried out in Experiment 2 compared performance at 5-s, 1-h, and 24-h retention intervals when reference memory and working memory were congruent and incongruent. Higher accuracy for choice of reference memory arms than working memory arms appeared at the 1-h and 24-h retention intervals on congruent tests but not on incongruent tests. A process dissociation procedure analysis indicated that working memory but not reference memory declined over the 24-h retention interval. The interaction of working and reference memory was shown by superior choice of reference memory arms on congruent tests than on incongruent tests at 1-h and 24-h retention intervals but not at the 5-s retention interval. These findings suggest that working and reference memory are independent systems that can facilitate and compete with one another. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. PMID:25452076

  17. Effects of Number of Items and Interval Length on the Acquisition of Temporal Order Discrimination in Radial Maze in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugita, Manami; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Temporal order discrimination in rats was analyzed using a radial maze. The task consisted of a study phase in which two to five items (arms) were presented sequentially and, after a delay, a test phase in which two of these were simultaneously presented and the rat had to choose the arm presented earlier in the study phase. Acquisition of the…

  18. Learning about cognition risk with the radial-arm maze in the developmental neurotoxicology battery.

    PubMed

    Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction has been found in epidemiological studies to be among the most sensitive impairments associated with developmental exposure to a variety of environmental contaminants from heavy metals to polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and pesticides. These chemicals have been also shown to impair cognitive function after developmental exposure in experimental animal models. The radial-arm maze (RAM) has proven to be a sensitive and reliable way to assess both learning and memory in a variety of species, most often in rats and mice. The RAM is a very adaptable test method that takes advantage of rodents' instinct to explore new places in the environment to forage. That is, rodents do not need to be trained to run through the maze; they will normally do this from the initial session of testing. Training with differential reinforcement for arm choices provides a more rigorous test of learning and memory. The RAM is quite adaptable for assessing various aspects of cognition. Although the RAM has been mostly used to assess spatial learning and memory, it can be configured to assess non-spatial memory as well. Both working and reference memory can be easily distinguished. The RAM can be run with both appetitive (food reinforced) and aversive (water escape) motivators. The RAM has been found to be sensitive to a wide variety of developmental toxicants including heavy metals such as mercury and pesticides such as chlorpyrifos. There is an extremely rich literature especially with rats showing the effects of many types of brain lesions and drug effects so that the participation of a wide variety of neural systems in RAM performance is known. These systems, notably the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and acetylcholine and glutamate neurotransmitter systems, are the same neural systems that have been shown in humans to be critical for learning and memory. This considerably aids the interpretation of neurobehavioral toxicity studies. PMID:26013674

  19. Effects of perinatal bisphenol A exposure during early development on radial arm maze behavior in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Park, Pul; Neese, Steven L.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Schantz, Susan L.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can affect anxiety behavior. However, no studies have examined whether administration of this endocrine disruptor during the perinatal period has the potential to induce alterations in cognitive behavior in both adult males and females as assessed in an appetitive task. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to different doses of BPA during early development alters performance on the 17-arm radial maze in adulthood in Long-Evans rats. Oral administration of corn oil (vehicle), 4 μg/kg, 40 μg/kg, or 400 μg/kg BPA to the dams occurred daily throughout pregnancy, and the pups received direct oral administration of BPA between postnatal days 1-9. Blood was collected from offspring at weaning age to determine levels of several hormones (thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone). One male and one female from each litter were evaluated on the 17-arm radial maze, a working/reference memory task, in adulthood. Results indicated that after exposure to BPA at both 4 and 400 μg/kg/day, rats of both sexes had decreased levels of FSH at weaning. There were no significant effects of BPA on performance on the radial arm maze in males or females. In conclusion, exposure to BPA during early development had modest effects on circulating hormones but did not affect a spatial learning and memory task. PMID:24440629

  20. Exposure to 56Fe Particles Produces Deficits in Spatial Learning and Memory in the Radial Arm Water Maze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Previous research has shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut's ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. Therefore, in the present study, we used a combination of these two tests, the 8 arm radial water maze (RAWM), to measure spatial learning in rats which were irradiated at the NSRL with 0, 150cGy, or 200cGy of 56Fe radiation. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to the HNRCA and tested in the RAWM (2-3 months later) for 5 days, 3 trials/day. In this version of the RAWM, there were 4 hidden platforms that the rat needed to locate to successfully solve a trial. Once the rat located a platform, it was allowed to remain there for 15 sec before the platform sank, at which point the rat tried to locate the remaining ones. Reference (entering an arm that never contained the platform) and working (re-entering an arm in which the platform had already been found) memory errors were tabulated. Results showed that the irradiated rats had more reference and working memory errors while learning the maze, particularly on Day 3 of testing. Additionally, they utilized non-spatial strategies to solve the RAWM task whereas the control animals used spatial strategies. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by USDA Intramural and N.A.S.A. Grant NNX08AM66G

  1. A Virtual Radial Arm Maze for the Study of Multiple Memory Systems in a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Wang, Zhishun; Duan, Yunsuo; Liu, Feng; Marsh, Rachel; Yu, Shan; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of functional brain imaging studies are employing computer-based virtual reality (VR) to study changes in brain activity during the performance of high-level psychological and cognitive tasks. We report the development of a VR radial arm maze that adapts for human use in a scanning environment with the same general experimental design of behavioral tasks as that has been used with remarkable effectiveness for the study of multiple memory systems in rodents. The software platform is independent of specific computer hardware and operating systems, as we aim to provide shared access to this technology by the research community. We hope that doing so will provide greater standardization of software platform and study paradigm that will reduce variability and improve the comparability of findings across studies. We report the details of the design and implementation of this platform and provide information for downloading of the system for demonstration and research applications. PMID:26366052

  2. The role of catecholamines in retention performance of a partially baited radial eight-arm maze for rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ruey-Ming; Lai, Wen-Sung; Lin, Jian-You

    2002-12-31

    To assess the possible involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters in maintenance of spatial cognition, the present work investigated the effects of dopaminergic and noradrenergic receptor antagonists on memory performance of rats in a partially baited radial eight-arm maze. Food-deprived rats were first trained to enter the arms baited with chocolate, and each subject was then randomly assigned to receive further training in either a place version or a cue version of the task. A specific pattern with four arms being baited was used throughout experimentation as the procedure for the place task; whereas four randomly chosen arms, each cued with a piece of sandpaper on the arm entrance, were baited from trial to trial as the procedure of the cue task. For drug evaluation, well-trained subjects were challenged with systemic injections of SCH23390, spiperone, haloperidol, prazosin, yohimbine, and propranolol. Regarding the place task, SCH23390, haloperidol, and propranolol, but not the other three drugs, significantly impaired behavioral performance by increasing the number of arm entries as well as the time to complete the task. The accuracy of performance as measured by the number of entries on the cue task was not significantly affected by any of these drugs tested. However, the times to complete the cue task were significantly increased with all drugs except yohimbine. These data show that blocking different catecholaminergic receptor subtypes produced distinct deficit patterns on the retention performance in a partially baited radial eight-arm maze. Evidently, both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors as well as beta noradrenergic receptors are important in expression of spatial memory. PMID:12817709

  3. Reversal of scopolamine-induced deficits in radial maze performance by (-)-huperzine A: comparison with E2020 and tacrine.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Tang, X C

    1998-05-22

    The effects of (-)-huperzine A ((5R,9R,11E)-5-amino-11-ethylidene-5,6,9,10-tetrahydro-7-methyl-5, 9-methanocycloocta[b]pyridin-2(1H)-one), and of the hydrochloride salt of E2020 ((R,S)-1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanon)-2-yl]-methyl piperidine) and tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine), on the scopolamine-induced memory deficits in rats were compared in a radial maze, using a 4-out-of-8 baiting procedure. Scopolamine (0.15 mg/kg, i.p.) caused significant impairment in the rats' ability to fulfil the radial maze task. (-)-Huperzine A (0.2-0.4 mg/kg, p.o.; 0.1-0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) had greater efficacy than E2020 (0.6-0.9 mg/kg, p.o.; 0.3-0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and tacrine (1.5-2.5 mg/kg, p.o.; 0.3-0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) on the improvement of scopolamine-induced working and reference memory errors, respectively. There appeared to be an inverse bell-shape dose-dependent effect for all three compounds tested. The compared data demonstrate that (-)-huperzine A is the most potent and orally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor of the three, and fits more closely the established criterions for an ideal acetylcholinesterase inhibitor to be used in clinical studies. PMID:9671090

  4. Spatial Navigation in Complex and Radial Mazes in APP23 Animals and Neurotrophin Signaling as a Biological Marker of Early Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Rainer; Huber, Roman; Kuhl, Alexander; Riepe, Matthias W.; Lohmann, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Impairment of hippocampal function precedes frontal and parietal cortex impairment in human Alzheimer's disease(AD). Neurotrophins are critical for behavioral performance and neuronal survival in AD. We used complex and radial mazes to assess spatial orientation and learning in wild-type and B6-Tg(ThylAPP)23Sdz (APP23) animals, a transgenic mouse…

  5. Cerebral ischemia combined with beta-amyloid impairs spatial memory in the eight-arm radial maze task in rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Katsunori; Egashira, Nobuaki; Hatip-Al-Khatib, Izzettin; Akiyoshi, Yuki; Arai, Takashi; Takagaki, Yuki; Watanabe, Takuya; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2006-06-30

    beta-Amyloid (Abeta), a major component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, has been implicated in neuronal cell death, a characteristic feature of this condition. In our previous experiments using primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, Abeta treatment induced neuronal cell death, displaying morphological characteristics of apoptosis that was significantly enhanced by hypoxia. Based on these results, we developed a simple in vivo rat model of Alzheimer's disease using cerebral ischemia, instead of hypoxia, combined with continuous intracerebroventricular administration of Abeta. The combination of cerebral ischemia and Abeta administration, but not either treatment alone, significantly impaired spatial memory in an eight-arm radial maze. A microdialysis study showed that spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the dorsal hippocampus had a tendency to decrease in response to Abeta treatment alone or the combination of ischemia and Abeta. High K(+)-evoked increase in ACh release had a tendency to be inhibited by either ischemia or Abeta treatment alone and was significantly inhibited by the combination of both. Moreover, combination of ischemia and Abeta induced apoptosis of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Donepezil, a drug currently in clinical use for Alzheimer's disease, improved the impairment of spatial memory induced by cerebral ischemia combined with Abeta. These findings suggest that ischemia is an important factor facilitating the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, and this model may be useful for developing new drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:16729978

  6. Comparison of spatial learning in the partially baited radial-arm maze task between commonly used rat strains: Wistar, Spargue-Dawley, Long-Evans, and outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley.

    PubMed

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Jakubowska-Doğru, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Strain-related differences in animals' cognitive ability affect the outcomes of experiments and may be responsible for discrepant results obtained by different research groups. Therefore, behavioral phenotyping of laboratory animals belonging to different strains is important. The aim of the present study was to compare the variation in allothetic visuospatial learning in most commonly used laboratory rat strains: inbred Wistar (W) and Sprague-Dawley (SD), outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (W/SD), and outbred Long Evans (LE) rats. All rats were trained to the arbitrary performance criterion of 83 % correct responses in the partially baited 12-arm radial maze allowing for simultaneous evaluation of both working and reference memory. In the present study, testing albino versus pigmented and inbred versus outcrossed rats revealed significant strain-dependent differences with the inbred SD rats manifesting lower performance on all learning measures compared to other strains. On the other hand, the outcrossed W/SD rats showed a lower frequency of reference memory errors and faster rate of task acquisition compared to both LE and W rats, with W rats showing a lower frequency of working memory errors compared to other strains. In conclusion, albinism apparently did not reduce the animals' performance in the allothetic visuospatial learning task, while outcrossing improved the spatial learning. A differential effect of strain on the contribution of each error type to the animals' overall performance was observed. The strain-dependent differences were more pronounced between subpopulations of learning-deficient individuals ("poor" learners), and generally the reference memory errors contributed more to the final behavioral output than did the working memory errors. PMID:25537841

  7. Frontal cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitter receptor complex level parallels spatial memory performance in the radial arm maze.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Sase, Ajinkya; Miklosi, András G; Sialana, Fernando J; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Aher, Yogesh D; Gröger, Marion; Höger, Harald; Bennett, Keiryn L; Lubec, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Several neurotransmitter receptors have been proposed to be involved in memory formation. However, information on receptor complexes (RCs) in the radial arm maze (RAM) is missing. It was therefore the aim of this study to determine major neurotransmitter RCs levels that are modulated by RAM training because receptors are known to work in homo-or heteromeric assemblies. Immediate early gene Arc expression was determined by immunohistochemistry to show if prefrontal cortices (PFC) and hippocampi were activated following RAM training as these regions are known to be mainly implicated in spatial memory. Twelve rats per group, trained and untrained in the twelve arm RAM were used, frontal cortices and hippocampi were taken, RCs in membrane protein were quantified by blue-native PAGE immunoblotting. RCs components were characterised by co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometrical analysis and by the use of the proximity ligation assay. Arc expression was significantly higher in PFC of trained as compared to untrained rats whereas it was comparable in hippocampi. Frontal cortical levels of RCs containing AMPA receptors GluA1, GluA2, NMDA receptors GluN1 and GluN2A, dopamine receptor D1, acetylcholine nicotinic receptor alpha 7 (nAChR-α7) and hippocampal levels of RCs containing D1, GluN1, GluN2B and nAChR-α7 were increased in the trained group; phosphorylated dopamine transporter levels were decreased in the trained group. D1 and GluN1 receptors were shown to be in the same complex. Taken together, distinct RCs were paralleling performance in the RAM which is relevant for interpretation of previous and design of future work on RCs in memory studies. PMID:25930220

  8. Transcranial slow oscillation stimulation during NREM sleep enhances acquisition of the radial maze task and modulates cortical network activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Sonja; Rawohl, Julia; Born, Jan; Marshall, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Slow wave sleep, hallmarked by the occurrence of slow oscillations (SO), plays an important role for the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories. Transcranial stimulation by weak electric currents oscillating at the endogenous SO frequency (SO-tDCS) during post-learning sleep was previously shown by us to boost SO activity and improve the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory in human subjects. Here, we aimed at replicating and extending these results to a rodent model. Rats were trained for 12 days at the beginning of their inactive phase in the reference memory version of the radial arm maze. In a between subjects design, animals received SO-tDCS over prefrontal cortex (PFC) or sham stimulation within a time frame of 1 h during subsequent non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Applied over multiple daily sessions SO-tDCS impacted cortical network activity as measured by EEG and behavior: at the EEG level, SO-tDCS enhanced post-stimulation upper delta (2–4 Hz) activity whereby the first stimulations of each day were preferentially affected. Furthermore, commencing on day 8, SO-tDCS acutely decreased theta activity indicating long-term effects on cortical networks. Behaviorally, working memory for baited maze arms was enhanced up to day 4, indicating enhanced consolidation of task-inherent rules, while reference memory errors did not differ between groups. Taken together, we could show here for the first time an effect of SO-tDCS during NREM sleep on cognitive functions and on cortical activity in a rodent model. PMID:24409131

  9. A novel heterocyclic compound targeting the dopamine transporter improves performance in the radial arm maze and modulates dopamine receptors D1-D3.

    PubMed

    Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Aher, Yogesh D; Kalaba, Predrag; Aher, Nilima Y; Zehl, Martin; Korz, Volker; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Miklosi, Andras G; Zanon, Lisa; Neuhaus, Winfried; Höger, Harald; Langer, Thierry; Urban, Ernst; Leban, Johann; Lubec, Gert

    2016-10-01

    A series of compounds targeting the dopamine transporter (DAT) haS been shown to improve memory performance most probably by re-uptake inhibition. Although specific DAT inhibitors are available, there is limited information about specificity, mechanism and in particular the effect on dopamine receptors. It was therefore the aim of the study to test the DAT inhibitor 4-(diphenyl-methanesulfinylmethyl)-2-methyl-thiazole (code: CE-111), synthetized in our laboratory for the specificity to target DAT, for the effects upon spatial memory and for induced dopamine receptor modulation. Re-uptake inhibition was tested for DAT (IC50=3.2μM), serotonin transporter, SERT (IC50=272291μM) and noradrenaline transporter, NET (IC50=174μM). Spatial memory was studied in the radial arm maze (RAM) in male Sprague-Dawley rats that were intraperitoneally injected with CE-111 (1 or 10mg/kg body weight). Performance in the RAM was improved using 1 and 10mg/kg body weight of CE-111. Training and treatment effects on presynaptic, postsynaptic and extrasynaptic D1 and D2- receptors and dopamine receptor containing complexes as well as on activated DAT were observed. CE-111 was crossing the blood-brain barrier comparable to modafinil and was identified as effective to improve memory performance in the RAM. Dopamine re-uptake inhibition along with modulations in dopamine receptors are proposed as potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:27288589

  10. Decreased hippocampal homoarginine and increased nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase levels in rats parallel training in a radial arm maze.

    PubMed

    Sase, Ajinkya; Nawaratna, Gayan; Hu, Shengdi; Wu, Guoyao; Lubec, Gert

    2016-09-01

    L-homoarginine (hArg) is derived from enzymatic guanidination of lysine. It was demonstrated that hArg is a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, blocks lysine transport and inhibits the uptake of arginine into synaptosomes and modulates GABA responses ex vivo. As there is limited information on its physiological roles in the brain, the aim of the study was to show whether hippocampal or frontal lobe (FL) hArg is paralleling training in the radial arm maze (RAM) or NO formation. Hippocampi and FL of male Sprague-Dawley rats were taken from trained or yoked in a RAM. Then hArg and metabolites, NO and NO synthase (NOS) were determined by standard methods. The animals learned the task in the RAM showing significant reduction of working memory errors. hArg showed decreased levels in both brain regions of trained animals as compared to yoked animals. Nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) concentrations and NOS activity were significantly increased in hippocampi, F(1,36) = 170.5; P ≤ 0.0001 and FL, F(1,36) = 74.67; P ≤ 0.0001 of trained animals as compared to yoked animals. Levels of hArg were negatively correlated with NOx in hippocampus (r = -0.6355; P = 0.0483) but not in FL and with lysine in the FL (r = -0.6650; P = 0.0358). NOx levels were positively correlated with NOS in both the hippocampus (r = 0.7474; P = 0.0129) and FL (r = 0.9563; P ≤  0.0001). These novel findings indicate that hArg is linked to NO formation in hippocampus but not in FL and is paralleling spatial memory in the RAM. PMID:27178025

  11. A Novel Heterocyclic Compound CE-104 Enhances Spatial Working Memory in the Radial Arm Maze in Rats and Modulates the Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Aher, Yogesh D.; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Sase, Ajinkya; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R.; Holy, Marion; Höger, Harald; Beryozkina, Tetyana; Sitte, Harald H.; Leban, Johann J.; Lubec, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Various psychostimulants targeting monoamine neurotransmitter transporters (MATs) have been shown to rescue cognition in patients with neurological disorders and improve cognitive abilities in healthy subjects at low doses. Here, we examined the effects upon cognition of a chemically synthesized novel MAT inhibiting compound 2-(benzhydrylsulfinylmethyl)-4-methylthiazole (named as CE-104). The efficacy of CE-104 in blocking MAT [dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter] was determined using in vitro neurotransmitter uptake assay. The effect of the drug at low doses (1 and 10 mg/kg) on spatial memory was studied in male rats in the radial arm maze (RAM). Furthermore, the dopamine receptor and transporter complex levels of frontal cortex (FC) tissue of trained and untrained animals treated either with the drug or vehicle were quantified on blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE). The drug inhibited dopamine (IC50: 27.88 μM) and norepinephrine uptake (IC50: 160.40 μM), but had a negligible effect on SERT. In the RAM, both drug-dose groups improved spatial working memory during the performance phase of RAM as compared to vehicle. BN-PAGE Western blot quantification of dopamine receptor and transporter complexes revealed that D1, D2, D3, and DAT complexes were modulated due to training and by drug effects. The drug’s ability to block DAT and its influence on DAT and receptor complex levels in the FC is proposed as a possible mechanism for the observed learning and memory enhancement in the RAM. PMID:26941626

  12. The effect of modafinil on the rat dopamine transporter and dopamine receptors D1–D3 paralleling cognitive enhancement in the radial arm maze

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Yasemin; Sase, Sunetra; Aher, Yogesh D.; Sase, Ajinkya; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R.; Cicvaric, Ana; Höger, Harald; Berger, Michael; Bakulev, Vasiliy; Sitte, Harald H.; Leban, Johann; Monje, Francisco J.; Lubec, Gert

    2015-01-01

    A series of drugs have been reported to increase memory performance modulating the dopaminergic system and herein modafinil was tested for its working memory (WM) enhancing properties. Reuptake inhibition of dopamine, serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) by modafinil was tested. Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into six groups (modafinil-treated 1–5–10 mg/kg body weight, trained and untrained and vehicle treated trained and untrained rats; daily injected intraperitoneally for a period of 10 days) and tested in a radial arm maze (RAM), a paradigm for testing spatial WM. Hippocampi were taken 6 h following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT-CC and pDAT-CC) and complexes containing the D1–3 dopamine receptor subunits (D1–D3-CC) were determined. Modafinil was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50 = 11.11 μM; SERT 1547 μM; NET 182 μM). From day 8 (day 9 for 1 mg/kg body weight) modafinil was decreasing WM errors (WMEs) in the RAM significantly and remarkably at all doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. WMEs were linked to the D2R-CC and the pDAT-CC. pDAT and D1–D3-CC levels were modulated significantly and modafinil was shown to enhance spatial WM in the rat in a well-documented paradigm at all the three doses and dopamine reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1–3-CC is proposed as a possible mechanism of action. PMID:26347626

  13. The effect of modafinil on the rat dopamine transporter and dopamine receptors D1-D3 paralleling cognitive enhancement in the radial arm maze.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Yasemin; Sase, Sunetra; Aher, Yogesh D; Sase, Ajinkya; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Cicvaric, Ana; Höger, Harald; Berger, Michael; Bakulev, Vasiliy; Sitte, Harald H; Leban, Johann; Monje, Francisco J; Lubec, Gert

    2015-01-01

    A series of drugs have been reported to increase memory performance modulating the dopaminergic system and herein modafinil was tested for its working memory (WM) enhancing properties. Reuptake inhibition of dopamine, serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) by modafinil was tested. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (modafinil-treated 1-5-10 mg/kg body weight, trained and untrained and vehicle treated trained and untrained rats; daily injected intraperitoneally for a period of 10 days) and tested in a radial arm maze (RAM), a paradigm for testing spatial WM. Hippocampi were taken 6 h following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT-CC and pDAT-CC) and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits (D1-D3-CC) were determined. Modafinil was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50 = 11.11 μM; SERT 1547 μM; NET 182 μM). From day 8 (day 9 for 1 mg/kg body weight) modafinil was decreasing WM errors (WMEs) in the RAM significantly and remarkably at all doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. WMEs were linked to the D2R-CC and the pDAT-CC. pDAT and D1-D3-CC levels were modulated significantly and modafinil was shown to enhance spatial WM in the rat in a well-documented paradigm at all the three doses and dopamine reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3-CC is proposed as a possible mechanism of action. PMID:26347626

  14. Maze Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Hemodialysis Ventricular Assist Devices Maze Surgery | Share Electrical impulses in your heart muscle (the myocardium) cause your heart to beat (contract). This electrical signal begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located ...

  15. Effects of methimepip and JNJ-5207852 in Wistar rats exposed to an open-field with and without object and in Balb/c mice exposed to a radial-arm maze

    PubMed Central

    Abuhamdah, Rushdie M. A.; van Rensburg, Ruan; Lethbridge, Natasha L.; Ennaceur, Abdel; Chazot, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) in anxiety is controversial, due to limitations in drug selectivity and limited validity of behavioral tests used in previous studies. In the present report, we describe two experiments. In the first one, Wistar rats were treated with an H3R agonist (methimepip), and exposed to an open-field. In the second one, Balb/c mice were treated with H3R agonist (methimepip) or antagonist (JNJ-5207852), and exposed to an open space 3D maze which is a modified version of the radial-arm maze. C57BL/6J saline treated mice were included for comparisons. When exposed to an empty open field, Wistar rats spent more time in the outer area and made very low number of brief crossings in the central area. However, when an object occupied the central area, rats crossed frequently into and spent a long time in the central area. Administration of a range of different doses of methimepip (selective H3R agonist) reduced the entries into the central area with a novel object, indicating enhanced avoidance response. In the 3D maze, both Balb/c and C57BL/6J saline-treated mice crossed frequently onto the bridges that radiate from the central platform but only C57BL/6J mice crossed onto the arms which extend the bridges. This suggests that Balb/c mice are more anxious than C57BL/6J mice. Neither methimepip nor JNJ-5207852 (selective H3R antagonist/inverse agonist) induced entry into the arms of the maze, indicative of lack of anxiolytic effects. PMID:22811660

  16. Dodecaamide cages: organic 12-arm building blocks for supramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Culshaw, Jamie L; Cheng, Ge; Schmidtmann, Marc; Hasell, Tom; Liu, Ming; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2013-07-10

    A simple, one-step amidation reaction is used to produce a range of 12-arm organic building blocks for supramolecular chemistry via the derivatization of porous imine cages. As an example, microporous dendrimers are prepared. PMID:23786167

  17. Pre-training in a radial arm maze abolished anxiety and impaired habituation in C57BL6/J mice treated with dizocilpine.

    PubMed

    Abuhamdah, R M; Hussain, M D; Chazot, P L; Ennaceur, A

    2016-10-01

    Familiarity can imply a reduction of fear and anxiety, which may render learning and memory performance insensitive to NMDA receptor antagonism. Our previous study indicates that MK-801 (dizocilpine), NMDA antagonist, increased anxiety and prevented the acquisition of a spatial memory task. Here, we examined whether MK-801 will produce anxiety in mice that were familiar with the test environment. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed, one session a day for 7days, to a 3D maze, which consisted of nine arms attached to upward inclined bridges radiating from a nonagonal platform. In this maze, high anxiety mice avoid the arms in the first sessions. One group of mice received saline (SAL) while a second group received MK-801 (MKD1), both on day one. A third group received saline in the first 3 sessions, and MK 801 in subsequent sessions (MKD4). Saline and MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30min before the test. MKD4 mice demonstrated an increase in bridge and arm visits, and reached arm/bridge entries ratio close to 1 in session 5. SAL mice also crossed frequently onto the arms, and reached a comparable ratio, but this was achieved with a lower number of arm visits. MKD1 mice demonstrated a reduced number of arm visits in each session compared to SAL and MKD4 mice. Dizocilpine produced anxiety in mice treated from day 1 of the test, but not in those treated from day 4. It also impaired habituation in animals familiar with the test environment; it produced sustained non-habituating hyperactivity. PMID:27317838

  18. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  19. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D.; Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A.

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  20. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  1. Electric current solves mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-07-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question: how can the electric current choose the right way and avoid dead ends?

  2. Morris Water Maze Experiment.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The Morris water maze is widely used to study spatial memory and learning. Animals are placed in a pool of water that is colored opaque with powdered non-fat milk or non-toxic tempera paint, where they must swim to a hidden escape platform. Because they are in opaque water, the animals cannot see the platform, and cannot rely on scent to find the escape route. Instead, they must rely on external/extra-maze cues. As the animals become more familiar with the task, they are able to find the platform more quickly. Developed by Richard G. Morris in 1984, this paradigm has become one of the "gold standards" of behavioral neuroscience. PMID:19066539

  3. Maze Solving by Chemotactic Droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Lagzi, Istvan; Soh, Siowling; Wesson, Paul J.; Browne, Kevin P.; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-01-11

    Droplets emitting surface-active chemicals exhibit chemotaxis toward low-pH regions. Such droplets are self-propelled and navigate through a complex maze to seek a source of acid placed at one of the maze’s exits. In doing so, the droplets find the shortest path through the maze. Chemotaxis and maze solving are due to an interplay between acid/base chemistry and surface tension effects.

  4. Maze-solving by chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2010-06-01

    Here, we report on numerical simulations showing that chemotaxis will take a body through a maze via the shortest possible route to the source of a chemoattractant. This is a robust finding that does not depend on the geometrical makeup of the maze. The predictions are supported by recent experimental studies which have shown that by moving down gradients in pH , a droplet of organic solvent can find the shortest of multiple possible paths through a maze to an acid-soaked exit. They are also consistent with numerical and experimental evidence that plant-parasitic nematodes take the shortest route through the labyrinth of air-filled pores within soil to preferred host plants that produce volatile chemoattractants. The predictions support the view that maze-solving is a robust property of chemotaxis and is not specific to particular kinds of maze or to the fractal structure of air-filled channels within soils.

  5. ASSEMBLY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 8-ARM AND 12-ARM DNA BRANCHED JUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing

    2012-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules can be assembled into objects and networks directed by sticky-ended cohesion. The connectivity of these species is limited by the number of arms flanking the branch point. To date, the only branched junctions constructed contain six or fewer arms. We report the construction of DNA branched junctions that contain either 8 or 12 double helical arms surrounding a branch point. The design of the 8-arm junction expoits the limits of a previous approach to thwart branch migration, but the design of the 12-arm junction uses a new to principle achieve this end. The 8-arm junction is stable with 16 nucleotide pairs per arm, but the 12-arm junction has been stabilized by 24 nucleotide pairs per arm. Ferguson analysis of these junctions in combination with three, four, five, and six-arm junctions indicates a linear increase in friction constant as the number of arms increases; the four-arm junction migrates anomalously at 4°C., suggesting stacking of its domains. All strands in both the 8-arm and 12-arm junctions show similar responses to hydroxyl radical autofootprinting analysis, indicating that they lack any dominant stacking structures. The stability of the 12-arm junction demonstrates that the number of arms in a junction is not limited to the case of having adjacent identical base pairs flanking the junction. The ability to construct eight-arm and twelve-arm junctions increases the number of objects, graphs and networks that can be built from branched DNA components. In principle, the stick structure corresponding to cubic close packing is now a possible target for assembly by DNA nanotechnology. PMID:17564446

  6. Navigating mazes in a virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browse, Roger A.; Skillicorn, David B.; Middleman, Darren

    2003-06-01

    In this research we are concerned with computer interfaces with which subjects navigate through maze simulations which are essentially buildings, with corridors and intersections, such as frequently encountered in computer games and simulations. We wish to determine if virtual reality interfaces introduce a performance enhancement that might be expected for display configurations which mimic natural perceptual experiences. We have experimented primarily with two display conditions for presentation of and navigation through the mazes. Subjects either view the maze on a desktop computer monitor, turning and moving within the maze with the mouse in a way that is similar to the configurations used in most first-person role playing computer games, or they viewed the maze from a standing position with a head-mounted display, being free to direct the view of the maze through body and head movements, and using the depression of a mouse button to effect movement in the direction that they were facing. Head-tracking was required for this latter condition. As expected there are striking individual differences in subjects" abilities to learn to traverse the mazes. Across a variety of maze configuration parameters which significantly do influence performance, the results indicate that the virtual reality enhancements have no effect subjects' ability to learn the mazes, either as route knowledge or as cognitive maps.

  7. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1997-01-01

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position.

  8. Gamma radiation transmission along the multibend mazes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangrok

    2016-08-01

    Installing a maze on the corridor reduces much shielding materials in shielding door at the end of the pathway. In this study, gamma transmission was measured along single-, double-, and triple-bend mazes, which were applied to nondestructive test workplace by Monte Carlo method. In the facility using (192)Ir 1.85TBq, the lengths of corridors to reduce the effective dose under the limitation without shielding door were 10 and 6m in double- and triple-bend mazes, respectively. PMID:27180220

  9. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1997-05-06

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal are disclosed. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position. 4 figs.

  10. Spatial and Nonspatial Escape Strategies in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Fiona E.; Reiserer, Randall S.; Tomarken, Andrew J.; McDonald, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either…

  11. Navigating the system governance maze.

    PubMed

    Savage, T J

    1987-01-01

    Health care system governance today is a complex maze of concerns that assume a unique character in Catholic-sponsored multi-institutional systems. Most Catholic health care systems began with a common sponsor or mission and several shared services and gradually moved from separately incorporated entities to a system with few centralized operating functions but a governing body between the local facilities and the sponsoring religious institute. The next step was development of a managed system with consolidated services and centralized decision making. Now, many systems are attempting the most important and difficult effort--systemwide strategic planning. The phases described have required a rethinking of governance structures, and conflicts often arise during restructuring. Such turmoil requires many Catholic health care systems to develop a clearer sense of direction and purpose. To achieve their objectives, system leaders can use a governance compass that has five key points: Information. Boards must determine what they need to know, where to secure this information, and what form the information should take. Agenda. Boards must make reflective and intentional use of their agenda by reviewing and categorizing agenda items discussed in the past 12 months and establishing an agenda plan for the next 12 months. Structural mechanisms. Boards must decide structural issues such as relationships between system board and local boards, sizes of boards, and kinds of committees needed. Culture. Boards should reflect on their culture--values and traditions that have characterized them in the past--to assess whether changes are needed to strengthen or improve the culture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10280354

  12. The Effects of Using Different Procedures to Score Maze Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Rebecca L.; McMaster, Kristen L.; Deno, Stanley L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how different scoring procedures affect interpretation of maze curriculum-based measurements. Fall and spring data were collected from 199 students receiving supplemental reading instruction. Maze probes were scored first by counting all correct maze choices, followed by four scoring variations designed to…

  13. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  14. Radial Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The ejecta surrounding the crater (off image to the left) in this image has undergone significant erosion by the wind. The wind has stripped the surface features from the ejecta and has started to winnow away the ejecta blanket. Near the margin of the ejecta the wind is eroding along a radial pattern -- taking advantage of radial emplacement. Note the steep margin of the ejecta blanket. Most, if not all, of the fine ejecta material has been removed and the wind in now working on the more massive continuous ejecta blanket.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.5, Longitude 197.4 East (162.6 West). 37 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Radial-radial single rotor turbine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2006-05-16

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.

  16. Maze Test Performance and Reported Driving Ability in Early Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brian R.; Heindel, William C.; Whelihan, William M.; Caron, Mark. D.; Piatt, Andrea L.; DiCarlo, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    A battery of standard neuropsychological tests examining various features of executive function, attention, and visual perception was administered to 27 subjects with questionable to mild dementia and compared to a 4-point caregiver rating scale of driving ability. Based on the results of this study, a computerized maze task, employing 10 mazes, was administered to a second sample of 40 normal elders and questionable to moderately demented drivers. Comparison was made to the same caregiver rating scale as well as to crash frequency. In the first study of neuropsychological tests, errors on Porteus Mazes emerged as the only significant predictor of driving ability in a stepwise regression analysis. In the follow-up study employing the computerized mazes, all 10 mazes were significantly related to driving ability ratings. Computerized tests of maze performance offer promise as a screening tool to identify potential driving impairment among cognitively impaired elderly and demented drivers. PMID:12967057

  17. The cognitive determinants of performance on the Austin Maze.

    PubMed

    Crowe, S F; Barclay, L; Brennan, S; Farkas, L; Gould, E; Katchmarsky, S; Vayda, S

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate which abilities are measured by the Austin Maze. One hundred and eight university students were administered a battery of eight neuropsychological tests including, the Austin Maze, the Tower of London, the Wisconsin Card Sort Test, Block Design, the Visual Spatial Learning Test, Digit Span Backwards, the Brown-Peterson Task and the Wide Range Achievement Test of Reading. Results indicated that visuospatial ability and memory both significantly contributed to performance on the Austin Maze, but differed in the degree to which they explained the performance depending on which measure of maze performance was employed. It appears that visuospatial ability is measured in early trials of the Austin Maze when individuals are orienting themselves to the path. In later trials individuals must call upon visuospatial memory to consolidate the details of the path. Executive function and working memory were not found to be significantly implicated in performance on the Austin Maze. PMID:9989018

  18. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  19. Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John B; Youmans, Paul W; Muheim, Rachel; Sloan, Kelly A; Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Anderson, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze) have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus) water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(°) so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1) absence of alternative directional cues (2), rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3) electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats) have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds. PMID:24023673

  20. The effects of the Cox maze procedure on atrial function

    PubMed Central

    Voeller, Rochus K.; Zierer, Andreas; Lall, Shelly C.; Sakamoto, Shun–ichiro; Chang, Nai–Lun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Moon, Marc R.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The effects of the Cox maze procedure on atrial function remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a modified Cox maze procedure on left and right atrial function in a porcine model. Methods After cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, 6 pigs underwent pericardiotomy (sham group), and 6 pigs underwent a modified Cox maze procedure (maze group) with bipolar radiofrequency ablation. The maze group had preablation and immediate postablation left and right atrial pressure–volume relations measured with conductance catheters. All pigs survived for 30 days. Magnetic resonance imaging was then repeated for both groups, and conductance catheter measurements were repeated for the right atrium in the maze group. Results Both groups had significantly higher left atrial volumes postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging–derived reservoir and booster pump functional parameters were reduced postoperatively for both groups, but there was no difference in these parameters between the groups. The maze group had significantly higher reduction in the medial and lateral left atrial wall contraction postoperatively. There was no change in immediate left atrial elastance or in the early and 30-day right atrial elastance after the Cox maze procedure. Although the initial left atrial stiffness increased after ablation, right atrial diastolic stiffness did not change initially or at 30 days. Conclusions Performing a pericardiotomy alone had a significant effect on atrial function that can be quantified by means of magnetic resonance imaging. The effects of the Cox maze procedure on left atrial function could only be detected by analyzing segmental wall motion. Understanding the precise physiologic effects of the Cox maze procedure on atrial function will help in developing less-damaging lesion sets for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. PMID:19026812

  1. Wildlife Researchers Running the Permit Maze

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ellen; Sikes, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The study of wildlife, whether in the field or in the lab, may start with a hypothesis, a literature search, or a grant proposal, but in many cases, the work will never happen unless the researcher successfully navigates a maze of permit requirements. A single project can involve multiple permits at the national and state levels, and it can take months to obtain any one permit. Therefore, permits may not have been issued at the time of protocol review, but Public Health Service Policy makes accommodations for this situation. Once in hand, however, the permits convey critical information to the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC): one or more government agencies have determined that the activity will not be detrimental to the population or that any detriment is justified by the scientific knowledge that will be generated. This paper assumes that IACUCs are reviewing all wildlife protocols involving live vertebrates, regardless of the current, albeit temporary, distinction made by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Care with regard to birds. PMID:23904528

  2. Remote Spatial Memory and the Hippocampus: Effect of Early and Extensive Training in the Radial Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Juan M. J.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we showed a temporally graded retrograde amnesia after hippocampal lesions when rats learned a spatial reference memory task in which two types of signals simultaneously indicated the goal arm (shape of the experimental room and extramaze landmarks). To investigate the effect that the navigational demands of the task have on…

  3. CHRONIC NEONATAL ORGANOTIN EXPOSURE ALTERS RADIAL-ARM MAZE PERFORMANCE IN ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-Evans rats were intubated with 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg of triethyltin sulfate (TET) or 0.3 mg/kg of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) from postnatal day 3-29, 1.0 mg/kg of TMT was given on alternate days beginning on postnatal day 3. Learning and memory were assessed in an automated rad...

  4. Barnes Maze Testing Strategies with Small and Large Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spatial learning and memory of laboratory rodents is often assessed via navigational ability in mazes, most popular of which are the water and dry-land (Barnes) mazes. Improved performance over sessions or trials is thought to reflect learning and memory of the escape cage/platform location. Considered less stressful than water mazes, the Barnes maze is a relatively simple design of a circular platform top with several holes equally spaced around the perimeter edge. All but one of the holes are false-bottomed or blind-ending, while one leads to an escape cage. Mildly aversive stimuli (e.g. bright overhead lights) provide motivation to locate the escape cage. Latency to locate the escape cage can be measured during the session; however, additional endpoints typically require video recording. From those video recordings, use of automated tracking software can generate a variety of endpoints that are similar to those produced in water mazes (e.g. distance traveled, velocity/speed, time spent in the correct quadrant, time spent moving/resting, and confirmation of latency). Type of search strategy (i.e. random, serial, or direct) can be categorized as well. Barnes maze construction and testing methodologies can differ for small rodents, such as mice, and large rodents, such as rats. For example, while extra-maze cues are effective for rats, smaller wild rodents may require intra-maze cues with a visual barrier around the maze. Appropriate stimuli must be identified which motivate the rodent to locate the escape cage. Both Barnes and water mazes can be time consuming as 4-7 test trials are typically required to detect improved learning and memory performance (e.g. shorter latencies or path lengths to locate the escape platform or cage) and/or differences between experimental groups. Even so, the Barnes maze is a widely employed behavioral assessment measuring spatial navigational abilities and their potential disruption by genetic, neurobehavioral manipulations, or

  5. Spatial and nonspatial escape strategies in the Barnes maze.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Fiona E; Reiserer, Randall S; Tomarken, Andrew J; McDonald, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either with or without a discrete visible cue marking the location of the escape hole, which was either in a fixed or variable location across trials. In Experiment 2, all mice were trained with the discrete visible cue marking the target hole location. Two groups were identical to the cued-target groups from Experiment 1, with either fixed or variable escape locations. For these mice, the discrete cue either was the sole predictor of the target location or was perfectly confounded with the spatial extra-maze cues. The third group also used a cued variable target, but a curtain was drawn around the maze to prevent the use of spatial cues to guide navigation. Probe trials with all escape holes blocked were conducted to dissociate the use of spatial and discrete proximal cues. We conclude that the Barnes maze can be solved efficiently using spatial, visual cue, or serial-search strategies. However, mice showed a strong preference for using the distal room cues, even when a discrete visible cue clearly marked the escape location. Importantly, these data show that the cued-target control version of the Barnes maze as typically conducted does not dissociate spatial from nonspatial abilities. PMID:17101874

  6. Psychometric Properties of Maze Tasks in Middle School Students

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Barth, Amy E.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Maze tasks have appealing properties as progress-monitoring tools, but there is a need for a thorough examination of the psychometric properties of Maze tasks among middle school students. We evaluated form effects, reliability, validity, and practice effects of Maze among students in Grades 6 through 8. We administered the same (familiar) and novel Maze passages for progress monitoring of a reading intervention among typical readers (n = 588), struggling readers receiving researcher-provided intervention (n = 471), and struggling readers not receiving intervention (n = 284). Form effects accounted for significant variance in Maze performance. Familiar passages had greater test–retest reliability than novel passages. Both administrative conditions had similar, moderate correlations (validity coefficients) with other measures of reading fluency and comprehension. There were also significant practice effects. Students who read the same passage showed steeper slopes in Maze performance than students who read different passages over time. Practice effects were influenced by beginning levels of reading comprehension and by intervention status. PMID:23125552

  7. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  8. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains. PMID:26859299

  9. Rapid Learning of Magnetic Compass Direction by C57BL/6 Mice in a 4-Armed ‘Plus’ Water Maze

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John B.; Youmans, Paul W.; Muheim, Rachel; Sloan, Kelly A.; Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S.; Anderson, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze) have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus) water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180° so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1) absence of alternative directional cues (2), rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3) electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats) have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds. PMID:24023673

  10. Searching for cognitive enhancement in the Morris water maze: better and worse performance in D-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Taylor, Amy M; Barkus, Christopher; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Peirson, Stuart N; Bannerman, David M

    2016-04-01

    A common strategy when searching for cognitive-enhancing drugs has been to target the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), given its putative role in synaptic plasticity and learning. Evidence in favour of this approach has come primarily from studies with rodents using behavioural assays like the Morris water maze. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) degrades neutral D-amino acids such as D-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist acting at the glycine site of the synaptic NMDAR. Inhibiting DAO could therefore provide an effective and viable means of enhancing cognition, particularly in disorders like schizophrenia, in which NMDAR hypofunction is implicated. Indirect support for this notion comes from the enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation and facilitated water maze acquisition of ddY/Dao(-) mice, which lack DAO activity due to a point mutation in the gene. Here, in Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice, we report both better and worse water maze performance, depending on the radial distance of the hidden platform from the side wall of the pool. Dao(-/-) mice displayed an increased innate preference for swimming in the periphery of the maze (possibly due to heightened anxiety), which facilitated the discovery of a peripherally located platform, but delayed the discovery of a centrally located platform. By contrast, Dao(-/-) mice exhibited normal performance in two alternative assays of long-term spatial memory: the appetitive and aversive Y-maze reference memory tasks. Taken together, these results question the proposed relationship between DAO inactivation and enhanced long-term associative spatial memory. They also have generic implications for how Morris water maze studies are performed and interpreted. PMID:26833794

  11. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  12. Interior of hallway (maze) to large xray room with thick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of hallway (maze) to large x-ray room with thick leaded door - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Navigation Using Sensory Substitution in Real and Virtual Mazes

    PubMed Central

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs) can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations) can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision. PMID:26039580

  14. Accessing Information: The Internet--A Highway or a Maze?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoctor, Marge

    2005-01-01

    The Internet is often called "The Information Highway," a metaphor that implies that there is a straight, clearly mapped path to obtaining information. In reality, it is more like a maze with twists and turns and many dead ends. Efficient navigation strategies must be taught; they will not be acquired through osmosis. Schools with a strong…

  15. Anxiety, defence and the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Dalvi, A

    1997-11-01

    The elevated plus-maze test has been in use as a rodent model of anxiety for a decade, and is representative of those tests that are based upon the study of spontaneous behaviour patterns and which have high ecological validity. The origins of the test in studies of the relationship between exploration and fear are reviewed, and attention is drawn to the distinct possibility that variation in the pharmacosensitivity of the procedure may be attributable to often extreme methodological variation between laboratories. In considering further this issue, attention is also drawn to the need to collect data under constant test conditions and to provide the minimum database necessary to reach conclusions regarding the behavioural specificity of drug action. Recent research, which has extended the conventional plus-maze scoring technique to include specific behavioural acts and postures (in particular, those relating to defensive behaviour), is described. The value of such an ethological approach to the plus-maze is then exemplified with original data that demonstrate behaviourally selective, anti-anxiety effects of the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol (0.125-1.0 mg/kg). It is concluded that, when used appropriately, the elevated plus-maze test can be a very valuable tool in drug screening and in the study of the neurobiology of anxiety and defence. More attention to behaviour and somewhat less emphasis on test simplicity and convenience would seem to be warranted. PMID:9415905

  16. Maze Busters: Carrie Miyoshi Macfarlane & Kathleen Sheehan--Harvard University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Even if one is equipped with an MLS, the 11 libraries that comprise the Harvard College Library can be pretty daunting. That is why Carrie Miyoshi Macfarlane and Kathleen Sheehan created Threading the Maze. The online publication is presented to students in expository writing, the one course all undergraduates must take. "This highly effective…

  17. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  18. [Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft].

    PubMed

    Saint-Cast, Y

    2010-12-01

    In 1991, Carlos Zaidemberg described a new technique to repair scaphoid non-unions with a vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process. An anatomic study based on 30 dissections after colorized latex injection established the constancy of the radial styloid process's artery, while showing that its origin, course and length were subject to variations. In a retrospective series of 38 cases over a period of 10 years, the vascularized bone graft was indicated for: (1) scaphoid non-union with the presence of avascular changes of the proximal fragment (23 cases); (2) failed prior reconstruction with bone graft and internal fixation (nine cases); (3) degenerative styloid-scaphoid arthritis (three cases); (4) fracture on Preiser dystrophy (three cases). The five steps of the simplified operative technique without dissection of the vascular pedicle include: (1) longitudinal dorso-radial approach, identification of the periosteal portion of the radial styloid process artery; (2) incision of the first and second compartments, longitudinal arthrotomy under the second compartment; (3) styloidectomy and transversal resection of the scaphoid non-union and sclerotic bone; (4) elevation of the vascularized bone graft; (5) transversal and radial insertion of the vascularized bone graft, osteosynthesis by two or three K-wire touching the scaphoid's radial edge. Scaphoid union was obtained in 33 cases out of 38. The only postoperative complications were two transient radial paresthesia. The standardized surgical procedure using vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process provides an efficient scaphoid reconstruction. PMID:21087882

  19. Weak Radial Artery Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Poothirikovil; Sivakumar, Puthuval; Ardley, Robert G.; Oates, Crispian

    2012-01-01

    We present an 11year-old boy with a weak right radial pulse, and describe the successful application of vascular ultrasound to identify the ulnar artery dominance and a thin right radial artery with below normal Doppler flow velocity that could explain the discrepancy. The implications of identifying this anomaly are discussed. PMID:22375269

  20. Triple acting radial seal

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A; Carella, John A

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  1. Generalizability Theory Analysis of CBM Maze Reliability in Third- through Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Mitchell, Rachel R.; Blaze, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing use of CBM Maze in universal screening and research, little information is available regarding the number of CBM Maze probes needed for reliable decisions. The current study extends existing research on the technical adequacy of CBM Maze by investigating the number of probes and assessment durations (1-3 min) needed for reliable…

  2. Instrument Development Procedures for Maze Measures. Technical Report # 08-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kimy; Sundstrom-Hebert, Krystal; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the instrument development of maze measures for grades 3-8. Each maze passage contained twelve omitted words that students filled in by choosing the best-fit word from among the provided options. In this technical report, we describe the process of creating, reviewing, and pilot testing the maze measures.…

  3. FAME Radial Velocity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S.; Gould, A.

    2000-12-01

    Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) belongs to a new generation of astrometry satellites and will probe the surrounding space some 20 times deeper than its predecessor Hipparcos. As a result we will acquire precise knowledge of 5 out of 6 components of phase-space for millions of stars. The remaining coordinate, radial velocity, will remain unknown. In this study, we look at how the knowledge of radial velocity affects the determination of the structure of the Galaxy, and its gravitational potential. We therefore propose a radial velocity survey of FAME stars, and discuss its feasibility and technical requirements.

  4. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  5. Radial heat flux transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.

  6. Radial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... may occur: Abnormal sensations to the hand or forearm ("back" of the hand), "thumb side" (radial surface) ... wrist or fingers Muscle loss ( atrophy ) in the forearm Weakness of the wrist and finger Wrist or ...

  7. Radial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve leads to problems with movement in the arm and wrist and with sensation in the back of the arm or hand. ... to the radial nerve, which travels down the arm and controls movement of the triceps muscle at ...

  8. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  9. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  10. Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, F S; Chiaretti, T M; Graeff, F G; Zuardi, A W

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the presence of anxiolytic properties in cannabidiol (CBD) the drug was tested in an elevated plus-maze model of anxiety, in rats. Doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg significantly increased the entry ratio (open/total number of entries), an anxiolytic-like effect. CBD at a dose of 20.0 mg/kg was no longer effective. None of the doses of CBD used changed total number of entries, a measure of total exploratory activity. Diazepam (2.0 mg/kg) also caused an anxiolytic-like effect in this model. These results indicate that CBD causes a selective anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze, within a limited range of doses. PMID:1969666

  11. Validation of a 2-day water maze protocol in mice.

    PubMed

    Gulinello, Maria; Gertner, Michael; Mendoza, Guadalupe; Schoenfeld, Brian P; Oddo, Salvatore; LaFerla, Frank; Choi, Catherine H; McBride, Sean M J; Faber, Donald S

    2009-01-23

    We present a 2-day water maze protocol that addresses some of potential confounds present in the water maze when using the aged subjects typical of studies of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. This protocol is based on an initial series of training trials with a visible platform, followed by a memory test with a hidden platform 24h later. We validated this procedure using aged (15-18m) mice expressing three Alzheimer's disease-related transgenes, PS1(M146 V), APP(Swe), and tau(P301L). We also tested these triple transgenic mice (3xTG) and age and sex-matched wild-type (WT) in a behavioral battery consisting of tests of motor coordination (balance beam), spatial memory (object displacement task) visual acuity (novel object recognition task) and locomotor activity (open field). 3xTG mice had significantly longer escape latencies in the memory trial of the 2-day water maze test than WT and than their own baseline performance in the last visible platform trial. In addition, this protocol had improved sensitivity compared to a typical probe trial, since no significant differences between genotypes were evident in a probe trial conducted 24h after the final training trial. The 2-day procedure also resulted in good reliability between cohorts, and controlled for non-cognitive factors that can confound water maze assessments of memory, such as the significantly lower locomotor activity evident in the 3xTG mice. A further benefit of this method is that large numbers of animals can be tested in a short time. PMID:18831990

  12. Evidence for social cooperation in rodents by automated maze.

    PubMed

    Avital, Avi; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Zubedat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Social cooperation is defined as a joint action for mutual benefit that depends on the individual and the counterparts' behaviors. To gain valid evidence for social cooperation behavior we conducted a series of experiments in our suggested fully automated non-conditioned maze and depicted three major findings: (i) During 18 days of training the rats showed a progressive social learning curve as well as latent social learning; (ii) Examining the perceptual communication between the cooperating partners, we found a correlation between the available perceptual modalities and the social cooperation performance; and (iii) Investigating contextual learning as a competing process to the social cooperation, we found that additional contextual cues impaired the social cooperation performance. In conclusion, our suggested automated cooperation maze is designed to further our understanding of social cooperation under normal conditions, such as decision-making, and to examine the neural basis of social cooperation. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social cognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Thus, on the pathological end, our maze for social cooperation evaluation can contribute significantly to the investigation of a wide range of social cooperation impairments in a rodent model. PMID:27378418

  13. Wet or dry: translatable "water mazes" for mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Higa, Kerin K; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Although the cognitive and biological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are well known and mouse models of AD are available, current treatments for AD-related cognitive deficits have quite limited efficacy. The development of tasks with cross-species validity may enable better prediction of the efficacy of potential new treatments. In this issue of the JCI, Possin et al. present a virtual version of the Morris water maze (a common test of spatial learning and memory for rodents) that is designed for use with humans. The authors tested a mouse model of AD (transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein [hAPP]) and patients in the earlier mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of AD in their respective versions of the maze. Using novel statistical methods, they detected similar deficits across species, providing support for the hAPP model and use of the virtual water maze. Importantly, this work enabled recommendations for appropriate sample sizes when developing potential therapeutics for AD. PMID:26784538

  14. [Treatment of atrial fibrillation using maze procedure by radiofrequency ablation].

    PubMed

    Cai, Z; Sun, G; Du, R

    1997-12-01

    From May 1994 to May 1996, 20 cases of atrial fibrillation were treated by means of Maze procedure by radiofrequenncy ablation, at the same time 19 cases of these patients were complicated with rheumatic heart valve disease and valve replacement operations were perfomned, in the other case atrial septal defect was repaired. Yoshio Kosakai's operation route was adopted in radiofrequency ablation procedure. After operation 16 patients of atrial fibrillation resumed sinus rhythm (80%), in 4 casess of atrial fibrillation sinus rhythm was unsuccessfully restored, two patients remained atrial fibrillation, one patient was of atrial flutter, the other was of nodal rhythm. Short time was needed in radiofrequency ablation Maze procedure, average time increase of aortic clamping was 20.5 minutes, and there was no danger of hemorrhage related to this kinds of Maze procedure. During 7-10 days after operation, there appeared superventricular arrhythmia which might be related to ill-distribution of radiofrequency ablation, and interference of atrial electric activity. PMID:10677989

  15. Optimal Navigation of Self-Propelled Colloids in Microstructured Mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuguang; Bevan, Michael

    Controlling navigation of self-propelled microscopic `robots' subject to random Brownian motion in complex microstructured environments (e.g., porous media, tumor vasculature) is important to many emerging applications (e.g., enhanced oil recovery, drug delivery). In this work, we design an optimal feedback policy to navigate an active self-propelled colloidal rod in complex mazes with various obstacle types. Actuation of the rods is modelled based on a light-controlled osmotic flow mechanism, which produces different propulsion velocities along the rod's long axis. Actuator-parameterized Langevin equations, with soft rod-obstacle repulsive interactions, are developed to describe the system dynamics. A Markov decision process (MDP) framework is used for optimal policy calculations with design goals of colloidal rods reaching target end points in minimum time. Simulations show that optimal MDP-based policies are able to control rod trajectories to reach target regions order-of-magnitudes faster than uncontrolled rods, which diverges as maze complexity increases. An efficient multi-graph based implementation for MDP is also presented, which scales linearly with the maze dimension.

  16. Evidence for social cooperation in rodents by automated maze

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Avi; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Zubedat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Social cooperation is defined as a joint action for mutual benefit that depends on the individual and the counterparts’ behaviors. To gain valid evidence for social cooperation behavior we conducted a series of experiments in our suggested fully automated non-conditioned maze and depicted three major findings: (i) During 18 days of training the rats showed a progressive social learning curve as well as latent social learning; (ii) Examining the perceptual communication between the cooperating partners, we found a correlation between the available perceptual modalities and the social cooperation performance; and (iii) Investigating contextual learning as a competing process to the social cooperation, we found that additional contextual cues impaired the social cooperation performance. In conclusion, our suggested automated cooperation maze is designed to further our understanding of social cooperation under normal conditions, such as decision-making, and to examine the neural basis of social cooperation. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social cognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Thus, on the pathological end, our maze for social cooperation evaluation can contribute significantly to the investigation of a wide range of social cooperation impairments in a rodent model. PMID:27378418

  17. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  18. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  19. Radial Nerve Tendon Transfers.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Andre Eu-Jin; Etcheson, Jennifer; Yao, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Radial nerve palsy typically occurs as a result of trauma or iatrogenic injury and leads to the loss of wrist extension, finger extension, thumb extension, and a reduction in grip strength. In the absence of nerve recovery, reconstruction of motor function involves tendon transfer surgery. The most common donor tendons include the pronator teres, wrist flexors, and finger flexors. The type of tendon transfer is classified based on the donor for the extensor digitorum communis. Good outcomes have been reported for most methods of radial nerve tendon transfers as is typical for positional tendon transfers not requiring significant power. PMID:27387076

  20. Radially uniform electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D.; Bame, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    A thermionic electron source capable of producing uniform count rates in a number of channel electron multipliers simultaneously was required for conditioning multipliers for an extended space mission. It was found that a straight tungsten filament in the center of a cylindrically symmetric geometry surrounded by an array of multipliers emits a radially asymmetric distribution of electrons that changes with time. A source was developed which successfully produces a time-independent radially uniform distribution of electrons by moving the filament out of the direct line of sight and replacing it with a centrally located electron 'cloud.'

  1. Radial wedge flange clamp

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.

  2. Radial forces in a misaligned radial face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1977-01-01

    Radial forces on the primary seal ring of a flat misaligned seal are analyzed, taking into account the radial variation in seal clearance. An analytical solution for both hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalignment. The net radial force on the primary seal ring is always directed so as to produce a radial eccentricity which generates inward pumping. Although the radial force is usually very small, in some cases it may be one of the reasons for excessive leakage through both the primary and secondary seals of a radial face seal.

  3. Radial forces in a misaligned radial face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1978-01-01

    Radial forces on the primary seal ring of a flat misaligned seal are analyzed, taking into account the radial variation in seal clearance. An analytical solution for both hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalignment. The net radial force on the primary seal ring is always directed so as to produce a radial eccentricity which generates inward pumping. Although the radial force is usually very small, in some cases it may be one of the reasons for excessive leakage through both the primary and secondary seals of a radial face seal.

  4. Navigating a Maze with Balance Board and Wiimote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hoeijmakers, Niek; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    Input from the lower body in human-computer interfaces can be beneficial, enjoyable and even entertaining when users are expected to perform tasks simultaneously. Users can navigate a virtual (game) world or even an (empirical) dataset while having their hands free to issue commands. We compared the Wii Balance Board to a hand-held Wiimote for navigating a maze and found that users completed this task slower with the Balance Board. However, the Balance Board was considered more intuitive, easy to learn and ‘much fun’.

  5. Universal Screening of Reading in Late Elementary School: R-CBM versus CBM Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graney, Suzanne Bamonto; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Missall, Kristen N.; Aricak, O. Tolga

    2010-01-01

    Two curriculum-based measurement tools are commonly used to assess progress in reading in elementary school: R-CBM and CBM maze. R-CBM is used in practice more frequently than CBM maze is, although CBM maze is more time efficient to administer than R-CBM is. The technical adequacy of each of these measures has been reported in the literature;…

  6. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  7. Effects of Rearing and Sex on Maze Learning and Competitive Exploration in Rats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Rhawn

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that differential rearing conditions may cause significant reversals in sex-related ability and behavior (maze learning and exploration), and may significantly affect perceptual sensitivity. (RL)

  8. Goal representation heuristic dynamic programming on maze navigation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhen; He, Haibo; Wen, Jinyu; Xu, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Goal representation heuristic dynamic programming (GrHDP) is proposed in this paper to demonstrate online learning in the Markov decision process. In addition to the (external) reinforcement signal in literature, we develop an adaptively internal goal/reward representation for the agent with the proposed goal network. Specifically, we keep the actor-critic design in heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and include a goal network to represent the internal goal signal, to further help the value function approximation. We evaluate our proposed GrHDP algorithm on two 2-D maze navigation problems, and later on one 3-D maze navigation problem. Compared to the traditional HDP approach, the learning performance of the agent is improved with our proposed GrHDP approach. In addition, we also include the learning performance with two other reinforcement learning algorithms, namely Sarsa(λ) and Q-learning, on the same benchmarks for comparison. Furthermore, in order to demonstrate the theoretical guarantee of our proposed method, we provide the characteristics analysis toward the convergence of weights in neural networks in our GrHDP approach. PMID:24805221

  9. Variable stator radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  10. Radial Inflow Turboexpander Redesign

    SciTech Connect

    William G. Price

    2001-09-24

    Steamboat Envirosystems, LLC (SELC) was awarded a grant in accordance with the DOE Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Development. Atlas-Copco Rotoflow (ACR), a radial expansion turbine manufacturer, was responsible for the manufacturing of the turbine and the creation of the new computer program. SB Geo, Inc. (SBG), the facility operator, monitored and assisted ACR's activities as well as provided installation and startup assistance. The primary scope of the project is the redesign of an axial flow turbine to a radial inflow turboexpander to provide increased efficiency and reliability at an existing facility. In addition to the increased efficiency and reliability, the redesign includes an improved reduction gear design, and improved shaft seal design, and upgraded control system and a greater flexibility of application

  11. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1989-01-24

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side. 5 figs.

  12. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side.

  13. Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel–Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.

  14. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  15. Effects of the serotonin agonists 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, and DOI on water maze performance.

    PubMed

    Kant, G J; Wylie, R M; Chu, K; Ghosh, S

    1998-03-01

    We have previously reported that the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT and the 5-HT2c agonist TFMPP impair performance on a water maze. In the present report we extended those studies by examining a second 5-HT1A agonist, buspirone, to see whether its effects paralleled those of 8-OH-DPAT, and by testing the effects of the 5-HT2 agonist DOI. Unlike the open pool Morris water maze, the maze used in these experiments has alleys and doorways. The maze can be easily reconfigured to present rats with both previously learned or new maze challenges. Performance is assessed by time to reach the maze exit platform and the number of wrong doorways entered (errors). At doses that did not affect performance in a previously learned maze, the 5-HT1A agonists 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg) and buspirone (1 mg/kg) slowed acquisition of a new maze configuration as measured by both swim time to the exit platform and errors committed. A higher dose of buspirone (10 mg/kg) completely blocked acquisition of a novel maze. In contrast. DOI slowed performance as assessed by swim time on both a well-learned maze as well as acquisition of a new maze, but did not affect error rate on either task, suggesting that this 5-HT2 agonist impaired performance by depressing motor activity. These experiments demonstrate that serotonin agonists, especially the 5-HT1A subtype, can impair learning. PMID:9512079

  16. Antiproton compression and radial measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.

    2008-08-08

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, achieved by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile, and its relation to that of the electron plasma. We also measure the outer radial profile by ejecting antiprotons to the trap wall using an octupole magnet.

  17. The Technical Properties of Science Content Maze Passages for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Semmelroth, Carrie; Allison, Jennifer; Fritsch, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The use of Curriculum-Based Measures is rapidly expanding to the middle school level, where maze passages are frequently used to monitor progress in reading. At secondary grade levels, the focus of reading is on reading to learn, especially in the content areas. Therefore, we were interested in developing maze passages based on grade-level science…

  18. Second Language Learning with the Story Maze Task: Examining the Training Effect of Weaving through Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enkin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The maze task is a psycholinguistic experimental procedure that measures real-time incremental sentence processing. The task has recently been tested as a language learning tool with promising results. Therefore, the present study examines the merits of a contextualized version of this task: the story maze. The findings are consistent with…

  19. The Use of the Arabic CBM Maze among Three Levels of Achievers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the Arabic version of the Curriculum Based Measurement Maze (CBM Maze) for Jordanian students. A sample of 150 students was recruited from two public primary schools in Jordan. The students were ranked into high, moderate, and low achievers in terms of their performance in the Arabic course. Then all of…

  20. Radial Rydberg wavepacket maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeibel, J. G.; Jones, R. R.

    2001-04-01

    Picosecond laser pulses have been used to excite radial Rydberg wavepackets in Ca. Time-delayed, unipolar, `half-cycle' electric field pulses are used to probe the evolution of the wavepackets as a continuous function of binding energy. The data provide three-dimensional maps of wavepacket recurrence probability versus binding energy versus time. A rescaling of the energy and time coordinate axes allows the visualization of the distinct difference between the initial oscillations of the wavepacket and those that occur at integer and fractional revivals.

  1. Radial reflection diffraction tomography

    DOEpatents

    Lehman, Sean K.

    2012-12-18

    A wave-based tomographic imaging method and apparatus based upon one or more rotating radially outward oriented transmitting and receiving elements have been developed for non-destructive evaluation. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, a predetermined transmitting element can launch a primary field and one or more predetermined receiving elements can collect the backscattered field in a "pitch/catch" operation. A Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm can construct images of the received scattered energy waves using operating modes chosen for a particular application. Applications include, improved intravascular imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts having existing access holes.

  2. Radial Reflection diffraction tomorgraphy

    DOEpatents

    Lehman, Sean K

    2013-11-19

    A wave-based tomographic imaging method and apparatus based upon one or more rotating radially outward oriented transmitting and receiving elements have been developed for non-destructive evaluation. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, a predetermined transmitting element can launch a primary field and one or more predetermined receiving elements can collect the backscattered field in a "pitch/catch" operation. A Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm can construct images of the received scattered energy waves using operating modes chosen for a particular application. Applications include, improved intravascular imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts having existing access holes.

  3. Underground radial pipe network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.

    1984-04-24

    The network, useful in conducting fluids to underground sites, is an assembly of flexible pipes or tubes, suspended from and connected to a drill pipe. The flexible pipes, assembled in a bundle, are spring biased to flare outwardly in an arcuate manner when a releasable cap on the distal end of the bundle is removed. The assembled bundle is inserted into and lowered down a bore hole. When the cap is released, the pipes flare radially and outwardly. Fluid, pumped into and through the assembly, can be directed into the underground formation for various purposes.

  4. Radial cutting torch

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.C.

    1997-01-08

    The project`s aim is to complete development of the Radial Cutting Torch, a pyrotechnic cutter, for use in all downhole tubular cutting operations in the petroleum industry. Project objectives are to redesign and pressure test nozzle seals to increase product quality, reliability, and manufacturability; improve the mechanical anchor to increase its temperature tolerance and its ability to function in a wider variety of wellbore fluids; and redesign and pressure test the RCT nozzle for operation at pressures from 10 to 20 ksi. The proposal work statement is included in the statement of work for the grant via this reference.

  5. Cognitive Evaluation Using Morris Water Maze in Neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Deng-Bryant, Ying; Leung, Lai Yee; Caudle, Krista; Tortella, Frank; Shear, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) task is one of the most widely used and versatile tools in behavioral neuroscience for evaluating spatial learning and memory. With regard to detecting cognitive deficits following central nervous system (CNS) injuries, MWM has been commonly utilized in various animal models of neurotrauma, such as fluid percussion injury (FPI), cortical controlled impact (CCI) injury, weight-drop impact injury, and penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). More importantly, it serves as a therapeutic index for assessing the efficacy of treatment interventions on cognitive performance following neurotrauma. Thus, it is critical to design an MWM testing paradigm that is sensitive yet discriminating for the purpose of evaluating potential therapeutic interventions. In this chapter, we discuss how multiple test manipulations, including the size of platform, numbers of trials per day, the frequency of retesting intervals, and the texture of platform surface, impact MWM's ability to detect cognitive deficits using a rat model of PBBI. PMID:27604737

  6. [Two-ring maze for research behaviour of animals].

    PubMed

    Filatova, E V; Orlov, A A; Afanas'ev, S V

    2014-01-01

    Animal behavior is studied using a two-ring maze in which the animal has to choose one of two paths, the same length and then self-returning to the starting compartment. All sections of the labyrinth: the starting chamber, signal space, arms and food compartment blocked by one-way doors. Time periods of passing different chambers reflect different aspects of behavior: level of motivation, attention, short-term and long-term memory, cognitive (make a decision) and emotion and etc. The analysis of these time parameters allows evaluate various behavioral components, depending on the impact on the animal. We suppose that this behavior model can be useful in various neurophysiology experiments. PMID:25464718

  7. Changes in brain oxidative metabolism induced by water maze training.

    PubMed

    Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Vallejo, G; Arias, J L

    2007-03-16

    Although the hippocampus has been shown to be essential for spatial memory, the contribution of associated brain regions is not well established. Wistar rats were trained to find a hidden escape platform in the water maze during eight days. Following training, the oxidative metabolism in different brain regions was evaluated using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Metabolic activations were found in the prelimbic cortex, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 subfield of the dorsal hippocampus and the anterior thalamic nuclei, relative to yoked swim controls and naïve rats. In addition, many cross-correlations in brain metabolism were observed among the latter regions. These results support the implication of a hippocampal-prefrontal-thalamic system to spatial memory in rats. PMID:17222984

  8. How Bumblebees First Find Flowers: Habituation of Visual Pattern Preferences, Spontaneous Recovery, and Dishabituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowright, C. M. S.; Simonds, V. M.; Butler, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments examined the exploratory behaviour of flower-naive bumblebees. Bees were tested four times in a 12-arm radial arm maze in which they never received reward. Patterned and unpatterned stimuli were presented at the end of each corridor and the choices of the bees were recorded. We examined the effects of two variables, time and the…

  9. An automated maze task for assessing hippocampus-sensitive memory in mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Pioli, Elsa Y.; Gaskill, Brianna N.; Gilmour, Gary; Tricklebank, Mark D.; Dix, Sophie L.; Bannerman, David; Garner, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Memory deficits associated with hippocampal dysfunction are a key feature of a number of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. The discrete-trial rewarded alternation T-maze task is highly sensitive to hippocampal dysfunction. Normal mice have spontaneously high levels of alternation, whereas hippocampal-lesioned mice are dramatically impaired. However, this is a hand-run task and handling has been shown to impact crucially on behavioural responses, as well as being labour-intensive and therefore unsuitable for high-throughput studies. To overcome this, a fully automated maze was designed. The maze was attached to the mouse's home cage and the subject earned all of its food by running through the maze. In this study the hippocampal dependence of rewarded alternation in the automated maze was assessed. Bilateral hippocampal-lesioned mice were assessed in the standard, hand-run, discrete-trial rewarded alternation paradigm and in the automated paradigm, according to a cross-over design. A similarly robust lesion effect on alternation performance was found in both mazes, confirming the sensitivity of the automated maze to hippocampal lesions. Moreover, the performance of the animals in the automated maze was not affected by their handling history whereas performance in the hand-run maze was affected by prior testing history. By having more stable performance and by decreasing human contact the automated maze may offer opportunities to reduce extraneous experimental variation and therefore increase the reproducibility within and/or between laboratories. Furthermore, automation potentially allows for greater experimental throughput and hence suitability for use in assessment of cognitive function in drug discovery. PMID:24333574

  10. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, Brian R.

    1981-01-01

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume.

  11. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.

  12. Administration of D,L-fenfluramine to rats produces learning deficits in the Cincinnati water maze but not the Morris water maze: relationship to adrenal cortical output.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Morford, LaRonda L; McCrea, Anne E; Wood, Sandra L; Vorhees, Charles V

    2002-01-01

    Fenfluramine (FEN) is an amphetamine derivative with anorectic properties similar to amphetamine, but without the stimulatory or abuse potential. Administration of FEN produces an immediate release of serotonin as well as inhibits reuptake; ultimately FEN produces a decrease in serotonin stores in the central nervous system. We have previously shown that the administration of FEN to rats results in increased adrenal cortical hormones under resting conditions, without simultaneous elevations in adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that the adrenal output would be altered following stress and that the altered adrenal output would affect learning and memory, since the adrenal hormones influence learning and memory capability. In this series of experiments, we administered D,L-FEN (15 mg/kg) four times every 2 h on a single day to rats and investigated the effect on hormonal output following forced swim and the effect on sequential learning in the Cincinnati water maze and spatial learning in the Morris maze beginning 3 days after FEN administration. Animals that received FEN had increased corticosterone and aldosterone titers following forced swim relative to control animals, although no differences in ACTH or testosterone were noted. Animals exposed to FEN had lasting deficits in the Cincinnati water maze but not in the Morris water maze, regardless of testing order. These deficits in the Cincinnati water maze appear to be mediated by the elevation in adrenal output since adrenalectomy abolished the effect of FEN. Corticosterone levels were shown to be elevated during the behavioral testing period in animals exposed to FEN. PMID:12460661

  13. Radial gate hoist mechanisms mounted above radial gates, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Radial gate hoist mechanisms mounted above radial gates, view to the east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. Illustrated techniques for performing the Cox-Maze IV procedure through a right mini-thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jason O.; Saint, Lindsey L.; Leidenfrost, Jeremy E.

    2014-01-01

    The Cox-Maze IV procedure has replaced the “cut-and-sew” technique of the original Cox-Maze operation with lines of ablation created using bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and cryothermal energy devices. In select patients, this procedure can be performed through a right mini-thoracotomy. This illustrated review is the first to detail the complete steps of the Cox-Maze IV procedure performed through a right mini-thoracotomy with careful attention paid to operative anatomy and advice. Pre- and post-operative management and outcomes are also discussed. This should be a practical guide for the practicing cardiac surgeon. PMID:24516807

  15. The totally thoracoscopic left atrial maze procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    van Laar, Charlotte; Geuzebroek, Guillaume S C; Hofman, Frederik N; Van Putte, Bart P

    2016-01-01

    The totally thoracoscopic left atrial maze (TT-maze) is a recent, minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, with promising results in terms of freedom from atrial fibrillation. The TT-maze consists of a bilateral, epicardial pulmonary vein isolation with the creation of a box using radiofrequency and exclusion of the left atrial appendage (LAA). In addition, the box is connected with the base of the LAA and furthermore with the mitral annulus with the so-called trigonum line. In this report, we describe our surgical approach and short-term results. PMID:26993056

  16. Unicursal random maze tool path for computer-controlled optical surfacing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Qiao

    2015-12-01

    A novel unicursal random maze tool path is proposed in this paper, which can not only implement uniform coverage of the polishing surfaces, but also possesses randomness and multidirectionality. The simulation experiments along with the practical polishing experiments are conducted to make the comparison of three kinds of paths, including maze path, raster path, and Hilbert path. The experimental results validate that the maze path can warrant uniform polishing and avoid the appearance of the periodical structures in the polished surface. It is also more effective than the Hilbert path in restraining the mid-spatial frequency error in computer-controlled optical surfacing process. PMID:26836670

  17. Radially composite piezoelectric ceramic tubular transducer in radial vibration.

    PubMed

    Shuyu, Lin; Shuaijun, Wang

    2011-11-01

    The radially composite piezoelectric tubular transducer is studied. It is composed of radially poled piezoelectric and a long metal tube. The electro-mechanical equivalent circuit of the radially poled piezoelectric and metal tube in radial vibration is obtained. Based on the force and velocity boundary conditions, the six-port electro-mechanical equivalent circuit for the composite tubular transducer is given and the resonance/anti-resonance frequency equations are obtained. The relationship between the resonance frequency and the dimensions is analyzed. Numerically simulated results obtained by the finite element method are compared with those from the analytical method. Composite piezoelectric tubular transducers are designed and manufactured. The resonance/anti-resonance frequencies are measured, and it is shown that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the simulated and experimental results. It is expected that radially composite piezoelectric tubular transducers can be used as high-power ultrasonic radiators in ultrasonic applications, such as ultrasonic liquid processing. PMID:22083782

  18. Performing the Left Atrial Maze Ablation Pattern Without Atriotomy.

    PubMed

    Weimar, Timo; Gaynor, Sydney L; Seubert, Daniela Y; Damiano, Ralph J; Doll, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    The need to perform an additional atriotomy is a major concern that keeps many surgeons from performing an extended left atrial lesion set in patients with atrial fibrillation during procedures such as aortic valve replacement. This does result either in a suboptimal lesion set or even in ignoring the rhythm disorder, leaving the patient exposed to an increased risk of stroke and possible hemodynamic compromises. This report describes a technique how pulmonary vein isolation, an isolation of the posterior left atrial wall and an anterior mitral annular line, which substitutes for the mitral isthmus line in order to prevent perimitral atrial flutter, can be performed during aortic valve replacement without the need for an atriotomy. This technique allows for an optimal time management by minimizing additional cardiopulmonary bypass-time and cross-clamp-time; however, its equivalent efficacy in successfully treating atrial fibrillation compared to the left atrial Maze IV ablation pattern needs to be revealed in future trials. PMID:26777943

  19. Barnes maze performance of Octodon degus is gender dependent.

    PubMed

    Popović, Natalija; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, María Angeles; Caballero-Bleda, María; Popović, Miroljub

    2010-10-15

    Gender differences in spatial navigation have been widely reported in nocturnal rodent species. Here, for the first time we report gender differences in spatial learning and memory of Octodon degus, a long-lived diurnal hystricomorph rodent. In the present study, 16 months old male and female O. degus were tested in the 18-holes Barnes circular maze. The acquisition session consisted of four daily 4 min trials, during 10 days. Seven days later, the retention test was performed. To avoid the effect of hormonal fluctuation on spatial navigation, both the acquisition and the retention tests, were performed in 21-day regular cycling females in a period that corresponds to the diestrus phase of the estrus cycle. At the beginning of the acquisition, female degus were significantly slower than males to find the escape hole, but the situation reversed afterwards. Moreover, during the course of acquisition, females made significantly less reference memory errors, working memory errors as well as omission errors, than males. In both sexes, motivation and learning ceiling effects were reached at days 5-6 of the training. During the acquisition, females used more frequently a spatial strategy, while males preferably applied either serial, random or opposite strategies. The observed cognitive differences between male and female O. degus existed only during the acquisition period but not during the retention, indicating that acquisition and consolidation are differently influenced by gender. PMID:20385170

  20. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation. PMID:27619326

  1. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  2. Radial systems of dark globules

    SciTech Connect

    Gyul'budagyn, A.L.

    1986-03-01

    The author gives examples of radial systems consisting of dark globules and ''elephant trunks''. Besides already known systems, which contain hot stars at their center, data are given on three radial systems of a new kind, at the center of which there are stars of spectral types later than B. Data are given on 32 globules of radial systems of the association Cep OB2. On the basis of the observational data, it is concluded that at least some of the isolated Bok globules derive from elephant trunks and dark globules forming radial systems around hot stars. It is also suggested that the two molecular clouds situated near the Rosette nebula and possessing velocities differing by ca 20 km/sec from the velocity of the nebula could have been ejected in opposite directions from the center of the nebula. One of these clouds consists of dark globules forming the radial system of the Rosette nebula.

  3. Fast escape of a quantum walker from an integrated photonic maze.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Filippo; Crespi, Andrea; Ciriolo, Anna Gabriella; Sciarrino, Fabio; Osellame, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Escaping from a complex maze, by exploring different paths with several decision-making branches in order to reach the exit, has always been a very challenging and fascinating task. Wave field and quantum objects may explore a complex structure in parallel by interference effects, but without necessarily leading to more efficient transport. Here, inspired by recent observations in biological energy transport phenomena, we demonstrate how a quantum walker can efficiently reach the output of a maze by partially suppressing the presence of interference. In particular, we show theoretically an unprecedented improvement in transport efficiency for increasing maze size with respect to purely quantum and classical approaches. In addition, we investigate experimentally these hybrid transport phenomena, by mapping the maze problem in an integrated waveguide array, probed by coherent light, hence successfully testing our theoretical results. These achievements may lead towards future bio-inspired photonics technologies for more efficient transport and computation. PMID:27248707

  4. Fast escape of a quantum walker from an integrated photonic maze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Filippo; Crespi, Andrea; Ciriolo, Anna Gabriella; Sciarrino, Fabio; Osellame, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Escaping from a complex maze, by exploring different paths with several decision-making branches in order to reach the exit, has always been a very challenging and fascinating task. Wave field and quantum objects may explore a complex structure in parallel by interference effects, but without necessarily leading to more efficient transport. Here, inspired by recent observations in biological energy transport phenomena, we demonstrate how a quantum walker can efficiently reach the output of a maze by partially suppressing the presence of interference. In particular, we show theoretically an unprecedented improvement in transport efficiency for increasing maze size with respect to purely quantum and classical approaches. In addition, we investigate experimentally these hybrid transport phenomena, by mapping the maze problem in an integrated waveguide array, probed by coherent light, hence successfully testing our theoretical results. These achievements may lead towards future bio-inspired photonics technologies for more efficient transport and computation.

  5. Spatial water maze learning using celestial cues by the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Kavaliers, M; Galea, L A

    1994-03-31

    The Morris water maze is widely used to evaluate to evaluate the spatial learning ability of rodents under laboratory settings. The present study demonstrates that reproductive male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, are able to acquire and retain a spatial water maze task using celestial cues. Voles were able to acquire a modified outdoor Morris water maze task over 4 trials per day, whereby they had to learn and remember the location of a submerged hidden platform, using the position of the sun and associated celestial cues. Their proficiency on this task was related to the availability of the celestial cues, with voles displaying significantly poorer spatial navigation on overcast than clear days and when the testing time (and position of the sun and associated celestial cues) was shifted from morning to afternoon. These findings with meadow voles support the ecological relevance of the water maze task. PMID:8031502

  6. Fast escape of a quantum walker from an integrated photonic maze

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Filippo; Crespi, Andrea; Ciriolo, Anna Gabriella; Sciarrino, Fabio; Osellame, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Escaping from a complex maze, by exploring different paths with several decision-making branches in order to reach the exit, has always been a very challenging and fascinating task. Wave field and quantum objects may explore a complex structure in parallel by interference effects, but without necessarily leading to more efficient transport. Here, inspired by recent observations in biological energy transport phenomena, we demonstrate how a quantum walker can efficiently reach the output of a maze by partially suppressing the presence of interference. In particular, we show theoretically an unprecedented improvement in transport efficiency for increasing maze size with respect to purely quantum and classical approaches. In addition, we investigate experimentally these hybrid transport phenomena, by mapping the maze problem in an integrated waveguide array, probed by coherent light, hence successfully testing our theoretical results. These achievements may lead towards future bio-inspired photonics technologies for more efficient transport and computation. PMID:27248707

  7. Analyzing the path of responding in maze-solving and other tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Response time and accuracy are sensitive measures of overall performance but may mask underlying response strategies. For example, analysis of latency and accuracy measures produced in a computerized-maze task does not reveal whether rhesus monkeys really 'solve a maze' or simply move as much as is possible toward the target, negotiating barriers through trial and error as they encounter them. Regression procedures are described for analyzing response path against several hypothetical response curves, and analyses of response path for rhesus monkeys' performance on the computerized MAZE task are presented as an illustration. The data suggest that rhesus monkeys do invoke a response strategy of solving the maze, because the observed response topography is significantly associated with the optimal path of responding. Many experimental paradigms should similarly benefit from analysis of the response paths that subjects exhibit.

  8. Utility of ethological analysis to overcome locomotor confounds in elevated maze models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S M; Wadsworth, G; Fletcher, A; Dourish, C T

    1998-01-01

    The elevated plus-maze is a commonly used model to identify putative anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs. However, the validity of elevated plus-maze and other recently developed variants such as the elevated zero-maze has recently been questioned on the grounds that both the reference anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide and the psychostimulant d-amphetamine increase open arm exploration and stimulate locomotor activity. These findings suggest that measures of "anxiety" in the elevated maze cannot be adequately dissociated from simple changes in locomotor activity, which may confound the interpretation of results obtained using these models. A variety of approaches to assess drug effects on locomotor activity in the elevated maze have been suggested, including the use of total and closed arm entries, as well as supplementary tests such as exploration of the holeboard apparatus. However, all these approaches utilise the measurement of exploration in a novel environment, and as such, could potentially be influenced by either changes in anxiety or locomotor activity. Recently, it has been shown that ethological measures of "risk assessment", such as stretched-attend postures and head-dipping, are sensitive indicators of drug-effects in the elevated maze. The present study assessed the utility of ethological analysis in dissociating locomotor activity from "anxiety" by comparing the effects of d-amphetamine to those of chlordiazepoxide in the rat elevated zero-maze. The results showed that both chlordiazepoxide and d-amphetamine increase the amount of time spent in the open arms and reduce "risk assessment" without increasing line crossing or rearing. These results confirm that under certain test conditions, psychostimulants are capable of producing "false-positives" in elevated maze models, and that both traditional methods and the ethological measures used in this study fail to unequivocally dissociate drug effects on anxiety from effects on locomotor activity. Further

  9. Strategic navigation of two-dimensional alley mazes: comparing capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D; Johnson-Pynn, J; Hirsh, E; Brakke, K

    2003-09-01

    Planning is an important component of cognition that contributes, for example, to efficient movement through space. In the current study we presented novel two-dimensional alley mazes to four chimpanzees and three capuchin monkeys to identify the nature and efficiency of planning in relation to varying task parameters. All the subjects solved more mazes without error than expected by chance, providing compelling evidence that both species planned their choices in some manner. The probability of making a correct choice on mazes designed to be more demanding and presented later in the testing series was higher than on earlier, simpler mazes (chimpanzees), or unchanged (capuchin monkeys), suggesting microdevelopment of strategic choice. Structural properties of the mazes affected both species' choices. Capuchin monkeys were less likely than chimpanzees to take a correct path that initially led away from the goal but that eventually led to the goal. Chimpanzees were more likely to make an error by passing a correct path than by turning onto a wrong path. Chimpanzees and one capuchin made more errors on choices farther in sequence from the goal. Each species corrected errors before running into the end of an alley in approximately 40% of cases. Together, these findings suggest nascent planning abilities in each species, and the prospect for significant development of strategic planning capabilities on tasks presenting multiple simultaneous or sequential spatial relations. The computerized maze paradigm appears well suited to investigate movement planning and spatial perception in human and nonhuman primates alike. PMID:12955584

  10. Escherichia coli antitoxin MazE as transcription factor: insights into MazE-DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Zorzini, Valentina; Buts, Lieven; Schrank, Evelyne; Sterckx, Yann G.J.; Respondek, Michal; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna; Loris, Remy; Zangger, Klaus; van Nuland, Nico A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are pairs of genes essential for bacterial regulation upon environmental stresses. The mazEF module encodes the MazF toxin and its cognate MazE antitoxin. The highly dynamic MazE possesses an N-terminal DNA binding domain through which it can negatively regulate its own promoter. Despite being one of the first TA systems studied, transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli mazEF remains poorly understood. This paper presents the solution structure of C-terminal truncated E. coli MazE and a MazE-DNA model with a DNA palindrome sequence ∼10 bp upstream of the mazEF promoter. The work has led to a transcription regulator-DNA model, which has remained elusive thus far in the E. coli toxin–antitoxin family. Multiple complementary techniques including NMR, SAXS and ITC show that the long intrinsically disordered C-termini in MazE, required for MazF neutralization, does not affect the interactions between the antitoxin and its operator. Rather, the MazE C-terminus plays an important role in the MazF binding, which was found to increase the MazE affinity for the palindromic single site operator. PMID:25564525

  11. Escherichia coli antitoxin MazE as transcription factor: insights into MazE-DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Zorzini, Valentina; Buts, Lieven; Schrank, Evelyne; Sterckx, Yann G J; Respondek, Michal; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna; Loris, Remy; Zangger, Klaus; van Nuland, Nico A J

    2015-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are pairs of genes essential for bacterial regulation upon environmental stresses. The mazEF module encodes the MazF toxin and its cognate MazE antitoxin. The highly dynamic MazE possesses an N-terminal DNA binding domain through which it can negatively regulate its own promoter. Despite being one of the first TA systems studied, transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli mazEF remains poorly understood. This paper presents the solution structure of C-terminal truncated E. coli MazE and a MazE-DNA model with a DNA palindrome sequence ∼ 10 bp upstream of the mazEF promoter. The work has led to a transcription regulator-DNA model, which has remained elusive thus far in the E. coli toxin-antitoxin family. Multiple complementary techniques including NMR, SAXS and ITC show that the long intrinsically disordered C-termini in MazE, required for MazF neutralization, does not affect the interactions between the antitoxin and its operator. Rather, the MazE C-terminus plays an important role in the MazF binding, which was found to increase the MazE affinity for the palindromic single site operator. PMID:25564525

  12. Behavioral consequences of predator stress in the rat elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Bulos, Erika Mondin; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Zangrossi, Helio

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the behavioral reactions of rodents to predators have greatly contributed to the understanding of defense-related human psychopathologies such as anxiety and panic.We here investigated the behavioral consequences of exposing male Wistar rats to a live cat using the elevated T-maze test of anxiety. This test allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and escape, which in terms of pathology have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorders, respectively. For comparative reasons, the effects of exposure to the cat were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze. The results showed that a 5-min exposure to the cat selectively facilitated inhibitory avoidance acquisition, an anxiogenic effect, without affecting escape expression in the elevated T-maze. This was seen immediately but not 30 min after contact with the predator. This short-lived anxiogenic effect was also detected in the elevated plus-maze. Previous administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (2 mg/kg) decreased the immediate avoidance response to the predator and the neophobic reaction to a dummy cat used as a control stimulus. The drug also impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition in the elevated T-maze, indicating an anxiolytic effect, without affecting escape performance. The results indicate that the state of anxiety evoked during contact with the predator generalizes to both elevated plus- and T-mazes, impacting on defensive responses associated with generalized anxiety disorder. PMID:26066720

  13. Radial and azimuthal beam parameters.

    PubMed

    Lumer, Yaakov; Moshe, Inon

    2009-02-01

    Global invariant parameters are introduced to characterize the radial and azimuthal content of totally polarized beams. Such parameters are written in terms of the second moments of the optical beam and are invariant in propagation through symmetric first-order optical systems described by the ABCD matrix. Since it was proven in the past that the usual definition for radial polarization is not invariant, such invariance is novel in characterizing the radial and azimuthal polarizations content of optical beams. The possibility of obtaining a pure mode from a given beam using the proposed parameters is discussed. PMID:19183626

  14. Coplanar Waveguide Radial Line Stub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, R. N.; Taub, S. R.

    1993-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide radial line stub resonator is experimentally characterized with respect to stub radius, sectoral angle, substrate thickness, and relative dielectric constant. A simple closed-form design equation which predicts the resonance radius of the stub is presented.

  15. Behavioral profile of wild mice in the elevated plus-maze test for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Holmes, A; Parmigiani, S; Ferrari, P F; Palanza, P; Rodgers, R J

    2000-12-01

    Systematic observations of the defensive behavior of wild rodents have greatly informed the experimental study of anxiety and its neural substrates in laboratory animals. However, as the former work has been almost exclusively carried out in rats, few data are available concerning the reactivity of wild mice to standardized tests of anxiety-related behavior. In the present experiments, we employed ethological measures to examine the behavioral responses of a wild-derived population of house mice (Mus musculus) in the elevated plus-maze. In direct comparisons with laboratory Swiss mice, male wild mice exhibited substantially elevated levels of exploratory activities and an overall "preference" for the open arms of the plus-maze. On re-exposure to the plus-maze, male wild mice showed further increases in open arm exploration, while Swiss mice showed a marked shift to the enclosed parts of the plus-maze. Tested over a single session, female wild mice also exhibited a profile of high open arm exploration, but showed levels of exploratory behaviors and locomotor activity similar to female Swiss counterparts. While exploratory patterns in wild mice show similarities to profiles seen in certain laboratory strains (e.g., BALB/c), wild mice displayed a number of additional behaviors that are unprecedented in plus-maze studies with laboratory mice. These included actual and attempted jumps from the maze, spontaneous freezing, and exploration of the upper ledges of the closed arms. Thus, while in conventional terms the behavior of wild mice was consistent with one of low anxiety-like behavior, the presence of these unique elements instead indicates a profile more accurately characterized by high reactivity and escape motivation. We discuss how the use of an ethological approach to measuring plus-maze behavior can support accurate interpretation of other exceptional profiles in this test, such as those possibly arising from phenotyping of transgenic and gene knockout mice

  16. Pulmonary Vein Isolation and Cox-Maze Procedure Only Partially Denervate the Atrium

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Shelly C.; Foyil, Kelley V.; Sakamoto, Shun-Ichiro; Voeller, Rochus K.; Boineau, John P.; Damiano, Ralph J.; Schuessler, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The effects of ablation lines on myocardial innervation and response to autonomic stimuli are unclear. This study examined the effects of radiofrequency ablation on atrial autonomic innervation comparing pulmonary vein isolation and the biatrial Cox-Maze. METHODS In twelve acute canines, right and left vagosympathetic trunks and right and left stellate ganglia were isolated. Each nerve was stimulated prior to bipolar ablations, after pulmonary vein isolation, and after Cox-Maze. Nadolol (n=6) and atropine (n=6) were given to block sympathetic and parasympathetic responses, respectively. Changes in heart rate and atrioventricular interval were compared. Changes in QRST area relative to an isoelectric baseline (index of local innervation) were calculated. RESULTS Sympathetic stimulation of each nerve and parasympathetic stimulation of the vagosympathetic trunks caused significant changes in heart rate and atrioventricular interval. After pulmonary vein isolation, the effect of 33% of the nerves on heart rate changes were eliminated. The Cox-Maze procedure eliminated right stellate sympathetic effects on heart rate. Fifty percent of the nerves caused heart rate changes after the Cox-Maze. There was no significant effect of either lesion set on atrioventricular interval changes. Stimulation of 50% of nerves after pulmonary vein isolation produced local area changes significantly different from control. After Cox-Maze, a different 50% of nerves produced local changes different from pulmonary vein isolation. CONCLUSIONS Surgical ablation procedures disrupted innervation affecting heart rate, but not atrioventricular interval. Autonomic innervation affecting the atria was changed by pulmonary vein isolation and additionally by Cox-Maze. Residual autonomic effects were present even after the complete Cox-Maze. PMID:18374777

  17. High power radial klystron oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Arman, M.J.

    1995-11-01

    The advantages of the radial klystron amplifier over the conventional klystron amplifier have been reported by Arman et al. Briefly, the radial structure of this design allows for much smaller impedances and thus higher power, the beam-cavity coupling is stronger because the beam travels inside the cavity, and the source is much more compact because there is no need for external magnetic fields. Here the author reports on possible advantages of the radial klystron oscillator over the radial klystron amplifier. The amplifying nature of certain HPM sources is often mandated by the requirement for synchronization and phase-locking of a number of sources in specific applications. In situations where amplification is solely adhered to for the purpose of achieving higher powers, the oscillator will be a better choice if a mechanism can be found to grow the desired mode at the required frequency. By switching to the oscillator mode there will be no need for priming the cavity or maintaining the phase. This simplifies the design and reduces the operational and maintenance cost of the source. Here he reports that an oscillator version of the radial klystron is possible and in fact more suitable for many applications. The mechanism for exciting and growing the mode will be transit-time effects thus providing all the beneficial features of the transit-time oscillators. The complications due to the presence of thin foils in the radial design still persist and will be dealt with in subsequent works. Numerical simulations using the PIC codes MAGIC and SOS indicate the radial klystron oscillator is a viable and efficient means of rf generation.

  18. Evaluation of Early and Intermediate Outcomes of Cryo-MazeProcedure for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi, Alireza; Rostamzadeh, Mohsen; Pezeshkian, Masoud; Parvizi, Rezayat; Imani, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in patients with mitral valve disease affecting 50% of patients undergoing mitral valve surgery, contributing to increased risks of systemic embolization, anticoagulant- related hemorrhage and mortality. The maze procedure is an effective way to treat AF. Over the last several years, cryoablation was substituted for atrial incision in many reports to simplify the maze procedure. However, few studies have been carried out to evaluate the results of cryoablation surgery. In the present study we evaluated the results of this procedure. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 47 AF patients were treated with Cryo-Maze surgery method. Rhythm assessment using electrocardiographic and echocardiographic survey was performed in all patients before surgery, during the patients’ hospital stay, on discharge and after six months. Results: Survival rate of the studied patients at six months was 93.6%. Sinus rhythm restoration rate in Cryo-Maze patients was 72.1% on discharge and 76.7% six months after their operation. Conclusion: The present study revealed that Cryo-Maze procedure is an effective and safe therapeutic modality in AF while normal sinus rhythm can be achieved in patients following this intervention. PMID:24251012

  19. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  20. Investigation of radiation streaming and maze design for the Taiwan Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Liu, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates the radiation streaming through the personnel access maze designed for the Taiwan Photon Source, with special interest in the characteristics of radiation fields along the labyrinth and the comparison of different estimation methods. The effect of maze orientation with respect to the beam direction has also been examined in detail. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the radiation production and transport for a beam loss occurring near a typical three-legged maze. In addition, we have also tested three factorized approximation formulae for the neutron and gamma-ray attenuation in our maze design. It was found that Cossairt's expression fits better and can predict satisfactory results for the neutron attenuation along the maze. We accordingly proposed a set of fitting parameters used with Cossairt's formulae for estimating the gamma-ray attenuation in labyrinths for high-energy electron accelerators. The information presented here will be valuable for our further design revisions and may be useful to those performing similar studies. PMID:20220363

  1. A Minimally Invasive Cox-Maze Procedure: Operative Technique and Results

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anson M.; Clark, Kal; Bailey, Marci S.; Aziz, Abdulhameed; Schuessler, Richard B.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective The Cox-Maze procedure for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation traditionally has required a median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. This study describes a method using ablation technologies to create the full Cox-Maze lesion set through a 5–6 cm right mini-thoracotomy. Methods Twenty-two consecutive patients underwent a Cox-Maze procedure via a right mini-thoracotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. All patients were followed prospectively with ECG and 24 hour Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months. The Cox-Maze procedure lesion set was created using bipolar radiofrequency energy and cryothermy. Results There was no operative mortality or major complications. Two patients required a permanent pacemaker. Five patients (23%) had early atrial tachyarrhythmias. At last follow-up (mean 18 ± 12 months), all of the patients (n=22) were free from atrial dysrhythmias. At 3 months (n=19), 84% of patients were off antiarrhythmic drugs. By 6 months (n=18), 94% of patients were free from AF and off antiarrhythmic medications. At 12 months (n=16), 81% of patients were free from AF and off antiarrhythmic drugs and three patients remained on warfarin for a mechanical mitral valve. Conclusions A full Cox-Maze procedure can be performed through a right mini-thoracotomy with outstanding short term results. This less invasive procedure can be offered to patients without compromising efficacy. PMID:21057605

  2. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  3. Model testing of a 1-kg high-explosive-cell maze

    SciTech Connect

    Bacigalupi, C.M.; Burton, W.A.

    1981-04-01

    The basement of the proposed High Explosives Applications Facility (Building 353) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory includes several explosive test cells for the assembly and/or storage of up to 10 kg of high explosive (HE). This document reports 1/8-scale and 1/4-scale model tests conducted to confirm maze design criteria, to determine the cell explosive weight limit based on an allowable 10 psi reflected shock pressure at the hallway-maze doorway, and to specify permissible areas for handling HE within the cell. The integrity of cube-root scaling of the explosive charges detonated in the 1/8-scale model was verified by explosive testing in a comparable 1/4-scale model. Reflected shock pressures in the hallway adjacent to the maze and the effect of HE charge orientation were investigated and are also reported.

  4. Working together may be better: activation of reward centers during a cooperative maze task.

    PubMed

    Krill, Austen L; Platek, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Humans use theory of mind when predicting the thoughts and feelings and actions of others. There is accumulating evidence that cooperation with a computerized game correlates with a unique pattern of brain activation. To investigate the neural correlates of cooperation in real-time we conducted an fMRI hyperscanning study. We hypothesized that real-time cooperation to complete a maze task, using a blind-driving paradigm, would activate substrates implicated in theory of mind. We also hypothesized that cooperation would activate neural reward centers more than when participants completed the maze themselves. Of interest and in support of our hypothesis we found left caudate and putamen activation when participants worked together to complete the maze. This suggests that cooperation during task completion is inherently rewarding. This finding represents one of the first discoveries of a proximate neural mechanism for group based interactions in real-time, which indirectly supports the social brain hypothesis. PMID:22355319

  5. Working Together May Be Better: Activation of Reward Centers during a Cooperative Maze Task

    PubMed Central

    Krill, Austen L.; Platek, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans use theory of mind when predicting the thoughts and feelings and actions of others. There is accumulating evidence that cooperation with a computerized game correlates with a unique pattern of brain activation. To investigate the neural correlates of cooperation in real-time we conducted an fMRI hyperscanning study. We hypothesized that real-time cooperation to complete a maze task, using a blind-driving paradigm, would activate substrates implicated in theory of mind. We also hypothesized that cooperation would activate neural reward centers more than when participants completed the maze themselves. Of interest and in support of our hypothesis we found left caudate and putamen activation when participants worked together to complete the maze. This suggests that cooperation during task completion is inherently rewarding. This finding represents one of the first discoveries of a proximate neural mechanism for group based interactions in real-time, which indirectly supports the social brain hypothesis. PMID:22355319

  6. New empirical formula for neutron dose level at the maze entrance of 15 MV medical accelerator facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hong-Suk; Jang, Ki-Won; Park, Youn-Hwan; Kwon, Jeong-Wan; Choi, Ho-Sin; Lee, Jai-Ki; Kim, Jong-Kyung

    2009-05-15

    An easily applicable empirical formula was derived for use in the assessment of the photoneutron dose at the maze entrance of a 15 MV medical accelerator treatment room. The neutron dose equivalent rates around the Varian medical accelerator head calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX were used as the source term in producing the base data. The dose equivalents were validated by measurements with bubble detectors. Irradiation geometry conditions expected to yield higher neutron dose rates in the maze were selected: a 20x20 cm{sup 2} irradiation field, gantry rotation plane parallel to the maze walls, and the photon beams directed to the opposite wall to the maze entrance. The neutron dose equivalents at the maze entrance were computed for 697 arbitrary single-bend maze configurations by extending the Monte Carlo calculations down to the maze entrance. Then, the empirical formula was derived by a multiple regression fit to the neutron dose equivalents at the maze entrance for all the different maze configurations. The goodness of the empirical formula was evaluated by applying it to seven operating medical accelerators of different makes. When the source terms were fixed, the neutron doses estimated from the authors' formula agreed better with the corresponding MCNPX simulations than the results of the Kersey method. In addition, compared with the Wu-McGinley formula, the authors' formula provided better estimates for the mazes with length longer than 8.5 m. There are, however, discrepancies between the measured dose rates and the estimated values from the authors' formula, particularly for the machines other than a Varian model. Further efforts are needed to characterize the neutron field at the maze entrance to reduce the discrepancies. Furthermore, neutron source terms for the machines other than a Varian model should be simulated or measured and incorporated into the formula for accurate extended application to a variety of models.

  7. Parachute drag and radial force

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a combination of old and new wind tunnel data in a format which illustrates the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. A new definition of radial force coefficient is presented, as well as a universal drag curve for flat circular and conical parachutes.

  8. A new analytical formula for neutron capture gamma dose calculations in double-bend mazes in radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, Hosein; Mesbahi, Asghar

    2012-01-01

    Background Photoneutrons are produced in radiation therapy with high energy photons. Also, capture gamma rays are the byproduct of neutrons interactions with wall material of radiotherapy rooms. Aim In the current study an analytical formula was proposed for capture gamma dose calculations in double bend mazes in radiation therapy rooms. Materials and methods A total of 40 different layouts with double-bend mazes and a 18 MeV photon beam of Varian 2100 Clinac were simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo (MC) code. Neutron capture gamma ray dose equivalent was calculated by the MC method along the maze and at the maze entrance door of all the simulated rooms. Then, all MC resulted data were fitted to an empirical formula for capture gamma dose calculations. Wu–McGinley analytical formula for capture gamma dose equivalent at the maze entrance door in single-bend mazes was also used for comparison purposes. Results For capture gamma dose equivalents at the maze entrance door, the difference of 2–11% was seen between MC and the derived equation, while the difference of 36–87% was found between MC and the Wu–McGinley methods. Conclusion Our results showed that the derived formula results were consistent with the MC results for all of 40 different geometries. However, as a new formula, further evaluations are required to validate its use in practical situations. Finally, its application is recommend for capture gamma dose calculations in double-bend mazes to improve shielding calculations. PMID:24377027

  9. The Utility of Maze Accurate Response Rate in Assessing Reading Comprehension in Upper Elementary and Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCane-Bowling, Sara J.; Strait, Andrea D.; Guess, Pamela E.; Wiedo, Jennifer R.; Muncie, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of five formative reading measures: words correct per minute, number of comprehension questions correct, reading comprehension rate, number of maze correct responses, and maze accurate response rate (MARR). Broad Reading cluster scores obtained via the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Achievement…

  10. Variance in Broad Reading Accounted for by Measures of Reading Speed Embedded within Maze and Comprehension Rate Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Andrea D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wilhoit, Brian; Ciancio, Dennis; Morrow, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Maze and reading comprehension rate measures are calculated by using measures of reading speed and measures of accuracy (i.e., correctly selected words or answers). In sixth- and seventh-grade samples, we found that the measures of reading speed embedded within our Maze measures accounted for 50% and 39% of broad reading score (BRS) variance,…

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF RAT PUPS IN FIGURE-EIGHT MAZES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a series of four experiments, social and experiential factors that influence the development of motor activity in rat pups were examined. Motor activity was monitored from postnatal days 13 to 21 as photocell interruptions in figure-eight mazes and comparisons were made betwee...

  12. Acetylcholine Efflux from Retrosplenial Areas and Hippocampal Sectors During Maze Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Steven; Roland, Jessica; Vogt, Brent; Savage, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Both the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and the hippocampus are important for spatial learning across species. Although hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release has been associated with learning on a number of spatial tasks, relatively little is understood about the functional role of ACh release in the RSC. In the present study, spatial exploration was assessed in rats using a plus-maze spontaneous alternation task. ACh efflux was assessed simultaneously in the hippocampus and two sub-regions of the RSC (area 29ab and area 30) before, during and after maze exploration. Results demonstrated that there was a significant rise in ACh efflux in RSC area 29ab and the hippocampus during maze traversal. The rise in ACh efflux across these two regions was correlated. There were no significant behaviorally driven changes in ACh efflux in RSC area 30. While both the hippocampal sectors and area 29ab displayed increases in ACh efflux during maze exploration, the percent ACh rise in area 29ab was higher than that observed in the hippocampus and persisted into the post-baseline period. Joint efflux analyses demonstrated a key functional role for ACh release in area 29ab during spatial processing. PMID:19428644

  13. Mixed Effects Modeling of Morris Water Maze Data: Advantages and Cautionary Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael E.; Clark, M. H.; Goffus, Andrea; Hoane, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Morris water maze data are most commonly analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance in which daily test sessions are analyzed as an unordered categorical variable. This approach, however, may lack power, relies heavily on post hoc tests of daily performance that can complicate interpretation, and does not target the nonlinear trends…

  14. MTR, TRA603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID CONCRETE WALLS. CONCRETE PLUGS, ONE LINED WITH LEAD, AND LIFT HANDLES. FLOOR WELLS SIX FEET DEEP BELOW FLOOR. IDO MTR-603-IDO-5, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110469, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. The Effect of Concept Mazes in a Ninth Grade Language Arts Classroom. Technical Report # 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    Effectively teaching low-achieving and learning disabled students is challenging. Concept-based instruction is recognized as a particularly effective technique for helping students in these populations attain high levels of achievement (Tindal, Nolet, & Blake, 1992). The maze (a reading selection where certain words have been deleted and students…

  16. Reversible Hippocampal Lesions Disrupt Water Maze Performance during Both Recent and Remote Memory Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional lesion methods have shown that damage to the rodent hippocampus can impair previously acquired spatial memory in tasks such as the water maze. In contrast, work with reversible lesion methods using a different spatial task has found remote memory to be spared. To determine whether the finding of spared remote spatial memory depends on…

  17. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested--simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing…

  18. An Assessment of Response, Direction and Place Learning by Rats in a Water T-Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jacqueline T.; Martin, Gerard M.; Skinner, Darlene M.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral data suggest that distinguishable orientations may be necessary for place learning even when distal cues define different start points in the room and a unique goal location. We examined whether changes in orientation are also important in place learning and navigation in a water T-maze. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to locate a…

  19. Exploring Second Grade Student Engagement before and after MINDS-In-Motion, MAZE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnieders-Laber, Dawn T.

    2011-01-01

    This study resulted from monitoring and observing the engagement of five second grade students both before and after participating in a sensory integration movement process known as "MINDS-In-Motion", MAZE. The purpose of this action research study was to explore student engagement and purposeful movement of students utilizing "MINDS-In-Motion",…

  20. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  1. OpenControl: a free opensource software for video tracking and automated control of behavioral mazes.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Paulo; Mendonça, Luís; Galhardo, Vasco

    2007-10-15

    Operant animal behavioral tests require the interaction of the subject with sensors and actuators distributed in the experimental environment of the arena. In order to provide user independent reliable results and versatile control of these devices it is vital to use an automated control system. Commercial systems for control of animal mazes are usually based in software implementations that restrict their application to the proprietary hardware of the vendor. In this paper we present OpenControl: an opensource Visual Basic software that permits a Windows-based computer to function as a system to run fully automated behavioral experiments. OpenControl integrates video-tracking of the animal, definition of zones from the video signal for real-time assignment of animal position in the maze, control of the maze actuators from either hardware sensors or from the online video tracking, and recording of experimental data. Bidirectional communication with the maze hardware is achieved through the parallel-port interface, without the need for expensive AD-DA cards, while video tracking is attained using an inexpensive Firewire digital camera. OpenControl Visual Basic code is structurally general and versatile allowing it to be easily modified or extended to fulfill specific experimental protocols and custom hardware configurations. The Visual Basic environment was chosen in order to allow experimenters to easily adapt the code and expand it at their own needs. PMID:17681380

  2. Evaluation of neutron dose in the maze of medical electron accelerators.

    PubMed

    Carinou, E; Kamenopoulou, V; Stamatelatos, I E

    1999-12-01

    MCNP code was used to simulate neutron and prompt gamma ray transport for a range of maze geometrical parameters, wall composition, and wall surface lining. Verification measurements were performed at two medical electron accelerator facilities. A very good agreement was observed between the results of the measurements and the MCNP simulation. MCNP code results were compared with the results of analytical equations used for the calculation of maze effectiveness, derived by Kersey and McCall. A good agreement exists between the simulation results and the results of the analytical methods for maze lengths longer than 8.5 m. However, the results of the present study showed that for shorter maze lengths, Kersey's method tended to overestimate neutron dose at the door entrance, whereas McCall's method with the neutron room scattered correction applied, showed an underestimation of neutron dose. Furthermore, according to MCNP simulation results, the use of barytes concrete instead of standard concrete as room shielding material, reduced neutron dose at the door entrance by about 20%. Finally, it was shown that lining with layers of wood and borated polyethylene significantly reduced the neutron dose at the door entrance by 45% and 65%, respectively. PMID:10619233

  3. Severe Systolic Anterior Motion After Aortic Valve Replacement and Cox MAZE Surgery.

    PubMed

    den Uil, Corstiaan A; Ter Horst, Maarten; Akin, Sakir; Galema, Tjebbe W

    2016-07-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement may be complicated by severe dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and cardiogenic shock in the postoperative period. We present a patient who developed severe anterior motion following aortic valve and Cox MAZE surgery which necessitated a mitral valve replacement. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12763 (J Card Surg 2016;31:429-431). PMID:27212634

  4. Characterizing spatial extinction in an abbreviated version of the Barnes maze.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were trained to find an escape box in the Barnes maze in order to characterize the extinction process of a learned spatial preference. To do so, once they had fully acquired the spatial task, they were repeatedly exposed to the maze without the escape box. Multiple behavioral measurements (grouped into motor skill and spatial preference indicators) were followed up throughout the complete training process. Animals gained efficiency in finding the escape box during acquisition, as indicated by the reduction in the time spent escaping from the maze, the number of errors, the length of the traveled path, and by the increase in exploration accuracy and execution speed. When their retention and preference were tested 24h later, all the subjects retained their enhanced performance efficiency and accuracy and displayed a clear-cut preference for the escape hole and its adjacent holes. Almost all motor skill indicators followed an inverse, though not monotonic, pattern during the extinction training, returning to basal levels after three trials without escape box, displaying a transient relapse during the fifth extinction trial. Preference indicators also followed a reverse pattern; however, it took seven trials for them to return to basal levels, relapsing during the eighth extinction trial. The abbreviated Barnes maze acquisition, evaluation, and extinction procedures described herein are useful tools for evaluating the effects of behavioral and/or pharmacological treatment on different stages of spatial memory, and could also be used for studying the neurophysiological and neurobiological underpinnings of this kind of memory. PMID:20708660

  5. Just add water: cannabinoid discrimination in a water T-maze with FAAH(-/-) and FAAH(+/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L; Lefever, Timothy W; Pulley, Nikita S; Marusich, Julie A; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2016-08-01

    Incomplete overlap in the discriminative stimulus effects of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol has been reported in food-reinforced tasks. The aim of this study was to examine cannabinoid discriminative stimulus effects in a nonappetitive procedure. Adult male mice lacking the gene for AEA's major metabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and FAAH mice were trained to discriminate THC or AEA in a water T-maze, in which the response was swimming to an escape platform on the injection-appropriate side. JZL184, a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, was also tested. FAAH mice showed faster acquisition than FAAH mice. THC and AEA fully substituted, with only minor cross-procedure potency variations. Incomplete substitution of JZL184 was observed in THC-trained FAAH mice in the water-maze task, as contrasted with full substitution in a food-reinforced nose-poke procedure. Stress-induced changes in AEA and/or 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations in the brain may have mediated this attenuation. JZL184 also partially substituted in AEA-trained FAAH mice in the water maze, suggesting incomplete overlap in the stimulus effects of AEA and JZL184. Through the use of a novel water-maze procedure, the present study supports the work of previous behavioral pharmacologists in showing the robustness of the discrimination paradigm. PMID:27385208

  6. Cognitive and Neural Determinants of Response Strategy in the Dual-Solution Plus-Maze Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leonibus, Elvira; Costantini, Vivian J. A.; Massaro, Antonio; Mandolesi, Georgia; Vanni, Valentina; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Response strategy in the dual-solution plus maze is regarded as a form of stimulus-response learning. In this study, by using an outcome devaluation procedure, we show that it can be based on both action-outcome and stimulus-response habit learning, depending on the amount of training that the animals receive. Furthermore, we show that…

  7. Severity grading in radial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Vilkki, S K

    2014-11-01

    A functional scoring method to grade the usefulness and quality of the upper limbs in congenital radial dysplasia is presented. It is based on the author's examinations of 44 arms with congenital deficiency of the radius. The hand (H), wrist (W) and proximal parts (P) of the extremity are each scored from 0 to 10 points for severity. The scoring is expressed similarly to the TNM (tumour, nodes, metastasis) tumour classification, for example as H5W4P2. The maximum severity index is 30 points. A severity grade of mild is between 1 and 8 points, moderate between 9 and 16 points and severe 17 points and over. In the author's series, the grades were mild in eight, moderate in 21 and severe in 15 cases. The functional severity grading should allow better comparison of radially deficient limbs and the results of treatment between groups of patients. PMID:24401744

  8. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Krmar, M.; Kuzmanović, A.; Nikolić, D.; Kuzmanović, Z.; Ganezer, K.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door.Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen.Results: The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product φ·E at the screen.

  9. Velocidades radiales en Collinder 121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Morrell, N.

    Se han llevado a cabo observaciones espectroscópicas de unas treinta estrellas que son posibles miembros del cúmulo abierto Collinder 121. Las mismas fueron realizadas con el telescopio de 2.15m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). El análisis de las velocidades radiales derivadas del material obtenido, confirma la realidad de Collinder 121, al menos desde el punto de vista cinemático. La velocidad radial baricentral (LSR) del cúmulo es de +17 ± 3 km.s-1. Esta velocidad coincide, dentro de los errores, con la velocidad radial (LSR) de la nebulosa anillo S308, la cual es de ~20 ± 10 km.s-1. Como S308 se encuentra físicamente asociada a la estrella Wolf-Rayet HD~50896, es muy probable que esta última sea un miembro de Collinder 121. Desde un punto de vista cinemático, la supergigante roja HD~50877 (K3Iab) también pertenecería a Collinder 121. Basándonos en la pertenencia de HD~50896 a Collinder 121, y en la interacción encontrada entre el viento de esta estrella y el medio interestelar circundante a la misma, se estima para este cúmulo una distancia del orden de 1 kpc.

  10. Radial Electromagnetic Press for IGNITOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiaro, A.; Anzidei, L.; Capriccioli, A.; Celentano, G.; Crescenzi, C.; Gasparotto, M.; Guerrieri, A.; Pizzuto, A.; Palmieri, A.; Rita, C.; Roccella, M.; Coppi, B.

    1998-11-01

    The structural performance of the IGNITOR machine relies upon a combination of both bucking between Toroidal Field Coils (TFCs), Central Solenoid (CS) and the Central Post (CP), and wedging in a well-defined area of the TFCs and of the magnet mechanical structure (called C-Clamps). This requires a pre-loading system to enhance the load bearing capability. Several solutions have been assessed and compared with each other within the operational scenarios and eventually a radial electromagnetic press has been selected as reference(Pizzuto A. et al., ENEA Report IGN/MAC/001/96). The loading system is made up by active coils and passive restraining rings. The radial active press consists of two pairs of coils (200x200mm each), symmetrically located relative to the machine equatorial plane and seating onto the passive rings. The permanent pre--load of the rings is applied through a wedging system with a load of about 120 MN. A radial electromagnetic press has the purpose of modulating the axial pressure on the TFC inner legs during the pulse. Design aspects including stress analysis, manufacturing, assembly and operational scenarios of the selected solution are presented in this paper.

  11. Property of radially quadratic reflector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizusawa, M.; Katagi, T.

    1986-01-01

    This report shows that when considered in terms of optical geometry, radially parabolic and radially hyperbolic mirrors used as mirrors for Cassegrain and parabolic antennas possess values similar to common conical horn reflector antennas.

  12. Dose-response effects of prenatal phenytoin exposure in rats: effects on early locomotion, maze learning, and memory as a function of phenytoin-induced circling behavior.

    PubMed

    Weisenburger, W P; Minck, D R; Acuff, K D; Vorhees, C V

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley CD rats were administered 0, 100, or 200 mg/kg of phenytoin on days E7-18. Litters were reduced to 12, balancing for sex. Mean (+/- S.E.) maternal serum concentrations of total phenytoin 1 hr after dosing on E18 were 15.1 +/- 3.1 and 20.9 +/- 4.3 micrograms/ml in the PHT-100 and PHT-200 groups, respectively. Determinations of unbound concentrations revealed the drug to be 89% serum protein bound in both phenytoin groups. Maternal phenytoin concentrations in rats are, therefore, comparable to those seen therapeutically in humans with epilepsy. The PHT-200 group had elevated early postnatal mortality, while the PHT-100 group did not differ from controls. Phenytoin induced the typical dose-dependent increase in preweaning square-field locomotor activity. When this effect was compared to a new circular open field it was found that this device clearly distinguished phenytoin's effects. Phenytoin offspring also showed the typical dose-dependent abnormal circling behavior. Phenytoin offspring exhibited large dose-dependent increases in errors in a complex water maze, an effect which persisted even when rats exhibiting abnormal circling were excluded from the analyses. Offspring were also assessed for ability to locate a hidden vs. visible platform in an open swimming tank. Controls and PHT-100 offspring showed large improvements in performance when the hidden platform was made visible, but the PHT-200 offspring did not. Finally, offspring were assessed for working memory in an appetitive radial-arm maze. Both phenytoin groups exhibited impaired performance as measured by the number of reinforcements obtained in the first 8 arms visited.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2333067

  13. Implementing radial motion to the booster simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    It's a puzzle that high intensity beams prefer a particular radial motion during transition in the Booster, and the result of removing such a radial motion is to increase the transition loss. In order to understand this observation, the radial motion should be taken into account in the longitudinal simulation.

  14. PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES WITH CSHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Christopher J.; Prato, L.; Mahmud, Naved I.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Beichman, Charles A. E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2011-07-10

    Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s{sup -1} precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 M{sub JUP} exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.

  15. Dopamine Depletion In Either The Dorsomedial Or Dorsolateral Striatum Impairs Egocentric Cincinnati Water Maze Performance While Sparing Allocentric Morris Water Maze Learning

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Amanda A.; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M.; Guetierez, Arnold; Lundgren, Kerstin H.; Seroogy, Kim B.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Williams, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Both egocentric route-based learning and spatial learning, as assessed by the Cincinnati water maze (CWM) and Morris water maze (MWM), respectively, are impaired following an 80% dopamine (DA) loss in the neostriatum after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration in rats. The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) are implicated in different navigational learning types, namely the DLS is implicated in egocentric learning while the DMS is implicated in spatial learning. This experiment tested whether selective DA loss through 6-OHDA lesions in the DMS or DLS would impair one or both types of navigation. Both DLS and DMS DA loss significantly impaired route-based CWM learning, without affecting spatial or cued MWM performance. DLS 6-OHDA lesions produced a 75% DA loss in this region, with no changes in other monoamine levels in the DLS or DMS. DMS 6-OHDA lesions produced a 62% DA loss in this region, without affecting other monoamine levels in the DMS or DLS. The results indicate a role for DA in DLS and DMS regions in route-based egocentric but not spatial learning and memory. Spatial learning deficits may require more pervasive monoamine reductions within each region before deficits are exhibited. This is the first study to implicate DLS and DMS DA in route-based egocentric navigation. PMID:25451306

  16. Dopamine depletion in either the dorsomedial or dorsolateral striatum impairs egocentric Cincinnati water maze performance while sparing allocentric Morris water maze learning.

    PubMed

    Braun, Amanda A; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Gutierrez, Arnold; Lundgren, Kerstin H; Seroogy, Kim B; Skelton, Matthew R; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2015-02-01

    Both egocentric route-based learning and spatial learning, as assessed by the Cincinnati water maze (CWM) and Morris water maze (MWM), respectively, are impaired following an 80% dopamine (DA) loss in the neostriatum after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration in rats. The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) are implicated in different navigational learning types, namely the DLS is implicated in egocentric learning while the DMS is implicated in spatial learning. This experiment tested whether selective DA loss through 6-OHDA lesions in the DMS or DLS would impair one or both types of navigation. Both DLS and DMS DA loss significantly impaired route-based CWM learning, without affecting spatial or cued MWM performance. DLS 6-OHDA lesions produced a 75% DA loss in this region, with no changes in other monoamine levels in the DLS or DMS. DMS 6-OHDA lesions produced a 62% DA loss in this region, without affecting other monoamine levels in the DMS or DLS. The results indicate a role for DA in DLS and DMS regions in route-based egocentric but not spatial learning and memory. Spatial learning deficits may require more pervasive monoamine reductions within each region before deficits are exhibited. This is the first study to implicate DLS and DMS DA in route-based egocentric navigation. PMID:25451306

  17. Neonatal methylphenidate does not impair adult spatial learning in the Morris water maze in rats.

    PubMed

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2011-09-20

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is the most prescribed drug for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Licit and illicit use also occurs during pregnancy, however the effects from this use on offspring development are unknown. To model late gestational exposure, Sprague-Dawley litters were treated with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 30mg/kg×4/day every 2h with MPD on postnatal days 11-20 (within-litter design; days chosen to be comparable to human third trimester brain development). During treatment, body weights were decreased in MPD-treated groups; weight recovery occurred in all but the MPD-30 group by start of testing. MPD-treated rats showed no changes in anxiety (elevated zero maze), swimming ability (straight channel swimming), or spatial learning/reference memory (Morris water maze). MPD does not appear to pose a risk to these CNS functions after exposure during a stage of rat development analogous to third trimester human brain development. PMID:21798318

  18. Effects of chronic administration of (+)-amphetamine on maze performance of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Breda, J. B.; Carlini, E. A.; Sader, N. F. A.

    1969-01-01

    1. The influence of (+)-amphetamine, given 1 min after each training session, on the performance of 124 rats in a Lashley III maze was measured every 48 hr. 2. The first three injections of the drug significantly improved the learning ability of naive rats. 3. With prolonged treatment, (+)-amphetamine strongly impaired the maze performance of these rats. 4. The chronic administration of (+)-amphetamine to previously trained rats produced the same adverse effect. 5. Amylobarbitone sodium given to previously trained rats 30 min before the training sessions completely blocked the adverse effect of (+)-amphetamine. 6. (+)-Amphetamine did not produce impairment of performance when given chronically 30 min before training sessions, to previously trained rats. PMID:5343359

  19. Detailed classification of swimming paths in the Morris Water Maze: multiple strategies within one trial.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tiago V; Luksys, Gediminas; Sandi, Carmen; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The Morris Water Maze is a widely used task in studies of spatial learning with rodents. Classical performance measures of animals in the Morris Water Maze include the escape latency, and the cumulative distance to the platform. Other methods focus on classifying trajectory patterns to stereotypical classes representing different animal strategies. However, these approaches typically consider trajectories as a whole, and as a consequence they assign one full trajectory to one class, whereas animals often switch between these strategies, and their corresponding classes, within a single trial. To this end, we take a different approach: we look for segments of diverse animal behaviour within one trial and employ a semi-automated classification method for identifying the various strategies exhibited by the animals within a trial. Our method allows us to reveal significant and systematic differences in the exploration strategies of two animal groups (stressed, non-stressed), that would be unobserved by earlier methods. PMID:26423140

  20. Detailed classification of swimming paths in the Morris Water Maze: multiple strategies within one trial

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Tiago V.; Luksys, Gediminas; Sandi, Carmen; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The Morris Water Maze is a widely used task in studies of spatial learning with rodents. Classical performance measures of animals in the Morris Water Maze include the escape latency, and the cumulative distance to the platform. Other methods focus on classifying trajectory patterns to stereotypical classes representing different animal strategies. However, these approaches typically consider trajectories as a whole, and as a consequence they assign one full trajectory to one class, whereas animals often switch between these strategies, and their corresponding classes, within a single trial. To this end, we take a different approach: we look for segments of diverse animal behaviour within one trial and employ a semi-automated classification method for identifying the various strategies exhibited by the animals within a trial. Our method allows us to reveal significant and systematic differences in the exploration strategies of two animal groups (stressed, non-stressed), that would be unobserved by earlier methods. PMID:26423140

  1. Neutron dose equivalent measured at the maze door with various openings for the jaws and MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Krmar, M.; Baucal, M.; Bozic, N.; Jovancevic, N.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to explore the effects of the jaws and the MLC openings on the neutron dose equivalent (DE) at the maze door and neutron flux at the patient plane. Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze entrance door of a 15 MV therapy linear accelerator room. All measurements were performed using various field sizes up to 40 cm x 40 cm. Activation detectors constructed from natural Indium (In) were exposed at Cd envelope to neutrons in order to estimate relative changes of epithermal neutron fluences in the patient plane. Results: Our study showed that the dose equivalent at the maze door is at the highest when the jaw are closed and that maximal jaws opening reduces the DE by more than 20%. The neutron dose equivalent at the maze door measured for radiation fields defined by jaws do not differ significantly from the DE measured when MLC determines the same size radiation field. The epithermal capture reaction rate measured using different jaw openings differs by approximately 10%. When an MLC leaf is inserted into a fixed geometry for one opening of the jaws, an increase of the epithermal neutron capture reaction rate in Indium activation detectors was observed. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in the neutron DE when MLC defines radiation field instead of jaws. This leads to the conclusion that the overall number of neutrons remains similar and it does not depend on how primary photon beam was stopped--by the jaws or the MLC. An increase of the fast neutron capture reaction rate when MLC leaves are inserted probably originates from the neutron scattering.

  2. Influence of the estrous cycle on the behavior of rats in the elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Amauri; dos Santos, Ubirajara D; Felisbino, Fabrício E; de Afonseca, Taciana L; Antunes, Gabriela; Morato, Silvio

    2004-09-30

    The elevated T-maze is an animal anxiety model which can discriminate between anxiety-like and fear-like behaviors. The estrous cycle is an important variable of the response in animal anxiety tests and is known to affect other models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the estrous cycle on behavior displayed in the elevated T-maze test. Seventeen male and 60 female rats were submitted to one session in this test, with the females being screened for the estrous cycle and divided into groups according to the various phases. The elevated T-maze had three arms of equal dimensions ( 50 cm x 10 cm), one enclosed by 40-cm high walls and perpendicular to the others, the apparatus being elevated 50 cm above the floor. Each rat was placed in the end of the enclosed arm and the latency for it to leave this arm was recorded. These measurements were repeated three times separated by 30-s intervals (passive avoidance). After trial 3, each rat was placed at the distal end of the right open arm and the latency to exit this arm was recorded. Whenever latencies were greater than 300 s the trial was finished. The results demonstrated females in diestrus exhibited anxiety-like behaviors while females in metaestrus behaved in a similar way as the males. There were no differences between groups in fear-like behaviors. The results also indicate the elevated T-maze to be a sensitive test to measure anxiety. PMID:15240054

  3. Comparisons of Online Reading Paradigms: Eye Tracking, Moving-Window, and Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This study compares four methodologies used to examine online sentence processing during reading. Specifically, self-paced, non-cumulative, moving-window reading (Just et al. in "J Exp Psychol Gen" 111:228-238, 1982), eye tracking (see e.g., Rayner in "Q J Exp Psychol" 62:1457-1506, 2009), and two versions of the maze task (Forster et al. in…

  4. A modified cryo-maze procedure via the superior transseptal approach.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The superior transseptal approach provides excellent exposure for mitral valve reconstruction. For atrial fibrillation, cryoablation is less invasive, simpler, and safer than the Cox maze operation. Combining the superior transseptal approach and cryoablation for mitral valve procedures yields a high recovery rate from atrial fibrillation, similar to that of radiofrequency ablation. Cryoablation-related complications such as thromboembolic events or requirement for a permanent pacemaker were not observed in our consecutive series. Cryoablation is also cost-effective. PMID:24585282

  5. Search Strategies Used by "APP" Transgenic Mice during Navigation in the Morris Water Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janus, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    TgCRND8 mice represent a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, with onset of cognitive impairment and increasing amyloid-[beta] plaques in their brains at 12 weeks of age. In this study, the spatial memory in 25- to 30-week-old TgCRND8 mice was analyzed in two reference and one working memory Morris water maze (MWM) tests. In reference…

  6. Effect of neonatal rat bisphenol a exposure on performance in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Carr, Russell; Bertasi, Frances; Betancourt, Angela; Bowers, Susan; Gandy, B Scott; Ryan, Peter; Willard, Scott

    2003-11-14

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogen, is a component of many food and beverage containers and can leach into the container contents over time. Due to its estrogenic properties, exposure to BPA during development could alter the appropriate maturation of pathways essential for normal cognitive function at later ages. To investigate this, the effects of repeated postnatal exposure of male and female rats to BPA on spatial learning and memory were investigated using a Morris water maze. Breeders and offspring were maintained on a standard phytoestrogen-free diet. Oral administration of 72 microg/kg 17 beta-estradiol (E(2)), 100 microg/kg BPA (low BPA), 250 microg/kg BPA (high BPA), or the safflower oil vehicle was performed daily from postnatal d 1 (PND1) through PND14. There were no treatment-related effects on swimming ability or motivation (PND33) or on acquisition of maze solution (PND34-37). However, acquisition of maze performance was significantly better in control males than in control females. Treatment with E(2) and low BPA disrupted this normal gender-dependent pattern of acquisition, while treatment with high BPA did not. In a probe trial (PND40), females treated with high BPA spent significantly less time in the escape quadrant. These data indicate that E(2) and low dosages of BPA can alter the normal gender-dependent pattern of acquisition, while higher dosages of BPA alter the retention of spatial information without significantly affecting acquisition. PMID:14555403

  7. Neutron dose calculation at the maze entrance of medical linear accelerator rooms.

    PubMed

    Falcão, R C; Facure, A; Silva, A X

    2007-01-01

    Currently, teletherapy machines of cobalt and caesium are being replaced by linear accelerators. The maximum photon energy in these machines can vary from 4 to 25 MeV, and one of the great advantages of these equipments is that they do not have a radioactive source incorporated. High-energy (E > 10 MV) medical linear accelerators offer several physical advantages over lower energy ones: the skin dose is lower, the beam is more penetrating, and the scattered dose to tissues outside the target volume is smaller. Nevertheless, the contamination of undesirable neutrons in the therapeutic beam, generated by the high-energy photons, has become an additional problem as long as patient protection and occupational doses are concerned. The treatment room walls are shielded to attenuate the primary and secondary X-ray fluence, and this shielding is generally adequate to attenuate the neutrons. However, these neutrons are scattered through the treatment room maze and may result in a radiological problem at the door entrance, a high occupancy area in a radiotherapy facility. In this article, we used MCNP Monte Carlo simulation to calculate neutron doses in the maze of radiotherapy rooms and we suggest an alternative method to the Kersey semi-empirical model of neutron dose calculation at the entrance of mazes. It was found that this new method fits better measured values found in literature, as well as our Monte Carlo simulated ones. PMID:17005540

  8. Experimental parameters affecting the Morris water maze performance of a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stasko, Melissa R; Costa, Alberto C S

    2004-09-23

    The Ts65Dn mouse is the most studied and genetically the most complete animal model of Down syndrome (DS) available. These mice display many DS-like features, including performance deficits in different behavioral tasks, motor dysfunction, and age-dependent loss of cholinergic markers in the basal forebrain. At present, the only robust data demonstrating a behavioral deficit potentially associated with learning and memory in Ts65Dn mice less than 6 months old have come from studies that used some variation of the Morris water maze task. However, the specific features of the water maze deficits seen in these animals are still poorly defined. This study is an initial attempt to bridge this knowledge gap. We investigated three major factors potentially influencing the performance of Ts65Dn mice in the water maze: (1) order in which the test is executed; (2) age of the animals; and (3) levels of aversiveness associated with the test. Measurements of plasma corticosterone levels and core body temperature after swimming were also carried out in additional subsets of mice. Overall, we found that the behavioral phenotype of Ts65Dn mice was milder than previously described in the literature. Additionally, Ts65Dn mice were significantly more responsive to potential stressors and more prone to swim-induced hypothermia than euploid control animals. More studies are needed to tease out further the potential effects of confounding factors on the performance of Ts65Dn mice. PMID:15302106

  9. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze

    PubMed Central

    Pinnell, Richard C.; Almajidy, Rand K.; Kirch, Robert D.; Cassel, Jean C.; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2016-01-01

    With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems). As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours. PMID:26828947

  10. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze.

    PubMed

    Pinnell, Richard C; Almajidy, Rand K; Kirch, Robert D; Cassel, Jean C; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2016-01-01

    With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems). As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours. PMID:26828947

  11. Long-term effects of prior cocaine exposure on Morris water maze performance.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Ian A; Montgomery, Karienn S; LaSarge, Candi L; Simon, Nicholas W; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2008-02-01

    Cocaine addiction is associated with long-term cognitive alterations including deficits on tests of declarative/spatial learning and memory. To determine the extent to which cocaine exposure plays a causative role in these deficits, adult male Long-Evans rats were given daily injections of cocaine (30 mg/kg/day x 14 days) or saline vehicle. Three months later, rats were trained for 6 sessions on a Morris water maze protocol adapted from Gallagher, Burwell, and Burchinal [Gallagher, M., Burwell, R., & Burchinal, M. (1993). Severity of spatial learning impairment in aging: development of a learning index for performance in the Morris water maze. Behavioral Neuroscience, 107, 618-626]. Rats given prior cocaine exposure performed similarly to controls on training trials, but searched farther from the platform location on probe trials interpolated throughout the training sessions and showed increased thigmotaxis. The results demonstrate that a regimen of cocaine exposure can impair Morris water maze performance as long as 3 months after exposure. Although the impairments were not consistent with major deficits in spatial learning and memory, they may have resulted from cocaine-induced increases in stress responsiveness and/or anxiety. Increased stress and anxiety would be expected to increase thigmotaxis as well as cause impairments in searching for the platform location, possibly through actions on ventral striatal dopamine signaling. PMID:17904876

  12. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  13. Flat disc, radially nonhomogeneous, lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornbleet, S.

    1980-12-01

    A plane surfaced lens can be constructed through the use of a radially nonhomogenous medium, with axial symmetry. The rays from an axial source are incident on the plane front surface, perpendicular to the axis, where the assumption is made that the rays obey Snell's laws locally as for an infinite uniform medium. The curved ray paths are then given by the standard ray integral and are taken up to the point where each ray becomes horizontal. For certain polynomial functions describing the refractive index, the ray integral is an incomplete elliptic integral of the first kind, and trial functions can be inserted, such that the rays have become horizontal all at a second plane surface, thus creating a flat disk lens. The total symmetry of the design provides for many advantageous properties.

  14. Radial superlattices and single nanoreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneke, Ch.; Jin-Phillipp, N.-Y.; Loa, I.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the wall structure and thermal stability of individual freestanding rolled-up nanotubes (RUNTs) using micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Our studies reveal that the walls of the InAs/GaAs RUNTs consist of a radial superlattice comprising alternating crystalline and noncrystalline layers. Furthermore, we locally heated individual RUNTs with a laser beam, and Raman spectroscopy was used in situ to monitor any structural changes. At about 300 °C the heated part of a RUNT starts to oxidize and eventually transforms into crystalline β-Ga2O3. This result shows that RUNTs can serve as nanoreactors that locally synthesize material at intentional places on a substrate surface.

  15. A fully relativistic radial fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.; Ritter, Patxi

    2014-10-01

    Radial fall has historically played a momentous role. It is one of the most classical problems, the solutions of which represent the level of understanding of gravitation in a given epoch. A gedankenexperiment in a modern frame is given by a small body, like a compact star or a solar mass black hole, captured by a supermassive black hole. The mass of the small body itself and the emission of gravitational radiation cause the departure from the geodesic path due to the back-action, that is the self-force. For radial fall, as any other non-adiabatic motion, the instantaneous identity of the radiated energy and the loss of orbital energy cannot be imposed and provide the perturbed trajectory. In the first part of this paper, we present the effects due to the self-force computed on the geodesic trajectory in the background field. Compared to the latter trajectory, in the Regge-Wheeler, harmonic and all others smoothly related gauges, a far observer concludes that the self-force pushes inward (not outward) the falling body, with a strength proportional to the mass of the small body for a given large mass; further, the same observer notes a higher value of the maximal coordinate velocity, this value being reached earlier during infall. In the second part of this paper, we implement a self-consistent approach for which the trajectory is iteratively corrected by the self-force, this time computed on osculating geodesics. Finally, we compare the motion driven by the self-force without and with self-consistent orbital evolution. Subtle differences are noticeable, even if self-force effects have hardly the time to accumulate in such a short orbit.

  16. Correlations among central serotonergic parameters and age-related emotional and cognitive changes assessed through the elevated T-maze and the Morris water maze

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luciana; Graeff, Frederico G.; Pereira, Silvia R. C.; Oliveira-Silva, Ieda F.; Franco, Glaura C.

    2010-01-01

    Emotion and spatial cognitive aspects were assessed in adult and middle-aged rats using the elevated T-maze (ETM) and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Both adult and middle-aged rats were able to acquire inhibitory avoidance behaviour, though the middle-aged subjects showed larger latencies along the trials, including the baseline, which was significantly longer than that showed by adult rats. Further, compared to adult rats, middle-aged rats had longer escape latency. In spite of the worse performance in the second session of the spatial cognitive task, the middle-aged rats were able to learn the task and remember the information along the whole probe trial test. Both thalamic serotonin (5-HT) concentration and amygdala serotonergic activity (5-HIAA/5-HT) are significantly correlated, respectively, to escape latency and behavioural extinction in the MWM only for middle-aged rats. A significant correlation between the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the amygdala and behavioural extinction for middle-aged, but not for adult, rats was observed. This result suggests that serotonergic activity in the amygdala may regulate behavioural flexibility in aged animals. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between hippocampal 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio and the path length at the second training session of the MWM task, although only for adult subjects. This was the only session where a significant difference between the performance of middle-aged and adult rats has occurred. Although the involvement of the hippocampus in learning and memory is well established, the present work shows, for the first time, a correlation between a serotonergic hippocampal parameter and performance of a spatial task, which is lost with ageing. PMID:20431986

  17. Hollow Cathode With Multiple Radial Orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Improved hollow cathode serving as source of electrons has multiple radial orifices instead of single axial orifice. Distributes ion current more smoothly, over larger area. Prototype of high-current cathodes for ion engines in spacecraft. On Earth, cathodes used in large-diameter ion sources for industrial processing of materials. Radial orientation of orifices in new design causes current to be dispersed radially in vicinity of cathode. Advantageous where desireable to produce plasma more nearly uniform over wider region around cathode.

  18. Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, N.; Yarr, George

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.

  19. Maze Suite 1.0: a complete set of tools to prepare, present, and analyze navigational and spatial cognitive neuroscience experiments.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Hasan; Allen, Sarah L; Platek, Steven M; Onaral, Banu

    2008-02-01

    Maze Suite is a complete set of tools that enables researchers to perform spatial and navigational behavioral experiments within interactive, easy-to-create, and extendable (e.g., multiple rooms) 3-D virtual environments. Maze Suite can be used to design and edit adapted 3-D environments, as well as to track subjects' behavioral performance. Maze Suite consists of three main applications: an editing program for constructing maze environments (MazeMaker), a visualization/rendering module (MazeWalker), and an analysis and mapping tool (MazeViewer). Each of these tools is run and used from a graphical user interface, thus making editing, execution, and analysis user friendly. MazeMaker is a .NET architecture application that can easily be used to create new 3-D environments and to edit objects (e.g., geometric shapes, pictures, landscapes, etc.) or add them to the environment effortlessly. In addition, Maze Suite has the capability of sending signal-out pulses to physiological recording devices, using standard computer ports. Maze Suite, with all three applications, is a unique and complete toolset for researchers who want to easily and rapidly deploy interactive 3-D environments. PMID:18411560

  20. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina; Bae, Kee Jeong

    2016-10-01

    "Buttonholing" of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. PMID:27502623

  1. Radial keratotomy associated endothelial degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Ollerton, Andrew; Semnani, Rodmehr T; Hsu, Maylon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the presentation and clinical course of eyes with a history of radial keratotomy (RK) and varying degrees of endothelial degeneration. Methods Retrospective case series were used. Results Thirteen eyes (seven patients) were identified with clinical findings of significant guttata and a prior history of RK. The mean age of presentation for cornea evaluation was 54.3 years (range: 38–72 years), averaging 18.7 years (range: 11–33 years) after RK. The presentation of guttata varied in degree from moderate to severe. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 20/25 to 20/80. All patients had a history of bilateral RK, except one patient who did not develop any guttata in the eye without prior RK. No patients reported a family history of Fuch’s Dystrophy. One patient underwent a penetrating keratoplasty in one eye and a Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the other eye. Conclusions RK may induce a spectrum of endothelial degeneration. In elderly patients, the findings of guttata may signify comorbid Fuch’s dystrophy in which RK incisions could potentially hasten endothelial decomposition. In these select patients with stable cornea topography and prior RK, DSAEK may successfully treat RK endothelial degeneration. PMID:22347792

  2. Behavioral profiles displayed by rats in an elevated asymmetric plus-maze: effects of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Ruarte, M B; Alvarez, E O

    1999-01-01

    When rats are exposed to unknown environments where novelty and fear-inducing characteristics are present (conflictive environments), some specific behaviors are induced and exploration is apparently modulated by fear. In our laboratory, a new type of plus-maze was designed as a model of conflictive exploration. The maze is composed of four arms with different geometrical characteristics, differing from each other by the presence or absence of walls. The degree of asymmetry was as follows: NW, no wall arm; SW, a single high wall present; HL, a low and a high wall present, and HH, two high walls present. The four arms were arranged at 90 degrees angles and the apparatus was called the elevated asymmetric plus-maze (APM). The purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral profile of rats exposed for a single time to the APM with or without treatment with benzodiazepine. Increasing doses of diazepam were injected intraperitoneally in several groups of male, 90-day-old Holtzman rats. Distilled water was injected in control animals. Thirty minutes after treatment all rats were exposed singly to a 5-min test in the APM. Diazepam induced a biphasic modification of exploration in the NW and SW arms. The increase in the exploration score was evident at low doses of diazepam (0.25-1.0 mg/kg body weight) and the decrease in exploration was found with the higher doses of diazepam (2.0-3.0 mg/kg body weight). Non-exploratory behaviors (permanency) were not affected by benzodiazepine treatment. In the HL arm, exploration was not modified but permanency was increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the HH arm, exploration and permanency were not affected. Results are compatible with the idea that exploration-processing mechanisms in conflictive environments are modulated by fear-processing mechanisms of the brain. PMID:10347776

  3. A role for puberty in water maze performance in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Willing, Jari; Drzewiecki, Carly M; Cuenod, Bethany A; Cortes, Laura R; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by neuroanatomical changes that coincide with increased cognitive performance. This developmental period is particularly important for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which mediates higher-order cognitive functioning. The authors' laboratory has shown that puberty is associated with sex-specific changes in neuron number and the dendritic tree in the rat mPFC, but the effects of pubertal onset on cognitive performance remain relatively unexplored. Here, we use a water maze task to assess spatial memory for the location of an escape platform, followed by a test of reversal learning, when the platform is moved to an alternate quadrant in the maze. For both males and females, 2 groups of prepubertal animals were tested (postnatal day [P]30 and P33 for females, P40 and P43 for males), along with 1 group of newly (2 days) postpubertal animals and 1 group of young adults (P60). There were no group differences in learning the initial location of the platform or when the platform location changed, although grouping pre- and postpubertal ages did result in significantly better performance in postpubertal animals. In addition after the platform location changed, individual prepubertal males and females spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the quadrant of the maze where the platform was formerly located than the postpubertal animals. This collectively implies that pubertal onset in both males and females coincides with improved performance on a reversal task, which may be linked with the neuroanatomical changes occurring in the mPFC during this time. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054406

  4. Differentiating common causes of radial wrist pain.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Waqas; Mohiuddin, Zia; Swain, Freddie R; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-09-01

    Radial wrist pain is a common patient complaint with a broad differential. Because treatment and prognosis differ, determining the underlying cause is key. This article reviews a case of intersection syndrome and compares it to other causes of radial wrist pain. PMID:25148441

  5. Radial force in a bearingless reluctance motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Akira; Rahman, M. A.; Fukao, Tadashi

    1991-03-01

    A four-pole reluctance synchronous machine with additional two-pole windings was constructed. The additional winding currents produce the radial force to act as a magnetic bearing. Expressions for the machine inductance functions are given. Inductance functions with respect to the eccentric displacement of the rotor were measured. The contribution of these inductances to the radial force production is established.

  6. Combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing is disclosed that allows for both radial and thrust axes control of an associated shaft. The combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing comprises a rotor and a stator. The rotor comprises a shaft, and first and second rotor pairs each having respective rotor elements. The stator comprises first and second stator elements and a magnet-sensor disk. In one embodiment, each stator element has a plurality of split-poles and a corresponding plurality of radial force coils and, in another embodiment, each stator element does not require thrust force coils, and radial force coils are replaced by double the plurality of coils serving as an outer member of each split-pole half.

  7. Radial spin Hall effect of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Weixing; Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Ling, Xiaohui; Luo, Hailu; Yin, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    We propose and realize a radial spin Hall effect (SHE) of light by using a dielectric metasurface. The metasurface with radially varying optical axes introduces a Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) geometrical phase to the incident light. The spatial gradient of PB phase accounts for a shift in the momentum space and thus leads the light to split radially into two concentric rays with opposite spin in the position space, which is called a radial SHE. Further experiments verify that the magnitude of the splitting increases with the rotation rate of the optical-axis orientation and the propagation distance, thereby allowing for macroscopic observation of the SHE. We also find that the phase of the incident light influences the profiles of the two split rays, while the polarization determines their intensities. The results provide methods to tune the SHE of light by engineering metasurfaces and modulating the incident light, and this radial SHE may be extrapolated to other physical systems.

  8. A within-subject between-apparatus comparison of impulsive choice: T-maze and two-lever chamber.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Paul J; Kuhn, Robin; Reilly, Mark P

    2015-07-01

    Whereas intertemporal choice procedures are a common method for examining impulsive choice in nonhuman subjects, the apparatus used to implement this procedure varies across studies. The purpose of the present study was to compare impulsive choice between a two-lever chamber and a T-maze. In Experiment 1, rats chose between a smaller, immediate reinforcer and a larger, delayed reinforcer, first in a two-lever chamber and then in a T-maze. Delay to the larger reinforcer changed in an ascending and descending order (0-32 s) across sessions. Experiment 2 examined the same between-apparatus comparison but under steady-state conditions with the delay fixed at 32 s. In Experiment 1, choice for the larger, delayed reinforcer was generally higher in the T-maze than in the two-lever chamber. Similarly in Experiment 2, steady-state choice for the larger, delayed reinforcer was higher in the T-maze. Choice for the 32-s delayed reinforcer was also greater in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that extended exposure to the delay is required for the T-maze to yield reliable impulsive choice data. While the reasons for the between-apparatus discrepancies are at present unknown, results from both experiments clearly demonstrate that the apparatus matters when assessing overall level and reliability of impulsive choice data. PMID:26080901

  9. Different rankings of inbred mouse strains on the Morris maze and a refined 4-arm water escape task.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, Douglas; Cooper, Sean F; Crabbe, John C

    2005-11-30

    The submerged platform or Morris water escape task is widely used to study genetic variation in spatial learning and memory, but interpretation is sometimes difficult because of wall hugging, jumping off the platform, floating or non-spatial swim strategies. We modified the task by introducing four wide arms into the circular tank and adding features that reduced, eliminated, or compensated for several competing behaviors. Three versions of the 4-arm task were evaluated in detail, and the third version yielded good results for six of eight inbred strains. Furthermore, the 4-arm task could be scored adequately without computerized video tracking. Although performance on the 4-arm task was generally superior to the Morris maze, the extent of the improvement was strain dependent. Two strains with retinal degeneration (C3H/HeJ, FVB/NJ) performed poorly on both the Morris and 4-arm mazes, whereas C57BL/6J and DBA/2J did well on both mazes. A/J performed poorly on the Morris task but became very proficient on the 4-arm maze, despite its strong tendency to hug the walls of the tank. The BALB/cByJ strain, on the other hand, exhibited the best probe trial performance on the Morris maze but was very slow in acquiring the 4-arm task. We conclude that no single task can reveal the full richness of spatially guided behavior in a wide range of mouse genotypes. PMID:16191444

  10. Automated Visual Cognitive Tasks for Recording Neural Activity Using a Floor Projection Maze

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Brendon W.; Yang, Fang-Chi; Burwell, Rebecca D.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological tasks used in primates to investigate mechanisms of learning and memory are typically visually guided cognitive tasks. We have developed visual cognitive tasks for rats using the Floor Projection Maze1,2 that are optimized for visual abilities of rats permitting stronger comparisons of experimental findings with other species. In order to investigate neural correlates of learning and memory, we have integrated electrophysiological recordings into fully automated cognitive tasks on the Floor Projection Maze1,2. Behavioral software interfaced with an animal tracking system allows monitoring of the animal's behavior with precise control of image presentation and reward contingencies for better trained animals. Integration with an in vivo electrophysiological recording system enables examination of behavioral correlates of neural activity at selected epochs of a given cognitive task. We describe protocols for a model system that combines automated visual presentation of information to rodents and intracranial reward with electrophysiological approaches. Our model system offers a sophisticated set of tools as a framework for other cognitive tasks to better isolate and identify specific mechanisms contributing to particular cognitive processes. PMID:24638057

  11. Discrimination of acoustic patterns in rats using the water T-maze

    PubMed Central

    de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of abstract rules and their generalization to new items has been proposed to be at the heart of higher cognitive functions such as language. Research with animals has shown that various species can extract rather complex patterns from the input, as well as establish abstract same/different relations. However, much of these findings have been observed after extensive training procedures. Here, we tested rats’ capacity to discriminate and generalize tone triplets that entailed a repetition from triplets that followed an ordinal, non-repeating pattern following a relatively short discrimination training procedure in a water T-maze. Our findings demonstrate that, under this procedure and after only 12 sessions, rats can learn to discriminate both patterns when a reliable difference in pitch variations is present across them (Experiment 1). When differences in pitch are eliminated (Experiment 2), no discrimination between patterns is found. Results suggest a procedure based on a water T-maze might be used to explore discrimination of acoustic patterns in rodents. PMID:25729120

  12. Tenuigenin treatment improves behavioral Y-maze learning by enhancing synaptic plasticity in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun-ni; Wang, Chun-yang; Wang, Xiu-li; Wu, Bo-zhi; Gu, Xing-yang; Liu, Wen-xiao; Gong, Liang-wei; Xiao, Peng; Li, Chu-hua

    2013-06-01

    Polygala tenuifolia root has been used to improve memory and cognitive function in Traditional Chinese Medicine for more than 2000 years. Since tenuigenin (TEN) is one of the most utilized P. tenuifolia root extracts, it is surprising there is no evidence for the effects of TEN on learning and memory so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TEN on learning and memory with Y-maze test in mice. We found that oral administration of 4mg/kg TEN significantly improved learning and memory in Y-maze task. Treatment with 4mg/kg TEN markedly reduced the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in hippocampus. In the electrophysiological test of hippocampal brain slice, 2μg/ml TEN perfusion substantially enhanced field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) amplitude both in basic synaptic transmission and after high frequency stimulation (HFS) in Schaffer to CA1 pathway (Scha-CA1). These results indicate that TEN enhancing learning and memory may result from inhibiting AChE activity, improving antioxidation and enhancing synaptic plasticity in mice. Therefore, TEN shows promise as a potential nootropic product in improving learning and memory. PMID:23499702

  13. Heading which way? Y-maze chemical assays: not all crustaceans are alike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenning, Matthes; Lehmann, Philipp; Lindström, Magnus; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-09-01

    In a world full of chemicals, many crustaceans rely on elaborate olfactory systems to guide behaviors related to finding food or to assess the presence of conspecifics and predators. We analyzed the responses of the isopod Saduria entomon to a range of stimuli by which the animal is likely to encounter in its natural habitat using a Y-maze bioassay. In order to document the efficiency of the experimental design, the same bioassay was used to test the behavior of the crayfish Procambarus fallax whose ability to track odors is well documented. The crayfish performed well in the Y-maze and were able to locate the source of a food-related odor with high fidelity. The isopod S. entomon reacted indifferently or with aversion to most of the stimuli applied. In 1800 trials, only four out of 15 different stimuli yielded statistically significant results, and only one odorant was found to be significantly attractive. The findings raise several questions whether the stimuli presented and/or the experimental setup used represents an ecologically relevant situation for S. entomon. In each instance, our experiments illustrate that established methods cannot be readily transferred from one species to another.

  14. Cross-species translation of the Morris maze for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Possin, Katherine L; Sanchez, Pascal E; Anderson-Bergman, Clifford; Fernandez, Roland; Kerchner, Geoffrey A; Johnson, Erica T; Davis, Allyson; Lo, Iris; Bott, Nicholas T; Kiely, Thomas; Fenesy, Michelle C; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Analogous behavioral assays are needed across animal models and human patients to improve translational research. Here, we examined the extent to which performance in the Morris water maze - the most frequently used behavioral assay of spatial learning and memory in rodents - translates to humans. We designed a virtual version of the assay for human subjects that includes the visible-target training, hidden-target learning, and probe trials that are typically administered in the mouse version. We compared transgenic mice that express human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) and patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) to evaluate the sensitivity of performance measures in detecting deficits. Patients performed normally during visible-target training, while hAPP mice showed procedural learning deficits. In hidden-target learning and probe trials, hAPP mice and MCI-AD patients showed similar deficits in learning and remembering the target location. In addition, we have provided recommendations for selecting performance measures and sample sizes to make these assays sensitive to learning and memory deficits in humans with MCI-AD and in mouse models. Together, our results demonstrate that with careful study design and analysis, the Morris maze is a sensitive assay for detecting AD-relevant impairments across species. PMID:26784542

  15. Vertical T-maze choice assay for arthropod response to odorants.

    PubMed

    Stelinski, Lukasz; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of insects and arachnids as pests of agricultural crops, urban environments or as vectors of plant and human diseases, various technologies are being developed as control tools. A subset of these tools focuses on modifying the behavior of arthropods by attraction or repulsion. Therefore, arthropods are often the focus of behavioral investigations. Various tools have been developed to measure arthropod behavior, including wind tunnels, flight mills, servospheres, and various types of olfactometers. The purpose of these tools is to measure insect or arachnid response to visual or more often olfactory cues. The vertical T-maze olfactometer described here measures choices performed by insects in response to attractants or repellents. It is a high throughput assay device that takes advantage of the positive phototaxis (attraction to light) and negative geotaxis (tendency to walk or fly upward) exhibited by many arthropods. The olfactometer consists of a 30 cm glass tube that is divided in half with a Teflon strip forming a T-maze. Each half serves as an arm of the olfactometer enabling the test subjects to make a choice between two potential odor fields in assays involving attractants. In assays involving repellents, lack of normal response to known attractants can also be measured as a third variable. PMID:23439130

  16. Cross-species translation of the Morris maze for Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Possin, Katherine L.; Sanchez, Pascal E.; Anderson-Bergman, Clifford; Fernandez, Roland; Kerchner, Geoffrey A.; Johnson, Erica T.; Davis, Allyson; Lo, Iris; Bott, Nicholas T.; Kiely, Thomas; Fenesy, Michelle C.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Analogous behavioral assays are needed across animal models and human patients to improve translational research. Here, we examined the extent to which performance in the Morris water maze — the most frequently used behavioral assay of spatial learning and memory in rodents — translates to humans. We designed a virtual version of the assay for human subjects that includes the visible-target training, hidden-target learning, and probe trials that are typically administered in the mouse version. We compared transgenic mice that express human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) and patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease (MCI-AD) to evaluate the sensitivity of performance measures in detecting deficits. Patients performed normally during visible-target training, while hAPP mice showed procedural learning deficits. In hidden-target learning and probe trials, hAPP mice and MCI-AD patients showed similar deficits in learning and remembering the target location. In addition, we have provided recommendations for selecting performance measures and sample sizes to make these assays sensitive to learning and memory deficits in humans with MCI-AD and in mouse models. Together, our results demonstrate that with careful study design and analysis, the Morris maze is a sensitive assay for detecting AD-relevant impairments across species. PMID:26784542

  17. Air-kerma evaluation at the maze entrance of HDR brachytherapy facilities.

    PubMed

    Pujades, M C; Granero, D; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J; Papagiannis, P; Siebert, F A

    2014-12-01

    In the absence of procedures for evaluating the design of brachytherapy (BT) facilities for radiation protection purposes, the methodology used for external beam radiotherapy facilities is often adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the NCRP 151 methodology for estimating the air-kerma rate at the door in BT facilities. Such methodology was checked against Monte Carlo (MC) techniques using the code Geant4. Five different facility designs were studied for (192)Ir and (60)Co HDR applications to account for several different bunker layouts.For the estimation of the lead thickness needed at the door, the use of transmission data for the real spectra at the door instead of the ones emitted by (192)Ir and (60)Co will reduce the lead thickness by a factor of five for (192)Ir and ten for (60)Co. This will significantly lighten the door and hence simplify construction and operating requirements for all bunkers.The adaptation proposed in this study to estimate the air-kerma rate at the door depends on the complexity of the maze: it provides good results for bunkers with a maze (i.e. similar to those used for linacs for which the NCRP 151 methodology was developed) but fails for less conventional designs. For those facilities, a specific Monte Carlo study is in order for reasons of safety and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25222942

  18. Assessment of anxiety in open field and elevated plus maze using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Lecorps, Benjamin; Rödel, Heiko G; Féron, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Due to their direct inaccessibility, affective states are classically assessed by gathering concomitant physiological and behavioral measures. Although such a dual approach to assess emotional states is frequently used in different species including humans, the invasiveness of procedures for physiological recordings particularly in smaller-sized animals strongly restricts their application. We used infrared thermography, a non-invasive method, to assess physiological arousal during open field and elevated plus maze tests in mice. By measuring changes in surface temperature indicative of the animals' emotional response, we aimed to improve the inherently limited and still controversial information provided by behavioral parameters commonly used in these tests. Our results showed significant and consistent thermal responses during both tests, in accordance with classical physiological responses occurring in stressful situations. Besides, we found correlations between these thermal responses and the occurrence of anxiety-related behaviors. Furthermore, initial temperatures measured at the start of each procedure (open field, elevated plus maze), which can be interpreted as a measure of the animals' initial physiological arousal, predicted the levels of activity and of anxiety-related behaviors displayed during the tests. Our results stress the strong link between physiological correlates of emotions and behaviors expressed during unconditioned fear tests. PMID:26884121

  19. Scopolamine impairs learning performance of rats in a 14-unit T-maze.

    PubMed

    Spangler, E L; Rigby, P; Ingram, D K

    1986-09-01

    To assess involvement of muscarinic cholinergic systems in performance of a shock-motivated 14-unit T-maze task, 3-month old Fischer-344 rats were given an IP injection of scopolamine (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), methylscopolamine (1.0 mg/kg), or saline 30 min prior to maze training on 2 consecutive days. Scopolamine, but not methylscopolamine, impaired all components of acquisition performance. Measures of error performance, run time, shock duration, and number of shocks received were significantly increased but only at the 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg scopolamine doses. The cognitive component of the task, measured by error performance, appeared most affected. Cognitive performance deficits observed following scopolamine administration in the present study resembled age-related impairments in rats and mice previously observed in this task. The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction appears to be implicated by these findings; however, the degree to which memory systems are involved remains unclear. Other performance variables such as discriminative control of stimuli or mechanisms of attention are implicated and discussed. PMID:3022309

  20. Influence of magnetic field on zebrafish activity and orientation in a plus maze.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Elena A; Pavlova, Vera V; Nepomnyashchikh, Valentin A; Krylov, Viacheslav V

    2016-01-01

    We describe an impact of the geomagnetic field (GMF) and its modification on zebrafish's orientation and locomotor activity in a plus maze with four arms oriented to the north, east, south and west. Zebrafish's directional preferences were bimodal in GMF: they visited two arms oriented in opposed directions (east-west) most frequently. This bimodal preference remained stable for same individuals across experiments divided by several days. When the horizontal GMF component was turned 90° clockwise, the preference accordingly shifted by 90° to arms oriented to the north and south. Other modifications of GMF (reversal of both vertical and horizontal GMF components; reversal of vertical component only; and reversal of horizontal component only) did not exert any discernible effect on the orientation of zebrafish. The 90° turn of horizontal component also resulted in a significant increase of fish's locomotor activity in comparison with the natural GMF. This increase became even more pronounced when the horizontal component was repeatedly turned by 90° and back with 1min interval between turns. Our results show that GMF and its variations should be taken into account when interpreting zebrafish's directional preferences and locomotor activity in mazes and other experimental devices. PMID:26589739

  1. Anxiolytic effect of carbamazepine in the elevated plus-maze: possible role of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Zangrossi, H; Leite, J R; Graeff, F G

    1992-01-01

    In order to extend previously reported observations with other animal models of anxiety, the effect of carbamazepine (CBZ) was presently measured in rats placed on the elevated plus-maze. Intraperitoneal injection of CBZ (5-40 mg/kg) increased the percentage of open arm entries as well as the percentage of time spent on the open arms of the maze, without affecting the total number of arm entries. This effect is characteristic of anxiolytic drugs. The inhibitor of adenosine neuronal uptake papaverine (5-40 mg/kg) caused a similar anxiolytic effect, whereas the adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline (1-4 mg/kg) selectively decreased the percentage of open arm entries, indicative of an anxiogenic effect. Furthermore, the combination of an anxiogenic dose (4 mg/kg) of aminophylline with an anxiolytic dose (40 mg/kg) of CBZ resulted in cancellation of each other effects. Since reported neurochemical evidence shows that CBZ interacts with adenosine receptors, the present results provide preliminary support for a participation of this neurotransmitter in the anxiolytic action of CBZ. PMID:1346723

  2. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. PMID:24860019

  3. Virtual water maze learning in human increases functional connectivity between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Daniel G; Mantini, Dante; Coxon, James P; D'Hooge, Rudi; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that functional connectivity between remote brain regions can be modulated by task learning or the performance of an already well-learned task. Here, we investigated the extent to which initial learning and stable performance of a spatial navigation task modulates functional connectivity between subregions of hippocampus and striatum. Subjects actively navigated through a virtual water maze environment and used visual cues to learn the position of a fixed spatial location. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected before and after virtual water maze navigation in two scan sessions conducted 1 week apart, with a behavior-only training session in between. There was a large significant reduction in the time taken to intercept the target location during scan session 1 and a small significant reduction during the behavior-only training session. No further reduction was observed during scan session 2. This indicates that scan session 1 represented initial learning and scan session 2 represented stable performance. We observed an increase in functional connectivity between left posterior hippocampus and left dorsal caudate that was specific to scan session 1. Importantly, the magnitude of the increase in functional connectivity was correlated with offline gains in task performance. Our findings suggest cooperative interaction occurs between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate during awake rest following the initial phase of spatial navigation learning. Furthermore, we speculate that the increase in functional connectivity observed during awake rest after initial learning might reflect consolidation-related processing. PMID:25418860

  4. Cognitive enrichment for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evaluation of a novel underwater maze device.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Davies, Samuel L; Madigan, Andrew W; Warner, Abby J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enrichment is gaining popularity as a tool to enhance captive animal well-being, but research on captive cetaceans is lacking. Dolphin cognition has been studied intensively since the 1950s, and several hundred bottlenose dolphins are housed in major zoos and aquaria worldwide, but most dolphin enrichment consists of simple floating objects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel, underwater maze device (UMD) was cognitively enriching for one group of male and one group of female dolphins at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, CA. The dolphin's task was to navigate a rubber ball through a maze of pipes, towards an exit pipe. We also tested a modification where an edible gelatine ball fell into the pool once the UMD was solved. The UMD was provided to each group between 8 and 11 times over a 4-week period. Male dolphins used the UMD without prior training, whereas females did not use the UMD at all. Two male dolphins solved the UMD 17 times, using a variety of problem-solving strategies. The UMD had no significant effect on circular (repetitive) swimming patterns, but males spent significantly more time underwater when the UMD was present. Males used the UMD significantly more when it contained the rubber ball, but the gelatine ball stimulated social play. The UMD is a safe and practical device for captive dolphins. It now requires further testing on other dolphins, particularly females, to in order to examine whether the sex differences we observed are a general phenomenon. PMID:24018985

  5. Novel Integration Radial and Axial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth; Brown, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Typically, fully active magnetically suspended systems require one axial and two radial magnetic bearings. Combining radial and axial functions into a single device allows for more compact and elegant packaging. Furthermore, in the case of high-speed devices such as energy storage flywheels, it is beneficial to minimize shaft length to keep rotor mode frequencies as high as possible. Attempts have been made to combine radial and axial functionality, but with certain drawbacks. One approach requires magnetic control flux to flow through a bias magnet reducing control effectiveness, thus resulting in increased resistive losses. This approach also requires axial force producing magnetic flux to flow in a direction into the rotor laminate that is undesirable for minimizing eddy-current losses resulting in rotational losses. Another approach applies a conical rotor shape to what otherwise would be a radial heteropolar magnetic bearing configuration. However, positional non-linear effects are introduced with this scheme and the same windings are used for bias, radial, and axial control adding complexity to the controller and electronics. For this approach, the amount of axial capability must be limited. It would be desirable for an integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing to have the following characteristics; separate inputs for radial and axial control for electronics and control simplicity, all magnetic control fluxes should only flow through their respective air gaps and should not flow through any bias magnets for minimal resistive losses, be of a homopolar design to minimize rotational losses, position related non-linear effects should be minimized, and dependent upon the design parameters, be able to achieve any radial/axial force or power ratio as desired. The integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing described in this paper exhibits all these characteristics. Magnetic circuit design, design equations, and magnetic field modeling results will be presented.

  6. Novel Integrated Radial and Axial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Brown, Gary L.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Typically, fully active magnetically suspended systems require one axial and two radial magnetic bearings. Combining radial and axial functions into a single device allows for more compact and elegant packaging. Furthermore, in the case of high-speed devices such as energy storage flywheels, it is beneficial to minimize shaft length to keep rotor mode frequencies as high as possible. Attempts have been made to combine radial and axial functionality, but with certain drawbacks. One approach requires magnetic control flux to flow through a bias magnet reducing control effectiveness, thus resulting in increased resistive losses. This approach also requires axial force producing magnetic flux to flow in a direction into the rotor laminate that is undesirable for minimizing eddy-current losses resulting in rotational losses. Another approach applies a conical rotor shape to what otherwise would be a radial heteropolar magnetic bearing configuration. However, positional non-linear effects are introduced with this scheme and the same windings are used for bias, radial, and axial control adding complexity to the controller and electronics. For this approach, the amount of axial capability must be limited. It would be desirable for an integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing to have the following characteristics, separate inputs for radial and axial control for electronics and control simplicity, all magnetic control fluxes should only flow through their respective air gaps and should not flow through any bias magnets for minimal resistive losses, be of a homopolar design to minimize rotational losses, position related non-linear effects should be minimized, and dependent upon the design parameters, be able to achieve any radial/axial force or power ratio as desired. The integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing described in this paper exhibits all these characteristics. Magnetic circuit design, design equations, and analysis results will be presented.

  7. Scintillating lustre induced by radial fins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Fukuda, Haruaki; Watanabe, Katsumi; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Radial lines of Ehrenstein patterns induce illusory scintillating lustre in gray disks inserted into the central gaps (scintillating-lustre effect). We report a novel variant of this illusion by replacing the radial lines with white and black radial fins. Both white and gray disks inserted into the central gaps were perceived as scintillating, if the ratio of the black/white fin width were balanced (ie, close to 1.0). Thus, the grayness of the central disk is not a prerequisite for the scintillation. However, the scintillation was drastically reduced when the ratio was imbalanced. Furthermore, the optimal ratio depended on the color of the center disks. PMID:23145270

  8. Catalogue of radial velocities of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, G.G.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Catalogue of Radial Velocities of Galaxies is a survey of radial velocities of redshifts of the galaxies in the universe. It lists all available measurements for each galaxy (including Russian citations) from the measurement of the first radial velocity by Slipher in 1914 through December 1980. It includes optical and radio measurements for all galaxies in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In bringing together uniformly and concisely all published references, the catalogue affords readers the opportunity to evaluate the data and determine which measurement for the radical velocity of each galaxy.

  9. Developmental treatment with the dopamine D2/3 agonist quinpirole selectively impairs spatial learning in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Johnson, Holly L; Burns, Lindsey N; Williams, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    Developmental exposure to the dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole is reported to induce D2 priming, impair Morris water maze performance, reduce acoustic startle prepulse inhibition (PPI), and alter locomotor activity. We treated rats from postnatal days 1-21 with the dose reported to induce these effects, 1.0 mg/kg/day, and two higher doses, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg/day, or saline. Offspring were tested in the Morris water maze, PPI, exploratory locomotor activity, activity after quinpirole and (+)-methamphetamine challenge, elevated zero maze, light-dark box, marble burying, straight channel swimming, and Cincinnati water maze. In the Morris water maze, all quinpirole groups had longer latencies on test days 3-5 of acquisition, but no effects on reversal or shifted-reduced platform trials. The quinpirole 4.0 mg/kg group had significantly reduced mean search distances on probe trials when combined across the 3 phases of testing but not separately. The male 4.0 mg/kg quinpirole group showed a greater increase in methamphetamine-stimulated activity during the first 10 min after drug challenge but not in the remainder of the 2 h test. No quinpirole effects were found for light-dark box, marble burying, exploratory locomotor activity, straight channel, Cincinnati water maze, or locomotor activity after quinpirole challenge. No effects were found on most measures in the elevated zero maze however the quinpirole 4.0 mg/kg females had longer latencies to enter an open quadrant. The results partially support prior Morris maze deficits induced by developmental quinpirole treatment but little evidence of dopamine D2/3 priming was found using locomotor activity with quinpirole or methamphetamine challenge or acoustic startle/PPI. The limited comparability to published data using developmental quinpirole exposure may be attributable to differences in experimental procedures or may be the result of quinpirole having limited effects. The data suggest that caution is warranted

  10. Radial/axial power divider/combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaddiparty, Yerriah P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic power divider/combiner comprises N radial outputs (31) having equal powers and preferably equal phases, and a single axial output (20). A divider structure (1) and a preferably identical combiner structure (2) are broadside coupled across a dielectric substrate (30) containing on one side the network of N radial outputs (31) and on its other side a set of N equispaced stubs (42) which are capacitively coupled through the dielectric substrate (30) to the N radial outputs (31). The divider structure (1) and the combiner structure (2) each comprise a dielectric disk (12, 22, respectively) on which is mounted a set of N radial impedance transformers (14, 24, respectively). Gross axial coupling is determined by the thickness of the dielectric layer (30). Rotating the disks (12, 22) with respect to each other effectuates fine adjustment in the degree of axial coupling.

  11. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kokkalis, Zinon T.; Tolis, Konstantinos E.; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D.; Panagopoulos, Georgios N.; Igoumenou, Vasilios G.; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  12. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Tolis, Konstantinos E; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F

    2016-06-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  13. Elbow dislocation with irreparable fracture radial head

    PubMed Central

    Tanna, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Treatment of elbow dislocation with irreparable radial head fracture needs replacement of radial head to achieve stability of elbow. An alternate method in cases of elbow dislocation with radial head fracture can be resection of radial head with repair of medial collateral ligament. We report a retrospective analysis of cases of elbow dislocation with irreparable radial head treated by excision head of radius and repair of MCL. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of elbow dislocation with associated irreparable fractures of the head of the radius were included in this analysis (6 F:3 M, Age: 35-47 years). Radial head excision was done through the lateral approach and MCL was sutured using no 3 Ethibond using medial approach. Above elbow plaster was given for 6 weeks and gradual mobilization was done thereafter. All patients were assessed at final followup using Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS). Results: Mean followup was 19.55 ± 7.12 months (range 14-36 months). There was no extension deficit when compared to opposite side with mean range of flexion of 138.8° ± 6.97° (range 130 -145°). Mean pronation was 87.7° ± 4.4° (range 80-90°) and mean supination was 87.7 ± 4.62° (range 80-90°). The mean MEPS was 98.8 ± 3.33 (range 90-100). No patient had pain, sensory complaints, subluxation or redislocation. All were able to carry out their daily activities without disability. Conclusion: Radial head excision with MCL repair is an acceptable option for treatment of patients with elbow dislocation and irreparable radial head fracture. PMID:23798760

  14. Radial transport with perturbed magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R. D.

    2015-05-15

    It is pointed out that the viscosity coefficient describing radial transport of toroidal angular momentum is proportional to the second power of the gyro-radius—like the corresponding coefficients for particle and heat transport—regardless of any geometrical symmetry. The observation is widely appreciated, but worth emphasizing because some literature gives the misleading impression that asymmetry can allow radial moment transport in first-order.

  15. The MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse: Consequences for SNF Transportation - 12476

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold; Cuta, Judith; Klymyshyn, Nicholas; Suffield, Sarah

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, on a section of Interstate 880 known as the 'MacArthur Maze', involving a tractor trailer carrying gasoline which impacted an overpass support column and burst into flames. The subsequent fire caused the collapse of portions of the Interstate 580 overpass onto the remains of the tractor-trailer in less than 20 minutes, due to a reduction of strength in the structural steel exposed to the fire. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is in the process of examining the impacts of this accident on the performance of a spent nuclear fuel transportation package, using detailed analysis models, in order to determine the potential regulatory implications related to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper will provide a summary of this effort and present results and conclusions. The detailed thermal models of the MacArthur Maze fire scenario with ANSYS and COBRASFS have produced preliminary results indicating that in a fire of this severity, the peak fuel cladding temperature would almost certainly exceed the short-term limit of 570 deg. C (1058 deg. F), and would likely exceed the Zircaloy burst temperature limit of 750 deg. C (1382 deg. F) assumed in previous transportation studies. Additional work is needed to refine and verify some of the details of these complex models, but the overall results are consistent with previous fire analyses with similar models, and with the results obtained for the HAC fire evaluations with these models. These results as well as future results produced by these models can therefore be considered as reliable estimates of the temperatures that would be experienced in fire conditions of the severity of the MacArthur Maze fire scenario. The structural analyses show that the GA-4 package is robust enough to withstand the impact of the overhead span without suffering major damage or deformation to the containment boundary. The greatest

  16. Palaeohydrology of a 3D-maze cave (Hermannshöhle, Lower Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Andrea; Plan, Lukas

    2013-04-01

    The 4.4 km-long Hermannshöhle (located in Kirchberg/Wechsel, Lower Austria) is one of the largest caves in the Lower Austroalpine Unit. It is developed in an isolated block of carbonate marble, taking up only 140 x 160 m of ground area and 73 m of elevation difference. The cave is unusual in two respects: (a) its dense network of corridors is arranged in a three-dimensional maze and (b) the most outstanding macro- and micromorphologic features were caused by paragenesis. Speleothems are abundant throughout the cave comprising flowstones, dripstones, helictites, popcorn, calcite rafts, a shield, and moonmilk. Even though most passages are canyon-shaped, the cave shows exclusively phreatic features. Sediment fills are abundant as well, mostly covering the floor of passages to an unknown depth, containing mainly allochthonous material, i.e. schists and gneisses. Besides some vadose dripwater the cave is dry today. A conspicuous feature is the lack of a single water path and instead a maze with multiple flow paths formed. Another interesting feature is that one part of the cave developed below the nearby Ramsbach brook but is still dry. There are small ponors reported from the Ramsbach brook (which were observed during river regulation) indicating an actively draining karst system, which is not yet explored. The aim of this study was to enlighten the palaeohydrology of this cave using morphological and sedimentological observations as well as U/Th dating of speleothems. First results show that the palaeo-environment and the hydrologic setting of the Hermannshöhle were drastically different from today. Undersaturated water sourced from nearby non-karstic gneisses and schists gave rise to well-developed contact karst features. Surprisingly the palaeo flow direction deduced from indicators like scallops and sediment structures was opposite to the flow direction of the present nearby brooks (Rams- and Feistrizbach). Following pulses of clastic sediment input a distinct

  17. Radial pulsations in DB white dwarfs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical models of DB white dwarfs are unstable against radial pulsation at effective temperatures near 20,000-30,000 K. Many high-overtone modes are unstable, with periods ranging from 12 s down to the acoustic cutoff period of approximately 0.1 s. The blue edge for radial instability lies at slightly higher effective temperatures than for nonradial pulsations, with the temperature of the blue edge dependent on the assumed efficiency of convection. Models with increased convective efficiency have radial blue edges that are increasingly closer to the nonradial blue edge; in all models the instability persists into the nonradial instability strip. Radial pulsations therefore may exist in the hottest DB stars that lie below the DB gap; the greatest chance for detection would be observations in the ultraviolet. These models also explain why searches for radial pulsations in DA white dwarfs have failed: the efficient convection needed to explain the blue edge for nonradial DA pulsation means that the radial instability strip is 1000 K cooler than found in previous investigations. The multiperiodic nature of the expected pulsations can be used to advantage to identify very low amplitude modes using the uniform spacing of the modes in frequency. This frequency spacing is a direct indicator of the mass of the star.

  18. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  19. Decoding the view expectation during learned maze navigation from human fronto-parietal network.

    PubMed

    Shikauchi, Yumi; Ishii, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Humans use external cues and prior knowledge about the environment to monitor their positions during spatial navigation. View expectation is essential for correlating scene views with a cognitive map. To determine how the brain performs view expectation during spatial navigation, we applied a multiple parallel decoding technique to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when human participants performed scene choice tasks in learned maze navigation environments. We decoded participants' view expectation from fMRI signals in parietal and medial prefrontal cortices, whereas activity patterns in occipital cortex represented various types of external cues. The decoder's output reflected participants' expectations even when they were wrong, corresponding to subjective beliefs opposed to objective reality. Thus, view expectation is subjectively represented in human brain, and the fronto-parietal network is involved in integrating external cues and prior knowledge during spatial navigation. PMID:26631641

  20. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested-simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing costs associated with parsing noncanonical word orders and (2) these costs are incurred during the incremental integration of constituents into developing sentence representations. Experiment 2 indicated (1) that antecedents are provisionally assigned to empty subjects in Japanese control sentences before verb information becomes available and (2) that this process is guided by an object control bias. Taken together, these findings are interpreted to suggest an important role for preverbal analysis in the processing of displaced constituents and of referential properties for empty elements in head-final languages. PMID:25794495

  1. Fracture Networks from a deterministic physical model as 'forerunners' of Maze Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferer, M. V.; Smith, D. H.; Lace, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    'Fractures are the chief forerunners of caves because they transmit water much more rapidly than intergranular pores.[1] Thus, the cave networks can follow the fracture networks from which the Karst caves formed by a variety of processes. Traditional models of continental Karst define water flow through subsurface geologic formations, slowly dissolving the rock along the pathways (e.g. water saturated with respect to carbon dioxide flowing through fractured carbonate formations). We have developed a deterministic, physical model of fracturing in a model geologic layer of a given thickness, when that layer is strained in one direction and subsequently in a perpendicular direction. It was observed that the connected fracture networks from our model visually resemble maps of maze caves. Since these detailed cave maps offer critical tools in modeling cave development patterns and conduit flow in Karst systems, we were able to test the qualitative resemblance by using statistical analyses to compare our model networks in geologic layers of four different thicknesses with the corresponding statistical analyses of four different maze caves, formed in a variety of geologic settings. The statistical studies performed are: i) standard box-counting to determine if either the caves or the model networks are fractal. We found that both are fractal with a fractal dimension Df ≈ 1.75 . ii) for each section inside a closed path, we determined the area and perimeter-length, enabling a study of the tortuosity of the networks. From the dependence of the section's area upon its perimeter-length, we have found a power-law behavior (for sufficiently large sections) characterized by a 'tortuosity' exponent. These exponents have similar values for both the model networks and the maze caves. The best agreement is between our thickest model layer and the maze-like part of Wind Cave in South Dakota where the data from the model and the cave overlie each other. For the present networks from

  2. Decoding the view expectation during learned maze navigation from human fronto-parietal network

    PubMed Central

    Shikauchi, Yumi; Ishii, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Humans use external cues and prior knowledge about the environment to monitor their positions during spatial navigation. View expectation is essential for correlating scene views with a cognitive map. To determine how the brain performs view expectation during spatial navigation, we applied a multiple parallel decoding technique to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when human participants performed scene choice tasks in learned maze navigation environments. We decoded participants’ view expectation from fMRI signals in parietal and medial prefrontal cortices, whereas activity patterns in occipital cortex represented various types of external cues. The decoder’s output reflected participants’ expectations even when they were wrong, corresponding to subjective beliefs opposed to objective reality. Thus, view expectation is subjectively represented in human brain, and the fronto-parietal network is involved in integrating external cues and prior knowledge during spatial navigation. PMID:26631641

  3. Anxiogenic effect of low-dose methamphetamine in the test of elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Pometlová, M; Nohejlová-Deykun, K; Slamberová, R

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamines (MA) are psychostimulant drugs that are known to change individuals' behavior. Psychostimulants could either evoke positive emotions (e.g. joy and happiness) or attenuate negative emotional states (e.g. anxiety and depression) in humans. In animal experiments, the test of elevated plus-maze (EPM) is widely used. This test is appropriate for evaluation of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drug effects, or for examination of specific subtypes of anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute single dose of MA (1 mg/kg) on the behavior of laboratory rat in the EPM. The detailed ethologic analysis of behavior was performed using a modified protocol based on the study of Fernández Espejo (1997). Our results demonstrated that MA affects rat's behavior in the EPM in the majority of analyzed categories. The present protocol allowed us to determine positive anxiogenic effect of MA. PMID:22980563

  4. Brain networks underlying navigation in the Cincinnati water maze with external and internal cues.

    PubMed

    Arias, Natalia; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2014-07-25

    The present study investigated the behavioural performance and the contributions of different brain regions on a spatial task performed by Wistar rats in the Cincinnati water maze (CWM) in two conditions: one where both distal and proximal visual cues were available (CWM-light group, n=7) and another where visual cues were eliminated by testing in complete darkness (CWM-dark group, n=7). There were differences in the behavioural performance. Energetic brain metabolism revealed significant differences in the infralimbic, orbitofrontal cortex and anterodorsal striatum. At the same time different brain networks were found. The CWM-light group showed a relationship between the orbitofrontal cortex and medial septum, whereas the CWM-dark group revealed three different networks involving the prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, hippocampus and amygdala nuclei. The study shows that brain activation differs in these two conditions. PMID:24915295

  5. An analysis of response, direction, and place learning in an open field and T maze.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Darlene M; Etchegary, Cheryl M; Ekert-Maret, Elysia C; Baker, Colleen J; Harley, Carolyn W; Evans, John H; Martin, Gerard M

    2003-01-01

    Rats were trained to locate food in a response, direction, or place problem on an open field located at 2 positions. In Experiment 1, both the response and direction groups solved the problem. The place group failed to solve the task in approximately 300 trials. Experiment 2 demonstrated that rats need distinguishable start points to solve a place problem when neither a response nor a direction solution is available. Findings from Experiment 3 suggest that a combination of path traveled and distinct cues help to differentiate start points. Experiment 4 replicated the findings using a T maze. These results suggest "place" solutions are difficult for rats. The data are discussed with respect to conditional learning and modern spatial mapping theory. PMID:12561129

  6. Development and validation of a sensitive entropy-based measure for the water maze.

    PubMed

    Maei, Hamid R; Zaslavsky, Kirill; Wang, Afra H; Yiu, Adelaide P; Teixeira, Cátia M; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2009-01-01

    In the water maze, mice are trained to navigate to an escape platform located below the water's surface, and spatial learning is most commonly evaluated in a probe test in which the platform is removed from the pool. While contemporary tracking software provides precise positional information of mice for the duration of the probe test, existing performance measures (e.g., percent quadrant time, platform crossings) fail to exploit fully the richness of this positional data. Using the concept of entropy (H), here we develop a new measure that considers both how focused the search is and the degree to which searching is centered on the former platform location. To evaluate how H performs compared to existing measures of water maze performance we compiled five separate databases, containing more than 1600 mouse probe tests. Random selection of individual trials from respective databases then allowed us to simulate experiments with varying sample and effect sizes. Using this Monte Carlo-based method, we found that H outperformed existing measures in its ability to detect group differences over a range of sample or effect sizes. Additionally, we validated the new measure using three models of experimentally induced hippocampal dysfunction: (1) complete hippocampal lesions, (2) genetic deletion of alphaCaMKII, a gene implicated in hippocampal behavioral and synaptic plasticity, and (3) a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Together, these data indicate that H offers greater sensitivity than existing measures, most likely because it exploits the richness of the precise positional information of the mouse throughout the probe test. PMID:20057926

  7. Panic-modulating effects of alprazolam, moclobemide and sumatriptan in the rat elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Ana Beatriz; Weffort, Luiz Fernando; de Oliveira Sergio, Thatiane; Gomes, Rafael Calsoni; Frias, Alana Tercino; Matthiesen, Melina; Vilela-Costa, Heloisa Helena; Yamashita, Paula Shimene de Melo; Vasconcelos, Alex Teles; de Bortoli, Valquiria; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Zangrossi, Helio

    2016-12-15

    The elevated T-maze was developed to test the hypothesis that serotonin plays an opposing role in the regulation of defensive behaviors associated with anxiety and panic. Previous pharmacological exploitation of this test supports the association between inhibitory avoidance acquisition and escape expression with anxiety and fear/panic, respectively. In the present study, we extend the pharmacological validation of this test by investigating the effects of other putative or clinically effective anxiety- and panic-modulating drugs. The results showed that chronic, but not acute injection of the reversible monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor moclobemide (3, 10 and 30mg/kg) inhibited escape expression, indicating a panicolytic-like effect. The same effect was observed after either acute or chronic treatment with alprazolam (1, 2 and 4mg/kg), a high potency benzodiazepine. This drug also impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition, suggesting an anxiolytic effect. On the other hand, subcutaneous administration of the 5-HT1D/1B receptor agonist sumatriptan (0.1, 0.5 and 2.5μg/kg) facilitated escape performance, indicating a panicogenic-like effect, while treatment with α-para-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA; 4days i.p injections of 100mg/kg, or a single i.p injection of 300mg/kg), which caused marked 5-HT depletion in the amygdala and striatum, was without effect. Altogether, these results are in full agreement with the clinical effects of these compounds and offer further evidence that the elevated T-maze has broad predictive validity for the effects of anxiety- and panic-modulating drugs. PMID:27531502

  8. Neonatal infection modulates behavioral flexibility and hippocampal activation on a Morris Water Maze task

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Lauren L.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal infection has enduring effects on the brain, both at the cellular and behavioral levels. We determined the effects of peripheral infection with Escherichia coli at postnatal day (P) 4 in rats on a water maze task in adulthood, and assessed neuronal activation in the dentate gyrus (DG) following the memory test. Rats were trained and tested on one of 3 distinct water maze task paradigms: 1) minimal training (18 trials/ 3 days), 2) extended training (50 trials/ 10 days) or 3) reversal training (extended training followed by 30 trials/ 3 days with a new platform location). Following a 48HR memory test, brains were harvested to assess neuronal activation using activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein in the DG. Following minimal training, rats treated neonatally with E. coli had improved performance and paradoxically reduced Arc expression during the memory test compared to control rats treated with PBS early in life. However, neonatally-infected rats did not differ from control rats in behavior or neuronal activation during the memory test following extended training. Furthermore, rats treated neonatally with E. coli were significantly impaired during the 48HR memory test for a reversal platform location, unlike controls. Specifically, whereas neonatally-infected rats were able to acquire the new location at the same rate as controls, they spent significantly less time in the target quadrant for the reversal platform during a memory test. However, neonatally-infected and control rats had similar levels of Arc expression following the 48HR memory test for reversal. Together, these data indicate that neonatal infection may improve the rate of acquisition on hippocampal-dependent tasks while impairing flexibility on the same tasks; in addition, network activation in the DG during learning may be predictive of future cognitive flexibility on a hippocampal-dependent task. PMID:24576680

  9. Age-Related Visual and Kinesthetic Encoding Effects on Spatial Memory of a Maze-Like Floor Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    As part of an experimental research program on lifespan naturalistic and laboratory memory for spatial representation, investigators examined interactions between the effects of visual and kinesthetic encoding and age on memory for space using a modification of the Sinnott (1987) human maze paradigm. It was hypothesized that an age effect favoring…

  10. The Canine Sand Maze: An Appetitive Spatial Memory Paradigm Sensitive to Age-Related Change in Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvin, Hannah E.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Valenzuela, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aged dogs exhibit a spectrum of cognitive abilities including a syndrome similar to Alzheimer's disease. A major impediment to research so far has been the lack of a quick and accurate test of visuospatial memory appropriate for community-based animals. We therefore report on the development and validation of the Canine Sand Maze. A 4.5-m-diameter…

  11. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. PMID:23522878

  12. Rats' Orientation at the Start Point Is Important for Spatial Learning in a Water T-Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckford, Genieve; McRae, Samantha M.; Thorpe, Christina M.; Martin, Gerard M.; Skinner, Darlene M.

    2013-01-01

    When trained to locate a hidden platform in a T-maze moved between two positions, rats appear to adopt a conditional strategy based on start point discrimination. To determine if location cues or orientation cues at the start point underlie this discrimination, separate groups of rats were trained on two place problems, each with unique start…

  13. Decreased proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus after exposure to the Morris water maze and its reversal by fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Námestková, Katerina; Simonová, Zuzana; Syková, Eva

    2005-08-30

    Granular cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus decreases during aging and after chronic stress, while it can be increased by physical activity or treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine. We investigated whether the physical and cognitive stimulation accompanied by stress in the commonly used Morris water maze affects the rate of proliferation and whether the induced changes can be influenced by antidepressant treatment with fluoxetine. Proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus were labeled by three injections of BrdU during the 24h preceding sacrifice. Early differentiation to neuronal progeny was studied by immunohistochemical staining for doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule binding protein expressed in newborn neurons. Acquisition learning in the water maze for 15 days caused a significant decrease in granular cell proliferation in the granular cell layer of the hippocampus. The decrease in the number of BrdU- and DCX-positive cells was reversed to control levels by the use of fluoxetine during the water maze training. Fluoxetine treatment alone increased the number of BrdU-positive cells, but did not increase the number of DCX-positive cells. We conclude that the exposure of adult male rats to water maze acquisition trials is a stressful experience that significantly suppresses the production of new granular cells and that this stressful effect can be blocked by the concomitant administration of the antidepressant fluoxetine. PMID:15941600

  14. Classification Accuracy of Oral Reading Fluency and Maze in Predicting Performance on Large-Scale Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Dawn M.; Hixson, Michael D.; Shaw, Amber; Johnson, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether using a multiple-measure framework yielded better classification accuracy than oral reading fluency (ORF) or maze alone in predicting pass/fail rates for middle-school students on a large-scale reading assessment. Participants were 178 students in Grades 7 and 8 from a Midwestern school district.…

  15. Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,…

  16. Dose reduction of scattered photons from concrete walls lined with lead: Implications for improvement in design of megavoltage radiation therapy facility mazes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Affan, I. A. M. Hugtenburg, R. P.; Piliero, M.; Bari, D. S.; Al-Saleh, W. M.; Evans, S.; Al-Hasan, M.; Al-Zughul, B.; Al-Kharouf, S.; Ghaith, A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: This study explores the possibility of using lead to cover part of the radiation therapy facility maze walls in order to absorb low energy photons and reduce the total dose at the maze entrance of radiation therapy rooms. Methods: Experiments and Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish the possibility of using high-Z materials to cover the concrete walls of the maze in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. The dose of the backscattered photons from a concrete wall was measured for various scattering angles. The dose was also calculated by the FLUKA and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. The FLUKA code was also used to simulate an existing radiotherapy room to study the effect of multiple scattering when adding lead to cover the concrete walls of the maze. Monoenergetic photons were used to represent the main components of the x ray spectrum up to 10 MV. Results: It was observed that when the concrete wall was covered with just 2 mm of lead, the measured dose rate at all backscattering angles was reduced by 20% for photons of energy comparable to Co-60 emissions and 70% for Cs-137 emissions. The simulations with FLUKA and EGS showed that the reduction in the dose was potentially even higher when lead was added. One explanation for the reduction is the increased absorption of backscattered photons due to the photoelectric interaction in lead. The results also showed that adding 2 mm lead to the concrete walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 90%. Conclusions: This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimeters of lead would have a direct implication for the design of radiation therapy facilities and would assist in upgrading the design of some mazes, especially those in facilities with limited space where the maze length cannot be extended to sufficiently reduce the dose.

  17. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP) reverses maze learning and PSD-95 deficits in Fmr1 knock-out mice

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Réno M.; Kogan, Cary S.; Messier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which results in intellectual disability and other debilitating symptoms including impairment of visual-spatial functioning. FXS is the only single-gene disorder that is highly co-morbid with autism spectrum disorder and can therefore provide insight into its pathophysiology. Lack of FMRP results in altered group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling, which is a target for putative treatments. The Hebb-Williams (H-W) mazes are a set of increasingly complex spatial navigation problems that depend on intact hippocampal and thus mGluR-5 functioning. In the present investigation, we examined whether an antagonist of mGluR-5 would reverse previously described behavioral deficits in fragile X mental retardation 1 knock-out (Fmr1 KO) mice. Mice were trained on a subset of the H-W mazes and then treated with either 20 mg/kg of an mGluR-5 antagonist, 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP; n = 11) or an equivalent dose of saline (n = 11) prior to running test mazes. Latency and errors were dependent variables recorded during the test phase. Immediately after completing each test, marble-burying behavior was assessed, which confirmed that the drug treatment was pharmacologically active during maze learning. Although latency was not statistically different between the groups, MPEP treated Fmr1 KO mice made significantly fewer errors on mazes deemed more difficult suggesting a reversal of the behavioral deficit. MPEP treated mice were also less perseverative and impulsive when navigating mazes. Furthermore, MPEP treatment reversed post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95) protein deficits in Fmr1 KO treated mice, whereas levels of a control protein (β-tubulin) remained unchanged. These data further validate MPEP as a potentially beneficial treatment for FXS. Our findings also suggest that adapted H-W mazes may be a useful tool to document alterations in

  18. Intraoperative hemodynamic evaluation of the radial and ulnar arteries during free radial forearm flap procedure.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Fulvio; Giordano, Salvatore; Suominen, Erkki; Asko-Seljavaara, Sirpa; Suominen, Sinikka

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the blood flow of the radial and ulnar arteries before and after radial forearm flap raising. Twenty-two patients underwent radial forearm microvascular reconstruction for leg soft tissue defects. Blood flow of the radial, ulnar, and recipient arteries was measured intraoperatively by transit-time and ultrasonic flowmeter. In the in situ radial artery, the mean blood flow was 60.5 +/- 47.7 mL/min before, 6.7 +/- 4.1 mL/min after raising the flap, and 5.8 +/- 2.0 mL/min after end-to-end anastomosis to the recipient artery. In the ulnar artery, the mean blood flow was 60.5 +/- 43.3 mL/min before harvesting the radial forearm flap and significantly increased to 85.7 +/- 57.9 mL/min after radial artery sacrifice. A significant difference was also found between this value and the value of blood flow in the ulnar and radial arteries pooled together ( P < 0.05). The vascular resistance in the ulnar artery decreased significantly after the radial artery flap raising (from 2.7 +/- 3.1 to 1.9 +/- 2.2 peripheral resistance units, P = 0.010). The forearm has a conspicuous arterial vascularization not only through the radial and ulnar arteries but also through the interosseous system. The raising of the radial forearm flap increases blood flow and decreases vascular resistance in the ulnar artery. PMID:19902406

  19. Intracerebroventricular injection of N omega-nitro-L-arginine in rats impairs learning in a 14-unit T-maze.

    PubMed

    Ingram, D K; Spangler, E L; Kametani, H; Meyer, R C; London, E D

    1998-01-01

    We investigated whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (N-Arg), impairs learning in male Sprague-Dawley rats (2-3 months old) in a 14-unit T-maze. Rats were pretrained in one-way active avoidance to a criterion of 13/15 avoidances of foot shock in a straight runway. The next day, rats received i.c.v. injections of either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as controls or N-Arg (12 microg or 15 microg) 30 min before training in the 14-unit T-maze. The learning contingency was to negotiate each of 5 segments within 10 s to avoid footshock during 15 trials. Performance variables included errors (deviations from the correct pathway), runtime from start to goal, and shock frequency and duration. Compared to controls, the number of errors over the last 10 trials was higher in rats receiving 15 microg N-Arg and over the last 5 trials for those given 12 microg. Runtime, shock frequency and duration were increased in both N-Arg groups. The N-Arg-induced (15 microg i.c.v.) impairment could be attenuated when the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (1 mg/kg), was administered intraperitoneally 1 min prior to maze learning. In a retention test, rats were treated with either aCSF or 15 microg N-Arg i.c.v. 30 min before being retested in the maze 7-10 d following acquisition training. Under these conditions, maze performance was not significantly affected. These results confirmed previous findings that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase impairs acquisition but not retention. Moreover, the N-Arg-induced learning impairment does not appear to be related to noncognitive aspects of performance. PMID:9489850

  20. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis. In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number, and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons. We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well-suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the dentate gyrus (DG) facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places. In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped

  1. Radial velocity studies of cool stars.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hugh R A; Barnes, John; Tuomi, Mikko; Jenkins, James S; Anglada-Escude, Guillem

    2014-04-28

    Our current view of exoplanets is one derived primarily from solar-like stars with a strong focus on understanding our Solar System. Our knowledge about the properties of exoplanets around the dominant stellar population by number, the so-called low-mass stars or M dwarfs, is much more cursory. Based on radial velocity discoveries, we find that the semi-major axis distribution of M dwarf planets appears to be broadly similar to those around more massive stars and thus formation and migration processes might be similar to heavier stars. However, we find that the mass of M dwarf planets is relatively much lower than the expected mass dependency based on stellar mass and thus infer that planet formation efficiency around low-mass stars is relatively impaired. We consider techniques to overcome the practical issue of obtaining good quality radial velocity data for M dwarfs despite their faintness and sustained activity and emphasize (i) the wavelength sensitivity of radial velocity signals, (ii) the combination of radial velocity data from different experiments for robust detection of small amplitude signals, and (iii) the selection of targets and radial velocity interpretation of late-type M dwarfs should consider Hα behaviour. PMID:24664922

  2. An unusual course of the radial artery.

    PubMed

    Pelin, C; Zagyapan, R; Mas, N; Karabay, G

    2006-11-01

    Radial artery variations are of importance for clinicians, whether in angiographic examinations or surgical approaches. The high origin radial artery is the most frequent arterial variation observed in the upper limb, showing an incidence of 14.27% in dissection material and 9.75% in angiographic examination. In the present study an unusual course of the radial artery and its relation with the median nerve has been evaluated. During embryological development the radial artery sprouts from two arterial buds arising from the lateral side of the brachial artery and coalescing with each other. The artery lies in the forearm and is overlapped by the brachioradial muscle. In this particular case the radial artery originated from the medial side of the brachial artery and crossed the median nerve twice in an unusual manner 8 cm below the point at which the deep brachial artery arose and 12 cm above the intercondylar line. These results will enhance anatomical knowledge of the region and reduce complication in surgical approaches. PMID:17171625

  3. Fast radial flows in transition disk holes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Chiang, Eugene

    2014-02-20

    Protoplanetary 'transition' disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival Atacama Large Millimeter Array data on the transition disk HD 142527 and uncover evidence for free-fall radial velocities inside its cavity. Although the observed kinematics are also consistent with a disk warp, the radial inflow scenario is preferred because it predicts low surface densities that appear consistent with recent observations of optically thin CO isotopologues in this disk. How material in the disk cavity sheds its angular momentum wholesale to fall freely onto the star is an unsolved problem; gravitational torques exerted by giant planets or brown dwarfs are briefly discussed as a candidate mechanism.

  4. Helical antimicrobial polypeptides with radial amphiphilicity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Menghua; Lee, Michelle W.; Mansbach, Rachael A.; Song, Ziyuan; Bao, Yan; Peek, Richard M.; Yao, Catherine; Chen, Lin-Feng; Ferguson, Andrew L.; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Cheng, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    α-Helical antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) generally have facially amphiphilic structures that may lead to undesired peptide interactions with blood proteins and self-aggregation due to exposed hydrophobic surfaces. Here we report the design of a class of cationic, helical homo-polypeptide antimicrobials with a hydrophobic internal helical core and a charged exterior shell, possessing unprecedented radial amphiphilicity. The radially amphiphilic structure enables the polypeptide to bind effectively to the negatively charged bacterial surface and exhibit high antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, the shielding of the hydrophobic core by the charged exterior shell decreases nonspecific interactions with eukaryotic cells, as evidenced by low hemolytic activity, and protects the polypeptide backbone from proteolytic degradation. The radially amphiphilic polypeptides can also be used as effective adjuvants, allowing improved permeation of commercial antibiotics in bacteria and enhanced antimicrobial activity by one to two orders of magnitude. Designing AMPs bearing this unprecedented, unique radially amphiphilic structure represents an alternative direction of AMP development; radially amphiphilic polypeptides may become a general platform for developing AMPs to treat drug-resistant bacteria. PMID:26460016

  5. Manufacturing of Precision Forgings by Radial Forging

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, S.; Harrer, O.; Buchmayr, B.; Hofer, F.

    2011-01-17

    Radial forging is a multi purpose incremental forging process using four tools on the same plane. It is widely used for the forming of tool steels, super alloys as well as titanium- and refractory metals. The range of application goes from reducing the diameters of shafts, tubes, stepped shafts and axels, as well as for creating internal profiles for tubes in Near-Net-Shape and Net-Shape quality. Based on actual development of a weight optimized transmission input shaft, the specific features of radial forging technology is demonstrated. Also a Finite Element Model for the simulation of the process is shown which leads to reduced pre-processing effort and reduced computing time compared to other published simulation methods for radial forging. The finite element model can be applied to quantify the effects of different forging strategies.

  6. Precise Near-Infrared Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Gao, P.; Bottom, M.; Davison, C.; Mills, S.; Ciardi, D. R.; Brinkworth, C.; Tanner, A. M.; Beichman, C. A.; Catanzarite, J.; Crawford, S.; Wallace, J.; Mennesson, B.; Johnson, J. A.; White, R. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; von Braun, K.; Walp, B.; Vasisht, G.; Kane, S. R.; Prato, L. A.; NIRRVs

    2014-01-01

    We present precise radial velocity time-series from a 2.3 micron pilot survey to detect exoplanets around red, low mass, and young stars. We use the CSHELL spectrograph with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility. We present an overview of our Nelder-Mead simplex optimization pipeline for extracting radial velocities. We will also present first light data at 1.6 microns from a near-infrared fiber scrambler used in tandem with our gas cell and CSHELL at IRTF. The fiber scrambler makes use of non-circular core fibers to stabilize the illumination of the slit and echelle grating against changes in seeing, focus, guiding and other sources of systematic radial velocity noise, complementing the wavelength calibration of a gas cell.

  7. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  8. Thrombosis following percutaneous radial artery cannulation.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, I; Sørensen, J; Carlsson, C

    1986-04-01

    A prospective study of the arterial supply of the hand was carried out in 100 ICU patients after cannulation of the radial artery. Patency of the radial artery was checked using a reversed Allen's test and Doppler ultrasonic technique. Furthermore, radial artery angiography was carried out in 15 patients with suspect thrombosis, and the artery was examined by microscopy in four patients at autopsy. Signs of thrombosis, Allen's test and Doppler technique, were found in 33/100 patients. In 10/15 angiograms a thrombosis was visualized, and in 3/4 patients at autopsy a thrombosis was found. The incidence of thrombosis was not correlated to sex, age, size of artery (judged by wrist circumference), cannulation technique or the presence of hypotension. It did, however, correlate to the presence of haematoma at the puncture site. After removal of the cannula recanalisation occurred soon in the majority of cases. PMID:3739580

  9. Generalized radially self-accelerating helicon beams.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Christian; Eichelkraut, Toni; Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander

    2014-10-31

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a new class of optical beams that are radially self-accelerating and nondiffracting. These beams continuously evolve on spiraling trajectories while maintaining their amplitude and phase distribution in their rotating rest frame. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of radial self-acceleration and prove our findings experimentally. As radially self-accelerating beams are nonparaxial and a solution to the full scalar Helmholtz equation, they can be implemented in many linear wave systems beyond optics, from acoustic and elastic waves to surface waves in fluids and soft matter. Our work generalized the study of classical helicon beams to a complete set of solutions for rotating complex fields. PMID:25396370

  10. On magnetopause inflation under radial IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Full understanding of the magnetosphere interaction with radial IMF structures embedded in the solar wind flow is far from completeness. In order to analyze the effects of radial IMF, we use THEMIS observations of the magnetopause and magnetosheath together with upstream data acquired from ACE and Wind monitors as well as from the OMNI data base. We demonstrate a prominent magnetopause inflation and low pressure magnetosheath (LPM) mode under long-lasting radial IMF. We propose that these phenomena result from a kinetic effect of energetic ions taking the energy away from the pressure balance at the magnetopause. We show that strict quantitative determination of the inflation and LPM mode as a function of the cone angle is difficult because of the problems with reliable determination of the upstream and magnetosheath conditions. The shortcomings are caused by such effects as ambiguous time delay for the solar wind propagation, THEMIS orbital bias and model-dependent estimations of the magnetopause inflation.

  11. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.

    2011-04-12

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  12. Radial flow nuclear thermal rocket (RFNTR)

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    A radial flow nuclear thermal rocket fuel assembly includes a substantially conical fuel element having an inlet side and an outlet side. An annular channel is disposed in the element for receiving a nuclear propellant, and a second, conical, channel is disposed in the element for discharging the propellant. The first channel is located radially outward from the second channel, and separated from the second channel by an annular fuel bed volume. This fuel bed volume can include a packed bed of loose fuel beads confined by a cold porous inlet frit and a hot porous exit frit. The loose fuel beads include ZrC coated ZrC-UC beads. In this manner, nuclear propellant enters the fuel assembly axially into the first channel at the inlet side of the element, flows axially across the fuel bed volume, and is discharged from the assembly by flowing radially outward from the second channel at the outlet side of the element.

  13. Radial flow nuclear thermal rocket (RFNTR)

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, Carl F.

    1995-11-07

    A radial flow nuclear thermal rocket fuel assembly includes a substantially conical fuel element having an inlet side and an outlet side. An annular channel is disposed in the element for receiving a nuclear propellant, and a second, conical, channel is disposed in the element for discharging the propellant. The first channel is located radially outward from the second channel, and separated from the second channel by an annular fuel bed volume. This fuel bed volume can include a packed bed of loose fuel beads confined by a cold porous inlet frit and a hot porous exit frit. The loose fuel beads include ZrC coated ZrC-UC beads. In this manner, nuclear propellant enters the fuel assembly axially into the first channel at the inlet side of the element, flows axially across the fuel bed volume, and is discharged from the assembly by flowing radially outward from the second channel at the outlet side of the element.

  14. The radial velocity search for extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements are being made to search for planets orbiting stars other than the Sun. The reflex acceleration induced on stars by planets can be sensed by measuring the small, slow changes in the line-of-site velocities of stars. To detect these planetary perturbations, the data series must be made on a uniform instrumental scale for as long as it takes a planet to orbit its star. A spectrometer of extreme stability and unprecedented sensitivity to changes in stellar radial velocities was operated.

  15. Electrostatic model of radial pn junction nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2013-08-01

    Poisson's equation is solved for a radial pn junction nanowire (NW) with surface depletion. This resulted in a model capable of giving radial energy band and electric field profiles for any arbitrary core/shell doping density, core/shell dimensions, and surface state density. Specific cases were analyzed to extract pertinent underlying physics, while the relationship between NW specifications and the depletion of the NW were examined to optimize the built-in potential across the junction. Additionally, the model results were compared with experimental results in literature to good agreement. Finally, an optimum device design is proposed to satisfy material, optical, and electrostatic constraints in high efficiency NW solar cells.

  16. Prediction of refractive correction with radial keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Kremer, F B; Steer, R A

    1985-10-01

    Multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate the amount of preoperative correction required to achieve emmetropia in 129 spherical radial keratotomy procedures. Age, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, number of incisions, number of zones, and central optical zone size are variables that describe the amount of refractive correction required in order to achieve emmetropia. The surgical procedures from which these estimates are derived yield meaningful reductions in myopia. Recommendations for further research on the prediction of optimal response to radial keratotomy are included. PMID:4073725

  17. Radial oscillations of charged strange stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbañil, J. D. V.; Malheiro, M.

    2016-04-01

    The radial oscillations of charged strange quark stars is investigated. It is considered that the fluid pressure follows the MIT bag model equation of state and the charge density to be proportional to the energy density, ρe = αρ (where α is proportionality constant). The modified equations of radial oscillations to the introduction of the electric charge are integrated to determine the fundamental mode. It is found that the stability of the charged object decreases with the increment of the central energy density and with the growth of the charge fraction.

  18. Plasma Signatures of Radial Field Power Dropouts

    SciTech Connect

    Lucek, E.A.; Horbury, T.S.; Balogh, A.; McComas, D.J.

    1998-10-04

    A class of small scale structures, with a near-radial magnetic field and a drop in magnetic field fluctuation power, have recently been identified in the polar solar wind. An earlier study of 24 events, each lasting for 6 hours or more, identified no clear plasma signature. In an extension of that work, radial intervals lasting for 4 hours or more (89 in total), have been used to search for a statistically significant plasma signature. It was found that, despite considerable variations between intervals, there was a small but significant drop, on average, in plasma temperature, density and {beta} during these events.

  19. Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.

  20. Ultrasonic scanner for radial and flat panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. L.; Hill, E. K. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ultrasonic scanning mechanism is described that scans panels of honeycomb construction or with welded seams. It incorporates a device which by simple adjustment is adapted to scan either a flat panel or a radial panel. The supporting structure takes the form of a pair of spaced rails. An immersion tank is positioned between the rails and below their level. A work holder is mounted in the tank and is adapted to hold the flat or radial panel. A traveling bridge is movable along the rails and a carriage is mounted on the bridge.

  1. The neutron dose equivalent evaluation and shielding at the maze entrance of a Varian Clinac 23EX treatment room

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xudong; Esquivel, Carlos; Nes, Elena; Shi Chengyu; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Charlton, Michael

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the neutron and photon dose equivalent rate (H{sub n,D} and H{sub G}) at the outer maze entrance and the adjacent treatment console area after the installation of a Varian Clinac 23EX accelerator with a higher beam energy than its predecessor. The evaluation was based on measurements and comparison with several empirical calculations. The effectiveness of borated polyethylene (BPE) boards, as a maze wall lining material, on neutron dose and photon dose reduction is also reported. Methods: A single energy Varian 6 MV photon linear accelerator (linac) was replaced with a Varian Clinac 23EX accelerator capable of producing 18 MV photons in a vault originally designed for the former accelerator. In order to evaluate and redesign the shielding of the vault, the neutron dose equivalent H{sub n,D} was measured using an Andersson-Braun neutron Rem meter and the photon dose equivalent H{sub G} was measured using a Geiger Mueller and an ion chamber {gamma}-ray survey meter at the outer maze entrance. The measurement data were compared to semiempirical calculations such as the Kersey method, the modified Kersey method, and a newly proposed method by Falcao et al. Additional measurements were taken after BPE boards were installed on the maze walls as a neutron absorption lining material. Results: With the gantry head tilted close to the inner maze entrance and with the jaws closed, both neutron dose equivalent and photon dose equivalent reached their maximum. Compared to the measurement results, the Kersey method overestimates the neutron dose equivalent H{sub n,D} by about two to four times (calculation/measurement ratio{approx_equal}2.4-3.8). Falcao's method largely overestimates the H{sub n,D} (calculation/measurement ratio{approx_equal}3.9-5.5). The modified Kersey method has a calculation to measurement ratio about 0.6-0.9. The photon dose equivalent calculation including McGinley's capture gamma dose equivalent equation estimates about 77%-98% of the

  2. Distinct epigenetic and gene expression changes in rat hippocampal neurons after Morris water maze training

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sylvia D.; Mifsud, Karen R.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Gene transcription and translation in the hippocampus is of critical importance in hippocampus-dependent memory formation, including during Morris water maze (MWM) learning. Previous work using gene deletion models has shown that the immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos, Egr-1, and Arc are crucial for such learning. Recently, we reported that induction of IEGs in sparse dentate gyrus neurons requires ERK MAPK signaling and downstream formation of a distinct epigenetic histone mark (i.e., phospho-acetylated histone H3). Until now, this signaling, epigenetic and gene transcriptional pathway has not been comprehensively studied in the MWM model. Therefore, we conducted a detailed study of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and serine10 in histone H3 (H3S10p) and induction of IEGs in the hippocampus of MWM trained rats and matched controls. MWM training evoked consecutive waves of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and H3S10 phosphorylation, as well as c-Fos, Egr-1, and Arc induction in sparse hippocampal neurons. The observed effects were most pronounced in the dentate gyrus. A positive correlation was found between the average latency to find the platform and the number of H3S10p-positive dentate gyrus neurons. Furthermore, chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) revealed a significantly increased association of phospho-acetylated histone H3 (H3K9ac-S10p) with the gene promoters of c-Fos and Egr-1, but not Arc, after MWM exposure compared with controls. Surprisingly, however, we found very little difference between IEG responses (regarding both protein and mRNA) in MWM-trained rats compared with matched swim controls. We conclude that exposure to the water maze evokes ERK MAPK activation, distinct epigenetic changes and IEG induction predominantly in sparse dentate gyrus neurons. It appears, however, that a specific role for IEGs in the learning aspect of MWM training may become apparent in downstream AP-1- and Egr-1-regulated (second wave) genes and Arc-dependent effector mechanisms

  3. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, S Y; Suzuki, H

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6 (n-3)] ethyl ester (EE) and egg-phosphatidylcholine (PC) on maze-learning ability in young and old mice was studied. Male Crj:CD-1 mice aged either 3 wk or 14 mo were fed a diet containing 2 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 3 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE Group), 5 g egg-PC/100 g diet (egg-PC Group), 1 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 2.5 g egg-PC/100 g diet plus 1.5 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE + egg-PC Group) or 5 g palm oil/100 g diet (Control Group) for 5 mo. Maze-learning ability was assessed 4 mo after the start of the experiment. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured in three trials every 4 d. In trial 2 of young mice, performed on d 4 after the first trial, the DHA-EE group required less (P < 0.05) time to reach the maze exit and DHA-EE and egg-PC groups strayed (P < 0.05) into blind alleys fewer times than the control group. In trial 2 of old mice, the DHA-EE, egg-PC and DHA-EE + egg-PC groups needed less (P < 0.05) time to find the exit and spent a fewer (P < 0.05) number of times in blind alleys than did the control group. The DHA-EE, DHA-EE + egg-PC and egg-PC groups strayed into blind alleys fewer times than the control group in trial 3 of old mice (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the intake of DHA-EE and the egg-PC diet effectively enhances maze-learning ability and brain functions in old mice. PMID:10827221

  4. One-year results of cemented bipolar radial head prostheses for comminuted radial head fractures

    PubMed Central

    Laun, Reinhold; Wild, Michael; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Comminuted radial head fractures (Mason type III) continue to pose a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. When internal fixation is not possible, radial head arthroplasty has been advocated as the treatment of choice. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical and radiological short-term results of patients with Mason type III radial head fractures treated with a cemented bipolar radial prosthesis. Methods: Twelve patients received cemented bipolar radial head hemiarthroplasty for comminuted radial head fractures. In all patients a CT scan was obtained prior to surgical treatment to assess all associated injuries. Postoperatively an early motion protocol was applied. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at an average of 12.7 months. Results: According to the Mayo Modified Wrist Score, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the functional rating index of Broberg and Morrey, and the DASH Score good to excellent results were obtained. Grip strength and range of motion were almost at the level of the unaffected contralateral side. Patient satisfaction was high, no instability or signs of loosening of the implant, and only mild signs of osteoarthritis were seen. Conclusion: Overall good to excellent short-term results for primary arthroplasty for comminuted radial head fractures were observed. These encouraging results warrant the conduction of further studies with long-term follow-up and more cases to see if these short-term results can be maintained over time. PMID:26734534

  5. Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bill D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…

  6. MMICs with Radial Probe Transitions to Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Pukala, David; Soria, Mary; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; Radisic, Vesna; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A document presents an update on the innovation reported in Integrated Radial Probe Transition From MMIC to Waveguide (NPO-43957), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2007), page 38. To recapitulate: To enable operation or testing of a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC), it is necessary to mount the MMIC in a waveguide package that typically has cross-sectional waveguide dimensions of the order of a few hundred microns. A radial probe transition between an MMIC operating at 340 GHz and a waveguide had been designed (but not yet built and tested) to be fabricated as part of a monolithic unit that would include the MMIC. The radial probe could readily be integrated with an MMIC amplifier because the design provided for fabrication of the transition on a substrate of the same material (InP) and thickness (50 m) typical of substrates of MMICs that can operate above 300 GHz. As illustrated in the updated document by drawings, photographs, and plots of test data, the concept has now been realized by designing, fabricating, and testing several MMIC/radial- probe integrated-circuit chips and designing and fabricating a waveguide package to contain each chip.

  7. Extended foil capacitor with radially spoked electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Foster, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An extended foil capacitor has a conductive disk electrically connected in oncrushing contact to the extended foil. A conductive paste is placed through spaces between radial spokes on the disk to electrically and mechanically connect the extended foil to the disk.

  8. NASA contributions to radial turbine aerodynamic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the radial turbine and its analysis needs is followed by discussions of five analytical areas; design geometry and performance, off design performance, blade row flow, scroll flow, and duct flow. The functions of the programs, areas of applicability, and limitations and uncertainties are emphasized. Both past contributions and current activities are discussed.

  9. Radial velocities of Planetary Nebulae revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Roberto; Ayala, Sandra A.; Wendolyn Blanco Cárdenas, Mónica; Contreras, María E.; Gómez-Muñoz, Marco Antonio; Guillén, Pedro F.; Olguín, Lorenzo; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Sabin, Laurence; Zavala, Saúl A.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new determination of radial velocities of a sample of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) using a systematic method and the same instrumental setting: the long-slit high-dispersion Manchester Echelle Spectrograph (MES) on the 2.1-m telescope at the San Pedro Mártir Observatory (OAN-SPM; Mexico). This project was inspired by the work of Schneider et al. (1983, A&AS, 52, 399), which has been an important reference during the last decades. Radial velocities of gaseous nebulae can be obtained using the central wavelength of a Gaussian fit, even when there is an expansion velocity, as expected in PNe, but with not enough resolution to see a spectral line splitting. We have used the software SHAPE, a morpho-kinematic modeling and reconstruction tool for astrophysical objects (Steffen et al. 2011, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics, 17, 454), to prove that non-uniform density or brightness, on an expanding shell, can lead to mistaken conclusions about the radial velocity. To determine radial velocities, we only use the spectral data in which a spectral line-splitting is seen, avoiding thus the problem of the possible biased one-Gaussian fit. Cases when this method is not recommended are discussed.This project has been supported by grant PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM IN107914. MWB is in grateful receipt of a DGAPA-UNAM postdoctoral scholarship. MAG acknowledges CONACYT for his graduate scholarship.

  10. Dietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cédric; Scholl, Georges; Bohn, Torsten; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Eppe, Gauthier; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

    2014-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g., mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (Σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ng kg(-1) d(-1). Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants. PMID:25476192

  11. Intrinsic radial sensitivity of nucleon inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J. J.

    1988-02-01

    A linear expansion analysis of the folding model transition amplitude is used to study the intrinsic sensitivity of the inelastic scattering of intermediate energy nucleons to the radial form of the neutron transition density, given known proton transition densities from electron scattering. Realistic density-dependent effective interactions are used to construct pseudodata. These pseudodata are then reanalyzed and the error matrix is used to calculate an error band for the radial transition density. This approach reveals the sensitivity of the extracted transition density to absorption, medium modifications of the interaction, and the extent and quality of the data in a manner that is largely free of the residual inaccuracies in reaction theory that complicate the analysis of real data. We find that the intrinsic radial sensitivity of nucleon inelastic scattering is best for projectile energies between 200 and 500 MeV, but is adequate to resolve the radial dependence of neutron transition densities even in the interior of heavy nuclei throughout the energy regime 100-800 MeV. We have also compared our method with scale-factor analyses which assume proportionality between neutron and proton densities. For states whose transition densities are similar in the surface, we find scaling to be accurate at the 20% level. However, for light nuclei substantial deviations beyond the first peak of the differential cross section reveal sensitivity to shape differences. This sensitivity is reduced for heavy nuclei. The model dependence of radial densities is also studied. A high-q constraint is used to analyze the contribution of incompleteness error to the deduced error bands and to reduce the model dependence.

  12. 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Dopamine Reductions in the Nucleus Accumbens, but not the Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Impair Cincinnati Water Maze Egocentric and Morris Water Maze Allocentric Navigation in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Braun, Amanda A; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Gutierrez, Arnold; Lundgren, Kerstin H; Seroogy, Kim B; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (Nacc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) receive dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area and are involved in learning. Male rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic and noradrenergic reductions in the Nacc or mPFC were tested for allocentric and egocentric learning to determine their role in these forms of neuroplasticity. mPFC dopaminergic and noradrenergic reductions did not result in changes to either type of learning or memory. Nacc dopaminergic and noradrenergic reductions resulted in allocentric learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze (MWM) on acquisition, reversal, and probe trials. MWM cued performance was also affected, but straight-channel swim times and swim speed during hidden platform trials in the MWM were not affected. Nacc dopaminergic and noradrenergic reductions also impaired egocentric learning in the Cincinnati water maze (CWM). Nacc-lesioned animals tested in the CWM in an alternate path through the maze were not significantly affected. 6-OHDA injections in the Nacc resulted in 63 % dopamine and 62 % norepinephrine reductions in the Nacc and 23 % reductions in adjacent dorsal striatum. 6-OHDA injections in the mPFC resulted in 88 % reductions in dopamine and 59 % reductions in norepinephrine. Hence, Nacc dopamine and/or norepinephrine play a role in egocentric and allocentric learning and memory, while mPFC dopamine and norepinephrine do not. PMID:27003940

  13. Radial forces analysis and rotational speed test of radial permanent magnetic bearing for horizontal axis wind turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriswanto, Jamari

    2016-04-01

    Permanent magnet bearings (PMB) are contact free bearings which utilize the forces generated by the magnets. PMB in this work is a type of radial PMB, which functions as the radial bearings of the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) rotor shaft. Radial PMB should have a greater radial force than the radial force HAWT rotor shaft (bearing load). This paper presents a modeling and experiments to calculate the radial force of the radial PMB. This paper also presents rotational speed test of the radial PMB compared to conventional bearings for HAWT applications. Modeling using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b with the magnetic fields physics models. Experiments were conducted by measuring the displacement of the rotor to the stator for a given load variation. Results of the two methods showed that the large displacement then the radial force would be greater. Radial forces of radial PMB is greater than radial forces of HAWT rotor shaft. The rotational speed test results of HAWT that used radial PMB produced higher rotary than conventional bearings with an average increase of 87.4%. Increasing rotational speed occured because radial PMB had no friction. HAWT that used radial PMB rotated at very low wind speeds are 1.4 m/s with a torque of 0.043 Nm, while the HAWT which uses conventional bearing started rotating at a wind speed of 4.4 m/s and required higher torque of 0.104 N.

  14. Unraveling cognitive traits using the Morris water maze unbiased strategy classification (MUST-C) algorithm.

    PubMed

    Illouz, Tomer; Madar, Ravit; Louzon, Yoram; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Okun, Eitan

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of spatial cognitive learning in rodents is a central approach in neuroscience, as it enables one to assess and quantify the effects of treatments and genetic manipulations from a broad perspective. Although the Morris water maze (MWM) is a well-validated paradigm for testing spatial learning abilities, manual categorization of performance in the MWM into behavioral strategies is subject to individual interpretation, and thus to biases. Here we offer a support vector machine (SVM) - based, automated, MWM unbiased strategy classification (MUST-C) algorithm, as well as a cognitive score scale. This model was examined and validated by analyzing data obtained from five MWM experiments with changing platform sizes, revealing a limitation in the spatial capacity of the hippocampus. We have further employed this algorithm to extract novel mechanistic insights on the impact of members of the Toll-like receptor pathway on cognitive spatial learning and memory. The MUST-C algorithm can greatly benefit MWM users as it provides a standardized method of strategy classification as well as a cognitive scoring scale, which cannot be derived from typical analysis of MWM data. PMID:26522398

  15. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top–down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top–down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1–L2 and L2–L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top–down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  16. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top-down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top-down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1-L2 and L2-L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top-down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  17. Morris water maze: procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform. Spatial learning is assessed across repeated trials and reference memory is determined by preference for the platform area when the platform is absent. Reversal and shift trials enhance the detection of spatial impairments. Trial-dependent, latent and discrimination learning can be assessed using modifications of the basic protocol. Search-to-platform area determines the degree of reliance on spatial versus non-spatial strategies. Cued trials determine whether performance factors that are unrelated to place learning are present. Escape from water is relatively immune from activity or body mass differences, making it ideal for many experimental models. The MWM has proven to be a robust and reliable test that is strongly correlated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. We present protocols for performing variants of the MWM test, from which results can be obtained from individual animals in as few as 6 days. PMID:17406317

  18. Anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol derivatives in the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, F S; de Aguiar, J C; Mechoulam, R; Breuer, A

    1994-01-01

    1. In order to assess the presence of anxiolytic properties in cannabidiol (CBD) derivatives HU-219, HU-252 and HU-261, these drugs were tested in rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety. 2. Additional groups received diazepam or CBD. HU-219 (0.03-1 mg/kg) and CBD (5 mg/kg) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries without changing the total number of entries, an anxiolytic-like effect. 3. Both HU-252 and HU-261 increased the percentage of time spent in open arms and the total number of entries, but only at the dose of 1 mg/kg. 4. Diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) increased both the percentage of entries and time spent on open arms and the total number of entries. 5. The results confirm previous findings with CBD and indicate that its derivative HU-219 may possess a similar anxiolytic-like profile. 6. Results from HU-252 and HU-261 are less apparent and suggest that the compounds may increase general exploratory activity in a limited range of doses. PMID:7913072

  19. Molecular docking and panicolytic effect of 8-prenylnaringenin in the elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Bagatin, Mariane Cristovão; Tozatti, Camila Santos Suniga; Abiko, Layara Akemi; Yamazaki, Diego Alberto dos Santos; Silva, Priscila Rebeca Alves; Perego, Leonardo Martins; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida; Seixas, Flavio Augusto Vicente; Basso, Ernani Abicht; Gauze, Gisele de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the chronic administration of a racemic mixture of 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) on rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM) model of generalized anxiety and panic disorders. The selective serotonin (SERT) reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine was used as a positive control. Rat locomotion was assessed in a circular arena following each drug treatment. The administration of racemic 8-PN for 21 d in rats increased one-way escape latencies from the ETM open arm, indicating a panicolytic effect. To evaluate the interactions of 8-PN with monoamine transporters, a docking study was performed for both the R and S configurations of 8-PN towards SERT, norepinephrine (NET) and dopamine transporters (DAT). The application of the docking protocol showed that (R)-8-PN provides greater affinity to all transporters than does the S enantiomer. This result suggests that enantiomer (R)-8-PN is the active form in the in vivo test of the racemic mixture. PMID:25450631

  20. Gerbils exhibit stable open-arms exploration across repeated testing on the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Rico, Javier Leonardo; Penagos-Gil, Marion; Castañeda, Anderson F; Corredor, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Repeated testing on the elevated plus-maze (EPM) leads rats and mice to avoid the open-arms of the apparatus. The effect of multiple exposures to the EPM on the behavioral profile of gerbils is unknown. In this study, young and middle-aged gerbils were exposed to the EPM and four retests were carried out 24, 48, 72 and 96h after the first trial in order to determine whether animals exhibited open-arms avoidance. In addition, groups of young and middle-aged gerbils were exposed to the EPM for 20-min followed by a 5-min retest trial 24h apart to analyze the effect of a prolonged exposure to the EPM on open-arms exploration during first trial and retest. Gerbils exhibited high exploration of open-arms during the first trial and progressive locomotor decrease across repeated testing. Unlike previous reports for rats and mice, young gerbils showed a stable open-arms exploration both across multiple exposures and during a prolonged exposure to EPM. Middle-aged gerbils also exhibited a stable open-arms exploration during retest prior to the 20-min test. Results suggest a reliable repeated test paradigm for the EPM using our proposed methodology for gerbils. PMID:26621258

  1. The scientific learning approach using multimedia-based maze game to improve learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Wawan; Hafitriani, Sarah; Prabawa, Harsa Wara

    2016-02-01

    The objective of curriculum 2013 is to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, which leads to improving the quality of learning. The scientific approach and supported empowerment media is one approach as massaged of curriculum 2013. This research aims to design a labyrinth game based multimedia and apply in the scientific learning approach. This study was conducted in one of the Vocational School in Subjects of Computer Network on 2 (two) classes of experimental and control. The method used Mix Method Research (MMR) which combines qualitative in multimedia design, and quantitative in the study of learning impact. The results of a survey showed that the general of vocational students like of network topology material (68%), like multimedia (74%), and in particular, like interactive multimedia games and flash (84%). Multimediabased maze game developed good eligibility based on media and material aspects of each value 840% and 82%. Student learning outcomes as a result of using a scientific approach to learning with a multimediabased labyrinth game increase with an average of gain index about (58%) and higher than conventional multimedia with index average gain of 0.41 (41%). Based on these results the scientific approach to learning by using multimediabased labyrinth game can improve the quality of learning and increase understanding of students. Multimedia of learning based labyrinth game, which developed, got a positive response from the students with a good qualification level (75%).

  2. Intracerebellar vermis histamine facilitates memory consolidation in the elevated T maze model.

    PubMed

    Silva-Marques, Bruna; Gianlorenço, Anna Carolyna Lepesteur; Mattioli, Rosana

    2016-05-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a more complex role in learning than simply regulating the motor response. Rather, it is thought to play a significant role in the consolidation of emotional memory in mice. Due to the difficulty of interpreting fear and anxiety behaviors-the standard methodology for the study of the histaminergic system and emotional memory-in mice, we propose a behavioral assessment of mice subjected to the Elevated T-maze after histamine microinjection of the cerebellar vermis. Young male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35g were used. In addition, locomotor activity was tested in an open field test. Our data suggest that histamine did not affect memory consolidation during escape or open field behavior at the doses used in this study. However, we observed a significant increase in inhibitory avoidance on the second day in animals receiving a dose of 6.8nmol/0.5μl, suggesting that histamine facilitates the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance in mice. PMID:27005299

  3. Impaired water maze learning performance without altered dopaminergic function in mice heterozygous for the GDNF mutation.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R; McNamara, A; Choi-Lundberg, D L; Armanini, M; Ross, J; Powell-Braxton, L; Phillips, H S

    2001-10-01

    Exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exhibits potent survival-promoting effects on dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway that is implicated in Parkinson's disease and also protects neurons in forebrain ischemia of animal models. However, a role for endogenous GDNF in brain function has not been established. Although mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the GDNF gene have been generated, these mice die within hours of birth because of deficits in kidney morphogenesis, and, thus, the effect of the absence of GDNF on brain function could not be studied. Herein, we sought to determine whether adult mice, heterozygous for a GDNF mutation on two different genetic backgrounds, demonstrate alterations in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or in cognitive function. While both neurochemical and behavioural measures suggested that reduction of GDNF gene expression in the mutant mice does not alter the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, it led to a significant and selective impairment of performance in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. A standard panel of blood chemistry tests and basic pathological analyses did not reveal alterations in the mutants that could account for the observed performance deficit. These results suggest that endogenous GDNF may not be critical for the development and functioning of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system but it plays an important role in cognitive abilities. PMID:11683907

  4. Spatial learning of the water maze: progression of brain circuits mapped with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Arias, J L

    2010-03-01

    The progression of brain circuits involved in spatial learning tasks is still a matter of debate. In addition, the participation of individual regions at different stages of spatial learning remains a controversial issue. In order to address these questions, we used quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry as a metabolic brain mapping method applied to rats (Rattus norvegicus) trained in a water maze for 1, 3 or 5 days of training. Sustained changes throughout training were found in the lateral septal nucleus and anteroventral thalamic nucleus. As compared to naïve or habituation groups, rats with 1 day of training in the spatial learning task showed involvement of the lateral mammillary nucleus, basolateral amygdala and anterodorsal thalamic nucleus. By 5 days of training, there were mean changes in the hippocampal CA3 field and the prefrontal cortex. The regions involved and their pattern of network interactions changed progressively over days of training. At 1-day there was an open serial network of pairwise correlations. At 3-days there was a more closed reciprocal network of intercorrelations. At 5-days there were three separate parallel networks. In addition, brain-behavior correlations showed that CA1 and CA3 hippocampal fields together with the parietal cortex are related to the mastery of the spatial learning task. The present study extends previous findings on the progressive contribution of neural networks to spatial learning. PMID:19969098

  5. The water maze paradigm in experimental studies of chronic cognitive disorders: Theory, protocols, analysis, and inference.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Minesh; Xu, Josie; Sakic, Boris

    2016-09-01

    An instrumental step in assessing the validity of animal models of chronic cognitive disorders is to document disease-related deficits in learning/memory capacity. The water maze (WM) is a popular paradigm because of its low cost, relatively simple protocol and short procedure time. Despite being broadly accepted as a spatial learning task, inference of generalized, bona fide "cognitive" dysfunction can be challenging because task accomplishment is also reliant on non-cognitive processes. We review theoretical background, testing procedures, confounding factors, as well as approaches to data analysis and interpretation. We also describe an extended protocol that has proven useful in detecting early performance deficits in murine models of neuropsychiatric lupus and Alzheimer's disease. Lastly, we highlight the need for standardization of inferential criteria on "cognitive" dysfunction in experimental rodents and exclusion of preparations of a limited scientific merit. A deeper appreciation for the multifactorial nature of performance in WM may also help to reveal other deficits that herald the onset of neurodegenerative brain disorders. PMID:27229758

  6. Maze solving automatons for self-healing of open interconnects: Modular add-on for circuit boards

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Aswathi; Raghunandan, Karthik; Yaswant, Vaddi; Sambandan, Sanjiv E-mail: ssanjiv@isu.iisc.ernet.in; Pillai, Sreelal S.

    2015-03-23

    We present the circuit board integration of a self-healing mechanism to repair open faults. The electric field driven mechanism physically restores fractured interconnects in electronic circuits and has the ability to solve mazes. The repair is performed by conductive particles dispersed in an insulating fluid. We demonstrate the integration of the healing module onto printed circuit boards and the ability of maze solving. We model and perform experiments on the influence of the geometry of conductive particles as well as the terminal impedances of the route on the healing efficiency. The typical heal rate is 10 μm/s with healed route having mean resistance of 8 kΩ across a 200 micron gap and depending on the materials and concentrations used.

  7. Comparison of behavior-based and planning techniques on the small robot maze exploration problem.

    PubMed

    Slusný, Stanislav; Neruda, Roman; Vidnerová, Petra

    2010-05-01

    A comparison of behavior-based and planning approaches of robot control is presented in this paper. We focus on miniature mobile robotic agents with limited sensory abilities. Two reactive control mechanisms for an agent are considered-a radial basis function neural network trained by evolutionary algorithm and a traditional reinforcement learning algorithm over a finite agent state space. The control architecture based on localization and planning is compared to the former method. PMID:20346859

  8. Low profile radial nerve palsy orthosis with radial and ulnar deviation.

    PubMed

    Peck, Jean; Ollason, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who sustain damage to the radial nerve experience a significant loss in functional use of the hand. Traditional orthoses have been effective in providing assistance with wrist stabilization and finger/thumb MP extension. These authors adapted a low profile orthosis to provide the necessary support while allowing radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, thus increasing functional use of the hand.--Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. PMID:26190027

  9. Retrospective and prospective responses arising in a modeled hippocampus during maze navigation by a brain-based device.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Jason G; Gally, Joseph A; Edelman, Gerald M; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2007-02-27

    Recent recordings of place field activity in rodent hippocampus have revealed correlates of current, recent past, and imminent future events in spatial memory tasks. To analyze these properties, we used a brain-based device, Darwin XI, that incorporated a detailed model of medial temporal structures shaped by experience-dependent synaptic activity. Darwin XI was tested on a plus maze in which it approached a goal arm from different start arms. In the task, a journey corresponded to the route from a particular starting point to a particular goal. During maze navigation, the device developed place-dependent responses in its simulated hippocampus. Journey-dependent place fields, whose activity differed in different journeys through the same maze arm, were found in the recordings of simulated CA1 neuronal units. We also found an approximately equal number of journey-independent place fields. The journey-dependent responses were either retrospective, where activity was present in the goal arm, or prospective, where activity was present in the start arm. Detailed analysis of network dynamics of the neural simulation during behavior revealed that many different neural pathways could stimulate any single CA1 unit. That analysis also revealed that place activity was driven more by hippocampal and entorhinal cortical influences than by sensory cortical input. Moreover, journey-dependent activity was driven more strongly by hippocampal influence than journey-independent activity. PMID:17360681

  10. Learning-related coordination of striatal and hippocampal theta rhythms during acquisition of a procedural maze task.

    PubMed

    DeCoteau, William E; Thorn, Catherine; Gibson, Daniel J; Courtemanche, Richard; Mitra, Partha; Kubota, Yasuo; Graybiel, Ann M

    2007-03-27

    The striatum and hippocampus are conventionally viewed as complementary learning and memory systems, with the hippocampus specialized for fact-based episodic memory and the striatum for procedural learning and memory. Here we directly tested whether these two systems exhibit independent or coordinated activity patterns during procedural learning. We trained rats on a conditional T-maze task requiring navigational and cue-based associative learning. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity with tetrodes chronically implanted in the caudoputamen and the CA1 field of the dorsal hippocampus during 6-25 days of training. We show that simultaneously recorded striatal and hippocampal theta rhythms are modulated differently as the rats learned to perform the T-maze task but nevertheless become highly coherent during the choice period of the maze runs in rats that successfully learned the task. Moreover, in the rats that acquired the task, the phase of the striatal-hippocampal theta coherence was modified toward a consistent antiphase relationship, and these changes occurred in proportion to the levels of learning achieved. We suggest that rhythmic oscillations, including theta-band activity, could influence not only neural processing in cortico-basal ganglia circuits but also dynamic interactions between basal ganglia-based and hippocampus-based forebrain circuits during the acquisition and performance of learned behaviors. Experience-dependent changes in coordination of oscillatory activity across brain structures thus may parallel the well known plasticity of spike activity that occurs as a function of experience. PMID:17372196

  11. Effects of chronic Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on hippocampal extracellular acetylcholine concentration and alternation performance in the T-maze.

    PubMed

    Nava, F; Carta, G; Colombo, G; Gessa, G L

    2001-09-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis sativa, reduces both extracellular hippocampal acetylcholine concentration and correct alternation tasks in the T-maze. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether a chronic Delta(9)-THC treatment would induce tolerance both to the reduction of extracellular hippocampal acetylcholine concentration and memory deficit produced by the drug. Our results show that a chronic Delta(9)-THC treatment (5mg/kg, i.p., twice daily for two weeks) did not produce tolerance to the inhibitory effects induced by the drug. Moreover, no strict temporal correlation between the two Delta(9)-THC effects was observed: the inhibition in extracellular acetylcholine concentration appeared only 80 min after treatment, while the reduction of correct alternation tasks in the T-maze began after 20 min. The cognitive and cholinergic effects induced by a chronic Delta(9)-THC treatment were completely blocked by the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716A, indicating an involvement of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors in the persistent negative effects induced by the drug. These findings confirm the proposition that CB(1) cannabinoid receptors mediate the negative effects induced by Delta(9)-THC both on hippocampal extracellular acetylcholine concentration and correct alternation tasks in the T-maze, and they indicate that these effects may be differentiated. However, the major outcome of this work is the demonstration that no tolerance to the two inhibitory effects develops after a chronic Delta(9)-THC treatment. PMID:11522331

  12. Entropy generation of radial rotation convective channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alić, Fikret

    2012-03-01

    The exchange of heat between two fluids is established by radial rotating pipe or a channel. The hotter fluid flows through the pipe, while the cold fluid is ambient air. Total length of pipe is made up of multiple sections of different shape and position in relation to the common axis of rotation. In such heat exchanger the hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of the hotter and colder fluid occur. Therefore, the total entropy generated within the radial rotating pipe consists of the total entropy of hotter and colder fluid, taking into account all the hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of both fluids. Finding a mathematical model of the total generated entropy is based on coupled mathematical expressions that combine hydraulic and thermal effects of both fluids with the complex geometry of the radial rotating pipe. Mathematical model follows the each section of the pipe and establishes the function between the sections, so the total generated entropy is different from section to section of the pipe. In one section of the pipe thermal irreversibility may dominate over the hydraulic irreversibility, while in another section of the pipe the situation may be reverse. In this paper, continuous analytic functions that connect sections of pipe in geometric meaning are associated with functions that describe the thermo-hydraulic effects of hotter and colder fluid. In this way, the total generated entropy of the radial rotating pipe is a continuous analytic function of any complex geometry of the rotating pipe. The above method of establishing a relationship between the continuous function of entropy with the complex geometry of the rotating pipe enables indirect monitoring of unnecessary hydraulic and thermal losses of both fluids. Therefore, continuous analytic functions of generated entropy enable analysis of hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of individual sections of pipe, as well as the possibility of improving the thermal-hydraulic performance of the rotating

  13. New Measurements of Radial Mode Eigenfrequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, G.; Masters, G.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    2001-12-01

    Radial mode eigenfrequencies are commonly thought to be measured with great ease and precision. The reason for this is that these modes have no geographic pattern so one should be able to measure frequencies from a spectrum observed at any station in the world. Yet, radial modes often seem inconsistent with spherical Earth models that fit all other mode frequencies. It turns out that radial modes are sometimes strongly coupled. The strongest coupling is predicted to be with l=2 modes which is caused by the Earth's hydrostatic ellipticity and aspherical structure of harmonic degree 2. In such cases, mode-coupling due to ellipticity alone can cause a frequency shift for the radial modes by more than 4 microHz. Given that mode frequencies can be measured to within 0.1 microHz, this shift is significant, and some singlets of l=2 modes have indeed been misidentified as the radial mode in the past. Including the spectra of the June 23, 2001 Southern Peru Earthquake we have re-analyzed radial mode eigenfrequencies and present a mode dataset that is internally more consistent than previous ones. We construct spherical Earth models that are consistent with our new data, the Earth's mass and moment of inertia and the current best estimates of ``Reference Normal Mode Data'' (available on the Reference Earth Model web site: //mahi.ucsd.edu/Gabi/rem.html). We seek the smallest perturbation to PREM but update the Q-structure as well as the depths of the upper mantle discontinuities (418~km and 660~km as first order discontinuities; 520~km as change in gradient). The best fitting 1D model is transversely isotropic but we also show isotropic models that fit the data to within their errors. We show that the 220~km discontinuity is not required in the isotropic model but that there exists a trade-off between high shear-velocities in the lid and a low-density zone beneath it. We also investigate ways of truncating transverse isotropy without the 220.

  14. Radial tunnel syndrome. A retrospective review of 30 decompressions of the radial nerve.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T; Mobbs, P; Fortems, Y; Stanley, J K

    1995-08-01

    Radial tunnel syndrome results from compression of the radial nerve by the free edge of the supinator muscle or closely related structures in the vicinity of the elbow joint. Despite numerous reports on the surgical management of this disorder, it remains largely unrecognized and often neglected. The symptoms of radial tunnel syndrome can resemble those of tennis elbow, chronic wrist pain or tenosynovitis. Reliable objective criteria are not available to differentiate between these pathologies. These difficulties are discussed in relation to 29 patients who underwent 30 primary explorations and proximal decompressions of the radial nerve. Excellent or good results were obtained in 70%, fair results in 13% and poor results in 17% of patients. The results can be satisfactory despite the prolonged duration of symptoms. We believe that a diagnosis of radial tunnel syndrome should always be born in mind when dealing with patients with forearm and wrist pain that has not responded to more conventional treatment. Patients with occupations requiring repetitive manual tasks seem to be particularly at risk of developing radial tunnel syndrome and it is also interesting to note that 66% of patients with on-going medico-legal claims had successful outcomes following surgery. PMID:7594982

  15. Simple proposal for radial 3D needlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durastanti, C.; Fantaye, Y.; Hansen, F.; Marinucci, D.; Pesenson, I. Z.

    2014-11-01

    We present here a simple construction of a wavelet system for the three-dimensional ball, which we label radial 3D needlets. The construction envisages a data collection environment in which an observer located at the center of the ball is surrounded by concentric spheres with the same pixelization at different radial distances, for any given resolution. The system is then obtained by weighting the projector operator built on the corresponding set of eigenfunctions and performing a discretization step which turns out to be computationally very convenient. The resulting wavelets can be shown to have very good localization properties in the real and harmonic domain; their implementation is computationally very convenient, and they allow for exact reconstruction as they form a tight frame system. Our theoretical results are supported by an extensive numerical analysis.

  16. Radial spline assembly for antifriction bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jerry H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An outer race carrier is constructed for receiving an outer race of an antifriction bearing assembly. The carrier in turn is slidably fitted in an opening of a support wall to accommodate slight axial movements of a shaft. A plurality of longitudinal splines on the carrier are disposed to be fitted into matching slots in the opening. A deadband gap is provided between sides of the splines and slots, with a radial gap at ends of the splines and slots and a gap between the splines and slots sized larger than the deadband gap. With this construction, operational distortions (slope) of the support wall are accommodated by the larger radial gaps while the deadband gaps maintain a relatively high springrate of the housing. Additionally, side loads applied to the shaft are distributed between sides of the splines and slots, distributing such loads over a larger surface area than a race carrier of the prior art.

  17. Coronary Embolism After Iatrogenic Radial Endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rozado, Jose; Pascual, Isaac; Avanzas, Pablo; Moris, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    A 55-year-old man with double-vessel coronary artery disease was revascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention three years ago. Elective coronary angiography was indicated for angina with positive stress test. During the procedure, severe radial spasm occurred; after the first injection, we detected loss in pressure trace in the diagnostic catheter and acute distal circumflex occlusion. Suspecting catheter thrombosis with coronary embolization, the entire system was exchanged and inspected; inside, we discovered a 2 x 50 mm white biological cylinder. Histological study of this material was compatible with endarterectomy. We present a rare complication of severe radial artery spasm and endarterectomy, with occlusion of the diagnostic catheter and coronary embolization. PMID:27236012

  18. TMT and Exoplanet Radial Velocity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Angelle; Crossfield, Ian

    2014-07-01

    With echelle spectrometers on the verge of crossing over the 0.1 m/s radial velocity (RV) measurement precision threshold needed to detect habitable Earth mass planets around Sun-like stars, conducing such surveys on state-of-the-art telescopes is an imperative. RV exoplanets surveys conducted with the optical and infrared echelle spectrometers being built for the TMT have the potential to complete a census of the population of Earth-mass planets in our local stellar neighborhood. The detection of such systems will provide a valuable stellar sample for follow-up exoplanet studies which would characterize the atmospheres of these or additional planets found in these nearby solar systems. Here, we will further discuss the impact of the TMT on radial velocity exoplanet surveys.

  19. Precise Near-Infrared Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Gao, Peter; Gagne, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bottom, Michael; Tanner, Angelle; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; White, Russel; Davison, Cassy; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John Asher; Ciardi, David; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen; Crawford, Sam; Crawford, Tim; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Lin, Sean; Leifer, Stephanie; Catanzarite, Joe; Henry, Todd; von Braun, Kaspar; Walp, Bernie; Geneser, Claire; Ogden, Nick; Stufflebeam, Andrew; Pohl, Garrett; Regan, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of two 2.3 μm near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~ 46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20-30 m s-1 on our survey targets.

  20. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  1. Stellar Rotation and Precise Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D. F.

    Two aspects will be considered. First, I will view the spectroscopic measurement of rotation rates as a differential precision radial velocity: how do we get rotation rates; what are the uncertainties stemming from differential rotation, time variable profiles caused by spots, uncertain limb darkening, and the presence of macroturbulence? What do we even mean by the rotation rate when there is differential rotation? Second, I will discuss the effects of rotation on specifying the precise position of spectral lines, i.e., the classical radial velocity of a star. I will present some thoughts on the effects of having our sharp markers of the Doppler effect degraded by rotation, the meaning of line position when the Doppler effects of rotation and convection interact, and the altered shapes of composite spectrum features with increased rotational smearing.

  2. Radially Localized Helicon Modes in Nonuniform Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Breizman, Boris N.; Arefiev, Alexey V.

    2000-04-24

    A radial density gradient in an axisymmetric cylindrical plasma column forms a potential well for nonaxisymmetric helicon modes (m{ne}0 ). This paper presents an analytic description of such modes in the limit of small longitudinal wave numbers. The corresponding mode equation indicates the possibility of efficient resonant absorption of rf power in helicon discharges at unusually low frequencies. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  3. Radial rib antenna surface deviation analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed which analyzes any radial rib antenna with ribs radiating from a central hub. The program has the capability for calculating the antenna surface contour (reversed pillowing effect), the optimum rib shape for minimizing the rms surface error, and the actual rms surface error. Rib deflection due to mesh tension and catenary cable tension can also be compensated for, and the pattern from which the mesh gores are cut can be determined.

  4. Vitesses radiales - catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duflot, M.; Figon, P.; Meyssonnier, N.

    Les auteurs ont réuni, en une seule version, les catalogues de vitesses radiales moyennes de Wilson (1963) et de Evans (1978), qui ont de nombreuses étoiles en commun. Les étoiles doubles spectroscopiques, dont l'orbite est déterminée (catalogue de Batten et al. 1989), ont également été associées à ce travail.

  5. Preoperative study of the surface ECG for the prognosis of atrial fibrillation maze surgery outcome at discharge.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio; Alcaraz, Raúl; Hornero, Fernando; Rieta, José Joaquín

    2014-07-01

    The Cox-maze surgery is an effective procedure for terminating atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients requiring open-heart surgery associated with another heart disease. After the intervention, regardless of the patient's rhythm, all are treated with oral anticoagulants and antiarrhythmic drugs prior to discharge. Furthermore, patients maintaining AF before discharge could also be treated with electrical cardioversion (ECV). In view of this, a preoperative prognosis of the patient's rhythm at discharge would be helpful for optimizing drug therapy planning as well as for advancing ECV therapy. This work analyzes 30 preoperative electrocardiograms (ECGs) from patients suffering from AF in order to predict the Cox-maze surgery outcome at discharge. Two different characteristics of the AF pattern have been studied. On the one hand, the atrial activity (AA) organization, which provides information about the number of propagating wavelets in the atria, was investigated. AA organization has been successfully used in previous studies related to spontaneous reversion of paroxysmal AF and to the outcome of ECV. To assess organization, the dominant atrial frequency (DAF) and sample entropy (SampEn) have been computed. On the other hand, the second characteristic studied was the fibrillatory wave (f-wave) amplitude, which has been demonstrated to be a valuable indicator of the Cox-maze surgery outcome in previous studies. Moreover, this parameter has been obtained through a new methodology, based on computing the f-wave average power (fWP). Finally, all the computed indices were combined in a decision tree in order to improve prediction capability. Results for the DAF yielded a sensitivity (Se), a specificity (Sp) and an accuracy (Acc) of 61.54%, 82.35% and 73.33%, respectively. For SampEn the values were 69.23%, 76.00% and 73.33%, respectively, and for fWP they were 92.31%, 82.35% and 86.67%, respectively. Finally, the decision tree combining the three parameters analyzed

  6. Development of a Radial Deconsolidation Method

    SciTech Connect

    Helmreich, Grant W.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Hunn, John D.

    2015-12-01

    A series of experiments have been initiated to determine the retention or mobility of fission products* in AGR fuel compacts [Petti, et al. 2010]. This information is needed to refine fission product transport models. The AGR-3/4 irradiation test involved half-inch-long compacts that each contained twenty designed-to-fail (DTF) particles, with 20-μm thick carbon-coated kernels whose coatings were deliberately fabricated such that they would crack under irradiation, providing a known source of post-irradiation isotopes. The DTF particles in these compacts were axially distributed along the compact centerline so that the diffusion of fission products released from the DTF kernels would be radially symmetric [Hunn, et al. 2012; Hunn et al. 2011; Kercher, et al. 2011; Hunn, et al. 2007]. Compacts containing DTF particles were irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) [Collin, 2015]. Analysis of the diffusion of these various post-irradiation isotopes through the compact requires a method to radially deconsolidate the compacts so that nested-annular volumes may be analyzed for post-irradiation isotope inventory in the compact matrix, TRISO outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC), and DTF kernels. An effective radial deconsolidation method and apparatus appropriate to this application has been developed and parametrically characterized.

  7. Approximate theory for radial filtration/consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, F.M.; Kirby, J.M.; Nguyen, H.L.

    1996-10-01

    Approximate solutions are developed for filtration and subsequent consolidation of compactible cakes on a cylindrical filter element. Darcy`s flow equation is coupled with equations for equilibrium stress under the conditions of plane strain and axial symmetry for radial flow inwards. The solutions are based on power function forms involving the relationships of the solidosity {epsilon}{sub s} (volume fraction of solids) and the permeability K to the solids effective stress p{sub s}. The solutions allow determination of the various parameters in the power functions and the ratio k{sub 0} of the lateral to radial effective stress (earth stress ratio). Measurements were made of liquid and effective pressures, flow rates, and cake thickness versus time. Experimental data are presented for a series of tests in a radial filtration cell with a central filter element. Slurries prepared from two materials (Microwate, which is mainly SrSO{sub 4}, and kaolin) were used in the experiments. Transient deposition of filter cakes was followed by static (i.e., no flow) conditions in the cake. The no-flow condition was accomplished by introducing bentonite which produced a nearly impermeable layer with negligible flow. Measurement of the pressure at the cake surface and the transmitted pressure on the central element permitted calculation of k{sub 0}.

  8. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  9. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  10. Study the Effect of Endocannabinoid System on Rat Behavior in Elevated Plus-Maze

    PubMed Central

    Komaki, Alireza; Hashemi-Firouzi, Nasrin; Shojaei, Shiva; Souri, Zobin; Heidari, Somayeh; Shahidi, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have shown that cannabinoidergic system is involved in anxiety. However, there are controversial reports in the experimental studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of pharmacological stimulation or blocking of CB1 receptors and inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation in anxiety like behavior in elevated plus-maze (EPM) test in rat. The EPM is one of the most widely used animal models of anxiety. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to ten groups. Different groups of animals intraperitoneally received Win-55212 (0.3, 1 and 5 mg/kg) as CB1 receptor agonist, AM-251 (0.3, 1 and 5 mg/kg) as CB1 receptor antagonist, URB-597 (0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) as endocannabinoid breakdown inhibitor or saline (as control group) 30 min before submitting into EPM test. Results: The results showed that compared to the control group, Win-55212 (1 and 5 mg/kg) and URB-597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) significantly increased both of the time and percentage of entries into open arms. AM-251 (1 and 5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the time and percentage of entries into open arms in the EPM test. These substances have no effects on the total distance covered by animals and number of closed arm entries. Discussion: It is concluded that activation of cannabinoid receptor exert anxiolytic effect while blocking of cannabinoid receptor resulted in anxiety behavior. The locomotor activity was not significantly changed by cannabinoid system. It is suggested that potentiation of cannabinoid system may be therapeutic strategy for the anxiety behavior. PMID:26904171

  11. Cox-Maze IV Results for Patients With Lone Atrial Fibrillation Versus Concomitant Mitral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Lindsey L.; Bailey, Marci S.; Prasad, Sunil; Guthrie, Tracey J.; Bell, Jennifer; Moon, Marc R.; Lawton, Jennifer S.; Munfakh, Nabil A.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Damiano, Ralph J.; Maniar, Hersh S.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study compared Cox-Maze IV (CMIV) outcomes for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with lone AF vs those with AF and mitral valve (MV) disease. Methods Since 2002, 200 patients have undergone a CMIV procedure for lone AF (n = 101) or concomitantly with MV operations (n = 99). Preoperative, perioperative, and late outcomes between these groups were compared. Data were collected prospectively and reported at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Lone AF patients had AF of longer duration; patients with AF and MV disease were older, with larger left atria and worse New York Heart Association classification (p < 0.05). Operative mortality (1% vs 4%, p > 0.05, respectively) was similar between both groups. Perioperative atrial tachyarrhythmias were more prevalent in patients with concomitant MV operations (57% vs 41%, p = 0.03); however, freedom from AF and antiar-rhythmics was similar for both groups at 12 months (76% and 77%). The only predictor for atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence or arrhythmic drug dependence was failure to isolate the posterior left atrium (p < 0.01). Conclusions Patients with AF and MV disease have distinct comorbidities compared with patients with lone AF. However, the CMIV is safe and effective in both groups and should be considered for patients with AF undergoing MV operations. Patients with MV disease had more atrial tachyarrhythmias at 3 months, but freedom from AF and antiarrhythmics was similar to patients with lone AF at 1 year. The posterior left atrium should be isolated in every patient, because this was the only predictor for failure of the CMIV for either group. PMID:22305055

  12. Compression Neuropathy of the Radial Nerve Due to Ganglion Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Lifchez, Scott D.; Dzwierzynski, William W.

    2008-01-01

    Ganglions of the upper extremity are common. Radial nerve dysfunction, particularly radial sensory dysfunction, is a rare finding in association with a ganglion. We present our experience with two such ganglia and a review of the literature. PMID:18780092

  13. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was

  14. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  15. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  16. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section 71.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true...

  17. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  18. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section 71.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true...

  19. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  20. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section 71.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true...

  1. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section 71.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true...

  2. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  3. Comminuted radial head fractures treated by the Acumed anatomic radial head system

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Zhefei; Chen, Maohua; Xiong, Yan; Fan, Zhihang; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of comminuted radial head fractures is still challenging. A radial head replacement is more effective in comminuted radial head fractures. The aim of this paper was to present the medium-term results of the Acumed anatomic radial head system (AARHS). Methods: This study was performed on 12 patients with traumatic elbow fracture and instability between 2008 and 2011 of whom 12 were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 60.8 months (19 to 77 months). The evaluation included a record of pain, function, muscle strength, contracture and rotation. The outcome was assessed using the Hospital for Special Surgery total elbow scoring and a modified Disability of Arm Shoulder Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Results: The average flexion and extension arc was 130° (range, 110° to 140°). The mean range of elbow supination was 75° (rang, 60° to 85°) and pronation 80° (range, 65° to 90°). There were no complications such as infection, implant loosening, instability of the elbow, cubitus valgus, osteoporosis of the capitellum, or pain in the forearm and wrist. The mean DASH score was 11.9/100 (0 to 25/100). Conclusion: The radial head replacement with the AARHS can provide effectively stability and good clinic results at the middle term following up. Our experience has encouraged us to continue using the AARHS in comminuted fractures, especially when instability of elbow is a potential problem. PMID:26131250

  4. DESIGN ANALYSIS OF RADIAL INFLOW TURBINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This program performs a velocity-diagram analysis required for determining geometry and estimating performance for radial-inflow turbines. Input design requirements are power, mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure, and rotative rate. The design variables include stator-exit angle, rotor-exit-tip to rotor-inlet radius ratio, rotor-exit-hub to tip radius ratio, and the magnitude and radial distribution of rotor-exit tangential velocity. The program output includes diameters, total and static efficiences, all absolute and relative temperatures, pressures, and velocities, and flow angles at stator inlet, stator exit, rotor inlet, and rotor exit. Losses accounted for in this program by the internal loss model are three-dimensional (profile plus end wall) viscous losses in the stator and the rotor, the disk-friction loss on the back side of the rotor, the loss due to the clearance between the rotor tip and the outer casing, and the exit velocity loss. The flow analysis is one-dimensional at the stator inlet, stator exit, and rotor inlet, each of these calculation stations being at a constant radius. At the rotor exit where there is a variation in flow-field radius, an axisymmetric two-dimensional analysis is made using constant height sectors. Simple radial equilibrium is used to establish the static pressure gradient at the rotor exit. This program is written in FORTRAN V and has been implemented on a UNIVAC 1100 series computer with a memory requirement of approximately 22K of 36 bit words.

  5. Linear stability of radially-heated circular Couette flow with simulated radial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagg, Randy; Weidman, Patrick D.

    2007-05-01

    The stability of circular Couette flow between vertical concentric cylinders in the presence of a radial temperature gradient is considered with an effective “radial gravity.” In addition to terrestrial buoyancy - ρg e z we include the term - ρg m f(r)e r where g m f(r) is the effective gravitational acceleration directed radially inward across the gap. Physically, this body force arises in experiments using ferrofluid in the annular gap of a Taylor Couette cell whose inner cylinder surrounds a vertical stack of equally spaced disk magnets. The radial dependence f(r) of this force is proportional to the modified Bessel function K 1(κr), where 2π/κ is the spatial period of the magnetic stack and r is the radial coordinate. Linear stability calculations made to compare with conditions reported by Ali and Weidman (J. Fluid Mech., 220, 1990) show strong destabilization effects, measured by the onset Rayleigh number R, when the inner wall is warmer, and strong stabilization effects when the outer wall is warmer, with increasing values of the dimensionless radial gravity γ = g m /g. Further calculations presented for the geometry and fluid properties of a terrestrial laboratory experiment reveal a hitherto unappreciated structure of the stability problem for differentially-heated cylinders: multiple wavenumber minima exist in the marginal stability curves. Transitions in global minima among these curves give rise to a competition between differing instabilities of the same spiral mode number, but widely separated axial wavenumbers.

  6. Methods and apparatus for radially compliant component mounting

    DOEpatents

    Bulman, David Edward; Darkins, Jr., Toby George; Stumpf, James Anthony; Schroder, Mark S.; Lipinski, John Joseph

    2012-03-27

    Methods and apparatus for a mounting assembly for a liner of a gas turbine engine combustor are provided. The combustor includes a combustor liner and a radially outer annular flow sleeve. The mounting assembly includes an inner ring surrounding a radially outer surface of the liner and including a plurality of axially extending fingers. The mounting assembly also includes a radially outer ring coupled to the inner ring through a plurality of spacers that extend radially from a radially outer surface of the inner ring to the outer ring.

  7. Coupling Between Velocities in a Radial Supercharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlechko, V. N.; Petrov, O. A.

    2014-03-01

    We have analyzed the velocities of the medium and impeller in a radial supercharger with consideration of the Coriolis acceleration. We have derived an expression for determining the angular velocity of the medium that differs from the angular velocity of the impeller. Dependences have been obtained to determine the velocity of the medium at the exit from the impeller on the inclination angle of the supercharger blades and their coupling with the circumferential velocity of the impeller in the absence of energy losses. Graphical dependences of velocities on the inclination angle of the blades at different ratios of inside radius to outside radius have been constructed.

  8. Anomalous optical forces on radially anisotropic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Gao, L.

    2015-11-01

    Full-wave electromagnetic scattering theory and Maxwell stress tensor integration techniques have been established to study the optical force on the radially anisotropic nanowires. The optical forces on the isotropic nanowires are dependent on the size of the nanowire and the wave vector in the media with the Rayleigh's law. However, the optical forces on the anisotropic nanowires have the anomalous behaviors under non-Rayleigh vanishing condition and non-Rayleigh diverging condition. Therefore, the optical forces on the anisotropic nanowires may be enhanced or reduced by tuning the anisotropic parameters. These results may promote the potential applications in the field of nanotechnology.

  9. Reactive-infiltration instability in radial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    A planar dissolution front propagating through a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This phenomenon, usually referred to known as reactive-infiltration instability is an important mechanism for pattern development in geology, with a range of morphologies and scales, from cave systems running for hundreds of miles to laboratory acidization on the scale of centimeters. In general, this instability is characterized by two length scales: the diffusive length (D/v) and the reactant penetration length (v/r), where v is the Darcy velocity, D - the diffusion constant and r - the dissolution rate. If the latter scale is much smaller than the former one can adopt the so-called thin front limit, where the interface is treated as a discontinuity in porosity, with a completely dissolved phase on one side and an undissolved phase on the other. Linear stability analysis for this case has been carried out by Chadam et al. [1], and the corresponding dispersion relation shows that long wavelengths are unstable, whereas short wavelengths are stabilized by diffusion. In their derivation, Chadam et al. have considered a linear geometry with a uniform pressure gradient applied along one of the directions. However, in many cases (e.g. in the acidization techniques used in oil industry) the reactive fluids are injected through a well and thus the relevant geometry is radial rather than linear. Motivated by this, we have carried out the linear stability analysis of the reactive-infiltration problem in radial geometry, with the fluid injection at the centre of the system. We stay within the thin-front limit and derive the corresponding dispersion relation, which shows the stable regions for both the long-wavelength and short-wavelength modes, and the unstable region in between. Next, we study how

  10. Radial Velocity Detection of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, T. G.

    2004-05-01

    Spectroscopy has long been an ignored corner of amateur astronomy and is generally regarded as difficult if not impossible with small telescopes. With the advent of robotic scopes and high efficiency CCD's, this aspect of astronomy is now open for exploration. The Spectrashift.com project is a team of amateurs that have constructed and implemented a spectrograph and tele- scope system capable of measuring radial velocities down to approximately 100 meters per second. This level of precision can detect extrasolar planets known as "hot Jupiters". The system's performance has been demonstrated on the star Tau Boötis.

  11. Radial Neck Osteotomy for Malunion of Radial Neck Fracture in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Vandergugten, Simon; Troussel, Serge; Lefebvre, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In a case of a neglected radial neck fracture in childhood, the management of initial fracture and its complications are subjected to discussion. In children, open reduction should be avoided but an angulation less than 30° must be obtained. Several techniques exist to manage symptomatic malunion in adults, including resection, prosthesis, and osteotomy. When performing an osteotomy, it is important first to preserve an intact osseous hinge to avoid avascular necrosis and second to align the edge of the radial head articular surface with the lateral edge of the coronoid process, in order to avoid overstuffing elbow joint. PMID:26347364

  12. Rebirth of left radial artery access: could this be the 'right' radial artery?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Montoya; Capers, Quinn; Patel, Dilesh; Mehta, Nishaki K

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac catheterization has several risks, notably which include bleeding, stroke and death. The transradial (TR) approach to catheterization is associated with a lower bleeding risk. The right radial approach is the default method in most laboratories and the left radial artery (LRA) serves as the bail-out approach. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of transfemoral and TR access routes. The authors envisage an increased adoption of the LRA approach, due to the anatomical superiority and ease of catheter engagement afforded by this approach. The authors discuss ways to increase operator ease for LRA in the laboratory and propose a novel way to improve LRA work-flow. PMID:26000561

  13. Developmental D-methamphetamine treatment selectively induces spatial navigation impairments in reference memory in the Morris water maze while sparing working memory.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Morford, LaRonda L; Wood, Sandra L; Wallace, Tanya L; Fukumura, Masao; Broening, Harry W; Vorhees, Charles V

    2003-06-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that P11-20 treatment with D-methamphetamine (MA) (10 mg/kg x 4/day at 2-h intervals) induces impairments in spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze after the offspring reach adulthood. Using a split-litter, multiple dose, design (0, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg MA administered s.c. 4/day at 2-h intervals), the spatial learning effect was further explored with a multiple shifted platform (reversal), reference memory-based procedure and a working memory procedure. Prior to spatial learning, animals were first tested for swimming ability (in a straight swimming channel), sequential learning (in the Cincinnati multiple-T water maze), and proximal cue learning (in the Morris water maze). Rats were then assessed in the hidden platform, reference memory-based spatial version of the Morris maze for acquisition and on five subsequent phases in which the platform was moved to new locations. After the reference memory-based, fixed platform position learning phases, animals were tested in the trial-dependent, matching-to-sample, working memory version of the Morris maze. No group differences were found in straight channel, sequential maze, or cued Morris maze performance. By contrast, all MA groups were impaired in spatial learning during acquisition, multiple shift, and shifted with a reduced platform phases of reference memory-based learning. In addition, MA animals were impaired on memory (probe) trials during the acquisition and shifted with a reduced platform phases of learning. No effects on trial-dependent, matching-to-sample, working memory were found. The findings demonstrate that neonatal treatment with MA induces a selective impairment of reference memory-based spatial learning while sparing sequential, cued, and working memory-based learning. PMID:12645039

  14. Two Types of Radial Systems of Dark Globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.; Mendez, R. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present results of survey of ESO/SRC plates of Southern Hemisphere for discovering new radial systems of dark globules. During the survey 16 new type 1 radial systems and 6 type 2 radial systems were found, it means that the number of known radial systems was almost doubled. In the centers of type 1 radial systems are situated O-B2 type stars, in the centers of type 2 radial systems there are no early type stars. An attempt was done to give interpretation to groups of submm starless condensations as radial systems of dark globules, situated behind thick dark clouds, that is why these globules are seen only in submm wavelengths.

  15. Influence of procedural variables on rat inhibitory avoidance and escape behaviors generated by the elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Pobbe, Roger L H; Lopes, Marcel A; Vasconcelos, Alex T; Yamashita, Paula S M; de Bortoli, Valquíria C; Zangrossi, Hélio

    2014-10-15

    A wealth of evidence indicates that changes in procedural parameters and/or environmental conditions may exert a remarkable influence on the basal expression of defensive behaviors in different animal tests of anxiety. The goal of the current study was to further investigate the influence of procedural factors upon inhibitory avoidance acquisition and escape expression of male Wistar rats exposed to the elevated T-maze. These responses have been related in terms of psychopathology to generalized anxiety and panic disorders, respectively. Our results showed that the expression of these behaviors is not affected by prior handling of the animals or by increasing the illumination level of the experimental room from 60 to 580lx. They also showed that enhancing the number of avoidance trials from 3 to 6 favors the acquisition of this behavior. Under this condition, both diazepam (2mg/kg) and clonazepam (1-4mg/kg) caused anxiolytic effects, but only the latter benzodiazepine impaired escape expression, a panicolytic-like effect. In animals exposed to the elevated T-maze whole apparatus 24h before the test, the anxiolytic effect of these drugs was canceled out, which is consistent with the one-trial tolerance phenomenon widely observed in the elevated plus-maze. This procedure, however, does not interfere with the anti-escape effect caused by clonazepam. These results suggest that a 6-trial avoidance learning protocol may be a useful measure for compensating possible individual differences in the acquisition of this defensive response and to improve drug detection in the test. PMID:25066386

  16. A genetic algorithm for optimization of neural network capable of learning to search for food in a maze

    SciTech Connect

    Budilova, E.V.; Terekhin, A.T.; Chepurnov, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    A hypothetical neural scheme is proposed that ensures efficient decision making by an animal searching for food in a maze. Only the general structure of the network is fixed; its quantitative characteristics are found by numerical optimization that simulates the process of natural selection. Selection is aimed at maximization of the expected number of descendants, which is directly related to the energy stored during the reproductive cycle. The main parameters to be optimized are the increments of the interneuronal links. and the working-memory constants.

  17. A genetic algorithm for optimization of neural network capable of learning to search for food in a maze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budilova, E. V.; Terekhin, A. T.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1994-09-01

    A hypothetical neural scheme is proposed that ensures efficient decision making by an animal searching for food in a maze. Only the general structure of the network is fixed; its quantitative characteristics are found by numerical optimization that simulates the process of natural selection. Selection is aimed at maximization of the expected number of descendants, which is directly related to the energy stored during the reproductive cycle. The main parameters to be optimized are the increments of the interneuronal links and the working-memory constants.

  18. Maze learning impairment is associated with stress hemopoiesis induced by chronic treatment of aged rats with human recombinant erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Rifkind, J M; Abugo, O O; Peddada, R R; Patel, N; Speer, D; Balagopalakrishna, C; Danon, D; Ingram, D K; Spangler, E L

    1999-01-01

    Mean cell volume (MCV) of erythrocytes has been reported to increase with age in humans, and to be negatively correlated with memory performance in humans and rats. We evaluated hematological changes in 21-mo old male Fischer 344 rats undergoing a 3-mo twice weekly subcutaneous injection of human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO). A baseline hematocrit (HCT) was obtained initially and repeated at monthly intervals to determine the effectiveness of EPO treatment. At 24-mo of age and after 3 mo EPO treatment, the rats were tested for their ability to learn a 14-unit T maze. Following maze testing, blood was drawn for hematologic analyses, including HCT, MCV, maximum swollen cell volume (MCVS), mean cell transit time (MCTT), and the membrane shear modulus of elasticity (G), the latter a derived measure of the relative elasticity of the red cell membrane. After 1 mo EPO treatment, HCT significantly increased compared to saline-injected controls. After 2 mo treatment, HCT began to decline but remained elevated above baseline levels even after 3 mo treatment. After 3 mo EPO treatment, MCV was significantly lower in EPO-treated rats compared to controls. These changes imply altered hemopoiesis to produce cells which undergo shrinkage associated with accelerated cellular aging. The lower MCV would have predicted a shorter MCTT which instead was unchanged. This observation suggested the presence of an additional factor contributing to the MCTT. The G, which measures the membrane contribution to deformability, very significantly increased with EPO treatment. This finding indicates an increased contribution of membrane properties to the MCTT after EPO treatment, which cancels the expected decrease in MCTT for smaller cells. After 3 mo of EPO treatment, aged rats exhibited significantly impaired maze learning compared to controls. A relationship between, changes in erythrocyte membrane properties and impaired function was indicated by a significant correlation (r=0.67, p <0

  19. Radial Velocity Eclipse Mapping of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sainsbury-Martinez, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Planetary rotation rates and obliquities provide information regarding the history of planet formation, but have not yet been measured for evolved extrasolar planets. Here we investigate the theoretical and observational perspective of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect during secondary eclipse (RMse) ingress and egress for transiting exoplanets. Near secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the parent star, the star sequentially obscures light from the approaching and receding parts of the rotating planetary surface. The temporal block of light emerging from the approaching (blueshifted) or receding (redshifted) parts of the planet causes a temporal distortion in the planet’s spectral line profiles resulting in an anomaly in the planet’s radial velocity curve. We demonstrate that the shape and the ratio of the ingress-to-egress radial velocity amplitudes depends on the planetary rotational rate, axial tilt, and impact factor (i.e., sky-projected planet spin-orbital alignment). In addition, line asymmetries originating from different layers in the atmosphere of the planet could provide information regarding zonal atmospheric winds and constraints on the hot spot shape for giant irradiated exoplanets. The effect is expected to be most-pronounced at near-infrared wavelengths, where the planet-to-star contrasts are large. We create synthetic near-infrared, high-dispersion spectroscopic data and demonstrate how the sky-projected spin axis orientation and equatorial velocity of the planet can be estimated. We conclude that the RMse effect could be a powerful method to measure exoplanet spins.

  20. Radial pn Junction, Wire Array Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayes, Brendan Melville

    Radial pn junctions are potentially of interest in photovoltaics as a way to decouple light absorption from minority carrier collection. In a traditional planar design these occur in the same dimension, and this sets a lower limit on absorber material quality, as cells must both be thick enough to effectively absorb the solar spectrum while also having minority-carrier diffusion lengths long enough to allow for efficient collection of the photo-generated carriers. Therefore, highly efficient photovoltaic devices currently require highly pure materials and expensive processing techniques, while low cost devices generally operate at relatively low efficiency. The radial pn junction design sets the direction of light absorption perpendicular to the direction of minority-carrier transport, allowing the cell to be thick enough for effective light absorption, while also providing a short pathway for carrier collection. This is achieved by increasing the junction area, in order to decrease the path length any photogenerated minority carrier must travel, to be less than its minority carrier diffusion length. Realizing this geometry in an array of semiconducting wires, by for example depositing a single-crystalline inorganic semiconducting absorber layer at high deposition rates from the gas phase by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, allows for a "bottom up" approach to device fabrication, which can in principle dramatically reduce the materials costs associated with a cell.

  1. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  2. An analytical estimate of the coefficient for radial charged particle diffusion in Jupiter's magnetosphere using plasma radial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubar, Yu. I.

    2015-11-01

    A radial profile of the plasma mass distribution in Jupiter's magnetosphere in the region beyond Io's orbit up to ˜15 Jupiter radii R J constructed according to the results of measurements on the Voyager 1 and Galileo spacecraft is used to determine the radial dependence and radial diffusion coefficient D LL . The initial profile is approximated by a function decreasing as L -5 ± 1. For this radial mass distribution, radial ion diffusion outside of Io's orbit caused by centrifugal forces is possible. An estimate of (1.2-6.7)10-11 L 6 ± 1 for D LL was obtained.

  3. Radial gravitational gliding on passive margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Szatmari, P.

    1991-03-01

    Gravitational gliding of uppermost sediments down a passive margin is possible if there is a basal layer of evaporite or other soft material to allow detachment. In examples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Brazilian margin, gliding has produced three main structural domains: an uppermost domain of downdip extension; an intermediate domain of rigid gliding; and a lowermost domain of downdip contraction. Domain boundaries are established by changes in slope. In this paper, we examine three kinds of gravitational gliding, depending on the paths followed by material particles. In ideal parallel gliding, particle paths are parallel straight lines, trending downslope. This should occur where the margin is perfectly straight. In ideal radial gliding, particle paths are radii of a circle and the margin is shaped like a circular cone. Natural margins will not have ideal shapes; but divergent gliding will tend to occur off coastal salients; convergent gliding, off coastal re-entrants. A simple kinematic model based on ductile behaviour illustrates some essential features of radial gliding. Changes in radius during divergent gliding produce strike-parallel extension; during convergent gliding, they produce strike-parallel contraction. Vertical strains also differ. Divergent gliding produces an uppermost domain of strong vertical thinning, balanced by extensions in all horizontal directions. Similarly, convergent gliding produces a lowermost domain of strong vertical thickening, balanced by contractions in all horizontal directions. These deformed states cannot be restored by simple techniques based on section balancing. We have done three experiments using analogue materials: sand, to model the brittle behaviour of sediments; silicone putty, to model the ductile behaviour of basal layers of evaporite. The experiments were properly scaled to account for gravitational forces. Experiment I reproduced convergent gliding above a basement with a conical upper surface. Strike

  4. T-maze behaviour in broiler chicks is not sensitive to right-left preferences, test order or time-of-day.

    PubMed

    Marin; Jones

    2000-06-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the time taken by broiler chicks to traverse a T-maze and thereby reinstate visual contact with their companions. Chicks completing this task quickly (high performance, HP) subsequently grew faster in the laboratory and on farm, exhibited greater sociality, and showed less pronounced adrenocortical responses to a partial water immersion stressor than did their slower (low performance, LP) counterparts [Marin, R.H., Jones, R.B., 1999. Latency to traverse a T-maze at 2 days of age and later adrenocortical responses to an acute stressor in domestic chicks. Physiol. Behav. 66, 809-813.; Marin, R.H., Arce, A., Martijena, I.D., 1997. T-maze performance and body weight relationship in broiler chicks. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 54, 197-205.; Jones, R.B., Marín, R.H., García, D.A., Arce, A., 1999. T-maze behaviour in domestic chicks: a search for underlying variables. Anim. Behav. 58, 211-217.]. Given its simplicity, rapidity and non-invasiveness, the T-maze test might represent a commercially attractive selection criterion for future breeding programmes if this behavioural trait exhibits sufficient genetic variability. However, it is first necessary to ensure that performance in the T-maze is not sensitive to potentially confounding variables, such as existing preferences to turn right or left at the junction of the maze, the order of testing, or the time of day. In the present study, 240 newly hatched, mixed-sex broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly allocated to 12 groups of 20 upon receipt. When they were 2 days of age a group of 20 chicks was placed in the brood area of each of two T-mazes at 0830 h; the brood areas were positioned on either the right or the left sides of the mazes. After acclimatisation, one chick from each group was placed in the isolation chamber of the T-maze and we recorded the time it took to traverse the maze. This procedure was repeated until all 20 chicks and all 12 groups had been tested. The locations

  5. Fabricating Radial Groove Gratings Using Projection Photolithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Projection photolithography has been used as a fabrication method for radial grove gratings. Use of photolithographic method for diffraction grating fabrication represents the most significant breakthrough in grating technology in the last 60 years, since the introduction of holographic written gratings. Unlike traditional methods utilized for grating fabrication, this method has the advantage of producing complex diffractive groove contours that can be designed at pixel-by-pixel level, with pixel size currently at the level of 45 45 nm. Typical placement accuracy of the grating pixels is 10 nm over 30 nm. It is far superior to holographic, mechanically ruled or direct e-beam written gratings and results in high spatial coherence and low spectral cross-talk. Due to the smooth surface produced by reactive ion etch, such gratings have a low level of randomly scattered light. Also, due to high fidelity and good surface roughness, this method is ideally suited for fabrication of radial groove gratings. The projection mask is created using a laser writer. A single crystal silicon wafer is coated with photoresist, and then the projection mask, with its layer of photoresist, is exposed for patterning in a stepper or scanner. To develop the photoresist, the fabricator either removes the exposed areas (positive resist) of the unexposed areas (negative resist). Next, the patterned and developed photoresist silicon substrate is subjected to reactive ion etching. After this step, the substrate is cleaned. The projection mask is fabricated according to electronic design files that may be generated in GDS file format using any suitable CAD (computer-aided design) or other software program. Radial groove gratings in off-axis grazing angle of incidence mount are of special interest for x-ray spectroscopy, as they allow achieving higher spectral resolution for the same grating area and have lower alignment tolerances than traditional in-plane grating scheme. This is especially

  6. A low noise remotely controllable wireless telemetry system for single-unit recording in rats navigating in a vertical maze.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yung; Wu, Jin-Shang; Hyland, Brian; Lu, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Jia Jin Jason

    2008-08-01

    The use of cables for recording neural activity limits the scope of behavioral tests used in conscious free-moving animals. Particularly, cable attachments make it impossible to record in three-dimensional (3D) mazes where levels are vertically stacked or in enclosed spaces. Such environments are of particular interest in investigations of hippocampal place cells, in which neural activity is correlated with spatial position in the environment. We developed a flexible miniaturized Bluetooth-based wireless data acquisition system. The wireless module included an 8-channel analogue front end, digital controller, and Bluetooth transceiver mounted on a backpack. Our bidirectional wireless design allowed all data channels to be previewed at 1 kHz sample rate, and one channel, selected by remote control, to be sampled at 10 kHz. Extracellular recordings of neuronal activity are highly susceptible to ambient electrical noise due to the high electrode impedance. Through careful design of appropriate shielding and hardware configuration to avoid ground loops, mains power and Bluetooth hopping frequency noise were reduced sufficiently to yield signal quality comparable to those recorded by wired systems. With this system we were able to obtain single-unit recordings of hippocampal place cells in rats running an enclosed vertical maze, over a range of 5 m. PMID:18509686

  7. Effects of High Fat Diet on Morris Maze Performance, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Rats: Contributions of Maternal Diet

    PubMed Central

    White, Christy L.; Pistell, Paul J.; Purpera, Megan N.; Gupta, Sunita; Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Hise, Taylor L.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Ingram, Donald K.; Morrison, Christopher D.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to high fat diet on the brain. Female rats were divided into high fat diet (HFD) and control diet (CD) groups 4 weeks prior to breeding and throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, male progeny were placed on a chow diet until 8 weeks old, and then segregated into HFD or CD groups. At 20 weeks old, rats were evaluated in the Morris water maze, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were documented in brain. In comparison to rats fed CD, cognitive decline in HFD progeny from HFD dams manifested as a decline in retention, but not acquisition, in the water maze. HFD was also associated with significant increases in 3-nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-6, and glial markers Iba-1 and GFAP, with the largest increases frequently observed in HFD animals born to HFD dams. Thus, these data collectively suggest that HFD increases oxidative and inflammatory signaling in brain, and further indicate that maternal HFD consumption might sensitize offspring to the detrimental effects of HFD. PMID:19374947

  8. Radial propagation of geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Robert; Hallatschek, Klaus

    2009-07-15

    The GAM group velocity is estimated from the ratio of the radial free energy flux to the total free energy applying gyrokinetic and two-fluid theory. This method is much more robust than approaches that calculate the group velocity directly and can be generalized to include additional physics, e.g., magnetic geometry. The results are verified with the gyrokinetic code GYRO[J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the two-fluid code NLET[K. Hallatschek and A. Zeiler, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2554 (2000)], and analytical calculations. GAM propagation must be kept in mind when discussing the windows of GAM activity observed experimentally and the match between linear theory and experimental GAM frequencies.

  9. Radially symmetric transmon with long lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Martin; Vissers, Michael; Gao, Jiansong; Pappas, David

    2014-03-01

    We present a radially symmetric design for a large pad transmon qubit. The symmetry reduces the dipole radiation by orders of magnitude relative to axial large pad qubits that are widely used for 3D-circuit QED experiments. The reduction in radiation allows for the use of large area structures that are needed to reduce the effects of interface losses. This enables long qubit lifetimes without the use of a high-Q cavity resonator. Energy relaxation and coherence times of up to 35 microseconds have been measured. The qubit can be implemented in a microstrip geometry. This gives the advantage of removing discontinuous ground planes that can cause stray resonances. In addition, this geometry is well suited for implementing and exploring circuits with direct qubit-qubit coupling.

  10. Precise radial velocities in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, Stephen L.

    Since the first detection of a planet outside our Solar System byWolszczan & Frail (1992), over 500 exoplanets have been found to date2, none of which resemble the Earth. Most of these planets were discovered by measuring the radial velocity (hereafter, RV) of the host star, which wobbles under the gravitational influence of any existing planetary companions. However, this method has yet to achieve the sub-m/s precision necessary to detect an Earth-mass planet in the Habitable Zone (the region around a star that can support liquid water; hereafter, HZ) (Kasting et al. 1993) around a Solar-type star. Even though Kepler (Borucki et al. 2010) has announced several Earth-sized HZ candidates, these targets will be exceptionally difficult to confirm with current astrophysical spectrographs (Borucki et al. 2011). The fastest way to discover and confirm potentiallyhabitable Earth-mass planets is to observe stars with lower masses - in particular, late M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are readily abundant, comprising some 70% of the local stellar population, their low optical luminosity presents a formidable challenge to current optical RV instruments. By observing in the near-infrared (hereafter, NIR), where the flux from M dwarfs peaks, we can potentially reach low RV precisions with significantly less telescope time than would be required by a comparable optical instrument. However, NIR precision RV measurements are a relatively new idea and replete with challenges: IR arrays, unlike CCDs, are sensitive to the thermal background; modal noise is a bigger issue in the NIR than in the optical; and the NIR currently lacks the calibration sources like the very successful thorium-argon (hereafter, ThAr) hollow-cathode lamp and Iodine gas cell of the optical. The PSU Pathfinder (hereafter, Pathfinder) was designed to explore these technical issues with the intention of mitigating these problems for future NIR high-resolution spectrographs, such as the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder (HZPF

  11. Enhanced boiling heat transfer using radial fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razelos, P.; Das, S.; Krikkis, R. N.

    2008-04-01

    A numerical bifurcation analysis is carried out in order to determine the solution structure of radial fins subjected to multi-boiling heat transfer mode. One-dimensional conduction is employed throughout the thermal analysis. The fluid heat transfer coefficient is temperature dependent on the three regimes of phase-change of the fluid. Six fin profiles, defined in the text, are considered. Multiplicity structure is obtained to determine different types of bifurcation diagrams, which describe the dependence of a state variable of the system like the temperature or the heat dissipation on the fin design parameters, conduction convection parameter (CCP) or base temperature difference (Δ T). Specifically, the effects of Δ T, CCP and Biot number are analyzed. The results are presented graphically, showing the significant behavioral features of the heat rejection mechanism.

  12. Radial particle distributions in PARMILA simulation beams

    SciTech Connect

    Boicourt, G.P.

    1984-03-01

    The estimation of beam spill in particle accelerators is becoming of greater importance as higher current designs are being funded. To the present, no numerical method for predicting beam-spill has been available. In this paper, we present an approach to the loss-estimation problem that uses probability distributions fitted to particle-simulation beams. The properties of the PARMILA code's radial particle distribution are discussed, and a broad class of probability distributions are examined to check their ability to fit it. The possibility that the PARMILA distribution is a mixture is discussed, and a fitting distribution consisting of a mixture of two generalized gamma distributions is found. An efficient algorithm to accomplish the fit is presented. Examples of the relative prediction of beam spill are given. 26 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  13. Radial fractional Laplace operators and Hessian inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Fausto; Verbitsky, Igor E.

    In this paper we deduce a formula for the fractional Laplace operator ( on radially symmetric functions useful for some applications. We give a criterion of subharmonicity associated with (, and apply it to a problem related to the Hessian inequality of Sobolev type: ∫Rn |(u| dx⩽C∫Rn -uFk[u] dx, where Fk is the k-Hessian operator on Rn, 1⩽k

  14. Future prospects for radial-velocity searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier Cameron, A.

    2015-10-01

    Instrumental advances in the last few years have seen the "high frontier" of radial-velocity searches moving towards detection of planets in the few-Earth-mas regime around solar-type stars. A new generation of stable high-resolution infared spectrometers will soon see a move towards detection of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zones of low-mass stars. The infared and polarimetric capabilities of the next generation of instruments will also help to combat astrophysical noise from the host stars. In this talk I will survey prospects for realising these ambitions in the face of the challenges presented by instrumental limitations and astrophysical noise originating in the host stars themselves. I will discuss synergies with forthcoming ground-based and space-based transit missions such as NGTS, TESS and CHEOPS, and examine considerations to be taken into account when selecting targets and formulating observation strategies.

  15. Radial Velocity Study of UZ Serpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, J.; Michel, R.

    2007-10-01

    We present high dispersion time-resolved spectroscopic observations of the dwarf nova UZ. We find the radial velocity curve of the accretion disc, surrounding the primary star, with a semi-amplitude K_1 = 98 km s^{-1}. There is no spectral evidence of the secondary star. The orbital period, estimated from its velocity curve is 0.17589 days, slightly larger than that found by Echevarría (1988), from photometric observations. New ephemerides of the object are discussed from both results. An analysis of the masses and inclination angle of the binary, using the diagnostic M_1-M_2 diagram, favors a set of values with M_1 = 0.90+/-0.1M_⊙; M_2 = 0.40+/-0.1M_⊙; and i = 50°+/-0.1, which is consistent with the ultraviolet observations and models and also with the optical photometry.

  16. High pressure superconducting radial magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eyssa, Y. M.; Huang, X.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional radial magnetic bearing, the rotor (soft magnetic material) can only have attraction force from one of the electromagnets in the stator. The stator electromagnets consist of small copper windings with a soft magnetic material iron yoke. The maximum pressure obtainable is about 200 N/sq cm. It is shown that replacing the stator copper winding by a superconducting winding in the above configuration can increase the pressure to about 1000 N/sq cm. It is also shown that replacing the iron in the rotor by a group of superconducting windings in persistent mode and using a group of saddle coils in the stator can produce a pressure in excess of 2000 N/sq cm.

  17. Radial diffusion of Io-injected plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.; Thomsen, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reexamines the problem of particle injection by Io and subsequent radial diffusion by flux tube interchange using a proper phase space density formulation. The mathematical formalism is developed, and the theoretical results are compared with the observations, taking into account the pitch angle and energy coverage of the detector on Pioneer 10. Two objectives are pursued: (1) to test the hypothesis of Siscoe and Chen (1977) that Io is the source for all of the plasma observed by Frank et al. (1976) inside 10 R(J); and (2) to describe a simple but flexible method intended to analyze the observations of any other plasma instrument flown through the inner Jovian magnetosphere, e.g., those on Voyager 1 and 2 and Galileo.

  18. Interfaces in semiconductor/metal radial superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Deneke, Christoph; Sigle, Wilfried; Eigenthaler, Ulrike; Aken, Peter A. van; Schuetz, Gisela; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2007-06-25

    Semiconductor/metal radial superlattices are produced by the roll-up of inherently strained InGaAs/Ti/Au as well as InAlGaAs/GaAs/Cr films. Cross sections of the obtained structures are prepared and investigated in detail by diverse transmission electron microscopy as well as microanalysis techniques. Special attention is paid to the interfaces of the semiconductor/metal hybrid superlattice. The study reveals amorphous, noncrystalline layers for the semiconductor/metal as well as for the metal/semiconductor interface. The chemical analysis suggests that the observed interlayers are oxides giving rise to a semiconductor/oxide/metal/oxide superlattice rather than a pure semiconductor/metal superlattice.

  19. Macrostrain measurement using radial collimators at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Roberts, J.A.; Davis, D.

    1996-06-01

    A series of `short` radial collimators have been implemented in the 90{degrees} scattering geometries on the neutron powder diffractometer at Los Alamos. The capability to perform macrostrain measurements has been improved by the commensurate ability to rapidly select a sampling volume appropriate to the specimen. The compact design of the collimators was dictated by the need to fit them in a cylindrical vacuum chamber as well as providing space in which to manipulate a specimen in three dimensions. Collimators of different vane lengths were fabricated to give 4 different resolutions for which 2/3 of the diffracted intensity comes form distances of 0.75, 1. 25, 2.5, and 4.0 mm along the incident beam. Qualifying scans and a demonstration of a cracked ring, containing a steep stress gradient, are included.

  20. Bayesian planet searches in radial velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Phil

    2015-08-01

    Intrinsic stellar variability caused by magnetic activity and convection has become the main limiting factor for planet searches in both transit and radial velocity (RV) data. New spectrographs are under development like ESPRESSO and EXPRES that aim to improve RV precision by a factor of approximately 100 over the current best spectrographs, HARPS and HARPS-N. This will greatly exacerbate the challenge of distinguishing planetary signals from stellar activity induced RV signals. At the same time good progress has been made in simulating stellar activity signals. At the Porto 2014 meeting, “Towards Other Earths II,” Xavier Dumusque challenged the community to a large scale blind test using the simulated RV data to understand the limitations of present solutions to deal with stellar signals and to select the best approach. My talk will focus on some of the statistical lesson learned from this challenge with an emphasis on Bayesian methodology.

  1. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  2. Notes on radial drift for dalitz detection

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J H

    1992-08-21

    One solution to the problem of identifying electron pairs due to dalitz decay is to exploit the large difference in energy lose by electrons and pions at momenta below 150 MEV/C. The restricted'' energy loss is measured by averaging the bottom 60% of the energy loss samples in order to avoid the wide fluctuations caused by the Landau tails. Note that the electrons are fully relativistic and well up on the relativistic rise of the dE/dx curve at a momentum of 30 MeV/c whereas the pions are still moving down off the peak of the Bragg curve and are more heavily ionizing than the electrons. The separation between pions and electrons is very good up to about the pion rest mass and so we can in principle separate the species all through the kinematically allowed range for Dalitz decay but, in practice, the dE/dx resolution will eventually limit the technique to the range well below where the curves crossover. We then might need an additional technique for e/[pi] separation above 110 MeV/c or so. Time of Flight would be a suitable technique. We propose to use a radial drift Time Expansion Chamber (TEC, or sometimes known as at Time Projection Chamber, TPC) to simultaniously measure the energy loss and momentum of electrons and pions. The detector would be placed at Y=0 and extend to [plus minus] 0.5 units of rapidity and the secondary electrons generated by a track would drift radially away from the vertex towards a sensepad plane. The detector would be inside the magnetic field of the RE2 detector and the drift direction would be perpendicular to the field direction.

  3. Radial Shock Wave Devices Generate Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Császár, Nikolaus B. M.; Angstman, Nicholas B.; Milz, Stefan; Sprecher, Christoph M.; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed; Furia, John P.; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Conflicting reports in the literature have raised the question whether radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) devices and vibrating massage devices have similar energy signatures and, hence, cause similar bioeffects in treated tissues. Methods and Findings We used laser fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) measurements, high-speed imaging and x-ray film analysis to compare fundamental elements of the energy signatures of two rESWT devices (Swiss DolorClast; Electro Medical Systems, Nyon, Switzerland; D-Actor 200; Storz Medical, Tägerwillen, Switzerland) and a vibrating massage device (Vibracare; G5/General Physiotherapy, Inc., Earth City, MO, USA). To assert potential bioeffects of these treatment modalities we investigated the influence of rESWT and vibrating massage devices on locomotion ability of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) worms. Results FOPH measurements demonstrated that both rESWT devices generated acoustic waves with comparable pressure and energy flux density. Furthermore, both rESWT devices generated cavitation as evidenced by high-speed imaging and caused mechanical damage on the surface of x-ray film. The vibrating massage device did not show any of these characteristics. Moreover, locomotion ability of C. elegans was statistically significantly impaired after exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves but was unaffected after exposure of worms to the vibrating massage device. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that both energy signature and bioeffects of rESWT devices are fundamentally different from those of vibrating massage devices. Clinical Relevance Prior ESWT studies have shown that tissues treated with sufficient quantities of acoustic sound waves undergo cavitation build-up, mechanotransduction, and ultimately, a biological alteration that “kick-starts” the healing response. Due to their different treatment indications and contra-indications rESWT devices cannot be equated to vibrating

  4. Impaired learning in rats in a 14-unit T-maze by 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, is attenuated by the nitric oxide donor, molsidomine.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R C; Spangler, E L; Patel, N; London, E D; Ingram, D K

    1998-01-01

    In previous experiments, it was demonstrated that systemic or central administration of the nitric oxide synthase (NO synthase) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (N-Arg), produced dose-dependent learning impairments in rats in a 14-unit T-maze; and that sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, could attenuate the impairment. Since N-Arg is not specific for neuronal NO synthase and produces hypertension, it is possible that effects on the cardiovasculature may have contributed to the impaired maze performance. In the present experiment, we have investigated the maze performance of 3-4 months old male Fischer-344 rats following treatment with 7-nitroindazole, a NO synthase inhibitor that is selective for neuronal NO synthase and does not produce hypertension. In addition, we examined the effects of the NO donor, molsidomine, which is much longer acting than sodium nitroprusside. Rats were pretrained to avoid footshock in a straight runway and received training in a 14-unit T-maze 24 h later. In an initial dose-response study, rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of either 7-nitroindazole (25, 50, or 65 mg/kg) or peanut oil 30 min prior to maze training. 7-nitroindazole produced significant, dose-dependent maze acquisition deficits, with 65 mg/kg producing the greatest learning impairment. This dose of 7-nitroindazole had no significant effect on systolic blood pressure. Following the dose-response study, rats were given i.p. injections of either 7-nitroindazole (70 mg/kg) plus saline, 7-nitroindazole (70 mg/kg) plus the NO donor, molsidomine (2 or 4 mg/kg), or peanut oil plus saline as controls. Both doses of molsidomine significantly attenuated the learning deficit induced by 7-nitroindazole relative to controls. These findings represent the first evidence that impaired learning produced by inhibition of neuronal NO synthase can be overcome by systemic administration of a NO donor. PMID:9489851

  5. On one classical problem in the radial orbit instability theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Shukhman, I. G.

    2016-02-01

    Antonov's classical problem of stability of a collisionless sphere with a purely radial motion of stars is considered as a limit of the problem in which stars move in nearly radial orbits. We provide the proper limiting equations that take into account the singularity in the density distribution at the sphere center and give their solutions. We show that there is instability for even and odd spherical harmonics, with all unstable modes being not slow. The growth rates of aperiodic even modes increase indefinitely when approaching purely radial models. The physics of the radial orbit instability is discussed.

  6. Current concepts in the management of radial head fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kodde, Izaäk F; Kaas, Laurens; Flipsen, Mark; van den Bekerom, Michel PJ; Eygendaal, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Fracture of the radial head is a common injury. Over the last decades, the radial head is increasingly recognized as an important stabilizer of the elbow. In order to maintain stability of the injured elbow, goals of treatment of radial head fractures have become more and more towards restoring function and stability of the elbow. As treatment strategies have changed over the years, with an increasing amount of literature on this subject, the purpose of this article was to provide an overview of current concepts of the management of radial head fractures. PMID:26716091

  7. An analysis of factors influencing complex water maze learning in rats: effects of task complexity, path order and escape assistance on performance following prenatal exposure to phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V; Weisenburger, W P; Acuff-Smith, K D; Minck, D R

    1991-01-01

    Three hypotheses on factors determining performance in a complex water maze were tested in rats prenatally exposed to phenytoin. The hypotheses were: 1) that increasing maze complexity would better differentiate experimental effects; in particular, that an expanded version of a maze originally described by Biel would better differentiate groups than Biel's original design; 2) that path order is an important factor determining performance; specifically, that path sequence AB would better differentiate experiments from controls than the opposite order (sequence BA); and 3) that repeated trial failures interfere with learning, a problem putatively prevented by employing assisted (i.e., guided) escape. The specific prediction was that rats tested with assisted escape would learn faster and produce better group differentiation than rats tested with unassisted escape. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were gavaged on days 7-18 of gestation with propylene glycol alone (Control) or containing 100 or 200 mg/kg of phenytoin. Straight channel swimming trials followed by maze trials were begun on separate male/female offspring pairs from each litter on postnatal days 50, 70, or 90. The results confirmed hypothesis 1, i.e., the more complex maze better differentiated phenytoin-related group differences. This was true regardless of whether the phenytoin rats exhibiting circling were included in the analyses or not. The results disconfirmed hypothesis 2, i.e., that path order AB would better differentiate the groups than path order BA. Rather, the data supported the alternate hypothesis, that path order was not a significant determinant of prenatal drug-related maze deficits. This was unchanged regardless of whether phenytoin offspring exhibiting circling were or were not included in the analyses. The implication is that path B alone was sufficient to detect phenytoin's effects on maze performance. Finally, the overall results disconfirmed hypothesis 3, i.e., assisted escape

  8. Analysis of an Externally Radially Cracked Ring Segment Subject to Three-Point Radial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, B.; Srawlwy, J. E.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The boundary collocation method was used to generate Mode 1 stress intensity and crack mouth opening displacement coefficients for externally radially cracked ring segments subjected to three point radial loading. Numerical results were obtained for ring segment outer-to-inner radius ratios (R sub o/R sub i) ranging from 1.10 to 2.50 and crack length to segment width ratios (a/W) ranging from 0.1 to 0.8. Stress intensity and crack mouth displacement coefficients were found to depend on the ratios R sub o/R sub i and a/W as well as the included angle between the directions of the reaction forces.

  9. Combining axial and radial nanowire heterostructures: radial Esaki diodes and tunnel field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anil W; Svensson, Johannes; Ek, Martin; Lind, Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing demand on high-performance electronics has generated transistors with very impressive figures of merit (Radosavljevic et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2009, 1-4 and Cho et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2011, 15.1.1-15.1.4). The continued scaling of the supply voltage of field-effect transistors, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), requires the implementation of advanced transistor architectures including FinFETs and nanowire devices. Moreover, integration of novel materials with high electron mobilities, such as III-V semiconductors and graphene, are also being considered to further enhance the device properties (del Alamo, Nature 2011, 479, 317-323, and Liao et al., Nature 2010, 467, 305-308). In nanowire devices, boosting the drive current at a fixed supply voltage or maintaining a constant drive current at a reduced supply voltage may be achieved by increasing the cross-sectional area of a device, however at the cost of deteriorated electrostatics. A gate-all-around nanowire device architecture is the most favorable electrostatic configuration to suppress short channel effects; however, the arrangement of arrays of parallel vertical nanowires to address the drive current predicament will require additional chip area. The use of a core-shell nanowire with a radial heterojunction in a transistor architecture provides an attractive means to address the drive current issue without compromising neither chip area nor device electrostatics. In addition to design advantages of a radial transistor architecture, we in this work illustrate the benefit in terms of drive current per unit chip area and compare the experimental data for axial GaSb/InAs Esaki diodes and TFETs to their radial counterparts and normalize the electrical data to the largest cross-sectional area of the nanowire, i.e. the occupied chip area, assuming a vertical device geometry. Our data on lateral devices show that radial Esaki diodes deliver almost 7 times higher peak

  10. Outcome of Radial Head Arthroplasty in Comminuted Radial Head Fractures: Short and Midterm Results

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Arash; Raven, Tim Friedrich; Dremel, Eike; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Grutzner, Paul Alfred; Biglari, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comminuted radial head fractures are often associated with secondary injuries and elbow instability. Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate how well the modular metallic radial head implant EVOLVE® prosthesis restores functional range of motion (ROM) and stability of the elbow in acute care. Patients and Methods: Eighty-five patients with comminuted radial head fractures and associated injuries received treatment with an EVOLVE® prosthesis between May 2001 and November 2009. Seventy-five patients were available for follow-up. On average, patients were followed for 41.5 months (33.0: 4.0 - 93.0). Outcome assessment was done on the basis of pain, ROM, strength, radiographic findings, and functional rating scores such as Broberg and Morrey, the Mayo elbow performance index (MEPI), and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH). Our study is currently the largest analysis of clinical outcome of a modular radial head replacement in the literature. Results: Overall, there were 2 (2.7%) Mason II fractures, 21 (28%) Mason III fractures, and 52 (69.3%) Mason IV fractures. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification was also determined. Of the 85 patients in our study, 75 were available for follow-up. Follow-up averaged 41.5 months (range, 4 - 93 months). Average scores for the cohort were as follows: Morrey, 85.7 (median 90.2; range 44.4 - 100); MEPI, 83.3 (85.0; 40.0 - 100); and DASH 26.1 points (22.5; 0.0 - 75.8). Mean flexion/extension in the affected joint was 125.7°/16.5°/0° in comparison to the noninjured side 138.5°/0°/1.2°. Mean pronation/supination was 70.5°/0°/67.1° in comparison to the noninjured side 83.6°/0°/84.3°. Handgrip strength of the injured compared to the non-injured arm was 78.8%. The following complications were also documented: 58 patients had periprosthetic radioluceny shown to be neither clinically significant nor relevant according to evaluated scores; 26 patients had

  11. The radial velocity search for extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillen, R. S.; Smith, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    Stars are observed with a ground-based instrument designed to measure small changes in the line-of-sight velocities. The purpose of the observations is to detect large planets by the oscillatory reflex motion they induce on the stars they are orbiting. The instrument is an optical spectrometer for which wavelengths are first calibrated by transmission through a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon interferometer. Changes in the line-of-sight velocities are revealed by changes in the Doppler shift of the absorption-line spectra of stars. The scrambling of incident light by an optical fiber and the stability of wavelength calibration by a tilt-tunable Fabry-Perot etalon provide immunity to systematic errors that historically have effected more conventional radial velocity spectrographs. A cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph spatially separates the orders of constructive interference transmitted through the etalon. Selecting several echelle diffraction orders in the vicinity of 4250 to 4750 A, which are imaged on a CCD, about 350 points on the profile of the stellar spectrum are sampled by successive orders of interferometric transmission through the etalon.

  12. Radial velocities of southern visual multiple stars

    SciTech Connect

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Pribulla, Theodor; Fischer, Debra E-mail: pribulla@ta3.sk

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of visual multiple stars were taken in 2008–2009 to detect or confirm spectroscopic subsystems and to determine their orbits. Radial velocities of 93 late-type stars belonging to visual multiple systems were measured by numerical cross-correlation. We provide the individual velocities, the width, and the amplitude of the Gaussians that approximate the correlations. The new information on the multiple systems resulting from these data is discussed. We discovered double-lined binaries in HD 41742B, HD 56593C, and HD 122613AB, confirmed several other known subsystems, and constrained the existence of subsystems in some visual binaries where both components turned out to have similar velocities. The orbits of double-lined subsystems with periods of 148 and 13 days are computed for HD 104471 Aa,Ab and HD 210349 Aa,Ab, respectively. We estimate individual magnitudes and masses of the components in these triple systems and update the outer orbit of HD 104471 AB.

  13. Dual entry radial turbine gas generator

    SciTech Connect

    Mowill, R.J.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes a high efficiency, single spool gas turbine gas generator comprising: (a) compressor means for providing an overall pressure ratio of greater than about 15:1, the compressor means including: (i) a first stage, double-entry centrifugal air compressor having a pair of entrances and a common exit, (ii) a second stage, centrifugal air compressor positioned adjacent to the first stage compressor, the second compressor stage having an entrance that is flow-connected to the first stage common exit and also having a second stage exit, and (iii) a shaft assembly for mechanically interconnecting the first and the second stage for rotation at the same angular speed; (b) combustor means operatively connected to the second stage exit for receiving the compressed air and combusting fuel using the compressed air to generate combustion gases; and (c) a single stage radial inflow turbine having an inlet and an outlet, the turbine being operatively connected directly to the shaft assembly drive and also being flow connected to the combustor means for receiving at the turbine inlet, and partially expanding, the combustion gases.

  14. Camera Calibration with Radial Variance Component Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélykuti, B.; Kruck, E. J.

    2014-11-01

    Camera calibration plays a more and more important role in recent times. Beside real digital aerial survey cameras the photogrammetric market is dominated by a big number of non-metric digital cameras mounted on UAVs or other low-weight flying platforms. The in-flight calibration of those systems has a significant role to enhance the geometric accuracy of survey photos considerably. It is expected to have a better precision of photo measurements in the center of images then along the edges or in the corners. With statistical methods the accuracy of photo measurements in dependency of the distance of points from image center has been analyzed. This test provides a curve for the measurement precision as function of the photo radius. A high number of camera types have been tested with well penetrated point measurements in image space. The result of the tests led to a general consequence to show a functional connection between accuracy and radial distance and to give a method how to check and enhance the geometrical capability of the cameras in respect to these results.

  15. Radially uniform circular sweep of ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmetov, T.D.; Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kobets, V.V.; Medvedko, A.S.; Skorobogatov, D.N.; Tiunov, M.A.

    2006-03-15

    A spiral sweep of the ion beam was suggested to provide sufficiently uniform irradiation of a circular target. It is shown that if the beam radius is small enough, the radius of the beam center should increase as a square root of time to provide uniform radial irradiation of the target. In the complex for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, the proton beam sweep will be performed by a sweeper with uniform magnetic field with strength up to 500 G and axial length {approx}20 cm, rotating at 100-2000 Hz, and scanning over the radius at a 1-10 Hz frequency. The sweeper field is produced by four longitudinal flat current windings placed near the inner walls of a box-shaped yoke with the inner opening of a square cross section. A similar sweeping technique can be used in a 200 keV oxygen implanter, which is also under development at the Budker Institute.

  16. Fabrication of cooled radial turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, A. N.; Aigret, G. G.; Psichogios, T. P.; Rodgers, C.

    1986-01-01

    A design and fabrication program was conducted to evaluate a unique concept for constructing a cooled, high temperature radial turbine rotor. This concept, called split blade fabrication was developed as an alternative to internal ceramic coring. In this technique, the internal cooling cavity is created without flow dividers or any other detail by a solid (and therefore stronger) ceramic plate which can be more firmly anchored within the casting shell mold than can conventional detailed ceramic cores. Casting is conducted in the conventional manner, except that the finished product, instead of having finished internal cooling passages, is now a split blade. The internal details of the blade are created separately together with a carrier sheet. The inserts are superalloy. Both are produced by essentially the same software such that they are a net fit. The carrier assemblies are loaded into the split blade and the edges sealed by welding. The entire wheel is Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIPed), braze bonding the internal details to the inside of the blades. During this program, two wheels were successfully produced by the split blade fabrication technique.

  17. Radial slot flows in solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbing, J. H.; Heister, S. D.

    1993-06-01

    A series of parametric numerical solutions have been generated to characterize the two-dimensional flowfield due to the presence of a radial slot in a solid rocket propellant grain. Results have been parameterized in terms of upstream core Mach number, slot contraction ratio, and slot-to-core mass flow and momentum ratios. Numerical solutions of the axisymmetric Euler equations have been obtained on a 'generic' slot geometry using a cell-centered, finite volume scheme. Results indicate that both the stagnation pressure loss and grain suction force on the propellant segment downstream of the slot correlate well with slot-to-core momentum ratio; a parameter which has not been used in previous studies. Significant differences (in stagnation pressure losses) have been identified between the 2-D numerical results and the 1-D methods applied in current state-of-the-art ballistics codes. We anticipate that the correlations derived through this parametric study can be used in preliminary performance and grain stress analyses performed during the motor development process.

  18. Production of plasma with variable, radial electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustom, B.; Merlino, R. L.; Dangelo, N.

    1984-01-01

    A device is described suitable for plasma wave experiments requiring relatively large, variable, radial electric fields perpendicular to a static magnetic field. By separately adjusting the potentials of two independent, coaxial discharge plasmas, the authors produced plasmas with a radial electric field E sub r less than approximately 5 V/cm.

  19. Management of an iatrogenic radial artery perforation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Buturak, Ali; Demirci, Yasemin; Dağdelen, Sinan

    2013-06-01

    A 73-year-old female patient underwent transradial coronary angiography with stable angina and signs of significant myocardial ischemia revealed by exercise stress test. After insertion of a 6F radial sheath into the right radial artery and intra-arterial administration of heparin plus verapamil, the hydrophilic guidewire could not be advanced under fluoroscopic guidance. Immediately afterwards, radial angiography was performed, which displayed a radial artery perforation with significant contrast extravasation. The perforated segment was crossed meticulously with the same guidewire after additional vasodilator drug administration. Afterwards, a 5F TIG catheter was advanced to the axillary artery and held in place for 20 minutes with application of external compression with a sphygmomanometer cuff at the level of systolic blood pressure. The same maneuver was again performed following cuff deflation and completion of coronary angiography with the 5F catheter. Final angiography displayed complete sealing of the perforation without a need for neutralization of heparin. External compression was continued for two hours, and after documentation of normal triphasic radial artery flow by Doppler ultrasound (DUS), the radial sheath was removed. The patient was discharged the following day with no evidence of hand ischemia and well-palpable radial artery pulse. DUS demonstrated normal radial artery flow one month later. This unusual complication was managed successfully with a simple and easily applicable technique that can be performed in such cases. PMID:23760121

  20. Improved photographic prints with a linear radial transmission filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    Linear Radial Transmission Filter (LRTF) is easy to use and yet results in prints which depict more information contained in negative than can be shown by direct printing. LRTF is optical-quality filter which has maximum transmission in center and linear drop in transmission radially out from center.

  1. Off-Design Performance of Radial-Inflow Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.; Glassman, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Computer code determines rotor exit flow from hub to tip. RTOD (Radial Turbine Off-Design), computes off-design performance of radial turbine by modeling flow with stator viscous and trailing-edge losses, and with vaneless space loss between stator and rotor, and with rotor incidence, viscous, clearance, trailing-edge, and disk friction losses.

  2. Development of an endoscopic probe for radial metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Smith, James E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this work was to design and build a prototype for conducting stress analysis and making spectroscopic measurements inside cavities. The objectives were as follows: (1) to develop a prototype for radial profilometry; (2) to explore the possibility of using the radial profilometer for spectroscopic analysis; and (3) to interface the prototype with various combinations of data acquisition and image processing equipment.

  3. The Impact of Red Noise in Radial Velocity Planet Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate that moderate exoplanet radial velocity searches are often subject to the effect of the correlated (red) radial velocity noise. When disregarded, this effect may induce strong distortions in the results of the time series analysis and, ultimately, can even lead to false planet detections. We construct a maximum-likelihood algorithm, which is able to manage this issue rather efficiently.

  4. A novel nonpharmacologic technique to remove entrapped radial sheath.

    PubMed

    Pancholy, Samir B; Karuparthi, Poorna Rajasekhar; Gulati, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Radial artery access for performance of coronary and peripheral diagnostic as well as interventional procedures is on the rise. With increasing adoption comes the expected increase in procedural complications. We describe a novel, simple, and effective nonpharmacologic solution for sheath entrapment related to pharmaco-resistant radial artery spasm. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25045106

  5. Detail of elevation gauge, radial gate hoist mechanism, and concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of elevation gauge, radial gate hoist mechanism, and concrete walkway on top of the gate. View to the south-southwest - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Radial Gate Check with Drop, Wellton Canal 9.9, West of Avenue 34 East & north of County Ninth Street, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  6. Outlet side of gate, showing the Radial Gate, hoist mechanism ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Outlet side of gate, showing the Radial Gate, hoist mechanism and concrete walkway across the canal. The concrete baffle separating the afterbay and the cipoletti weir is in the foreground - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Radial Gate Check with Drop, Wellton Canal 9.9, West of Avenue 34 East & north of County Ninth Street, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  7. Radial symmetry and monotonicity for an integral equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li; Chen, Dezhong

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we study radial symmetry and monotonicity of positive solutions of an integral equation arising from some higher-order semilinear elliptic equations in the whole space . Instead of the usual method of moving planes, we use a new Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev (HLS) type inequality for the Bessel potentials to establish the radial symmetry and monotonicity results.

  8. Asymmetrical Cortical Processing of Radial Expansioncontraction in Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirai, Nobu; Birtles, Deirdre; Wattam-Bell, John; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Kanazawa, So; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    We report asymmetrical cortical responses (steady-state visual evoked potentials) to radial expansion and contraction in human infants and adults. Forty-four infants (22 3-month-olds and 22 4-month-olds) and nine adults viewed dynamic dot patterns which cyclically (2.1 Hz) alternate between radial expansion (or contraction) and random directional…

  9. Effects of the MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse on a Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2011-03-03

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, on a section of Interstate 880 known as the "MacArthur Maze," involving a tractor trailer carrying gasoline which impacted an overpass support column and burst into flames. The subsequent fire caused the collapse of portions of the Interstate 580 overpass onto the remains of the tractor-trailer in less than 20 minutes, due to a reduction of strength in the structural steel exposed to the fire. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is in the process of examining the impacts of this accident on the performance of a spent nuclear fuel transportation package, using detailed analysis models, in order to determine the potential regulatory implications related to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper will provide a summary of this ongoing effort and present some preliminary results and conclusions.

  10. The MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse: A "Worst Case Scenario" for Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation?

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2012-07-06

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, at the interchange known as the "MacArthur Maze." The accident involved a double tanker truck of gasoline overturning and bursting into flames. The subsequent fire reduced the strength of the supporting steel structure of an overhead interstate roadway causing the collapse of portions of that overpass onto the lower roadway in less than 20 minutes. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has analyzed what might have happened had a spent nuclear fuel transportation package been involved in this accident, to determine if there are any potential regulatory implications of this accident to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper provides a summary of this effort, presents preliminary results and conclusions, and discusses future work related to the NRC's analysis of the consequences of this type of severe accident.

  11. Thiamine deficiency decreases glutamate uptake in the prefrontal cortex and impairs spatial memory performance in a water maze test.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiana M; Pereira, Silvia R C; Pires, Rita G W; Ferraz, Vany P; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Oliveira-Silva, Ieda F; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2006-04-01

    Using an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, in which rats were submitted to a chronic ethanol treatment with or without a thiamine deficiency episode, the glutamate uptake in the prefrontal cortex and spatial memory aspects were studied. It was found that (i) thiamine deficiency, but not chronic ethanol consumption, induced a significant decrease of glutamate uptake; (ii) thiamine-deficient subjects showed an impaired performance in the water maze spatial memory test though these animals were able to learn the task during the acquisition. In spite of the fact that thiamine deficiency affects both glutamate uptake and spatial reference memory, there was no significant correlation between these two data. The present results show that, although prefrontal cortex is considered by some authors a not vulnerable area to lesions caused by thiamine deficiency, this vitamin deficiency does cause a neurochemistry dysfunction in that region. PMID:16687165

  12. Severity of spatial learning impairment in aging: Development of a learning index for performance in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Michela; Burwell, Rebecca; Burchinal, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    The Morris water maze task was originally designed to assess the rat's ability to learn to navigate to a specific location in a relatively large spatial environment. This article describes new measures that provide information about the spatial distribution of the rat's search during both training and probe trial performance. The basic new measure optimizes the use of computer tracking to identify the rat's position with respect to the target location. This proximity measure was found to be highly sensitive to age-related impairment in an assessment of young and aged male Long-Evans rats. Also described is the development of a learning index that provides a continuous, graded measure of the severity of age-related impairment in the task. An index of this type should be useful in correlational analyses with other neurobiological or behavioral measures for the study of individual differences in functional/biological decline in aging. PMID:26214219

  13. Role of dopamine--D2 receptor in spatial memory retention and retrieval determined using Hebb-Williams complex maze.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanket B; Jadhav, Kshitij S; Marathe, Padmaja A

    2014-01-01

    Effects of bromocriptine and sulpiride were observed on encoding and retrieval of spatial memory in Wistar rats using Hebb-Williams complex maze. Rat was placed in entry chamber and allowed to reach reward chamber. Ten trials were given each day per rat for 3 consecutive days. Within-day encoding score indicative of learning and between-day retrieval score indicative of memory were calculated. Effects of bromocriptine and sulpiride were observed on encoding and retrieval of spatial memory. General learning index was calculated to compare the effect on spatial memory between groups. Bromocriptine increased while sulpiride decreased within-day encoding index but had no effect on retrieval index. In general learning index, sulpiride group showed more errors whereas bromocriptine group did not show any difference as compared to control. These results suggest that dopamine D2 receptors are involved in memory encoding but not retrieval. Also general learning is under positive modulation by D2 receptors. PMID:25906600

  14. Intraseptal infusions of 8-OH-DPAT in the rat impairs water-maze performances: effects on memory or anxiety?

    PubMed

    Bertrand, F; Lehmann, O; Lazarus, C; Jeltsch, H; Cassel, J C

    2000-01-21

    In the rat, 5-HT1A receptors are found on medial septal cholinergic neurons. The effects of intraseptal infusions of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyl-amino)-tertralin) were assessed on reference memory performances in a water maze. Compared with vehicle infusions, 0.5 and 4 microg of 8-OH-DPAT significantly impaired (but did not prevent) acquisition of the task and probe-trial performances. The results suggest that activation of 5-TH1A receptors in the (medial) septal area impairs spatial learning, perhaps directly by reducing the hippocampal cholinergic tonus, or indirectly by an effect on anxiety. PMID:10670784

  15. Assessment of Cognitive Function in the Water Maze Task: Maximizing Data Collection and Analysis in Animal Models of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Mark D; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N

    2016-01-01

    Animal models play a critical role in understanding the biomechanical, pathophysiological, and behavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In preclinical studies, cognitive impairment induced by TBI is often assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM). Frequently described as a hippocampally dependent spatial navigation task, the MWM is a highly integrative behavioral task that requires intact functioning in numerous brain regions and involves an interdependent set of mnemonic and non-mnemonic processes. In this chapter, we review the special considerations involved in using the MWM in animal models of TBI, with an emphasis on maximizing the degree of information extracted from performance data. We include a theoretical framework for examining deficits in discrete stages of cognitive function and offer suggestions for how to make inferences regarding the specific nature of TBI-induced cognitive impairment. The ultimate goal is more precise modeling of the animal equivalents of the cognitive deficits seen in human TBI. PMID:27604738

  16. The canine sand maze: an appetitive spatial memory paradigm sensitive to age-related change in dogs.

    PubMed

    Salvin, Hannah E; McGreevy, Paul D; Sachdev, Perminder S; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Aged dogs exhibit a spectrum of cognitive abilities including a syndrome similar to Alzheimer's disease. A major impediment to research so far has been the lack of a quick and accurate test of visuospatial memory appropriate for community-based animals. We therefore report on the development and validation of the Canine Sand Maze. A 4.5-m-diameter circular pool was filled with a sand and powdered food reward mix to a depth of 10 cm. Dogs were given 4 habituation and 16 learning trials which alternated a food reward being half (control trials) or fully-buried (acquisition trials) in a fixed location. After a 90-min break, a probe trial was conducted. Cognitively normal, aged (> 8 years, n  =  11) and young (1-4 years, n  =  11), breed-matched dogs were compared. After correction for differences in control trials, average probe times were 2.97 and 10.81 s for young and aged dogs, respectively. In the probe trial, both groups spent significantly more time in the target quadrant but there was a trend for young dogs to cross a 1 m(2) annulus zone around the buried reward more frequently (2.6 times) than aged dogs (1.5 times). Test-retest reliability in a subset of young dogs (n  =  5) was high. On the basis of these findings, the Canine Sand Maze is presented as a quick, sensitive and nonaversive tool for assessing spatial learning and reference memory in dogs. PMID:21541168

  17. Value of water mazes for assessing spatial and egocentric learning and memory in rodent basic research and regulatory studies.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Maneuvering safely through the environment is central to survival of all animals. The ability to do this depends on learning and remembering locations. This capacity is encoded in the brain by two systems: one using cues outside the organism (distal cues), allocentric navigation, and one using self-movement, internal cues and sometimes proximal cues, egocentric navigation. Allocentric navigation involves the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and surrounding structures (e.g., subiculum); in humans this system encodes declarative memory (allocentric, semantic, and episodic, i.e., memory for people, places, things, and events). This form of memory is assessed in laboratory animals by many methods, but predominantly the Morris water maze (MWM). Egocentric navigation involves the dorsal striatum and connected structures; in humans this system encodes routes and integrated paths and when over-learned becomes implicit or procedural memory. Several allocentric methods for rodents are reviewed and compared with the MWM with particular focus on the Cincinnati water maze (CWM). MWM advantages include minimal training, no food deprivation, ease of testing, reliable learning, insensitivity to differences in body weight and appetite, absence of non-performers, control methods for performance effects, repeated testing capability and other factors that make this test well-suited for regulatory studies. MWM limitations are also reviewed. Evidence-based MWM design and testing methods are presented. On balance, the MWM is arguably the preferred test for assessing learning and memory in basic research and regulatory studies and the CWM is recommended if two tests can be accommodated so that both allocentric (MWM) and egocentric (CWM) learning and memory can be effectively and efficiently assessed. PMID:25116937

  18. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á; Olvera-Cortés, María E

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  19. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pérez, J. Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E.; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á.; Olvera-Cortés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  20. Anatomical gradients of adult neurogenesis and activity: young neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are activated by water maze training

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jason S.; Radik, Ruvim; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; Cameron, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal function varies in a subregion-specific fashion: spatial processing is thought to rely on the dorsal hippocampus, while anxiety-related behavior relies more on the ventral hippocampus. During development, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus proceeds along ventral to dorsal as well as suprapyramidal to infrapyramidal gradients, but it is unclear whether regional differences in neurogenesis are maintained in adulthood. Moreover, it is unknown whether young neurons in the adult exhibit subregion-specific patterns of activation. We therefore examined the magnitude of neurogenesis and the activation of young and mature granule cells in dentate gyrus subregions in adult rats that learned a spatial water maze task, swam with no platform, or were left untouched. We found that both adult neurogenesis and granule cell activation, as defined by c-fos expression in the granule cell population as a whole, were higher in the dorsal than the ventral dentate gyrus. In contrast, c-fos expression in adult-born granule cells, identified by PSA-NCAM or location in the subgranular zone, occurred at a higher rate in the opposite subregion, the ventral dentate gyrus. Interestingly, c-fos expression in the entire granule cell population was equivalent in water maze-trained rats and swim control rats, but was increased in the young granule cells only in the learning condition. These results provide new evidence that hippocampally-relevant experience activates young and mature neurons in different dentate gyrus subregions and with different experiential specificity, and suggest that adult-born neurons may play a specific role in anxiety-related behavior or other non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function. PMID:19004012

  1. On the radial abundance gradients in discs of irregular galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    We determine the radial abundance distributions across the discs of 14 irregular galaxies of the types Sm and Im (morphological T types 9 and 10) as traced by their H II regions. The oxygen and nitrogen abundances in H II regions are estimated through the Te method or/and with the counterpart method (C method). Moreover, we examine the correspondence between the radial abundance gradient and the surface brightness profile. We find that irregular galaxies with a flat inner profile (flat or outwardly increasing surface brightness in the central region) show shallow (if any) radial abundance gradients. On the other hand, irregular galaxies with a steep inner profile (with or without a bulge or central star cluster) usually show rather steep radial abundance gradients. This is in contrast to the widely held belief that irregular galaxies do not usually show a radial abundance gradient.

  2. Molecular identity of human outer radial glia during cortical development.

    PubMed

    Pollen, Alex A; Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Chen, Jiadong; Retallack, Hanna; Sandoval-Espinosa, Carmen; Nicholas, Cory R; Shuga, Joe; Liu, Siyuan John; Oldham, Michael C; Diaz, Aaron; Lim, Daniel A; Leyrat, Anne A; West, Jay A; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2015-09-24

    Radial glia, the neural stem cells of the neocortex, are located in two niches: the ventricular zone and outer subventricular zone. Although outer subventricular zone radial glia may generate the majority of human cortical neurons, their molecular features remain elusive. By analyzing gene expression across single cells, we find that outer radial glia preferentially express genes related to extracellular matrix formation, migration, and stemness, including TNC, PTPRZ1, FAM107A, HOPX, and LIFR. Using dynamic imaging, immunostaining, and clonal analysis, we relate these molecular features to distinctive behaviors of outer radial glia, demonstrate the necessity of STAT3 signaling for their cell cycle progression, and establish their extensive proliferative potential. These results suggest that outer radial glia directly support the subventricular niche through local production of growth factors, potentiation of growth factor signals by extracellular matrix proteins, and activation of self-renewal pathways, thereby enabling the developmental and evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex. PMID:26406371

  3. Ultrasound in Dual Nerve Impairment after Proximal Radial Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lämmer, Alexandra B; Schwab, Stefan; Schramm, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sonography in classical nerve entrapment syndromes is an established and validated method. In contrast, few publications highlight lesions of the radial nerve, particularly of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN). Method Five patients with a radial nerve lesion were investigated by electromyography, nerve conduction velocity and ultrasound. Further normative values of 26 healthy subjects were evaluated. Results Four patients presented a clinical and electrophysiological proximal axonal radial nerve lesion and one patient showed a typical posterior interosseous nerve syndrome (PINS). The patient with PINS presented an enlargement of the PIN anterior to the supinator muscle. However four patients with proximal lesions showed an unexpected significant enlargement of the PIN within the supinator muscle. Conclusion High-resolution sonography is a feasible method to demonstrate the radial nerve including its distal branches. At least in axonal radial nerve lesions, sonography might reveal abnormalities far distant from a primary proximal lesion site clearly distinct from the appearance in classical PINS. PMID:25992766

  4. Radial vibrations of a sodium ion inside icosahedral C60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballester, J. L.; Dunlap, B. I.

    1992-01-01

    The very high symmetry of icosahedral C60 suggests that, as a first approximation, an atom trapped inside C60 would be subject to a potential that is radially symmetric about the center. All-electron local-density-functional calculations of the total energy of a sodium ion as a function of radial displacement from the center along the fivefold axis of C60 serve to refine such a radial potential. In particular, the calculations suggest studying potentials that have minima displaced from the center. An analytic functional form for a radial potential having a positive cusp at the origin is proposed, and the s-wave radial solutions of the corresponding Schroedinger equation are examined.

  5. Inner zone and slot electron radial diffusion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. P.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Guild, T. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Turner, D. L.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Roeder, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    Using recent data from NASA's Van Allen Probes, we estimate the quiet time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt (L < 3) with energies from ~50 to 750 keV. The observations are consistent with dynamics dominated by pitch angle scattering and radial diffusion. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate phase space density over pitch angle to obtain a "bundle content" that is invariant to pitch angle scattering, except for atmospheric loss. We estimate the effective radial diffusion coefficient from the temporal and radial variation of the bundle content. We show that our diffusion coefficients agree well with previously determined values obtained in the 1960s and 1970s and follow the form one expects for radial diffusion caused by exponentially decaying impulses in the large-scale electrostatic potential.

  6. The split radial forearm flap for lower leg defects.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Robert J; Corten, Eveline M L; Schellekens, Pascal P A

    2014-11-01

    The conventional free radial forearm flap is a very reliable, long-pedicled flap with thin, pliable skin. These properties make it an excellent choice for high-risk reconstructions or defects requiring only a thin cover. The split radial forearm flap allows primary closure of the donor site and has a large variability in shape and size. In this report, the cutaneous perforators of the radial artery were investigated in fresh cadavers and we present our clinical experience with the split radial artery flap in 9 patients with lower leg defects. Sufficient perforators exist to safely divide the flap proximally and distally into segments. In all clinical cases, the donor site could be closed primarily. All flaps remained viable and 8 of 9 patients obtained an esthetically pleasing result. The split radial forearm free flap is an elegant option for reconstruction of small- to moderate-sized soft tissue defects in the lower extremity. PMID:23657049

  7. Spatial Memory in the Morris Water Maze and Activation of Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) Protein within the Mouse Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porte, Yves; Buhot, Marie Christine; Mons, Nicole E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of learning-induced cAMP response element-binding protein activation/phosphorylation (pCREB) in mice trained in a spatial reference memory task in the water maze. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined pCREB immunoreactivity (pCREB-ir) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and related brain structures. During the…

  8. Effects of prenatal cocaine on Morris and Barnes maze tests of spatial learning and memory in the offspring of C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Inman-Wood, S L; Williams, M T; Morford, L L; Vorhees, C V

    2000-01-01

    Cocaine was administered to gravid C57BL/6J mice on embryonic days E8-18 at doses of either 17.5 or 20 mg/kg x 2 per day; controls received equal volumes of vehicle. The two cocaine dose groups were indistinguishable in their effects on maternal weight gain, offspring survival or body weight; therefore, the two groups were combined. Offspring were assessed as adults in straight channel swimming, cued and spatial reference-memory and working memory versions of the Morris water maze (MWM), and in the Barnes spatial maze to escape from a light, tone and fan. Cocaine offspring had shorter latencies in the straight channel and increased cumulative distance from the platform and path length in the spatial version of the Morris maze, but only when the platform size was reduced, not under standard platform conditions. In the working memory test, cocaine offspring showed deficits in acquisition and, following random trials, on relearning during a final test phase. In the Barnes maze, cocaine offspring were delayed in utilizing more efficient search strategies and took longer to find the goal. Taken together, the data suggest that prenatal cocaine induces modest but significant long-term alterations in both reference and working memory-based spatial learning and memory. PMID:10974593

  9. Glucose Injections into the Dorsal Hippocampus or Dorsolateral Striatum of Rats Prior to T-Maze Training: Modulation of Learning Rates and Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal, Clinton E.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of injecting glucose into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum on learning rates and on strategy selection in rats trained on a T-maze that can be solved by using either a hippocampus-sensitive place or striatum-sensitive response strategy. Percentage strategy selection on a probe trial…

  10. Effect of Exposure to Lithium-Paired or Amphetamine-Paired Saccharin Solution on Open Arm Avoidance in an Elevated Plus Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Shadna A.; Parker, Linda A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that drug-induced conditioned taste avoidance may be mediated by conditioned fear (e.g., Parker, 2003). The experiments reported here evaluated the effect of exposure to a drug-paired flavor on open arm exploration in an elevated plus maze (EPM), a measure of fear. When rats were tested on a familiar (trial 2) EPM, but not…

  11. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  12. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  13. Waves in Radial Gravity Using Magnetic Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlsen, D. R.; Hart, J. E.; Weidman, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial laboratory experiments studying various fluid dynamical processes are constrained, by being in an Earth laboratory, to have a gravitational body force which is uniform and unidirectional. Therefore fluid free-surfaces are horizontal and flat. Such free surfaces must have a vertical solid boundary to keep the fluid from spreading horizontally along a gravitational potential surface. In atmospheric, oceanic, or stellar fluid flows that have a horizontal scale of about one-tenth the body radius or larger, sphericity is important in the dynamics. Further, fluids in spherical geometry can cover an entire domain without any sidewall effects, i.e. have truly periodic boundary conditions. We describe spherical body-force laboratory experiments using ferrofluid. Ferrofluids are dilute suspensions of magnetic dipoles, for example magnetite particles of order 10 nm diameter, suspended in a carrier fluid. Ferrofluids are subject to an additional body force in the presence of an applied magnetic field gradient. We use this body force to conduct laboratory experiments in spherical geometry. The present study is a laboratory technique improvement. The apparatus is cylindrically axisymmetric. A cylindrical ceramic magnet is embedded in a smooth, solid, spherical PVC ball. The geopotential field and its gradient, the body force, were made nearly spherical by careful choice of magnet height-to-diameter ratio and magnet size relative to the PVC ball size. Terrestrial gravity is eliminated from the dynamics by immersing the "planet" and its ferrofluid "ocean" in an immiscible silicone oil/freon mixture of the same density. Thus the earth gravity is removed from the dynamics of the ferrofluid/oil interface and the only dynamically active force there is the radial magnetic gravity. The entire apparatus can rotate, and waves are forced on the ferrofluid surface by exterior magnets. The biggest improvement in technique is in the wave visualization. Fluorescing dye is added to

  14. Elongated nanostructures for radial junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yinghuan; Vece, Marcel Di; Rath, Jatindra K; Dijk, Lourens van; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2013-10-01

    In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber is primarily the reduced consumption of material and energy during production. For thin film silicon (Si) technology, thinning down the absorber layer is of particular interest since both the device throughput of vacuum deposition systems and the stability of the devices are significantly enhanced. These features lead to lower cost per installed watt peak for solar cells, provided that the (stabilized) efficiency is the same as for thicker devices. However, merely thinning down inevitably leads to a reduced light absorption. Therefore, advanced light trapping schemes are crucial to increase the light path length. The use of elongated nanostructures is a promising method for advanced light trapping. The enhanced optical performance originates from orthogonalization of the light's travel path with respect to the direction of carrier collection due to the radial junction, an improved anti-reflection effect thanks to the three-dimensional geometric configuration and the multiple scattering between individual nanostructures. These advantages potentially allow for high efficiency at a significantly reduced quantity and even at a reduced material quality, of the semiconductor material. In this article, several types of elongated nanostructures with the high potential to improve the device performance are reviewed. First, we briefly introduce the conventional solar cells with emphasis on thin film technology, following the most commonly used fabrication techniques for creating nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. Subsequently, several representative applications of elongated nanostructures, such as Si nanowires in realistic photovoltaic (PV) devices, are reviewed. Finally, the scientific challenges and an outlook for nanostructured PV devices are presented. PMID:24088584

  15. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleo, I.; Sanna, N.; Gratton, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonavita, M.; Oliva, E.; Origlia, L.; Desidera, S.; Claudi, R.; Sissa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 μm) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the velocity for both the star and the telluric lines. For this purpose, we constructed two suitable digital masks that include about 2000 stellar lines, and a similar number of telluric lines. The method is applied to various targets with different spectral type, from K2V to M8 stars. We reached different precisions mainly depending on the H-magnitudes: for H ˜ 5 we obtain an rms scatter of ˜ 10 m s-1, while for H ˜ 9 the standard deviation increases to ˜ 50 ÷ 80 m s-1. The corresponding theoretical error expectations are ˜ 4 m s-1 and 30 m s-1, respectively. Finally we provide the RVs measured with our procedure for the targets observed during GIANO Science Verification.

  16. Weighing Rocky Exoplanets with Improved Radial Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuesong Wang, Sharon; Wright, Jason; California Planet Survey Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The synergy between Kepler and the ground-based radial velocity (RV) surveys have made numerous discoveries of small and rocky exoplanets, opening the age of Earth analogs. However, most (29/33) of the RV-detected exoplanets that are smaller than 3 Earth radii do not have their masses constrained to better than 20% - limited by the current RV precision (1-2 m/s). Our work improves the RV precision of the Keck telescope, which is responsible for most of the mass measurements for small Kepler exoplanets. We have discovered and verified, for the first time, two of the dominant terms in Keck's RV systematic error budget: modeling errors (mostly in deconvolution) and telluric contamination. These two terms contribute 1 m/s and 0.6 m/s, respectively, to the RV error budget (RMS in quadrature), and they create spurious signals at periods of one sidereal year and its harmonics with amplitudes of 0.2-1 m/s. Left untreated, these errors can mimic the signals of Earth-like or Super-Earth planets in the Habitable Zone. Removing these errors will bring better precision to ten-year worth of Keck data and better constraints on the masses and compositions of small Kepler planets. As more precise RV instruments coming online, we need advanced data analysis tools to overcome issues like these in order to detect the Earth twin (RV amplitude 8 cm/s). We are developing a new, open-source RV data analysis tool in Python, which uses Bayesian MCMC and Gaussian processes, to fully exploit the hardware improvements brought by new instruments like MINERVA and NASA's WIYN/EPDS.

  17. Radial Breathing Modes in Cosmochemistry and Meteoritics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Wilson, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    One area of continuing interest in cosmochemistry and meteoritics (C&M) is the identification of the nature of Q-phase, although some researchers in C&M are not reporting relevant portions of Raman spectral data. Q is the unidentified carrier of noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs). Being carbonaceous, the focus has been on any number of Q-candidates arising from the sp2 hybridization of carbon (C). These all derive from various forms of graphene, a monolayer of C atoms packed into a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal honeycomb lattice that is the basic building block for graphitic materials of all other dimensions for sp2 allotropes of C. As a basic lattice, 2D graphene can be curled into fullerenes (0D), wrapped into carbon nanotubes or CNTs (1D), and stacked into graphite (3D). These take such additional forms as scroll-like carbon whiskers, carbon fibers, carbon onions, GPCs (graphite polyhedral crystals) [6], and GICs (graphite intercalation compounds). Although all of these have been observed in meteoritics, the issue is which can explain the Q-abundances. In brief, one or more of the 0D-3D sp2 hybridization forms of C is Q. For some Q-candidates, the radial breathing modes (RBMs) are the most important Raman active vibrational modes that exist, and bear a direct relevance to solving this puzzle. Typically in C&M they are ignored when present. Their importance is addressed here as smoking-gun signatures for certain Q-candidates and are very relevant to the ultimate identification of Q.

  18. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleo, I.; Sanna, N.; Gratton, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonavita, M.; Oliva, E.; Origlia, L.; Desidera, S.; Claudi, R.; Sissa, E.

    2016-03-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 μm) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the velocity for both the star and the telluric lines. For this purpose, we constructed two suitable digital masks that include about 2000 stellar lines, and a similar number of telluric lines. The method is applied to various targets with different spectral type, from K2V to M8 stars. We reached different precisions mainly depending on the H-magnitudes: for H ˜ 5 we obtain an rms scatter of ˜ 10 m s-1, while for H ˜ 9 the standard deviation increases to ˜ 50 ÷ 80 m s-1. The corresponding theoretical error expectations are ˜ 4 m s-1 and 30 m s-1, respectively. Finally we provide the RVs measured with our procedure for the targets observed during GIANO Science Verification.

  19. Short-period radial velocity variations of alpha Bootis: Evidence for radial pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, Aritie P.; Cochran, William D.

    1994-02-01

    Precise radial velocity measurements (sigma approximately 20 m/s) of alpha Boo taken over eight consecutive nights in 1992 June are presented. A periodogram of the data shows significant power at periods of 2.46 days and 3.8 days. A separate analysis, using nonlinear least-squares fitting,reveals an additional period at 8.5 days, but at a very low amplitude (approximately 14 m/s), in addition to 2.46 day and 4.03 day periods. However, the 1.84 day period found by Smith et al. is not in these data. The expected periods of the fundamental and first harmonic modes of radial pulsations were estimated using the radius determination of Di Benedetto & Rabbia, published log(g) values, and the empirical Q(M,R) relationship of Cox, King & Stellingwerf. The 2.46 day period is near that expected for the fundamental or first harmonic radial mode, depending on the choice of stellar mass which is uncertain due to the wide range of surface gravity determinations. For a given mass and radius the 1.84 day period found by Smith et al. coincides with that of the next harmonic. These periods indicate that the short-term variability of alpha Boo may be explained by radial pulsations. Furthermore, it seems that this star has switched pulsation modes to a lower overtone from the time of the Smith et al. measurements. A recent investigation into the excitation of acoustic oscillations in alpha Boo by Balmforth, Gough, & Tout reveals peaks in the growth rates of modes having periods very near those observed in alpha Boo for a stellar model of 0.23 solar mass. This low value of the mass, however, is inconsistent with stellar evolution theory and a recent determination of the surface gravity of this star. It is clear that alpha Boo is multiperiodic and may be changing modes on timescales of a few years. This star may thus be an ideal candidate for the application of pulsation theory to late-type, evolved stars and my provide important tests of stellar evolution theory.

  20. Learning in a 14-unit T-maze is impaired in rats following systemic treatment with N omega-nitro-L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Ingram, D K; Spangler, E L; Meyer, R C; London, E D

    1998-01-01

    We examined whether inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NO synthase) impairs learning in male Fischer-344 rats (9 mo) in a shock-motivated 14-unit T-maze. Rats were pretrained in one-way active avoidance of foot shock to a criterion of 13/15 avoidances in a straight runway. The next day, rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 0.9% NaCl as controls or Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (N-Arg: 3.0. 4.5, or 6.0 mg/kg) to inhibit NO synthase 30 min before maze training. During 15 trials, rats were required to negotiate each of 5 segments within 10 s to avoid footshock. Performance variables included errors (deviations from the correct pathway), runtime from start to goal, shock frequency and duration. N-Arg treatment impaired performance on all variables in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, only the 6 mg/kg N-Arg dose significantly increased errors compared to controls over the last 10 trials but not the first 5 trials. Controls and rats treated with 3 or 4.5 mg/kg N-Arg were retested in the maze 7-10 days following training, with half receiving N-Arg (6 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min in advance. In this retention test, maze performance was not significantly affected; thus, these results indicated that NO synthase inhibition primarily impaired acquisition without impacting upon noncognitive aspects of performance. This conclusion was further reinforced by the demonstration that 6 mg/kg N-Arg did not significantly affect sensorimotor performance in a rotarod task. When rats were treated with sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, at 1 min, but not 30 min, prior to training, the N-Arg induced impairment (6 or 8 mg/kg i.p.) in maze learning was significantly attenuated. PMID:9489849

  1. Mouse genetic differences in voluntary wheel running, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and learning on the multi-strain-adapted plus water maze

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Jennifer; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Moderate levels of aerobic exercise broadly enhance cognition throughout the lifespan. One hypothesized contributing mechanism is increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Recently, we measured the effects of voluntary wheel running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in 12 different mouse strains, and found increased neurogenesis in all strains, ranging from 2 to 5 fold depending on the strain. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which increased neurogenesis from wheel running is associated with enhanced performance on the water maze for 5 of the 12 strains, chosen based on their levels of neurogenesis observed in the previous study (C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, B6129SF1/J, DBA/2J, and B6D2F1/J). Mice were housed with or without a running wheels for 30 days then tested for learning and memory on the plus water maze, adapted for multiple strains, and rotarod test of motor performance. The first 10 days, animals were injected with BrdU to label dividing cells. After behavioral testing animals were euthanized to measure adult hippocampal neurogenesis using standard methods. Levels of neurogenesis depended on strain but all mice had a similar increase in neurogenesis in response to exercise. All mice acquired the water maze but performance depended on strain. Exercise improved water maze performance in all strains to a similar degree. Rotarod performance depended on strain. Exercise improved rotarod performance only in DBA/2J and B6D2F1/J mice. Taken together, results demonstrate that despite different levels of neurogenesis, memory performance and motor coordination in these mouse strains, all strains have the capacity to increase neurogenesis and improve learning on the water maze through voluntary wheel running. PMID:25435316

  2. Increasing the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway increases the ability to learn a Y-maze task.

    PubMed

    Llansola, Marta; Hernandez-Viadel, Mariluz; Erceg, Slaven; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2009-08-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a crucial role in learning. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NMDA receptors contribute to learning processes are not known in detail. Activation of NMDA receptors leads to increased calcium in the postsynaptic neuron. Calcium binds to calmodulin and activates neuronal nitric oxide synthase, increasing nitric oxide (NO), which activates soluble guanylate cyclase, increasing cGMP. Part of this cGMP is released to the extracellular space. Several reports indicate that impairment of this glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway reduces the ability to learn a Y-maze conditional discrimination task by rats. The aim of this work was to assess whether enhancing the function of this pathway increases the ability to learn this task. Prenatal exposure to the polybrominated diphenylether PBDE-99 during embryonic days 2-9 or 11-19 enhances the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in cerebellum in vivo as assessed by microdialysis in freely moving rats. This was associated with an increase in the ability to learn the Y-maze task. Rats prenatally exposed to PBDE need fewer trials than control rats to learn the Y-maze task. These results show that the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP modulates the ability of rats to learn the Y-maze task, that the function of the pathway under physiological conditions is not optimal for learning, and that performance in the Y-maze task may be improved by enhancing slightly the function of the pathway and cGMP formation. PMID:19326454

  3. Radar Wind Profiler Radial Velocity: A Comparison with Doppler Lidar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Stephen A.; Goodrich, R. Kent

    2002-12-01

    The accuracy of the radial wind velocity measured with a radar wind profiler will depend on turbulent variability and instrumental noise. Radial velocity estimates of a boundary layer wind profiler are compared with those estimated by a Doppler lidar over 2.3 h. The lidar resolution volume was much narrower than the profiler volume, but the samples were well matched in range and time. The wind profiler radial velocity was computed using two common algorithms [profiler online program (POP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research improved moments algorithm (NIMA)]. The squared correlation between radial velocities measured with the two instruments was R2 = 0.99, and the standard deviation of the difference was about r = 0.20-0.23 m s1 for radial velocities of greater than 1 m s1 and r = 0.16-0.35 m s1 for radial velocities of less than 1 m s1. Small radial velocities may be treated differently in radar wind profiler processing because of ground-clutter mitigation strategies. A standard deviation of r = 0.23 m s1 implies an error in horizontal winds from turbulence and noise of less than 1 m s1 for a single cycle through the profiler beam directions and of less than 0.11-0.27 m s1 for a 30-min average measurement, depending on the beam pointing sequence. The accuracy of a wind profiler horizontal wind measurement will also depend on assumptions of spatial and temporal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere, which are not considered in this comparison. The wind profiler radial velocities from the POP and NIMA are in good agreement. However, the analysis does show the need for improvements in wind profiler processing when radial velocity is close to zero.

  4. THE NIRSPEC ULTRACOOL DWARF RADIAL VELOCITY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Cullen H.; Charbonneau, David; White, Russel J.

    2010-11-01

    We report the results of an infrared Doppler survey designed to detect brown dwarf and giant planetary companions to a magnitude-limited sample of ultracool dwarfs. Using the NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck II telescope, we obtained approximately 600 radial velocity (RV) measurements over a period of six years of a sample of 59 late-M and L dwarfs spanning spectral types M8/L0 to L6. A subsample of 46 of our targets has been observed on three or more epochs. We rely on telluric CH{sub 4} absorption features in Earth's atmosphere as a simultaneous wavelength reference and exploit the rich set of CO absorption features found in the K-band spectra of cool stars and brown dwarfs to measure RVs and projected rotational velocities. For a bright, slowly rotating M dwarf standard we demonstrate an RV precision of 50 m s{sup -1} and for slowly rotating L dwarfs we achieve a typical RV precision of approximately 200 m s{sup -1}. This precision is sufficient for the detection of close-in giant planetary companions to mid-L dwarfs as well as more equal mass spectroscopic binary systems with small separations (a < 2 AU). We present an orbital solution for the subdwarf binary LSR1610 - 0040 as well as an improved solution for the M/T binary 2M0320 - 04. We compare the distribution of our observed values for the projected rotational velocities, Vsin i, to those in the literature and find that our sample contains examples of slowly rotating mid-L dwarfs, which have not been seen in other surveys. We also combine our RV measurements with distance estimates and proper motions from the literature and estimate the dispersion of the space velocities of the objects in our sample. Using a kinematic age estimate, we conclude that our UCDs have an age of 5.0{sup +0.7}{sub -0.6} Gyr, similar to that of nearby sun-like stars. We simulate the efficiency with which we detect spectroscopic binaries and find that the rate of tight (a < 1 AU) binaries in our sample is 2.5{sup +8.6}{sub -1

  5. Radial displacement of lateral meniscus after partial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong

    2006-05-01

    Radial displacement or extrusion of the meniscus has been reported as a complication after meniscal transplantation and is sometimes observed in knees with advanced osteoarthritis. In this report, the case of a patient with radial displacement of the lateral meniscus after partial meniscectomy is presented. He had an incomplete discoid lateral meniscus with an anterior horn tear. The inner portion of the lateral meniscus was excised to leave a width of 8 to 10 mm. However, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed radial displacement of the mid-body of the lateral meniscus and a compatible finding of chondromalacia of the lateral compartment of the knee. PMID:16651179

  6. Analytical design of an advanced radial turbine. [automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Large, G. D.; Finger, D. G.; Linder, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic and mechanical potential of a single stage ceramic radial inflow turbine was evaluated for a high temperature single stage automotive engine. The aerodynamic analysis utilizes a turbine system optimization technique to evaluate both radial and nonradial rotor blading. Selected turbine rotor configurations were evaluated mechanically with three dimensional finite element techniques. Results indicate that exceptionally high rotor tip speeds (2300 ft/sec) and performance potential are feasible with radial bladed rotors if the projected ceramic material properties are realized. Nonradial rotors reduced tip speed requirements (at constant turbine efficiency) but resulted in a lower cumulative probability of success due to higher blade and disk stresses.

  7. Radial head dislocation with acute plastic bowing of the ulna.

    PubMed

    Sai, Shigaku; Fujii, Katsuyuki; Chino, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Junichi

    2005-01-01

    Five radial head dislocations with acute plastic bowing of the ulna in patients aged 6-12 years were reviewed. Closed reduction was successful in two, and open reduction was required in three patients in whom treatment was started more than 2 weeks after injury. In one child who presented 2 months after injury, realignment by osteotomy of the ulna as well as open reduction of the radial head was necessary. Follow-up evaluations at 6-24 months revealed good clinical outcomes in all patients. Awareness of this type of radial head dislocation is important to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:15666132

  8. A radial basis function Galerkin method for inhomogeneous nonlocal diffusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Rowe, Stephen T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a discretization for a nonlocal diffusion problem using a localized basis of radial basis functions. The stiffness matrix entries are assembled by a special quadrature routine unique to the localized basis. Combining the quadrature method with the localized basis produces a well-conditioned, sparse, symmetric positive definite stiffness matrix. We demonstrate that both the continuum and discrete problems are well-posed and present numerical results for the convergence behavior of the radial basis function method. As a result, we explore approximating the solution to anisotropic differential equations by solving anisotropic nonlocal integral equations using the radial basis function method.

  9. Radial Distributions of Dusty Plasma Parameters in a Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A. V.; Sukhinin, G. I.

    2011-11-29

    A self-consistent model for radial distributions of dusty plasma parameters in a DC glow discharge based on the non-local Boltzmann equation for EEDF, the drift-diffusion equation for ions, and the Poisson equation for self-consistent electric field is presented. The results show that for the case of high dust particles density when the recombination of electrons and ions exceeds the ionization near the tube axis, radial electron and ion fluxes change their direction toward the center of the tube, and the radial electric field is reversed.

  10. Radial Distribution of Electron Spectra from High-Energy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.

    1998-01-01

    The average track model describes the response of physical and biological systems using radial dose distribution as the key physical descriptor. We report on an extension of this model to describe the average distribution of electron spectra as a function of radial distance from an ion. We present calculations of these spectra for ions of identical linear energy transfer (LET), but dissimilar charge and velocity to evaluate the differences in electron spectra from these ions. To illustrate the usefulness of the radial electron spectra for describing effects that are not described by electron dose, we consider the evaluation of the indirect events in microdosimetric distributions for ions. We show that folding our average electron spectra model with experimentally determined frequency distributions for photons or electrons provides a good representation of radial event spectra from high-energy ions in 0.5-2 micrometer sites.

  11. Radial alternating TE sequence for faster fat suppression.

    PubMed

    Flask, Chris A; Dale, Brian; Lewin, Jonathan S; Duerk, Jeffrey L

    2003-11-01

    This study describes a steady-state sequence that uses a radial k-space trajectory and alternating echo times (TEs) between even and odd k-space views. The sequence generated a single data set that was used to reconstruct images with inherent fat suppression. This fat suppression results from the fat phase variation in alternate echoes giving rise to cancellation in the central portion of k-space. This new fat-suppression method provides inherent fat suppression in half the acquisition time relative to the radial two-point Dixon method. The improvement in k-space sampling efficiency is demonstrated in phantom and clinical images, and through measured point-spread functions (PSFs). As a result, the radial alternating TE sequence offers improved temporal resolution over a radial version of the two-point Dixon sequence by requiring fewer total projections to obtain the same effective resolution in water-based tissues. PMID:14587021

  12. Vibration characteristics of hexagonal radial rib and hoop platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    Experiment and analysis have been used to characterize the modes of vibration of planar radial rib and hoop hexagonal platforms. Finite element analysis correlated very well with experimental results. The sensitivity of mode shapes and frequencies to cable stiffness and initial tension is presented. Threshold values have been identified, above which changes in cable stiffness do not affect the first few platform vibration modes. Primary vibration modes of the radial rib platform involve beam bending. Vibration modes of the hoop platform exhibit both beam bending and frame bending and torsion. Results indicate for low order polygonal structures, the radial rib concept produced a higher fundamental frequency. For high order polygonal structures, the hoop concept has the potential to achieve a higher fundamental frequency than the radial rib concept.

  13. Radial Keratotomy Surgery: What Health Educators Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Kenley; Page, Randy M.

    1988-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the safety and potential side effects of radial keratotomy, a surgical procedure that results in a flattening of the cornea and a reduction of refractive myopia (nearsightedness). (JD)

  14. Reverse Radial Artery Flap Perforator Anatomy and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    White, Colin P; Steve, Anna K; Buchel, Edward W; Hayakawa, Thomas E; Morris, Steven F

    2016-09-01

    The pedicled reverse radial forearm flap is a well-known option for the treatment of a variety of soft tissue wounds including dorsal hand wounds. We document the number, emerging diameter, length from origin, course, and location of all perforators of the radial artery in a series of 6 fresh human cadavers after whole body lead oxide and gelatin injection to confirm and comprehensively document the anatomy of the radial artery perforators. This data provide an anatomic basis for a modification to the reversed radial forearm flap used to decrease venous congestion in the postoperative period. Two case reports are presented to provide clinical demonstration of the importance of this modification. PMID:26678105

  15. Radial inflow gas turbine engine with advanced transition duct

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, David J

    2015-03-17

    A gas turbine engine (10), including: a turbine having radial inflow impellor blades (38); and an array of advanced transition combustor assemblies arranged circumferentially about the radial inflow impellor blades (38) and having inner surfaces (34) that are adjacent to combustion gases (40). The inner surfaces (34) of the array are configured to accelerate and orient, for delivery directly onto the radial inflow impellor blades (38), a plurality of discrete flows of the combustion gases (40). The array inner surfaces (34) define respective combustion gas flow axes (20). Each combustion gas flow axis (20) is straight from a point of ignition until no longer bound by the array inner surfaces (34), and each combustion gas flow axis (20) intersects a unique location on a circumference defined by a sweep of the radial inflow impellor blades (38).

  16. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE RADIAL GATE AT THE OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE RADIAL GATE AT THE OUTLET WORKS AT DAM 96, LOOKING WEST. THE GATE IS IN THE DOWN POSITION, ALLOWING PARTIAL DISCHARGE. - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 96, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  17. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  18. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CARLTON RADIAL ARM DRILL PRESS (THE CARLTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CARLTON RADIAL ARM DRILL PRESS (THE CARLTON MACHINE TOOL CO., CINCINNATI, OHIO) WITH MACHINE OPERATOR, EDDIE BURTTRAM. - O'Neal Steel, Incorporated, Fabrication Shop, 744 Forty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Analyzing radial acceleration with a smartphone acceleration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2013-03-01

    This paper continues the sequence of experiments using the acceleration sensor of smartphones (for description of the function and the use of the acceleration sensor, see Ref. 1) within this column, in this case for analyzing the radial acceleration.

  20. An investigation of viscous losses in radial inflow turbine nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, I.; Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to predict losses in radial inflow turbine nozzles. The analysis is presented in two parts. The first one evaluates the losses which occur across the vaned region of the nozzle, while the second part deals with the losses which take place in the vaneless field. It is concluded that the losses in a radial nozzle would not be greatly affected by the addition of a large vaneless space.

  1. Radial flow afterburner for event generators and the baryon puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuautle, E.; Paic, G.

    2008-07-01

    A simple afterburner to add radial flow to the randomized transverse momentum obtained from event generators, PYTHIA and HIJING, has been implemented to calculate the p/π ratios and compare them with available data. A coherent trend of qualitative agreement has been obtained in pp and Au+Au collisions for various centralities. These results indicate that the radial flow does play an important role in the so-called baryon puzzle anomaly.

  2. Recurrent anterior instability of the radial head: case report.

    PubMed

    Itadera, Eichi; Ueno, Keisuke

    2014-02-01

    We present a case of recurrent anterior instability of the radial head presenting 4 weeks after injury. A 16-year-old girl injured the right upper extremity while playing volleyball. Thereafter, she felt a recurrent click associated with pain in the elbow when rotating the forearm. Image intensifier findings implied that the radial head would anteriorly dislocate with contraction of the biceps brachii. Annular ligament reconstruction using the palmaris longus tendon graft relieved the instability. PMID:24332619

  3. Radial basis function neural networks applied to NASA SSME data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Atam P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the application of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN) to the prediction of sensor values for fault detection and diagnosis of the Space Shuttle's Main Engines (SSME). The location of the Radial Basis Function (RBF) node centers was determined with a K-means clustering algorithm. A neighborhood operation about these center points was used to determine the variances of the individual processing notes.

  4. Radial Ion Transport in a Limited Axisymmetric Ecr Plasma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Gerald Warren, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study of the radial transport of ions in the presence of a limiter for an axisymmetric plasma sustained by the resonant absorption of 2.45 GHz whistler waves is presented. In steady state, approximately 30% of the particles ionized in the core plasma flow radially into the scrape-off layer. The magnitude of radial ion flux is observed to be bounded from below by the radial electron transport rate and from above by the classical collisional ion transport rate of the cold edge ions. The system proves to be susceptible to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The transport experiments were performed at a set input power of 300 W and over the neutral pressure range of 1-3 mTorr in Argon gas. The bulk ions possess a typical temperature of 1eV and do not obey a diffusion equation in the core plasma. Strong radial electric fields are observed and appear to provide the principal means by which radial ion diffusion is controlled. The presence of strongly sheared electric fields in this system excites a hydrodynamic instability of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type. The most frequently observed mode is driven by a region of depressed potential at the plasma edge. A theory for instability in the presence of a localized inverted Gaussian radial potential is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The convection of edge plasma into the core under influence of this mode leads to an increased edge temperature and, hence, enhanced axial losses from the scrape-off layer, thereby modifying the radial profile of the scrape-off layer. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  5. Radial basis function neural networks applied to NASA SSME data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Atam P.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the application of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN) to the prediction of sensor values for fault detection and diagnosis of the Space Shuttle's Main Engines (SSME). The location of the Radial Basis Function (RBF) node centers was determined with a K-means clustering algorithm. A neighborhood operation about these center points was used to determine the variances of the individual processing notes.

  6. Low cost, radial flow, solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    The Interscience Radial Flow (IRF) SOFC is designed to minimize problems in high-temperature operation, and for low-cost fabrication. The cell has planar, non-sintered construction, uses particulate materials to form porous electrodes, and has internal radial flow. This phase was to demonstrate feasibility of multi-cell stack operation. Performance milestone was 15% DC HHV efficiency with hydrogen at > 50 mW/cm{sup 2} over 100 h.

  7. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Rui Li

    2012-07-01

    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

  8. Radial evolution of the energy density of solar wind fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of transport theories appropriate to a radially expanding solar wind, we describe new results for the radial evolution of the energy density in solar wind fluctuations at MHD scales. These models include the effects of 'mixing' and driving as well as the possibility of non-isotropic MHD turbulence. Implications of these results for solar wind heating, cosmic ray diffusion and interstellar pick-up ions will also be addressed.

  9. Focal spot analysis of radially polarized femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenchao; Hu, Wenhua; Qi, Junli; Wang, Weiming; Liao, Jiali; Yi, Wenjun; Jia, Hui; Li, Xiujian

    2014-09-01

    When radially polarized light beams focus through high numerical-aperture lens, there will be a very strong longitudinal component of the light field near the focus. And, under the condition of certain system parameters, they can shape a spot which is over the focusing spot of the diffraction limit, which are the superiorities that linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light do not have. Besides, what we have found in the experiment is that radially polarized femtosecond laser pulses own the same superiorities, which provides the basis for using the focusing characteristics of radially polarized light beams under the condition of shorter and more powerful laser pulses. So far, although people have studied a lot on radially polarized light beams, this kind of light beams' focusing characters are rarely researched. What is worse, most research of its focusing characters still stays in the stage of theoretical simulation,and it seems that none of people have really studied it by the way of experiments. This article is precisely based on this. On the basis of predecessors' a lot of theoretical research, the article pays more attention on analyzing radially polarized light beams' focusing character through experiments. What's more, the article, based on femtosecond laser pulses, compares the differences of the focusing nature among linearly polarized light, circularly polarized light and radially polarized light. And it gets the conclusion that radially polarized femtosecond laser pulses have better focusing character in longitudinal light field, confirming the feasibility that radially polarized light beams can be used in the fields of pulling, catching, and accelerating particles, metal cutting and high-density storage.

  10. Frequent PIK3CA mutations in radial scars.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Katie L; Ang, Daphne; Warrick, Andrea; Beadling, Carol; Corless, Christopher L; Troxell, Megan L

    2013-12-01

    Radial scars are breast lesions of uncertain pathogenesis that are associated with a 2-fold increased risk of breast cancer compared with that in controls. Activating point mutations in PIK3CA are found in 25% to 30% of invasive breast cancers; however, they have not previously been investigated in radial scars. We sought to evaluate radial scars for known activating point mutations commonly seen in invasive breast cancer. Sixteen surgical cases containing 22 radial scars were identified from pathology archives. Lesional tissue was macrodissected from unstained paraffin sections; genomic DNA was then extracted and screened for a panel of known hotspot mutations using polymerase chain reaction and mass spectroscopy analysis. Of the 22 radial scars, 14 (63.6%) had PIK3CA mutations (10 with H1047R mutations, 2 G1049R mutations, 1 E542K, 1 E545K). The remaining 8 lesions were wild type for all of the screened genes. Of the radial scars without epithelial atypia, 9/16 (56.3%) had PIK3CA mutations; furthermore, 5/6 (83.3%) radial scars with atypia had mutations detected. In this study, the frequency of PIK3CA mutations was notably higher than the 25% to 30% mutation frequency of invasive breast cancer. This finding raises interesting questions as to the role of PIK3CA mutations in breast cancer development. Additional larger studies are indicated to confirm and extend these observations in understanding the pathogenesis of radial scars and their relationship to breast cancer. PMID:24193002

  11. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duflot, M.; Figon, P.; Meyssonnier, N.

    1995-12-01

    We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocities by Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogue of spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star, when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set of Identifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) of the CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the number HIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number (Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) by Dommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study has been done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out the problems we have had to deal with.

  12. On the radial structure of Saturn's B ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Lin-Hua; Goertz, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager observations have revealed that the Saturnian B ring is much more structured than previously anticipated. Some of these structures occur on radial scale lengths of less than 15 km. In the visible the ring an optical depth minimum at a small distance outside of synchronous orbit. It is suggested in this paper that the electromagnetically induced radial transport of angular momentum associated with radial transport of charged submicron-size dust particles may explain these features. This mechanism induces an instability which produces, over geological times, significant radial structuring of the ring. Mass contained in particles less than about 1 cm in size is transported away from the synchronous orbit. This produces the optical depth minimum there. A simulation, starting with a radially uniform mass and number density, yields a radial optical depth profile which is similar to what is observed. It is found that it takes about 400-800 million yr to produce the observed structure. This estimate for the age of B ring agrees with some other independent estimates.

  13. Causes of Secondary Radial Nerve Palsy and Results of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Pawel; Wnukiewicz, Witold; Witkowski, Jarosław; Bocheńska, Aneta; Mizia, Sylwia; Gosk, Jerzy; Zimmer, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the causes that lead to secondary damage of the radial nerve and to discuss the results of reconstructive treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study group consisted of 33 patients treated for radial nerve palsy after humeral fractures. Patients were diagnosed based on clinical examinations, ultrasonography, electromyography, or nerve conduction velocity. During each operation, the location and type of nerve damage were analyzed. During the reconstructive treatment, neurolysis, direct neurorrhaphy, or reconstruction with a sural nerve graft was used. The outcomes were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scales and the quick DASH score. RESULTS Secondary radial nerve palsy occurs after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) by plate, as well as by closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) by nail. In the case of ORIF, it most often occurs when the lateral approach is used, as in the case of CRIF with an insertion interlocking screws. The results of the surgical treatment were statistically significant and depended on the time between nerve injury and revision (reconstruction) surgery, type of damage to the radial nerve, surgery treatment, and type of fixation. Treatment results were not statistically significant, depending on the type of fracture or location of the nerve injury. CONCLUSIONS The potential risk of radial nerve neurotmesis justifies an operative intervention to treat neurological complications after a humeral fracture. Adequate surgical treatment in many of these cases allows for functional recovery of the radial nerve. PMID:26895570

  14. Delayed Sudden Radial Artery Rupture After Left Transradial Coronary Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Indolfi, Ciro; Passafaro, Francesco; Mongiardo, Annalisa; Spaccarotella, Carmen; Torella, Daniele; Sorrentino, Sabato; Polimeni, Alberto; Emanuele, Vittorio; Curcio, Antonio; De Rosa, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Local complications at the radial access site are not frequent, hence its large diffusion as the preferred access route for endovascular procedures. However, in a time of fast widespreading, better comprehension of all potential complications becomes critical to facilitate their early recognition and the most appropriate treatment. In this case report, we present for the first time a case of sudden massive bleeding at the left wrist, due to spontaneous gross rupture of the left radial artery bleeding 15 days after an endovascular procedure through a left radial arterial access. The patient had been readmitted to the hospital after evidence of local infection at the left wrist with loss of substance. The radial artery was patent with no evidence of pseudoaneurysm. After sudden radial artery rupture, with massive bleeding and suspicion that the local infection could have reached the arterial wall, surgical hemostasis with artery ligation was obtained. Healing of the large wound was then efficiently speeded up using a negative pressure wound therapy. This is the first case of macroscopic radial artery rupture associated with local wrist infection after arterial catheterization. After prompt surgical hemostasis, negative pressure wound therapy was very helpful in favoring healing of the large and deep wound. PMID:25761194

  15. Effect of the radial buoyancy on a circular Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Antoine; Yoshikawa, Harunori N.; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2015-11-01

    The effect of a radial temperature gradient on the stability of a circular Couette flow is investigated when the gravitational acceleration is neglected. The induced radial stratification of the fluid density coupled with the centrifugal acceleration generates radial buoyancy which is centrifugal for inward heating and centripetal for outward heating. This radial buoyancy modifies the Rayleigh discriminant and induces the asymmetry between inward heating and outward heating in flow behavior. The critical modes are axisymmetric and stationary for inward heating while for outward heating, they can be oscillatory axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric depending on fluid diffusion properties, i.e., on the Prandtl number Pr. The dependence of the critical modes on Pr is explored for different values of the radius ratio of the annulus. The power input of the radial buoyancy is compared with other power terms. The critical frequency of the oscillatory axisymmetric modes is linked to the Brunt-Väisälä frequency due to the density stratification in the radial gravity field induced by the rotation. These modes are associated with inertial waves. The dispersion relation of the oscillatory axisymmetric modes is derived in the vicinity of the critical conditions. A weakly nonlinear amplitude equation with a forcing term is proposed to explain the domination of these axisymmetric oscillatory modes over the stationary centrifugal mode.

  16. Causes of Secondary Radial Nerve Palsy and Results of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Paweł; Wnukiewicz, Witold; Witkowski, Jarosław; Bocheńska, Aneta; Mizia, Sylwia; Gosk, Jerzy; Zimmer, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the causes that lead to secondary damage of the radial nerve and to discuss the results of reconstructive treatment. Material/Methods The study group consisted of 33 patients treated for radial nerve palsy after humeral fractures. Patients were diagnosed based on clinical examinations, ultrasonography, electromyography, or nerve conduction velocity. During each operation, the location and type of nerve damage were analyzed. During the reconstructive treatment, neurolysis, direct neurorrhaphy, or reconstruction with a sural nerve graft was used. The outcomes were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scales and the quick DASH score. Results Secondary radial nerve palsy occurs after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) by plate, as well as by closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) by nail. In the case of ORIF, it most often occurs when the lateral approach is used, as in the case of CRIF with an insertion interlocking screws. The results of the surgical treatment were statistically significant and depended on the time between nerve injury and revision (reconstruction) surgery, type of damage to the radial nerve, surgery treatment, and type of fixation. Treatment results were not statistically significant, depending on the type of fracture or location of the nerve injury. Conclusions The potential risk of radial nerve neurotmesis justifies an operative intervention to treat neurological complications after a humeral fracture. Adequate surgical treatment in many of these cases allows for functional recovery of the radial nerve. PMID:26895570

  17. The Radial Velocity Method for the Detection of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    The radial velocity (RV) method has provided the foundation for the research field of exoplanets. It created the field by discovering the first exoplanets and then blazed a trail by detecting over 1000 exoplanets in orbit around other stars. The method also plays a vital role in transit searches by providing the planetary mass needed to calculate the bulk density of the exoplanet. The RV method requires a wide range of techniques: novel instrumentation for making precise RV measurements, clever techniques for extracting the periodic signals due to planets from the RV data, tools for assessing their statistical significance, and programs for calculating the Keplerian orbital parameters. Finally, RV measurements have become so precise that the measurement error is now dominated by the intrinsic stellar noise. New tools have to be developed to extract planetary signals from RV variability originating from the star. In these series of lectures I will cover (1) basic instrumentation for stellar radial velocity methods, (2) methods for achieving high radial velocity precision, (3) finding periodic signals in radial velocity data, (4) Keplerian orbits, (5) sources of errors for radial velocity measurements, and (6) dealing with the contribution of stellar noise to the radial velocity measurement.

  18. Radial diffusion of radiation belt particles in nondipolar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Gregory S.

    2016-06-01

    The fact that charged particles trapped in Earth's magnetic field can be redistributed along their radial distance from Earth due to drift-resonant interactions with small-amplitude waves has been known since early in the space age. Early theoretical efforts assumed that a dipole background magnetic field was modified by a time-varying electromagnetic perturbation that changed the particle's distance from Earth while preserving the first two invariants of motion. The stochastic nature of the perturbation allowed the effect of the waves on the trapped particles to be represented by a Fokker-Planck equation, which updates the phase space density in time via radial diffusion with diffusion coefficients that depend on the wave characteristics. In this paper, we extend those early theoretical efforts to define radial diffusion coefficients in arbitrary static background fields and define a numerical scheme for their evaluation. The background fields we consider are allowed to have significant deviations from a dipole field. Radial diffusion coefficients are computed using the new scheme for one of the empirical magnetic field models (T89) developed by Tsyganenko and coauthors as the background on top of which the perturbations are added. The new diffusion coefficients are shown to be substantially larger than those computed with a dipole background field model, especially at large radial distances and during geomagnetically active times, and it is suggested that outward radial diffusion may be a more substantial loss process for trapped electrons in the outer radiation belt than previously believed.

  19. Precise radial velocities of giant stars. VIII. Testing for the presence of planets with CRIRES infrared radial velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Trifon; Reffert, Sabine; Zechmeister, Mathias; Reiners, Ansgar; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Context. We have been monitoring 373 very bright (V ≤ 6 mag) G and K giants with high precision optical Doppler spectroscopy for more than a decade at Lick Observatory. Our goal was to discover planetary companions around those stars and to better understand planet formation and evolution around intermediate-mass stars. However, in principle, long-term, g-mode nonradial stellar pulsations or rotating stellar features, such as spots, could effectively mimic a planetary signal in the radial velocity data. Aims: Our goal is to compare optical and infrared radial velocities for those stars with periodic radial velocity patterns and to test for consistency of their fitted radial velocity semiamplitudes. Thereby, we distinguish processes intrinsic to the star from orbiting companions as reason for the radial velocity periodicity observed in the optical. Methods: Stellar spectra with high spectral resolution have been taken in the H-band with the CRIRES near-infrared spectrograph at ESO's VLT for 20 stars of our Lick survey. Radial velocities are derived using many deep and stable telluric CO2 lines for precise wavelength calibration. Results: We find that the optical and near-infrared radial velocities of the giant stars in our sample are consistent. We present detailed results for eight stars in our sample previously reported to have planets or brown dwarf companions. All eight stars passed the infrared test. Conclusions: We conclude that the planet hypothesis provides the best explanation for the periodic radial velocity patterns observed for these giant stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under program IDs 088.D-0132, 089.D-0186, 090.D-0155 and 091.D-0365.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Only watching others making their experiences is insufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis and water maze performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Iggena, Deetje; Klein, Charlotte; Garthe, Alexander; Winter, York; Kempermann, Gerd; Steiner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In the context of television consumption and its opportunity costs the question arises how far experiencing mere representations of the outer world would have the same neural and cognitive consequences than actively interacting with that environment. Here we demonstrate that physical interaction and direct exposition are essential for the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment. In our experiment, the mice living in a simple standard cage placed in the centre of a large enriched environment only indirectly experiencing the stimulus-rich surroundings (IND) did not display increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In contrast, the mice living in and directly experiencing the surrounding enriched environment (DIR) and mice living in a similar enriched cage containing an uninhabited inner cage (ENR) showed enhanced neurogenesis compared to mice in control conditions (CTR). Similarly, the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on learning performance in the Morris Water maze depended on the direct interaction of the individual with the enrichment. In contrast, indirectly experiencing a stimulus-rich environment failed to improve memory functions indicating that direct interaction and activity within the stimulus-rich environment are necessary to induce structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. PMID:26369255