Science.gov

Sample records for 12-digit hydrologic unit

  1. 12-Digit Watershed Boundary Data 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States (NAT_HYDROLOGY.HUC12_NRCS_REG2)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) downloaded from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Geospatial Gateway and imported into the EPA Region 2 Oracle/SDE database. This layer reflects 2009 updates to the national Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) that included new boundary data for New York and New Jersey.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Major Grains and Cotton by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the number of major grains grown, yield in tons, and area in hectares for several major grains and for cotton by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC). It is based on the United States Department of Agriculture's 2010 Cropland Data Layer (CDL) and data on yields and sales from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The grains included in this dataset are corn, barley, cotton, durum wheat, oats, rye, rice, sorghum, spring wheat, soybeans, and winter wheat; it does not include data on every grain. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. EnviroAtlas - Biological nitrogen fixation in natural/semi-natural ecosystems by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean biological nitrogen fixation in natural/semi-natural ecosystems per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006. Biological N fixation (BNF) in natural/semi-natural ecosystems was estimated using a correlation with actual evapotranspiration (AET). This correlation is based on a global meta-analysis of BNF in natural/semi-natural ecosystems (Cleveland et al. 1999). AET estimates for 2006 were calculated using a regression equation describing the correlation of AET with climate (average annual daily temperature, average annual minimum daily temperature, average annual maximum daily temperature, and annual precipitation) and land use/land cover variables in the conterminous US (Sanford and Selnick 2013). Data describing annual average minimum and maximum daily temperatures and total precipitation for 2006 were acquired from the PRISM climate dataset (http://prism.oregonstate.edu). Average annual climate data were then calculated for individual 12-digit USGS Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUC12s; http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/huc.html; 22 March 2011 release) using the Zonal Statistics tool in ArcMap 10.0. AET for individual HUC12s was estimated using equations described in Sanford and Selnick (2013). BNF in natural/semi-natural ecosystems within individual HUC12s was modeled with an equation describing the statistical relationship between BNF (kg N ha-1 yr-1) and actual evapotranspiration (AET; cm yr-1) and scaled to the proportion

  4. EnviroAtlas - Synthetic N fertilizer application to agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006. Synthetic N fertilizer inputs in 2006 were estimated using county-level estimates of farm N fertilizer inputs. We acquired county-level data describing total farm-level inputs (kg N/yr) of synthetic N fertilizer to individual counties in 2006 from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5207/). These data were converted to per area rates (kg N/ha/yr) of synthetic N fertilizer application by dividing the total N input by the land area (ha) of combined cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands within a county as determined from county-level (http://cta.ornl.gov/transnet/Boundaries.html) summarization of the 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD; http://www.mrlc.gov/nlcd06_data.php). We distributed county-specific, annual per area N inputs rates (kg N/ha/yr) to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands (30 x 30 m pixels) within the corresponding county using the raster calculator tool in ArcMap 10.0 (ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CA). Fertilizer data described here represent an average input to a typical agricultural land type within a county, i.e., they are not specific to individual crop types. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the us

  5. EnviroAtlas - Cultivated biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean cultivated biological nitrogen fixation (C-BNF) in cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006. Nitrogen (N) inputs from the cultivation of legumes, which possess a symbiotic relationship with N-fixing bacteria, were calculated with a recently developed model relating county-level yields of various leguminous crops with BNF rates. We accessed county-level data on annual crop yields for soybeans (Glycine max L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), various dry beans (Phaseolus, Cicer, and Lens spp.), and dry peas (Pisum spp.) for 2006 from the USDA Census of Agriculture (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/index.php). We estimated the yield of the non-alfalfa leguminous component of hay as 32% of the yield of total non-alfalfa hay (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/index.php). Annual rates of C-BNF by crop type were calculated using a model that relates yield to C-BNF. We assume yield data reflect differences in soil properties, water availability, temperature, and other local and regional factors that can influence root nodulation and rate of N fixation. We distributed county-specific, C-BNF rates to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands delineated in the 2006 National Land Cover Database (30 x 30 m pixels) within the corresponding county. C-BNF data described here represent an average input to a typical agricultural land type within a county, i.e., they are not

  6. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of >= 5% or >= 15% impervious cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentages of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of impervious cover by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) subwatershed in the contiguous U.S. Impervious cover alters the hydrologic behavior of streams and water bodies, promoting increased storm water runoff and lower stream flow during periods in between rainfall events. Impervious cover also promotes increased pollutant loads in receiving waters and degraded streamside habitat. This dataset shows were impervious cover occurs close to streams and water bodies, where it is likely to have a greater adverse impact on receiving waters. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to the EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  7. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolock, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including principal components and cluster analyses. The GIS and statistical analyses were applied to land-surface form, geologic texture (permeability of the soil and bedrock), and climate variables that describe the physical and climatic setting of 43,931 small (roughly 200 square kilometers) watersheds in the United States. The analyses then grouped the watersheds into 20 noncontiguous regions (the HLRs) on the basis of similarities in land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics. This hydrologic landscape regions dataset contains for each of the 49,931 watersheds the (1) watershed identification number, (2) land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics for each watershed, and (3) hydrologic landscape region number for each watershed.

  8. Digital Data Set of 14-Digit Hydrologic Units in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBroka, Krysten M.; Cohen, David A.; Dunn, Robert E.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrologic unit is an area of land that can contribute surface-water runoff to a designated outlet point. As part of an initiative to create a nationally uniform hydrologic-unit data base, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Water, created a Geographic Information System digital data set of 14-digit hydrologic units in Indiana. The digital data set consists of arcs and polygons defining hydrologic units in Indiana.

  9. Hydrologic landscape units and adaptive management of intermountain wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Stephen G.; Sojda, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    daptive management is often proposed to assist in the management of national wildlife refuges and allows the exploration of alternatives as well as the addition of ne w knowledge as it becomes available. The hydrological landscape unit can be a good foundation for such efforts. Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is in an intermountain basin dominated by vertical tectonics in the Northern Rocky Mountains. A geographic information system was used to define the boundaries for the hydrologic landscape units there. Units identified include alluvial fan, interfan, stream alluvi um and basin flat. Management alternatives can be informed by ex amination of processes that occu r on the units. For example, an ancient alluvial fan unit related to Red Rock Creek appear s to be isolated from stream flow today, with recharge dominated by precipitation and bedrock springs; while other alluvial fan units in the area have shallow ground water recharged from mountain streams and precipitation. The scale of hydrologic processes in interfan units differs from that in alluvial fan hydrologic landscape units. These differences are important when the refuge is evaluating habitat management activities. Hydrologic landscape units provide scientific unde rpinnings for the refuge’s comprehensive planning process. New geologic, hydrologic, and biologic knowledge can be integrated into the hydrologic landscape unit definition and improve adaptive management.

  10. Mountain hydrology of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, R.C.; Molotch, N.P.; Painter, T.H.; Dettinger, M.D.; Rice, R.; Dozier, J.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change and climate variability, population growth, and land use change drive the need for new hydrologic knowledge and understanding. In the mountainous West and other similar areas worldwide, three pressing hydrologic needs stand out: first, to better understand the processes controlling the partitioning of energy and water fluxes within and out from these systems; second, to better understand feedbacks between hydrological fluxes and biogeochemical and ecological processes; and, third, to enhance our physical and empirical understanding with integrated measurement strategies and information systems. We envision an integrative approach to monitoring, modeling, and sensing the mountain environment that will improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic fluxes and processes. Here extensive monitoring of energy fluxes and hydrologic states are needed to supplement existing measurements, which are largely limited to streamflow and snow water equivalent. Ground-based observing systems must be explicitly designed for integration with remotely sensed data and for scaling up to basins and whole ranges. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Hydrologic Unit Map -- 1978, state of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    This map and accompanying table show Hydrologic Unites that are basically hydrographic in nature. The Cataloging Unites shown supplant the Cataloging Units previously depicted n the 1974 State Hydrologic Unit Map. The boundaries as shown have been adapted from the 1974 State Hydrologic Unit Map, "The Catalog of Information on Water Data" (1972), "Water Resources Regions and Subregions for the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources" by the U.S. Water Resources Council (1970), "River Basin of the United States" by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (1963, 1970), "River Basin Maps Showing Hydrologic Stations" by the Inter-Agency Committee on Water Resources, Subcommittee on Hydrology (1961), and State planning maps. The Political Subdivision has been adopted from "Counties and County Equivalents of the States if the United States" presented in Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 6-2, issued by the National Bureau of Standards (1973) in which each county or county equivalent is identified by a 2-character State code and a 3-character county code. The Regions, Subregions and Accounting Units are aggregates of the Cataloging Unites. The Regions and Sub regions are currently (1978) used by the U.S> Water Resources Council for comprehensive planning, including the National Assessment, and as a standard geographical framework for more detailed water and related land-resources planning. The Accounting Units are those currently (1978) in use by the U.S. Geological Survey for managing the National Water Data Network. This map was revised to include a boundary realinement between Cataloging Units 10140103 and 10160009.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Acres of USDA Farm Service Agency Conservation Reserve Program land by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the acres of land enrolled in the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The CRP is administered by the Farm Service Agency; farmers in the program receive annual payments and establishment cost share to remove environmentally sensitive land from crop production and instead plant perennial species that provide environmental benefits. This dataset was produced by the USDA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  13. Computer-assisted mesh generation based on hydrological response units for distributed hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.; Gironás, J.

    2013-08-01

    Distributed hydrological models rely on a spatial discretization composed of homogeneous units representing different areas within the catchment. Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) typically form the basis of such a discretization. HRUs are generally obtained by intersecting raster or vector layers of land uses, soil types, geology and sub-catchments. Polylines maps representing ditches and river drainage networks can also be used. However this overlapping may result in a mesh with numerical and topological problems not highly representative of the terrain. Thus, a pre-processing is needed to improve the mesh in order to avoid negative effects on the performance of the hydrological model. This paper proposes computer-assisted mesh generation tools to obtain a more regular and physically meaningful mesh of HRUs suitable for hydrologic modeling. We combined existing tools with newly developed scripts implemented in GRASS GIS. The developed scripts address the following problems: (1) high heterogeneity in Digital Elevation Model derived properties within the HRUs, (2) correction of concave polygons or polygons with holes inside, (3) segmentation of very large polygons, and (4) bad estimations of units' perimeter and distances among them. The improvement process was applied and tested using two small catchments in France. The improvement of the spatial discretization was further assessed by comparing the representation and arrangement of overland flow paths in the original and improved meshes. Overall, a more realistic physical representation was obtained with the improved meshes, which should enhance the computation of surface and sub-surface flows in a hydrologic model.

  14. Using Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Evaluate the Hydrologic Effects of Climate in the Southwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic landscapes (HLs) have been an active area of research at regional and national scales in the United States. The concept has been used to make spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwe...

  15. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.; Flint, L.E.

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections.

  16. A history of paleoflood hydrology in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, John E.

    1986-01-01

    The origins of paleoflood hydrology in the United States can be traced back to the beginning of the 19th century, when windgaps and watergaps in the Applachians were believed to have been eroded by extraordinary floods as large lakes that were ponded behind the ridges rapidly drained. Sediment evidence for extraordinary floods was evoked several decades later when glacial sediments in New England were interpreted as deposits from the great Biblical deluge, and estimates of the depth and velocity of the great flood were attempted. The popularization of the glacial origins of drift by Agassiz by 1840 resulted in strong beliefs in uniformitarianism and waning interests in paleoflood investigations. The documentation of the origins of the channeled scablands in eastern Washington by catastrophic glacial outbreak floods, begun by Bretz in the early 1920s, led to renewed interest in paleoflood hydrology. Subsequent efforts to reconstruct hydraulic variables of past floods used conventional open channel flow equations applied to other enormous Pleistocene floods. The elevation of sediments was used as a paleostage estimator in the 1880s, and botanical techniques for estimating paleoflood frequency and magnitude were well documented by the mid-1960s. Since 1970, an exponential expansion has occurred in the recognition and use of paleoflood hydrology in the United States.

  17. United States contributions to international hydrology and the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M. C.; Schneider, V. R.

    2007-12-01

    The combination of climate change, population growth, and growing use of irrigated agriculture has resulted in increased stress on water resources around the world. The problem is worsened with the expansion of population centers in water-scarce regions, for example in the southwestern United States, central Mexico, along the Mediterranean coast of Africa, southern India, and southeast Australia. As such, water has emerged as a global issue that requires international cooperation on assessment, research, and management. Entities such as the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (IHP) focus activities on water research, water resources management, education, and capacity-building. The U.S. National Committee for UNESCO IHP, reorganized in 2006, includes members of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, U.S. government agencies, academic institutions, and external organizations with expertise in hydrology and hydraulics. The responsibilities of the U.S. National Committee for IHP are to: provide programmatic advice to IHP; assist in supporting other UNESCO water resources activities; represent U.S. domestic and international water activities to UNESCO; support IHP training, research, and capacity building efforts from a U.S. perspective; recommend and support the participation of other U.S. water programs in the IHP; and advise the U.S. Government on its participation in UNESCO and the IHP. Working through its membership, the U.S. National Committee for UNESCO IHP seeks to build improved relationships and involve and provide opportunities to the U.S. hydrological community.

  18. 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watermolen, John

    1999-01-01

    This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was revised for inclusion in the National Atlas of the United States of America, and updated to match the streams file created by the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD) for the National Atlas of the United States of America. For the most current data and information relating to hydrologic unit codes (HUCs) please see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/huc.html. The Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) is the most current data available for watershed delineation. See http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/water/watersheds/dataset

  19. 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watermolen, John

    1999-01-01

    This data set has been superseded by huc2m. This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was revised for inclusion in the National Atlas of the United States of America, and updated to match the streams file created by the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD) for the National Atlas of the United States of America. For the most current data and information relating to hydrologic unit codes (HUCs) please see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/huc.html. The Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) is the most current data available for watershed delineation. See http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/water/watersheds/dataset

  20. A Hydrologic Regionalization of the Conterminous United States to Estimate Variability in Future Hydrologic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Andrew; Hay, Lauren; McCabe, Greg; Markstrom, Steve; Atkinson, Dwight

    2015-04-01

    The increasing availability of downscaled climate projections provides a large number of scenarios of future climate. Simulation of current and future hydroclimatic conditions from these datasets requires the development of robust calibration and validation methods for hydrologic models. A calibration and regionalization strategy was developed for the conterminous United States using a five-parameter monthly water-balance model (MWBM). The regionalized MWBM was used to simulate current and future conditions using down-scaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate data. Spatial patterns in model parameter sensitivity derived from the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test were used as the basis for organizing hydrologic response units into distinct regions for calibration and regionalization. Model calibration was implemented with a weighted objective function for simulated streamflow aggregated at multiple time steps using measured streamflow and estimates of snow-water equivalent from SNODAS (Snow Data Assimilation System) to constrain the parameter optimization. Optimized parameters were derived for each region and applied to both gaged and ungaged areas within the region. The results for simulated streamflow were evaluated through scaling the simulated and measured streamflow, and examining the dispersion at mean monthly and annual summaries. This allowed the results to be validated for both the different calibration regions and timesteps.

  1. HydroUnits: A Python-based Physical Units Management Tool in Hydrologic Computing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celicourt, P.; Piasecki, M.

    2015-12-01

    While one objective of data management systems is to provide the units when annotating the collected data, another is that the units must be correctly manipulated during conversion steps. This is not a trivial task however and the units conversion time and errors for large datasets can be quite expensive. To date, more than a dozen Python modules have been developed to deal with units attached to quantities. However, they fall short in many ways and also suffer from not integrating with a units controlled vocabulary. Moreover, none of them permits the encoding of some complex units defined in the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc.'s Observations Data Model (CUAHSI ODM) as a vectorial representation for storage demand reduction and does not incorporate provision to accommodate unforeseen standards-based units. We developed HydroUnits, a Python-based units management tool for three specific purposes: encoding of physical units in the Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) as defined in the IEEE 1451.0 standard, performing dimensional analysis and on-the-fly conversion of time series allowing users to retrieve data from a data source in a desired equivalent unit while accommodating unforeseen and user-defined units. HydroUnits differentiates itself to existing tools by a number of factors including the implementation approach adopted, the adoption of standard-based units naming conventions and more importantly the emphasis on units controlled vocabularies which are a critical aspect of units treatment. Additionally, HydroUnits supports unit conversion for quantities with additive scaling factor, and natively supports time series conversion and takes leap years into consideration for units consisting of the time dimension (e.g., month, minute). Due to its overall implementation approach, HydroUnits exhibits a high level of versatility that no other tool we are aware of has achieved.

  2. Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The past year saw a re-emphasis on the practical aspects of hydrology due to regional drought patterns, urban flooding, and agricultural and energy demands on water resources. Highlights of hydrologic symposia, publications, and events are included. (MA)

  3. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  4. ENSO and hydrologic extremes in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Redmond, K.T.; Riddle, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    Frequency distributions of daily precipitation in winter and daily stream flow from late winter to early summer, at several hundred sites in the western United States, exhibit strong and systematic responses to the two phases of ENSO. Most of the stream flows considered are driven by snowmelt. The Southern Oscillation index (SOI) is used as the ENSO phase indicator. Both modest (median) and larger (90th percentile) events were considered. In years with negative SOI values (El Nino), days with high daily precipitation and stream flow are more frequent than average over the Southwest and less frequent over the Northwest. During years with positive SOI values (La Nina), a nearly opposite pattern is seen. A more pronounced increase is seen in the number of days exceeding climatological 90th percentile values than in the number exceeding climatological 50th percentile values, for both precipitation and stream flow. Stream flow responses to ENSO extremes are accentuated over precipitation responses. Evidence suggests that the mechanism for this amplification involves ENSO-phase differences in the persistence and duration of wet episodes, affecting the efficiency of the process by which precipitation is converted to runoff. The SOI leads the precipitation events by several months, and hydrologic lags (mostly through snowmelt) dealy the stream flow response by several more months. The combined 6-12 month predictive aspect of this relationship should be of significant benefit in responding to flood (or drought) risk and in improving overall water management in the western states.Frequency distributions of daily precipitation in winter and daily stream flow from late winter to early summer, at several hundred sites in the western United States, exhibit strong and systematic responses to the two phases of ENSO. Most of the stream flows considered are driven by snowmelt. The Southern Oscillation index (SOI) is used as the ENSO phase indicator. Both modest (median) and larger

  5. Definition of Hydrologic Response Units in Depression Plagued Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, J. B.; Creed, I. F.

    2002-12-01

    Definition of hydrologic response units using digital elevation models (DEMs) is sensitive to the occurrence of topographic depressions. Real depressions can be important to the hydrology and biogeochemistry a catchment, often coinciding with areas of surface saturation. Artifact depressions, in contrast, result in digital "black holes", artificially truncating the hydrologic flow lengths and altering hydrologic flow directions, parameters that are often used in defining hydrologic response units. Artifact depressions must be removed from DEMs prior to definition of hydrologic response units. Depression filling or depression trenching techniques can be used to remove these artifacts. Depression trenching methods are often considered more appropriate because they preserve the topographic variability within a depression thus avoiding the creation of spurious flat areas. Current trenching algorithms are relatively slow and unable to process very large or noisy DEMs. A new trenching algorithm that overcomes these limitations is described. The algorithm does not require finding depression catchments or outlets, nor does it need special handling for nested depressions. Therefore, artifacts can be removed from large or noisy DEMs efficiently, while minimizing the number of grid elevations requiring modification. The resulting trench is a monotonically descending path starting from the lowest point in a depression, passing through the depression's outlet, and ending at a point of lower elevation outside the depression. The importance of removing artifact depressions is demonstrated by showing hydrologic response units both before and after the removal of artifact depressions from the DEM.

  6. Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Lists many recent research projects in hydrology, including flow in fractured media, improvements in remote-sensing techniques, effects of urbanization on water resources, and developments in drainage basins. (MLH)

  7. Hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisenbies, Mark H.; Hughes, W. Brian

    2000-01-01

    Hydrologic process are the main determinants of the type of wetland located on a site. Precipitation, groundwater, or flooding interact with soil properties and geomorphic setting to yield a complex matrix of conditions that control groundwater flux, water storage and discharge, water chemistry, biotic productivity, biodiversity, and biogeochemical cycling. Hydroperiod affects many abiotic factors that in turn determine plant and animal species composition, biodiversity, primary and secondary productivity, accumulation, of organic matter, and nutrient cycling. Because the hydrologic regime has a major influence on wetland functioning, understanding how hydrologic changes influence ecosystem processes is essential, especially in light of the pressures placed on remaining wetlands by society's demands for water resources and by potential global changes in climate.

  8. Classification of environmental hydrologic behaviors in the northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Hawkins, R.H.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental response to acidic deposition results from movement of water through the ecosystem. As a part of the environmental studies for acidic deposition sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), hydrologic classification based on regional baseflow properties was done. To obtain the amount of baseflow, a flow separation method was developed based on the division of streamflows into baseflow and other runoff sources. Because of the differences in the flow paths and exposure duration, the two components were assumed to be associated with distinct geochemical responses. Individual annual hydrographs were analyzed using 31 separation slopes to determine the amount of baseflow. A total of 1575 streamflow stations in the Northeastern U.S. were analyzed through the access of a long-term daily stream flow data base. An interactive computer program was developed to obtain baseflow properties and other hydrologic characteristics of each station.

  9. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Hydrologic unit name Hydrologic unit number Sockeye salmon Spring/summer chinook salmon Fall chinook salmon Hells Canyon 17060101 17060101 Imnaha 17060102 17060102...

  10. Development of a 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Code Numbering System for South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bower, David E.; Lowry, Claude; Lowery, Mark A.; Hurley, Noel M.

    1999-01-01

    A Hydrologic Unit Map showing the cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds of South Carolina has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, funded through a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 319 Grant, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. These delineations represent 8-, 11-, and 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes, respectively. This map presents information on drainage, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries of the water-resources regions, subregions, accounting units, cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds. The source maps for the basin delineations are 1:24,000-scale 7.5-minute series topographic maps and the base maps shown on figure 1 are from 1:100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs; however, the data are published at a scale of 1:500,000. In addition, an electronic version of the data is provided on a compact disc. Of the 1,022 subwatersheds delineated for this project, 1,004 range in size from 3,000 to 40,000 acres (4.69 to 62.5 square miles). Seventeen subwatersheds are smaller than 3,000 acres and one subwatershed, located on St. Helena Island, is larger than 40,000 acres. This map and its associated codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resource managers and planners in locating, storing, retrieving, and exchanging hydrologic data. In addition, the map can be used for cataloging water-data acquisition activities, geographically organizing hydrologic data, and planning and describing water-use and related land-use activities.

  11. Five hydrologic and landscape databases for select National Wildlife Refuges in southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buell, Gary R.; Gurley, Laura N.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Hunt, Alexandria M.

    2017-01-01

    Five hydrologic and landscape databases were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for select National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in southeastern United States: (1) the Cahaba River NWR and contributing watersheds in Alabama, (2) the Caloosahatchee and J.N. "Ding" Darling NWRs and contributing watersheds in Florida, (3) the Clarks River NWR and contributing watersheds in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, (4) the Lower Suwannee NWR and contributing watersheds in Georgia and Florida, and (5) the Okefenokee NWR and contributing watersheds in Georgia and Florida. The databases were developed as an assessment and evaluation tool to use in examining refuge-specific hydrologic patterns and trends as related to water availability and water quality for refuge ecosystems, habitats, and target species. They include hydrologic time-series data, statistics on landscape and hydrologic time-series data, and hydro-ecological metrics that can be used to assess refuge hydrologic conditions. The databases are described and documented in detail in Open File Report 2017-1018.

  12. Comparison of climate datasets for lumped hydrological modeling over the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essou, Gilles R. C.; Arsenault, Richard; Brissette, François P.

    2016-06-01

    Climate data measured by weather stations are crucially important and regularly used in hydrologic modeling. However, they are not always available due to the low spatial density and short record history of many station networks. To overcome these limitations, gridded datasets have become increasingly available. They have excellent continuous spatial coverage and no missing data. However, these datasets are usually interpolated using station data, with little new information besides elevation. Furthermore, minimal validation has been done on most of these datasets. This study compares three such datasets covering the continental United States to evaluate their differences and their impact on lumped hydrological modeling. Three daily time step gridded datasets with resolutions varying between 0.25° and 1 km were used in this study - Santa-Clara, Daymet and CPC. The hydrological modeling evaluation of these datasets was performed over 424 basins from the MOPEX database. Results show that there are significant differences between the datasets, even though they were essentially all interpolated from almost the same climate databases. Despite those differences, the hydrological model used in this study was able to perform equally well after a specific calibration to each dataset. While there were a few exceptions, by and large, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency metrics obtained in validation were not statistically different from one database to the other for most basins. It appears that there are no reasons to favor one dataset versus another for lumped hydrological modeling, and that these datasets perform just as well as using the original station data.

  13. Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, T.P.; Pierce, D.W.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Bonfils, Celine; Santer, B.D.; Das, T.; Bala, G.; Wood, A.W.; Nozawa, T.; Mirin, A.A.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations have shown that the hydrological cycle of the western United States changed significantly over the last half of the 20th century. We present a regional, multivariable climate change detection and attribution study, using a high-resolution hydrologic model forced by global climate models, focusing on the changes that have already affected this primarily arid region with a large and growing population. The results show that up to 60% of the climate-related trends of river flow, winter air temperature, and snow pack between 1950 and 1999 are human-induced. These results are robust to perturbation of study variates and methods. They portend, in conjunction with previous work, a coming crisis in water supply for the western United States.

  14. An analysis of historic and projected climate scenarios in the Western United States using hydrologic landscape classification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    : Identifying areas of similar hydrology within the United States and its regions (hydrologic landscapes - HLs) is an active area of research. HLs are being used to construct spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, a...

  15. An analysis of historic and projected climate scenarios in the Western united States using hydrologic landscape classification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying areas of similar hydrology within the United States and its regions (Hydrologic landscapes - HLs) is an active area of research. HLs have been used to make spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, and the ...

  16. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Hydrologic Landscape Regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the area of Hydrologic Landscape Regions (HLR) compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is a 100-meter version of Hydrologic Landscape Regions of the United States (Wolock, 2003). HLR groups watersheds on the basis of similarities in land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris

  17. Modeling Land Use Change In A Tropical Environment Using Similar Hydrologic Response Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiola-Claramonte, M.; Troch, P.

    2006-12-01

    Montane mainland South East Asia comprises areas of great biological and cultural diversity. Over the last decades the region has overcome an important conversion from traditional agriculture to cash crop agriculture driven by regional and global markets. Our study aims at understanding the hydrological implications of these land use changes at the catchment scale. In 2004, networks of hydro-meteorological stations observing water and energy fluxes were installed in two 70 km2 catchments in Northern Thailand (Chiang Mai Province) and Southern China (Yunnan Province). In addition, a detailed soil surveying campaign was done at the moment of instrument installation. Land use is monitored periodically using satellite data. The Thai catchment is switching from small agricultural fields to large extensions of cash crops. The Chinese catchment is replacing the traditional forest for rubber plantations. A first comparative study based on catchments' geomorphologic characteristics, field observations and rainfall-runoff response revealed the dominant hydrologic processes in the catchments. Land use information is then translated into three different Hydrologic Response Units (HRU): rice paddies, pervious and impervious surfaces. The pervious HRU include different land uses such as different stages of forest development, rubber plantations, and agricultural fields; the impervious ones are urban areas, roads and outcrops. For each HRU a water and energy balance model is developed incorporating field observed hydrologic processes, measured field parameters, and literature-based vegetation and soil parameters to better describe the root zone, surface and subsurface flow characteristics without the need of further calibration. The HRU water and energy balance models are applied to single hillslopes and their integrated hydrologic response are compared for different land covers. Finally, the response of individual hillslopes is routed through the channel network to represent

  18. Calibration of a large-scale semi-distributed hydrological model for the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Lohmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent major flood losses raised the awareness of flood risk worldwide. In large-scale (e.g., country) flood simulation, semi-distributed hydrological model shows its advantage in capturing spatial heterogeneity of hydrological characteristics within a basin with relatively low computational cost. However, it is still very challenging to calibrate the model over large scale and a wide variety of hydroclimatic conditions. The objectives of this study are (1) to compare the effectiveness of state-of-the-art evolutionary multiobjective algorithms in calibrating a semi-distributed hydrological model used in the RMS flood loss model; (2) to calibrate the model over the entire continental United States. Firstly, the computational efficiency of the following four algorithms is evaluated: the Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2), the Epsilon-Dominance Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (ɛ-NSGAII), and the Epsilon-Dominance Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (ɛMOEA). The test was conducted on four river basins with a wide variety of hydro-climatic conditions in US. The optimization objectives include RMSE and high-flow RMSE. Results of the analysis indicate that NSGAII has the best performance in terms of effectiveness and stability. Then we applied the modified version of NSGAII to calibrate the hydrological model over the entire continental US. Comparing with the observation and published data shows the performance of the calibrated model is good overall. This well-calibrated model allows a more accurate modeling of flood risk and loss in the continental United States. Furthermore it will allow underwriters to better manage the exposure.

  19. Statistical identification of hydrochemical response units for hydrologic monitoring and modeling in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In support of Maryland's efforts to develop statewide water-quality management plans, a statistical analysis was performed to identify a set of representative and relatively homogeneous areas referred to as Hydrochemical Response Units (HRUs). The State intends to select representative areas within each hydrochemical response unit for monitoring and model development, and then apply the model to the entire unit. To identify hydrochemical response units, cluster analysis was applied to 1,136 digitally defined watershed units. Basin characteristics including land cover, soil type, slope, and geology were determined for each watershed unit and a clustering algorithm was applied to the data sets. A total of 11 hydrochemical response units were identified by the analysis. Major features that were important in distinguishing different areas of the state include: 1) upland and lowland Coastal Plain settings, 2) igneous, shale, and carbonate geology; and 3) urban land cover. The hydrochemical response units described in this report are considered to be an initial classification of watersheds in Maryland that can be refined as geographic data sets are improved and additional hydrologic data are collected.

  20. Structure and Origins of Trends in Hydrological Measures over the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Das, T; Hidalgo, H G; Dettinger, M D; Cayan, D R; Pierce, D W; Bonfils, C; Barnett, T P; Bala, G; Mirin, A

    2008-08-22

    This study examines, at 1/8 degree spatial resolution, the geographic structure of observed trends in key hydrologically relevant variables across the western United States (U.S.) over the period 1950-1999, and investigates whether these trends are statistically significantly different from trends associated with natural climate variations. A number of variables were analyzed, including late winter and spring temperature, winter-total snowy days as a fraction of winter-total wet days, 1st April Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a fraction of October through March precipitation total (P{sub ONDJFM}), and seasonal (January-February-March; JFM) accumulated runoff as a fraction of water year accumulated runoff. The observed changes were compared to natural internal climate variability simulated by an 850-year control run of the CCSM3-FV climate model, statistically downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid using the method of Constructed Analogues. Both observed and downscaled temperature and precipitation data were then used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to obtain the hydrological variables analyzed in this study. Large trends (magnitudes found less than 5% of the time in the long control run) are common in the observations, and occupy substantial part of the area (37-42%) over the mountainous western U.S. These trends are strongly related to the large scale warming that appears over 89% of the domain. The strongest changes in the hydrologic variables, unlikely to be associated with natural variability alone, have occurred at medium elevations (750 m to 2500 m for JFM runoff fractions and 500 m-3000 m for SWE/PONDJFM) where warming has pushed temperatures from slightly below to slightly above freezing. Further analysis using the data on selected catchments across the simulation domain indicated that hydroclimatic variables must have changed significantly (at 95% confidence level) over at least 45% of the total catchment area to achieve a

  1. Extreme Hydrological Changes in the Western United States Drive Reductions in Water Supply by Mid Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagan, Brianna; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi; Mei, Rui; Kendall, Donald; Pal, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    The Western United States has a greater vulnerability to climate change impacts on water security due to a reliance on snowmelt driven imported water. The State of California, which is the most populous and agriculturally productive in the United States, depends on an extensive artificial water storage and conveyance system primarily for irrigated agriculture, municipal and industrial supply and hydropower generation. This study provides an integrated approach to assessing climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle and hydrologic extremes for all water supplies to Southern California including the San-Joaquin River, Tulare Lake, Sacramento River, Owens Valley, Mono Lake, and Colorado River basins. A 10-member ensemble of coupled global climate models is dynamically downscaled forcing a regional and hydrological model resulting in a high-resolution 4-km output for the region. Greenhouse gas concentrations are prescribed according to historical values for the present-day (1965-2005) and the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for the near to mid term future (2010-2050). While precipitation is projected to remain the same or slightly increase, rising temperatures result in a shift in precipitation type towards more rainfall, reducing cold season snowpack and earlier snowmelt. Associated with these hydrological changes are substantial increases in both dry and flood event frequency and intensity, which are evaluated by using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution, Standardized Precipitation Index and ratio of daily precipitation to annual precipitation. Daily annual maximum runoff and precipitation event events significantly increase in intensity and frequency. Return periods change such that extreme events in the future become much more common by mid-century. The largest changes occur in the Colorado River where the daily annual maximum runoff 100-year event, for example, becomes approximately ten times more likely and twice as likely in the other

  2. Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta

  3. Modeling the Effects of Groundwater-fed Irrigation on Terrestrial Hydrology over the Conterminous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Gao, Huilin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-06-01

    Human alteration of the land surface hydrologic cycle is substantial. Recent studies suggest that local water management practices including groundwater pumping and irrigation could significantly alter the quantity and distribution of water in the terrestrial system, with potential impacts on weather and climate through land-atmosphere feedbacks. In this study, we incorporated a groundwater withdrawal scheme into the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). To simulate the impact of irrigation realistically, we calibrated the CLM4 simulated irrigation amount against observations from agriculture census at the county scale over the conterminous United States (CONUS). The water used for irrigation was then removed from the surface runoff and groundwater aquifer according to a ratio determined from the county-level agricultural census data. Based on the simulations, the impact of groundwater withdrawals for irrigation on land surface and subsurface fluxes were investigated. Our results suggest that the impacts of irrigation on latent heat flux and potential recharge when water is withdrawn from surface water alone or from both surface and groundwater are comparable and local to the irrigation areas. However, when water is withdrawn from groundwater for irrigation, greater effects on the subsurface water balance were found, leading to significant depletion of groundwater storage in regions with low recharge rate and high groundwater exploitation rate. Our results underscore the importance of local hydrologic feedbacks in governing hydrologic response to anthropogenic change in CLM4 and the need to more realistically simulate the two-way interactions among surface water, groundwater, and atmosphere to better understand the impacts of groundwater pumping on irrigation efficiency and climate.

  4. Environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; Petersen, James C.; Freiwald, David A.; Davis, Jerri V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit and the factors that affect water quality are described in this report. The primary natural and cultural features that affect water- quality characteristics and the potential for future water-quality problems are described. These environmental features include climate, physio- graphy, geology, soils, population, land use, water use, and surface- and ground-water flow systems. The study-unit area is approximately 47,600 square miles and includes most of the Ozark Plateaus Province and parts of the adjacent Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The geology is characterized by basement igneous rocks overlain by a thick sequence of dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Paleozoic age. Land use in the study unit is predominantly pasture and forest in the southeastern part, and pasture and cropland in the northwestern part. All or part of the White, Neosho-lllinois, Osage, Gasconade, Meramec, St. Francis, and Black River Basins are within the study unit. Streams in the Boston Mountains contain the least mineralized water, and those in the Osage Plains contain the most mineralized water. The study unit contains eight hydrogeologic units including three major aquifers--the Springfield Plateau, Ozark, and St. Francois aquifers. Streams and aquifers in the study unit generally contain calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate waters. Ground- and surface-water interactions are greatest in the Salem and Springfield Plateaus and least in the Boston Mountains and Osage Plains. Geology, land use, and population probably are the most important environmental factors that affect water quality.

  5. An Analysis of Historic and Projected Climate Scenarios in the Western United States Using Hydrologic Landscape Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C., Jr.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Comeleo, R. L.; Stratton, L. E.; Sawicz, K. A.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying areas of similar hydrology within the United States and its regions (hydrologic landscapes - HLs) is an active area of research. HLs are being used to construct spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. HLs are currently being applied across the Western U.S. to assess historic and projected climatic impacts. During the HL classification process, we analyze climate, seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability as the primary hydrologic drivers (and precipitation intensity as a secondary driver) associated with large scale hydrologic processes (storage, conveyance, and flow of water into or out of the watershed) in the West. Hypotheses regarding the dominant hydrologic pathways derived from the HL classification system are tested to corroborate or falsify these assumptions. Changes in climate are more likely to affect certain hydrogeologic parameters than others. For instance, changes in climate may result in changes in the magnitude, timing, or type of precipitation (snow vs. rain). Air temperature and the seasonality of dominant hydrologic processes may also be impacted. However, the effect of these changes on streamflow will depend on soil and aquifer permeability. In this analysis, we summarize (1) the HL classification methodology and (2) the use of historic (1900-present) PRISM climate data and climate projections to assess how changes in climate affect hydrologic processes and their associated impacts (e.g. water resource availability, ecological impacts, etc.) in the Western U.S.

  6. Acetochlor in the hydrologic system in the midwestern United States, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Nations, B.K.; Goolsby, D.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    The herbicide acetochlor [2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)acetamide] was given conditional registration in the United States by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in March 1994. This registration provided a rare opportunity to investigate the occurrence of a pesticide during its first season of extensive use in the midwestern United States. Water samples collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1994 documented the distribution of acetochlor in the hydrologic system; it was detected in 29% of the rain samples from four sites in Iowa, 17% of the stream samples from 51 sites across nine states, and 0% of the groundwater samples from 38 wells across eight states. Acetochlor exhibited concentration increases in rain and streams following its application to corn in the midwestern United States, with 75% of the rainwater and 35% of the stream samples having acetochlor detected during this time period. Acetochlor concentrations in rain decreased as the growing season progressed. Based on the limited data collected for this study, it is anticipated that acetochlor concentrations will have a seasonal pattern in rain and streams similar to those of other acetanilide herbicides examined. Possible explanations for the absence of acetochlor in groundwater for this study include the rapid degradation of acetochlor in the soil zone, insufficient time for this first extensive use of acetochlor to have reached the aquifers sampled, and the possible lack of acetochlor use in the recharge areas for the wells examined.

  7. Detailed Soil Information for Hydrologic Modeling in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, N. B.; Waltman, S. W.; Neale, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Detailed soil data for the Conterminous United States are being made available to hydrologic modelers and others in a new gridded format. The Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database is now 86 percent complete for the Conterminous United States. The soil properties of interest to hydrologists include available water capacity, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, field capacity, porosity, average soil thickness, soil organic matter or carbon content, and percentages of sand, silt, clay, and rocks. The methods for creating the gridded format data summarize the attributes across soil horizons and soil components to create a value for each attribute at the mapunit level. Separate gridded products can be developed for specific depth zones, as required. The SSURGO data are being continuously improved by National Cooperative Soil Survey under the leadership of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Readily accessible gridded soils data have several advantages over vector data, such as easier integration with other land surface datasets. Currently, the data are available at a 30-meter resolution in the Albers Equal Area projection. The compilation of the new database has been made possible as part of a National Atlas of Ecosystem Services being developed under the leadership of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), along with many partner organizations including the NRCS and the United States Geological Survey. When complete, the atlas information will include many ecosystem features and will be used in a wide variety of ecosystem service assessments.

  8. Development of a landscape unit delineation framework for ecoy-hydrologic models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A spatially distributed representation of basin hydrology and transport processes in eco-hydrological models facilitates the identification of critical source areas and the placement of management and conservation measures. Especially floodplains are critical landscape features that differ from nei...

  9. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units...), Mendocino (CA) Big-Navarro-Garcia 18010108 Mendocino (CA)—Manchester/Point Arena Rancheria; 1 Some...

  10. Environmental characteristics and water quality of hydrologic benchmark network stations in the west-central United States, 1963-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Eddy-Miller, C. A.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the environmental characteristics and water-quality characteristics of 14 benchmark basins in the west-central United States. The information was compiled to aide in the interpretation and application of historical water-quality data collected through the Hydrologic Benchmark Network Program.

  11. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  12. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  13. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  14. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  15. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  16. Near-term Intensification of the Hydrological Cycle in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.; Mei, R.; Kao, S. C.; Naz, B. S.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present state-of-the-art near-term projections of hydrological changes over the continental U.S. from a hierarchical high-resolution regional modeling framework. We dynamically downscale 11 Global Climate Models (CCSM4, ACCESS1-0, NorESM1-M, MRI-CGCM3, GFDL-ESM2M, FGOALS-g2, bcc-csm1-1, MIROC5, MPI-ESM-MR, IPSL-ESM-MR, CMCC-CM5) from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project at 4-km horizontal grid spacing using a modeling framework that consists of a regional climate model (RegCM4) and a hydrological model (VIC). All model integrations span 41 years in the historic period (1965-2005) and 41 years in the near-term future period (2010-2050) under RCP 8.5. The RegCM4 domain covers the continental U.S. and parts of Canada and Mexico at 18-km horizontal grid spacing whereas the VIC domain covers only the continental U.S. at 4-km horizontal grid spacing. Should the emissions continue to rise throughout the next four decades of the 21st century, our results suggest that every region within the continental U.S. will be at least 2°C warmer before the mid-21st century, leading to the likely intensification of the regional hydrological cycle and the acceleration of the observed trends in the cold, warm and wet extremes. We also find an overall increase (decrease) in the inflows to the flood-controlling (hydroelectric) reservoirs across the United States, raising the likelihood of flooding events and significant impacts on the federal hydroelectric power generation. However, certain water-stressed regions such as California will be further constrained by extreme dry and wet conditions; these regions are incapable of storing rising quantities of runoff and wet years will not necessarily equate to an increase in water supply availability. Overall, these changes in the regional hydro-meteorology can have substantial impacts on the natural and human systems across the U.S.

  17. Evaluating historical climate and hydrologic trends in the Central Appalachian region of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, B. A.; Zegre, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is surfacing as one of the most important environmental and social issues of the 21st century. Over the last 100 years, observations show increasing trends in global temperatures and intensity and frequency of precipitation events such as flooding, drought, and extreme storms. Global circulation models (GCM) show similar trends for historic and future climate indicators, albeit with geographic and topographic variability at regional and local scale. In order to assess the utility of GCM projections for hydrologic modeling, it is important to quantify how robust GCM outputs are compared to robust historical observations at finer spatial scales. Previous research in the United States has primarily focused on the Western and Northeastern regions due to dominance of snow melt for runoff and aquifer recharge but the impact of climate warming in the mountainous central Appalachian Region is poorly understood. In this research, we assess the performance of GCM-generated historical climate compared to historical observations primarily in the context of forcing data for macro-scale hydrologic modeling. Our results show significant spatial heterogeneity of modeled climate indices when compared to observational trends at the watershed scale. Observational data is showing considerable variability within maximum temperature and precipitation trends, with consistent increases in minimum temperature. The geographic, temperature, and complex topographic gradient throughout the central Appalachian region is likely the contributing factor in temperature and precipitation variability. Variable climate changes are leading to more severe and frequent climate events such as temperature extremes and storm events, which can have significant impacts on our drinking water supply, infrastructure, and health of all downstream communities.

  18. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages, the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for stable

  19. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Frimpong, Emmanuel A

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages; the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for stable

  20. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration

    DOE PAGES

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role ofmore » hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages, the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for

  1. Climate and hydrological changes in the northeastern United States: recent trends and implications for forested and aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Richardson, Andrew D.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    We review twentieth century and projected twenty-first century changes in climatic and hydrologic conditions in the northeastern United States and the implications of these changes for forest ecosystems. Climate warming and increases in precipitation and associated changes in snow and hydrologic regimes have been observed over the last century, with the most pronounced changes occurring since 1970. Trends in specific climatic and hydrologic variables differ in their responses spatially (e.g., coastal vs. inland) and temporally (e.g., spring vs. summer). Trends can differ depending on the period of record analyzed, hinting at the role of decadal-scale climatic variation that is superimposed over the longer-term trend. Model predictions indicate that continued increases in temperature and precipitation across the northeastern United States can be expected over the next century. Ongoing increases in growing season length (earlier spring and later autumn) will most likely increase evapotranspiration and frequency of drought. In turn, an increase in the frequency of drought will likely increase the risk of fire and negatively impact forest productivity, maple syrup production, and the intensity of autumn foliage coloration. Climate and hydrologic changes could have profound effects on forest structure, composition, and ecological functioning in response to the changes discussed here and as described in related articles in this issue of the Journal.

  2. Comparison of low flows from the VIC hydrological model with observations for the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.; Sheffield, J.

    2013-12-01

    and clear-cutting, which is not taken into account in the VIC model. The regression model of 1-day low flow explained 80% of the variance of low flows in the sites that had no trend, with a regionally averaged relative bias of -10 and relative RMSE of 14. Drainage area showed a direct relationship with the bias and RMSE values. We discuss methods to improve model performance through re-calibration across the flow regime, including low flows, and potential model enhancements through representation of groundwater contributions during low flow periods. Keywords: Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, Low flows, Eastern United States, Land use change, Pettitt test, Mann-Kendall test, Autocorrelation, Regression analysis, Surface water hydrology.

  3. A methodology to asess relations between climatic variability and variations in hydrologic time series in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for frequency analysis of hydrologic time series was developed to facilitate the estimation and reconstruction of individual or groups of frequencies from hydrologic time-series and facilitate the comparison of these isolated time-series components across data types, between different hydrologic settings within a watershed, between watersheds, and across frequencies. While climate-related variations in inflow to and outflow from aquifers have often been neglected, the development and management of ground-water and surface-water resources has required the inclusion of the assessment of the effects of climatic variability on the supply and demand and sustainability of use. The regional assessment of climatic variability of surface-water and ground-water flow throughout the southwestern United States required this new systematic method of hydrologic time-series analysis. To demonstrate the application of this new method, six hydrologic time-series from the Mojave River Basin, California were analyzed. The results indicate that climatic variability exists in all the data types and are partially coincident with known climate cycles such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The time-series also indicate lagged correlations between tree-ring indices, streamflow, stream base flow, and ground-water levels. These correlations and reconstructed time-series can be used to better understand the relation of hydrologic response to climatic forcings and to facilitate the simulation of streamflow and ground-water recharge for a more realistic approach to water-resource management. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Regional hydrologic response to climate change in the conterminous United States using high-resolution hydroclimate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Mei, Rui; Bowling, Laura C.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Global Climate Model (GCM) outputs have been used to project hydrologic impacts of climate change using off-line hydrologic models for two decades, many of these efforts have been disjointed - applications or at least calibrations have been focused on individual river basins and using a few of the available GCMs. This study improves upon earlier attempts by systematically projecting hydrologic impacts for the entire conterminous United States (US), using outputs from ten GCMs from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive, with seamless hydrologic model calibration and validation techniques to produce a spatially and temporally consistent set of current hydrologic projections. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was forced with ten-member ensemble projections of precipitation and air temperature that were dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RegCM4) and bias-corrected to 1/24° (~ 4 km) grid resolution for the baseline (1966-2005) and future (2011-2050) periods under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Based on regional analysis, the VIC model projections indicate an increase in winter and spring total runoff due to increases in winter precipitation of up to 20% in most regions of the US. However, decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered days will lead to significant decreases in summer runoff with more pronounced shifts in the time of occurrence of annual peak runoff projected over the eastern and western US. In contrast, the central US will experience year-round increases in total runoff, mostly associated with increases in both extreme high and low runoff. The projected hydrological changes described in this study have implications for various aspects of future water resource management, including water supply, flood and drought preparation, and reservoir operation.

  5. Regional hydrologic response to climate change in the conterminous United States using high-resolution hydroclimate simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Mei, Rui; ...

    2016-06-16

    Despite the fact that Global Climate Model (GCM) outputs have been used to project hydrologic impacts of climate change using off-line hydrologic models for two decades, many of these efforts have been disjointed applications or at least calibrations have been focused on individual river basins and using a few of the available GCMs. This study improves upon earlier attempts by systematically projecting hydrologic impacts for the entire conterminous United States (US), using outputs from ten GCMs from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive, with seamless hydrologic model calibration and validation techniques to produce a spatially andmore » temporally consistent set of current hydrologic projections. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was forced with ten-member ensemble projections of precipitation and air temperature that were dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RegCM4) and bias-corrected to 1/24 (~4 km) grid resolution for the baseline (1966 2005) and future (2011 2050) periods under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Based on regional analysis, the VIC model projections indicate an increase in winter and spring total runoff due to increases in winter precipitation of up to 20% in most regions of the US. However, decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered days will lead to significant decreases in summer runoff with more pronounced shifts in the time of occurrence of annual peak runoff projected over the eastern and western US. In contrast, the central US will experience year-round increases in total runoff, mostly associated with increases in both extreme high and low runoff. Furthermore, the projected hydrological changes described in this study have implications for various aspects of future water resource management, including water supply, flood and drought preparation, and reservoir operation.« less

  6. Regional hydrologic response to climate change in the conterminous United States using high-resolution hydroclimate simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Mei, Rui; Bowling, Laura C.; Naz, Bibi S.; Rastogi, Deeksha

    2016-06-16

    Despite the fact that Global Climate Model (GCM) outputs have been used to project hydrologic impacts of climate change using off-line hydrologic models for two decades, many of these efforts have been disjointed applications or at least calibrations have been focused on individual river basins and using a few of the available GCMs. This study improves upon earlier attempts by systematically projecting hydrologic impacts for the entire conterminous United States (US), using outputs from ten GCMs from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive, with seamless hydrologic model calibration and validation techniques to produce a spatially and temporally consistent set of current hydrologic projections. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was forced with ten-member ensemble projections of precipitation and air temperature that were dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RegCM4) and bias-corrected to 1/24 (~4 km) grid resolution for the baseline (1966 2005) and future (2011 2050) periods under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Based on regional analysis, the VIC model projections indicate an increase in winter and spring total runoff due to increases in winter precipitation of up to 20% in most regions of the US. However, decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered days will lead to significant decreases in summer runoff with more pronounced shifts in the time of occurrence of annual peak runoff projected over the eastern and western US. In contrast, the central US will experience year-round increases in total runoff, mostly associated with increases in both extreme high and low runoff. Furthermore, the projected hydrological changes described in this study have implications for various aspects of future water resource management, including water supply, flood and drought preparation, and reservoir operation.

  7. Evaluation of Surface Hydrological Connectivity Between a Forested Coastal Wetland and Regulated Waters of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. D.; Wilcox, B. P.; Jacob, J. S.; Sipocz, A.; Munster, C.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid urbanization, industry, and agriculture have put enormous developmental pressure on coastal forested wetlands along the Texas coast. At least 97,000 acres of freshwater forested wetlands on the Texas coast have been lost since 1955, amid much larger losses of other coastal wetland types (TPWD-Texas Wetlands Conservation Plan, 1996). Some coastal wetlands are protected by federal regulations under the Clean Water Act in an effort to maintain wetland hydrological and ecological services, such as water quality improvement and flood control. However, federal protection of many important coastal wetlands is dependent upon documented proof of a hydrologic connection to federally protected Waters of the United States and reasonable influence on the quality of those waters. This study focuses on a 13 acre catchment of coastal flatwoods wetland with an ambiguous legal status because of a possible , but undocumented, hydrologic connection to regulated Waters of the United States. Documentation of the hydrologic connectivity of this type of wetland is critical because of the geographic extent of similar wetlands and their contributions to water quality. The objective of the study was to determine if a hydrologic connection exists, and if so, to quantify the strength of the connection. A surface connection was established based on runoff and rainfall data collected since April of 2005, with the wetland discharging surface water directly into an adjacent protected wetland. The connection was weak during dry years, but in years with average rainfall, surface runoff accounted for a much more significant portion of the water budget. These results suggest that runoff water from similar wetlands contributes directly to protected wetland waters, and may influence water quality downstream.

  8. Overview of drought and hydrologic conditions in the United States and southern Canada, water years 1986-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the drought and hydrologic conditions in the United States and southern Canada during the 1986-90 water years. This drought, which spread from the Eastern United States, where it was referred to as 'the drought of the century,' through the Midwest to the West Coast, brought to mind the Dust Bowl era of the 1930's. However, generally localized floods were numerous, but only one hurricane (Hugo) was of any consequence to the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands during a coincident period of anomalously low hurricane activity. The drought began in early 1984 as an 'agricultural drought,' which is a precipitation deficiency that results in a lack of soil moisture that is detrimental to agricultural production. This condition did not affect streamflow until about March or April 1986. A 'hydrological drought,' which is far more serious and widespread than an agricultural drought, was apparent from the low streamflow conditions that occurred after April 1986. To illustrate the changing nature of the drought, maps and synopses of monthly hydrologic conditions for the water years 1986-90 are presented.

  9. Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Drici, Warda

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  10. Late Holocene Hydrologic Variability Reconstruction of the Coastal Southwestern United States Using Lake Sediments from Crystal Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, J. A.; Kirby, M. E.; Hiner, C.; Leeper, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to reconstruct a high resolution, late Holocene record of precipitation variability for the coastal southwestern United States region using sediment cores from Crystal Lake, CA. This region is especially susceptible to droughts and episodic floods, making it of particular importance to understand past hydrologic variability. Crystal Lake is a small, alpine landslide dammed lake in the Angeles National Forest of the San Gabriel Mountains. The lake is the only permanent, freshwater lake located in the range. It is hydrologically closed, meaning all lake level changes are controlled by changes in precipitation: evaporation. To reconstruct past hydrologic variability, two Livingston piston cores were taken 15 m apart in the depocenter of the lake in May 2014. A multi-proxy methodology was utilized including: magnetic susceptibility, total organic matter and total carbonate content, grain size, and bulk d13Corg of sediments. All analyses were conducted at 1 cm contiguous intervals except bulk d13Corg (at 2 cm). Seismic reflection profiles were also generated to examine the basin's stratigraphic features in the context of the individual sediment cores. A working age model was provided by multiple AMS 14C dates from discrete organic matter (i.e., seeds, charcoal). Results from this study are compared to preexisting records of late Holocene hydrologic variability from coastal, central, and southern California. Further, the forcing mechanisms that drive hydrologic change (wet vs. dry episodes) in Southern California, such as ocean-atmosphere interactions including El Niño Southern Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, are discussed.

  11. Estimating soil hydrological response by combining precipitation-runoff modeling and hydro-functional soil homogeneous units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroca-Jimenez, Estefania; Bodoque, Jose Maria; Diez-Herrero, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods constitute one of the natural hazards better able to generate risk, particularly with regard to Society. The complexity of this process and its dependence on various factors related to the characteristics of the basin and rainfall make flash floods are difficult to characterize in terms of their hydrological response.To do this, it is essential a proper analysis of the so called 'initial abstractions'. Among all of these processes, infiltration plays a crucial role in explaining the occurrence of floods in mountainous basins.For its characterization the Green-Ampt model , which depends on the characteristics of rainfall and physical properties of soil has been used in this work.This is a method enabling to simulate floods in mountainous basins where hydrological response is sub-daily. However, it has the disadvantage that it is based on physical properties of soil which have a high spatial variability. To address this difficulty soil mapping units have been delineated according to the geomorphological landforms and elements. They represent hydro-functional mapping units that are theoretically homogeneous from the perspective of the pedostructure parameters of the pedon. So the soil texture of each homogeneous group of landform units was studied by granulometric analyses using standarized sieves and Sedigraph devices. In addition, uncertainty associated with the parameterization of the Green-Ampt method has been estimated by implementing a Monte Carlo approach, which required assignment of the proper distribution function to each parameter.The suitability of this method was contrasted by calibrating and validating a hydrological model, in which the generation of runoff hydrograph has been simulated using the SCS unit hydrograph (HEC-GeoHMS software), while flood wave routing has been characterized using the Muskingum-Cunge method. Calibration and validation of the model was from the use of an automatic routine based on the employ of the search algorithm

  12. Investigating the Eco-Hydrological Impact of Tropical Cyclones in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Julien

    a Land surface Eco-Hydrological Model (LEHM), combining water and energy budgets with photosynthesis activity, is used to estimate Gross Primary Production (GPP) over the SE US The obtained data is compared to AmeriFlux and MODIS GPP data over the SE United States in order to establish the model's ability to capture vegetation dynamics for the different biomes of the SE US. Then, a suite of numerical experiments is conducted to evaluate the impact of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) precipitation over the SE US. The numerical experiments consist of with and without TC precipitation simulations by replacing the signature of TC forcing by NARR-derived climatology of atmospheric forcing ahead of landfall during the TC terrestrial path. The comparison of these GPP estimates with those obtained with the normal forcing result in areas of discrepancies where the GPP was significantly modulated by TC activity. These areas show up to 10% variability over the last decade.

  13. Reconstructing Colonial Land Cover Changes Across the Northeastern United States to Understand Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Duncan, J.; Kumar, S.; Pastore, C.; Bain, D.; Green, M.; Pellerin, B.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover change is one of the most important drivers of hydrologic change. While we understand the North American landscape was substantially altered during the colonial period (1600-1800), the highly variable spatial and temporal dynamics of land cover change have not been yet resolved. Past land cover changes have important implications for the hydrologic history of the region and impart legacy effects on contemporary hydrologic systems. Before European arrival, the northern portion of the region was predominantly a game economy with increasing predominance of subsistence agriculture as one moved south. Upon arrival of Europeans, the region was transformed to a resource extraction economy, predominantly export oriented logging and agriculture production. Several authors have reconstructed historical land use change history at a variety of scales (county, watershed, and globe) based on paleo signatures in sediment cores, historical anecdotes, export data, and population based model. However, fewer integrated efforts utilize these historical land cover reconstructions to inform our understanding of hydrologic change, particularly at the regional scale. Therefore, we synthesize a variety of approaches to reconstruct a regionally coherent/consistent picture of land cover change in the northeast from 1600 to 1800. Our study region is divided into two major hydrological sub-regions based on glaciation history and contemporary climate gradients: the New England region and the Chesapeake Bay regions. We try to clarify uncertainty of each study and difference between them due to diverse research methods and scales. Using a meta-analysis approach and geospatial representation we have hypothesized that intensive land cover changes along coastal lines and navigable river reaches had a significant impact on the regional hydrology.

  14. Hydrologic science, the USGS, and national observatory networks in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M.; Hirsch, R.

    2004-05-01

    Hydrologic research requires long-term monitoring and investigation of fundamental processes that govern the movement of water and constituents in the atmosphere and on the earth's surface. Numerous multiyear investigations have advanced our knowledge by using watershed-scale studies to characterize and quantify fluxes of water and constituents. Historically, most of these studies have been conducted by researchers in narrow subsets of scientific disciplines, and have been focused on small, undisturbed watersheds. As the U.S. population surpasses 300 million in 2004, hydrologic-process understanding must be expanded to include larger scale, anthropogenically disturbed environments. These types of studies present significant challenges to our scientific understanding because of factors such as: 1) the great number of human-derived constituents and contaminants in our Nation's water, many previously unknown or unmeasurable; 2) the complexities of rivers and aquifers that transcend ecologic, climatologic, and political boundaries; 3) the lack of stationarity in hydrologic and climatologic trends; and 4) the need for a multidisciplinary approach involving scientists with varied expertise. The future of field-based hydrologic science requires a combination of large-scale hydrologic monitoring and investigation that crosses the traditional interfaces of scientific discipline, as well as land-use, political, and geographic boundaries. Federal, academic, and other researchers will need to collaborate. Federal agencies such as the USGS have a record of conducting and publishing detailed scientific investigations that contribute to our scientific knowledge. Equally important, since the 19th century, the USGS and other Federal agencies have collected, archived, and provided publicly available, high-quality, internally-consistent, long-term data sets. The USGS has a history of collaboration with national observation networks such as the LTER and IRIS, and embraces future

  15. Relations between climatic variability and hydrologic time series from four alluvial basins across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Newhouse, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrologic time series of groundwater levels, streamflow, precipitation, and tree-ring indices from four alluvial basins in the southwestern United States were spectrally analyzed, and then frequency components were reconstructed to isolate variability due to climatic variations on four time scales. Reconstructed components (RCs), from each time series, were compared to climatic indices like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North American Monsoon (NAM), and El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), to reveal that as much as 80% of RC variation can be correlated with climate variations on corresponding time scales. In most cases, the hydrologic RCs lag behind the climate indices by 1-36 months. In all four basins, PDO-like components were the largest contributors to cyclic hydrologic variability. Generally, California time series have more variation associated with PDO and ENSO than the Arizona series, and Arizona basins have more variation associated with NAM. ENSO cycles were present in all four basins but were the largest relative contributors in southeastern Arizona. Groundwater levels show a wide range of climate responses that can be correlated from well to well in the various basins, with climate responses found in unconfined and confined aquifers from pumping centers to mountain fronts. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  16. A 1300 Year Sub-Decadally Resolved Hydrologic Record from the Coastal Southwestern United States (Crystal Lake, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, J. A.; Kirby, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a 1300 year sub-decadally resolved record of hydrologic variability from coastal southwestern United States (Crystal Lake, CA). Crystal Lake is a small (0.02 km2), alpine landslide dammed lake in the Angeles National Forest of the San Gabriel Mountains. The hydrologically closed lake is the only permanent, freshwater lake in the range; its catchment is small (0.77 km2). In May 2014, lake depth measured 5.5 m, however the spillover point in the southeastern end of the lake indicates a max depth of ~50 m. Two Livingston piston cores were taken in May 2014, 15 m apart in the lake's depocenter. Magnetic susceptibility, LOI 550 °C and 950 °C, and grain size were measured at 1 cm contiguous intervals; C:N ratios and C and N isotopic analyses were measured every 2 cm. In addition, representative allochthonous and autochthonous vegetation were collected within the drainage basin for δ13Corg values. An age model was generated using Bacon v2.2, based on 11 AMS 14C dates of discrete organic matter (i.e. charcoal or wood). Age control for the past 200 years is based on correlation to Rothenberg et al. (2010) core ages. Initial results suggest a history of event sedimentation (large storms) superimposed on multi-decadal to centennial hydrologic changes (wet vs. dry periods) such as the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, the Crystal Lake record is compared to preexisting regional records to further explore the record's spatial coherence. Mechanisms driving these hydrologic shifts are explored.

  17. Recent trends in hydrologic balance have enhanced the terrestrial carbon sink in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemani, Ramakrishna; White, Michael; Thornton, Peter; Nishida, Kenlo; Reddy, Swarna; Jenkins, Jennifer; Running, Steven

    2002-05-01

    Climate data show significant increases in precipitation and humidity over the U.S. since 1900, yet the role of these hydro-climatic changes on the reported U.S. carbon sink is incompletely understood. Using a prognostic terrestrial ecosystem model, we simulated 1900-1993 continental U.S. carbon fluxes and found that increased growth by natural vegetation was associated with increased precipitation and humidity, especially during the 1950-1993 period. CO2 trends and warmer temperatures had a lesser effect. Two thirds of the increase in observed forest growth rates could be accounted for by observed climatic changes, including the confluence of earlier springs and wetter autumns leading to a lengthening of the vegetation carbon uptake period. However, regional differences in precipitation trends produced differing regional carbon sink responses. The strong coupling between carbon and hydrologic cycles implies that global carbon budget studies, currently dominated by temperature analyses, should consider changes in the hydrologic cycle.

  18. Post-Wildfire Hydrologic Hazards in the Wildland Urban Interface of Colorado and the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Rupert, M.G.; Ranalli, A.J.; Cassidy, E.W.; Druliner, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Following a wildfire, such as the 2002 Missionary Ridge fire, a number of hydrologic hazards may develop that can have an important impact on water resources, businesses, homes, reservoirs, roads, and utilities in the wildland urban interface (areas where homes and commercial developments are interspersed with wildlands) in mountainous areas of the Western United States. This fact sheet describes these hazards and identifies approaches to quantify them, thus enabling land and resource managers to plan for and mitigate the effects of these hazards. The fact sheet has been produced in association with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fire Science Thrust program and the Colorado Front Range Demonstration Project (CFRDP). The current (2007) focus of the CFRDP is on the Three Lakes watershed in Grand County, Colorado, which has applicability to many similar forested, mountain areas in the Western United States.

  19. Water-quality data for the Santa Clara-Calleguas hydrologic unit, Ventura County, California, October 1989 through December 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Martin, P.M.; Densmore, J.N.; Clark, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    More than 700 water samples were collected from 232 wells and 34 surface-water sites in the Santa Clara-Calleguas Hydrologic Unit, Ventura County, California, from October 1989 through December 1993 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study. Most samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, oxygen-18, and deuterium. Selected samples were analyzed for one or more of the following isotopes: carbon-13/12, carbon-14, strontium-87/86, sulfur-34/32, and tritium. Other samples were analyzed for one or more of the following dissolved gases: hydrogen, methane, oxygen, and freon-11. Location of sampling sites is shown on maps and the results are presented in tables.

  20. Developing Index for Sustainable Water Use with Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators: an Application for Hydrologic Units in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kong, I.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop index for sustainable water use over hydrologic units in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sustainability index was constructed with a theme-based hierarchical approach. It is comprised of two components of stress and response to sustainable water use and each component includes five sub-components of human water requirements, water quality requirements, 4) h, equitable water use and others. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. For drainage basins in South Korea, standard hydrologic units with their total number of about 100 across the country, total 19 indicators were identified and their data from the various sources such as remote-sensing based datasets and survey-based national datasets were collected for current times. Then they were integrated to estimate the sustainability index with a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of indices and indicators and the sensitivity of indices to individual indicators to better understand the sustainability of water use in Korea. In addition, we derived the indices with different MCDM methods to evaluate the sensitivity of index to various mathematical techniques.

  1. A strategy for assessing potential future changes in climate, hydrology, and vegetation in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert Stephen; Hostetler, Steven W.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Anderson, Katherine H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical and geological data indicate that significant changes can occur in the Earth's climate on time scales ranging from years to millennia. In addition to natural climatic change, climatic changes may occur in the near future due to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the atmosphere that are the result of human activities. International research efforts using atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM's) to assess potential climatic conditions under atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of twice the pre-industrial level (a '2 X CO2' atmosphere) conclude that climate would warm on a global basis. However, it is difficult to assess how the projected warmer climatic conditions would be distributed on a regional scale and what the effects of such warming would be on the landscape, especially for temperate mountainous regions such as the Western United States. In this report, we present a strategy to assess the regional sensitivity to global climatic change. The strategy makes use of a hierarchy of models ranging from an AGCM, to a regional climate model, to landscape-scale process models of hydrology and vegetation. A 2 X CO2 global climate simulation conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) GENESIS AGCM on a grid of approximately 4.5o of latitude by 7.5o of longitude was used to drive the NCAR regional climate model (RegCM) over the Western United States on a grid of 60 km by 60 km. The output from the RegCM is used directly (for hydrologic models) or interpolated onto a 15-km grid (for vegetation models) to quantify possible future environmental conditions on a spatial scale relevant to policy makers and land managers.

  2. reservoir operation and hydropower generation schemes for regional scale hydrological models: case study in the northeastern united states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the development of the Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), we are developing an integrated hydrologic modeling framework that incorporates various aspects of the coupled human-hydrologic system, from supply to demand, into a single framework. This framework provides temporally and spatially explicit information on the regional water system under different scenarios of climate, population, and land use/ land cover change. To support these efforts, we have incorporated two new modules into the Water Balance Model (WBM) that simulate reservoir operation and calculate the hydropower production from dams. Dams and reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on natural stream flow, sediment flux, thermal characteristics and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. In the Northeast Region of the United States alone, the National Inventory of Dams (NID) lists over 12000 reservoirs. Depending on site-specific characteristics of the dam, its watershed and its intended purpose, each will have a specific optimum operating rule. Since no comprehensive dataset of these operating rules exists, we have to simulate them. We developed an Artificial Neural Network and used data from 35 dams for calibration. Approximately 60 % of the dataset was dedicated to training process, 20 % to validation and the other 20 % used for testing. If (t) represents current time, we use three sets of inputs; inflow [It , It-1 , It-2], release in previous months [Rt-1 , Rt-2] and month (Mt), to calculate release from reservoir (Rt). We also used a simple continuity equation for reservoirs by considering the maximum (from NID) and minimum reservoir storage to improve the model's performance in extreme wet and dry events. Using results from WBM we show how reservoirs regionally alter discharge in streams of Northeast United States compared to their natural state. We also are assessing the effects of climate change on water availability and

  3. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial: Land-applied Microbial Loadings within a 12-Digit HUC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This tutorial reviews screens, icons, and basic functions of the SDMProjectBuilder (SDMPB). It demonstrates how one chooses a 12-digit HUC for analysis, performs an assessment of land-applied microbes by simulating microbial fate and transport using HSPF, and analyzes and visuali...

  4. Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and Practice. Eleventh Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John; Pape, Larry; Murin, Amy; Gemin, Butch; Vashaw, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    "Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning" (2014) is the 11th in a series of annual reports that began in 2004 that examine the status of K-12 online education across the country. The report provides an overview of the latest policies, practices, and trends affecting online learning programs across all 50 states. It summarizes that at a…

  5. Water conservation and hydrological transitions in cities in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornberger, George M.; Hess, David J.; Gilligan, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Cities across the world have had to diversify and expand their water supply systems in response to demand growth, groundwater depletion and pollution, and instability and inadequacy of regional surface freshwater sources. In the U.S., these problems plague not only the arid Western cities but increasingly also cities in the Eastern portions of the country. Although cities continue to seek out new sources of water via Promethean projects of long-distance supply systems, desalinization plants, and the recharge of aquifers with surface water, they also pursue water conservation because of its low cost and other benefits. We examine water conservation as a complex sociotechnical system comprising interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors. We provide quantitative data on the factors that affect more and less advanced transitions in water conservation regimes, and we show that water stress and other hydrological data can only partially predict the transition. We also provide qualitative case studies to identify institutional and political barriers to more advanced water conservation regimes. This interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach typifies the need for knowledge that informs hydrologists about how their research may or may not be adopted by decision-makers.

  6. Phase II Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2004-12-01

    This report documents pertinent hydrologic data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU): CAU 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support the development of the Phase II FF CAU groundwater flow model.

  7. Delineation and evaluation of hydrologic-landscape regions in the United States using geographic information system tools and multivariate statistical analyses.

    PubMed

    Wolock, David M; Winter, Thomas C; McMahon, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Hydrologic-landscape regions in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools combined with principal components and cluster analyses. The GIS and statistical analyses were applied to land-surface form, geologic texture (permeability of the soil and bedrock), and climate variables that describe the physical and climatic setting of 43,931 small (approximately 200 km2) watersheds in the United States. (The term "watersheds" is defined in this paper as the drainage areas of tributary streams, headwater streams, and stream segments lying between two confluences.) The analyses grouped the watersheds into 20 noncontiguous regions based on similarities in land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics. The percentage of explained variance (R-squared value) in an analysis of variance was used to compare the hydrologic-landscape regions to 19 square geometric regions and the 21 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency level-II ecoregions. Hydrologic-landscape regions generally were better than ecoregions at delineating regions of distinct land-surface form and geologic texture. Hydrologic-landscape regions and ecoregions were equally effective at defining regions in terms of climate, land cover, and water-quality characteristics. For about half of the landscape, climate, and water-quality characteristics, the R-squared values of square geometric regions were as high as hydrologic-landscape regions or ecoregions.

  8. The Effect of Recent Aerosol Trends on Solar Radiation in the Central and Southeastern United States: Implications for Regional Hydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusworth, D.; Mickley, L. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Iacono, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observations show large increases in summertime (JJA) surface solar radiation (SWdn) over the central and southeastern United States during the last 20 years, as much as a +40 Wm-2 at midday. At the same time, in response to environmental regulations in the early 1990s, emissions of U.S. aerosol precursors have decreased by as much as 60%. Detecting a possible connection between these two trends has been difficult due to the secondary effects of aerosols on cloud concentration and lifetime, and previous efforts have failed to find a direct link. Here we investigate the clear-sky direct effect of decreasing U.S. aerosols on climate, using a radiative transfer model (RRTMG) driven by 1997-2014 measurements of aerosol optical depth at Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) sites in the central and southeastern United States. We impose aerosol asymmetry parameters and single scattering albedos from nearby Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Preliminary results indicate that declining aerosols drive a summer noontime change in clear-sky SWdn of +25 Wm-2 since 1997 at Goodwin Creek, MS, accounting for 56% of the observed increase in SWdn at that site. Similarly, we find that aerosols increase clear-sky SWdn by +6.5 Wm-2 in Bondville, IL, which accounts for 21% of the observed SWdn trend there. These results suggest that the climate in these regions of the U.S. may be sensitive to recent reductions in aerosol concentrations, especially during summer months. We also analyze in situ soil measurements from the Illinois Climate Network from 1990-present, and find that a significant decrease in soil moisture (-0.6 m3 m-3 a-1) accompanies the increase in SWdn, implying a link between aerosol trends and regional hydrology. Aerosol reductions are expected to continue in the United States and may further influence regional climate including hydrological factors. Our work has implications for polluted regions outside the U.S., where future reductions in the aerosol burden

  9. A High-Resolution Hydrometeorological Forcing and Landscape Attributes Data Set for Hydrological Applications over the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, J.; Barros, A. P.; Bryant, E.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    In anticipation of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ground-validation activities the SE United States and synergies with NOAA's Hydrometeorology Testbed-Southeast Pilot Study (HMT-SEPS) in western North Carolina, a high-resolution data set is being developed to provide the Hydrologic Modeling community with common control forcing and landscape attributes to facilitate multi-scale, multi-purpose hydrologic modeling studies ranging from flash-flood forecasting to basin-scale water resource assessments. In the first phase of the project, the goal is to generate quality hydrometeorological forcing data sets at high spatial and temporal resolution (1km×1km, hourly time step) for the five-year time period 2007-2011 with a focus on the river basins with headwaters in the Southern Appalachians: Upper Tennessee River Basin (56,573 km2), Savannah River Basin (27,110 km2), Santee River Basin (39,862 km2) and Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin (46,310 km2). For subsequent years, the data are updated on every three months. Space-time varying land surface properties such as broadband albedo, broadband emissivity, fractional vegetation coverage and leaf area index are derived from MODIS products. The original products are re-projected and composited to the study area, bilinearly interpolated to basin grids, and then linearly interpolated into hourly time steps from the nominal daily, 8 day or 16 day. Missing data gaps are addressed using physically meaning full constraints based on ancillary data. Precipitation is generated from NCEP/EMC 4KM Gridded Data (GRIB) Stage IV hourly data using the nearest neighbor method. Integration of Stage IV data with precipitation observations from research networks in the region provides dynamic relationships for improving precipitation accuracy in mountainous terrain. The atmospheric forcing data are extracted from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) products originally at 32-km spatial resolution and 3-hour temporal resolution

  10. Implications for the hydrologic cycle under climate change due to the expansion of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Le, Phong V V; Kumar, Praveen; Drewry, Darren T

    2011-09-13

    To meet emerging bioenergy demands, significant areas of the large-scale agricultural landscape of the Midwestern United States could be converted to second generation bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass. The high biomass productivity of bioenergy crops in a longer growing season linked tightly to water use highlight the potential for significant impact on the hydrologic cycle in the region. This issue is further exacerbated by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation under elevated CO(2) and temperature. We use a mechanistic multilayer canopy-root-soil model to (i) capture the eco-physiological acclimations of bioenergy crops under climate change, and (ii) predict how hydrologic fluxes are likely to be altered from their current magnitudes. Observed data and Monte Carlo simulations of weather for recent past and future scenarios are used to characterize the variability range of the predictions. Under present weather conditions, miscanthus and switchgrass utilized more water than maize for total seasonal evapotranspiration by approximately 58% and 36%, respectively. Projected higher concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) (550 ppm) is likely to decrease water used for evapotranspiration of miscanthus, switchgrass, and maize by 12%, 10%, and 11%, respectively. However, when climate change with projected increases in air temperature and reduced summer rainfall are also considered, there is a net increase in evapotranspiration for all crops, leading to significant reduction in soil-moisture storage and specific surface runoff. These results highlight the critical role of the warming climate in potentially altering the water cycle in the region under extensive conversion of existing maize cropping to support bioenergy demand.

  11. Emergence of new hydrologic regimes of surface water resources in the conterminous United States under future warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Voisin, Nathalie; Zhang, Xuesong; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Leung, L. Ruby

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of surface water to people and ecosystems, few studies have explored detectable changes in surface water supply in a changing climate, given its large natural variability. Here we analyze runoff projections from the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrological model driven by 97 downscaled and bias-corrected Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections over the conterminous United States (CONUS). Our results show that more than 40% of the CONUS land area will experience significant changes in the probability distribution functions (i.e. PDFs) of summer and winter runoff by the end of the 21st century, which may pose great challenges to future surface water supply. Sub-basin mean runoff PDFs are projected to change significantly after 2040s depending on the emission scenarios, with earliest occurrence in the Pacific Northwest and northern California regions. When examining the response as a function of changes in the global mean temperature (ΔGMT), a linear relationship is revealed at the 95% confidence level. Generally, 1 °C increase of GMT leads to 11% and 17% more lands experiencing changes in summer and winter runoff PDFs, respectively. Such changes in land fraction scale with ΔGMT at the country scale independent of emission scenarios, but the same relationship does not necessarily hold at sub-basin scales, due to the larger role of atmospheric circulation changes and their uncertainties on regional precipitation. Further analyses show that the emergence of significant changes in sub-basin runoff PDFs is indicative of the emergence of new hydrology regimes and it is dominated by the changes in variability rather than shift in the mean, regardless of the emission scenarios.

  12. Hydrologic data for the Fristoe Unit of the Mark Twain National Forest, southern Missouri, 1988-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Sutley, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Background hydrologic data were collected from 1988 to 1993 in the Fristoe Unit of the Mark Twain National Forest. Water-quality data collected from area streams, springs, and wells were analyzed using trilinear diagrams, stiff diagrams, boxplots, and summary statistics. The water is a calcium- magnesium-bicarbonate type. Streams generally have slightly larger potassium, barium, and total organic carbon concentrations than spring or well water. Well water has larger bicarbonate and zinc concen- trations and larger variability in sodium, chloride, and nitrate concentrations than stream and spring water samples. The bulk mineralogy for streambed material is primarily coarse grain quartz. Quantitative elemental (chemistry) analysis on the less than 63 micrometer fraction of bulk material was performed. The heavy mineral concentrate in the streambed material was analyzed using semi- quantitative optical mineralogy and 37-element semi- quantitative emission spectrography. Water levels were measured in 57 area wells in the spring and fall from 1990 to 1993 to determine ground-water level fluctuations. Ground-water fluctuations ranged from less than 1.0 to 205.1 feet in these wells. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on three area wells. Depth to water ranged from 289.68 to 333.39 feet in the lower Eleven Point well, which is completed in the Ozark aquifer. Depth to water ranged from 78.73 to 90.20 feet in Ozark Lead Well 1 which is completed in the Ozark aquifer and St. Francois confining unit. Depth to water ranged from 127.53 to 135.67 feet in Ozark Lead Well 2, which is completed in the St. Francois confining unit and the St. Francois aquifer.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Biodiversity Metrics by 12-digit HUC for the Southwestern United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset was produced by a joint effort of New Mexico State University, US EPA, and the US Geological Survey (USGS) to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. Ecosystem services, i.e., services provided to humans from ecological systems, have become a key issue of this century in resource management, conservation planning, and environmental decision analysis. Mapping and quantifying ecosystem services have become strategic national interests for integrating ecology with economics to help understand the effects of human policies and actions and their subsequent impacts on both ecosystem function and human well-being. Some aspects of biodiversity are valued by humans in varied ways, and thus are important to include in any assessment that seeks to identify and quantify the benefits of ecosystems to humans. Some biodiversity metrics clearly reflect ecosystem services (e.g., abundance and diversity of harvestable species), whereas others may reflect indirect and difficult to quantify relationships to services (e.g., relevance of species diversity to ecosystem resilience, or cultural and aesthetic values). Wildlife habitat has been modeled at broad spatial scales and can be used to map a number of biodiversity metrics. We map 15 biodiversity metrics reflecting ecosystem services or other aspects of biodiversity for all vertebrate species except fish. Metrics include species richness for all vertebrates, specific taxon gr

  14. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Andraski, Brain J.; Cooper, Clay A.; Mayers, Charles J.; Michel, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5×1012 tritium units (TU) - i.e. specific tritium activities11 Bq kg-1 - the mass fraction w of tritiated water is approximated to within 1 part per million by w ≈ c×2.22293×10-18, i.e. the conversion is linear for all practical purposes. Terrestrial abundances serve as a proxy for non-tritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300].

  15. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications.

    PubMed

    Stonestrom, David A; Andraski, Brian J; Cooper, Clay A; Mayers, C Justin; Michel, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5 × 10(12) tritium units (TU) - i.e. specific tritium activities<5.3 × 10(11) Bq kg(-1) - the mass fraction w of tritiated water is approximated to within 1 part per million by w ≈ c × 2.22293 × 10(-18), i.e. the conversion is linear for all practical purposes. Terrestrial abundances serve as a proxy for non-tritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300].

  16. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications

    PubMed Central

    Stonestrom, David A.; Andraski, Brian J.; Cooper, Clay A.; Mayers, C. Justin; Michel, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5 × 1012 tritium units (TU) – i.e. specific tritium activities <5.3 × 1011 Bq kg−1 – the mass fraction w of tritiated water is approximated to within 1 part per million by w ≈ c × 2.22293 × 10−18, i.e. the conversion is linear for all practical purposes. Terrestrial abundances serve as a proxy for non-tritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300]. PMID:23464868

  17. Hydrology of the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Wood, Warren W.

    2001-01-01

    Water fluxes were estimated and a water budget developed for the land surface and a surficial 10-m-deep section of the coastal sabkhas that extend from the city of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, west to the border with Saudi Arabia. The fluxes were estimated on the basis of water levels and hydraulic conductivities measured in wells and evaporation rates measured with a humidity chamber. In contrast with conceptual models proposed in earlier studies, groundwater inflow is estimated to be small, whereas the largest components of the water budget are recharge from rainfall and evaporation from the water table. Estimates within a rectilinear volume of sabkha, defined as 1 m wide by 10 km long by 10 m deep, indicate that about 1 m3/year of water enters and exits by lateral groundwater flow; 40–50 m3/year enters by upward leakage; and 640 m3/year enters by recharge from rainfall. Based on the water and solute fluxes estimated for the upward leakage into the sabkha, 7–8 pore volumes of brine have entered the sabkha from below since the time the sabkha became saturated (7,000 years ago) as a result of the last global sea-level rise.

  18. Evaluation of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes in the Salt River Basin, Missouri, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes at the watershed scale is needed by land managers and policy makers to properly assess potential adaptation strategies. While numerous studies have been conducted on hydrologic processes in the Midwest, only a few have analyzed the l...

  19. Development of hydrologic landscape regions for classifying hydrologic permanace and hydrological-ecological interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a 2001 paper, Winter proposed the concept of the hydrologic landscape unit as a fundamental unit composed of an upland and lowland separated by a steeper slope. Winter suggested that this concept could be useful for hydrologic research, data analysis, and comparing hydrologic...

  20. Hydrology of the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward; Wood, Warren

    2001-05-01

    Water fluxes were estimated and a water budget developed for the land surface and a surficial 10-m-deep section of the coastal sabkhas that extend from the city of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, west to the border with Saudi Arabia. The fluxes were estimated on the basis of water levels and hydraulic conductivities measured in wells and evaporation rates measured with a humidity chamber. In contrast with conceptual models proposed in earlier studies, groundwater inflow is estimated to be small, whereas the largest components of the water budget are recharge from rainfall and evaporation from the water table. Estimates within a rectilinear volume of sabkha, defined as 1 m wide by 10 km long by 10 m deep, indicate that about 1 m3/year of water enters and exits by lateral groundwater flow; 40-50 m3/year enters by upward leakage; and 640 m3/year enters by recharge from rainfall. Based on the water and solute fluxes estimated for the upward leakage into the sabkha, 7-8 pore volumes of brine have entered the sabkha from below since the time the sabkha became saturated (7,000 years ago) as a result of the last global sea-level rise. Résumé. Les flux d'eau ont été estimés et le bilan hydrique a été réalisé pour la surface et les dix premiers mètres sous la surface de sebkhas littorales qui s'étendent à partir de la ville d'Abou Dhabi (Émirats Arabes Unis) à l'ouest de la frontière avec l'Arabie Saoudite. Les flux ont été estimés à partir des niveaux piézométriques et des conductivités hydrauliques mesurés dans les puits et à partir de mesures d'évaporation au moyen de capteurs d'humidité. En opposition avec les modèles conceptuels proposés dans les premières études, on estime que les apports par les eaux souterraines sont faibles, alors que les termes du bilan hydrique les plus importants sont la recharge par la pluie et l'évaporation à partir de la nappe. Les estimations dans un parallélépipède rectangle de sebkha, d'1 m de large, de

  1. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, William; Weir, J.E.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000-50,000 ft or 9,140-15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000-20,000 ft or 305-6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000-20,000 ft or 610-6,100 m) o The geohydrologic investigation is made on the presumption that the concepts or methods of disposal are technically feasible. Field and laboratory experiments in the future may demonstrate whether or not any of the methods are practical and safe. All the conclusions drawn are tentative pending experimental confirmation. The investigation focuses principally on the geohydrologic possibilities of several methods of disposal in rocks other than salt. Disposal in mined chambers in salt is currently under field investigation, and this disposal method has been intensely investigated and evaluated by various workers under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission. Of the various geohydrologic factors that must be considered in the selection of optimum waste-disposal sites, the most important is hydrologic isolation to assure that the wastes will be safely contained within a small radius of the emplacement zone. To achieve this degree of hydrologic isolation, the host rock for the wastes must have very low permeability and the site must be virtually free of faults. In addition, the locality should be in (1) an area of low seismic risk where the possibility of large earthquakes rupturing the emplacement zone is very low, (2) where the possibility- of flooding by

  2. Oregon Hydrologic Landscapes: An Approach for Broadscale Hydrologic Classification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaged streams represent only a small percentage of watershed hydrologic conditions throughout the Unites States and globe, but there is a growing need for hydrologic classification systems that can serve as the foundation for broad-scale assessments of the hydrologic functions of...

  3. Flood risk awareness during the 2011 floods in the central United States: showcasing the importance of hydrologic data and interagency collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Schwein, Noreen O.; Shadie, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Floods have long had a major impact on society and the environment, evidenced by the more than 1,500 federal disaster declarations since 1952 that were associated with flooding. Calendar year 2011 was an epic year for floods in the United States, from the flooding on the Red River of the North in late spring to the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri River basin floods in the spring and summer to the flooding caused by Hurricane Irene along the eastern seaboard in August. As a society, we continually seek to reduce flood impacts, with these efforts loosely grouped into two categories: mitigation and risk awareness. Mitigation involves such activities as flood assessment, flood control implementation, and regulatory activities such as storm water and floodplain ordinances. Risk awareness ranges from issuance of flood forecasts and warnings to education of lay audiences about the uncertainties inherent in assessing flood probability and risk. This paper concentrates on the issue of flood risk awareness, specifically the importance of hydrologic data and good interagency communication in providing accurate and timely flood forecasts to maximize risk awareness. The 2011 floods in the central United States provide a case study of the importance of hydrologic data and the value of proper, timely, and organized communication and collaboration around the collection and dissemination of that hydrologic data in enhancing the effectiveness of flood forecasting and flood risk awareness.

  4. Hydrologic classification of Bristol Bay, Alaska using hydrologic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, J.; Wigington, P. J.; Sproles, E.

    2013-12-01

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on climate, terrain and underlying geology. Such characterization of landscapes into areas of common hydrologic patterning is particularly instructive in regions where site specific hydrologic data is sparse or spatially incomplete. By using broad scale landscape metrics to organize the landscape into discrete, characterized units, natural resources managers can gain valuable understanding of landscape patterning and how locations may be differentially affected by a variety of environmental stressors ranging from land use change to management of salmon resources to climate change. Further, the heterogeneity of aquatic habitats and undisturbed hydrologic regimes within this area are a known principal driver for its region-wide fisheries stability. The use of hydrologic landscapes offers an opportunity to better characterize the hydrologic and landscape influences on structuring biotic populations at a regional scale. We have undertaken a hydrologic landscape approach for the Bristol Bay region of Alaska to gain a better understanding of the overall hydrologic environment found in this region since its hydrologic patterning plays a principal role in structuring its world-renowned salmon fishery. Heretofore, a characterization of the entire Bristol Bay region into discrete hydrologic units has not been undertaken. Our classification structure includes indices of annual climate and seasonality, terrain, and geology. Following categorization of landscape units, we compared hydrologic landscape units to locations of available long term streamflow for characterization of expected hydrologic behavior. This demonstration of hydrologic landscapes in Bristol Bay, Alaska shows the utility of using large

  5. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  6. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  7. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  8. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  9. Spatial downscaling and correction of precipitation and temperature time series to high resolution hydrological response units in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation is the central driving force of most hydrological processes, and is also the most variable element of the hydrological cycle. As the precipitation to runoff ratio is non-linear, errors in precipitation estimations are amplified in streamflow simulations. Therefore, the accurate estimate of areal precipitation is essential for watershed models and relevant impacts studies. A procedure is presented to demonstrate the spatial distribution of daily precipitation and temperature estimates across the Rocky Mountains within the framework of the ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system (ACRU). ACRU (Schulze, 1995) is a physical-conceptual, semi-distributed hydrological modelling system designed to be responsive to changes in land use and climate. The model has been updated to include specific high-mountain and cold climate routines and is applied to simulate impacts of land cover and climate change on the hydrological behaviour of numerous Rocky Mountain watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Both air temperature and precipitation time series need to be downscaled to hydrological response units (HRUs), as they are the spatial modelling units for the model. The estimation of accurate daily air temperatures is critical for the separation of rain and snow. The precipitation estimation procedure integrates a spatially distributed daily precipitation database for the period 1950 to 2010 at a scale of 10 by 10 km with a 1971-2000 climate normal database available at 2 by 2 km (PRISM). Resulting daily precipitation time series are further downscaled to the spatial resolution of hydrological response units, defined by 100 m elevation bands, land cover, and solar radiation, which have an average size of about 15 km2. As snow measurements are known to have a potential under-catch of up to 40%, further adjustment of snowfall may need to be increased using a procedure by Richter (1995). Finally, precipitation input to HRUs with slopes steeper than 10% need to be further corrected

  10. Recipe for a Flash Flood: Identifying Meteorological and Landscape Hydrological Conditions of Flash Flood Events in the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjerison, R.; Walter, T.; Jessup, S.; Colucci, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Flash floods are a serious concern in the Northeast US because they often result in property damage, injuries, or loss of life. The landscape hydrological and meteorological conditions that will result in a flash flood are difficult to quantify. In this study we aim to characterize the watersheds of a sample of flash floods in the Northeast US. We intend to show that in the Northeast US, different combinations of space- and time-variant watershed characteristics will lead to flooding under different precipitation profiles. A better understanding of the landscape hydrological factors (e.g. topography, soil characteristics) in flood-impacted watersheds could improve predictions of when and where floods are likely to occur.

  11. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Hydrologic Landscape Regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the area of Hydrologic Landscape Regions (HLR) compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is a 100-meter version of Hydrologic Landscape Regions of the United States (Wolock, 2003). HLR groups watersheds on the basis of similarities in land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  12. Increased Extreme Hydrological Events and Decreased Water Supply Availability for the Southwestern United States Projected by Mid-Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagan, B. R.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.; Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Mei, R.; Kendall, D. R.; Pal, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-arid Southern California relies primarily on imported water originating mostly from snowpack in basins outside of the region including the San-Joaquin River, Tulare Lake, Sacramento River, Owens Valley, Mono Lake, and Colorado River basins. This study provides an integrated ensemble approach to assessing climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle and hydrologic extremes for all water supplies to Southern California. Output from 10 global climate models is used to force a regional climate model and hydrological model resulting in high-resolution 4.17-km output for the region. Greenhouse gas concentrations are prescribed according to historical values for the present-day (1965-2005) and the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for the near to mid term future (2010-2050). On the annual timescale, temperature, precipitation and evaporation increase throughout the majority of the study area. With increased temperatures, precipitation is less likely to fall as snow, decreasing snowpack and natural storage and shifting peak flows to earlier in the year. Daily annual maximum runoff and precipitation events are projected to significantly increase in intensity and frequency by mid-century. The 50-year event, for example, becomes approximately five times more likely in the Colorado River basin and twice as likely in the other basins. In densely populated coastal Southern Californian cities, extreme flood events become three to five times as likely substantially increasing the risk of overburdening flood control systems and potential widespread flooding. The escalating likelihood of the combined effects of runoff occurring earlier in the year and in significantly higher amounts poses a substantial flood control risk requiring adaptation measures such as water release from reservoirs. Significant snowpack reductions and increased flood risk will likely necessitate additional multiyear storage solutions for urban and agricultural regions in the Southwestern US.

  13. Increased Extreme Hydrological Events and Decreased Water Supply Availability for the Southwestern United States Projected by Mid-Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagan, B. R.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.; Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Mei, R.; Kendall, D. R.; Pal, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid Southern California relies primarily on imported water originating mostly from snowpack in basins outside of the region including the San-Joaquin River, Tulare Lake, Sacramento River, Owens Valley, Mono Lake, and Colorado River basins. This study provides an integrated ensemble approach to assessing climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle and hydrologic extremes for all water supplies to Southern California. Output from 10 global climate models is used to force a regional climate model and hydrological model resulting in high-resolution 4.17-km output for the region. Greenhouse gas concentrations are prescribed according to historical values for the present-day (1965-2005) and the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for the near to mid term future (2010-2050). On the annual timescale, temperature, precipitation and evaporation increase throughout the majority of the study area. With increased temperatures, precipitation is less likely to fall as snow, decreasing snowpack and natural storage and shifting peak flows to earlier in the year. Daily annual maximum runoff and precipitation events are projected to significantly increase in intensity and frequency by mid-century. The 50-year event, for example, becomes approximately five times more likely in the Colorado River basin and twice as likely in the other basins. In densely populated coastal Southern Californian cities, extreme flood events become three to five times as likely substantially increasing the risk of overburdening flood control systems and potential widespread flooding. The escalating likelihood of the combined effects of runoff occurring earlier in the year and in significantly higher amounts poses a substantial flood control risk requiring adaptation measures such as water release from reservoirs. Significant snowpack reductions and increased flood risk will likely necessitate additional multiyear storage solutions for urban and agricultural regions in the Southwestern US.

  14. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  15. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  16. Comparing lake and soil records to climate model simulations of hydrologic conditions across the western United States at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, D. E.; Maher, K.; Oster, J. L.; Egger, A. E.; Harris, C.; Horton, D. E.; Weaver, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the potential for dramatic future hydrologic changes, studies that investigate the transitions between Earth's different climate states have the potential to enhance our understanding of the modern climate system and potential future variability. The interval surrounding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) represents a period when Earth's boundary conditions, greenhouse gas concentrations and orbital parameters were substantially different than today, and thus reconstruction of climate at the LGM provides a key test for climate models. Our study synthesizes multi-proxy geochemical analyses and examines Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project 3 (PMIP3) simulations in an effort to reconstruct changes in the hydrologic cycle over the western United States during the LGM. To enhance the spatial coverage of lake level records, we investigated the timing and magnitude of the most recent pluvial lake cycle at Surprise Valley, California by combining the 230Th-U ages and the δ18O and δ13C of shoreline tufa deposits. This new lake record, spanning 31.2 to 4.6 ka, places lake level 180 and 100 meters above present day playa, at 13.9 ± 1.2 and 22.5 ± 4.6 ka respectively. Combined isotopic and hydrologic modeling of Lake Surprise indicates that annual evaporation may have decreased by as much as 62% (at 13.9 ka) and 20% (at 22.5 ka) during the lake highstand and the LGM. Alternatively, annual precipitation may have increased by as much as 164% and 25% during the lake highstand and the LGM, respectively. Regionally, uranium isotopic variations in dated soil opal are used to constrain net infiltration (~P-ET) along a north-south transect (34.9 to 43.2 °N) in western North America between 10 and 60 ka. Leading up to the LGM, P-ET in soils increased by about 30 to 80% in the valleys of the Great Basin and Mojave deserts, peaking between 24 to 30 ka. A comparison of lake record highstands to changes in P-ET recorded in soil opal found that increases in P-ET precede

  17. Time Series of Snow Covered Area for Hydrologic Response Units of the Tom River Basin, Russia, from Satellite Imagery, 1980-1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, A.; Brubaker, K. L.; Jasinski, M. F.; Stoll, J.

    2003-12-01

    The seasonal snowpack dynamics of the Eurasian mountains and Siberian plains play a critical role in the freshwater fluxes of northern rivers into the Arctic Ocean. This study is part of a larger project whose goal is to analyze the freshwater discharge of the Ob' River (Russia) to the Arctic, using satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modeling on a daily time step. Using AVHRR Polar Pathfinder imagery obtained from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), time series of snow cover (accumulation through depletion) are created for hydrologic response units (HRUs) of the Tom River, a tributary of the Ob'. Sub-watersheds and HRUs of the Tom watershed are delineated using digital elevation and land use/land cover data within a Geographical Information System. All digital data are reprojected to the equal area azimuthal EASE-Grid of the NSIDC imagery. Daily remotely-sensed snow images for 1980 to 1985 are overlaid on the HRUs to give time series of percent snow cover for each HRU. These time series are compared with model-generated HRU snow cover, allowing us to evaluate the performance of the model's snow sub-routines in a spatially distributed manner. This study will contribute to better modeling and understanding of snow accumulation and depletion processes, which serve as important and climate-sensitive controls on the fresh water fluxes of Arctic river basins.

  18. How can hydrology inform economic policymaking? An assessment of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern United States using two concepts of water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Nicoletti, C.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vörösmarty, C.; Fekete, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    similar magnitude. For these counties, dependence on groundwater is observed to increase when withdrawals are high or runoff is low. Otherwise, if the pairs of WSI values change substantially, counties are then interpreted to mainly depend on incoming flows. Counties in this class tend to exhibit lower rates of groundwater extraction. Hydrology thus can inform economic policymaking by making clear that in many ways water becomes available at the county level to fulfill economic requirements, therefore suggesting that the spatial units in which policies are ultimately implemented have physical differences that are not to be in principle neglected. Future research is proposed to study links between patterns of source-dependency and particular purposes for economic withdrawals.

  19. Hydrologic Classification of Bristol Bay, Alaska Using Hydrologic Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, J.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.; Sproles, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on climate, terrain and underlying geology. Such characterization of landscapes into areas of common hydrologic patterning is particularly instructive where site specific hydrologic data is sparse or spatially incomplete. By using broad scale landscape metrics to organize the landscape into discrete, characterized units, natural resources managers can gain valuable understanding of landscape patterning and how locations may be differentially affected by a variety of environmental stressors ranging from land use change to climate change. The heterogeneity of aquatic habitats and undisturbed hydrologic regimes within Bristol Bay are a known principal driver for its overall fisheries stability and the use of hydrologic landscapes offers the ability to better characterize the hydrologic and landscape influences on structuring biotic populations at a regional scale. Here we classify the entire Bristol Bay region into discrete hydrologic landscape units based on indices of annual climate and seasonality, terrain, and geology. We then compared hydrologic landscape units to locations of available long term streamflow for characterization of expected hydrologic behavior where streamflow data was lacking. This demonstration of hydrologic landscapes in Bristol Bay, Alaska shows the utility of using large-scale datasets on climate, terrain and geology to infer broad scale hydrologic patterning within a data poor area. Disclaimer: The authors' views expressed here do not necessarily reflect views or policies of USEPA.

  20. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  1. Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Estimate Bristol Bay Watershed Hydrology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on cl...

  2. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Bryant

    2008-05-01

    This document presents a summary and framework of the available hydrologic data and other information directly relevant to the development of the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99 groundwater flow models. Where appropriate, data and information documented elsewhere are briefly summarized with reference to the complete documentation.

  3. On the Usefulness of Hydrologic Landscapes for Hydrologic Modeling and Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic Landscapes (HLs) are units that can be used in aggregate to describe the watershed-scale hydrologic response of an area through use of physical and climatic properties. The HL assessment unit is a useful classification tool to relate and transfer hydrologically meaning...

  4. On the Usefulness of Hydrologic Landscapes on Hydrologic Model calibration and Selection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic Landscapes (HLs) are units that can be used in aggregate to describe the watershed-scale hydrologic response of an area through use of physical and climatic properties. The HL assessment unit is a useful classification tool to relate and transfer hydrologically meaning...

  5. Using a Process Based Model to Simulate the Effects of Drainage and Land Use Change on Hydrology, and Sediment and Nutrient Transport in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Pradhan, N. R.; Skahill, B. E.; Wahl, M.; Turnbull, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Historically the Midwestern United State was a region dominated by prairie grasses and wetlands. To make use of the rich soils underlying these fertile environments, farmers converted the land to agriculture and currently the Midwest is a region of intensive agricultural production, with agriculture being a predominant land use. The Midwest is a region of gentle slopes, tight soils, and high water tables, and in order to make the lands suitable for agriculture, farmers have installed extensive networks of ditches to drain off excess surface water and subsurface tiles to lower the water table and remove excess soil water in the root zone that can stress common row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The combination of tiles, ditches, and intensive agricultural land practices radically alters the landscape and hydrology. As part of the Minnesota River Basin Integrated Study we are simulating nested watersheds in a sub-basin of the Minnesota River Basin, Seven Mile Creek, using the physics-based watershed model GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis) to simulate water, sediment, and nutrients. Representative of the larger basin, more than 80% of the land in the watershed is dedicated to agricultural practices. From a process perspective, the hydrology is complicated, with snow accumulation and melt, frozen soil, and tile drains all being important processes within the watershed. In this study we attempt to explicitly simulate these processes, including the tile drains, which are simulated as a network of subsurface pipes that collect water from the local water table. Within the watershed, tiles discharge to both the ditch/stream network as well as overland locations, where the tile discharge appears to initiate gullies and exacerbate overland erosion. Testing of the methods on smaller basins demonstrates the ability of the model to simulate measured tile flow. At the larger scale, the model demonstrates ability to simulate flow and sediments. Sparse

  6. Use of statistically and dynamically downscaled atmospheric model output for hydrologic simulations in three mountainous basins in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.E.; Clark, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the hydrologic model performance in three snowmelt-dominated basins in the western United States to dynamically- and statistically downscaled output from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (NCEP). Runoff produced using a distributed hydrologic model is compared using daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature timeseries derived from the following sources: (1) NCEP output (horizontal grid spacing of approximately 210 km); (2) dynamically downscaled (DDS) NCEP output using a Regional Climate Model (RegCM2, horizontal grid spacing of approximately 52 km); (3) statistically downscaled (SDS) NCEP output; (4) spatially averaged measured data used to calibrate the hydrologic model (Best-Sta) and (5) spatially averaged measured data derived from stations located within the area of the RegCM2 model output used for each basin, but excluding Best-Sta set (All-Sta). In all three basins the SDS-based simulations of daily runoff were as good as runoff produced using the Best-Sta timeseries. The NCEP, DDS, and All-Sta timeseries were able to capture the gross aspects of the seasonal cycles of precipitation and temperature. However, in all three basins, the NCEP-, DDS-, and All-Sta-based simulations of runoff showed little skill on a daily basis. When the precipitation and temperature biases were corrected in the NCEP, DDS, and All-Sta timeseries, the accuracy of the daily runoff simulations improved dramatically, but, with the exception of the bias-corrected All-Sta data set, these simulations were never as accurate as the SDS-based simulations. This need for a bias correction may be somewhat troubling, but in the case of the large station-timeseries (All-Sta), the bias correction did indeed 'correct' for the change in scale. It is unknown if bias corrections to model output will be valid in a future climate. Future work is warranted to identify the causes for (and removal of

  7. Reconstruction of hydrologic responses to late-Glacial (9-33ka) abrupt climate transitions in the coastal southwest United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M.; Feakins, S. J.; Kirby, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    A sediment core retrieved from Lake Elsinore, the largest natural freshwater lake in southern California, spans an age of 9 to 33ka BP. The period includes several late-Glacial abrupt climate transitions such as the Heinrich events (HEs) 1-3, the Bølling-Allerød (B-A), and the Younger Dryas (YD). This terrestrial site provides a unique opportunity to evaluate changes in hydrology in coastal southwest United States across these key abrupt climate transition events. Hydrogen isotopic ratios (δDwax) of the long-chain C28 alkanoic acid, a biomarker for terrestrial leaf wax, extracted from the sediments, were analyzed to reveal the δD of precipitation water in the past (δDprecip). In the modern climate, higher δDprecip values are associated with moisture sourced from the tropical Pacific, which brings a drier and warmer climate, whereas lower δDprecip values are associated with moisture sourced from north Pacific brought by polar jet stream, causing a wetter and colder climate. δDwax ranges from about -210‰ to -100‰ between late-Glacial HEs and the beginning of Holocene. The pattern generally correlates with Greenland ice core and regional speleothem records, with lower δDwax values corresponding to colder periods (HEs), and higher δDwax values corresponding to warmer periods (B-A and early Holocene). We infer cold and wet climate with north Pacific sourced moisture during the glacial, followed by gradual warming and drying into the B-A and Holocene, when the moisture sources shifted to the tropical Pacific. There is no substantive response to the YD. The fluctuations of δDwax into and out of the HEs can be as large as about 60‰, suggesting greatly variable hydrology across these late-Glacial abrupt climate transition events. The large shifts in δDwax signal during deglaciation and HEs indicate that hydrology in the coastal southwest US has responded sensitively to climate change, and therefore has important implications for water resources in this

  8. HESS Opinions: Functional units: a novel framework to explore the link between spatial organization and hydrological functioning of intermediate scale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Pfister, L.; Blume, T.; Schröder, B.; Westhoff, M.; Jackisch, C.; Schymanski, S. J.; Weiler, M.; Schulz, K.; Allroggen, N.; Tronicke, J.; Dietrich, P.; Scherer, U.; Eccard, J.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-03-01

    This opinion paper proposes a novel framework for exploring how spatial organization alongside with spatial heterogeneity controls functioning of intermediate scale catchments of organized complexity. Key idea is that spatial organization in landscapes implies that functioning of intermediate scale catchments is controlled by a hierarchy of functional units: hillslope scale lead topologies and embedded elementary functional units (EFUs). We argue that similar soils and vegetation communities and thus also soil structures "co-developed" within EFUs in an adaptive, self-organizing manner as they have been exposed to similar flows of energy, water and nutrients from the past to the present. Class members of the same EFU (class) are thus deemed to belong to the same ensemble with respect to controls of the energy balance and related vertical flows of capillary bounded soil water and heat. Class members of superordinate lead topologies are characterized by the same spatially organized arrangement of EFUs along the gradient driving lateral flows of free water as well as a similar surface and bedrock topography. We hence postulate that they belong to the same ensemble with respect to controls on rainfall runoff transformation and related vertical and lateral fluxes of free water. We expect class members of these functional units to have a distinct way how their architecture controls the interplay of state dynamics and integral flows, which is typical for all members of one class but dissimilar among the classes. This implies that we might infer on the typical dynamic behavior of the most important classes of EFU and lead topologies in a catchment, by thoroughly characterizing a few members of each class. A major asset of the proposed framework, which steps beyond the concept of hydrological response units, is that it can be tested experimentally. In this respect, we reflect on suitable strategies based on stratified observations drawing from process hydrology, soil

  9. Hydrological Ensemble Prediction System (HEPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielen-Del Pozo, J.; Schaake, J.; Martin, E.; Pailleux, J.; Pappenberger, F.

    2010-09-01

    Flood forecasting systems form a key part of ‘preparedness' strategies for disastrous floods and provide hydrological services, civil protection authorities and the public with information of upcoming events. Provided the warning leadtime is sufficiently long, adequate preparatory actions can be taken to efficiently reduce the impacts of the flooding. Following on the success of the use of ensembles for weather forecasting, the hydrological community now moves increasingly towards Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) for improved flood forecasting using operationally available NWP products as inputs. However, these products are often generated on relatively coarse scales compared to hydrologically relevant basin units and suffer systematic biases that may have considerable impact when passed through the non-linear hydrological filters. Therefore, a better understanding on how best to produce, communicate and use hydrologic ensemble forecasts in hydrological short-, medium- und long term prediction of hydrological processes is necessary. The "Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment" (HEPEX), is an international initiative consisting of hydrologists, meteorologist and end-users to advance probabilistic hydrologic forecast techniques for flood, drought and water management applications. Different aspects of the hydrological ensemble processor are being addressed including • Production of useful meteorological products relevant for hydrological applications, ranging from nowcasting products to seasonal forecasts. The importance of hindcasts that are consistent with the operational weather forecasts will be discussed to support bias correction and downscaling, statistically meaningful verification of HEPS, and the development and testing of operating rules; • Need for downscaling and post-processing of weather ensembles to reduce bias before entering hydrological applications; • Hydrological model and parameter uncertainty and how to correct and

  10. Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2009-02-14

    Radiative forcing induced by soot on snow is a major anthropogenic forcing affecting the global climate. However, it is uncertain how the soot-induced snow albedo perturbation affects regional snowpack and the hydrological cycle. In this study we simulated the deposition of soot aerosol on snow and investigated the resulting impact on snowpack and the surface water budget in the western United States. A yearlong simulation was performed using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) to determine an annual budget of soot deposition, followed by two regional climate simulations using WRF in meteorology-only mode, with and without the soot-induced snow albedo perturbations. The chemistry simulation shows large spatial variability in soot deposition that reflects the localized emissions and the influence of the complex terrain. The soot-induced snow albedo perturbations increase the net solar radiation flux at the surface during late winter to early spring, increase the surface air temperature, reduce snow water equivalent amount, and lead to reduced snow accumulation and less spring snowmelt. These effects are stronger over the central Rockies and southern Alberta, where soot deposition and snowpack overlap the most. The indirect forcing of soot accelerates snowmelt and alters stream flows, including a trend toward earlier melt dates in the western United States. The soot-induced albedo reduction initiates a positive feedback process whereby dirty snow absorbs more solar radiation, heating the surface and warming the air. This warming causes reduced snow depth and fraction, which further reduces the regional surface albedo for the snow covered regions. Our simulations indicate that the change of maximum snow albedo induced by soot on snow contributes to 60% of the net albedo reduction over the central Rockies. Snowpack reduction accounts for the additional 40%.

  11. On hydrologic similarity: A dimensionless flood frequency model using a generalized geomorphologic unit hydrograph and partial area runoff generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Wood, Eric F.; Beven, Keith J.

    1993-01-01

    One of the shortcomings of the original theory of the geomorphologic unit hydrograph (GUH) is that it assumes that runoff is generated uniformly from the entire catchment area. It is now recognized that in many catchments much of the runoff during storm events is produced on partial areas which usually form on narrow bands along the stream network. A storm response model that includes runoff generation on partial areas by both Hortonian and Dunne mechanisms was recently developed by the authors. In this paper a methodology for integrating this partial area runoff generation model with the GUH-based runoff routing model is presented; this leads to a generalized GUH. The generalized GUH and the storm response model are then used to estimate physically based flood frequency distributions. In most previous work the initial moisture state of the catchment had been assumed to be constant for all the storms. In this paper we relax this assumption and allow the initial moisture conditions to vary between storms. The resulting flood frequency distributions are cast in a scaled dimensionless framework where issues such as catchment scale and similarity can be conveniently addressed. A number of experiments are performed to study the sensitivity of the flood frequency response to some of the 'similarity' parameters identified in this formulation. The results indicate that one of the most important components of the derived flood frequency model relates to the specification of processes within the runoff generation model; specifically the inclusion of both saturation excess and Horton infiltration excess runoff production mechanisms. The dominance of these mechanisms over different return periods of the flood frequency distribution can significantly affect the distributional shape and confidence limits about the distribution. Comparisons with observed flood distributions seem to indicate that such mixed runoff production mechanisms influence flood distribution shape. The

  12. Temperature of water available for industrial use in the United States: Chapter F in Contributions to the hydrology of the United States, 1923-1924

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, W.D.

    1925-01-01

    The importance of water supply as a limiting factor in industrial development is becoming more evident each year. The limitation in a particular instance may be the quantity of water available, the quality determined by the mineral matter in solution or in suspension or by organic pollution, or the temperature of the water. Generally it is a combination of two or more of these factors. Many publications of the Geological Survey give data in regard to the quantity of surface water and ground water obtainable at different points. Other publications of this Survey and of other organizations give data on the quality of waters available for industrial use. The temperature of these waters is discussed in the present report. Data in regard to ground water have been obtained from Geological Survey water-supply papers, from the publications indicated in footnotes, and from an unpublished compilation of temperature records prepared by C. E. Van Orstrand, of the Geological Survey, in connection with studies of deep earth temperature. Data on temperature of surface water have been obtained mainly from officials of waterworks, as noted in the accompanying table. Data on air temperature have been obtained from reports of the United States Weather Bureau. The maps showing temperature of ground water and surface water (Pls. VIII and IX) are taken directly from Weather Bureau charts of temperature distribution.

  13. Ecological limit functions relating fish community response to hydrologic departures of the ecological flow regime in the Tennessee River basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Rodney R.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Wolfe, William J.; Saylor, Charles F.; Wales, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological limit functions relating streamflow and aquatic ecosystems remain elusive despite decades of research. We investigated functional relationships between species richness and changes in streamflow characteristics at 662 fish sampling sites in the Tennessee River basin. Our approach included the following: (1) a brief summary of relevant literature on functional relations between fish and streamflow, (2) the development of ecological limit functions that describe the strongest discernible relationships between fish species richness and streamflow characteristics, (3) the evaluation of proposed definitions of hydrologic reference conditions, and (4) an investigation of the internal structures of wedge-shaped distributions underlying ecological limit functions.Twenty-one ecological limit functions were developed across three ecoregions that relate the species richness of 11 fish groups and departures from hydrologic reference conditions using multivariate and quantile regression methods. Each negatively sloped function is described using up to four streamflow characteristics expressed in terms of cumulative departure from hydrologic reference conditions. Negative slopes indicate increased departure results in decreased species richness.Sites with the highest measured fish species richness generally had near-reference hydrologic conditions for a given ecoregion. Hydrology did not generally differ between sites with the highest and lowest fish species richness, indicating that other environmental factors likely limit species richness at sites with reference hydrology.Use of ecological limit functions to make decisions regarding proposed hydrologic regime changes, although commonly presented as a management tool, is not as straightforward or informative as often assumed. We contend that statistical evaluation of the internal wedge structure below limit functions may provide a probabilistic understanding of how aquatic ecology is influenced by altered hydrology

  14. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the

  15. EnviroAtlas - Average Annual Precipitation 1981-2010 by HUC12 for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset provides the average annual precipitation by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC). The values were estimated from maps produced by the PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University. The original data was at the scale of 800 m grid cells representing average precipitation from 1981-2010 in mm. The data was converted to inches of precipitation and then zonal statistics were estimated for a final value of average annual precipitation for each 12 digit HUC. For more information about the original dataset please refer to the PRISM website at http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  16. Parameterization of 3D Radiative Transfer over Mountains and Investigation of its Impact on Surface Hydrology over the Western United States Using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Liou, K.; Leung, L.; Lee, W.; Fovell, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Modern climate models have used a plane-parallel (PP) radiative transfer approach in physics parameterizations; however, the potential errors that arise from neglecting three-dimensional (3D) interactions between radiation and mountains/snow on climate simulations have not been studied and quantified. We have developed a surface solar radiation parameterization based on the regression analysis of flux deviations between 3D and conventional PP radiative transfer models, which has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on surface hydrology. Using the Rocky and Sierra-Nevada Mountains in the Western United States as a testbed, the WRF model with the incorporation of the 3D parameterization is applied at a 30 km grid resolution covering a time period from November 1, 2007 to May 31, 2008 during which abundant snowfall occurred. Comparison of the 3D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes and on the consequent elevation-dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. For lower elevations, positive deviations (3D - PP) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours, while negative deviations are shown between 10 am-2 pm during the winter months, leading to reduced diurnal variations. Over the mountain tops above 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40 - 60 W/m2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain

  17. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  18. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  19. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change. This work has included development of the HL classification framework and its application to Oregon, use of the HL classes to predict where a simple lumped hydrologic model accurately predicts daily streamflow, use of HL information to model the presence of cold-water patches at tributary confluences, and combining Oregon HL results with temperature and precipitation predictions to examine how HLs would vary as a result of climate change. As a part of the current work, the HL approach has been expanded to the Pacific Northwest (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho) based on a revision of the approach that makes it more broadly applicable. This revised approach has several advantages compared with the original approach: it is not limited to areas that have an aquifer permeability map; it uses a flexible approach to converting a nationally available geospatial dataset into assessment units; and it is more robust. These improvements should allow the revised HL approach to be applied more often in situations requiring hydrologic classification, and allow greater confidence in results. This effort paves the way for a climate change analysis for the Pacific Northwest that is currently underway, as well as expansion into the southwest (California, Arizona, and Nevada). This dataset contains a high resolutio

  20. On the Usefulness of Hydrologic Landscapes for Hydrologic Model Calibration and Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Comeleo, R. L.; Jones, C., Jr.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic Landscapes (HLs) are units that can be used in aggregate to describe the watershed-scale hydrologic response of an area through use of physical and climatic properties. The HL assessment unit is a useful classification tool to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between different watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A revised HL classification scheme was developed for over 10,000 assessment units (the fundamental unit of area for an HL) within the Pacific Northwest (PNW; Oregon, Washington, and Idaho). Aggregation and validation of the PNW HL assessment units to the watershed-scale was then completed for the PNW through use of clustering approaches and the hydrologic response as defined by hydroclimatic signatures. A result generated from this study was that the HL assessment units with greater moisture surplus or deficit formed a stronger connection between watershed-scale PNW HL and hydrologic response. The next step was to investigate the usefulness of the information contained within the PNW with regard to hydrologic modeling calibration and model structure selection. The hypothesis that we set forward for this study is that hydrologic response, as inferred and derived from the HL assessment units, is helpful for the structural identification and calibration of hydrologic models. A selection of streamgage stations and their associated watershed area across the PNW were modeled with lumped and semi-distributed modeling structures. The resulting model calibration and parameter space exploration leads to the identification of assessment unit types that are more hydrologically influential to the overall hydrologic functions of the watershed.

  1. Ground-water hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow at Operable Unit 3 and surrounding region, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Air Station, Jacksonville (herein referred to as the Station), occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Duval County, Florida. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) occupies 134 acres on the eastern side of the Station and has been used for industrial and commercial purposes since World War II. Ground water contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds has been detected in the surficial aquifer at OU3. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a cooperative hydrologic study to evaluate the potential for ground water discharge to the neighboring St. Johns River. A ground-water flow model, previously developed for the area, was recalibrated for use in this study. At the Station, the surficial aquifer is exposed at land surface and forms the uppermost permeable unit. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 30 to 100 feet and consists of unconsolidated silty sands interbedded with local beds of clay. The low-permeability clays of the Hawthorn Group form the base of the aquifer. The USGS previously conducted a ground-water investigation at the Station that included the development and calibration of a 1-layer regional ground-water flow model. For this investigation, the regional model was recalibrated using additional data collected after the original calibration. The recalibrated model was then used to establish the boundaries for a smaller subregional model roughly centered on OU3. Within the subregional model, the surficial aquifer is composed of distinct upper and intermediate layers. The upper layer extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 15 feet below sea level; the intermediate layer extends from the upper layer down to the top of the Hawthorn Group. In the northern and central parts of OU3, the upper and intermediate layers are separated by a low-permeability clay layer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the upper layer, determined from aquifer tests, range from 0.19 to 3.8 feet per day. The horizontal hydraulic

  2. Tools for Interdisciplinary Data Assimilation and Sharing in Support of Hydrologic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Walker, J.; Suftin, I.; Warren, M.; Kunicki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Information consumed and produced in hydrologic analyses is interdisciplinary and massive. These factors put a heavy information management burden on the hydrologic science community. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Water Information Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) seeks to assist hydrologic science investigators with all-components of their scientific data management life cycle. Ongoing data publication and software development projects will be presented demonstrating publically available data access services and manipulation tools being developed with support from two Department of the Interior initiatives. The USGS-led National Water Census seeks to provide both data and tools in support of nationally consistent water availability estimates. Newly available data include national coverages of radar-indicated precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, water use estimates aggregated by county, and South East region estimates of streamflow for 12-digit hydrologic unit code watersheds. Web services making these data available and applications to access them will be demonstrated. Web-available processing services able to provide numerous streamflow statistics for any USGS daily flow record or model result time series and other National Water Census processing tools will also be demonstrated. The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center is a USGS center leading DOI-funded academic global change adaptation research. It has a mission goal to ensure data used and produced by funded projects is available via web services and tools that streamline data management tasks in interdisciplinary science. For example, collections of downscaled climate projections, typically large collections of files that must be downloaded to be accessed, are being published using web services that allow access to the entire dataset via simple web-service requests and numerous processing tools. Recent progress on this front includes, data web services for Climate

  3. Discrete and continuous water-quality data and hydrologic parameters from seven agricultural watersheds in the United States, 2002-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Lampe, David C.; Capel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Field and analytical methods; discrete organic and non-organic water-quality data and associated quality-control data; and continuous hydrologic and water-quality parameters are reported for sites in California, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, and Washington. The sites were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s Agricultural Chemicals Team study to better understand how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment.

  4. Hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Ankcorn, Paul D.; Peck, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center (GaWSC) maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 320 real-time streamgages, including 10 real-time lake-level monitoring stations and 63 real-time water-quality monitors. Additionally, the GaWSC operates more than 180 groundwater wells, 41 of which are real-time. One of the many benefits from this monitoring network is that the data analysis provides an overview of the hydrologic conditions of rivers, creeks, reservoirs, and aquifers in Georgia.

  5. Future humidity trends over the western United States in the CMIP5 global climate models and variable infiltration capacity hydrological modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, D. W.; Westerling, A. L.; Oyler, J.

    2013-05-01

    Global climate models predict relative humidity (RH) in the western US will decrease at a rate of about 0.1-0.6 percentage points per decade, albeit with seasonal differences (most drying in spring and summer), geographical variability (greater declines in the interior), stronger reductions for greater anthropogenic radiative forcing, and notable spread among the models. Although atmospheric moisture content increases, this is more than compensated for by higher air temperatures, leading to declining RH. Fine-scale hydrological simulations driven by the global model results should reproduce these trends. It is shown that the MT-CLIM meteorological algorithms used by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model, when driven by daily Tmin, Tmax, and precipitation (a configuration used in numerous published studies), do not preserve the original global model's humidity trends. Trends are biased positive in the interior western US, so that strong RH decreases are changed to weak decreases, and weak decreases are changed to increases. This happens because the MT-CLIM algorithms VIC incorporates infer an overly large positive trend in atmospheric moisture content in this region, likely due to an underestimate of the effect of increasing aridity on RH. The result could downplay the effects of decreasing RH on plants and wildfire. RH trends along the coast have a weak negative bias due to neglect of the ocean's moderating influence. A numerical experiment where the values of Tdew are altered to compensate for the RH error suggests that eliminating the atmospheric moisture bias could, in and of itself, decrease runoff up to 14% in high-altitude regions east of the Sierra Nevada and Cascades, and reduce estimated Colorado River runoff at Lees Ferry up to 4% by the end of the century. It could also increase the probability of large fires in the northern and central US Rocky Mountains by 13 to 60%.

  6. Applicability of Hydrologic Landscapes for Model Calibration ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) at the assessment unit scale has provided a solid conceptual classification framework to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A collection of techniques were applied to the HL assessment unit composition in watersheds across the Pacific Northwest to aggregate the hydrologic behavior of the Hydrologic Landscapes from the assessment unit scale to the watershed scale. This non-trivial solution both emphasizes HL classifications within the watershed that provide that majority of moisture surplus/deficit and considers the relative position (upstream vs. downstream) of these HL classifications. A clustering algorithm was applied to the HL-based characterization of assessment units within 185 watersheds to help organize watersheds into nine classes hypothesized to have similar hydrologic behavior. The HL-based classes were used to organize and describe hydrologic behavior information about watershed classes and both predictions and validations were independently performed with regard to the general magnitude of six hydroclimatic signature values. A second cluster analysis was then performed using the independently calculated signature values as similarity metrics, and it was found that the six signature clusters showed substantial overlap in watershed class membership to those in the HL-based classes. One hypothesis set forward from thi

  7. Scaling Applications in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2010-05-01

    Besides downscaling applications, scaling properties of hydrological fields can be used to address a variety of research questions. In this presentation, we will use scaling properties to address questions related to satellite evapotranspiration algorithms, precipitation-streamflow relationships, and hydrological model calibration. Most of the existing satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms have been developed using fine-resolution Landsat TM and ASTER data. However, these algorithms are often applied to coarse-resolution MODIS data. Our results show that applying the satellite-based algorithms, which are developed at ASTER resolution, to MODIS resolution leads to ET estimates that (1) preserve the overall spatial pattern (spatial correlation in excess of 0.90), (2) increase the spatial standard deviation and maximum value, (3) have modest conditional bias: underestimate low ET rates (< 1 mm/day) and overestimate high ET rates; the overestimation is within 20%. The results emphasize the need for exploring alternatives for estimation of ET from MODIS. Understanding the relationship between the scaling properties of precipitation and streamflow is important in a number of applications. We present the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River basin in Georgia in the United States with focus on effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 22 km2 to 19,606 km2. Results show that large watersheds have more persistent flow fluctuations and stronger long-term (time greater than scale break point) memory than small watersheds while precipitation time series shows weak long-term correlation. We conclude that a watershed acts as a 'filter' for a 'white noise' precipitation with more significant filtering in case of large watersheds. Finally, we compare the scaling properties of simulated and observed spatial soil

  8. Investigating Land-Use Effects on Hydrologic Processes and Water Quality in a Complex Karst Hydro-Region of the Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Bulliner, E. A.; Freeman, G. W.; Chinnasamy, P.; Hosmer, G. W.; Scollan, D. P.; Stokely, T. D.

    2009-12-01

    A century of watershed studies verify that hydrologic and water quality responses to land-use varies substantially physiographically. In the Oak dominated, Missouri Ozark Karst hydrogeologic region of the Central U.S., catchment studies are needed to validate current forest best management practices (BMPs). Similarly, studies are necessary that quantify urban degraded freshwater resources and disassembled riparian zone form and function. Given that continued human population growth over the next several decades will place unprecedented demands on forested and urban water resources, it is imperative to confront contemporary forested watershed issues that encompass the wildland - urban interface. Studies were initiated in the fall of 2008 to: a) validate current riparian forest BMPs, b) quantify peak flows and microclimate alteration due to urbanization, and c) quantify stream connectivity to adjacent riparian floodplains. Study catchments are located in the urbanizing Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW, 231km2) and the Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Area (BREA, 8.9 km2), both watersheds centrally located in Missouri. Hydroclimate stations were installed at five locations along Hinkson Creek partitioning forest, cropland, and urban environments (nested-scale study design), and two opposing forested stream reaches of the BREA. Climate in central Missouri is generally classified as humid continental, with annual mean temperature and precipitation of approximately 12.6 °C and 1050 mm respectively. Study catchments land use spans old growth mixed deciduous forest to rural pastureland and the growing urbanized center of Columbia, Mo (population exceeding 101,000). Soils are highly variable prairie-forest transitional to loamy till with a well developed clay pan of thin cherty clay and silty to sandy clay. Preliminary analyses of BREA riparian data (summer 2009) indicate that average temperatures for E-W oriented stream reaches are 0.3 °C lower than the N-S reaches

  9. Introduction to hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrology deals with the occurrence, movement, and storage of water in the Earth system. Hydrologic science comprises understanding the underlying physical and stochastic processes involved and estimating the quantity and quality of water in the various phases and stores. The study of hydrology als...

  10. Historical Stream Fish Distribution Database for the Conterminous United States (1950-1990): IchthyMaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpong, Emmanuel; Huang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Fish occurrence data to support high-resolution distribution models and test various community and macroecological hypotheses have not been available at the national scale. We present IchthyMaps, a database of high-quality historical fish occurrences covering fishes of the conterminous United States. Designed on the principles of metacommunity ecology, IchthyMaps is a compilation of presence records from atlases up to 1990, at the resolution of the 1:100,000 National Hydrography Database Plus (NHDPlus) inter-confluence stream segment, readily aggregated into hierarchically coarser units (e.g. hydrologic unit code 8-digit and 12-digit watersheds). IchthyMaps contains about 606,550 presence records for 1,038 species and subspecies. These presence records occurred on 224,305 NHDPlus interconfluence stream segments, representing > 10% average sampling intensity. IchthyMaps is publicly accessible through USGS' ScienceBase infrastructure. It offers unprecedented opportunities for both basic and applied research and conservation initiatives in areas such as studying biogeography, gap analysis, and assessments of impacts of land use, species invasions, and climate change. More generally, this database broadens our capability to conduct research on fish ecology, biogeography, and management.

  11. Applicability of Hydrologic Landscapes for Model Calibration at the Watershed Scale in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) at the assessment unit scale has provided a solid conceptual classification framework to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A collection of tec...

  12. Responses of stream nitrate and DOC loadings to hydrological forcing and climate change in an upland forest of the northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shanley, James B.

    2009-06-01

    In coming decades, higher annual temperatures, increased growing season length, and increased dormant season precipitation are expected across the northeastern United States in response to anthropogenic forcing of global climate. We synthesized long-term stream hydrochemical data from the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, United States, to explore the relationship of catchment wetness to stream nitrate and DOC loadings. We modeled changes in growing season length and precipitation patterns to simulate future climate scenarios and to assess how stream nutrient loadings respond to climate change. Model results for the 2070-2099 time period suggest that stream nutrient loadings during both the dormant and growing seasons will respond to climate change. During a warmer climate, growing season stream fluxes (runoff +20%, nitrate +57%, and DOC +58%) increase as more precipitation (+28%) and quick flow (+39%) occur during a longer growing season (+43 days). During the dormant season, stream water and nutrient loadings decrease. Net annual stream runoff (+8%) and DOC loading (+9%) increases are commensurate with the magnitude of the average increase of net annual precipitation (+7%). Net annual stream water and DOC loadings are primarily affected by increased dormant season precipitation. In contrast, decreased annual loading of stream nitrate (-2%) reflects a larger effect of growing season controls on stream nitrate and the effects of lengthened growing seasons in a warmer climate. Our findings suggest that leaching of nitrate and DOC from catchment soils will be affected by anthropogenic climate forcing, thereby affecting the timing and magnitude of annual stream loadings in the northeastern United States.

  13. Responses of stream nitrate and DOC loadings to hydrological forcing and climate change in an upland forest of the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sebestyen, S.D.; Boyer, E.W.; Shanley, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    In coming decades, higher annual temperatures, increased growing season length, and increased dormant season precipitation are expected across the northeastern United States in response to anthropogenic forcing of global climate. We synthesized long-term stream hydrochemical data from the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, United States, to explore the relationship of catchment wetness to stream nitrate and DOC loadings. We modeled changes in growing season length and precipitation patterns to simulate future climate scenarios and to assess how stream nutrient loadings respond to climate change. Model results for the 2070-2099 time period suggest that stream nutrient loadings during both the dormant and growing seasons will respond to climate change. During a warmer climate, growing season stream fluxes (runoff+20%, nitrate +57%, and DOC +58%) increase as more precipitation (+28%) and quick flow (+39%) occur during a longer growing season (+43 days). During the dormant season, stream water and nutrient loadings decrease. Net annual stream runoff (+8%) and DOC loading (+9%) increases are commensurate with the magnitude of the average increase of net annual precipitation (+7%). Net annual stream water and DOC loadings are primarily affected by increased dormant season precipitation. In contrast, decreased annual loading of stream nitrate (-2%) reflects a larger effect of growing season controls on stream nitrate and the effects of lengthened growing seasons in a warmer climate. Our findings suggest that leaching of nitrate and DOC from catchment soils will be affected by anthropogenic climate forcing, thereby affecting the timing and magnitude of annual stream loadings in the northeastern United States. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. GLOBE Hydrology Workshop SEIP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Matt Krigbaum (left), a teacher at Mitchell Elementary in Ann Arbor, Mich., pours water from the Pearl River into a turbidity tube to measure the river's light penetration. Krigbaum, along with Lois Williams, principal at Elizabeth Courville Elementary in Detroit, Mich.; and Carolyn Martin and Arlene Wittmer, teachers at Elizabeth Courville Elementary; conducted the experiment during a GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) hydrology workshop. GLOBE is a worldwide, hands-on science education program in which teachers can become certified to implement the program at their schools after taking hydrology, land cover/biology, atmosphere/climate and soil protocol workshops. Twelve teachers from across the country attended the recent weeklong GLOBE training at SSC, offered through its Educator Resource Center and the NASA Explorer Schools program. All workshops are free and offer continuing education units.

  15. Biotic, water-quality, and hydrologic metrics calculated for the analysis of temporal trends in National Water Quality Assessment Program Data in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Miller, Matthew P.; May, Jason T.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was established by Congress in 1991 to collect long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. The NAWQA Program utilizes interdisciplinary and dynamic studies that link the chemical and physical conditions of streams (such as flow and habitat) with ecosystem health and the biologic condition of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish communities. This report presents metrics derived from NAWQA data and the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network for sampling sites in the Western United States, as well as associated chemical, habitat, and streamflow properties. The metrics characterize the conditions of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. In addition, we have compiled climate records and basin characteristics related to the NAWQA sampling sites. The calculated metrics and compiled data can be used to analyze ecohydrologic trends over time.

  16. Addendum for the Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0 (page changes)

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2007-05-01

    This document, which makes changes to Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, S-N/99205--077, Revision 0 (June 2006), was prepared to address review comments on this final document provided by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 4, 2006. The document includes revised pages that address NDEP review comments and comments from other document users. Change bars are included on these pages to identify where the text was revised. In addition to the revised pages, the following clarifications are made for the two plates inserted in the back of the document: • Plate 4: Disregard the repeat of legend text ‘Drill Hole Name’ and ‘Drill Hole Location’ in the lower left corner of the map. • Plate 6: The symbol at the ER-16-1 location (white dot on the lower left side of the map) is not color-coded because no water level has been determined. The well location is included for reference. • Plate 6: The symbol at the ER-12-1 location (upper left corner of the map), a yellow dot, represents the lower water level elevation. The higher water level elevation, represented by a red dot, was overprinted.

  17. Snow hydrology in a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Glatzmaier, Gary

    1994-01-01

    A snow hydrology has been implemented in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The snow hydrology consists of parameterizations of snowfall and snow cover fraction, a prognostic calculation of snow temperature, and a model of the snow mass and hydrologic budgets. Previously, only snow albedo had been included by a specified snow line. A 3-year GCM simulation with this now more complete surface hydrology is compared to a previous GCM control run with the specified snow line, as well as with observations. In particular, the authors discuss comparisons of the atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget for U.S. and Canadian areas. The new snow hydrology changes the annual cycle of the surface moisture and energy budgets in the model. There is a noticeable shift in the runoff maximum from winter in the control run to spring in the snow hydrology run. A substantial amount of GCM winter precipitation is now stored in the seasonal snowpack. Snow cover also acts as an important insulating layer between the atmosphere and the ground. Wintertime soil temperatures are much higher in the snow hydrology experiment than in the control experiment. Seasonal snow cover is important for dampening large fluctuations in GCM continental skin temperature during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Snow depths and snow extent show good agreement with observations over North America. The geographic distribution of maximum depths is not as well simulated by the model due, in part, to the coarse resolution of the model. The patterns of runoff are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to observed patterns of streamflow averaged over the continental United States. The seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporation are also reasonably well simulated by the model, although their magnitudes are larger than is observed. This is due, in part, to a cold bias in this model, which results in a dry model atmosphere and enhances the hydrologic cycle everywhere.

  18. Snow hydrology in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S. ); Roads, J.O. ); Glatzmaier, G. )

    1994-08-01

    A snow hydrology has been implemented in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The snow hydrology consists of parameterizations of snowfall and snow cover fraction, a prognostic calculation of snow temperature, and a model of the snow mass and hydrologic budgets. Previously, only snow albedo had been included. A 3-year GCM simulation with this more complete surface hydrology is compared to a previous GCM control run with the specified snow line, as well as with observations. In particular, the authors discuss comparisons of the atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget for U.S. and Canadian areas. The new snow hydrology changes the annual cycle of the surface moisture and energy budgets in the model. There is a noticeable shift in the runoff maximum from winter in the control run to spring in the snow hydrology run. A substantial amount of GCM winter precipitation is now stored in the seasonal snowpack. Snow cover also acts as an important insulating layer between the atmosphere and the ground. Wintertime soil temperatures are much higher in the snow, hydrology experiment than in the control experiment. Seasonal snow cover is important for dampening large fluctuations in GCM continental skin temperature during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Snow depths and snow extent show good agreement with observations over North America. The geographic distribution of maximum depths is not as well simulated by the model due, in part, to the coarse resolution of the model. The patterns of runoff are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to observed patterns of streamflow averaged over the continental United States. The seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporation are also reasonably well simulated by the model, although their magnitudes are larger than is observed. This is due, in part, to a cold bias in this model, which results in a dry model atmosphere and enhances the hydrologic cycle everywhere. 52 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Progress report on the geology and ground-water hydrology of part of the Oahe Unit, James River Division, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waring, Gerald A.; Bush, W.H.

    1950-01-01

    The Oahe Unit, in the James River basin in eastern South Dakota, extends for about 100 miles north and south and is 20 to 80 miles wide, having the river as its east border. The Oahe irrigation project is planned to supply water to 750,000 to 1,500,000 acres of the most suitable land within the area. The studies that have been undertaken in the Oahe area by the Ground Water Division of the U. S. Geological Survey form a part of the investigations which are being carried on by several bureaus of the Department of the Interior and other government agencies for the conservation, control and utilization of the water resources of the Missouri River Basin. The field studies on which the present report is based were made during May 1947 through November 1948 and cover about 1,890 square miles in the southern part of the Oahe area. Data were collected on the character of the surficial geological deposits, and on the occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the groundwater supplies. The report describes the several water-bearing formations and presents nine typical logs of deep artesian wells. The records of fluctuation of the water table in 168 wells in or near the Oahe area are listed. Tabulated inventory of 3,257 wells and springs includes information on the observation wells and on all other wells that were noted within the area examined.

  20. The artesian water supply of the Dakota sandstone in North Dakota, with special reference to the Edgeley quadrangle: Chapter E in Contributions to the hydrology of the United States, 1923-1924

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinzer, Oscar E.; Hard, Herbert A.

    1925-01-01

    The Dakota sandstone and the overlying dense plastic shales form the most remarkable artesian basin in the United States with respect to its great extent, the long distances through which its water has percolated from the outcrops of the sandstone in the western mountains to the areas of artesian flow, and especially the tremendous pressure under which the water in the sandstone was originally by thick and continuous cover of impermeable shales. In 1882 a well was drilled to the Dakota sandstone at Aberdeen, S. Dak., by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. This well was reported by Nettleton1 to have been "the first bore put down which reached the artesian basin of the Dakotas." In 1896 Darton2 estimated that about 400 artesian wells had been drilled to the Dakota sandstone, presumably in South Dakota and adjacent parts of the artesian basin in North Dakota which he investigated.3 The strongest of these wells had pressures ranging from 100 to more than 200 pounds to the square inch and flows ranging from 1,000 to more than 4,000 gallons a minute. The present brief paper is based chiefly on the data that have been obtained in the successive surveys in regard to about 230 artesian wells in or near the Edgeley quadrangle. A table of these well data is on file in the United States Geological Survey and is to be published in the detailed report on the geology and hydrology of the Edgeley and La Moure quadrangles that has been prepared by Mr. Hard. The well data obtained by Mr. Hard have already been published in a report prepared by him in his capacity as State flood-control engineer.

  1. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project to assess and evaluate the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundwater beneath the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity. The framework for this evaluation is provided in Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Section 3.0 of Appendix VI ''Corrective Action Strategy'' of the FFACO describes the process that will be used to complete corrective actions specifically for the UGTA Project. The objective of the UGTA corrective action strategy is to define contaminant boundaries for each UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) where groundwater may have become contaminated from the underground nuclear weapons tests. The contaminant boundaries are determined based on modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. A summary of the FFACO corrective action process and the UGTA corrective action strategy is provided in Section 1.5. The FFACO (1996) corrective action process for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97 was initiated with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 2000a). The CAIP included a review of existing data on the CAU and proposed a set of data collection activities to collect additional characterization data. These recommendations were based on a value of information analysis (VOIA) (IT, 1999), which evaluated the value of different possible data collection activities, with respect to reduction in uncertainty of the contaminant boundary, through simplified transport modeling. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAIP identifies a three-step model development process to evaluate the impact of underground nuclear testing on groundwater to determine a contaminant boundary (DOE/NV, 2000a). The three steps are as follows: (1) Data compilation and analysis that provides the necessary modeling data that is

  2. Hydrologic Services Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    A course to develop an understanding of the scope of water resource activities, of the need for forecasting, of the National Weather Service's role in hydrology, and of the proper procedures to follow in fulfilling this role is presented. The course is one of self-help, guided by correspondence. Nine lessons are included: (1) Hydrology in the…

  3. Hands-On Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  4. Global scale hydrology - Advances in land surface modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Research into global scale hydrology is an expanding area that includes researchers from the meteorology, climatology, ecology and hydrology communities. This paper reviews research in this area carried out in the United States during the last IUGG quadrennial period of 1987-1990. The review covers the representation of land-surface hydrologic processes for general circulation models (GCMs), sensitivity analysis of these representations on global hydrologic fields like precipitation, regional studies of climate that have global hydrologic implications, recent field studies and experiments whose aims are the improved understanding of land surface-atmospheric interactions, and the use of remotely sensed data for the further understanding of the spatial variability of surface hydrologic processes that are important at regional and global climate scales. 76 refs.

  5. The hydrologic laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.

    1963-01-01

    The knowledge of soil and rock testing, including the application of the test or analysis data to field problems, is still in its infancy. By learning more about the basic laws and principles of nature we can more accurately predict hydrologic phenomena of the future, as well as solve more efficiently the hydrologic problems of the present Our reservoir of fundamental facts and basic knowledge has been, and can be even more fully, increased by the analysis and research work of the Hydrologic Laboratory.

  6. Global Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the major scientific questions in hydrology is: Can remote sensing data be used effectively with models to improve our understanding of hydrologic processes? Virtually all hydrologic models, with only a few exceptions, were designed to interface with conventional point data. These models must be modified or new ones developed to be compatible with remote sensing capabilities (areal coverage, high spatial resolution, repetitiveness, etc.). A comprehensive program of development and testing of these models at various application scales ranging from flash flood modeling and small tributary streams to continental size general circulation models must be carried out.

  7. Hydrology and sedimentology manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, J.F.; Sunday, G.K.; Weagraff, H.M.; Eggert, K.G.; Li, R.M.

    1989-11-06

    This document presents techniques thought to be most appropriate for analysis of mineland hydrology, hydraulics, geomorphology sedimentation and associated hydraulic structures in the western United States. The volume serves as a reference for the evaluation and review of mine plans, and to provide background for the material included in the accompanying volume Hydrology and sediment yield work manual. However, it is also addressed to the larger problem of acquiring an understanding of the physical processes associated with runoff acting in a surface mining environment.

  8. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  9. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  10. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  11. Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain

    SciTech Connect

    Muir-Wood, R.; King, G.C.P. |

    1993-12-01

    The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months. In contrast, hydrological changes accompanying pure reverse fault earthquakes are either undetected or indicate lowering of well levels and spring flows. Strike-slip and oblique-slip fault movements are associated with a mixture of responses but appear to release no more than 10% of the water volume of the same sized normal fault event. For two major normal fault earthquakes in the western United States (those of Hebgen Lake on August 17, 1959, and Borah Peak on October 28, 1983), there is sufficient river flow information to allow the magnitude and extent of the postseismic discharge to be quantified. The discharge has been converted to a rainfall equivalent, which is found to exceed 100 mm close to the fault and to remain above 10 mm at distances greater than 50 km. Results suggest that water-filled craks are ubiquitous throughout the brittle continental crust and that these cracks open and close throughout the earthquake cycle. The existence of tectonically induced fluid flows on the scale that we demonstrate has major implications for our understanding of the mechanical and chemical behavior of crustal rocks.

  12. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B. ); Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management.

  13. Monthly Water Balance Model Hydrology Futures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bock, Andy; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2016-01-01

    A monthly water balance model (MWBM) was driven with precipitation and temperature using a station-based dataset for current conditions (1950 to 2010) and selected statistically-downscaled general circulation models (GCMs) for current and future conditions (1950 to 2099) across the conterminous United States (CONUS) using hydrologic response units from the Geospatial Fabric for National Hydrologic Modeling (http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5066/F7542KMD). Six MWBM output variables (actual evapotranspiration (AET), potential evapotranspiration (PET), runoff (RO), streamflow (STRM), soil moisture storage (SOIL), and snow water equivalent (SWE)) and the two MWBM input variables (atmospheric temperature (TAVE) and precipitation (PPT)) were summarized for hydrologic response units and aggregated at points of interest on a stream network. Results were then organized into the Monthly Water Balance Hydrology Futures database, an open-access database using netCDF format (http://cida-eros-mows1.er.usgs.gov/thredds/dodsC/nwb_pub/).  Methods used to calibrate and parameterize the MWBM are detailed in the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)  paper "Parameter regionalization of a monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States" by Bock and others (2016).  See the discussion paper link in the "Related External Resources" section for access.  Supplemental data files related to the plots and data analysis in Bock and others (2016) can be found in the HESS-2015-325.zip folder in the "Attached Files" section.  Detailed information on the files and data can be found in the ReadMe.txt contained within the zipped folder. Recommended citation of discussion paper:Bock, A.R., Hay, L.E., McCabe, G.J., Markstrom, S.L., and Atkinson, R.D., 2016, Parameter regionalization of a monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, v. 20, 2861-2876, doi:10.5194/hess-20-2861-2016, 2016

  14. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  15. Hillslope hydrology and stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  16. AGU on hydrological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hydrologists and other scientists expressed concern that progress in hydrology is impeded by a lack of programmatic focus within the National Science Foundation. In response to the concern, AGU president Don Anderson appointed a panel to assess the situation and to recommend an appropriate AGU position on this issue. The report of the panel was considered at the Fall meeting of the Council and approved as the formal Union position. Subsequently, it was transmitted to Robert Corell, head of the NSF Geosciences Directorate, for consideration. The position itself is given below.Hydrologic Science Within the NSF—A Position Statement: AGU recommends that NSF take steps to establish a unified program in hydrologic science that is commensurate with the importance of water in Earth processes at all scales.

  17. AGU Hydrology Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Executive Committee of the AGU Hydrology Section met in regular session at 4:00 P.M. on Thursday, December 8, 1983, in Room 378 of the Cathedral Hill Hotel, San Francisco, Calif. Seven board members were present with section president, Peter Eagleson, presiding.A total of 18 sessions were presented in San Francisco, and all were well attended, as was reported by program chairman Dennis Lettenmaier. Added to the regular sessions of General Hydrology, General Ground-water Hydrology, and Sediment Transport were the following special sessions: Glacier Ocean Interaction, presider Edward Josberger; Orinoco and the Amazon, presider Edward Andrews; Transport and Geochemical Interactions in Stream Water, presider F. E. Bencola; Instream Flow Requirements for Fish, presider Brian W. Mar; Multivariate Modeling of Hydrologic and Other Geophysical Time Series, presiders Jose D. Salas and David R. Dawdy; Optimization Techniques for Managing Ground Water and Stream Aquifer Systems, presider Steve Gorelick; Treatment of Evapotranspiration Soil Moisture Evolution and Aquifer Recharge in Watershed Models, presiders Arlen D. Feldman and Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux; Statistical Procedures for Estimating of Flood Risk at Gauged Sites, presider J. R. Stedinger; and Searching for More Physically Based Extreme Value Distributions in Hydrology, presider Juan B. Valdes. The session on Glacier Ocean Interaction received the most publicity, with numerous accounts of some of the presentations appearing in the newspaper. One of the pleasant surprises of the meetings was the high attendance at the special sessions on Optimization Techniques for Managing Ground Water and Stream Aquifer Systems and Multivariate Modeling of Hydrologic and Other Geophysical Time Series. Both sessions were highly interdisciplinary, attracting numerous scientists from other sections of AGU.

  18. Oregon hydrologic landscape regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individuals who spend time working with streams intuitively come to understand that stream hydrologic and ecological characteristics are related to the attributes of the watersheds in which they occur. This is easy to see in Oregon with its large climatic and geologic variations ...

  19. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  20. Curricula and Syllabi in Hydrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This collection of papers is intended to provide a means for the exchange of information on hydrological techniques and for the coordination of research and data collection. The objectives and trends in hydrological education are presented. The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) Working Group on Education recommends a series of topics that…

  1. Hydrology of Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2007-01-01

    Local water managers usually rely on information produced at the State and regional scale to make water-resource management decisions. Current assessments of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County, Florida, commonly end at the boundaries of two water management districts (South Florida Water Management District and the Southwest Florida Water Management District), which makes it difficult for managers to determine conditions throughout the county. The last comprehensive water-resources assessment of Polk County was published almost 40 years ago. To address the need for current countywide information, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 3?-year study in 2002 to update information about hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County and identify changes that have occurred. Ground-water use in Polk County has decreased substantially since 1965. In 1965, total ground-water withdrawals in the county were about 350 million gallons per day. In 2002, withdrawals totaled about 285 million gallons per day, of which nearly 95 percent was from the Floridan aquifer system. Water-conservation practices mainly related to the phosphate-mining industry as well as the decrease in the number of mines in operation in Polk County have reduced total water use by about 65 million gallons per day since 1965. Polk County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer system, which is unconfined and composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer system is underlain by the intermediate confining unit, which grades into the intermediate aquifer system and consists of up to two water-bearing zones composed of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a thick sequence of permeable limestone and dolostone, consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and

  2. Hydrologic Response Differences Between Drainage Network Classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. L.; Gironas, J. A.; Niemann, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Basin drainage networks have been grouped into classifications such as dendritic, parallel, pinnate, rectangular and trellis based on their planform structures. While it has long been known that the size and shape of a drainage basin affect its hydrologic response to precipitation events, the effects of the network organization have not been investigated as extensively. The objective of this work is to simulate and analyze the instantaneous unit hydrographs (IUHs) and hydrologic responses of networks from different classifications for potential systematic differences between the classifications. That goal is accomplished by calculating the IUH for ten previously-classified basins of each network type listed above using a spatially-distributed travel time (SDTT) model applied to the outlet flow length distributions (i.e., width functions) of each drainage network. We find that the width functions, IUHs and the resulting hydrologic responses of the different network classifications are each largely distinguishable from one another based on statistical tests of their moments. Additionally, we find that the differences in hydrologic responses are at least partially independent of the differences in the basin vertical characteristics, as represented by the slope-area relationships. The results indicate that network classification-dependent inputs to semi-distributed rainfall-runoff models could improve model performance.

  3. [Socio-hydrology: A review].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing-yi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Fang, Xue-ning

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology is an interdiscipline of hydrology, nature, society and humanity. It mainly explores the two-way feedbacks of coupled human-water system and its dynamic mechanism of co-evolution, and makes efforts to solve the issues that human faces today such as sustainable utilization of water resources. Starting from the background, formation process, and fundamental concept of socio-hydrology, this paper summarized the features of socio-hydrology. The main research content of socio-hydrology was reduced to three aspects: The tradeoff in coupled human-water system, interests in water resources management and virtual water research in coupled human-water system. And its differences as well as relations with traditional hydrology, eco-hydrology and hydro-sociology were dwelled on. Finally, with hope to promote the development of socio-hydrology researches in China, the paper made prospects for the development of the subject from following aspects: Completing academic content and deepening quantitative research, focusing on scale studies of socio-hydrology, fusing socio-hydrology and eco-hydrology.

  4. AGU hydrology publication outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    In recent months I have been approached on several occasions by members of the hydrology community who asked me which of the various AGU journals and publishing outlets would be most suitable for a particular paper or article that they have prepared.Water Resources Research (WRR) is the primary AGU outlet for research papers in hydrology. It is an interdisciplinary journal that integrates research in the social and natural sciences of water. The editors of WRR invite original contributions in the physical, chemical and biological sciences and also in the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. The editor for the physical sciences side of the journal is Donald R. Nielson, LAWR Veihmeyer Hall, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616. The editor for the policy sciences side of the journal is Ronald G. Cummings, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131

  5. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  6. Revising Hydrology of a Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vine, Nataliya; Butler, Adrian; McIntyre, Neil; Jackson, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Land Surface Models (LSMs) are key elements in guiding adaptation to the changing water cycle and the starting points to develop a global hyper-resolution model of the terrestrial water, energy and biogeochemical cycles. However, before this potential is realised, there are some fundamental limitations of LSMs related to how meaningfully hydrological fluxes and stores are represented. An important limitation is the simplistic or non-existent representation of the deep subsurface in LSMs; and another is the lack of connection of LSM parameterisations to relevant hydrological information. In this context, the paper uses a case study of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environmental Simulator) LSM applied to the Kennet region in Southern England. The paper explores the assumptions behind JULES hydrology, adapts the model structure and optimises the coupling with the ZOOMQ3D regional groundwater model. The analysis illustrates how three types of information can be used to improve the model's hydrology: a) observations, b) regionalized information, and c) information from an independent physics-based model. It is found that: 1) coupling to the groundwater model allows realistic simulation of streamflows; 2) a simple dynamic lower boundary improves upon JULES' stationary unit gradient condition; 3) a 1D vertical flow in the unsaturated zone is sufficient; however there is benefit in introducing a simple dual soil moisture retention curve; 4) regionalized information can be used to describe soil spatial heterogeneity. It is concluded that relatively simple refinements to the hydrology of JULES and its parameterisation method can provide a substantial step forward in realising its potential as a high-resolution multi-purpose model.

  7. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  8. A University Consortium for the Advancement of Hydrologic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Wilson, J.; Band, L.; Reckhow, K.

    2003-12-01

    Seventy-six research universities across the United States have joined to form the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), a non-profit corporation. With support from the National Science Foundation, CUAHSI has embarked upon the design and development of programs to enable hydrologic research at larger spatial scales over longer time periods than has been within the grasp of individual investigators. The guiding principle of this design has been an embracing of the entire hydrologic cycle to enable research at the interfaces among traditional hydrologic subdisciplines and between hydrologic science and allied disciplines in the earth and life sciences. To improve our predictive understanding of hydrologic phenomena, the fundamental approach that has been adopted is the development of multidisciplinary, coherent data sets to enable testing of hypotheses in different hydrologic settings across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Four mutually supportive program elements have been conceived: a network of hydrologic observatories (the subject of this special session) designed strategically to collect additional data at large scales (on the order of 10,000 km2) and to leverage existing investments in small-scale intensive studies and in larger scale monitoring activities; hydrologic information systems to develop a comprehensive data model for integrating disparate data types, to develop the cyberinfrastructure necessary for systematic data collection and dissemination and to support community models; hydrologic measurement technology facility to broker instrumentation services from existing sources, to provide cutting edge tools along with the necessary support to use them, and to develop new hydrologic instrumentation needed to advance the science; and hydrologic synthesis center to provide a venue for hydrologic sciences from a range of disciplines to work on topics ranging from inter-observatory comparison to evolving

  9. Cold regions hydrology and hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.L. ); Crissman, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This monograph addresses a narrow aspect of cold regions engineering, namely the effects of cold weather on the traditional civil engineering disciplines of hydrology and hydraulics. Hydrologic and hydraulic considerations in the design, construction, and operation of civil works are very important. Many of the problems encountered in the design and construction of buildings, transportation systems, water supply facilities, waste treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities, for example are closely tied to the characteristics of the site hydrology.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROLOGICAL EDUCATION IN UKRAINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.

    2009-12-01

    special hydrological training in the next years. After the completion of first and second year academic program, students undertake field practical works under the supervision of their teachers at field stations of the Kyiv National University and the State Hydrometeorological Service. The rapid development of scientific and practical hydrology, an increase of environmental oriented researches stimulate the upgrading of requirements to the hydrological education. In order to meet these requirements a number of measures have been undertaken in the Kyiv University by the way of improving of education methods, education teaching conditions and strengthening the co-operation at home and abroad. A number of the new courses (“Hydroinformatics”, “Environmental Planning and Management” and others) have been developed during last years. The practical training of using of new hydrological and hydrochemical equipment and methods of observation and forecasting in the State Hydometeorological Service is increased. All students have practical works at the organization of the State Hydrometeorological Service: meteorological and hydrological stations, observatories, hydrological forecasting units. The special complex program of practical hydrological training of students was development by the Administration of the State Hydrometeorological Service in 2007.

  11. Hydrologic Resources of Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Territory of Guam, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean near latitude 13?28'N and longitude 144?45'E, is the largest (211 mi2) and southernmost of the islands in the Mariana chain. Ground water supplies about 80 percent of the drinking water for the island's 150,000 residents and nearly one million visitors per year. In northern Guam, water is obtained from wells that tap the upper part of a fresh ground-water lens in an aquifer composed mainly of limestone. About 180 wells, nearly all in the north, withdraw about 35 Mgal/d of water with chloride concentrations ranging from 6 to 585 mg/L. In southern Guam, the main source of freshwater is from surface water that runs off the weathered volcanic rocks that are exposed over much of the area. About 9.9 Mgal/d of freshwater is obtained using surface reservoirs. The island's freshwater resources are adequate to meet current (2003) needs, but future demands will eventually be higher. To better understand the hydrology of the island, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific (WERI) at the University of Guam. The objective of the study was to provide a better understanding of the water resources of the island through analysis of data collected by the USGS on Guam. This report provides a description of the general hydrologic principles of the island's ground-water systems, as well as of the rainfall and geology of Guam. Hydrologic data described in the report include water levels, chloride concentrations, and pumpage from ground-water wells and streamflow data from southern Guam.

  12. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I. K.; McMillan, H. K.

    2015-09-01

    Information about rainfall-runoff processes is essential for hydrological analyses, modelling and water-management applications. A hydrological, or diagnostic, signature quantifies such information from observed data as an index value. Signatures are widely used, e.g. for catchment classification, model calibration and change detection. Uncertainties in the observed data - including measurement inaccuracy and representativeness as well as errors relating to data management - propagate to the signature values and reduce their information content. Subjective choices in the calculation method are a further source of uncertainty. We review the uncertainties relevant to different signatures based on rainfall and flow data. We propose a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrate it in two catchments for common signatures including rainfall-runoff thresholds, recession analysis and basic descriptive signatures of flow distribution and dynamics. Our intention is to contribute to awareness and knowledge of signature uncertainty, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We found that the uncertainties were often large (i.e. typical intervals of ±10-40 % relative uncertainty) and highly variable between signatures. There was greater uncertainty in signatures that use high-frequency responses, small data subsets, or subsets prone to measurement errors. There was lower uncertainty in signatures that use spatial or temporal averages. Some signatures were sensitive to particular uncertainty types such as rating-curve form. We found that signatures can be designed to be robust to some uncertainty sources. Signature uncertainties of the magnitudes we found have the potential to change the conclusions of hydrological and ecohydrological analyses, such as cross-catchment comparisons or inferences about dominant processes.

  13. Hydrologic almanac of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Richard C.; Conover, Clyde Stuart

    1981-01-01

    This first edition is a ready reference source of information on various facts and features about water in Florida. It is aimed primarily to help bust politicians, writers, agency officials, water managers, planners, consultants, educators, hydrologists, engineers, scientists, and the general public answer questions that arise on comparative and statistical aspects on the hydrology of Florida. It contains statistical comparative data, much of which was especially prepared for the almanac, a glossary of technical terms, tabular material, and conversion factors. Also included is a selective bibliography of 174 reports on water in Florida. (USGS)

  14. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  15. Hydrology and Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2009-12-01

    Since “panta rhei” was pronounced by Heraclitus, hydrology and the objects it studies, such as rivers and lakes, offer grounds to observe and understand change and flux. Change occurs on all time scales, from minute to geological, but our limited senses and life span, as well as the short time window of instrumental observations, restrict our perception to the most apparent daily to yearly variations. As a result, our typical modelling practices assume that natural changes are just a short-term “noise” superimposed to the daily and annual cycles in a scene that is static and invariant in the long run. According to this perception, only an exceptional and extraordinary forcing can produce a long-term change. The hydrologist H. E. Hurst, studying the long flow records of the Nile and other geophysical time series, was the first to observe a natural behaviour, named after him, related to multi-scale change, as well as its implications in engineering designs. Essentially, this behaviour manifests that long-term changes are much more frequent and intense than commonly perceived and, simultaneously, that the future states are much more uncertain and unpredictable on long time horizons than implied by standard approaches. Due to its close relationship with engineering design, hydrology has always been concerned with long-term predictions. Hydrologists understood early that deterministic predictions for typical design horizons of 50-100 years are hopeless and appreciated the usefulness of probabilistic approaches. Yet, during the last two decades, hydrology, following other geophysical disciplines, changed perspective and invested its hopes in deterministic descriptions and models. In particular, climate model outputs have been assumed to represent the future of hydrological inputs for the next 50-100 years. However, recent comparisons of climate model results with long historical records for local to sub-continental spatial scales show that these models are not

  16. Hydrogeology and Hydrologic Landscape Regions of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Medina, Rose L.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a rule to protect ground water in areas other than source-water protection areas. These other sensitive ground water areas (OSGWAs) are aquifers that are not currently but could eventually be used as a source of drinking water. The OSGWA program specifically addresses existing wells that are used for underground injection of motor vehicle waste. If the injection well is in a ground-water protection area or an OSGWA, well owners must either close the well or apply for a permit. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection will evaluate site-specific information and determine if the aquifer associated with a permit application is susceptible to contamination. A basic part of evaluating OSGWAs is characterizing the hydrogeology of aquifer systems including the lithology, hydrologic properties, soil permeability, and faulting, which partly control the susceptibility of ground water to contamination. Detailed studies that evaluate ground-water susceptibility are not practical in a largely unpopulated State like Nevada. However, existing and new information could be extrapolated to other areas of the State if there is an objective framework to transfer the information. The concept of hydrologic landscape regions, which identify areas with similar hydrologic characteristics, provides this framework. This report describes the hydrogeology and hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada. Consolidated rocks that form mountain ranges and unconsolidated sediments that fill the basins between the ranges are grouped into hydrogeologic units having similar lithology and assumed to have similar hydrologic properties. Consolidated rocks and unconsolidated sediments are the two major hydrogeologic units and comprise 51 and 49 percent of the State, respectively. Consolidated rocks are subdivided into 8 hydrogeologic units. In approximate order of decreasing horizontal hydraulic conductivity, consolidated-rock hydrogeologic

  17. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  18. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  19. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has be...

  20. Black Hills hydrology study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota is a valuable resource center. The area has attracted numerous residents and industries because of the availability of mineral, timber, agricultural, recreational, and water resources. The water resources of the area have been stressed locally by increasing population, periodic drought, and development of other resources. In response to residents' concerns about these stresses on the water resources, the Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 as a cooperative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District. West Dakota represents the various local and county cooperators. This report describes the purpose, scope, approach, and status of the study and presents highlights from the first project data report produced for the study.

  1. CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and its role in hydrologic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D.; Helly, J. J.; Graham, W.; Kruger, A.; Kumar, P.; Lakshmi, V.; Lettenmaier, D.; Zheng, C.; Lall, U.; Piasecki, M.; Duffy, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Hydrologic Information System component of CUAHSI focuses on building a hydrologic information system to support the advancement of hydrologic science. This system is intended to help with rapidly acquiring diverse geospatial and temporal hydrologic datasets, integrating them into a hydrologic data model or framework describing a region, and supporting analysis, modeling and visualization of the movement of water and the transport of constituents through that region. In addition, the system will feature interfaces for advanced technologies like knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) and also provide a comprehensive metadata description including a hydrologic ontology (HOW) for integration with the Semantic Web. The prototype region is the Neuse river basin in North Carolina. A "digital watershed" is to be built for this basin to help formulate and test the hydrologic data model at a range of spatial scales, from the scale of the whole basin down to the scale of individual experimental sites. This data model will be further developed and refined as additional hydrologic observatories are selected by CUAHSI. This will result in a consistent means for the characterization and comparison of processes in different geographic regions of the nation using a common data framework. The HIS will also provide a generalized digital library capability to manage collections of thematically-organized data from primary sources as well as derived analytical results in the form of data publications. The HIS will be designed from the beginning as an open federation of observatory-based collections that are interoperable with other data and digital library systems. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project involves collaboration among several CUAHSI member institutions, with the San Diego Supercomputer Center serving as the technology partner to facilitate the development of a prototype system.

  2. Improved understanding and prediction of the hydrologic response of highly urbanized catchments through development of the Illinois Urban Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantone, Joshua; Schmidt, Arthur

    2011-08-01

    What happens to the rain in highly urbanized catchments? That is the question that urban hydrologists must ask themselves when trying to integrate the hydrologic and hydraulic processes that affect the hydrologic response of urban catchments. The Illinois Urban Hydrologic Model (IUHM) has been developed to help answer this question and improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic response in highly urbanized catchments. Urban catchments are significantly different than natural watersheds, but there are similarities that allow features of the pioneering geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph concept developed for natural watersheds to be adapted to the urban setting. This probabilistically based approach is a marked departure from the traditional deterministic models used to design and simulate urban sewer systems and does not have the burdensome input data requirements that detailed deterministic models possess. Application of IUHM to the CDS-51 catchment located in the village of Dolton, Illinois, highlights the model's ability to predict the hydrologic response of the catchment as well as the widely accepted SWMM model and is in accordance with observed data recorded by the United States Geological Survey. In addition, the unique structure and organization of urban sewer networks make it possible to characterize a set of ratios for urban catchments that allow IUHM to be applied when detailed input data are not available.

  3. Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, William

    Hydrologists can take heart that our profession has matured to the point of having its respectable reputation recognized by the National Academy of Sciences. Opportunities in Hydrology follows the publication of Opportunities in Biology and Opportunities in Chemistry, and was prepared by a committee composed of prestigious water-oriented scientists. I am writing this review because the book is extremely important, and its basic premise—that there is such a thing as a single “discipline” of hydrologic sciences—is contrary to the thinking of many hydrogeologists.The committee proposes that students can obtain adequate training and be prepared to develop a career in “hydrologic sciences.” Such an approach may be suitable for many aspects of hydrology, but it does not represent the interests, needs, goals, history, or future of “hydrogeology,” a clearly recognized subdiscipline of hydrology. The various aspects of hydrology are so wide ranging that, from my personal viewpoint and the viewpoints of many of my colleagues, it takes a person of extremely narrow focus to see hydrology as a single discipline.

  4. Hydrology to name grant winner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Hydrology Section will announce at the 1983 AGU Spring Meeting the recipient of the first Horton Research Grant. The grant was established at the section's Executive Committee meeting at the 1982 AGU Fall Meeting. The $4,500 grant is to support research projects in hydrology and water resources by Ph.D. candidates in American institutions of higher education and is to be awarded annually to a single recipient. Appropriate topics would be in hydrology (including its physical, chemical, or biological aspects) or in water resources policy sciences (including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law).

  5. Hydrologic dynamics and ecosystem structure.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Iturbe, I

    2003-01-01

    Ecohydrology is the science that studies the mutual interaction between the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. Such an interaction is especially intense in water-controlled ecosystems, where water may be a limiting factor, not only because of its scarcity, but also because of its intermittent and unpredictable appearance. Hydrologic dynamics is shown to be a crucial factor for ecological patterns and processes. The probabilistic structure of soil moisture in time and space is presented as the key linkage between soil, climate and vegetation dynamics. Nutrient cycles, vegetation coexistence and plant response to environmental conditions are all intimately linked to the stochastic fluctuation of the hydrologic inputs driving an ecosystem.

  6. Hydrology and Ecology Go to Court

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, W. R.; Crisman, T. L.

    2009-04-01

    The authors were involved in a high profile case in the United States District Court involving Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades Agricultural Area in the State of Florida. One of the central issues of the case rested on a theory that all navigable waters of the United States comprised one "unitary" water body, and as such, transfer of water from one navigable water to another did not require any permitting action. Should this theory have prevailed, great precedent would be set regarding inter-basin transfer of volumes of water capable of significantly impact to the ecologic structure and function of all involved basins. Furthermore, the impact would certainly have had demographic implications of great significance. We were asked to serve as an expert witnesses in the case charged with developing a strategy to demonstrate that three large irrigation canals were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct" (language from the U.S. Supreme Court opinion on a related case) from Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake wholly in the continental U.S. Although a totally hydrologic approach could have been taken easily, it was thought better for the legal team to include an aquatic ecologic perspective, a true example of the linkage of the two disciplines into ecohydrology. Together, an argument was crafted to explain to the judge how, in fact, the waters could in no way be "unitary" in character and that they were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct." The fundamentals of the arguments rested on well known and established principles of physics, chemistry, and biology. It was incumbent upon the authors to educate the judge on how to think about hydrologic and ecologic principles. Issues of interest to the judge included a forensic assessment of the hydrologic and ecologic regime of the lake and the original Everglades system when the State of Florida first joined the U.S. While there are anecdotal archives that describe some elements of the system, there are few

  7. Extreme drought: summary of hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Frantz, Eric R.; Peck, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center (GaWSC) maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 320 realtime streamgages, including 10 real-time lake-level monitoring stations and 63 realtime water-quality monitors. Additionally, the GaWSC operates more than 180 groundwater wells, 35 of which are real-time. One of the many benefits from this monitoring network is that the data analyses provide an overview of the hydrologic conditions of rivers, creeks, reservoirs, and aquifers in Georgia.

  8. Attribution of hydrologic trends using integrated hydrologic and economic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Brugger, D. R.; Silverman, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic change has been detected in many regions of the world in the form of trends in annual streamflows, varying depths to the regional water table, or other alterations of the hydrologic balance. Most models used to investigate these changes implement sophisticated descriptions of the physical system but use simplified descriptions of the socioeconomic system. These simplifications come in the form of prescribed water diversions and land use change scenarios, which provide little insight into coupled natural-human systems and have limited predictive capabilities. We present an integrated model that adds realism to the description of the hydrologic system in agricultural regions by incorporating a component that updates the allocation of land and water to crops in response to hydroclimatic (water available) and economic conditions (prices of commodities and agricultural inputs). This component assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize their net revenues, thus justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of an empirical production function that captures the economic behavior of farmers. Because the model internalizes the feedback between climate, agricultural markets, and farming activity into the hydrologic system, it can be used to understand to what extent human economic activity can exacerbate or buffer the regional hydrologic impacts of climate change in agricultural regions. It can also help in the attribution of causes of hydrologic change. These are important issues because local policy and management cannot solve climate change, but they can address land use and agricultural water use. We demonstrate the model in a case study.

  9. Multifractals for operational hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangola-Murzyn, A.; Gires, A.; Hoang, C.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays cities and their suburbs are complex hydrological systems where interact numerous non-linear processes over a wide range of space-time scales. The strong variability of urban basins requires more complex, multi-component, physically based models that require sophisticated interface to assimilate massive amounts of measurements and generate synthetic geophysical fields. Calibration and validation of these models remain very complex, in particular when huge ratio of scales is involved that brings to the evidence the data non-stationary, long-range dependencies and the clustering of extremes often resulting in fat tailed (i.e., an algebraic type) probability distributions. The techniques for handling such non-classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scale exist and may be applied to water resources management, technological or operational development throughout the world. This presentation will demonstrate how such a model can be first used to simulate reliable scenarios of space-time water depth distributions and then with the help of multifractals to quantify a rather abstract notion of "systemic resilience". Multi-Hydro, developed at Leesu of Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, consists in an interactive coupling of several components that simulate the main hydrologic and hydraulic processes involved in the functioning of a peri-urban watershed. These processes range from the rainfall and resulting surface water runoff to infiltration, including drainage into sewer systems. The core of Multi-Hydro defines interactions and feedbacks between each modelled processes. For a given rainfall scenario, the whole modelling system allows to determine the space-time distributions of the surface water levels by taking into account the land use, the amount of water that infiltrates, the level of the water table, the load to the sewer system and water propagation in it. Using different scenarios of stochastically downscaled rainfall, Multi-hydro was applied on

  10. Extreme hydrological events and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-06-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security - the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.

  11. Advanced hydrologic prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Brian A.; Braatz, Dean T.; Halquist, John B.; Deweese, Michael M.; Larson, Lee; Ingram, John J.

    1999-08-01

    As our Nation's population and infrastructure grow, natural disasters are becoming a greater threat to our society's stability. In an average year, inland flooding claims 133 lives and resulting property losses exceed 4.0 billion. Last year, 1997, these losses totaled 8.7 billion. Because of this blossoming threat, the National Weather Service (NWS) has requested funding within its 2000 budget to begin national implementation of the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction System (AHPS). With this system in place the NWS will be able to utilize precipitation and climate predictions to provide extended probabilistic river forecasts for risk-based decisions. In addition to flood and drought mitigation benefits, extended river forecasts will benefit water resource managers in decision making regarding water supply, agriculture, navigation, hydropower, and ecosystems. It's estimated that AHPS, if implemented nationwide, would save lives and provide $677 million per year in economic benefits. AHPS is used currently on the Des Moines River basin in Iowa and will be implemented soon on the Minnesota River basin in Minnesota. Experience gained from user interaction is leading to refined and enhanced product formats and displays. This discussion will elaborate on the technical requirements associated with AHPS implementation, its enhanced products and informational displays, and further refinements based on customer feedback.

  12. A conceptual data model coupling with physically-based distributed hydrological models based on catchment discretization schemas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2015-11-01

    In hydrology, the data types, spatio-temporal scales and formats for physically-based distributed hydrological models and the distributed data or parameters may be different before significant data pre-processing or may change during hydrological simulation run time. A data model is devoted to these problems for sophisticated numerical hydrological modeling procedures. In this paper, we propose a conceptual data model to interpret the comprehensive, universal and complex water environmental entities. We also present an innovative integration methodology to couple the data model with physically-based distributed hydrological models (DHMs) based on catchment discretization schemas. The data model provides a reasonable framework for researchers of organizing and pre-processing water environmental spatio-temporal datasets. It also facilitates seamless data flow fluid and dynamic by hydrological response units (HRUs) as the core between the object-oriented databases and physically-based distributed hydrological models.

  13. Hydrology Section Executive Committee Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, James W.

    The AGU Hydrology Section Executive Committee Meeting was called to order at approximately 4 P.M. on Monday, May 18, 1987, by Hydrology Section President Marshall Moss. In attendance were President-Elect George Pinder, Secretary Jim Mercer, Ron Cummings, Helen Joyce Peters, Peter Eagleson, Stephen Burges, Jim Wallis, Jurate Landwehr, Don Nielson, Ken Bencala, Pete Loucks, Jery Stedinger, Dennis Lettenmaier, Lenny Konikow, Ken Potter, John Wilson, Ivan Johnson, and Judy Holoviak.

  14. Hypothesis tests for hydrologic alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Charles N.; Croteau, Kelly E.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrologic systems can be altered by anthropogenic and climatic influences. While there are a number of statistical frameworks for describing and evaluating the extent of hydrologic alteration, here we present a new framework for assessing whether statistically significant hydrologic alteration has occurred, or whether the shift in the hydrologic regime is consistent with the natural variability of the system. Four hypothesis tests based on shifts of flow duration curves (FDCs) are developed and tested using three different experimental designs based on different strategies for resampling of annual FDCs. The four hypothesis tests examined are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS), Kuiper (K), confidence interval (CI), and ecosurplus and ecodeficit (Eco). Here 117 streamflow sites that have potentially undergone hydrologic alteration due to reservoir construction are examined. 20 years of pre-reservoir record is used to develop the critical value of the test statistic for type I errors of 5% and 10%, while 10 years of post-alteration record is used to examine the power of each test. The best experimental design, based on calculating the mean annual FDC from an exhaustive jackknife resampling regime, provided a larger number of unique values of each test statistic and properly reproduced type I errors. Of the four tests, the CI test consistently had the highest power, while the K test had the second highest power; KS and Eco always had the lowest power. The power of the CI test appeared related to the storage ratio of the reservoir, a rough measure of the hydrologic alteration of the system.

  15. Modeling Hydrologic Response to Land Cover Change in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Link, T.; Hubbart, J.; Gravelle, J.

    2007-12-01

    Although physically based hydrologic models have been applied to understand the mechanisms by which land use change affects watershed hydrology, these models are not always directly transferable from region to region. This is partly because many different mechanisms may be responsible for producing runoff alterations. Perfect fitting of the hydrograph does not necessarily mean that all the internal hydrologic mechanisms have been accurately simulated. A detailed study has been designed to validate internal watershed mechanisms simulated by the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), to assess the hydrologic effects of land use change an interior Pacific Northwest experimental watershed. Hydrological measurements in the experimental area include streamflow, snowpack properties, canopy throughfall, soil moisture, and sap flow to assess the simulated hydrologic components, and hence the model's ability of predict the effects of land cover change. Model simulations span a 5-year pre-treatment, 4-year post-road construction without harvesting, and 5-year post-treatment period to ensure that the model parameterizations accurately quantify the effects of land cover alteration. The validated model was used to make a retrospective simulation of when the entire watershed was clear-cut to predict historical flow regimes. The historical fully clear-cut scenario was then used to provide a baseline to compare to contemporary harvest patterns characterized by sequential canopy removal and regrowth over smaller spatial units. Preliminary modeling results will be presented to illustrate the capability of hydrology model in predicting and forecasting hydrological responses to a range of contemporary forest practices.

  16. Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Catchment Hydrology: A Modified Model Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, G.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2014-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), typically defined as depressional wetlands surrounded by uplands, support an array of hydrological and ecological processes. However, key research questions concerning the hydrological connectivity of GIWs and their impacts on downgradient surface waters remain unanswered. This is particularly important for regulation and management of these systems. For example, in the past decade United States Supreme Court decisions suggest that GIWs can be afforded protection if significant connectivity exists between these waters and traditional navigable waters. Here we developed a simulation procedure to quantify the effects of various spatial distributions of GIWs across the landscape on the downgradient hydrograph using a refined version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a catchment-scale hydrological simulation model. We modified the SWAT FORTRAN source code and employed an alternative hydrologic response unit (HRU) definition to facilitate an improved representation of GIW hydrologic processes and connectivity relationships to other surface waters, and to quantify their downgradient hydrological effects. We applied the modified SWAT model to an ~ 202 km2 catchment in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA, exhibiting a substantial population of mapped GIWs. Results from our series of GIW distribution scenarios suggest that: (1) Our representation of GIWs within SWAT conforms to field-based characterizations of regional GIWs in most respects; (2) GIWs exhibit substantial seasonally-dependent effects upon downgradient base flow; (3) GIWs mitigate peak flows, particularly following high rainfall events; and (4) The presence of GIWs on the landscape impacts the catchment water balance (e.g., by increasing groundwater outflows). Our outcomes support the hypothesis that GIWs have an important catchment-scale effect on downgradient streamflow.

  17. Hydrologic framework of Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smolensky, Douglas A.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1990-01-01

    Long Island, N.Y., is underlain by a mass of unconsolidated geologic deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that overlie southward-sloping consolidated bedrock. These deposits are thinnest in northern Queens County (northwestern Long Island), where bedrock crops out, and increase to a maximum thickness of 2,000 ft in southeastern Long Island. This sequence of unconsolidated deposits consists of several distinct geologic units ranging in age from late Cretaceous through Pleistocene, with some recent deposits near shores and streams. These units are differentiated by age, depositional environment, and lithology in table 1. Investigations of ground-water availability and flow patterns may require information on the internal geometry of the hydrologic system that geologic correlations and interpretation alone cannot provide; hydrologic interpretations in which deposits are differentiated on the basis of water-transmitting properties are generally needed also. This set of maps and vertical sections depicts the hydrogeologic framework of the unconsolidated deposits that form Long Island's ground-water system. These deposits can be classified into eight major hydrogeologic units (table 1). The hydrogeologic interpretations presented herein are not everywhere consistent with strict geologic interpretation owing to facies changes and local variations in the water-transmitting properties within geologic units. These maps depict the upper-surface altitude of seven of the eight hydrogeologic units, which, in ascending order, are: consolidated bedrock, Lloyd aquifer, Raritan confining unit, Magothy aquifer, Monmouth greensand, Jameco aquifer, and Gardiners Clay. The upper glacial aquifer—the uppermost unit—is at land surface over most of Long Island and is, therefore, not included. The nine north-south hydrogeologic sections shown below depict the entire sequence of unconsolidated deposits and, together with the maps, provide a detailed three-dimensional interpretation of

  18. Improvements of Physically-Based Hydrological Modelling using the ACRU Agro-Hydrological Modelling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, C. M. T.; Kienzle, S. W.; Xu, W.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The uncertainty of future water availability due to climate change in the Upper Oldman River Basin in Alberta, Canada, and downstream users is considered in this study. A changing climate can significantly perturb hydrological response within a region, thereby affecting the available water resources within southern Alberta. The ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system is applied to simulate historical (1950-2010) and future (2041-2070) streamflows and volumes of a major irrigation reservoir. Like many highly complex, process-based distributed models, major limitations include the data availability and data quality at finer spatial resolutions. With the use of a scripting language, certain limitations can be greatly reduced. Three phases of the project will be emphasized. First, the assimilation of solar radiation, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed daily data into the Canadian 10KM daily climate data that contains daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature data for the period 1950-2010, so as to enable potential evapotranspiration calculations using the Penman-Monteith equation. Second, the downscaling of five regional climate model (RCM) data to match the 10KM spatial resolution was undertaken. Third, a total of 1722 hydrological response units (HRUs) were delineated within the 4403 km2 large upper Oldman River Basin. In all phases of model input data parameterization and calibration, the automation of known external procedures greatly decreased erroneous model inputs and increased the efficiency of validating the quality of input data to be used within the ACRU model.

  19. Hydrologic Design in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, R. M.; Farmer, W. H.; Read, L.

    2014-12-01

    In an era dubbed the Anthropocene, the natural world is being transformed by a myriad of human influences. As anthropogenic impacts permeate hydrologic systems, hydrologists are challenged to fully account for such changes and develop new methods of hydrologic design. Deterministic watershed models (DWM), which can account for the impacts of changes in land use, climate and infrastructure, are becoming increasing popular for the design of flood and/or drought protection measures. As with all models that are calibrated to existing datasets, DWMs are subject to model error or uncertainty. In practice, the model error component of DWM predictions is typically ignored yet DWM simulations which ignore model error produce model output which cannot reproduce the statistical properties of the observations they are intended to replicate. In the context of hydrologic design, we demonstrate how ignoring model error can lead to systematic downward bias in flood quantiles, upward bias in drought quantiles and upward bias in water supply yields. By reincorporating model error, we document how DWM models can be used to generate results that mimic actual observations and preserve their statistical behavior. In addition to use of DWM for improved predictions in a changing world, improved communication of the risk and reliability is also needed. Traditional statements of risk and reliability in hydrologic design have been characterized by return periods, but such statements often assume that the annual probability of experiencing a design event remains constant throughout the project horizon. We document the general impact of nonstationarity on the average return period and reliability in the context of hydrologic design. Our analyses reveal that return periods do not provide meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events. Instead, knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can more effectively prepare society and communicate the likelihood

  20. Agriculture/forestry hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderoord, W. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main vegetation units of the lower Mekong basin and the land development conditions were mapped by interpretation of LANDSAT 1 data. By interpretation of various shades of gray on satellite images, it was possible to map the density of the vegetation cover. Study of seasonal variations makes it possible to distinguish between mainly deciduous forests. In the Mekong basin area, these are generally related to the vegetation cover density.

  1. Identifying dominant controls on hydrologic parameter transfer from gauged to ungauged catchments - A comparative hydrology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Archfield, S. A.; Wagener, T.

    2014-09-01

    Daily streamflow information is critical for solving various hydrologic problems, though observations of continuous streamflow for model calibration are available at only a small fraction of the world's rivers. One approach to estimate daily streamflow at an ungauged location is to transfer rainfall-runoff model parameters calibrated at a gauged (donor) catchment to an ungauged (receiver) catchment of interest. Central to this approach is the selection of a hydrologically similar donor. No single metric or set of metrics of hydrologic similarity have been demonstrated to consistently select a suitable donor catchment. We design an experiment to diagnose the dominant controls on successful hydrologic model parameter transfer. We calibrate a lumped rainfall-runoff model to 83 stream gauges across the United States. All locations are USGS reference gauges with minimal human influence. Parameter sets from the calibrated models are then transferred to each of the other catchments and the performance of the transferred parameters is assessed. This transfer experiment is carried out both at the scale of the entire US and then for six geographic regions. We use classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to determine the relationship between catchment similarity and performance of transferred parameters. Similarity is defined using physical/climatic catchment characteristics, as well as streamflow response characteristics (signatures such as baseflow index and runoff ratio). Across the entire US, successful parameter transfer is governed by similarity in elevation and climate, and high similarity in streamflow signatures. Controls vary for different geographic regions though. Geology followed by drainage, topography and climate constitute the dominant similarity metrics in forested eastern mountains and plateaus, whereas agricultural land use relates most strongly with successful parameter transfer in the humid plains.

  2. Identifying dominant controls on hydrologic parameter transfer from gauged to ungauged catchments: a comparative hydrology approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, R.; Archfield, S.A.; Wagener, T.

    2014-01-01

    Daily streamflow information is critical for solving various hydrologic problems, though observations of continuous streamflow for model calibration are available at only a small fraction of the world’s rivers. One approach to estimate daily streamflow at an ungauged location is to transfer rainfall–runoff model parameters calibrated at a gauged (donor) catchment to an ungauged (receiver) catchment of interest. Central to this approach is the selection of a hydrologically similar donor. No single metric or set of metrics of hydrologic similarity have been demonstrated to consistently select a suitable donor catchment. We design an experiment to diagnose the dominant controls on successful hydrologic model parameter transfer. We calibrate a lumped rainfall–runoff model to 83 stream gauges across the United States. All locations are USGS reference gauges with minimal human influence. Parameter sets from the calibrated models are then transferred to each of the other catchments and the performance of the transferred parameters is assessed. This transfer experiment is carried out both at the scale of the entire US and then for six geographic regions. We use classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to determine the relationship between catchment similarity and performance of transferred parameters. Similarity is defined using physical/climatic catchment characteristics, as well as streamflow response characteristics (signatures such as baseflow index and runoff ratio). Across the entire US, successful parameter transfer is governed by similarity in elevation and climate, and high similarity in streamflow signatures. Controls vary for different geographic regions though. Geology followed by drainage, topography and climate constitute the dominant similarity metrics in forested eastern mountains and plateaus, whereas agricultural land use relates most strongly with successful parameter transfer in the humid plains.

  3. Hydrologic landscape regionalisation using deductive classification and random forests.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stuart C; Lester, Rebecca E; Versace, Vincent L; Fawcett, Jonathon; Laurenson, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Landscape classification and hydrological regionalisation studies are being increasingly used in ecohydrology to aid in the management and research of aquatic resources. We present a methodology for classifying hydrologic landscapes based on spatial environmental variables by employing non-parametric statistics and hybrid image classification. Our approach differed from previous classifications which have required the use of an a priori spatial unit (e.g. a catchment) which necessarily results in the loss of variability that is known to exist within those units. The use of a simple statistical approach to identify an appropriate number of classes eliminated the need for large amounts of post-hoc testing with different number of groups, or the selection and justification of an arbitrary number. Using statistical clustering, we identified 23 distinct groups within our training dataset. The use of a hybrid classification employing random forests extended this statistical clustering to an area of approximately 228,000 km2 of south-eastern Australia without the need to rely on catchments, landscape units or stream sections. This extension resulted in a highly accurate regionalisation at both 30-m and 2.5-km resolution, and a less-accurate 10-km classification that would be more appropriate for use at a continental scale. A smaller case study, of an area covering 27,000 km2, demonstrated that the method preserved the intra- and inter-catchment variability that is known to exist in local hydrology, based on previous research. Preliminary analysis linking the regionalisation to streamflow indices is promising suggesting that the method could be used to predict streamflow behaviour in ungauged catchments. Our work therefore simplifies current classification frameworks that are becoming more popular in ecohydrology, while better retaining small-scale variability in hydrology, thus enabling future attempts to explain and visualise broad-scale hydrologic trends at the scale of

  4. Hydrologic Landscape Regionalisation Using Deductive Classification and Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stuart C.; Lester, Rebecca E.; Versace, Vincent L.; Fawcett, Jonathon; Laurenson, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Landscape classification and hydrological regionalisation studies are being increasingly used in ecohydrology to aid in the management and research of aquatic resources. We present a methodology for classifying hydrologic landscapes based on spatial environmental variables by employing non-parametric statistics and hybrid image classification. Our approach differed from previous classifications which have required the use of an a priori spatial unit (e.g. a catchment) which necessarily results in the loss of variability that is known to exist within those units. The use of a simple statistical approach to identify an appropriate number of classes eliminated the need for large amounts of post-hoc testing with different number of groups, or the selection and justification of an arbitrary number. Using statistical clustering, we identified 23 distinct groups within our training dataset. The use of a hybrid classification employing random forests extended this statistical clustering to an area of approximately 228,000 km2 of south-eastern Australia without the need to rely on catchments, landscape units or stream sections. This extension resulted in a highly accurate regionalisation at both 30-m and 2.5-km resolution, and a less-accurate 10-km classification that would be more appropriate for use at a continental scale. A smaller case study, of an area covering 27,000 km2, demonstrated that the method preserved the intra- and inter-catchment variability that is known to exist in local hydrology, based on previous research. Preliminary analysis linking the regionalisation to streamflow indices is promising suggesting that the method could be used to predict streamflow behaviour in ungauged catchments. Our work therefore simplifies current classification frameworks that are becoming more popular in ecohydrology, while better retaining small-scale variability in hydrology, thus enabling future attempts to explain and visualise broad-scale hydrologic trends at the scale of

  5. Towards simplification of hydrologic modeling: Identification of dominant processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2016-01-01

    The Precipitation–Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a distributed-parameter hydrologic model, has been applied to the conterminous US (CONUS). Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify: (1) the sensitive input parameters and (2) particular model output variables that could be associated with the dominant hydrologic process(es). Sensitivity values of 35 PRMS calibration parameters were computed using the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test procedure on 110 000 independent hydrologically based spatial modeling units covering the CONUS and then summarized to process (snowmelt, surface runoff, infiltration, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, interflow, baseflow, and runoff) and model performance statistic (mean, coefficient of variation, and autoregressive lag 1). Identified parameters and processes provide insight into model performance at the location of each unit and allow the modeler to identify the most dominant process on the basis of which processes are associated with the most sensitive parameters. The results of this study indicate that: (1) the choice of performance statistic and output variables has a strong influence on parameter sensitivity, (2) the apparent model complexity to the modeler can be reduced by focusing on those processes that are associated with sensitive parameters and disregarding those that are not, (3) different processes require different numbers of parameters for simulation, and (4) some sensitive parameters influence only one hydrologic process, while others may influence many

  6. Towards simplification of hydrologic modeling: identification of dominant processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2016-11-01

    parameter hydrologic model, has been applied to the conterminous US (CONUS). Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify: (1) the sensitive input parameters and (2) particular model output variables that could be associated with the dominant hydrologic process(es). Sensitivity values of 35 PRMS calibration parameters were computed using the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test procedure on 110 000 independent hydrologically based spatial modeling units covering the CONUS and then summarized to process (snowmelt, surface runoff, infiltration, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, interflow, baseflow, and runoff) and model performance statistic (mean, coefficient of variation, and autoregressive lag 1). Identified parameters and processes provide insight into model performance at the location of each unit and allow the modeler to identify the most dominant process on the basis of which processes are associated with the most sensitive parameters. The results of this study indicate that: (1) the choice of performance statistic and output variables has a strong influence on parameter sensitivity, (2) the apparent model complexity to the modeler can be reduced by focusing on those processes that are associated with sensitive parameters and disregarding those that are not, (3) different processes require different numbers of parameters for simulation, and (4) some sensitive parameters influence only one hydrologic process, while others may influence many.

  7. How the Young Hydrologic Society can rejuvenate hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, T. H.; Berghuijs, W. R.; Smoorenburg, M.; Harrigan, S.; Muller, H.; Dugge, J.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic community aims to understand the complex movement, distribution and quality of water around the world. Especially with climate change, suppressed food security and environmental degradation, hydrologists play an important role in sustainable water resources management. To achieve this, worldwide collaboration between researchers is a crucial necessity. For example, IAHS' "Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB)" and "Panta Rei" initiatives have shown that working together leads to fruitful results. However, hydrology struggles to unify, with its different research perspectives, myriad of organizations and diverse array of focus areas. Furthermore, within the active hydrologic community, young scientists are underrepresented and often not well connected. Active involvement of those who will deal with tomorrow's water issues is the key to building bridges between generations and the variety of hydrologic research fields. Therefore, the Young Hydrologic Society (YHS) was founded with the following goal: 'Bringing young scientists from around the world together to contribute to the scientific and organizational unification of the global hydrologic community' To realize this, YHS has set itself 4 main objectives: - Function as the link between existing and future student initiatives within the major organizations (e.g. EGU, AGU, IAHS, etc.), - Connect early career scientists (e.g. MSc, PhD, Post-Doc) at an early stage in their career, - Stimulate bottom-up research initiatives, - Create a voice of the young hydrologists in the global scientific debate. YHS is already supported by some of the world's most prominent hydrologists and organizations. But, to make YHS a real success, we need you to spread the word and get involved in the YHS initiative. Get connected, get inspired and get involved!

  8. Selected papers in hydrologic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A collection of short topical papers providing significant results of hydrologic studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, has been published as “Selected Papers in the Hydrologic Sciences, Volume 1” (Water-Supply Paper 2262). Edited by Eric L. Meyer, “Selected Papers in the Hydrologic Sciences“ is a new journal-type publication that will be a part of the existing U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper series. The “journal” is aimed at meeting the widespread public and professional interest of the hydrologic community in timely results from hydrologic studies derived from federal research programs, federal-state cooperative programs, and some work done on behalf of other federal agencies.This first volume, comprising eight papers, addresses a broad array of topics covering sediment chemistry, pesticides, toxic metals, and streamflow characteristics. Included are papers on a technique to measure oxygen in the root zone of saturated and unsaturated soils; measurement of surface runoff and collection of sediment samples from small areas; organic carbon in volcanic ash from Mount St. Helens, Washington; organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl in the Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania; interference of cadmium carbonate precipitation in the determination of cation exchange separation factors; confidence limtis for determining concentrations of tracer particles in sediment samples; determination of aquatic humic substances in natural water; and use of channel cross-section properties for estimating streamflow characteristics.

  9. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows: Radar QPE (Kwon et al.; Hall et al.; Chen and Chandrasekar; Seo and Krajewski; Sandford).

  10. Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.

  11. Using GPS loading deformation to distinguish different hydrological measurements and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; van Dam, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The earth's lithosphere is deformed elastically by seasonal and inter-annual surface mass variations. The Global Positioning System (GPS) accurately measures 3D crustal deformation caused by surface hydrological mass movements. In this study, we calculate the loading deformation using different hydrological models and in-situ hydrological measurements, and compare those modeled results with actual deformation measurements of the dense GPS network in United States and Europe. Therefore, GPS can be used as an independent tool to evaluate the differences between hydrological measurements and models. We are particularly interested in comparing the snow volume differences between in-situ snow measurement (such as SNOTEL) and the snow components of simulated models (such as GLDAS or NLDAS). We, therefore, demonstrate that GPS as a geodetic observation can provide valuable information for hydrological studies.

  12. HydroQGIS: Hydrological Geospatial Data Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, N.

    2015-12-01

    Many aspects of hydrology are tightly coupled with geospatial data. For this reason, geospatial information systems (GIS) are often incorporated into work flows for analyzing hydrological data. These disjoint work flows, however, often require many steps and different applications to achieve the desired results. Simplifying the workflow involved in regional flood peak scaling studies motivated the creation of the HydroQGIS plugin. Flood frequency analysis presents one of the largest hurdles in studying regional flood peak scaling. HydroQGIS aids these studies with a set of tools that reduce the time to perform flood frequency analsyis on USGS gauging stations. HydroQGIS is a framework for hydrological geospatial plugin development for Quantum GIS (QGIS). It uses the cross-platform nature of QGIS, QT, and Python to create a set of tools to help simplify the work flow of hydrological data searching, gathering, and analysis into a single application that can be used by users on any platform. HydroQGIS combines the Quantum GIS plugin framework with various web-services to couple data and analysis in a uniform environment. QGIS provides a fully functioning GIS application on top of which plugins can be developed. The HydroQGIS plugin focuses on data acquisition and analysis from the geospatial domain. The design of HydroQGIS facilitates quick development of additional tools, used independently or in conjunction with other developed utilities, to streamline data acquisition and analysis. HydroQGIS currently implements an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Watershed Delineation tool using the EPA Waters web service, as well as a United States Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station search using the USGS Instantaneous Values web service. These tools provide a unified GIS interface that allows users to locate and map gauging stations and watersheds using any base map of their choice. These tools, while useful by themselves, also support a flood frequency analysis (FFA

  13. Recent developments in hydrologic instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, Vito J.; Futrell, James C.; Kane, Douglas L.

    1986-01-01

    The programs of the U.S. Geological Survey require instrumentation for collecting and monitoring hydrologic data in cold regions. The availability of space-age materials and implementation of modern electronics and mechanics is making possible the recent developments of hydrologic instrumentation, especially in the area of measuring streamflow under ice cover. Material developments include: synthetic-fiber sounding and tag lines; polymer (plastic) sheaves, pulleys, and sampler components; and polymer (plastic) current-meter bucket wheels. Electronic and mechanical developments include: a current-meter digitizer; a fiber-optic closure system for current-meters; non-contact water-level sensors; an adaptable hydrologic data acquisition system; a minimum data recorder; an ice rod; an ice foot; a handled sediment sampler; a light weight ice auger with improved cutter head and blades; and an ice chisel.

  14. Hydrological models are mediating models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  15. Hydrology at the Spring Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A special, full-day session on “Investigation of Mesoscale Precipitation Fields” is being organized by the precipitation committee of AGU's Hydrology Section for the 1984 AGU Spring Meeting under the joint sponsorship of the Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences sections. This session will contain about 10 invited talks by hydrologists, atmospheric scientists, statisticians, and mathematicians, with a new focus on interdisciplinary research in modeling precipitation fields. In the evening, a 2-hour panel discussion will be held to explore in depth the scope of interdisciplinary research and climatic variability. For additional details contact: Vijay K. Gupta, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (telephone 601-232-5366).

  16. Online bibliographic sources in hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Havener, W. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Traditional commercial bibliographic databases and indexes provide some access to hydrology materials produced by the government; however, these sources do not provide comprehensive coverage of relevant hydrologic publications. This paper discusses bibliographic information available from the federal government and state geological surveys, water resources agencies, and depositories. In addition to information in these databases, the paper describes the scope, styles of citing, subject terminology, and the ways these information sources are currently being searched, formally and informally, by hydrologists. Information available from the federal and state agencies and from the state depositories might be missed by limiting searches to commercially distributed databases.

  17. Hydrology Section Executive Committee Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    The Hydrology Section Executive Committee (EC) convened at 8:20 A.M. on May 28, 1985, in Room 311 of the Convention Center in Baltimore, Md. The meeting was chaired by Hydrology Section President R. Allan Freeze. Section President-Elect Marshall Moss kept the minutes in the absence of the Section Secretary Thomas Maddock III. Also in attendance were William Back, Rafael Bras, Stephen Burges, Jerry Cohon, Ron Cummings, David Dawdy, Jacques Delleur, Leonard Konikow, Jurate Landwehr, Fred Molz, Don Nielsen, Joyce Peters, Karen Prestegaard, Tom Schmugge, Waldo Smith, Jery Stedinger, and Eric Wood.

  18. Coupled land surface/hydrologic/atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pielke, Roger; Steyaert, Lou; Arritt, Ray; Lahtakia, Mercedes; Smith, Chris; Ziegler, Conrad; Soong, Su Tzai; Avissar, Roni; Wetzel, Peter; Sellers, Piers

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: prototype land cover characteristics data base for the conterminous United States; surface evapotranspiration effects on cumulus convection and implications for mesoscale models; the use of complex treatment of surface hydrology and thermodynamics within a mesoscale model and some related issues; initialization of soil-water content for regional-scale atmospheric prediction models; impact of surface properties on dryline and MCS evolution; a numerical simulation of heavy precipitation over the complex topography of California; representing mesoscale fluxes induced by landscape discontinuities in global climate models; emphasizing the role of subgrid-scale heterogeneity in surface-air interaction; and problems with modeling and measuring biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of energy, water, and carbon on large scales.

  19. A POGIL approach to teaching engineering hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, M.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of the author's experience using Problem Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in an engineering hydrology course. This course is part of an interdisciplinary Water Management program at Bachelor level in the Netherlands. The aims of this approach were to promote constructivism of knowledge, activate critical thinking and reduce math anxiety. POGIL was developed for chemistry education in the United States. To the authors knowledge this is the first application of this approach in Europe. A first trial was done in 2010-2011 and a second trial in 2011-2012 and 55 students participated. The problems that motivated the novel approach, general information on POGIL, its implementation in the course are discussed and the results so far are evaluated.

  20. Hydrologic changes in urban streams and their ecological significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Urban development modifies the production and delivery of runoff to streams and the resulting rate, volume, and timing of streamflow. Given that streamflow demonstrably influences the structure and composition of lotic communities, we have identified four hydrologic changes resulting from urban development that are potentially significant to stream ecosystems: increased frequency of high flows, redistribution of water from base flow to storm flow, increased daily variation in streamflow, and reduction in low flow. Previous investigations of streamflow patterns and biological assemblages provide a scale of ecological significance for each type of streamflow pattern. The scales establish the magnitude of changes in streamflow patterns that could be expected to produce biological responses in streams. Long-term streamflow records from eight streams in urbanizing areas of the United States and five additional reference streams, where land use has been relatively stable, were analyzed to assess if streamflow patterns were modified by urban development to an extent that a biological response could be expected and whether climate patterns could account for equivalent hydrologic variation in the reference streams. Changes in each type of streamflow pattern were evident in some but not all of the urban streams and were nearly absent in the reference streams. Given these results, hydrologic changes are likely significant to urban stream ecosystems, but the significance depends on the stream's physiographic context and spatial and temporal patterns of urban development. In urban streams with substantially altered hydrology, short-term goals for urban stream rehabilitation may be limited because of the difficulty and expense of restoring hydrologic processes in an urban landscape. The ecological benefits of improving physical habitat and water quality may be tempered by persistent effects of altered streamflow. In the end, the hydrologic effects of urban development must be

  1. Validation of Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes at the Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Comeleo, R. L.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between the physical properties of a catchment (form) and climatic forcing of precipitation and energy control how water is partitioned, stored, and conveyed through a catchment (function). Hydrologic Landscapes (HLs) were previously developed across Oregon and describe climatic and physical properties for over 5000 assessment units. This approach was then extended to the three Pacific Northwest states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho (PNW HL). The HLs were developed using the National Hydrography Dataset's WBD HU12 scale and are comprised of classification components describing climate, climate seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability. To compare the PNW HL classification to catchment hydrologic behavior, HLs were aggregated to catchment scale to compare against the input/output of water in the catchment. HL aggregation must preserve information on the location of the HL within the catchment outlet (upstream vs. downstream) and properties of that HL (i.e. water source vs. sink). Catchment function was investigated by use of hydrologic signatures, which are attributes of long-term time series of water into and out of the catchment. Signatures include Runoff Ratio, Baseflow Index, Snow Ratio, and Recession Coefficients. This study has three primary objectives: 1) derivation of hydrologic signatures to capture the hydrologic behavior for catchments in the Pacific Northwest: 2) development of methodology to aggregate HLs to the catchment scale; and 3) statistical analysis of signature values and trends with respect to aggregated HL classification. We hypothesize that we will find: 1) strong relationships between aggregated HLs and hydrologic signatures; 2) signatures related to water balance are explained by climatic conditions; and 3) signatures describing flow paths are predicted by terrain, soil, and aquifer permeability. This study examined 230 catchments to achieve objectives and test hypotheses stated.

  2. The SWOT Mission and Its Capabilities for Land Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancamaria, Sylvain; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.

    2016-03-01

    Surface water storage and fluxes in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands are currently poorly observed at the global scale, even though they represent major components of the water cycle and deeply impact human societies. In situ networks are heterogeneously distributed in space, and many river basins and most lakes—especially in the developing world and in sparsely populated regions—remain unmonitored. Satellite remote sensing has provided useful complementary observations, but no past or current satellite mission has yet been specifically designed to observe, at the global scale, surface water storage change and fluxes. This is the purpose of the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. SWOT is a collaboration between the (US) National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Centre National d'Études Spatiales (the French Spatial Agency), the Canadian Space Agency and the United Kingdom Space Agency, with launch planned in late 2020. SWOT is both a continental hydrology and oceanography mission. However, only the hydrology capabilities of SWOT are discussed here. After a description of the SWOT mission requirements and measurement capabilities, we review the SWOT-related studies concerning land hydrology published to date. Beginning in 2007, studies demonstrated the benefits of SWOT data for river hydrology, both through discharge estimation directly from SWOT measurements and through assimilation of SWOT data into hydrodynamic and hydrology models. A smaller number of studies have also addressed methods for computation of lake and reservoir storage change or have quantified improvements expected from SWOT compared with current knowledge of lake water storage variability. We also briefly review other land hydrology capabilities of SWOT, including those related to transboundary river basins, human water withdrawals and wetland environments. Finally, we discuss additional studies needed before and after the launch of the mission

  3. Proposed Ozark Plateaus Province Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. K.; Brahana, J. V.; Matlock, M. D.; Chaubey, I.; Pavlowsky, R. T.; Gilzow, F.

    2004-12-01

    The Upper White River, which drains about 40 percent of the Ozarks Ecoregion, is the main drain for the Ozark Plateaus and is characteristic of rivers draining other karst areas within the United States and the world. The proposed Ozark Plateaus Hydrologic Observatory (OPHO) encompasses twelve 8-digit hydrologic units covering about 67,000 km2 in parts of three states (Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma). Six major U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs are within the OPHO including four on the main stem of the White River and one on the Illinois River. Karst features are prominent in the Salem, Ozark, and Springfield Plateaus of the OPHO, and include numerous solutionally enlarged fractures, caves, sinkholes, and sinking streams. Within the basin are numerous and diverse biological communities, representing influences from 1) eastern deciduous forest, 2) Great Plains prairies, 3) arid southwest, and 4) relicts of northern species from the Pleistocene Ice Age. Also contain in the OPHO is a diverse and unique array of mussels, an imperiled river organism (38 species), and crayfish. In the extensive karst regions of the OPHO are found largely endemic subterranean organisms also dependent on good water quality: for example, the Ozark Cavefish, Bristly Cave Crayfish and the recently federally- listed Tumbling Creek Cave Snail. Mantled karst aquifers characteristic of the Ozark Plateaus Region represent a coupled atmospheric/surface water/groundwater system that is highly susceptible to external forcing. Little attenuation of contaminants occurs as water moves from surface sources into and through the mantled karst aquifer to discharge naturally at springs and streams throughout the Ozark Plateau Region, and to wells. Because of the very open character of the aquifer, extremely dynamic biogeochemical cycling of nutrients occurs. Upper White River Reservoir development, filling and operation historically have altered and continue to alter the hydrologic and ecosystems

  4. Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, C.; Wagener, T.; Gooseff, M.; McGlynn, B.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Sharma, P.; Zuppe, S.; Pfeiffer, C.

    2008-12-01

    In-class hydrology education is typically strongly biased towards the instructor's background and overcoming this limitation is burdensome within the time-constraints academia. This problem is particularly true for academics in tenure-track positions when most of the material development must occur. To overcome this challenge and advance a broader perspective of hydrology education, we are in the process of establishing the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to, developed, and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and a modular core curriculum based on modern pedagogical standards. The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty in educating hydrologists that can solve today's and tomorrow's interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced.

  5. Hydrology with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrologic remote sensing currently depends on expensive and infrequent aircraft observations for validation of operational satellite products, typically conducted during field campaigns that also include ground-based measurements. With the advent of new, hydrologically-relevant satellite missions, ...

  6. Biochar effects on soil hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar has the potential to alter soil hydrology, and these alterations may lead to significant changes in water cycling and ecosystem processes mediated by water. Biochar soil amendment may change infiltration and drainage in both sandy and clay soils, may increase or decrease plant-available wate...

  7. Georgius Agricola's contributions to hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Isabel F.

    2015-04-01

    Georgius Agricola's 1546 book De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum (On the Source and Causes of What is Underground) was the first European work since antiquity to focus on hydrology and helped to shape the thought of Nicolaus Steno, Pierre Perrault, A.G. Werner, and other important figures in the history of hydrology and geology. De Ortu contains the first known expressions of numerous concepts important in modern hydrology: erosion as an active process, groundwater movement through pores and fissures, hydrofracturing, water-rock reaction, and others. The concepts of groundwater origins, movement, and nature in De Ortu were also the foundation for the theories of ore deposit formation for which Agricola is better known. In spite of their importance, most of Agricola's contributions to the study of groundwater are unrecognized today because De Ortu, alone of his major works, has never been translated out of Latin and no existing vernacular summary of it is longer than two pages. This article presents the first detailed description of Agricola's work on hydrology and discusses the derivation and impact of his ideas.

  8. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  9. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic community has long recognized the need for broad reform in hydrologic education. A paradigm shift is critically sought in undergraduate hydrology and water resource education by adopting context-rich, student-centered, and active learning strategies. Hydrologists currently deal with intricate issues rooted in complex natural ecosystems containing a multitude of interconnected processes. Advances in the multi-disciplinary field include observational settings such as Critical Zone and Water, Sustainability and Climate Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, instrumentation and modeling methods. These research advances theory and practices call for similar efforts and improvements in hydrologic education. The typical, text-book based approach in hydrologic education has focused on specific applications and/or unit processes associated with the hydrologic cycle with idealizations, rather than the contextual relations in the physical processes and the spatial and temporal dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. An appreciation of the natural variability of these processes will lead to graduates with the ability to develop independent learning skills and understanding. This appreciation cannot be gained in curricula where field components such as observational and experimental data are deficient. These types of data are also critical when using simulation models to create environments that support this type of learning. Additional sources of observations in conjunction with models and field data are key to students understanding of the challenges associated with using models to represent such complex systems. Recent advances in scientific visualization and web-based technologies provide new opportunities for the development of active learning techniques utilizing ongoing research. The overall goal of the current study is to develop visual, case-based, data and simulation driven learning experiences to instructors and students through a web

  10. Efficient Use of Prior Information to Calibrate the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) Hydrology Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) Hydrology Model by Brian E. Skahill and Charles W. Downer PURPOSE: The purpose of this... Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. These new capabilities enable the incorporation of soft data, or prior information (i.e., extra observations which...traditional hydrologic simulation models (viz., lumped and semidistributed model structures). Such models have the potential to predict with greater

  11. Oregon Hydrologic Landscapes: A Classification Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for hydrologic classification systems that can provide a basis for broad-scale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors such as climate change. We developed a hydrologic landscape (HL) classifica...

  12. Towards Reproducibility in Computational Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    The ability to reproduce published scientific findings is a foundational principle of scientific research. Independent observation helps to verify the legitimacy of individual findings; build upon sound observations so that we can evolve hypotheses (and models) of how catchments function; and move them from specific circumstances to more general theory. The rise of computational research has brought increased focus on the issue of reproducibility across the broader scientific literature. This is because publications based on computational research typically do not contain sufficient information to enable the results to be reproduced, and therefore verified. Given the rise of computational analysis in hydrology over the past 30 years, to what extent is reproducibility, or a lack thereof, a problem in hydrology? Whilst much hydrological code is accessible, the actual code and workflow that produced and therefore documents the provenance of published scientific findings, is rarely available. We argue that in order to advance and make more robust the process of hypothesis testing and knowledge creation within the computational hydrological community, we need to build on from existing open data initiatives and adopt common standards and infrastructures to: first make code re-useable and easy to find through consistent use of metadata; second, publish well documented workflows that combine re-useable code together with data to enable published scientific findings to be reproduced; finally, use unique persistent identifiers (e.g. DOIs) to reference re-useable and reproducible code, thereby clearly showing the provenance of published scientific findings. Whilst extra effort is require to make work reproducible, there are benefits to both the individual and the broader community in doing so, which will improve the credibility of the science in the face of the need for societies to adapt to changing hydrological environments.

  13. Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota...SUBTITLE Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...275 ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Map showing area of investigation for the Black Hills Hydrology Study

  14. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time. This methodology was then expanded and utilized to characterize the changing hydrology on the South Platte River Basin. Future urban growth is represented by housingdensity maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land‐Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and describe a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as anapproach to evaluate basin‐wide impacts of development on water‐quantity and ‐quality, 2) present initial results from the application of the methodology to

  15. Seasonal hydrologic responses to climate change in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, Julie A.; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2015-04-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in precipitation will result in fundamental changes in the seasonal distribution of streamflow in the Pacific Northwest and will have serious implications for water resources management. To better understand local impacts of regional climate change, we conducted model experiments to determine hydrologic sensitivities of annual, seasonal, and monthly runoff to imposed annual and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land-surface hydrology model applied at 1/16° latitude-longitude spatial resolution over the Pacific Northwest (PNW), a scale sufficient to support analyses at the hydrologic unit code eight (HUC-8) basin level. These experiments resolve the spatial character of the sensitivity of future water supply to precipitation and temperature changes by identifying the seasons and locations where climate change will have the biggest impact on runoff. The PNW exhibited a diversity of responses, where transitional (intermediate elevation) watersheds experience the greatest seasonal shifts in runoff in response to cool season warming. We also developed a methodology that uses these hydrologic sensitivities as basin-specific transfer functions to estimate future changes in long-term mean monthly hydrographs directly from climate model output of precipitation and temperature. When principles of linearity and superposition apply, these transfer functions can provide feasible first-order estimates of the likely nature of future seasonal streamflow change without performing downscaling and detailed model simulations.

  16. Hydrology for everyone: Share your knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogulu, Nilay; Dogulu, Canay

    2015-04-01

    Hydrology, the science of water, plays a central role in understanding the function and behaviour of water on the earth. Given the increasingly complex, uncertain, and dynamic nature of this system, the study of hydrology presents challenges in solving water-related problems in societies. While researchers in hydrologic science and engineering embrace these challenges, it is important that we also realize our critical role in promoting the basic understanding of hydrology concepts among the general public. Hydrology is everywhere, yet, the general public often lacks the basic understanding of the hydrologic environment surrounding them. Essentially, we believe that a basic level of knowledge on hydrology is a must for everyone and that this knowledge might facilitate resilience of communities to hydrological extremes. For instance, in case of flood and drought conditions, which are the most frequent and widespread hydrological phenomena that societies live with, a key aspect of facilitating community resilience would be to create awareness on the hydrological, meteorological, and climatological processes behind floods and droughts, and also on their potential implications on water resources management. Such knowledge awareness can lead to an increase in individuals' awareness on their role in water-related problems which in turn can potentially motivate them to adopt preparedness behaviours. For these reasons, embracing an approach that will increase hydrologic literacy of the general public should be a common objective for the hydrologic community. This talk, hopefully, will motivate researchers in hydrologic science and engineering to share their knowledge with the general public. We, as early career hydrologists, should take this responsibility more than anybody else. Start teaching hydrology now and share your knowledge with people around you - friends, family, relatives, neighbours, and others. There is hydrology for everyone!

  17. Restoration Hydrology: Synthesis of Hydrologic Data for Historical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. R.; Agarwal, D.; van Ingen, C.

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of hydrologic data from various sources into a common cyber-infrastructure is essential for hydrologic synthesis in support of aquatic habitat restoration. With a compilation of all USGS watershed stream gauging records and all NOAA precipitation records for California, long-term as well as short-term watershed data can be made available for habitat restoration plans. This data synthesis would be tedious based on prior technology and thus was not frequently undertaken in the past. A few examples illustrate the essential role of cyber-infrastructure in restoration hydrology. When annual precipitation and runoff are examined for Coastal California watersheds, there is a near constancy in actual annual evapotranspiration that is watershed scale invariant over drainage areas from 1 to 3000 square kilometers. Another example examines stream baseflow recession in multiple streams where agricultural practices have changed over the last 40 years. These analyses are quantifying the magnitude of the human-induced change. Maintaining stream baseflows in summer months in central California coastal streams is essential for migratory fish habitat restoration, and the availability of an appropriate cyber-infrastructure significantly eases that assessment. The final example where data management was essential in habitat assessment was an examination of early spring river flows that had daily fluctuations caused by agricultural needs for frost protection in grape vineyards. Farmers anticipated frost conditions by night-time water extractions which in combination with low river flows negatively impacted the stream habitat for salmonids. These applications of cyber-infrastructure are being handed off to resource agency personnel to have them directly engage in restoration hydrology.

  18. Spatial transferability of landscape-based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gharari, Shervan; Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Landscapes, mainly distinguished by land surface topography and vegetation cover, are crucial in defining runoff generation mechanisms, interception capacity and transpiration processes. Landscapes information provides modelers with a way to take into account catchment heterogeneity, while simultaneously keeping model complexity low. A landscape-based hydrological modelling framework (FLEX-Topo), with parallel model structures, was developed and tested in various catchments with diverse climate, topography and land cover conditions. Landscape classification is the basic and most crucial procedure to create a tailor-made model for a certain catchment, as it explicitly relates hydrologic similarity to landscape similarity, which is the base of this type of models. Therefore, the study catchment is classified into different landscapes units that fulfil similar hydrological function, based on classification criteria such as the height above the nearest drainage, slope, aspect and land cover. At present, to suggested model includes four distinguishable landscapes: hillslopes, terraces/plateaus, riparian areas, and glacierized areas. Different parallel model structures are then associated with the different landscape units to describe their different dominant runoff generation mechanisms. These hydrological units are parallel and only connected by groundwater reservoir. The transferability of this landscape-based model can then be compared with the transferability of a lumped model. In this study, FLEX-Topo was developed and tested in three study sites: two cold-arid catchments in China (the upper Heihe River and the Urumqi Glacier No1 catchment), and one tropical catchment in Thailand (the upper Ping River). Stringent model tests indicate that FLEX-Topo, allowing for more process heterogeneity than lumped model formulations, exhibits higher capabilities to be spatially transferred. Furthermore, the simulated water balances, including internal fluxes, hydrograph

  19. Hydrologic Ontology for the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Piasecki, M.

    2003-12-01

    This poster presents the conceptual development of a Hydrologic Ontology for the Web (HOW) that will facilitate data sharing among the hydrologic community. Hydrologic data is difficult to share because of its predicted vast increase in data volume, the availability of new measurement technologies and the heterogeneity of information systems used to produced, store, retrieved and used the data. The augmented capacity of the Internet and the technologies recommended by the W3C, as well as metadata standards provide sophisticated means to make data more usable and systems to be more integrated. Standard metadata is commonly used to solve interoperability issues. For the hydrologic field an explicit metadata standard does not exist, but one could be created extending metadata standards such as the FGDC-STD-001-1998 or ISO 19115. Standard metadata defines a set of elements required to describe data in a consistent manner, and their domains are sometimes restricted by a finite set of values or controlled vocabulary (e.g. code lists in ISO/DIS 19115). This controlled vocabulary is domain specific varying from one information community to another, allowing dissimilar descriptions to similar data sets. This issue is sometimes called semantic non-interoperability or semantic heterogeneity, and it is usually the main problem when sharing data. Explicit domain ontologies could be created to provide semantic interoperability among heterogeneous information communities. Domain ontologies supply the values for restricted domains of some elements in the metadata set and the semantic mapping with other domain ontologies. To achieve interoperability between applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the Web, metadata is expressed using Resource Description Framework (RDF) and domain ontologies are expressed using the Ontology Web Language (OWL), which is also based on RDF. A specific OWL ontology for hydrology is HOW. HOW presents, using a formal syntax, the

  20. Hydrologic Literacy in the Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburne, J.; Madden, J.

    2008-12-01

    Improving hydrologic literacy at all levels has been the keystone to the education mission at NSF's SAHRA Science and Technology Center since its inception in 2000. Water issues and water education are particularly relevant in the semi-arid southwest, which has experienced a series of droughts and tremendous growth throughout this period. One of our strategies has been to focus our efforts on the high school and undergraduate level, for which there are far fewer water education materials available. Early on, we worked with local water educators and employed an Understanding by Design methodology to develop a series of Enduring Understandings in the critical areas of water quality, aquatic life, watersheds and urban hydrology. These basic concepts have helped guide our development of content and training opportunities. A prime example of this process is our Watershed Visualization project, which includes a series of animated videos focused on understanding the geographic and hydrologic setting of the Verde Watershed in central Arizona. This series also addresses the interaction of climate and groundwater recharge in this rapidly changing area. This past year, we developed a new program called Arizona Rivers, which emphasizes local and student- based monitoring and research of the interactions between riparian hydrology and ecology. One key feature of this program is an extended summer field trip/research experience for high school students called the Riparian Research Experience. A goal of this program is to raise the level of critical analysis and environmental stewardship among high school students and their teachers. A more comprehensive effort of raising the hydrologic literacy of non-science university freshman has been taking place at the University of Arizona for the past five years through the general education course titled Arizona Water Issues or HWR203. This course focuses equally on fundamental hydrologic understandings, beginning with the water cycle as

  1. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function

    PubMed Central

    Groenendyk, Derek G.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Rice, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth’s surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  2. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function.

    PubMed

    Groenendyk, Derek G; Ferré, Ty P A; Thorp, Kelly R; Rice, Amy K

    2015-01-01

    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth's surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  3. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has been developed in this study. The developed model can continuously simulate infiltration through the permeable pavement surface, exfiltration from the storage to the surrounding in situ soils, and clogging impacts on infiltration/exfiltration capacity at the pavement surface and the bottom of the subsurface storage unit. The exfiltration modeling component simulates vertical and horizontal exfiltration independently based on Darcy’s formula with the Green-Ampt approximation. The developed model can be arranged with physically-based modeling parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, Manning’s friction flow parameters, saturated and field capacity volumetric water contents, porosity, density, etc. The developed model was calibrated using high-frequency observed data. The modeled water depths are well matched with the observed values (R2 = 0.90). The modeling results show that horizontal exfiltration through the side walls of the subsurface storage unit is a prevailing factor in determining the hydrologic performance of the system, especially where the storage unit is developed in a long, narrow shape; or with a high risk of bottom compaction and clogging. This paper presents unit

  4. The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Gooseff, M.; McGlynn, B.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.

    2009-04-01

    In-class hydrology education is typically strongly biased towards the instructor's background and overcoming this limitation is overly burdensome within the time-constraints of the academic life. This is particularly true for academics in tenure-track positions when most of the material development has to occur. To overcome this issue, we are in the process of establishing the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). Our overall objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and a modular core curriculum based on modern pedagogical standards. The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty in educating hydrologists that can solve today's and tomorrow's interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced.

  5. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    H.H. Liu; C.F. Ahlers

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is in accordance with the AMR Development Plan (DP) for U0090 Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by compiling and analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift of Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in ESF; in-situ measurements of water potential; and data from laboratory testing of core samples.

  6. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  7. Hydrology Section Executive Committee minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, James W.

    The AGU Hydrology Section Executive Committee Meeting was called to order at approximately 4 P.M. on Monday, December 8, 1986 by Marshall Moss. In attendance were George Pinder, Allan Freeze, Jim Mercer, Ron Cummings, Ken Bencala, Jim Wallis, Simon Ince, Jack Stone, Jeff Dozier, Don Nielson, Ivan Johnson, John Wilson, Helen Peters, Jurate Landwehr, Karen Prestegaard, Soroosh Sorooshian, Jery Stedinger, Peter Kitanidis, Rafael Bras, and Waldo Smith.

  8. Terminology gap in hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Water is central to life on Earth. People have been trying to understand how water moves in the hydrosphere throughout the human history. In the 9th century BC, the famous Greek poet Homer described the hydrological cycle in Iliad as "okeanos whose stream bends back in a circle" with a belief that rivers are ocean-fed from subterranean seas. Later, Aristotle (4th century BC) claimed that most of the water came from underground caverns in which air was transformed into water. It was only until 1674, French scientist Perrault developed the correct concept of the water cycle. In modern times, scientists are interested in understanding the individual processes of the hydrological cycle with a keen focus on runoff which supplies water to rivers, lakes, and oceans. Currently, the prevailing concepts on runoff processes include 'infiltration excess runoff' and 'saturation excess runoff'. However, there is no term to describe another major runoff due to the excess beyond the soil water holding capacity (i.e., the field capacity). We argue that a new term should be introduced to fill this gap, and it could be called 'holding excess runoff' which is compatible with the convention. This new term is significant in correcting a half-century misnomer where 'holding excess runoff' has been incorrectly named as 'saturation excess runoff', which was introduced by the Xinanjiang model in China in 1960s. Similar concept has been adopted in many well-known hydrological models such as PDM and HBV in which the saturation refers to the field capacity. The term 'holding excess runoff' resolves such a common confusion in the hydrological community.

  9. Strategies for Hydrology Teaching for a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2010-05-01

    Hydrology as a science has undergone dramatic changes in the past 80 years. However, as evidenced by the text books that are being used and conversations with many educators, it appears that hydrologic education has not kept pace. The legacy of the past growth of hydrology is reflected in the materials and methods used in hydrology teaching as practiced now. Current teaching methods tend to present a mix of empirical approaches (e.g., data analysis, multiple regressions), systems approaches (e.g., unit hydrograph methods, bucket models), and process theories (e.g., infiltration, runoff generation, evaporation, channel flow), often in the form of recipes or skill sets. However, they represent an old paradigm where hydrology was seen as dealing with the movement of water through and over a static earth, aimed at solving one or a combination of separate boundary value problems. However at least since the 1990s there is a new research paradigm operating, which treats hydrology as a distinct geoscience, which does not just deal with the movement of water, but with an interacting holistic earth system that includes not just hydrological but also biogeochemical, ecological and human subsystems. Global change increasingly dictates that this geoscience paradigm be further extended to include highly non-stationary, evolutionary behaviors strongly governed by human-nature interactions. Shouldn't this be recognized in our teaching, and if so how can we achieve it? In this talk I will outline broad strategies we can adopt that could pave the way for a paradigm shift also in the way we teach hydrology. Beyond the essential skills that we have always taught, some of the new skill sets we need to impart are, amongst many others: learning to read the landscape, learning from patterns in the data, including patterns in the landscape and in the atmosphere (e.g., channel morphology, vegetation patterns, climatic patterns), comparative studies as opposed to place-based studies

  10. Making sense of Big Data in Hydrology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, N.; Blodgett, D. L.; Briar, D.

    2013-12-01

    At the same time that "big data" promises to help provide new insights for understanding earth processes, budget challenges require we more effectively use data collected by organizations other than our own. Answering societally relevant questions related to water requires that we consider all natural and anthropogenic aspects of the hydrologic cycle. How do we integrate across organizations and across water cycle components to satisfy these challenges and expectations? We now need to move beyond metadata that describe individual datasets to an ability to interrogate integrated collections of observations. Furthermore, we need to be able to query across obvious (yet elusive) dimensions including hydrologic context and position while filtering for data of a known quality that meets our purpose. In addition, we need to traverse the climate/geography interface, efficiently attributing a climate signal to watersheds. We know that water flows downhill and that after heavy rain, streams flood. But we cannot systematically query for observations made during a flashy summer storm-related flood upstream from notable points on a river or stream such as water treatment intakes. USGS has long committed to providing real-time access to surface and groundwater monitoring networks across the United States. Of the over 45 million requests made for these data in a recent month, nearly a quarter were made via mobile devices. An additional 19.8 million requests were made to web services that provide content according to community and international data standards -- presumably to support other applications and mash ups. This presentation will describe ongoing efforts at the USGS on how we are working with the earth sciences and water resource management communities to develop and implement new techniques for both delivering and consuming hydrologic data. Our strategy has been an "all-of-the-above" approach whereby we recognize and work to advance best practices in various communities

  11. Which spatial discretization for which distributed hydrological model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehotin, J.; Braud, I.

    2007-04-01

    Distributed hydrological models are valuable tools to derive distributed estimation of water balance components or to study the impact of land-use or climate change on water resources and water quality. In these models, the choice of an appropriate spatial scale for the modelling units is a crucial issue. It is obviously linked to the available data and their scale, but not only. For a given catchment and a given data set, the "optimal" spatial discretization should be different according to the problem to be solved and the objectives of the modelling. Thus a flexible methodology is needed, especially for large catchments, to derive modelling units by performing suitable trade-off between available data, the dominant hydrological processes, their representation scale and the modelling objectives. In order to represent catchment heterogeneity efficiently according to the modelling goals, and the availability of the input data, we propose to use nested discretization, starting from a hierarchy of sub-catchments, linked by the river network topology. If consistent with the modelling objectives, the active hydrological processes and data availability, sub-catchment variability can be described using a finer nested discretization. The latter takes into account different geophysical factors such as topography, land-use, pedology, but also suitable hydrological discontinuities such as ditches, hedges, dams, etc. For small catchments, the landscape features such as agricultural fields, buildings, hedges, river reaches can be represented explicitly, as well as the water pathways between them. For larger catchments, such a representation is not feasible and simplification is necessary. For the sub-catchments discretization in these large catchments, we propose a flexible methodology based on the principles of landscape classification, using reference zones. These principles are independent from the catchment size. They allow to keep suitable features which are required in

  12. Associations among hydrologic classifications and fish traits to support environmental flow standards

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Frimpong, Dr. Emmanuel A,

    2014-01-01

    Classification systems are valuable to ecological management in that they organize information into consolidated units thereby providing efficient means to achieve conservation objectives. Of the many ways classifications benefit management, hypothesis generation has been discussed as the most important. However, in order to provide templates for developing and testing ecologically relevant hypotheses, classifications created using environmental variables must be linked to ecological patterns. Herein, we develop associations between a recent US hydrologic classification and fish traits in order to form a template for generating flow ecology hypotheses and supporting environmental flow standard development. Tradeoffs in adaptive strategies for fish were observed across a spectrum of stable, perennial flow to unstable intermittent flow. In accordance with theory, periodic strategists were associated with stable, predictable flow, whereas opportunistic strategists were more affiliated with intermittent, variable flows. We developed linkages between the uniqueness of hydrologic character and ecological distinction among classes, which may translate into predictions between losses in hydrologic uniqueness and ecological community response. Comparisons of classification strength between hydrologic classifications and other frameworks suggested that spatially contiguous classifications with higher regionalization will tend to explain more variation in ecological patterns. Despite explaining less ecological variation than other frameworks, we contend that hydrologic classifications are still useful because they provide a conceptual linkage between hydrologic variation and ecological communities to support flow ecology relationships. Mechanistic associations among fish traits and hydrologic classes support the presumption that environmental flow standards should be developed uniquely for stream classes and ecological communities, therein.

  13. Hydrological connectivity of soil pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.

    2003-04-01

    Natural soil pipes are common in many parts of the world and particularly in blanket peat uplands yet there are problems in finding and defining soil pipe networks which are often located deep within the peat. Pipeflow can contribute a large proportion of runoff to the river systems in these upland environments and may significantly influence catchment sediment and solute yield. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology has recently been developed for non-destructive identification and mapping of soil pipes in peat catchments. While GPR can identify subsurface cavities, it cannot alone determine hydrological connectivity between one cavity and another. This poster presents results from an experiment to test the ability of GPR to establish hydrological connectivity between pipes through use of a tracer solution. Tracers such as sodium chloride were injected at a constant rate into an open pipe cavity. The GPR was moved across the test area downslope. The resultant radargrams were analysed and significantly increased reflectance was observed from a selection of cavities downslope. It was thus possible to determine hydrological connectivity of soil pipes within a dense pipe network across a hillslope without ground disturbance. In addition, tracers were added to the peat surface upslope of known pipe networks. It was possible to then trace the movement of water across and through the hillslope by using GPR to establish the connectivity of a range of flowpaths. Often pipe networks were supplied with water from overland flow entering through cracks and openings where the soil pipe was near the peat surface. Downslope, pipeflow contributed not only directly to streamflow but also to overland flow and near-surface throughflow on the hillslope. The same water that was within a pipe network at four metres depth could become near-surface throughflow outside of the pipe network a few metres down slope. These data allow the first three-dimensional picture of subsurface

  14. SWOT Hydrology in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Destaerke, D.; Butler, D. M.; Pavelsky, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission Education Program will participate in the multinational, multiagency program, Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE). GLOBE is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education community of over 24,000 schools in more than 100 countries. Over 1.5 million students have contributed more than 23 million measurements to the GLOBE database for use in inquiry-based science projects. The objectives of the program are to promote the teaching and learning of science; enhance environmental awareness, literacy and stewardship; and contribute to science research and environmental monitoring.SWOT will measure sea surface height and the heights, slopes, and inundated areas of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. This new SWOT-GLOBE partnership will focus on the limnology aspects of SWOT. These measurements will be useful in monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and climate impacts of a changing environment.GLOBE's cadre of teachers are trained in five core areas of Earth system science, including hydrology. The SWOT Education teams at NASA and CNES are working with the GLOBE Program implementers to develop and promote a new protocol under the Hydrology topic area for students to measure attributes of surface water bodies that will support mission science objectives. This protocol will outline and describe a methodology to measure width and height of rivers and lakes.This new GLOBE protocol will be included in training to provide teachers with expertise and confidence in engaging students in this new scientific investigation. Performing this additional measurement will enhance GLOBE students experience in scientific investigation, and will provide useful measurements to SWOT researchers that can support the SWOT mission research goals.SWOT public engagement will involve communicating the value of its river and lake height measurements, lake water storage, and river

  15. Understanding hydrological extremes in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mård, Johanna; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological extremes, from floods to droughts, pose one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Many of these challenges are associated with societal interactions with water, as people control or impact hydrological systems in a multitude of ways while they are also being affected and shaped by hydrological extremes, depending on their response to drought and flood events. However, the fact that the human and natural components of freshwater systems interact and co-evolve over time is often not taken into account. There is a need to study the two-way coupling between hydrology and society within a more comprehensive framework for hydrological extremes to anticipate future trajectories in a rapidly changing world. We present an interdisciplinary framework (and concepts) to identify internal controlling variables, processes and feedbacks, and the external system drivers and disturbances of the coupled human-water system with regard to hydrological extremes. To achieve this, the study (i) synthesizes existing research on coupled human-water system focusing on floods and droughts, (ii) analyzes hydrological extremes that have already occurred and their spatiotemporal patterns to investigate what patterns are observed in different regions of the world, and (iii) systematically describe the observed hydrological extremes, their causes and the interactions and feedbacks between hydrology and society. Advancing our understanding of mechanisms and feedbacks driving hydrological extremes is essential to better anticipate how the coupled human-water system will respond to future environmental change.

  16. A priori discretization error metrics for distributed hydrologic modeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongli; Tolson, Bryan A.; Craig, James R.; Shafii, Mahyar

    2016-12-01

    Watershed spatial discretization is an important step in developing a distributed hydrologic model. A key difficulty in the spatial discretization process is maintaining a balance between the aggregation-induced information loss and the increase in computational burden caused by the inclusion of additional computational units. Objective identification of an appropriate discretization scheme still remains a challenge, in part because of the lack of quantitative measures for assessing discretization quality, particularly prior to simulation. This study proposes a priori discretization error metrics to quantify the information loss of any candidate discretization scheme without having to run and calibrate a hydrologic model. These error metrics are applicable to multi-variable and multi-site discretization evaluation and provide directly interpretable information to the hydrologic modeler about discretization quality. The first metric, a subbasin error metric, quantifies the routing information loss from discretization, and the second, a hydrological response unit (HRU) error metric, improves upon existing a priori metrics by quantifying the information loss due to changes in land cover or soil type property aggregation. The metrics are straightforward to understand and easy to recode. Informed by the error metrics, a two-step discretization decision-making approach is proposed with the advantage of reducing extreme errors and meeting the user-specified discretization error targets. The metrics and decision-making approach are applied to the discretization of the Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada. Results show that information loss increases as discretization gets coarser. Moreover, results help to explain the modeling difficulties associated with smaller upstream subbasins since the worst discretization errors and highest error variability appear in smaller upstream areas instead of larger downstream drainage areas. Hydrologic modeling experiments under

  17. Hydrological improvements for nutrient and pollutant emission modeling in large scale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höllering, S.; Ihringer, J.

    2012-04-01

    An estimation of emissions and loads of nutrients and pollutants into European water bodies with as much accuracy as possible depends largely on the knowledge about the spatially and temporally distributed hydrological runoff patterns. An improved hydrological water balance model for the pollutant emission model MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions) (IWG, 2011) has been introduced, that can form an adequate basis to simulate discharge in a hydrologically differentiated, land-use based way to subsequently provide the required distributed discharge components. First of all the hydrological model had to comply both with requirements of space and time in order to calculate sufficiently precise the water balance on the catchment scale spatially distributed in sub-catchments and with a higher temporal resolution. Aiming to reproduce seasonal dynamics and the characteristic hydrological regimes of river catchments a daily (instead of a yearly) time increment was applied allowing for a more process oriented simulation of discharge dynamics, volume and therefore water balance. The enhancement of the hydrological model became also necessary to potentially account for the hydrological functioning of catchments in regard to scenarios of e.g. a changing climate or alterations of land use. As a deterministic, partly physically based, conceptual hydrological watershed and water balance model the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) (USGS, 2009) was selected to improve the hydrological input for MoRE. In PRMS the spatial discretization is implemented with sub-catchments and so called hydrologic response units (HRUs) which are the hydrotropic, distributed, finite modeling entities each having a homogeneous runoff reaction due to hydro-meteorological events. Spatial structures and heterogeneities in sub-catchments e.g. urbanity, land use and soil types were identified to derive hydrological similarities and classify in different urban and rural HRUs. In this way the

  18. Designing a visualization system for hydrological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Sven

    2000-02-01

    The field of hydrology is, as any other scientific field, strongly affected by a massive technological evolution. The spread of modern information and communication technology within the last three decades has led to an increased collection, availability and use of spatial and temporal digital hydrological data. In a two-year research period a working group in Muenster applied and developed methods for the visualization of digital hydrological data and the documentation of hydrological models. A low-cost multimedial, hydrological visualization system (HydroVIS) for the Weser river catchment was developed. The research group designed HydroVIS under freeware constraints and tried to show what kind of multimedia visualization techniques can be effectively used with a nonprofit hydrological visualization system. The system's visual components include features such as electronic maps, temporal and nontemporal cartographic animations, the display of geologic profiles, interactive diagrams and hypertext, including photographs and tables.

  19. Global change and terrestrial hydrology - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of terrestrial hydrology in determining the coupling between the surface and atmosphere. Present experience with interactive numerical simulation is discussed and approaches to the inclusion of land hydrology in global climate models ae considered. At present, a wide range of answers as to expected changes in surface hydrology is given by nominally similar models. Studies of the effects of tropical deforestation and global warming illustrate this point.

  20. Against objective statistical analysis of hydrological extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, W. E.

    1994-11-01

    Random-variable models are frequently applied to recorded sequences of hydrological extremes. However, even if the recorded extremes behave like random variables the underlying probability distribution still remains unknown. It follows that better extrapolations of extreme hydrological events will never be achieved by comparing permutations of the latest estimation techniques and specified probability distributions. Yet such estimation/distribution comparisons continue to proliferate through the hydrological literature in the vain hope that some 'best' extrapolation method will emerge in time. The questionable value of the whole comparison process calls into question the worth of objectivity as a desirable attribute in techniques for analysing hydrological extremes.

  1. Hulburt Creek Hydrology, Southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Hulburt Creek, Sauk County, Wis., in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the low flow, monthly flow, and inflow flood. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The following estimates are for the point on Hulburt Creek at the proposed Dell Lake damsite near Wisconsin Dells. The drainage area is 11.2 square miles.

  2. Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stucky, H. Ralph

    1972-01-01

    Describes a project, being undertaken during fiscal-year 1972 by the Universities Council on Water Resources, to develop a sequel to the publication, A Ten-Year Program of Federal Water Resources Research." The new publication will help guide research efforts of the Federal agencies. (PR)

  3. Potential and limitations of using soil mapping information to understand landscape hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terribile, F.; Coppola, A.; Langella, G.; Martina, M.; Basile, A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses the following points: how can whole soil data from normally available soil mapping databases (both conventional and those integrated by digital soil mapping procedures) be usefully employed in hydrology? Answering this question requires a detailed knowledge of the quality and quantity of information embedded in and behind a soil map. To this end a description of the process of drafting soil maps was prepared (which is included in Appendix A of this paper). Then a detailed screening of content and availability of soil maps and database was performed, with the objective of an analytical evaluation of the potential and the limitations of soil data obtained through soil surveys and soil mapping. Then we reclassified the soil features according to their direct, indirect or low hydrologic relevance. During this phase, we also included information regarding whether this data was obtained by qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative methods. The analysis was performed according to two main points of concern: (i) the hydrological interpretation of the soil data and (ii) the quality of the estimate or measurement of the soil feature. The interaction between pedology and hydrology processes representation was developed through the following Italian case studies with different hydropedological inputs: (i) comparative land evaluation models, by means of an exhaustive itinerary from simple to complex modelling applications depending on soil data availability, (ii) mapping of soil hydrological behaviour for irrigation management at the district scale, where the main hydropedological input was the application of calibrated pedo-transfer functions and the Hydrological Function Unit concept, and (iii) flood event simulation in an ungauged basin, with the functional aggregation of different soil units for a simplified soil pattern. In conclusion, we show that special care is required in handling data from soil databases if full potential is to be achieved

  4. A priori discretization quality metrics for distributed hydrologic modeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongli; Tolson, Bryan; Craig, James; Shafii, Mahyar; Basu, Nandita

    2016-04-01

    In distributed hydrologic modelling, a watershed is treated as a set of small homogeneous units that address the spatial heterogeneity of the watershed being simulated. The ability of models to reproduce observed spatial patterns firstly depends on the spatial discretization, which is the process of defining homogeneous units in the form of grid cells, subwatersheds, or hydrologic response units etc. It is common for hydrologic modelling studies to simply adopt a nominal or default discretization strategy without formally assessing alternative discretization levels. This approach lacks formal justifications and is thus problematic. More formalized discretization strategies are either a priori or a posteriori with respect to building and running a hydrologic simulation model. A posteriori approaches tend to be ad-hoc and compare model calibration and/or validation performance under various watershed discretizations. The construction and calibration of multiple versions of a distributed model can become a seriously limiting computational burden. Current a priori approaches are more formalized and compare overall heterogeneity statistics of dominant variables between candidate discretization schemes and input data or reference zones. While a priori approaches are efficient and do not require running a hydrologic model, they do not fully investigate the internal spatial pattern changes of variables of interest. Furthermore, the existing a priori approaches focus on landscape and soil data and do not assess impacts of discretization on stream channel definition even though its significance has been noted by numerous studies. The primary goals of this study are to (1) introduce new a priori discretization quality metrics considering the spatial pattern changes of model input data; (2) introduce a two-step discretization decision-making approach to compress extreme errors and meet user-specified discretization expectations through non-uniform discretization threshold

  5. Slowflow fingerprints of urban hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stuart S.; Smith, Brennan

    2014-07-01

    Urban streamflow is commonly characterized by increased peak discharges and runoff volumes. Slowflow integrates altered storage and transit times affecting urban recharge and drainage, resulting in a highly variable indeterminate urban slowflow response. This study introduces the use of multiple baseflow metrics to characterize and interpret the dominant processes driving urban slowflow response. Slowflow characteristics derived from USGS streamflow records are used to quantify the patterns of hydrologic alteration across the rural-to-urban landuse gradient in the Piedmont watersheds of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), an NSF Urban Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in the Baltimore Metropolitan area. We interpret multimetric slowflow response from a top-down perspective, learning from data, in order to draw dominant process inferences from observed slowflow. When characterized by a single slowflow metric such as the baseflow index, urban slowflow response can exhibit equifinality and is not reliably predicted a priori. Multimetric analysis quantifies distinct differences in urban slowflow response, framing testable hypotheses and refined experimental designs to elucidate the dominant processes driving urban slowflow. Multimetric fingerprinting offers a consistent framework for interpreting urban slowflow response, constrained by the equifinality of single slowflow metrics and the inherent limitations on process inferences that can be drawn from gauged streamflow alone. Heterogeneity of observed slowflow belies the simple paradigm of a single consistent type of urban slowflow response. In contrast, we suggest a conceptual typology of urban slowflow response, framing a conceptual mixing model of dominant process endpoints that shape the slowflow fingerprints of urban hydrology.

  6. Hydrologic Forecasting and Hydropower Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigmosta, M. S.; Voisin, N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Coleman, A.; Mishra, V.; Schaner, N. A.

    2011-12-01

    Hydroelectric power production is one of many competing demands for available water along with other priority uses such as irrigation, thermoelectric cooling, municipal, recreation, and environmental performance. Increasingly, hydroelectric generation is being used to offset the intermittent nature of some renewable energy sources such as wind-generated power. An accurate forecast of the magnitude and timing of water supply assists managers in integrated planning and operations to balance competing water uses against current and future supply while protecting against the possibility of water or energy shortages and excesses with real-time actions. We present a medium-range to seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasting system where uncertainty in forecasts is addressed explicitly. The integrated forecast system makes use of remotely-sensed data and automated spatial and temporal data assimilation. Remotely-sensed snow cover, observed snow water equivalent, and observed streamflow data are used to update the hydrologic model state prior to the forecast. In forecast mode, the hydrology model is forced by calibrated ensemble weather/climate forecasts. This system will be fully integrated into a water optimization toolset to inform reservoir and power operations, and guide environmental performance decision making. This flow forecast system development is carried out in agreement with the National Weather Service so that the system can later be incorporated into the NOAA eXperimental Ensemble Forecast Service (XEFS).

  7. Simulating Hydrologic Effects of Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Ogden, F. L.; Pradhan, N.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization of watersheds introduces multiple effects on hydrology and water quality. Roads, parking lots, roof tops and other impervious areas increase total runoff production. Soils are extensively modified through compaction and importation of fill and placement of sod. Streams are modified, moved, and replaced with lined channels, further increasing runoff and storm peaks. Subsurface drainage may supplement or supplant the function of natural streams, compounding the effects of channel modifications. Increased runoff results in increased erosion and transport of sediment and associated contaminants. Efforts to mitigate the effects of urbanization, channel improvements, levees, low impact development, detention basins, grassed swales, and other best management practices further complicate the issue. These attempts may or may not affect the overall system response as anticipated or desired. Analysis of the effects of urbanizing watersheds and design of abatement measures using simplified empirical methods and/or analyzing only the local effects may produce erroneous results. In this paper we will present and discuss simulation results from various studies related to the application of models to predicting the effects of urbanizing watersheds. We will contrast physics based hydrologic modeling efforts to simpler, empirical methods. We will also discuss the relative importance of various urbanizing features and modeling strategies to incorporate the important features. Dead Run Watershed

  8. Modern control concepts in hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, N.; Johnson, G. R.; Winn, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    Two approaches to an identification problem in hydrology are presented based upon concepts from modern control and estimation theory. The first approach treats the identification of unknown parameters in a hydrologic system subject to noisy inputs as an adaptive linear stochastic control problem; the second approach alters the model equation to account for the random part in the inputs, and then uses a nonlinear estimation scheme to estimate the unknown parameters. Both approaches use state-space concepts. The identification schemes are sequential and adaptive and can handle either time invariant or time dependent parameters. They are used to identify parameters in the Prasad model of rainfall-runoff. The results obtained are encouraging and conform with results from two previous studies; the first using numerical integration of the model equation along with a trial-and-error procedure, and the second, by using a quasi-linearization technique. The proposed approaches offer a systematic way of analyzing the rainfall-runoff process when the input data are imbedded in noise.

  9. Geo-MHYDAS: A discretization procedure of cultivated landscapes for distributed hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagacherie, P.; Rabotin, M.

    2009-04-01

    Distributed hydrological models provide effective simulation tools for exploring basin hydrological processes and predicting the effects of changes on catchment response. Each model has its own method to represent landscape variabilities which strongly influences its performances and often limits its use. It is thus important to provide adequate spatial discretizations of landscapes that could be coupled with physically-based representation of hydrological processes. Grid-based segmentation of landscape are the most commonly used by hydrological distributed models because grid-based Digital Elevation Models (DEM) are the most commonly available, the methods of analysis are computationally efficient and simple and this structure is compatible with remotely sensing techniques and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A more adapted landscape representations is considered in MHYDAS (Distributed hydrological modelling for agrosystems), a physically-based catchment model specifically designed for agricultural catchments. MHYDAS considers a discretization of catchments into irregularly sized and shaped areal and linear topographically-connected hydrological units which allows to take into account a great number of natural and man-made hydrological discontinuities that can be encountered in farmed catchments. This communication presents Geo-MHYDAS, the GIS procedure that help users of MHYDAS - and possible similar models - to perform this complex landscape discretization prior to running the model. This landscape discretization has the following characteristics: * take into account both natural and man-made landscape features of various sizes e.g. subcatchments, soil units, land use units but also ditches network, field boundaries. * provide both linear and polygonal hydrological units by an overlay procedure and selective cleaning operations that perform an user-controlled filtering of the small and/or badly-shaped units * build a topology that connects all the areal and

  10. Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Recreational Fishing in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a geographic information system, a spatially explicit modeling framework was developed consisting grid cells organized into 2,099 eight-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC-8) polygons for the coterminous United States. Projected temperature and precipitation changes associated...

  11. Dam Dynamics in the Colonial Northeast and Chesapeake: Hydrologic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, D. J.; Salant, N. L.; Brandt, S. L.

    2008-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted the widespread presence of low-head dams for power generation during the 19th century. However, this work largely depends on census numbers tabulated in the mid-1800s, over 200 years after European activity began in North America. In order to compare the hydrologic implications of colonial era low-head dam construction with the impacts of other simultaneous processes (e.g., expatriation of the beaver or forest clearance), we have compiled historical data on mills to reconstruct the temporal and spatial dynamics of low-head dam construction in the colonial northeastern United States (i.e., Virginia to Maine). This reconstruction, combined with the results of related work on beaver pond dynamics and deforestation, provides several insights into the distribution and impacts of human impoundments during this period. While the resulting hydrologic changes are large, the addition of human dams to the system seems to be minimally offset and less important than changes arising from the expatriation of the beaver or the removal of trees during this early period. In addition, the spatial patterns of dam construction are complex, making prediction of hydrologic and associated responses more difficult to predict.

  12. Hydrologic and water quality sensitivity to climate and land ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes a current EPA ORD project. No project report or other download is available at this time. Please see the section Next Steps below for a timeline of anticipated products of this work. Background: Projected changes in climate during the next century could cause or contribute to increased flooding, drought, water quality degradation, and ecosystem impairment. The effects of climate change in different watersheds will vary due to regional differences in climate change, physiographic setting, and interaction with land-use, pollutant sources, and water management in different locations. EPA is conducting watershed modeling to develop hydrologic and water quality change scenarios for 20 relatively large U.S. watersheds. Watershed modeling will be conducted using the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) and Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed models. Study areas range from about 10,000-15,000 square miles in size, and will cover nearly every ecoregion in the United States and a range of hydro-climatic conditions. A range of hydrologic and water quality endpoints will be determined for each watershed simulation. Endpoints will be selected to inform upon a range of stream flow, water quality, aquatic ecosystem, and EPA program management goals and targets. Model simulations will be conducted to evaluate a range of projected future (2040-2070) changes in climate and land-use. Simulations will include baseline conditions,

  13. Water use regimes: Characterizing direct human interaction with hydrologic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, P.K.; Vogel, R.M.; Steeves, P.A.; Zarriello, P.J.; DeSimone, L.A.; Ries, Kernell G.

    2007-01-01

    [1] The sustainability of human water use practices is a rapidly growing concern in the United States and around the world. To better characterize direct human interaction with hydrologic systems (stream basins and aquifers), we introduce the concept of the water use regime. Unlike scalar indicators of anthropogenic hydrologic stress in the literature, the water use regime is a two-dimensional, vector indicator that can be depicted on simple x-y plots of normalized human withdrawals (hout) versus normalized human return flows (hin). Four end-member regimes, natural-flow-dominated (undeveloped), human-flow-dominated (churned), withdrawal-dominated (depleted), and return-flow-dominated (surcharged), are defined in relation to limiting values of hout and hin. For illustration, the water use regimes of 19 diverse hydrologic systems are plotted and interpreted. Several of these systems, including the Yellow River Basin, China, and the California Central Valley Aquifer, are shown to approach particular end-member regimes. Spatial and temporal regime variations, both seasonal and long-term, are depicted. Practical issues of data availability and regime uncertainty are addressed in relation to the statistical properties of the ratio estimators hout and hin. The water use regime is shown to be a useful tool for comparative water resources assessment and for describing both historic and alternative future pathways of water resource development at a range of scales. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Vulnerability of Oregon hydrologic landscapes and streamflow to climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic classification systems can provide a basis for broadscale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors. Such assessments could be particularly useful in determining hydrologic vulnerability from climate change. ...

  15. Hydrologic Landscape Characterization for the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic classification can help address some of the challenges facing catchment hydrology. Wigington et al. (2013) developed a hydrologic landscape (HL) approach to classification that was applied to the state of Oregon. Several characteristics limited its applicability outs...

  16. Hydrologic Modeling of Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This study focused on the hydrologic response, including vegetation water use, of two test regions within the Boreal-Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) region in the Canadian boreal forest, one north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, and the other near Thompson, Manitoba. Fluxes of moisture and heat were studied using a spatially distributed hydrology soil-vegetation-model (DHSVM).

  17. The Hydrologic Cycle Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Danny M.; Goodman, H. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Huntsville, Alabama supports the acquisition, production, archival and dissemination of data relevant to the study of the global hydrologic cycle. This paper describes the Hydrologic Cycle DAAC, surveys its principle data holdings, addresses future growth, and gives information for accessing the data sets.

  18. Hydrology of Southeast Florida and Associated Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsour, William, Comp.; Moyer, Maureen, Comp.

    This booklet deals with the hydrology of southeastern Florida. It is designed to provide the citizen, teacher, or student with hydrological information, to promote an understanding of water resources, and to initiate conservation practices within Florida communities. The collection of articles within the booklet deal with Florida water resources…

  19. HYDROLOGY AND LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY OF VERNAL POOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vernal pools are shaped by hydrologic processes which influence many aspects of pool function. The hydrologic budget of a pool can be summarized by a water balance equation that relates changes in the amount of water in the pool to precipitation, ground- and surface-water flows, ...

  20. Hydrology of Mid-Atlantic Freshwater Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrology is a key variable in the structure and function of a wetland; it is a primary determinant of wetland type, and it drives many of the functions a wetland performs and in turn the services it provides. However, wetland hydrology has been understudied. Efforts by Riparia s...

  1. IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

  2. Environmental Hydrological Education in Ukraine: Present State and New Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, Viacheslav

    2010-05-01

    second years and orientation on special hydrological training during next years. After the completion of first and second years academic program, students undertake field practical works under a supervision of their teachers at field stations of the Kyiv National University and at organization of the State Hydrometeorological Service. New challenges in climate changes, increasing of human impact on waters as well as a rapid development of environmental oriented researches stimulate the upgrading of requirements to educational programs. In order to meet these requirements a number of measures have been undertaken by the Kyiv National University in cooperation with the State Hydrometeorological Service and the State Committee for Water Management. A number of the new courses ("Hydroinformatics", "Environmental Planning and Management", "New Technologies Using in the Hydrometeorological Service" and others) have been developed during last years. The practical training of using of new hydrological and hydrochemical equipment and methods of observation and forecasting in the State Hydometeorological Service is increased. All students have practical works at the organization of the State Hydrometeorological Service: meteorological and hydrological stations, observatories, hydrological forecasting units. The special complex program of practical hydrological training of students was development by the Administration of the State Hydrometeorological Service in 2007. One way of the development of hydrological training is increasing the flexibility of educational programs, which includes providing by the Kyiv National University and the State Hydrometeorolgical Service of on-line and short courses.

  3. Optimizing hydrological consistency by incorporating hydrological signatures into model calibration objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafii, Mahyar; Tolson, Bryan A.

    2015-05-01

    The simulated outcome of a calibrated hydrologic model should be hydrologically consistent with the measured response data. Hydrologic modelers typically calibrate models to optimize residual-based goodness-of-fit measures, e.g., the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency measure, and then evaluate the obtained results with respect to hydrological signatures, e.g., the flow duration curve indices. The literature indicates that the consideration of a large number of hydrologic signatures has not been addressed in a full multiobjective optimization context. This research develops a model calibration methodology to achieve hydrological consistency using goodness-of-fit measures, many hydrological signatures, as well as a level of acceptability for each signature. The proposed framework relies on a scoring method that transforms any hydrological signature to a calibration objective. These scores are used to develop the hydrological consistency metric, which is maximized to obtain hydrologically consistent parameter sets during calibration. This consistency metric is implemented in different signature-based calibration formulations that adapt the sampling according to hydrologic signature values. These formulations are compared with the traditional formulations found in the literature for seven case studies. The results reveal that Pareto dominance-based multiobjective optimization yields the highest level of consistency among all formulations. Furthermore, it is found that the choice of optimization algorithms does not affect the findings of this research.

  4. Nineteenth Century Harbors: Accounting for Coastal Urban Development in Hydrologic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, K. M.; Ruffing, C. M.; McCormack, S. M.; Urbanova, T.; Powell, L. J.; Hermans, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Harbors complicate the analytical framework of quantifying nineteenth-century hydrologic change in the northeastern United States. The hydrology of the region was fundamentally altered by the growth of water engineering such as canals as well as by land cover changes as deforestation in the region peaked and urban centers grew. Urban coastal growth epitomized nineteenth-century development as northeastern colonial ports evolved into manufacturing and industrial centers. Coastal urban industrial development concentrated tanneries, machineries, and paper processing companies along cities’ trading rivers. Additionally, the populations of cities such as Boston, New Haven, New York, Newark, and Baltimore reached unprecedented numbers, forcing urban municipalities to confront sewerage and drinking water infrastructure in the face of shortages and waterborne disease. We discuss how the concentration of industry and population at river mouths complicates the process of quantifying the effects of municipal drinking water and sewage infrastructure on regional hydrology and how the growth of nineteenth-century urban centers shaped regional hydrologic hinterlands. Additionally, harbors oblige a reconsideration of hydrologic boundaries by forcing hydrologists and environmental historians to account for fisheries and harbor engineering alongside population and industry as factors in changes to water quality and quantity in and human response to urban nineteenth-century hydrologic change.

  5. IMPACT OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-ATLANTIC REGION HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of hydrology and water resources to climate variation and climate change is assessed for the Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of the United States. Observed streamflow, groundwater, and water-quality data are shown to vary in association with climate variation. Projectio...

  6. USGS Geospatial Fabric and Geo Data Portal for Continental Scale Hydrology Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Viger, R.; Hay, L.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes use of United States Geological Survey (USGS) data products and server-based resources for continental-scale hydrologic simulations. The USGS Modeling of Watershed Systems (MoWS) group provides a consistent national geospatial fabric built on NHDPlus. They have defined more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs) over the continental United States based on points of interest (POIs) and split into left and right bank based on the corresponding stream segment. Geophysical attributes are calculated for each HRU that can be used to define parameters in hydrologic and land-surface models. The Geo Data Portal (GDP) project at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) provides access to downscaled climate datasets and processing services via web-interface and python modules for creating forcing datasets for any polygon (such as an HRU). These resources greatly reduce the labor required for creating model-ready data in-house, contributing to efficient and effective modeling applications. We will present an application of this USGS cyber-infrastructure for assessments of impacts of climate change on hydrology over the continental United States.

  7. Hydrologic connectivity between geographically isolated wetlands and surface water systems: A review of select modeling methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rulings in 2001 and 2006 by the United States Supreme Court concerning the protection of Geographically Isolated Wetlands (GIWs) unveiled a critical area of research: quantifying the extent of potential hydrologic connectivity of GIWs to navigable waters and their effects at a va...

  8. Landscape Metrics Arranged by Hydrological Proximity to Sites on Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work has been published to demonstrate an application that the authors made of the geospatial National Hydrography Dataset (NHDPlus) that was developed by Horizon Systems Corporation for the US EPA. NHDPlus was produced to enhance hydrological maps of the United States for ...

  9. Hydrological controls of in situ preservation of waterlogged archaeological deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; West, L. Jared; Howard, Andy J.; Maxfield, Eleanor; Panter, Ian; Oxley, John

    2006-09-01

    Environmental change caused by urban development, land drainage, agriculture or climate change may result in accelerated decay of in situ archaeological remains. This paper reviews research into impacts of environmental change on hydrological processes of relevance to preservation of archaeological remains in situ. It compares work at rural sites with more complex urban environments. The research demonstrates that both the quantity and quality of data on preservation status, and hydrological and chemical parameters collected during routine archaeological surveys need to be improved. The work also demonstrates the necessity for any archaeological site to be placed within its topographic and geological context. In order to understand preservation potential fully, it is necessary to move away from studying the archaeological site as an isolated unit, since factors some distance away from the site of interest can be important for determining preservation. The paper reviews what is known about the hydrological factors of importance to archaeological preservation and recommends research that needs to be conducted so that archaeological risk can be more adequately predicted and mitigated. Any activity that changes either source pathways or the dominant water input may have an impact not just because of changes to the water balance or the water table, but because of changes to water chemistry. Therefore, efforts to manage threatened waterlogged environments must consider the chemical nature of the water input into the system. Clearer methods of assessing the degree to which buried archaeological sites can withstand changing hydrological conditions are needed, in addition to research which helps us understand what triggers decay and what controls thresholds of response for different sediments and types of artefact.

  10. Flash flooding in small urban watersheds: Storm event hydrologic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    We analyze flash flooding in small urban watersheds, with special focus on the roles of rainfall variability, antecedent soil moisture, and urban storm water management infrastructure in storm event hydrologic response. Our results are based on empirical analyses of high-resolution rainfall and discharge observations over Harry's Brook watershed in Princeton, New Jersey, during 2005-2006, as well as numerical experiments with the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. We focus on two subwatersheds of Harry's Brook, a 1.1 km2 subwatershed which was developed prior to modern storm water management regulations, and a 0.5 km2 subwatershed with an extensive network of storm water detention ponds. The watershed developed prior to modern storm water regulations is an "end-member" in urban flood response, exhibiting a frequency of flood peaks (with unit discharge exceeding 1 m3 s-1 km-2) that is comparable to the "flashiest" watersheds in the conterminous U.S. Observational analyses show that variability in storm event water balance is strongly linked to peak rain rates at time intervals of less than 30 min and only weakly linked to antecedent soil moisture conditions. Peak discharge for both the 1.1 and 0.5 km2 subwatersheds are strongly correlated with rainfall rate averaged over 1-30 min. Hydrologic modeling analyses indicate that the sensitivity of storm event hydrologic response to spatial rainfall variability decreases with storm intensity. Temporal rainfall variability is relatively more important than spatial rainfall variability in representing urban flood response, especially for extreme storm events.

  11. Hydrologic response to stormwater control measures in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Colin D.; McMillan, Sara K.; Clinton, Sandra M.; Jefferson, Anne J.

    2016-10-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are designed to mitigate deleterious effects of urbanization on river networks, but our ability to predict the cumulative effect of multiple SCMs at watershed scales is limited. The most widely used metric to quantify impacts of urban development, total imperviousness (TI), does not contain information about the extent of stormwater control. We analyzed the discharge records of 16 urban watersheds in Charlotte, NC spanning a range of TI (4.1-54%) and area mitigated with SCMs (1.3-89%). We then tested multiple watershed metrics that quantify the degree of urban impact and SCM mitigation to determine which best predicted hydrologic response across sites. At the event time scale, linear models showed TI to be the best predictor of both peak unit discharge and rainfall-runoff ratios across a range of storm sizes. TI was also a strong driver of both a watershed's capacity to buffer small (e.g., 1-10 mm) rain events, and the relationship between peak discharge and precipitation once that buffering capacity is exceeded. Metrics containing information about SCMs did not appear as primary predictors of event hydrologic response, suggesting that the level of SCM mitigation in many urban watersheds is insufficient to influence hydrologic response. Over annual timescales, impervious surfaces unmitigated by SCMs and tree coverage were best correlated with streamflow flashiness and water yield, respectively. The shift in controls from the event scale to the annual scale has important implications for water resource management, suggesting that overall limitation of watershed imperviousness rather than partial mitigation by SCMs may be necessary to alleviate the hydrologic impacts of urbanization.

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey Coal Hydrology Program and the potential of hydrologic models for impact assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W. Harry

    1981-01-01

    A requirement of Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, is the understanding of the hydrology in actual and proposed surface-mined areas. Surface-water data for small specific-sites and for larger areas such as adjacent and general areas are needed also to satisfy the hydrologic requirements of the Act. The Act specifies that surface-water modeling techniques may be used to generate the data and information. The purpose of this report is to describe how this can be achieved for smaller watersheds. This report also characterizes 12 ' state-of-the-art ' strip-mining assessment models that are to be tested with data from two data-intensive studies involving small watersheds in Tennessee and Indiana. Watershed models are best applied to small watersheds with specific-site data. Extending the use of modeling techniques to larger watersheds remains relatively untested, and to date the upper limits for application have not been established. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently collecting regional hydrologic data in the major coal provinces of the United States and this data will be used to help satisfy the ' general-area ' data requirements of the Act. This program is reviewed and described in this report. (USGS)

  13. Evaluation of Time-Varying Hydrology within the Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS TM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    average annual hydrology ERDC/EL CR-14-3 x Mathematical Symbols A catchment or AOI surface area , m2 As sediment yield from overland soil...depth by the catchment (i.e., AOI) surface area . It is noted that the hydrology model can compute runoff without rainfall due to snow melt. 2. The...the catchment surface area (square miles), F is the surface storage correction factor (unit-less), and Hro is the runoff depth (inches) for the

  14. Hydrologic enforcement of lidar DEMs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Evans, Gayla A.; Heidemann, H. Karl

    2014-01-01

    Hydrologic-enforcement (hydro-enforcement) of light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) modifies the elevations of artificial impediments (such as road fills or railroad grades) to simulate how man-made drainage structures such as culverts or bridges allow continuous downslope flow. Lidar-derived DEMs contain an extremely high level of topographic detail; thus, hydro-enforced lidar-derived DEMs are essential to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for complex modeling of riverine flow. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) is integrating hydro-enforced lidar-derived DEMs (land elevation) and lidar-derived bathymetry (water depth) to enhance storm surge modeling in vulnerable coastal zones.

  15. Hydrologic functions of prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    1998-01-01

    Wetlands in the prairie known as potholes or sloughs represent an ever-changing mosaic of surface waters interacting with the atmosphere, groundwater, and each other in a variety of ways. Studies of groups of adjacent wetlands in different parts of the glaciated North American prairie have enabled some connections to be made between hydrologic processes, biological communities, and use of these wetlands by wetland-dependent wildlife. Understanding controls on variability in water levels, water volume, and salinity in these wetlands sets the stage for understanding controls on biological communities utilizing these wetlands. The role that natural variability in water and salinity plays in making these wetlands an important resource for waterfowl will provide an important context for those who are responsible for artificially altering the variability of water and salinity in prairie wetlands.

  16. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  17. Assessing and measuring wetland hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Hayashi, Masaki; Anderson, James T.; Davis, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all ecological processes that occur in wetlands are influenced by the water that flows to, from, and within these wetlands. This chapter provides the “how-to” information for quantifying the various source and loss terms associated with wetland hydrology. The chapter is organized from a water-budget perspective, with sections associated with each of the water-budget components that are common in most wetland settings. Methods for quantifying the water contained within the wetland are presented first, followed by discussion of each separate component. Measurement accuracy and sources of error are discussed for each of the methods presented, and a separate section discusses the cumulative error associated with determining a water budget for a wetland. Exercises and field activities will provide hands-on experience that will facilitate greater understanding of these processes.

  18. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN HYDROLOGIC INSTRUMENTATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, Vito J.

    1985-01-01

    The availability of space-age materials and implementation of state-of-the-art electronics is making possible the recent developments of hydrologic instrumentation. Material developments include: Synthetic-fiber sounding and tag lines; fiberglass wading rod; polymer (plastic) sheaves, pulleys and sampler components; and polymer (plastic) bucket wheels for current meters. These materials are very cost effective and efficient. Electromechanical and electronic developments and applications include: adaptable data acquisition system; downhole sampler for hazardous substances; current-meter digitizer; hydraulic power/drive system for discharge measurements and water-quality sampling; non-contact water-level sensors; minimum data recorder; acoustic velocity meters, and automated current meter discharge-measurement system.

  19. Pursuing realistic hydrologic model under SUPERFLEX framework in a semi-humid catchment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lingna; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Gao, Hongkai; Chen, Xi

    2016-04-01

    Model realism is pursued perpetually by hydrologists for flood and drought prediction, integrated water resources management and decision support of water security. "Physical-based" distributed hydrologic models are speedily developed but they also encounter unneglectable challenges, for instance, computational time with low efficiency and parameters uncertainty. This study step-wisely tested four conceptual hydrologic models under the framework of SUPERFLEX in a small semi-humid catchment in southern Huai River basin of China. The original lumped FLEXL has hypothesized model structure of four reservoirs to represent canopy interception, unsaturated zone, subsurface flow of fast and slow components and base flow storage. Considering the uneven rainfall in space, the second model (FLEXD) is developed with same parameter set for different rain gauge controlling units. To reveal the effect of topography, terrain descriptor of height above the nearest drainage (HAND) combined with slope is applied to classify the experimental catchment into two landscapes. Then the third one (FLEXTOPO) builds different model blocks in consideration of the dominant hydrologic process corresponding to the topographical condition. The fourth one named FLEXTOPOD integrating the parallel framework of FLEXTOPO in four controlled units is designed to interpret spatial variability of rainfall patterns and topographic features. Through pairwise comparison, our results suggest that: (1) semi-distributed models (FLEXD and FLEXTOPOD) taking precipitation spatial heterogeneity into account has improved model performance with parsimonious parameter set, and (2) hydrologic model architecture with flexibility to reflect perceived dominant hydrologic processes can include the local terrain circumstances for each landscape. Hence, the modeling actions are coincided with the catchment behaviour and close to the "reality". The presented methodology is regarding hydrologic model as a tool to test our

  20. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling.

    PubMed

    Brakebill, Jw; Wolock, Dm; Terziotti, Se

    2011-10-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling.

  1. Digital hydrologic networks supporting applications related to spatially referenced regression modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, John W.; Wolock, David M.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based ⁄ statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling.

  2. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, J.W.; Wolock, D.M.; Terziotti, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. On the Hydrologic Adjustment of Climate-Model Projections: The Potential Pitfall of Potential Evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Dunne, Krista A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median -11%) caused by the hydrologic model’s apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen–Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors’ findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climate-change impacts on water.

  4. On the hydrologic adjustment of climate-model projections: The potential pitfall of potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median 211%) caused by the hydrologic model's apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen-Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors' findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climatechange impacts on water. Copyright ?? 2011, Paper 15-001; 35,952 words, 3 Figures, 0 Animations, 1 Tables.

  5. Assimilating multi-sensor satellite observations for initializing hydrologic and agricultural forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, K.; Stampoulis, D.; Das, N. N.; Granger, S. L.; Ines, A.; Han, E.

    2015-12-01

    The application of data assimilation techniques in hydrologic studies has been gaining traction in the last 10-15 years. Most of these studies have focused on a single water cycle component, while few studies have examined methods of assimilating multiple observations from different sensors and of different hydrologic variables. The latter is challenging since any potential disparities in the observations could lead to suboptimal estimates after assimilation. The optimal estimates of hydrologic states, such as soil moisture, can be used as initial conditions for hydrologic forecasting systems. A multi-sensor and multivariate data assimilation forecast system has been developed at JPL (RHEAS, Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System) with an initial focus on forecasting drought characteristics. The core of RHEAS is the VIC hydrology model, which has been widely used for many water resources applications. Apart from hydrologic forecasts, RHEAS can produce agricultural forecasts by coupling VIC with the DSSAT crop growth model. The modeling system is supported by a spatial database component, which provides access to multiple in-situ and satellite observations and allows data to be delivered to users through web-GIS or mobile application interfaces. The satellite observations, which include soil moisture, water storage, evapotranspiration, and snow cover, are assimilated into the VIC model to update the initial state of seasonal hydrologic and crop growth forecasts. We demonstrate the value of ingesting satellite observations by performing a series of hindcast experiments over both the United States (California and Upper Colorado basins) and Kenya (Nzoia basin). In-situ measurements along with a simulation with the best available datasets are used as the benchmark to evaluate the hindcasts against. The impact of each observation type or sensor is quantified, allowing for evaluating their relative contribution to improving the forecast skill. Particular case

  6. The hydrology of Hatteras Island, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William Paul, Jr.

    This is a study of the groundwater hydrology and groundwater-surface-water interactions of barrier islands. Shallow groundwater is typically the sole source of freshwater on barrier islands. It is threatened by increasing coastal populations (both permanent and seasonal residents). Higher demand for groundwater may induce saltwater intrusion through overpumping. Water quality also is often threatened by inadequate waste-management practices and overwash. These factors combine to make understanding of barrier-island hydrology essential for continued development and ecological health of island communities. The hydraulic response of barrier islands is closely tied to island morphology and stratigraphy. The heterogeneity of barrier islands suggests that the underlying geologic framework is critical to barrier-island morphology. Other processes, such as spit growth, are usually imposed on an inherited geologic framework. Barrier islands typically support a freshwater aquifer that "floats" on an underlying saltwater aquifer. The height to which the water table rises depends on the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer and the island geometry. In addition, tidal fluctuations, interdunal wetland drainage, and variable recharge rates affect island hydrology. The relative importance of each of these factors was tested with a series of numerical simulations, sensitivity analyses, and field measurements. Field data were collected from Hatteras Island in order to provide calibration data, constrain the shallow stratigraphy, and estimate aquifer parameters. Geophysical studies include borehole geophysics and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The Buxton Woods surficial aquifer is approximately 24.5 meters in thickness and contains upper and lower permeable zones separated by a semi-confining layer. Geophysical methods were used to constrain the shallow stratigraphy and the vertical geometry of the system. Borehole geophysics indicate the large-scale variations in stratigraphy. GPR

  7. Uncertainty of the hydrological response to climate change conditions; 605 basins, 3 hydrological models, 5 climate models, 5 hydrological variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke; Mizukami, Naoki; Newman, Andrew; Clark, Martyn; Teuling, Adriaan

    2016-04-01

    Many studies investigated the effect of a changing climate on the hydrological response of a catchment and uncertainty of the effect coming from hydrologic modelling (e.g., forcing, hydrologic model structures, and parameters). However, most past studies used only a single or a small number of catchments. To go beyond the case-study, and to assess the uncertainty involved in modelling the hydrological impact of climate change more comprehensively, we studied 605 basins over a wide range of climate regimes throughout the contiguous USA. We used three different widely-used hydrological models (VIC, HBV, SAC), which we forced with five distinct climate model outputs. The hydrological models have been run for a base period (1986-2008) for which observations were available, and for a future period (2070-2099). Instead of calibrating each hydrological model for each basin, the model has been run with a parameter sample (varying from 1600 to 1900 samples dependent on the number of free parameters in the model). Five hydrological states and fluxes were stored; discharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, SWE and snow melt, and 15 different metrics and signatures have been obtained for each model run. With the results, we conduct a sensitivity analysis over the change in signatures from the future period compared to the base period. In this way, we can identify the parameters that are responsible for certain projected changes, and identify the processes responsible for this change. By using three different models, in which VIC is most distinctive in including explicit vegetation parameters, we can compare different process representations and the effect on the projected hydrological change.

  8. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key

  9. The Suwannee River Hydrologic Observatory: A Subtropical Coastal Plain Watershed in Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) proposed to establish a network of 5-15 hydrologic observatories (HO's) across North America is to support fundamental research for the hydrologic science community into the next century. These HO's are projected to be 10,000 to 50,000 km2 and will include a broad range of hydrologic, climatic, bio-geochemical and ecosystem processes, including the critical linkages and couplings. This network is envisioned as the natural laboratory for experimental hydrology in support of scientific investigations focused on predictive understanding at a scale that will include both atmospheric- and ecosystem-hydrologic interaction, as well as the hydrologic response to larger-scale climate variation and change. A group of researchers from Florida and Georgia plan to propose the Suwannee River watershed as a Hydrologic Observatory. The Suwannee River flows through a diverse watershed relatively unimpacted by urbanization but in transition to more intense land-use practices. It thus provides excellent opportunities to study the effects of ongoing changes in land use and water supply on varied hydrological processes. Much background information is available on the hydrology, hydrogeology, geology, chemistry, and biology of the watershed. Several major on-going monitoring programs are supported by state and federal agencies. Four characteristics, discussed in greater detail below, make the Suwannee River watershed ideal for a Hydrologic Observatory: Unregulated and rural - The Suwannee River is one of few major rivers in the United States with largely unregulated flow through rural areas and is relatively unimpaired with regard to water quality, leading to its designation as one of twelve National Showcase Watersheds. At Risk and in Transition - Land use is trending toward increased urbanization and intensive agriculture with an apparent coupled increase in nutrient loads and decline in water quality

  10. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth’s hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  11. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth's hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  12. An observational radiative constraint on hydrologic cycle intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. D.; DeAngelis, A. M.; Qu, X.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic cycle intensification is a key dimension of climate change, with significant impacts on human and natural systems. A basic measure of hydrologic cycle intensification, the increase in global-mean precipitation per unit surface warming, varies by a factor of three in current-generation climate models (~1-3 % K-1). We show that a substantial portion of this spread can be traced to intermodel variations in the atmospheric shortwave absorption response to greenhouse-gas-induced warming. As climate warms, increases in shortwave absorption suppress the precipitation increase by reducing the latent heating required to balance the atmospheric energy budget. Spread in the shortwave absorption response can be explained by differences in the sensitivity of solar absorption to variations in column precipitable water. An observational estimate suggests that in many models, this sensitivity is too small, and that the shortwave absorption response to warming is too weak. Spread in the simulated sensitivity of solar absorption to varying water vapor concentration is linked to differences in radiative transfer parameterizations. Attaining accurate shortwave absorption responses through radiative transfer scheme improvement could reduce spread in global precipitation increase per unit warming at the end of the 21st century by ~35%, and produce an ensemble-mean increase that is almost 40% smaller.

  13. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL REAL-TIME HYDROLOGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GOES SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G.

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey maintains the basic hydrologic data collection system for the United States. The Survey is upgrading the collection system with electronic communications technologies that acquire, telemeter, process, and disseminate hydrologic data in near real-time. These technologies include satellite communications via the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Data Collection Platforms in operation at over 1400 Survey gaging stations, Direct-Readout Ground Stations at nine Survey District Offices and a network of powerful minicomputers that allows data to be processed and disseminate quickly.

  14. Hydrologic regionalisation impacts on wet-weather control selection.

    PubMed

    Huber, W C; Wells, W J; Besaw, I K; Leisenring, M A

    2006-01-01

    Continuous simulation is performed using the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to evaluate regional differences around the United States in hydrologic and water quality performance of wet-weather controls. Controls are characterised as being limited by peak inflow rate (i.e. any device with little or no storage, such as screens, filters and some proprietary devices) or by storage capacity (e.g., ponds, tanks). For flow-limited devices, results are presented in the form of percentage of annual runoff volume captured (passing through the device) for a given inflow capacity. For storage-limited devices, results are presented in two forms: percentage of annual runoff volume captured as a function of unit basin size and drawdown (drain) time, and as a percentage of total suspended solids captured, for the same two variables. Regional differences are apparent, driven mainly by variations in rainfall patterns around the country.

  15. Development of a "Hydrologic Equivalent Wetland" Concept for Modeling Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Liu, T.; Li, R.; Yang, X.; Duan, L.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect, in combination rather than individually, hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), can be a best resort if wetlands can be appropriately represented in the models. However, the exact method that should be used to incorporate wetlands into hydrologic models is the subject of much disagreement in the literature. In addition, there is a serious lack of information about how to model wetland conservation-restoration effects using such kind of integrated modeling approach. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a "hydrologic equivalent wetland" (HEW) concept; and 2) demonstrate how to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba of Canada, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota of the United States. The HEWs were defined in terms of six calibrated parameters: the fraction of the subbasin area that drains into wetlands (WET_FR), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their normal water level (WET_NVOL), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their maximum water level (WET_MXVOL), the longest tributary channel length in the subbasin (CH_L1), Manning's n value for the tributary channels (CH_N1), and Manning's n value for the main channel (CH_N2). The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes

  16. A Probabilistic Approach to Transient Hydrology and Landslide Triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoni, S.; Rigon, R.; Godt, J. W.; Savage, W. Z.

    2005-12-01

    area show that the model correctly reproduces the location of the main landslides. To assess the capability of the model to reliably reproduce hillslope hydrology leading to landslide triggering in different climatic and topographical conditions we are currently applying GEOtop-SF for typical wet winter conditions for steep coastal bluffs along Puget Sound near Edmonds, WA, using available United States Geological Survey data.

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Hydrology Education in a Changing World - The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Brian; Wagener, Thorsten; Marshall, Lucy; McGuire, Kevin; Meixner, Thomas; Weiler, Markus; Gooseff, Michael; Kelleher, Christa; Gregg, Susan

    2010-05-01

    ‘It takes a village to raise a child', but who does it take to educate a hydrologist who can solve today's and tomorrow's problems? Hydrology is inherently an interdisciplinary science, and therefore requires interdisciplinary training. We believe that the demands on current and future hydrologists will continue to increase, while training at undergraduate and graduate levels has not kept pace. How do we, as university faculty, educate hydrologists capable of solving complex problems in an interdisciplinary environment considering that current educators have often been taught in narrow traditional disciplines? We suggest a unified community effort to change the way that hydrologists are educated. The complexity of the task is ever increasing. Analysis techniques and tools required for solving emerging problems have to evolve away from focusing mainly on the analysis of past behavior because baselines are shifting as the world changes. The difficulties of providing an appropriate education are also increasing, especially given the growing demands on faculty time. To support hydrology educators and improve hydrology education, we have started a faculty community of educators (REACH) and implemented the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA, http://www.mocha.psu.edu/). The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty as they educate hydrologists that can solve interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced as students. Our current objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for university hydrology education, based on modern pedagogical standards, freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and capacity building. In this presentation we discuss the results of a recent survey on current hydrology education (to compare with the state of

  18. Application of remote sensing to hydrological problems and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novo, E. M. L. M.

    1983-01-01

    The main applications of remote sensors to hydrology are identified as well as the principal spectral bands and their advantages and disadvantages. Some examples of LANDSAT data applications to flooding-risk evaluation are cited. Because hydrology studies the amount of moisture and water involved in each phase of hydrological cycle, remote sensing must be emphasized as a technique for hydrological data acquisition.

  19. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  20. Hydrologic time and sustainability of shallow aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, William; ,

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of water and short intervals of time are coeval events that began about 6000 BC in Mesopotamia. Even though time and hydrology have been intimately entwined, with time terms in the denominator of many hydrologic parameters, hydrology's a priori claim to time has not been consummated. Moreover, time takes on a greater importance now than in the past as the focus shifts to small site-scale aquifers whose sustainability can be physically and chemically threatened. One of the challenges for research in hydrogeology is to establish time scales for hydrologic phenomena such as infiltration rates, groundwater flow rates, rates of organic and inorganic reactions, and rates of groundwater withdrawal over the short term, and the long term and to understand the consequences of these various time scales. Credible monitoring programs must consider not only the spatial scale, but also the time scale of the phenomena being monitored.

  1. POME-copula for hydrological dependence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Wang, D.; Wang, L.; Chen, Y.; Chen, X.; Gu, S.

    2015-05-01

    Hydrological multivariate analysis has been widely studied using copula-based modelling, in which marginal distribution inference is one of the key issues. The main object of this study is to discuss the applicability of the principle of maximum entropy (POME) in marginal distribution inference, thus to develop a POME-copula framework to analyse the dependence of hydrological variables. Marginal distributions are derived with the POME approach before bivariate copulas constructed with corresponding parameters estimated by the dependence of the derived margins. The proposed POME-copula has been employed in hydrological dependence analyses, with the annual maximum streamflow and water level collected from the Yangtze River, and the monthly streamflow from the Yellow River. Results show that the POME-copula method performs well in capturing dependence patterns of various hydrological variables.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR RESOLUTION OF HYDROLOGY PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of environmental isotopes as tracers in the hydrosphere is increasing as analytical instrumentation improves and more applications are discovered. There exists still misconceptions on the role of isotopes in resolving hydrology problems. Naturally occurring isotopes in th...

  3. Multidisciplinary hydrologic investigations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, William W.

    1990-01-01

    Future climatic conditions and tectonic processes have the potential to cause significant changes of the hydrologic system in the southern Great Basin, where a nuclear-waste repository is proposed for construction above the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Geothermal anomalies in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain probably result from the local and regional transport of heat by ground-water flow. Regionally and locally irregular patterns of hydraulic potential, local marsh and pond deposits, and calcite veins in faults and fractures probably are related principally to climatically imposed hydrologic conditions within the geologic and topographic framework. However, tectonic effects on the hydrologic system have also been proposed as the causes of these features, and existing data limitations preclude a full evaluation of these competing hypotheses. A broad program that integrates many disciplines of earth science is required in order to understand the relation of hydrology to past, present and future climates and tectonism.

  4. Characterizing hydrologic permanence in headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will be an overview of research to inform jurisdictional determinations for the Clean Water Act, in particular research that hydrographic comparisons of the extent and hydrologic permanence of headwater streams, indicator development, and an evaluation of a rapid...

  5. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    L. Pan

    2004-10-04

    This analysis report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The technical scope, content, and management of this analysis report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 2, 4, and 8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross-Drift, and/or boreholes; air-injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. In addition, the report ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]) also serves as a source report by providing the geological framework model of the site. This report is a revision of the model report under the same title (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161773]), which in turn superceded the analysis report under the same title. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report Calibrated Properties Model. The term ''uncalibrated'' is used to distinguish the properties or parameters estimated in this report from those obtained from the inversion modeling used in ''Calibrated Properties Model''. The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual-permeability grids as documented in the scientific analyses report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling''.

  6. Nonisothermal hydrologic transport experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1992-09-01

    A field heater experimental plan is presented for investigating hydrologic transport processes in unsaturated fractured rock related to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground repository. The experimental plan provides a methodology for obtaining data required for evaluating conceptual and computer models related to HLW isolation in an environment where significant heat energy is produced. Coupled-process models are currently limited by the lack of validation data appropriate for field scales that incorporate relevant transport processes. Presented in this document is a discussion of previous nonisothermal experiments. Processes expected to dominate heat-driven liquid, vapor, gas, and solute flow during the experiment are explained, and the conceptual model for nonisothermal flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock is described. Of particular concern is the ability to confirm the hypothesized conceptual model specifically, the establishment of higher water saturation zones within the host rock around the heat source, and the establishment of countercurrent flow conditions within the host rock near the heat source. Field experimental plans are presented using the Apache Leap Tuff Site to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology. Both small-scale preliminary experiments and a long-term experiment are described.

  7. Remote Sensing May Provide Unprecedented Hydrological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, R.; Houser, P.; Engman, E.; Kustas, W.

    1999-01-01

    Basic hydrological research and water resources management may reap tremendous benefits from remote sensing technology, studies are showing. Satellite coverage may allow unprecedented accuracy in the quantification of the global hydrological cycle, for example. Yet despite such benefits, few hydrologists currently use such data. This is partly because the needed tools and algorithms are not fully developed. Such development requires field experiments that combine remotely sensed data with detailed in situ observations. AGU's Remote Sensing in Hydrology Committee has constructed a Web site (http://Iand.gsfc.nasa.gov/RSHC.html) that gives an overview of many such experiments. Included on the site is information on each experiment's overall goal, the types of in situ and remotely sensed measurements taken, relevant climate and vegetation conditions, and so forth. Links to additional relevant Web sites are included. The site is designed to be a suitable starting point for those interested in learning more about remote sensing in hydrology. It lists members of the committee who can be contacted for further information. Hydrologists have recognized the potential of remote sensing technology since the 1970s. It offers a way to avoid the logistical and economic difficulties associated with obtaining continuous in situ measurements of various hydrological variables, difficulties that are particularly pronounced in remote regions. Microwave instruments in particular can potentially provide all-weather, areally averaged estimates of certain variables (such as precipitation, soil moisture, and snow water content) that have been essentially unattainable in the past. In remote sensing, the conversion of emitted and reflected radiances into useful hydrological data is a complex problem. The measured radiances, for example, reflect the integrated character of a pixel area, a scale inconsistent with the point measurements of traditional hydrology. To develop the needed algorithms

  8. Milly Receives 2013 Hydrologic Sciences Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Randal D.

    2014-08-01

    It is with great pleasure that I introduce to you the 2013 Hydrological Sciences Award winner, Dr. Chris Milly. Chris is being honored "for fundamental contributions to our understanding of the connections between land surface processes and hydroclimatic variability." Through Chris's work, the world has a better understanding of how the Earth's energy and water cycles interact at the large scale to determine hydrological quantities, such as streamflow, of fundamental interest to society. He is eminently deserving of this award.

  9. Federal microcomputer software for urban hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Marshall E.; Smith, Roger H.; Jennings, Ross B.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, availability, and general use of selected urban hydrology microcomputer software developed by: U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS); U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The discussion is limited to software used for design and planning for urban stormwater flows.

  10. Hydrologic refugia, plants, and climate change.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Blair C; Ackerly, David D; Klos, P Zion; Natali, Jennifer; Dawson, Todd E; Thompson, Sally E

    2017-03-20

    Climate, physical landscapes, and biota interact to generate heterogeneous hydrologic conditions in space and over time, which are reflected in spatial patterns of species distributions. As these species distributions respond to rapid climate change, microrefugia may support local species persistence in the face of deteriorating climatic suitability. Recent focus on temperature as a determinant of microrefugia insufficiently accounts for the importance of hydrologic processes and changing water availability with changing climate. Where water scarcity is a major limitation now or under future climates, hydrologic microrefugia are likely to prove essential for species persistence, particularly for sessile species and plants. Zones of high relative water availability - mesic microenvironments - are generated by a wide array of hydrologic processes, and may be loosely coupled to climatic processes and therefore buffered from climate change. Here, we review the mechanisms that generate mesic microenvironments and their likely robustness in the face of climate change. We argue that mesic microenvironments will act as species-specific refugia only if the nature and space/time variability in water availability are compatible with the ecological requirements of a target species. We illustrate this argument with case studies drawn from California oak woodland ecosystems. We posit that identification of hydrologic refugia could form a cornerstone of climate-cognizant conservation strategies, but that this would require improved understanding of climate change effects on key hydrologic processes, including frequently cryptic processes such as groundwater flow.

  11. Hydrology Domain Cyberinfrastructures: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Anticipated changes to climate, human population, land use, and urban form will alter the hydrology and availability of water within the water systems on which the world's population relies. Understanding the effects of these changes will be paramount in sustainably managing water resources, as well as maintaining associated capacity to provide ecosystem services (e.g., regulating flooding, maintaining instream flow during dry periods, cycling nutrients, and maintaining water quality). It will require better information characterizing both natural and human mediated hydrologic systems and enhanced ability to generate, manage, store, analyze, and share growing volumes of observational data. Over the past several years, a number of hydrology domain cyberinfrastructures have emerged or are currently under development that are focused on providing integrated access to and analysis of data for cross-domain synthesis studies. These include the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS), the Critical Zone Observatory Information System (CZOData), HyroShare, the BiG CZ software system, and others. These systems have focused on sharing, integrating, and analyzing hydrologic observations data. This presentation will describe commonalities and differences in the cyberinfrastructure approaches used by these projects and will highlight successes and lessons learned in addressing the challenges of big and complex data. It will also identify new challenges and opportunities for next generation cyberinfrastructure and a next generation of cyber-savvy scientists and engineers as developers and users.

  12. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value to the aforementioned emerging fields in current and future applications, but also to the analysis of integrated water systems.

  13. Hydrological sciences and water security: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, G.; Demuth, S.; Mishra, A.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the concepts of water security including not only the risks to human wellbeing posed by floods and droughts, but also the threats of inadequate supply of water in both quantity and quality for food production, human health, energy and industrial production, and for the natural ecosystems on which life depends. The overall setting is one of constant change in all aspects of Earth systems. Hydrological systems (processes and regimes) are changing, resulting from varying and changing precipitation and energy inputs, changes in surface covers, mining of groundwater resources, and storage and diversions by dams and infrastructures. Changes in social, political and economic conditions include population and demographic shifts, political realignments, changes in financial systems and in trade patterns. There is an urgent need to address hydrological and social changes simultaneously and in combination rather than as separate entities, and thus the need to develop the approach of `socio-hydrology'. All aspects of water security, including the responses of both UNESCO and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) to the concepts of socio-hydrology, are examined in detailed papers within the volume titled Hydrological Sciences and Water Security: Past, Present and Future.

  14. Evaluation of Potential Evapotranspiration from a Hydrologic Model on a National Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, Kirsti; Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support coordinated, comprehensive and consistent hydrologic model development and facilitate the application of simulations on the scale of the continental U.S. The NHM has a consistent geospatial fabric for modeling, consisting of over 100,000 hydrologic response units HRUs). Each HRU requires accurate parameter estimates, some of which are attained from automated calibration. However, improved calibration can be achieved by initially utilizing as many parameters as possible from national data sets. This presentation investigates the effectiveness of calculating potential evapotranspiration (PET) parameters based on mean monthly values from the NOAA PET Atlas. Additional PET products are then used to evaluate the PET parameters. Effectively utilizing existing national-scale data sets can simplify the effort in establishing a robust NHM.

  15. A GRACE-based water storage deficit approach for hydrological drought characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Alys C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    We present a quantitative approach for measuring hydrological drought occurrence and severity based on terrestrial water storage observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied by calculating the magnitude of the deviation of regional, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies from the time series' monthly climatology, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Monthly deficits explicitly quantify the volume of water required to return to normal water storage conditions. We combine storage deficits with event duration to calculate drought severity. Drought databases are referenced to identify meteorological drought events in the Amazon and Zambezi River basins and the southeastern United States and Texas regions. This storage deficit method clearly identifies hydrological drought onset, end, and duration; quantifies instantaneous severity and peak drought magnitude; and compares well with the meteorological drought databases. It also reveals information about the hydrological effects of meteorological drought on regional water storage.

  16. Hydrologic resources management program, FY 1998 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, F.C.; Criss, R.E.; Davisson, M.L.; Eaton, G.F.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.M.; Rose, T.P.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-26

    This report presents the results from FY 1998 technical studies conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), and supports DP operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) through studies of radiochemistry and resource management related to the defense programs mission. Other participating organizations include the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Bechtel-Nevada (BN). The UGTA project is an Environmental Management (EM) activity of DOE/NV that supports a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. UGTA's primary function is to address the legacy release of hazardous constituents at the Nevada Test Site, the Tonopah Test Range, and off-Nevada Test Site underground nuclear testing areas. Participating contractors include LLNL (Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate, Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division), LANL, DRI, USGS, BN, HSI-GeoTrans, and IT Corporation. The FY 1998 HRMP and UGTA annual progress report follows the organization and contents of our FY 1997 report (Smith et al., 1998), and includes our results from CY 1997-1998 technical studies of radionuclide migration and isotope hydrology at the Nevada Test Site. During FY 1998, LLNL continued its efforts under the HRMP to pursue a technical agenda relevant to the science-based stockpile stewardship program at DOE/NV. Support to UGTA in FY 1998 included efforts to quantitatively define the radionuclide source term residual from underground nuclear weapons testing and the derivative solution, or hydrologic source

  17. Hydrologic Controls On Methylmercury Availability In Coastal Plain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Burns, D. A.; Button, D. T.; Lutz, M. A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Riva-Murray, K.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) in streams is often attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas, with episodic flood events maximizing wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity and dominating MeHg supply to the stream habitat. A number of studies have demonstrated that Coastal Plain streams in the southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to high MeHg bioaccumulation and have attributed this vulnerability to wetland abundance and strong hydrologic connectivity between wetland areas and adjacent stream aquatic habitat. Because characteristically coarse-grained Coastal Plain sediments favor vertical infiltration with little surface runoff, flood events attributable to Coastal Plain precipitation are driven by rising groundwater, promoting efficient transport of MeHg from wetland/floodplain source areas to the stream habitat and increasing in-stream availability. Several observations at McTier Creek, South Carolina, however, suggest that good hydrologic connectivity and efficient MeHg transport in Coastal Plain systems are not limited to flood conditions. Close correspondence between stream and shallow-groundwater water levels at McTier indicate good hydrologic connectivity exists prior to flood conditions. Dissolved MeHg concentrations do not increase under flood conditions. Thus, we assessed the flux of water and dissolved mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) from surface water and groundwater sources in a short reach at McTier Creek during separate events in April and July 2009, to determine the importance of shallow groundwater Hg transport from floodplain areas to the stream under non-flood conditions. Mass balance assessments indicated that, under non-flood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface-water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric deposition. The results indicate efficient transport of

  18. Disaggregation, aggregation and spatial scaling in hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Alfred; Braun, Peter

    1999-04-01

    A typical feature of the land surface is its heterogeneity in terms of the spatial variability of land surface characteristics and parameters controlling physical/hydrological, biological, and other related processes. Different forms and degrees of heterogeneity need to be taken into account in hydrological modelling. The first part of the article concerns the conditions under which a disaggregation of the land surface into subareas of uniform or "quasihomogeneous" behaviour (hydrotopes or hydrological response units - HRUs) is indispensable. In a case study in northern Germany, it is shown that forests in contrast to arable land, areas with shallow groundwater in contrast to those with deep, water surfaces and sealed areas should generally be distinguished (disaggregated) in modelling, whereas internal heterogeneities within these hydrotopes can be assessed statistically, e.g., by areal distribution functions (soil water holding capacity, hydraulic conductivity, etc.). Models with hydrotope-specific parameters can be applied to calculate the "vertical" processes (fluxes, storages, etc.), and this, moreover, for hydrotopes of different area, and even for groups of distributed hydrotopes in a reference area (hydrotope classes), provided that the meteorological conditions are similar. Thus, a scaling problem does not really exist in this process domain. The primary domain for the application of scaling laws is that of lateral flows in landscapes and river basins. This is illustrated in the second part of the article, where results of a case study in Bavaria/Germany are presented and discussed. It is shown that scaling laws can be applied efficiently for the determination of the Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH) of the surface runoff system in river basins: simple scaling for basins larger than 43 km 2, and multiple scaling for smaller basins. Surprisingly, only two parameters were identified as important in the derived relations: the drainage area and, in some

  19. Using Hydrological Modeling to Explain Patterns of Habitat Use by Fishes and Crustaceans in Channelized Tidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, J. M.; Hearn, C. J.; McIvor, C. C.; Brame, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    Wetland ditching for mosquito control and stormwater drainage has undoubtedly affected patterns of water flow in tidal wetlands throughout the United States. Ditches alter the hydrological regime by diverting water from natural channels and by concentrating discharge thereby reducing sheet flow from the marsh surface. Hydrological instruments can be used to measure parameters like water level, current velocity, and salinity for comparison of flow regime between natural and altered tidal channels. Surveys of fish habitat use can be used to quantify differences in species composition and abundance between natural and altered wetlands. By integrating both hydrology and ecology, models can be developed to better explain the processes that underlie physical and biological differences between natural and hydrologically altered tidal wetlands. Here we present some of our early work to describe hydrology and fish habitat use in a hydrologically altered mangrove wetland in Tampa Bay. We hope that the results of this study will provide a useful contrast to data collected following hydrological restoration of the wetland.

  20. Influence of soil physicochemical properties on hydrology and restoration response in Carolina Bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C. D.; Andrews, D.M.; Kolka, R.K.

    2006-04-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeast US that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our understanding of basic wetland hydrological processes is limited, hence our ability to predict the need for and/or assess the effectiveness of bay restorations is hindered. Differing physicochemical properties of soils within bay interiors may control bay hydrology. However, previous efforts to establish relationships between soil characteristics and bay hydrology have been inconclusive and the question still remains as to why some bays are ponded throughout the year while others, within a similar landscape unit, are predominantly dry. An assessment of soil and hydrologic characteristics was initiated in restored and unrestored control bays to determine if a relationship exists. Soil morphology was described and permanent monitoring wells were installed at each site. Soil samples were collected by horizon to a depth of 2 meters at the topographic center of each site, and then analyzed. After three years, multiple regression analysis (stepwise backward and forward) was used to establish relationships between the soil physicochemical characteristics and bay hydroperiod in the undisturbed sites. Results from surface soils indicated that exchangeable acidity (EA) was the best single predictor of hydrology. The best double predictor was EA and total N and EA, total N and total C as the best triple predictor. A significant relationship (r2 = 0.96) between hydroperiod and clay content in the argillic horizon (Bt) was also observed. Subsequently, this relationship was utilized to predict hydrologic response using pre-restoration hydroperiod data. The model accurately identified sites that did not need hydrologic restoration (too wet), and effectively showed sites that responded well to restoration activities.

  1. Moving university hydrology education forward with community-based geoinformatics, data and modeling resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwade, V.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2012-08-01

    In this opinion paper, we review recent literature related to data and modeling driven instruction in hydrology, and present our findings from surveying the hydrology education community in the United States. This paper presents an argument that that data and modeling driven geoscience cybereducation (DMDGC) approaches are essential for teaching the conceptual and applied aspects of hydrology, as a part of the broader effort to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education at the university level. The authors have undertaken a series of surveys and a workshop involving university hydrology educators to determine the state of the practice of DMDGC approaches to hydrology. We identify the most common tools and approaches currently utilized, quantify the extent of the adoption of DMDGC approaches in the university hydrology classroom, and explain the community's views on the challenges and barriers preventing DMDGC approaches from wider use. DMDGC approaches are currently emphasized at the graduate level of the curriculum, and only the most basic modeling and visualization tools are in widespread use. The community identifies the greatest barriers to greater adoption as a lack of access to easily adoptable curriculum materials and a lack of time and training to learn constantly changing tools and methods. The community's current consensus is that DMDGC approaches should emphasize conceptual learning, and should be used to complement rather than replace lecture-based pedagogies. Inadequate online material publication and sharing systems, and a lack of incentives for faculty to develop and publish materials via such systems, is also identified as a challenge. Based on these findings, we suggest that a number of steps should be taken by the community to develop the potential of DMDGC in university hydrology education, including formal development and assessment of curriculum materials, integrating lecture-format and DMDGC approaches

  2. Moving university hydrology education forward with geoinformatics, data and modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwade, V.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2012-02-01

    In this opinion paper, we review recent literature related to data and modeling driven instruction in hydrology, and present our findings from surveying the hydrology education community in the United States. This paper presents an argument that that Data and Modeling Driven Geoscience Cybereducation (DMDGC) approaches are valuable for teaching the conceptual and applied aspects of hydrology, as a part of the broader effort to improve Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education at the university level. The authors have undertaken a series of surveys and a workshop involving the community of university hydrology educators to determine the state of the practice of DMDGC approaches to hydrology. We identify the most common tools and approaches currently utilized, quantify the extent of the adoption of DMDGC approaches in the university hydrology classroom, and explain the community's views on the challenges and barriers preventing DMDGC approaches from wider use. DMDGC approaches are currently emphasized at the graduate level of the curriculum, and only the most basic modeling and visualization tools are in widespread use. The community identifies the greatest barriers to greater adoption as a lack of access to easily adoptable curriculum materials and a lack of time and training to learn constantly changing tools and methods. The community's current consensus is that DMDGC approaches should emphasize conceptual learning, and should be used to complement rather than replace lecture-based pedagogies. Inadequate online material-publication and sharing systems, and a lack of incentives for faculty to develop and publish materials via such systems, is also identified as a challenge. Based on these findings, we suggest that a number of steps should be taken by the community to develop the potential of DMDGC in university hydrology education, including formal development and assessment of curriculum materials integrating lecture-format and DMDGC

  3. Modelling overbank flow on farmed catchments taking into account spatial hydrological discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, R.; Tilma, M.; Chahinian, N.; Huttel, O.

    2003-04-01

    In agricultural catchments, hydrological processes are largely variable in space due to human impact causing hydrological discontinuities such as ditch network, field limits and terraces. The ditch network accelerates runoff by concentrating flows, drains the water table or replenishes it by reinfiltration of the runoff water. During extreme flood events, overbank flow occurs and surface pathflows are modified. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of overbank flow on hydrograph shape during flood events. For that, MHYDAS, a physically based distributed hydrological model, was especially developed to take into account these hydrological discontinuities. The model considers the catchment as a series of interconnected hydrological unit. Runoff from each unit is estimated using a deterministic model based on the pounding-time algorithm and then routed through the ditch network using the diffusive wave equation. Overbank flow is modelled by modifying links between the hydrological units and the ditch network. The model was applied to simulate the main hydrological processes on a small headwater farmed Mediterranean catchment located in Southern France. The basic hydrometeorological equipment consists of a meteorological station, rain gauges, a tensio-neutronic and a piezometric measurement network, and eight water flow measurements. A multi-criteria and multi-scale approach was used. Three independent error criteria (Nash, error on volume and error on peak flow) were calculated and combined using the Pareto technique. Then, a multi-scale approach was used to calibrate and validate the model for the eight water flow measurements. The application of MHYDAS on the extreme ten flood events of the last decade enables to identify the ditches where overbank flows occur and to calculate discharge at various points of the ditch network. Results show that for the extreme flood event, more than 45% of surface runoff occur due to overbank flow. Discussion shows that

  4. Hydroclimatic regimes: a distributed water-balance framework for hydrologic assessment, classification, and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiskel, P. K.; Wolock, D. M.; Zarriello, P. J.; Vogel, R. M.; Levin, S. B.; Lent, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Runoff-based indicators of terrestrial water availability are appropriate for humid regions, but have tended to limit our basic hydrologic understanding of drylands - the dry-subhumid, semiarid, and arid regions which presently cover nearly half of the global land surface. In response, we introduce an indicator framework that gives equal weight to humid and dryland regions, accounting fully for both vertical (precipitation + evapotranspiration) and horizontal (groundwater + surface-water) components of the hydrologic cycle in any given location - as well as fluxes into and out of landscape storage. We apply the framework to a diverse hydroclimatic region (the conterminous USA) using a distributed water-balance model consisting of 53 400 networked landscape hydrologic units. Our model simulations indicate that about 21% of the conterminous USA either generated no runoff or consumed runoff from upgradient sources on a mean-annual basis during the 20th century. Vertical fluxes exceeded horizontal fluxes across 76% of the conterminous area. Long-term-average total water availability (TWA) during the 20th century, defined here as the total influx to a landscape hydrologic unit from precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, varied spatially by about 400 000-fold, a range of variation ~100 times larger than that for mean-annual runoff across the same area. The framework includes but is not limited to classical, runoff-based approaches to water-resource assessment. It also incorporates and reinterprets the green- and blue-water perspective now gaining international acceptance. Implications of the new framework for several areas of contemporary hydrology are explored, and the data requirements of the approach are discussed in relation to the increasing availability of gridded global climate, land-surface, and hydrologic data sets.

  5. From spatially variable streamflow to distributed hydrological models: Analysis of key modeling decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the development and application of distributed hydrological models, focusing on the key decisions of how to discretize the landscape, which model structures to use in each landscape element, and how to link model parameters across multiple landscape elements. The case study considers the Attert catchment in Luxembourg—a 300 km2 mesoscale catchment with 10 nested subcatchments that exhibit clearly different streamflow dynamics. The research questions are investigated using conceptual models applied at hydrologic response unit (HRU) scales (1-4 HRUs) on 6 hourly time steps. Multiple model structures are hypothesized and implemented using the SUPERFLEX framework. Following calibration, space/time model transferability is tested using a split-sample approach, with evaluation criteria including streamflow prediction error metrics and hydrological signatures. Our results suggest that: (1) models using geology-based HRUs are more robust and capture the spatial variability of streamflow time series and signatures better than models using topography-based HRUs; this finding supports the hypothesis that, in the Attert, geology exerts a stronger control than topography on streamflow generation, (2) streamflow dynamics of different HRUs can be represented using distinct and remarkably simple model structures, which can be interpreted in terms of the perceived dominant hydrologic processes in each geology type, and (3) the same maximum root zone storage can be used across the three dominant geological units with no loss in model transferability; this finding suggests that the partitioning of water between streamflow and evaporation in the study area is largely independent of geology and can be used to improve model parsimony. The modeling methodology introduced in this study is general and can be used to advance our broader understanding and prediction of hydrological behavior, including the landscape characteristics that control hydrologic response, the

  6. When are multiobjective calibration trade-offs in hydrologic models meaningful?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.; Wagener, T.

    2012-03-01

    This paper applies a four-objective calibration strategy focusing on peak flows, low flows, water balance, and flashiness to 392 model parameter estimation experiment (MOPEX) watersheds across the United States. Our analysis explores the influence of model structure by analyzing how the multiobjective calibration trade-offs for two conceptual hydrologic models, the Hydrology Model (HYMOD) and the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model, compare for each of the 392 catchments. Our results demonstrate that for modern multiobjective calibration frameworks to identify any meaningful measure of model structural failure, users must be able to carefully control the precision by which they evaluate their trade-offs. Our study demonstrates that the concept of epsilon-dominance provides an effective means of attaining bounded and meaningful hydrologic model calibration trade-offs. When analyzed at an appropriate precision, we found that meaningful multiobjective trade-offs are far less frequent than prior literature has suggested. However, when trade-offs do exist at a meaningful precision, they have significant value for supporting hydrologic model selection, distinguishing core model deficiencies, and identifying hydroclimatic regions where hydrologic model prediction is highly challenging.

  7. HYDROGEOCHEM: A coupled model of HYDROlogic transport and GEOCHEMical equilibria in reactive multicomponent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.T.; Tripathi, V.S.

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the development of a hydrogeochemical transport model for multicomponent systems. The model is designed for applications to proper hydrological setting, accommodation of complete suite of geochemical equilibrium processes, easy extension to deal with chemical kinetics, and least constraints of computer resources. The hydrological environment to which the model can be applied is the heterogeneous, anisotropic, saturated-unsaturated subsurface media under either transient or steady state flow conditions. The geochemical equilibrium processes included in the model are aqueous complexation, adsorption-desorption, ion exchange, precipitation-dissolution, redox, and acid-base reactions. To achieve the inclusion of the full complement of these geochemical processes, total analytical concentrations of all chemical components are chosen as the primary dependent variables in the hydrological transport equations. Attendant benefits of this choice are to make the extension of the model to deal with kinetics of adsorption-desorption, ion exchange, precipitation-dissolution, and redox relatively easy. To make the negative concentrations during the iteration between the hydrological transport and geochemical equilibrium least likely, an implicit form of transport equations are proposed. To alleviate severe constraints of computer resources in terms of central processing unit (CPU) time and CPU memory, various optional numerical schemes are incorporated in the model. The model consists of a hydrological transport module and geochemical equilibrium module. Both modules were thoroughly tested in code consistency and were found to yield plausible results. The model is verified with ten examples. 79 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  9. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media.

  10. Tropical cyclones and the flood hydrology of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.A.; Sturdevant-Rees, P.; Baeck, M.L.; Larsen, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks in the stream gaging records of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have occurred in Puerto Rico. Many of these flood peaks are associated with tropical cyclones. Hurricane Georges, which passed directly over the island on 21-22 September 1998, produced record flood peaks at numerous USGS stations in Puerto Rico. The hydrology and hydrometeorology of extreme flood response in Puerto Rico are examined through analyses of rainfall, based on Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar reflectivity observations and USGS rain gage observations and discharge from USGS stream gaging stations. Peak rainfall accumulations of more than 700 mm occurred in the central mountain region of the island. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were located in the eastern portion of the island in areas with smaller storm total rainfall accumulations but markedly larger rainfall rates at 5-60 min timescale. Orographic precipitation mechanisms played an important role in rainfall distribution over the island of Puerto Rico. Amplification of rainfall accumulations was associated with areas of upslope motion. Elevated low-level cloud water content in regions of upslope motion played an important role in the maximum rainfall accumulations in the central mountain region of Puerto Rico. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were produced by a decaying eye wall mesovortex, which resulted in a 30-45 min period of extreme rainfall rates over the eastern portion of the island. This storm element was responsible for the record flood peak of the Rio Grande de Lo??iza. The role of terrain in development and evolution of the eye wall mesovortex is unclear but is of fundamental importance for assessing extreme flood response from the storm. Hydrologic response is examined through analyses of rainfall and discharge from five pairs of drainage basins, extending from east to west over the island. These analyses point to the

  11. Hydrologic connectivity: Quantitative assessments of hydrologic-enforced drainage structures in an elevation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2016-01-01

    Elevation data derived from light detection and ranging present challenges for hydrologic modeling as the elevation surface includes bridge decks and elevated road features overlaying culvert drainage structures. In reality, water is carried through these structures; however, in the elevation surface these features impede modeled overland surface flow. Thus, a hydrologically-enforced elevation surface is needed for hydrodynamic modeling. In the Delaware River Basin, hydrologic-enforcement techniques were used to modify elevations to simulate how constructed drainage structures allow overland surface flow. By calculating residuals between unfilled and filled elevation surfaces, artificially pooled depressions that formed upstream of constructed drainage structure features were defined, and elevation values were adjusted by generating transects at the location of the drainage structures. An assessment of each hydrologically-enforced drainage structure was conducted using field-surveyed culvert and bridge coordinates obtained from numerous public agencies, but it was discovered the disparate drainage structure datasets were not comprehensive enough to assess all remotely located depressions in need of hydrologic-enforcement. Alternatively, orthoimagery was interpreted to define drainage structures near each depression, and these locations were used as reference points for a quantitative hydrologic-enforcement assessment. The orthoimagery-interpreted reference points resulted in a larger corresponding sample size than the assessment between hydrologic-enforced transects and field-surveyed data. This assessment demonstrates the viability of rules-based hydrologic-enforcement that is needed to achieve hydrologic connectivity, which is valuable for hydrodynamic models in sensitive coastal regions. Hydrologic-enforced elevation data are also essential for merging with topographic/bathymetric elevation data that extend over vulnerable urbanized areas and dynamic coastal

  12. Infrastructure to Support Hydrologic Research: Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.; Duffy, C j

    2001-12-01

    Hydrologic Sciences are inherently interdisciplinary. Consequently, a myriad state variables are of interest to hydrologists. Hydrologic processes transcend many spatial and temporal scales, and their measurements reflect a variety of scales of support. The global water cycle is continuously modified by human activity through changes in land use, alteration of rivers, irrigation and groundwater pumping and through a modification of atmospheric composition. Since water is a solvent and a medium of transport, the water cycle fundamentally influences other material and energy cycles. This metaphor extends to the function that a hydrologic research information system needs to provide, to facilitate discovery in earth systems science, and to improve our capability to manage resources and hazards in a sustainable manner. At present, we have a variety of sources that provide data useful for hydrologic analyses, that range from massive remote sensed data sets, to sparsely sampled historical and paleo data. Consequently, the first objective of the Hydrologic Information Systems (HIS) group is to design a data services system that makes these data accessible in a uniform and useful way for specific, prioritized research goals. The design will include protocols for archiving and disseminating data from the Long Term Hydrologic Observatories (LTHOs), and comprehensive modeling experiments. Hydrology has a rich tradition of mathematical and statistical modeling of processes. However, given limited data and access to it, and a narrow focus that has not exploited connections to climatic and ecologic processes (among others), there have been only a few forays into diagnostic analyses of hydrologic fields, to identify and evaluate spatial and process teleconnections and an appropriate reduced space for modeling and understanding systems. The HIS initiative consequently proposes an investment in research and the provision of toolboxes to facilitate such analyses using the data

  13. Hydrology and ecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Conceptual framework and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.

    1994-09-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands represent an important ecosystem in the semiarid western United States. Concern over the sustainability of, and management approaches for, these woodlands is increasing. As in other semiarid environments, water dynamics and vegetation patterns in pinyon-juniper woodlands are highly interrelated. An understanding of these relationships can aid in evaluating various management strategies. In this paper we describe a conceptual framework designed to increase our understanding of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands. The framework comprises five different scales, at each of which the landscape is divided into {open_quotes}functional units{close_quotes} on the basis of hydrologic characteristics. The hydrologic behavior of each unit and the connections between units are being evaluated using an extensive network of hydrological and ecological field studies on the Pajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico. Data from these studies, coupled with application of the conceptual model, have led to the development of a number of hypotheses concerning the interrelationships of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands.

  14. Covariance Models for Hydrological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios

    2014-05-01

    This methodological contribution aims to present some new covariance models with applications in the stochastic analysis of hydrological processes. More specifically, we present explicit expressions for radially symmetric, non-differentiable, Spartan covariance functions in one, two, and three dimensions. The Spartan covariance parameters include a characteristic length, an amplitude coefficient, and a rigidity coefficient which determines the shape of the covariance function. Different expressions are obtained depending on the value of the rigidity coefficient and the dimensionality. If the value of the rigidity coefficient is much larger than one, the Spartan covariance function exhibits multiscaling. Spartan covariance models are more flexible than the classical geostatatistical models (e.g., spherical, exponential). Their non-differentiability makes them suitable for modelling the properties of geological media. We also present a family of radially symmetric, infinitely differentiable Bessel-Lommel covariance functions which are valid in any dimension. These models involve combinations of Bessel and Lommel functions. They provide a generalization of the J-Bessel covariance function, and they can be used to model smooth processes with an oscillatory decay of correlations. We discuss the dependence of the integral range of the Spartan and Bessel-Lommel covariance functions on the parameters. We point out that the dependence is not uniquely specified by the characteristic length, unlike the classical geostatistical models. Finally, we define and discuss the use of the generalized spectrum for characterizing different correlation length scales; the spectrum is defined in terms of an exponent α. We show that the spectrum values obtained for exponent values less than one can be used to discriminate between mean-square continuous but non-differentiable random fields. References [1] D. T. Hristopulos and S. Elogne, 2007. Analytic properties and covariance functions of

  15. Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Clark, Martyn; Arheimer, Berit; Hay, Lauren E.; McMillan, Hilary; Kiang, Julie E.; Seibert, Jan; Hakala, Kirsti; Bock, Andrew; Wagener, Thorsten; Farmer, William H.; Andréassian, Vazken; Attinger, Sabine; Viglione, Alberto; Knight, Rodney; Markstrom, Steven; Over, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In the past, hydrologic modeling of surface water resources has mainly focused on simulating the hydrologic cycle at local to regional catchment modeling domains. There now exists a level of maturity among the catchment, global water security, and land surface modeling communities such that these communities are converging toward continental domain hydrologic models. This commentary, written from a catchment hydrology community perspective, provides a review of progress in each community toward this achievement, identifies common challenges the communities face, and details immediate and specific areas in which these communities can mutually benefit one another from the convergence of their research perspectives. Those include: (1) creating new incentives and infrastructure to report and share model inputs, outputs, and parameters in data services and open access, machine-independent formats for model replication or reanalysis; (2) ensuring that hydrologic models have: sufficient complexity to represent the dominant physical processes and adequate representation of anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle, a process-based approach to model parameter estimation, and appropriate parameterizations to represent large-scale fluxes and scaling behavior; (3) maintaining a balance between model complexity and data availability as well as uncertainties; and (4) quantifying and communicating significant advancements toward these modeling goals.

  16. Inter-comparison of subglacial hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fleurian, Basile; Werder, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The recent emergence of a number of subglacial hydrological models allows us to obtain theoretical insights on basal processes; for instance on the coupling between water pressure and the sliding of glaciers. In ice-flow models, it is relatively clear what the simulated physics ought to be. Conversely, the physical processes incorporated into subglacial hydrology models are diverse as it is yet unclear which ones are of relevance for a particular setting. An inter-comparison of hydrology models will therefore need a somewhat different approach to the one used in the many ice-flow model inter-comparisons (EISMINT, ISMIP, etc.). Here, we present a set of experiments that will allow the comparison of the behavior of different hydrology models. The design of the benchmark aims at allowing the participation of a wide range of models based on different physical approaches. We aim at evaluating the models with a focus on the effective pressure which has the most impact on the dynamics of glaciers. The aim of this inter-comparison is to provide modellers with the necessary data to make an informed decision on which subglacial hydrology model to use for a particular study.

  17. A Hypothesis Test for Hydrologic Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, C. N.; Metz, K. E.; Vogel, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic processes often undergo change due to anthropogenic influences, such as water withdrawals and regulation due to dams and reservoirs. These changes are often characterized by changes in streamflow statistics, such as the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration. Flow regime shifts can also be observed in pre- and post-disturbance flow duration curves (FDCs), which are typically plots of daily streamflow versus the probability of exceedance. Here we develop a hypothesis of hydrologic alteration based on shifts in the expected variability of FDCs as described by their confidence intervals. Employing a database of streamflow gauges that have undergone alteration due to reservoir construction, we develop two tests: one based on deviations from confidence intervals associated with pre-disturbance FDC's , and a second based on the magnitude of the ecodeficit and ecosurplus, which quantify the magnitude of the change in FDC. Of interest is whether hydrologic alteration can be predicted in a systematic and understandable manner, and whether one can determine an alteration to be "significant." We also report both type I and II errors, where Type I errors correspond to concluding a river is disturbed when it is not, and type II errors correspond to concluding a river is pristine when in fact it is disturbed. An exploration of whether type II errors are related to common measures of hydrologic disturbance (e.g. water withdrawals, area of surface water, etc.) was carried out using annual FDC series.

  18. Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

    2003-03-01

    Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

  19. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A. W.; Thielen, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Schaake, J. C.; Hartman, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). With support from the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC), the HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support in emergency management and water resources sectors. The strategy to meet this goal includes meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. HEPEX has organized about a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Today, the HEPEX mission is to demonstrate the added value of hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) for emergency management and water resources sectors to make decisions that have important consequences for economy, public health, safety, and the environment. HEPEX is now organised around six major themes that represent core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  20. Progress in isotope tracer hydrology in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. J.; Edwards, T. W. D.; Birks, S. J.; St Amour, N. A.; Buhay, W. M.; McEachern, P.; Wolfe, B. B.; Peters, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of current research in isotope hydrology, focusing on recent Canadian contributions, is discussed under the headings: precipitation networks, hydrograph separation and groundwater studies, river basin hydrology, lake and catchment water balance, and isotope palaeohydrology from lake sediment records. Tracer-based techniques, relying primarily on the naturally occurring environmental isotopes, have been integrated into a range of hydrological and biogeochemical research programmes, as they effectively complement physical and chemical techniques. A significant geographic focus of Canadian isotope hydrology research has been on the Mackenzie River basin, forming contributions to programmes such as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment. Canadian research has also directly supported international efforts such as the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation and IAEAs Coordinated Research Project on Large River Basins. One significant trend in Canadian research is toward sustained long-term monitoring of precipitation and river discharge to enable better characterization of spatial and temporal variability in isotope signatures and their underlying causes. One fundamental conclusion drawn from previous studies in Canada is that combined use of 18O and 2H enables the distinction of precipitation variability from evaporation effects, which offers significant advantages over use of the individual tracers alone. The study of hydrological controls on water chemistry is one emerging research trend that stems from the unique ability to integrate isotope sampling within both water quality and water quantity surveys. Copyright

  1. Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Clark, Martyn; Arheimer, Berit; Hay, Lauren E.; McMillan, Hilary; Kiang, Julie E.; Seibert, Jan; Hakala, Kirsti; Bock, Andrew R.; Wagener, Thorsten; Farmer, William H.; Andreassian, Vazken; Attinger, Sabine; Viglione, Alberto; Knight, Rodney; Markstrom, Steven; Over, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past, hydrologic modeling of surface water resources has mainly focused on simulating the hydrologic cycle at local to regional catchment modeling domains. There now exists a level of maturity among the catchment, global water security, and land surface modeling communities such that these communities are converging toward continental domain hydrologic models. This commentary, written from a catchment hydrology community perspective, provides a review of progress in each community toward this achievement, identifies common challenges the communities face, and details immediate and specific areas in which these communities can mutually benefit one another from the convergence of their research perspectives. Those include: (1) creating new incentives and infrastructure to report and share model inputs, outputs, and parameters in data services and open access, machine-independent formats for model replication or reanalysis; (2) ensuring that hydrologic models have: sufficient complexity to represent the dominant physical processes and adequate representation of anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle, a process-based approach to model parameter estimation, and appropriate parameterizations to represent large-scale fluxes and scaling behavior; (3) maintaining a balance between model complexity and data availability as well as uncertainties; and (4) quantifying and communicating significant advancements toward these modeling goals.

  2. Vadose Zone Hydrology and Eco-hydrology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenke

    2016-04-01

    Vadose zone hydrology has long been a concern regarding groundwater recharge, evaporation, pollution, and the ecological effects induced by groundwater and water & salt contents in the unsaturated zone. The greater difference between day and night temperatures in arid and semi-arid areas influences water movement and heat transport in the vadose zone, and further influences the water and heat fluxes between the water table and the atmosphere as well as ecological environment. Unfortunately, these studies are lack in a systematic viewpoint in China. One of the main reasons is that the movement of water, vapor and heat from the surface to the water table is very complex in the arid and semi-arid areas. Another reason is lack of long term field observations for water content, vapor, heat, and soil matrix potential in the vadose zone. Three field observation sites, designed by the author, were set up to measure the changes in climate, water content , temperature and soil matrix potential of the unsaturated zone and groundwater level under the different conditions of climate and soil types over the period of 1-5 years. They are located at the Zhunngger Basin of Xinjing Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China, the Guanzhong Basin of Shaanxi Province in central China, and the Ordos Basin of the Inner Monggol Autonomous Region in north China, respectively. These three field observation sites have different climate and soil types in the vadose zone and the water table depth are also varied. Based on the observation data of climate, groundwater level, water content, temperature and soil matrix potential in the vadose zone from the three sites in associated with the field survey and numerical simulation method, the water movement and heat transport in the vadose zone, and the evaporation of phreatic water for different groundwater depths and soil types have been well explored. The differences in water movement of unsaturated zone between the bare surface soil and

  3. Developing a Domain Ontology for the Hydrologic Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, M.; Beran, B.

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a domain ontology for hydraulic science and engineering by extending the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies. SWEET provides an extensive list of terms for Earth Sciences expressed in Web Ontology Language (OWL). When compared to SWEET, our proposed ontology is much smaller in scope but more detailed within its domain. Extensions can involve different type of additions such as introduction of new terms (e.g. Hydrologic Unit, Jetty etc.) some of which may depend on other features (e.g. upstream, downstream depends on flow direction), increasing the level of detail for an existing element (e.g. by creating subclasses of EarthRealm:Dams, and adding dam types - Cofferdam, arch dam, embankment dam etc.-) or introducing new phenomena based on existing processes in the SWEET ontologies. Development of this ontology follows the scalability, orthogonality, application-independence and natural language-independence principles. Besides itself being an example of community involvement, contributions and critique from other members of hydrologic community will help further shaping this product to fit the needs of a larger neighboring user community

  4. Hydrological and geochemical response and recovery in disturbed Arctic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This progress report is a funding, extension request to continue the database work for the Hydrological and Geochemical Response and Recovery in Disturbed Arctic Ecosystems Program. Throughout the period from 1985 to 1992 the Department of Energy supported research on the hydrology and geochemistry of the headwater basin of Imnavait Creek has focused on the quantification of the input from atmospheric sources of biologically significant and other related chemical variables; the transport of these variables in surface and subsurface flow and their efflux from the basin; and the development of geochemical budgets. The acquisition of multi-year data sets (the longest and most detailed sets in the Arctic) have made it possible to define seasonal ranges and amplitudes; determine spatial and temporal relationships within the different flow compartments; to begin to model the pathways and rates of movement through and across different landscape units. The length of record has also made it possible to examine the quantity and influence of local and extra-regional additions.

  5. An observational radiative constraint on hydrologic cycle intensification.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Anthony M; Qu, Xin; Zelinka, Mark D; Hall, Alex

    2015-12-10

    Intensification of the hydrologic cycle is a key dimension of climate change, with substantial impacts on human and natural systems. A basic measure of hydrologic cycle intensification is the increase in global-mean precipitation per unit surface warming, which varies by a factor of three in current-generation climate models (about 1-3 per cent per kelvin). Part of the uncertainty may originate from atmosphere-radiation interactions. As the climate warms, increases in shortwave absorption from atmospheric moistening will suppress the precipitation increase. This occurs through a reduction of the latent heating increase required to maintain a balanced atmospheric energy budget. Using an ensemble of climate models, here we show that such models tend to underestimate the sensitivity of solar absorption to variations in atmospheric water vapour, leading to an underestimation in the shortwave absorption increase and an overestimation in the precipitation increase. This sensitivity also varies considerably among models due to differences in radiative transfer parameterizations, explaining a substantial portion of model spread in the precipitation response. Consequently, attaining accurate shortwave absorption responses through improvements to the radiative transfer schemes could reduce the spread in the predicted global precipitation increase per degree warming for the end of the twenty-first century by about 35 per cent, and reduce the estimated ensemble-mean increase in this quantity by almost 40 per cent.

  6. An observational radiative constraint on hydrologic cycle intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deangelis, Anthony M.; Qu, Xin; Zelinka, Mark D.; Hall, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Intensification of the hydrologic cycle is a key dimension of climate change, with substantial impacts on human and natural systems. A basic measure of hydrologic cycle intensification is the increase in global-mean precipitation per unit surface warming, which varies by a factor of three in current-generation climate models (about 1-3 per cent per kelvin). Part of the uncertainty may originate from atmosphere-radiation interactions. As the climate warms, increases in shortwave absorption from atmospheric moistening will suppress the precipitation increase. This occurs through a reduction of the latent heating increase required to maintain a balanced atmospheric energy budget. Using an ensemble of climate models, here we show that such models tend to underestimate the sensitivity of solar absorption to variations in atmospheric water vapour, leading to an underestimation in the shortwave absorption increase and an overestimation in the precipitation increase. This sensitivity also varies considerably among models due to differences in radiative transfer parameterizations, explaining a substantial portion of model spread in the precipitation response. Consequently, attaining accurate shortwave absorption responses through improvements to the radiative transfer schemes could reduce the spread in the predicted global precipitation increase per degree warming for the end of the twenty-first century by about 35 per cent, and reduce the estimated ensemble-mean increase in this quantity by almost 40 per cent.

  7. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  8. Spatially explicit scenario analysis for hydrologic services in an urbanizing agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, J.; Booth, E.; Carpenter, S. R.; Turner, M.

    2013-12-01

    The sustainability of hydrologic services (benefits to people generated by terrestrial ecosystem effects on freshwater) is challenged by changes in climate and land use. Despite the importance of hydrologic services, few studies have investigated how the provision of ecosystem services related to freshwater quantity and quality may vary in magnitude and spatial pattern for alternative future trajectories. Such analyses may provide useful information for sustaining freshwater resources in the face of a complex and uncertain future. We analyzed the supply of multiple hydrologic services from 2010 to 2070 across a large urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Upper Midwest of the United States, and asked the following: (i) What are the potential trajectories for the supply of hydrologic services under contrasting but plausible future scenarios? (ii) Where on the landscape is the delivery of hydrologic services most vulnerable to future changes? The Nested Watershed scenario represents extreme climate change (warmer temperatures and more frequent extreme events) and a concerted response from institutions, whereas in the Investment in Innovation scenario, climate change is less severe and technological innovations play a major role. Despite more extreme climate in the Nested Watershed scenario, all hydrologic services (i.e., freshwater supply, surface water quality, flood regulation) were maintained or enhanced (~30%) compared to the 2010 baseline, by strict government interventions that prioritized freshwater resources. Despite less extreme climate in the Investment in Innovation scenario and advances in green technology, only surface water quality and flood regulation were maintained or increased (~80%); freshwater supply declined by 25%, indicating a potential future tradeoff between water quality and quantity. Spatially, the locations of greatest vulnerability (i.e., decline) differed by service and among scenarios. In the Nested Watershed scenario, although

  9. Hydrological reconstruction from tree rings and varved lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, D.; Nicault, A.; Francus, P.; Bégin, Y.; Perreault, L.; Arsenault, D.; Bégin, C.; Savard, M. M.; Marion, J.; Guiot, J.

    2011-12-01

    The ARCHIVES project aims at reconstructing the annual hydro-climatic variability of the boreal region of the Quebec-Labrador Peninsula (Canada) over the past millennia. The project is based on tree-ring chronologies of more than one hundred years-old black spruce stands, several millennial tree-ring chronologies developed from sub-fossil trees and a network of lake sediment cores over a territory of more than 700 000 km2 (1400km in longitude x 500km in latitude). The dendrochronological network includes various tree-ring proxies such as ring width, ring density and ∂13C and ∂18O series. An extensive search for annually laminated lakes in the area permitted the identification of several sites with a strong potential for hydro-climatic reconstitution using annual varve thickness, grain size variability and sub-annual lamination as proxies for changes in river competency. We present here a 300 years-long reconstruction of hydrological variables at the watershed scale (annual water supply, spring and summer runoff) and some climate variables used in hydrologic forecast models, including an atmospheric index used by the modelling team of Hydro-Quebec (hydroelectric power supplier) to forecast spring flood volumes using both tree rings and annually laminated sediments. The sensitivity of the tree-ring chronologies and of varved series to hydrologic parameters were tested using statistical response functions. Our reconstruction methodology combines an analogue technique for the estimation of missing tree-ring data with an artificial neural network for optimal nonlinear calibration, including a bootstrap error assessment. Transfer functions were calibrated with water supply and meteorological data provided by Hydro-Quebec, and with Climate Research Unit (CRU) gridded climate data. The reconstructed series were validated using Reduction error (RE) and Root mean square error (RMSE) coefficients, standard cross-validation tests and verified with independent instrumental

  10. Integrated Science: Florida Manatees and Everglades Hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Decker, Jeremy; Butler, Susan M.; Doyle, Terry; Snow, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting and monitoring restoration effects on Florida manatees, which are known to make extended movements, will be incomplete if modeling and monitoring are limited to the smaller areas defined by the various res-toration components. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) efforts, thus far, have focused on (1) collecting manatee movement data throughout the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) region, and (2) developing an individual-based model for manatees to illustrate manatee responses to changes in hydrology related to the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP). In 2006, new regional research was begun to extend an Everglades hydrology model into the TTI region; extend the manatee movement model into the southern estuaries of Everglades National Park (ENP); and integrate hydrology and manatee data, models, and monitoring across the TTI region and ENP. Currently (2008), three research tasks are underway to develop the necessary modeling components to assess restoration efforts across the Greater Everglades Ecosystem.

  11. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

    2011-03-01

    The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater

  12. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

    2010-09-01

    The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for

  13. Sensitivity of Extreme Hydrological Events to Spatial Resolution of Climate Forcings using a Macro-Scale Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.; Mei, R.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    The magnitude and frequency of hydrometeorological extremes are expected to increase in the conterminous United States over the coming century with significant implications for future water resource planning. However, future changes in the frequency and severity of extreme hydrological events is highly uncertain, in part because of under representation of fine scale topographic and weather features in the continental- to global-scale models. In this study, the influence of spatial resolution on both extremes (floods and droughts) and mean hydrologic conditions is investigated using the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, implemented and calibrated at 1/24th degree grid cell (~4km) resolution. The coarser resolution simulations are achieved by averaging the 1/24o forcing data to 1/8o which is then used to drive the VIC model. To investigate the sensitivity of simulated high and low runoff conditions to changes in precipitation and temperature at different spatial resolution, further simulations are conducted by (a) increasing both historic maximum and minimum daily temperature by 1° C, (b) increasing historic precipitation by 10%, and (c) decreasing historic precipitation by 10%. The results are further analyzed for various types of extreme precipitation events across different watershed scales and for different regions representing a variety of hydrometeorological characteristics. This work helps us to understand the sensitivity of runoff to spatial resolution of climate forcings and also its sensitivity to different watershed sizes and characteristics of extreme precipitation events in the future climate conditions.

  14. Tropical forest hydrology and the role of the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonell, M.

    The paper outlines a perspective on tropical forest hydrology within the context of an international hydrological programme. Experience in tropical forest hydrology research in North East Australia is a focal point for comparison with international activities elsewhere. The impacts of climate variability and change are considered briefly, as well as those of reforestation of degraded land on the land use hydrology, which requires a longer term vision and support of long term experimental catchments. Sadly, too few long term experimental catchments have been maintained in the humid tropics and there have been some significant closures even of these sites in recent years. Yet the case for long-term experiments is strengthened by the problematic issue of separating anthropogenic influences (such as land use change) on the hydrology of landscapes from the effects of climate variability at a time of escalation in population and related socio-economic pressures in the humid tropics. Particular emphasis is made of the need for greater consideration for the social and cultural dimensions of forest management within forest hydrology. Furthermore, scientists must be committed to incorporating ‘societal needs' in their planning of research projects, as well as in publicizing the applications of their results, within the framework of forest-land-water policy. Alarm is expressed at the extensive disregard for the application of existing forest hydrology ‘know how' in forest-land management manipulations associated with the humid tropics.

  15. Hydrological response of a subhumid watershed after a greening-up process, an example in South East Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Cataldo, Maria Francesca; Denisi, Pietro; Martino, Domenico; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    Many watersheds in the Mediterranean are subject to land use changes and hydrological control works that can have important effects on their hydrological and geomorphological response. In such contexts, a better understanding of the hydrological processes and their linkage to the geomorphic evolutionary trends would help territory planners and other stakeholders to face off soil and water body degradation, optimising efficiency and cheapness of planned interventions. This study focuses on a catchment in SE Spain, Upper Taibilla (320 km2, Segura basin), which suffered an important greening-up process with increase of forest cover, decrease of agriculture activities and installation of hydrological control works during the second half of XX century. The objective was to characterize the changes in the hydrological response of the catchment in relation to the changes in their drainage area. Firstly, the actual hydrological response to precipitation was analysed at aggregated (i.e. monthly, seasonal and annual) scale, using 15 years of the most recent runoff observations collected at the outlet of Upper Taibilla river (specifically at the inlet of Taibilla reservoir). Based on the actual distribution of soil land use and texture, the studied sub-basins were discretised by a GIS software in a system of homogenous hydrological units, in order to identify the most critical areas producing surface runoff. This actual aptitude to produce runoff was compared to the sub-basin hydrological response of 1930-1940s (that is before reforestation works and check-dam installation), in order to analyse the eventual presence of evolutionary trends in basin hydrology and the whole efficiency of these works in mitigating runoff impacts. Furthermore, considering that computer prediction models are important tools for planning land use changes and other management works in basins, the applicability of two hydrological models for predicting surface runoff in the studied sub-basins was

  16. ODES (Online Data Extraction Service) for hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmorduc, Vinca; Birol, Florence; Briol, Frederic; Bronner, Emilie; Dibarboure, Gerald; Guinle, Thierry; Nicolas, Clara; Nino, Fernando; Valladeau, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    AVISO+ proposes a new dissemination service, the Online Data Extraction Service (ODES), in order to provide users and applications with a wider range of altimetry-derived data (including high-resolution and experimental data). The platform is designed to distribute both operational products from CNES and partner Agencies (Eumetsat, ESA, NOAA, NASA) but also research-grade data from LEGOS/CTOH and CLS and other contributions from the OSTST research community. An example of use of ODES to extract hydrology experimental expert product (from Pistach processor) for hydrology will be shown. ODES is available at http://odes.altimetry.cnes.fr, download with your Aviso FTP login / password.

  17. Hydrologic Streamflow Conditions for Georgia, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Joiner, John K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center (GaWSC) maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 260 real-time streamflow stations and more than 100 noncontinuous streamflow stations throughout Georgia. This network is operated by the USGS GaWSC in cooperation with more than 50 different partners at Federal, State, and local government levels. One of the many benefits of data collected from this monitoring network is that it allows for the analysis of the overall hydrologic condition of streams and lakes of Georgia.

  18. Landscape Scale Hydrologic Performance Measures for the South Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Kotun, K.; Engel, V.

    2008-05-01

    divided by levees to form five compartments or Water Conservation Areas. By 1965 all of the natural surface water inflows to Everglades National Park were replaced by managed flows, and much of the wet season runoff from the upstream Everglades was retained to meet expanding urban and agricultural water supply needs. All of these changes have dramatically altered the rainfall-runoff relationship in the Everglades and lead to Congressional directions to restore more natural hydrologic conditions in the watershed. While all of the scientists involved in the restoration program agree that the focus should be on restoring the defining hydrologic characteristics of the pre-drainage Everglades (restoring marsh sheetflow and connectivity, the generalized flow and water depth patterns that sustained key animal and plant communities, as well as the historic linkages between freshwater and estuarine systems) there is a lack of information on the pre-drainage conditions to fully inform our selection of performance measures, needed to track restoration success. Our current suite of ecological and hydrological performance measures tends to focus on depths and durations of flooding, rates of marsh drydowns, and flow volumes and velocities in discrete habitat units or indicator regions within the current compartmentalized watershed. A more recent approach is to expand these performance measures to include larger-scale hydrologic patterns that would be present in an uncompartmentalized system such as regional flow directions, hydrologic head gradients, and the seasonal timing, and duration of flows to the estuaries.

  19. Navier Stokes Theorem in Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2005-12-01

    In a paper presented at the 2004 AGU International Conference, the author outlined and stressed the importance of studying and teaching certain important mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. In an article entitled "Corrections to Fluid Dynamics" R. F. Streater, (Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 10, 3-30, 2003.) proposes a kinetic model of a fluid in which five macroscopic fields, the mass, energy, and three components of momentum, are conserved. The dynamics is constructed using the methods of statistical dynamics, and results in a non-linear discrete-time Markov chain for random fields on a lattice. In the continuum limit he obtains a non-linear coupled parabolic system of field equations, showing a correction to the Navier-Stokes equations. In 2001, David Hoff published an article in Journees Equations aux derivees partielles. (Art. No. 7, 9 p.). His paper is entitled : Dynamics of Singularity Surfaces for Compressible Navier-Stokes Flows in Two Space Dimensions. In his paper, David Hoff proves the global existence of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible, barotropic flow in two space dimensions with piecewise smooth initial data. These solutions remain piecewise smooth for all time, retaining simple jump discontinuities in the density and in the divergence of the velocity across a smooth curve, which is convected with the flow. The strengths of these discontinuities are shown to decay exponentially in time

  20. Comparing Simultaneous and Pointwise Confidence Intervals for Hydrological Processes.

    PubMed

    Francisco-Fernández, Mario; Quintela-del-Río, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Distribution function estimation of the random variable of river flow is an important problem in hydrology. This issue is directly related to quantile estimation, and consequently to return level prediction. The estimation process can be complemented with the construction of confidence intervals (CIs) to perform a probabilistic assessment of the different variables and/or estimated functions. In this work, several methods for constructing CIs using bootstrap techniques, and parametric and nonparametric procedures in the estimation process are studied and compared. In the case that the target is the joint estimation of a vector of values, some new corrections to obtain joint coverage probabilities closer to the corresponding nominal values are also presented. A comprehensive simulation study compares the different approaches, and the application of the different procedures to real data sets from four rivers in the United States and one in Spain complete the paper.

  1. Comparing Simultaneous and Pointwise Confidence Intervals for Hydrological Processes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Distribution function estimation of the random variable of river flow is an important problem in hydrology. This issue is directly related to quantile estimation, and consequently to return level prediction. The estimation process can be complemented with the construction of confidence intervals (CIs) to perform a probabilistic assessment of the different variables and/or estimated functions. In this work, several methods for constructing CIs using bootstrap techniques, and parametric and nonparametric procedures in the estimation process are studied and compared. In the case that the target is the joint estimation of a vector of values, some new corrections to obtain joint coverage probabilities closer to the corresponding nominal values are also presented. A comprehensive simulation study compares the different approaches, and the application of the different procedures to real data sets from four rivers in the United States and one in Spain complete the paper. PMID:26828651

  2. Detecting hydrological changes through conceptual model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Caracciolo, Domenico; Pumo, Dario; Francipane, Antonio; Valerio Noto, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Natural changes and human modifications in hydrological systems coevolve and interact in a coupled and interlinked way. If, on one hand, climatic changes are stochastic, non-steady, and affect the hydrological systems, on the other hand, human-induced changes due to over-exploitation of soils and water resources modifies the natural landscape, water fluxes and its partitioning. Indeed, the traditional assumption of static systems in hydrological analysis, which has been adopted for long time, fails whenever transient climatic conditions and/or land use changes occur. Time series analysis is a way to explore environmental changes together with societal changes; unfortunately, the not distinguishability between causes restrict the scope of this method. In order to overcome this limitation, it is possible to couple time series analysis with an opportune hydrological model, such as a conceptual hydrological model, which offers a schematization of complex dynamics acting within a basin. Assuming that model parameters represent morphological basin characteristics and that calibration is a way to detect hydrological signature at a specific moment, it is possible to argue that calibrating the model over different time windows could be a method for detecting potential hydrological changes. In order to test the capabilities of a conceptual model in detecting hydrological changes, this work presents different "in silico" experiments. A synthetic-basin is forced with an ensemble of possible future scenarios generated with a stochastic weather generator able to simulate steady and non-steady climatic conditions. The experiments refer to Mediterranean climate, which is characterized by marked seasonality, and consider the outcomes of the IPCC 5th report for describing climate evolution in the next century. In particular, in order to generate future climate change scenarios, a stochastic downscaling in space and time is carried out using realizations of an ensemble of General

  3. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

  4. Utilizing NEXRAD-based QPEs and short-term QPFs in a TIN-based Distributed Hydrologic Model for Hydrologic Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivoni, E. R.; Grassotti, C.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Van Horne, M.; Bras, R. L.; Entekhabi, D.; Hoffman, R. N.

    2001-12-01

    The principal reasons motivating the use of meteorological radar for hydrologic modeling have been the potential for extending the spatial and temporal coverage of rainfall data as compared to sparse rain gauge networks. NEXRAD reflectivity measurements and derived rainfall products open the door to real-time availability of extensive rainfall coverage over watersheds in the United States. For hydrologic modeling purposes, the value of radar rainfall data is increased with the use of distributed hydrologic models capable of ingesting this new data source and taking full advantage of its spatial and temporal variability. This study presents preliminary results of applying a TIN-based distributed model with quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) and short-term quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) derived from two radar rainfall products (operational Stage III estimates produced by the Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center, and commercially available NOWrad estimates marketed by WSI, Inc.). Although both are based on NEXRAD reflectivity measurements, the NEXRAD Stage III and the WSI rainfall products can at times differ considerably in their estimation of the values and distribution of rainfall. Comparisons will be presented of the two radar rainfall products for a selected set of storm events in multiple basins within the Arkansas Red-River watershed. In addition, the difference in the forecasted rainfall fields (nowcasts product) derived from the MIT Lincoln Lab Storm Growth and Decay Model will be presented. Hydrologic modeling predictions from the use of the TIN-based, Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) with the rainfall estimates and forecasts will be also be discussed in light of the differences in the rainfall inputs. Through this study, the strengths and/or weaknesses of two different radar rainfall sources and their corresponding short-term extrapolations will be highlighted as they relate to the interior hydrologic response and

  5. Origin of the Valley Networks On Mars: A Hydrological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.

    2000-01-01

    The geomorphology of the Martian valley networks is examined from a hydrological perspective for their compatibility with an origin by rainfall, globally higher heat flow, and localized hydrothermal systems. Comparison of morphology and spatial distribution of valleys on geologic surfaces with terrestrial fluvial valleys suggests that most Martian valleys are probably not indicative of a rainfall origin, nor are they indicative of formation by an early global uniformly higher heat flow. In general, valleys are not uniformly distributed within geologic surface units as are terrestrial fluvial valleys. Valleys tend to form either as isolated systems or in clusters on a geologic surface unit leaving large expanses of the unit virtually untouched by erosion. With the exception of fluvial valleys on some volcanoes, most Martian valleys exhibit a sapping morphology and do not appear to have formed along with those that exhibit a runoff morphology. In contrast, terrestrial sapping valleys form from and along with runoff valleys. The isolated or clustered distribution of valleys suggests localized water sources were important in drainage development. Persistent ground-water outflow driven by localized, but vigorous hydrothermal circulation associated with magmatism, volcanism, impacts, or tectonism is, however, consistent with valley morphology and distribution. Snowfall from sublimating ice-covered lakes or seas may have provided an atmospheric water source for the formation of some valleys in regions where the surface is easily eroded and where localized geothermal/hydrothermal activity is sufficient to melt accumulated snowpacks.

  6. Physical indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent court cases have brought headwater streams and their hydrologic permanence into the forefront for regulatory agencies, so rapid field-based indicators of hydrologic permanence in streams are critically needed. Our study objectives were to 1) identify environmental charact...

  7. LINKING STORMFLOW HYDROLOGY AND BIOTA IN SUBURBAN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suburban land development has been found to alter the hydrology of landscapes, changing streamflow transient behavior, which may contribute to the typical negative impacts of development on aquatic ecosystems. The linkages between residential development, hydrologic response, and...

  8. Modeling of surface microtopography and its impacts on hydrologic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, Noah Lebassi

    Understanding the impacts of surface microtopography on hydrologic processes is critical. The objectives of this thesis research are: (1) to evaluate the effects of DEM resolution on microtopographic characteristics, hydrologic connectivity, and modeling of hydrologic processes; and (2) to assess the influences of multiple rainfall events on surface and subsurface hydrologic processes with the use of a puddle-to-puddle (P2P) modeling system. The change in DEM resolution has a significant effect on how surface microtopography is depicted, which in turn alters the hydrologic response of a topographic surface. The smoothing of reduced DEM resolution tends to enhance hydrologic connectivity, reduce the depression storage and infiltration, and increase surface runoff. Temporal rainfall distribution results in spatio-temporal variations in soil water dynamics, depression storage, infiltration, hydrologic connectivity, and surface runoff. The reduction in ponding time and infiltration, and the enhancement of hydrologic connectivity further caused earlier and greater surface runoff generation.

  9. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Hydrology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    hydrologic (or flow) changes associated with urbanization, baseflow changes associated with urbanization, water withdrawals and interbasin transfers associated with urbanization, biotic responses to hydrologic (or flow) changes associated with urbanization

  10. Cardenas receives, 2011 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2012-06-01

    Meinhard Bayani Cardenas received the 2011 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award is for significant early career contributions to hydrologic science.

  11. Cardenas receives, 2011 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John L.

    2012-06-01

    Meinhard Bayani Cardenas received the 2011 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award is for significant early career contributions to hydrologic science.

  12. Hydroclimatic regimes: a distributed water-balance framework for hydrologic assessment and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiskel, P. K.; Wolock, D. M.; Zarriello, P. J.; Vogel, R. M.; Levin, S. B.; Lent, R. M.

    2014-03-01

    Runoff-based indicators of terrestrial water availability are appropriate for humid regions, but have tended to limit our basic hydrologic understanding of drylands - the dry-sub-humid, semi-arid, and arid regions which presently cover nearly half of the global land surface. In response, we introduce an indicator framework that gives equal weight to humid and dryland regions, accounting fully for both vertical (precipitation + evapotranspiration) and horizontal (groundwater + surface-water) components of the hydrologic cycle in any given location - as well as fluxes into and out of landscape storage. We apply the framework to a diverse hydroclimatic region (the conterminous USA), using a distributed water-balance model consisting of 53 400 networked landscape hydrologic units. Our model simulations indicate that about 21% of the conterminous USA either generated no runoff or consumed runoff from upgradient sources on a mean-annual basis during the 20th century. Vertical fluxes exceeded horizontal fluxes across 76% of the conterminous area. Long-term average total water availability (TWA) during the 20th century, defined here as the total influx to a landscape hydrologic unit from precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, varied spatially by about 400 000-fold, a range of variation ~100 times larger than that for mean-annual runoff across the same area. The framework includes, but is not limited to classical, runoff-based approaches to water-resource assessment. It also incorporates and re-interprets the green-blue water perspective now gaining international acceptance. Implications of the new framework for hydrologic assessment and classification are explored.

  13. Development of a Coupled Hydrological/Sediment Yield Model for a Watershed at Regional Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajbhandaril, Narayan; Crosson, William; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy; Liu, Yaping; Soman, Vishwas

    1998-01-01

    Development of a hydrologic model for the study of environmental conservation requires a comprehensive understanding of individual-storm affecting hydrologic and sedimentologic processes. The hydrologic models that we are currently coupling are the Simulator for Hydrology and Energy Exchange at the Land Surface (SHEELS) and the Distributed Runoff Model (DRUM). SHEELS runs continuously to estimate surface energy fluxes and sub-surface soil water fluxes, while DRUM operates during and following precipitation events to predict surface runoff and peak flow through channel routing. The lateral re-distribution of surface water determined by DRUM is passed to SHEELS, which then adjusts soil water contents throughout the profile. The model SHEELS is well documented in Smith et al. (1993) and Laymen and Crosson (1995). The model DRUM is well documented in Vieux et al. (1990) and Vieux and Gauer (1994). The coupled hydrologic model, SHEELS/DRUM, does not simulate sedimentologic processes. The simulation of the sedimentologic process is important for environmental conservation planning and management. Therefore, we attempted to develop a conceptual frame work for coupling a sediment yield model with SHEELS/DRUM to estimate individual-storm sediment yield from a watershed at a regional level. The sediment yield model that will be used for this study is the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) with some modifications to enable the model to predict individual-storm sediment yield. The predicted sediment yield does not include wind erosion and erosion caused by irrigation and snow melt. Units used for this study are those given by Foster et al. (1981) for SI units.

  14. Hydrological processes and eco-hydrological effects of farmland-forest-desert transition zone in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, Gansu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jun; Zhao, Ying; Shao, Ming'an; Li, Huijie; Jiang, Rui; Hill, Robert Lee; Si, Bingcheng

    2015-10-01

    The study of the hydrological processes in the transition zone is important, but more complex compared with the homogenous land use units. A typical farmland-forest-desert transition zone in the Heihe River Basin was selected to study the hydrological processes and eco-hydrological effects among these land use units by monitoring the soil water content (SWC), groundwater level (GWL), and vegetation dynamics. Results showed that the sharp fluctuations of daily SWC and GWL in the farmland and the forest were primarily attributed to the irrigation events (7 and 6 times for the farmland and forest, respectively). The hydrological links among the three land use units were exhibited in three patterns. First, the soil water of the upper soil layer near the interface of two land use units moved from the irrigated land use unit to the non-irrigated one under soil water potential gradients through physical diffusion (the lateral water flow rate was less than 1 cm d-1). Second, the water flowed from the irrigated land use unit to the non-irrigated one under GWL gradients through groundwater flow (the lateral groundwater flow rate was less than 10 cm d-1). Third, a portion of the soil water in the farmland was utilized by the extended root system of the trees. The water exchange between the farmland and the forest resulting from one irrigation event was 5-30 mm, which caused increased GWLs for 1 week. At the forest-farmland boundary, the impacts of the extended tree roots reduced maize growth and extended 10-15 m into the farmland. By contrast, no obvious impacts were observed at the forest-desert boundary. Irrigating the farmland and the forest separately and reducing the width of the forest by 15-20 m would be more beneficial for irrigation water efficiency. These results would be useful for soil water management in terms of water balance impact on ecological construction and implementation of water-saving agriculture, as well as for optimal design of land-use patterns and

  15. On the Use of Models in Hydrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Marsily, G.

    1994-01-01

    This discussion article addresses the nature of models used in hydrology. It proposes a minimalist classification of models into two categories: models built on data from observations of the processes involved, and those for which there are no observation data on any of these processes, at the scale of interest. (LZ)

  16. Upscaling with data assimilation in soil hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of measurements in soil hydrology are point-based, and methods are needed to use the point-based data for estimating soil water contents at larger societally-important scales, such as field, hillslope or watershed. One group of appropriate methods involves data assimilation which is a methodolo...

  17. Puna Geothermal Venture Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This document provides the basis for the Hydrologic Monitoring Program (HMP) for the Puna Geothermal Venture. The HMP is complementary to two additional environmental compliance monitoring programs also being submitted by Puma Geothermal Venture (PGV) for their proposed activities at the site. The other two programs are the Meteorology and Air Quality Monitoring Program (MAQMP) and the Noise Monitoring Program (NMP), being submitted concurrently.

  18. Hydrological Modeling and Repeatability with Brokering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Z. M.; Collick, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Braeckel, A.; Nativi, S.; McAlister, C.; Wright, D. J.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Fuka, D.

    2014-12-01

    Data brokering aims to provide those in the hydrological sciences with access to relevant data to represent physical, biological, and chemical characteristics researchers need to accelerate discovery in their domain. Environmental models are useful tools to understand the behavior of hydrological systems. Unfortunately, parameterization of these models requires many different data sources from different disciplines (e.g., atmospheric, geoscience, ecology). In hydrological modeling, the traditional procedure for model initialization starts with obtaining elevation models, land-use characterizations, soils maps, and weather data. It is often the researcher's past experience with these datasets that determines which datasets will be used in a study, and often newer, more suitable data products exist. An added complexity is that various science communities have differing data formats, storage protocols and manipulation methods, which makes use by a non domain scientist difficult and time consuming. We propose data brokering as a means to address several of these challenges. We present two test case scenarios in which researchers attempt to reproduce hydrological model results using 1) general internet based data gathering techniques, and 2) a scientific data brokering interface. We show that data brokering increases the efficiency with which data are collected, models are initialized, and results are analyzed. As an added benefit, it appears brokering significantly increases the repeatability of a study.

  19. Approaches to modelling hydrology and ecosystem interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    As the pressures of industry, agriculture and mining on groundwater resources increase there is a burgeoning un-met need to be able to capture these multiple, direct and indirect stresses in a formal framework that will enable better assessment of impact scenarios. While there are many catchment hydrological models and there are some models that represent ecological states and change (e.g. FLAMES, Liedloff and Cook, 2007), these have not been linked in any deterministic or substantive way. Without such coupled eco-hydrological models quantitative assessments of impacts from water use intensification on water dependent ecosystems under changing climate are difficult, if not impossible. The concept would include facility for direct and indirect water related stresses that may develop around mining and well operations, climate stresses, such as rainfall and temperature, biological stresses, such as diseases and invasive species, and competition such as encroachment from other competing land uses. Indirect water impacts could be, for example, a change in groundwater conditions has an impact on stream flow regime, and hence aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews previous work examining models combining ecology and hydrology with a view to developing a conceptual framework linking a biophysically defensable model that combines ecosystem function with hydrology. The objective is to develop a model capable of representing the cumulative impact of multiple stresses on water resources and associated ecosystem function.

  20. Treatments of Precipitation Inputs to Hydrologic Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrological models are used to assess many water resources problems from agricultural use and water quality to engineering issues. The success of these models are dependent on correct parameterization; the most sensitive being the rainfall input time series. These records can come from land-based ...

  1. Streams of Words: Hydrological Lexicon in Jahai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burenhult, Niclas

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates hydrological lexicon in Jahai, a Mon-Khmer language of the Malay Peninsula. Setting out from an analysis of the structural and semantic properties as well as the indigenous vs. borrowed origin of lexicon related to drainage, it teases out a set of distinct lexical systems for reference to and description of hydrological…

  2. Parameterization guidelines and considerations for hydrologic models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imparting knowledge of the physical processes of a system to a model and determining a set of parameter values for a hydrologic or water quality model application (i.e., parameterization) is an important and difficult task. An exponential increase in literature has been devoted to the use and develo...

  3. EFFICIENT HYDROLOGICAL TRACER-TEST DESIGN (EHTD ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to

  4. 30 CFR 784.14 - Hydrologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrologic information. (a) Sampling and analysis. All water quality analyses performed to meet the... methodology in 40 CFR parts 136 and 434. Water quality sampling performed to meet the requirements of this... Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Pollution Control Federation and is...

  5. 30 CFR 780.21 - Hydrologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrologic information. (a) Sampling and analysis methodology. All water-quality analyses performed to meet..., or the methodology in 40 CFR parts 136 and 434. Water quality sampling performed to meet the... Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Pollution...

  6. 30 CFR 784.14 - Hydrologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hydrologic information. (a) Sampling and analysis. All water quality analyses performed to meet the... methodology in 40 CFR parts 136 and 434. Water quality sampling performed to meet the requirements of this... Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Pollution Control Federation and is...

  7. 30 CFR 780.21 - Hydrologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hydrologic information. (a) Sampling and analysis methodology. All water-quality analyses performed to meet..., or the methodology in 40 CFR parts 136 and 434. Water quality sampling performed to meet the... Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Pollution...

  8. 30 CFR 784.14 - Hydrologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hydrologic information. (a) Sampling and analysis. All water quality analyses performed to meet the... methodology in 40 CFR parts 136 and 434. Water quality sampling performed to meet the requirements of this... Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Pollution Control Federation and is...

  9. 30 CFR 780.21 - Hydrologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hydrologic information. (a) Sampling and analysis methodology. All water-quality analyses performed to meet..., or the methodology in 40 CFR parts 136 and 434. Water quality sampling performed to meet the... Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Pollution...

  10. 30 CFR 784.14 - Hydrologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hydrologic information. (a) Sampling and analysis. All water quality analyses performed to meet the... methodology in 40 CFR parts 136 and 434. Water quality sampling performed to meet the requirements of this... Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Pollution Control Federation and is...

  11. 30 CFR 780.21 - Hydrologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hydrologic information. (a) Sampling and analysis methodology. All water-quality analyses performed to meet..., or the methodology in 40 CFR parts 136 and 434. Water quality sampling performed to meet the... Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Pollution...

  12. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Andy; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2015-04-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), and co-sponsored by the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC). The HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support. HEPEX pursues this goal through research efforts and practical implementations involving six core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. HEPEX has grown through meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. In the last decade, HEPEX has organized over a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Through these interactions and an active online blog (www.hepex.org), HEPEX has built a strong and active community of nearly 400 researchers & practitioners around the world. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  13. Terrestrial Hydrological Data from NASA's Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC): Products, Services, and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Mocko, David M.; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial hydrological variables are important in global hydrology, climate, and carbon cycle studies. The North American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS and GLDAS, respectively) have been generating a series of land surface states (soil moisture, snow, and temperature) and fluxes (evapotranspiration, radiation, and heat flux) variables. These data, hosted at and available from NASA s Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), include the NLDAS hourly 1/8 degree products and the GLDAS 3-hourly 0.25 and 1.0 degree products. HDISC provides easy access and visualization and analysis capabilities for these products, thus reducing the time and resources spent by scientists on data management and facilitating hydrological research. Users can perform spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and data analysis operations without needing to first download the data. HDISC is continually being developed as a data and services portal that supports weather and climate forecasts, and water and energy cycle research.

  14. Avenues for crowd science in Hydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Crowd science describes research that is conducted with the participation of the general public (the crowd) and gives the opportunity to involve the crowd in research design, data collection and analysis. In various fields, scientists have already drawn on underused human resources to advance research at low cost, with high transparency and large acceptance of the public due to the bottom up structure and the participatory process. Within the hydrological sciences, crowd research has quite recently become more established in the form of crowd observatories to generate hydrological data on water quality, precipitation or river flow. These innovative observatories complement more traditional ways of monitoring hydrological data and strengthen a community-based environmental decision making. However, the full potential of crowd science lies in internet based participation of the crowd and it is not yet fully exploited in the field of Hydrology. New avenues that are not primarily based on the outsourcing of labor, but instead capitalize the full potential of human capabilities have to emerge. In multiple realms of solving complex problems, like image detection, optimization tasks, narrowing of possible solutions, humans still remain more effective than computer algorithms. The most successful online crowd science projects Foldit and Galaxy Zoo have proven that the collective of tens of thousands users could clearly outperform traditional computer based science approaches. Our study takes advantage of the well trained human perception to conduct a spatial sensitivity analysis of land-surface variables of a distributed hydrological model to identify the most sensitive spatial inputs. True spatial performance metrics, that quantitatively compare patterns, are not trivial to choose and their applicability is often not universal. On the other hand humans can quickly integrate spatial information at various scales and are therefore a trusted competence. We selected

  15. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  16. Effects of hydrology on red mangrove recruits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico have been experiencing significant shifts in hydrology and salinity levels over the past century as a result of changes in sea level and freshwater drainage patterns. Local land management in coastal zones has also impacted the hydrologic regimes of salt marshes and mangrove areas. Parks and refuges in south Florida that contain mangrove forests have, in some cases, been ditched or impounded to control mosquito outbreaks and to foster wildlife use. And while mangroves dominate the subtropical coastlines of Florida and thrive in saltwater environments, little is known about how they respond to changes in hydrology under managed or variable tidal conditions. USGS researchers designed a study to evaluate the basic hydrological requirements of mangroves so that their health and survival may be more effectively managed in controlled impoundments and restored wetlands. Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone (between low and high tides) in a rather broad spectrum of hydrologic settings. Because they thrive at the interface of land and sea, mangroves are subject to changes in freshwater flow (flow rate, nutrients, pollutants) and to marine influences (sea-level rise, salinity). Salinity has long been recognized as a controlling factor that determines the health and distribution of mangrove forests. Field and experimental observations indicate that most mangrove species achieve their highest growth potential under brackish conditions (modest salinity) between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Yet, if provided with available propagules, successful regeneration, and limited competition from other plants, then mangroves can survive and thrive in freshwater systems as well. Because little is known about the growthand survival patterns of mangrove species relative to changing hydrology, USGS scientists conducted greenhouse and field experiments to determine how flooded or drained patterns of hydrology would influence

  17. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  18. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  19. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  20. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  1. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  2. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  3. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  4. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  5. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  6. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  7. Using Scientific Visualization to Represent Soil Hydrology Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolliver, H. A. S.; Bell, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between soil, landscape, and hydrology is important for making sustainable land management decisions. In this study, scientific visualization was explored as a means to visually represent the complex spatial and temporal variations in the hydrologic status of soils. Soil hydrology data was collected at seven…

  8. 30 CFR 822.11 - Essential hydrologic functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Essential hydrologic functions. 822.11 Section... IN ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.11 Essential hydrologic functions. (a) The operator of a surface coal... throughout the mining and reclamation process the essential hydrologic functions of an alluvial valley...

  9. Abundance and Distribution of Geographically Isolated Wetlands across the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWS) are important landscape elements involved in hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological functioning. Their influence, under certain circumstances, can significantly affect other waters of the Unites States. However, there have been no data-...

  10. Hydrology of Laguna Joyuda, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Quinones-Aponte, Vicente

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to define the hydraulic and hydrologic characteristics of the Laguna Joyuda system (in southwestern Puerto Rico) and to determine the water budget of the lagoon. This shallow-water lagoon is connected to the sea by a single canal. Rainfall and evaporation, surface-water, groundwater, and tidal-flow data were collected from December 1, 1985, to April 30, 1988. A conceptual hydrologic model of the lagoon was developed and discharge measurements and modeling were undertaken to quantify the different flow components. The water balance during the 29-month study period was determined by measuring and estimating the different hydrologic components: 4.14 million cubic meters rainfall; 5.38 million cubic meters evaporation; 1.1 8 million cubic meters surface water; and 0.34 million cubic meters ground water. A total of 18.9 million cubic meters ebb flow (tidal outflow) was discharged from the lagoon and 14.4 million cubic meters flood flow (tidal inflow) entered through the canal during the study. Seawater inflow accounted for 71 percent of the water into the lagoon. The storage volume of the lagoon was about 1.55 million cubic meters. The lagoon's hydrologic-budget residual was 4.22 million cubic meters, whereas the sum of the estimated errors for the different hydrologic components amounted to 4.51 million cubic meters. Average flushing rate for the lagoon was estimated at 72 days. During the study, the specific conductance of the lagoon water ranged from 32,000 to 52,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, whereas the specific conductance of local seawater is about 45,000 to 55,000 microsiemens.

  11. Watershed hydrology, network allometry and ecosystem structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2003-04-01

    The lecture covers recent advances relevant to watershed hydrology, in particular derived from the realm of data now available, covering a wide range of scales and objectively collected and analyzed. It is intended to summarize results that are, in the lecturer's opinion, crucial to our current understanding of a variety of issues. Key among them, landscape evolution models, models of the hydrologic response and, indeed a scientific challenge, ecosystem structure. In particular, a new allometric scaling law for loopless networks, confirmed through studies on rivers, exact network results and computer simulations, offers unique insight on a variety of phenomena, ranging from the ubiquity of the 'quarter-power' law in biology to the origin of scaling size spectra in marine microbial ecosystems, to the proper geomorphological description of a river basin and its hydrological implications. In a sense, networks are a byproduct of the hydrologic dynamics, and indeed can be shown to be related to ecosystem structure. Si parva licet, I will provide evidence suggesting that ensemble averaging of the allometric property (where individual realizations are different networks) leads to results in excellent accord with the known limit scaling of efficient and compact networks with remarkably little scatter with implications of somewhat general character. Such results complement recent work suggesting that scaling features are quite robust to geometrical fluctuations of network properties. Finally, I shall gather from the morphological analysis on river networks the potential for predicting the main characters of the hydrologic response in ungauged basins - a task of practical nature with many social implications, possibly relevant to the Session's aims.

  12. Validation of a national hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, H. K.; Booker, D. J.; Cattoën, C.

    2016-10-01

    Nationwide predictions of flow time-series are valuable for development of policies relating to environmental flows, calculating reliability of supply to water users, or assessing risk of floods or droughts. This breadth of model utility is possible because various hydrological signatures can be derived from simulated flow time-series. However, producing national hydrological simulations can be challenging due to strong environmental diversity across catchments and a lack of data available to aid model parameterisation. A comprehensive and consistent suite of test procedures to quantify spatial and temporal patterns in performance across various parts of the hydrograph is described and applied to quantify the performance of an uncalibrated national rainfall-runoff model of New Zealand. Flow time-series observed at 485 gauging stations were used to calculate Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias when simulating between-site differences in daily series, between-year differences in annual series, and between-site differences in hydrological signatures. The procedures were used to assess the benefit of applying a correction to the modelled flow duration curve based on an independent statistical analysis. They were used to aid understanding of climatological, hydrological and model-based causes of differences in predictive performance by assessing multiple hypotheses that describe where and when the model was expected to perform best. As the procedures produce quantitative measures of performance, they provide an objective basis for model assessment that could be applied when comparing observed daily flow series with competing simulated flow series from any region-wide or nationwide hydrological model. Model performance varied in space and time with better scores in larger and medium-wet catchments, and in catchments with smaller seasonal variations. Surprisingly, model performance was not sensitive to aquifer fraction or rain gauge density.

  13. A Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data Set for Climate Change Impact Assessment for the Conterminous US

    SciTech Connect

    Oubeidillah, Abdoul A; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Naz, Bibi S; Tootle, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    To extend geographical coverage, refine spatial resolution, and improve modeling efficiency, a computation- and data-intensive effort was conducted to organize a comprehensive hydrologic dataset with post-calibrated model parameters for hydro-climate impact assessment. Several key inputs for hydrologic simulation including meteorologic forcings, soil, land class, vegetation, and elevation were collected from multiple best-available data sources and organized for 2107 hydrologic subbasins (8-digit hydrologic units, HUC8s) in the conterminous United States at refined 1/24 (~4 km) spatial resolution. Using high-performance computing for intensive model calibration, a high-resolution parameter dataset was prepared for the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC simulation was driven by DAYMET daily meteorological forcing and was calibrated against USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff observations for each HUC8. The results showed that this new parameter dataset may help reasonably simulate runoff at most US HUC8 subbasins. Based on this exhaustive calibration effort, it is now possible to accurately estimate the resources required for further model improvement across the entire conterminous United States. We anticipate that through this hydrologic parameter dataset, the repeated effort of fundamental data processing can be lessened, so that research efforts can emphasize the more challenging task of assessing climate change impacts. The pre-organized model parameter dataset will be provided to interested parties to support further hydro-climate impact assessment.

  14. Scaling Hydrologic Processes in Boreal Forest Stands: New Eco-hydrological Perspectives or Deja vu?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.; Landhausser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Gan, T. Y.

    2006-12-01

    The leaf area of forest canopies is both main attribute of stands controlling water balance through transpiration and interception, and "engine" driving stand growth, stand dynamics, and forest succession. While transpiration and interception dynamics are classic themes in forest hydrology, we present results from our eco-hydrological research on boreal trees to highlight how more recent eco-physiological insights into species specific controls over water use and leaf area such as hydraulic architecture, cavitation, sapwood-leaf area relationships, and root system controls over water uptake are providing new insights into integrated atmospheric-autecological controls over these hydrologic processes. These results are discussed in the context of newer eco-hydrological frameworks which may serve to aid in exploring how forest disturbance and subsequent trajectories of hydrologic recovery are likely to affect both forest growth dynamics and hydrology of forested landscapes in response to forest management, severe forest pest epidemics such as the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in Western Canada, and climate change.

  15. Predicting changes in hydrologic retention in an evolving semi-arid alluvial stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Conklin, M.H.; Koelsch, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrologic retention of solutes in hyporheic zones or other slowly moving waters of natural channels is thought to be a significant control on biogeochemical cycling and ecology of streams. To learn more about factors affecting hydrologic retention, we repeated stream-tracer injections for 5 years in a semi-arid alluvial stream (Pinal Creek, Ariz.) during a period when streamflow was decreasing, channel width increasing, and coverage of aquatic macrophytes expanding. Average stream velocity at Pinal Creek decreased from 0.8 to 0.2 m/s, average stream depth decreased from 0.09 to 0.04 m, and average channel width expanded from 3 to 13 m. Modeling of tracer experiments indicated that the hydrologic retention factor (Rh), a measure of the average time that solute spends in storage per unit length of downstream transport, increased from 0.02 to 8 s/m. At the same time the ratio of cross-sectional area of storage zones to main channel cross-sectional area (As/A) increased from 0.2 to 0.8 m2/m2, and average water residence time in storage zones (ts) increased from 5 to 24 min. Compared with published data from four other streams in the US, Pinal Creek experienced the greatest change in hydrologic retention for a given change in streamflow. The other streams differed from Pinal Creek in that they experienced a change in streamflow between tracer experiments without substantial geomorphic or vegetative adjustments. As a result, a regression of hydrologic retention on streamflow developed for the other streams underpredicted the measured increases in hydrologic retention at Pinal Creek. The increase in hydrologic retention at Pinal Creek was more accurately predicted when measurements of the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor were used (either alone or in addition to streamflow) as a predictor variable. We conclude that relatively simple measurements of channel friction are useful for predicting the response of hydrologic retention in streams to major adjustments in channel

  16. Development of Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint hydrology and habitat model parameters through biophysical remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.

    2010-12-01

    A multidisciplinary team composed of researchers from federal government and academia is linking state-of-the-art within-discipline approaches to more effectively model climate, hydrology, in-stream flow requirements, and aquatic population dynamics in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river basin. As part of this effort, a multi- spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution remote sensing database is being developed and evaluated by the USGS to better understand and represent the spatial and temporal scales of various land cover changes and cycles in the ACF. The ultimate goal is to account for the affects of land use on hydrology and habitat and link those affects to the health of aquatic populations. Airborne true color and lidar and satellite radar data for subwatersheds of the ACF are being used to calibrate and evaluate Landsat-based maps of small water bodies and vegetation cover for use in stream flow and temperature modeling. Procedures are being developed and applied to archived Landsat data to yield dynamic information on the numbers, sizes, spatial configuration and combined area of coverage of ACF surface water bodies throughout the Thematic Mapper time frame (early-1980s to present). Also the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System has been modified to accommodate these dynamic estimates of total storage capacity over hydrologic response units and is therefore yielding more applicable simulations of streamflow characteristics. This multi-scale characterization of landscape dynamics is helping to evaluate and forecast the importance of human activity to hydrology and aquatic habitat conditions.

  17. Disentangling event-scale hydrologic flow partitioning in mountains of the Korean Peninsula under extreme precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, Christopher L.

    2016-07-01

    Mountainous headwaters include a variety of spatial landscape units; however, the flow contribution from different hydrologic components is complex and often unclear. In addition to complex landscape controls, temporal meteorological drivers play an important role in the distribution between surface runoff and subsurface storage changes. This spatiotemporal variability in partitioning can influence catchment-wide flow accumulation and nutrient and sediment loading. We use a multi-year, multi-method analysis of stable isotopes, geochemical indicators, and discharge distributed throughout the Haean catchment in South Korea to identify temporal variability in hydrologic flow partitioning from surface runoff, springs, shallow interflow, and groundwater under monsoonal conditions. By combining a weighted, multi-method discharge approach, high frequency, synoptic, catchment-wide isotopic and geochemical sampling, and baseflow analysis, we characterize watershed-scale spatiotemporal hydrologic flow partitioning. Meteorological drivers are spatially variable throughout the catchment and temporally between individual events. Baseflow contributions in the high elevation, forested areas are up to 50%, while the majority of the catchment is approximately 20%. Our study builds on previously reported seasonality of isotopic signatures by quantifying trends in distributed event-based partitioning of isotopic tracers. We demonstrate that high frequency flow partitioning can accurately be determined in mountainous topography with high precipitation and that there is a need for multiple method characterizations. Our results further show the benefit of spatially distributed synoptic sampling for process understanding of hydrologic partitioning throughout the watersheds.

  18. Potential Effects of Wildfire on Watershed Hydrologic Response: Sabino Creek Basin, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiola-Claramonte, M.; Nijssen, B.

    2004-12-01

    Wildfires and their hydrologic consequences, such as flash floods and mudslides, pose serious hazards in the southwestern United States. As a result of the present drought and decades of fire suppression, wildfires are occurring with greater frequency and intensity. Preservation or rehabilitation zones can be identified in a watershed to minimize the severity of secondary-order fire effects, such as erosion, increased flow peaks and landslides. Distributed hydrological models can be a useful tool to locate these zones. In this study, a distributed watershed model was used to evaluate the effects of pre- and post-fire land use scenarios on watershed hydrologic response in the Sabino Creek watershed north of Tucson, Arizona. During the summer of 2003, the Aspen fire burned in excess of 34 thousand hectares in the Santa Catalina Mountains, including a large part of the study basin. To model the watershed, field and laboratory measurements of soil permeability in burned and unburned areas were used, together with fifteen years of climatological data from NOAA, USGS and Pima County. To investigate the hydrologic effects of wildfire, model simulations using pre- and post-fire soil and vegetation parameters, in particular soil permeability and leaf area index, were compared to each other as well as to field observations.

  19. SWAT Ungauged: Hydrological Budget and Crop Yield Predictions in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    R. Srinivasan,; X. Zhang,; J. Arnold,

    2010-01-01

    Physically based, distributed hydrologic models are increasingly used in assessments of water resources, best management practices, and climate and land use changes. Model performance evaluation in ungauged basins is an important research topic. In this study, we propose a framework for developing Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) input data, including hydrography, terrain, land use, soil, tile, weather, and management practices, for the Upper Mississippi River basin (UMRB). We also present a performance evaluation of SWAT hydrologic budget and crop yield simulations in the UMRB without calibration. The uncalibrated SWAT model ably predicts annual streamflow at 11 USGS gauges and crop yield at a four-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) scale. For monthly streamflow simulation, the performance of SWAT is marginally poor compared with that of annual flow, which may be due to incomplete information about reservoirs and dams within the UMRB. Further validation shows that SWAT can predict base flow contribution ratio reasonably well. Compared with three calibrated SWAT models developed in previous studies of the entire UMRB, the uncalibrated SWAT model presented here can provide similar results. Overall, the SWAT model can provide satisfactory predictions on hydrologic budget and crop yield in the UMRB without calibration. The results emphasize the importance and prospects of using accurate spatial input data for the physically based SWAT model. This study also examines biofuel-biomass production by simulating all agricultural lands with switchgrass, producing satisfactory results in estimating biomass availability for biofuel production.

  20. Hydrologic Impacts of Fuel-Reduction Treatments in the Hat and Burney Creek Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, R.; Tyler, S. W.; Wheelock, S.; Grant, G.; Nadler, C.; Sladek, C.; Young, D.; Adkins, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fuel-reduction treatments are commonly employed throughout the western United States to improve forest health and/or decrease the risk of wildland fires. Periods of prolonged drought and high temperatures increase both the risk of wildland fires and the stress on water resources. Forest managers may mitigate the risk of wildland fires by increasing fuel-reduction treatments but the subsequent effect on forest hydrology and water resources is not well understood. Of particularly interest to water resources is the effect on snow pack accumulation and melt timing, which is impacted by forest cover. As part of a Comprehensive Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), four sites were selected in the Hat Creek Basin of Lassen National Forest to study the hydrologic effects of two common fuel-reduction strategies, forest thinning and group selection. During the 2013/2014 winter, California experienced a significant drought, including a near-absence of continuous snow cover. Therefore, the effect on snow accumulation and melt timing during the 13/14 winter was not directly measured. However, significant deviations in solar radiation, wind speed, and solar moisture were observed in the data, suggesting fuel reduction treatments will have a tangible effect of snow pack and forest hydrology. Further work to examine the relationship between forest cover, fuel-treatments, and basin hydrology includes the analysis of historic stream flow data and the development of a hydro-ecological model for the basin.

  1. Concerning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlinger, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    SI units come in two distinct types: fundamental (kilogram, meter) and descriptive (atom, molecule). Proper/improper uses of atom/molecule from historical cases are presented followed by a re-introduction of a light "wave (cycle)" unit and the clearly defined photon model which is deduced. Also examines omission of the fundamental unit "radon."…

  2. One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MODFLOW-OWHM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Boyce, Scott E.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Hughes, Joseph D.; Mehl, Steffen W.; Leake, Stanley A.; Maddock, Thomas; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MF-OWHM) is a MODFLOW-based integrated hydrologic flow model (IHM) that is the most complete version, to date, of the MODFLOW family of hydrologic simulators needed for the analysis of a broad range of conjunctive-use issues. Conjunctive use is the combined use of groundwater and surface water. MF-OWHM allows the simulation, analysis, and management of nearly all components of human and natural water movement and use in a physically-based supply-and-demand framework. MF-OWHM is based on the Farm Process for MODFLOW-2005 (MF-FMP2) combined with Local Grid Refinement (LGR) for embedded models to allow use of the Farm Process (FMP) and Streamflow Routing (SFR) within embedded grids. MF-OWHM also includes new features such as the Surface-water Routing Process (SWR), Seawater Intrusion (SWI), and Riparian Evapotrasnpiration (RIP-ET), and new solvers such as Newton-Raphson (NWT) and nonlinear preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCGN). This IHM also includes new connectivities to expand the linkages for deformation-, flow-, and head-dependent flows. Deformation-dependent flows are simulated through the optional linkage to simulated land subsidence with a vertically deforming mesh. Flow-dependent flows now include linkages between the new SWR with SFR and FMP, as well as connectivity with embedded models for SFR and FMP through LGR. Head-dependent flows now include a modified Hydrologic Flow Barrier Package (HFB) that allows optional transient HFB capabilities, and the flow between any two layers that are adjacent along a depositional or erosional boundary or displaced along a fault. MF-OWHM represents a complete operational hydrologic model that fully links the movement and use of groundwater, surface water, and imported water for consumption by irrigated agriculture, but also of water used in urban areas and by natural vegetation. Supply and demand components of water use are analyzed under demand-driven and supply

  3. Benchmarking observational uncertainties for hydrology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, H. K.; Krueger, T.; Freer, J. E.; Westerberg, I.

    2013-12-01

    There is a pressing need for authoritative and concise information on the expected error distributions and magnitudes in hydrological data, to understand its information content. Many studies have discussed how to incorporate uncertainty information into model calibration and implementation, and shown how model results can be biased if uncertainty is not appropriately characterised. However, it is not always possible (for example due to financial or time constraints) to make detailed studies of uncertainty for every research study. Instead, we propose that the hydrological community could benefit greatly from sharing information on likely uncertainty characteristics and the main factors that control the resulting magnitude. In this presentation, we review the current knowledge of uncertainty for a number of key hydrological variables: rainfall, flow and water quality (suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus). We collated information on the specifics of the data measurement (data type, temporal and spatial resolution), error characteristics measured (e.g. standard error, confidence bounds) and error magnitude. Our results were primarily split by data type. Rainfall uncertainty was controlled most strongly by spatial scale, flow uncertainty was controlled by flow state (low, high) and gauging method. Water quality presented a more complex picture with many component errors. For all variables, it was easy to find examples where relative error magnitude exceeded 40%. We discuss some of the recent developments in hydrology which increase the need for guidance on typical error magnitudes, in particular when doing comparative/regionalisation and multi-objective analysis. Increased sharing of data, comparisons between multiple catchments, and storage in national/international databases can mean that data-users are far removed from data collection, but require good uncertainty information to reduce bias in comparisons or catchment regionalisation studies. Recently it has

  4. Data Assimilation Methods for Hydrologic Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.; Luo, L.

    2012-12-01

    Data assimilation techniques have been among the most useful tools in Earth sciences. As for their applications in hydrology, significant efforts have been devoted to improving the predictions of dynamic models, e.g., catchment hydrologic models, land surface models (LSM), and ultimately general circulation models (GCM), using various types of observational data, e.g. remotely sensed surface parameters. Here we focus on the applications to a fundamentally important but less explored category of problems - estimating hydrologic quantities of interest across different spatial and temporal scales, and the primarily problem is downscaling in space and time (since upscaling is in most cases trivial). Downscaling plays a vital role in bridging the scale gaps between various types of modeling and observation systems, for example, from the relatively coarse GCM to LSM, and to catchment scale models, and from coarse resolution remote sensors (long wavelength or gravitational) to fine resolution sensors (visible/infrared). Through downscaling, fine scale applications (e.g. catchment hydrologic models, local geo-chemical and geo-biological models) can make use of predictions from coarse scale models (e.g. weather/climate models) or coarse resolution remote sensing measurements. Our downscaling approach will rely on both (a) the physical models to parameterize the related cross-scale physical processes and to link hydrologic variables defined at one scale to another, and (b) the mathematical tools to properly handle the uncertainties during the estimation and as well as to help quantify those cross-scale relationships too difficult for the physical models. We showcase the downscaling of two hydrologic variables: (1) deriving spatial fields of land surface runoff from river streamflow measurements and (2) creating fine resolution soil moisture data from coarse resolution remote sensing retrievals or dynamic models. In the runoff case, all the measurements are collected in the

  5. What makes an instream organism (hydrologically) happy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, S. N.

    2009-04-01

    The last decade has demonstrated the importance of landscape-scale appreciation of hydrological processes for the structure and function of instream aquatic communities. Demonstration of the critical ways in which water connects processes operating in the wider landscape, through both river floodplains and the hyporheic zone, to the stream; as well as interactions within the stream between physical, chemical and biological processes; all emphasise the importance of hydrological investigation for instream ecology. However, here I will argue that whilst this opens up a range of new opportunities for hydrological investigation, I will argue that the classical approach pursued by hydrologists to this problem needs a radical reformulation. All too often, the hydrologist, informed by an army of laboratory- and field-based studies, grounds their analysis in a process cascade where the starting point is a series of physical processes associated with the water environment and the end point is some sort of assumed ecological impact, possibly involving some kind of analysis of feedbacks and interactions. The system can be broken down into its constituent parts and then rebuilt, either through careful field/laboratory experimental design, or through assembling process relationships, to create a mathematical model. The holistic response of the system is understood through an implicitly reductionist analysis. In research terms, the approach becomes self-sustaining: the exposure of conceptual/mathematical models to scrutiny by field data encourages us to look for more complex model formulations; these more complex formulations require new forms of field data and their assimilation into our models. Using a series of projects concerned with aiming to improve and to restore aquatic communities, I will argue that this way of working has more to do with what hydrologists perceive matters to hydrology than it does the hydrological needs of instream communities. The implication is that

  6. Toward Integrative Uncertainty Accounting in Operational Hydrologic Ensemble Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Demargne, J.; Wu, L.; Brown, J. D.; Schaake, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    Operational hydrologic forecasts are subject to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties, i.e., uncertainties in the hydrologic initial and boundary conditions, future boundary conditions, and observations. To produce reliable and skillful hydrologic ensemble forecasts, it is essential that both meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties are accurately accounted for. Toward that goal, NWS is developing a prototype hydrologic ensemble forecasting capability referred to as the eXperimental Ensemble Forecast System (XEFS) for operation at the NWS River Forecast Centers (RFC). It is envisioned that all or parts of this system may be shared with the research community for collaborative research and development toward improved operational hydrologic forecasting. In this talk, we describe the XEFS framework for integrative uncertainty accounting, identify key issues and share initial results.

  7. Comparing hydrological signatures of small agricultural catchments using uncertain data provided by a soft hydrological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabit, Armand; Colin, François

    2016-04-01

    Discharge estimation is one of the greatest challenge for every hydrologist as it is the most classical hydrological variable used in hydrological studies. The key lies in the rating curves and the way they were built: based on field measurements or using physical equations as the Manning-Strickler relation… However, as we all know, data and associated uncertainty deeply impact the veracity of such rating curves that could have serious consequences on data interpretation. And, of all things, this affects every catchment in the world, not only the gauged catchments but also and especially the poorly gauged ones that account for the larger part of the catchment of the world. This study investigates how to compare hydrological behaviour of 11 small (0.1 to 0.6 km2) poorly gauged catchments considering uncertainty associated to their rating curves. It shows how important the uncertainty can be using Manning equation and focus on its parameter: the roughness coefficient. Innovative work has been performed under controlled experimental conditions to estimate the Manning coefficient values for the different cover types observed in studied streams: non-aquatic vegetations. The results show that estimated flow rates using suitable roughness coefficients highly differ from those we should have obtained if we only considered the common values given in the literature. Moreover, it highlights how it could also affect all derived hydrological indicators commonly used to compare hydrological behaviour. Data of rainfall and water depth at a catchment's outlet were recorded using automatic logging equipment during 2008-2009. The hydrological regime is intermittent and the annual precipitation ranged between 569 and 727 mm. Discharge was then estimated using Manning's equation and channel cross-section measurements. Even if discharge uncertainty is high, the results show significant variability between catchment's responses that allows for catchment classification. It also

  8. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Wanders, Niko; Wada, Yoshihide

    2015-04-01

    Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5o globally for 1971-2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs) and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs), from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM) was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971-2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt) is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40-52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4 %), compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20 %). The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a substantial

  9. A Cyber Enabled Collaborative Environment for Creating, Sharing and Using Data and Modeling Driven Curriculum Modules for Hydrology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwade, V.; Ruddell, B. L.; Fox, S.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2014-12-01

    With the access to emerging datasets and computational tools, there is a need to bring these capabilities into hydrology classrooms. However, developing curriculum modules using data and models to augment classroom teaching is hindered by a steep technology learning curve, rapid technology turnover, and lack of an organized community cyberinfrastructure (CI) for the dissemination, publication, and sharing of the latest tools and curriculum material for hydrology and geoscience education. The objective of this project is to overcome some of these limitations by developing a cyber enabled collaborative environment for publishing, sharing and adoption of data and modeling driven curriculum modules in hydrology and geosciences classroom. The CI is based on Carleton College's Science Education Resource Center (SERC) Content Management System. Building on its existing community authoring capabilities the system is being extended to allow assembly of new teaching activities by drawing on a collection of interchangeable building blocks; each of which represents a step in the modeling process. Currently the system hosts more than 30 modules or steps, which can be combined to create multiple learning units. Two specific units: Unit Hydrograph and Rational Method, have been used in undergraduate hydrology class-rooms at Purdue University and Arizona State University. The structure of the CI and the lessons learned from its implementation, including preliminary results from student assessments of learning will be presented.

  10. Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics of the Regional Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that local feedback of evaporation on precipitation, or recycling, is a significant source of water for precipitation. Quantitative results on the exact amount of recycling have been difficult to obtain in view of the inherent limitations of diagnostic recycling calculations. The current study describes a calculation of the amount of local and remote sources of water for precipitation, based on the implementation of passive constituent tracers of water vapor (termed water vapor tracers, WVT) in a general circulation model. In this case, the major limitation on the accuracy of the recycling estimates is the veracity of the numerically simulated hydrological cycle, though we note that this approach can also be implemented within the context of a data assimilation system. In this approach, each WVT is associated with an evaporative source region, and tracks the water until it precipitates from the atmosphere. By assuming that the regional water is well mixed with water from other sources, the physical processes that act on the WVT are determined in proportion to those that act on the model's prognostic water vapor. In this way, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation can be computed within the model simulation, and can be validated against the model's prognostic water vapor. Furthermore, estimates of precipitation recycling can be compared with bulk diagnostic approaches. As a demonstration of the method, the regional hydrologic cycles for North America and India are evaluated for six summers (June, July and August) of model simulation. More than 50% of the precipitation in the Midwestern United States came from continental regional tracers, and the local source was the largest of the regional tracers (14%). The Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic 2 regions contributed 18% of the water for Midwestern precipitation, but further analysis suggests that the greater region of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean may also contribute significantly. In