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Sample records for 12-h overnight fast

  1. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  2. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery.

  3. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery. PMID:26988766

  4. Effects of overnight fasting on working memory-related brain network: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Chechko, Natalia; Vocke, Sebastian; Habel, Ute; Toygar, Timur; Kuckartz, Lisa; Berthold-Losleben, Mark; Laoutidis, Zacharias G; Orfanos, Stelios; Wassenberg, Annette; Karges, Wölfram; Schneider, Frank; Kohn, Nils

    2015-03-01

    Glucose metabolism serves as the central source of energy for the human brain. Little is known about the effects of blood glucose level (BGL) on higher-order cognitive functions within a physiological range (e.g., after overnight fasting). In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study, we assessed the impact of overnight fasting (14 h) on brain activation during a working memory task. We sought to mimic BGLs that occur naturally in healthy humans after overnight fasting. After standardized periods of food restriction, 40 (20 male) healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive either glucagon to balance the BGL or placebo (NaCl). A parametric fMRI paradigm, including 2-back and 0-back tasks, was used. Subclinically low BGL following overnight fasting was found to be linked to reduced involvement of the bilateral dorsal midline thalamus and the bilateral basal ganglia, suggesting high sensitivity of those regions to minimal changes in BGLs. Our results indicate that overnight fasting leads to physiologically low levels of glucose, impacting brain activation during working memory tasks even when there are no differences in cognitive performance.

  5. Effects of overnight fasting on working memory-related brain network: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Chechko, Natalia; Vocke, Sebastian; Habel, Ute; Toygar, Timur; Kuckartz, Lisa; Berthold-Losleben, Mark; Laoutidis, Zacharias G; Orfanos, Stelios; Wassenberg, Annette; Karges, Wölfram; Schneider, Frank; Kohn, Nils

    2015-03-01

    Glucose metabolism serves as the central source of energy for the human brain. Little is known about the effects of blood glucose level (BGL) on higher-order cognitive functions within a physiological range (e.g., after overnight fasting). In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study, we assessed the impact of overnight fasting (14 h) on brain activation during a working memory task. We sought to mimic BGLs that occur naturally in healthy humans after overnight fasting. After standardized periods of food restriction, 40 (20 male) healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive either glucagon to balance the BGL or placebo (NaCl). A parametric fMRI paradigm, including 2-back and 0-back tasks, was used. Subclinically low BGL following overnight fasting was found to be linked to reduced involvement of the bilateral dorsal midline thalamus and the bilateral basal ganglia, suggesting high sensitivity of those regions to minimal changes in BGLs. Our results indicate that overnight fasting leads to physiologically low levels of glucose, impacting brain activation during working memory tasks even when there are no differences in cognitive performance. PMID:25393934

  6. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Holecek, Milan; Sispera, Ludek

    2016-01-01

    Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD) for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i) enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii) to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states. PMID:27070638

  7. Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., Dr. Braja Mookherjee with the Overnight Scentsation rose plant after its flight aboard NASA's shuttle mission STS-95 for experimentation on scent in microgravity.

  8. The Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., is a company that creates and manufactures flavors, fragrances and aroma chemicals. The Overnight Scentsation rose plant will be housed aboard NASA's shuttle flight STS-95 in a specially-designed structure under ultraviolet lights. The flowering plant was brought to Cape Canaveral from its home at IFF's greenhouse in Union Beach, New Jersey.

  9. Sleep and satisfaction in 8- and 12-h forward-rotating shift systems: Industrial employees prefer 12-h shifts.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Ropponen, Annina; Hakola, Tarja; Sallinen, Mikael; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Twelve-hour shift systems have become more popular in industry. Survey data of shift length, shift rotation speed, self-rated sleep, satisfaction and perceived health were investigated for the associations among 599 predominantly male Finnish industrial employees. The studied forward-rotating shift systems were 12-h fast (12fast, DDNN------, n = 268), 8-h fast (8fast, MMEENN----, n = 161) and 8-h slow (8slow, MMMM-EEEE-NNNN, n = 170). Satisfaction with shift system differed between the groups (p < 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, shift work experience and self-rated stress. In the 12fast, 98% of employees were satisfied with their shift system (75% 8fast, 54% 8slow). Negative effects on sleep and alertness were rare (8%) in the 12fast group (53% 8fast, 66% 8 slow, p < 0.01) and self-reported sleep difficulties were less frequent than in the 8fast and 8slow groups (8%, 27%, 41%, respectively, p < 0.01). The self-reported average sleep duration (12fast 7:50, 8fast 7:24, 8slow 7:15, p < 0.01), and shift-specific sleep before and between morning shifts and after first night shift were longer in the 12fast group. Perceived negative effects of the current shift system on general health (12fast 4%, 8fast 30%, 8slow 41%, p < 0.001) and work-life balance (12fast 8%, 8fast 52%, 8slow 63%, p < 0.001) differed strongly between the groups. In conclusion, the perceived effects of shift work were dependent on both shift length and shift rotation speed: employees in the 12-h rapidly forward-rotating shift system were most satisfied, perceived better work-life balance and slept better than the employees in the 8fast or especially the employees in the 8-h slowly rotating systems.

  10. Sleep and satisfaction in 8- and 12-h forward-rotating shift systems: Industrial employees prefer 12-h shifts.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Ropponen, Annina; Hakola, Tarja; Sallinen, Mikael; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Twelve-hour shift systems have become more popular in industry. Survey data of shift length, shift rotation speed, self-rated sleep, satisfaction and perceived health were investigated for the associations among 599 predominantly male Finnish industrial employees. The studied forward-rotating shift systems were 12-h fast (12fast, DDNN------, n = 268), 8-h fast (8fast, MMEENN----, n = 161) and 8-h slow (8slow, MMMM-EEEE-NNNN, n = 170). Satisfaction with shift system differed between the groups (p < 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, shift work experience and self-rated stress. In the 12fast, 98% of employees were satisfied with their shift system (75% 8fast, 54% 8slow). Negative effects on sleep and alertness were rare (8%) in the 12fast group (53% 8fast, 66% 8 slow, p < 0.01) and self-reported sleep difficulties were less frequent than in the 8fast and 8slow groups (8%, 27%, 41%, respectively, p < 0.01). The self-reported average sleep duration (12fast 7:50, 8fast 7:24, 8slow 7:15, p < 0.01), and shift-specific sleep before and between morning shifts and after first night shift were longer in the 12fast group. Perceived negative effects of the current shift system on general health (12fast 4%, 8fast 30%, 8slow 41%, p < 0.001) and work-life balance (12fast 8%, 8fast 52%, 8slow 63%, p < 0.001) differed strongly between the groups. In conclusion, the perceived effects of shift work were dependent on both shift length and shift rotation speed: employees in the 12-h rapidly forward-rotating shift system were most satisfied, perceived better work-life balance and slept better than the employees in the 8fast or especially the employees in the 8-h slowly rotating systems. PMID:27077442

  11. Dysfunctional overnight memory consolidation in ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Smithies, Vanessa; Broadbear, Jillian; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Conduit, Russell

    2014-08-01

    Sleep plays an important role in the consolidation and integration of memory in a process called overnight memory consolidation. Previous studies indicate that ecstasy users have marked and persistent neurocognitive and sleep-related impairments. We extend past research by examining overnight memory consolidation among regular ecstasy users (n=12) and drug naïve healthy controls (n=26). Memory recall of word pairs was evaluated before and after a period of sleep, with and without interference prior to testing. In addition, we assessed neurocognitive performances across tasks of learning, memory and executive functioning. Ecstasy users demonstrated impaired overnight memory consolidation, a finding that was more pronounced following associative interference. Additionally, ecstasy users demonstrated impairments on tasks recruiting frontostriatal and hippocampal neural circuitry, in the domains of proactive interference memory, long-term memory, encoding, working memory and complex planning. We suggest that ecstasy-associated dysfunction in fronto-temporal circuitry may underlie overnight consolidation memory impairments in regular ecstasy users.

  12. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Shine, E. P.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  13. Overnight Changes Recorded by Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This graph presents simplified data from overnight measurements by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander from noon of the mission's 70th Martian day, or sol, to noon the following sol (Aug. 5 to Aug. 6, 2008).

    The graph shows that water disappeared from the atmosphere overnight, at the same time that electrical measurements detected changes consistent with addition of water to the soil.

    Water in soil appears to increase overnight, when water in the atmosphere disappears.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more.

  15. Negative reinforcement impairs overnight memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Andrew W; Nguyen, Nam D; Seicol, Benjamin J; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-11-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into dreaming. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the addition of reward impaired overnight consolidation of spatial memory. Our findings seemingly contradict prior reports that enhancing the reward value of learned information augments sleep-dependent memory processing. Given that the reward followed a negative reinforcement paradigm, consolidation may have been impaired via a stress-related mechanism.

  16. Negative reinforcement impairs overnight memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Andrew W; Nguyen, Nam D; Seicol, Benjamin J; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-11-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into dreaming. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the addition of reward impaired overnight consolidation of spatial memory. Our findings seemingly contradict prior reports that enhancing the reward value of learned information augments sleep-dependent memory processing. Given that the reward followed a negative reinforcement paradigm, consolidation may have been impaired via a stress-related mechanism. PMID:25320351

  17. Negative reinforcement impairs overnight memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Andrew W.; Nguyen, Nam D.; Seicol, Benjamin J.; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into dreaming. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the addition of reward impaired overnight consolidation of spatial memory. Our findings seemingly contradict prior reports that enhancing the reward value of learned information augments sleep-dependent memory processing. Given that the reward followed a negative reinforcement paradigm, consolidation may have been impaired via a stress-related mechanism. PMID:25320351

  18. Negative Reinforcement Impairs Overnight Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Andrew W.; Nguyen, Nam D.; Seicol, Benjamin J.; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into…

  19. Continuous overnight observation of human premolar eruption.

    PubMed

    Risinger, R K; Proffit, W R

    1996-01-01

    Such observation was made possible by transmitting the image of a mobile ceramic ruling on the erupting maxillary second premolar to a video-microscope via a coaxial fibreoptic cable. The cable was inserted into a reference bar secured to the adjacent first molar and first premolar. The image of the ruling was superimposed with the image from a surveillance camera focused on the patient and continuously recorded on video-tape along with the participant's blood pressure, pulse rate, electromyographic activity and occlusal contact sounds. Overnight data from 12 individuals clearly revealed a circadian rhythm in eruption during the prefunctional spurt. On average, the maxillary second premolar erupted 41 microns during an 11-h overnight observation, with almost all the eruption occurring in the late evening from 8 p.m. to 1 a.m. After 1 a.m., eruption typically ceased, with a tendency for intrusion to occur until 7 a.m. Sleep increased the rate of eruption during the late evening, but did not influence the eruption rate during the early morning. Haemodynamic changes, including blood pressure and pulse rate, did not have a significant impact on the rhythm of eruption. The observed eruption rhythm is most probably caused by changing hormone levels and their effect on the periodontal ligament. The late-evening eruption of human premolars coincides with the late-evening secretion of growth hormone and thyroid hormone typically found in humans. PMID:9022915

  20. Correlation between sodium and potassium excretion in 24- and 12-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Mill, J G; Silva, A B T da; Baldo, M P; Molina, M C B; Rodrigues, S L

    2012-09-01

    Low-sodium and high-potassium diets have been recommended as an adjunct to prevention and treatment of hypertension. Analysis of these nutrients in 24-h urine has been considered the reference method to estimate daily intake of these minerals. However, 24-h urine collection is difficult in epidemiological studies, since urine must be collected and stored in job environments. Therefore, strategies for shorter durations of urine collection at home have been proposed. We have previously reported that collecting urine during a 12-h period (overnight) is more feasible and that creatinine clearance correlated strongly with that detected in 24-h samples. In the present study, we collected urine for 24 h divided into two 12-h periods (from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm and from 7:00 pm to 7:00 am next day). A sample of 109 apparently healthy volunteers aged 30 to 74 years of both genders working in a University institution was investigated. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, stroke, renal insufficiency, and pregnant women were not included. Significant (P < 0.001) Spearman correlation coefficients (r s) were found between the total amount of sodium and potassium excreted in the urine collected at night and in the 24-h period (r s = 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). Additionally, the 12-h sodium and potassium excretions (means ± SD, 95% confidence interval) corresponded to 47.3 ± 11.2%, 95%CI = 45.3-49.3, and 39.3 ± 4.6%, 95%CI = 37.3-41.3, respectively, of the 24-h excretion of these ions. Therefore, these findings support the assumption that 12-h urine collected at night can be used as a reliable tool to estimate 24-h intake/excretion of sodium and potassium.

  1. The overnight effect on the Taiwan stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Kuo-Ting; Lih, Jiann-Shing; Ko, Jing-Yuan

    2012-12-01

    This study examines statistical regularities among three components of stocks and indices: daytime (trading hour) return, overnight (off-hour session) return, and total (close-to-close) return. Owing to the fact that the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) has the longest non-trading periods among major markets, the TWSE is selected to explore the correlation among the three components and compare it with major markets such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ). Analysis results indicate a negative cross correlation between the sign of daytime return and the sign of overnight return; possibly explaining why most stocks feature a negative cross correlation between daytime return and overnight return [F. Wang, S.-J. Shieh, S. Havlin, H.E. Stanley, Statistical analysis of the overnight and daytime return, Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009) 056109]. Additionally, the cross correlation between the magnitude of returns is analyzed. According to those results, a larger magnitude of overnight return implies a higher probability that the sign of the following daytime return is the opposite of the sign of overnight return. Namely, the predictability of daytime return might be improved when a stock undergoes a large magnitude of overnight return. Furthermore, the cross correlations of 29 indices of worldwide markets are discussed.

  2. Overnight Custody Arrangements, Attachment, and Adjustment Among Very Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Tornello, Samantha L.; Emery, Robert; Rowen, Jenna; Potter, Daniel; Ocker, Bailey; Xu, Yishan

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of infants and toddlers have parents who live apart due to separation, divorce, or nonmarital/noncohabiting child-bearing, yet this important topic, especially the controversial issue of frequent overnights with nonresidential parents, is understudied. The authors analyzed data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal investigation of children born to primarily low-income, racial/ethnic minority parents that is representative of 20 U.S. cities with populations over 200,000. Among young children whose parents lived apart, 6.9% of infants (birth to age 1) and 5.3% of toddlers (ages 1 to 3) spent an average of at least 1 overnight per week with their nonresident parent. An additional 6.8% of toddlers spent 35% – 70% of overnights with nonresident parents. Frequent overnights were significantly associated with attachment insecurity among infants, but the relationship was less clear for toddlers. Attachment insecurity predicted adjustment problems at ages 3 and 5, but frequent overnights were not directly linked with adjustment problems at older ages. PMID:25635146

  3. Living Education: A Teacher's Guide to Overnight Sites in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Sharon, Ed.; And Others

    This document has been prepared to encourage teachers in Oregon to plan environmental trips with their classes. It is organized into three major sections--Awareness in a Living Environment, Teaching and Planning Resources, and Directory of Overnight Sites in Oregon. Using a series of questions as guidelines, children become aware of their…

  4. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p < 0.05) and modality were significantly associated with performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted. PMID:26475281

  5. Effect of sleep deprivation on overnight bronchoconstriction in nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Catterall, J R; Rhind, G B; Stewart, I C; Whyte, K F; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J

    1986-09-01

    Nocturnal cough and wheeze are common in asthma. The cause of nocturnal asthma is unknown and there is conflicting evidence on whether sleep is a factor. Twelve adult asthmatic subjects with nocturnal wheeze were studied on two occasions: on one night subjects were allowed to sleep and on the other they were kept awake all night, wakefulness being confirmed by electroencephalogram. Every patient developed bronchoconstriction overnight both on the asleep night, when peak expiratory flow (PEF) fell from a mean (SE) of 418 (40) 1 min-1 at 10 pm to 270 (46) 1 min-1 in the morning, and on the awake night (PEF 10 pm 465 (43), morning 371 (43) 1 min-1). The morning values of PEF were, however, higher (p less than 0.1) after the awake night and both the absolute and the percentage overnight falls in PEF were greater when the patients slept (asleep night 38% (6%), awake night 20% (4%); p less than 0.01). This study suggests that sleep is an important factor in determining overnight bronchoconstriction in patients with nocturnal asthma.

  6. Overnight Sleep Enhances Hippocampus-Dependent Aspects of Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam D.; Tucker, Matthew A.; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Several studies have now demonstrated that spatial information is processed during sleep, and that posttraining sleep is beneficial for human navigation. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of sleep are primarily due to consolidation of cognitive maps, or alternatively, whether sleep might also affect nonhippocampal aspects of navigation (e.g., speed of motion) involved in moving through a virtual environment. Design: Participants were trained on a virtual maze navigation task (VMT) and then given a memory test following either a day of wakefulness or a night of sleep. Subjects reported to the laboratory for training at either 10:00am or 10:00pm, depending on randomly assigned condition, and were tested 11 h later. Overnight subjects slept in the laboratory with polysomnography. Setting: A hospital-based academic sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: Thirty healthy college student volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Point-by-point position data were collected from the VMT. Analysis of the movement data revealed a sleep-dependent improvement in maze completion time (P < 0.001) due to improved spatial understanding of the maze layout, which led to a shortening of path from start to finish (P = 0.01) rather than faster exploration speed through the maze (P = 0.7). Conclusions: We found that overnight sleep benefitted performance, not because subjects moved faster through the maze, but because they were more accurate in navigating to the goal. These findings suggest that sleep enhances participants' knowledge of the spatial layout of the maze, contributing to the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial information. Citation: Nguyen ND; Tucker MA; Stickgold R; Wamsley EJ. Overnight sleep enhances hippocampus-dependent aspects of spatial memory. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1051-1057. PMID:23814342

  7. Flight Schedule and the Circadian Clock Influence on Sleep Loss During Overnight Cargo Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-four flight crew members were monitored before, during, and after two 8-day overnight cargo duty patterns which involved multiple flights at night crossing no more than one time zone per 24 h. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and wrist activity were recorded every 2 min. Sleep quantity and quality, and nap timing, were noted in a logbook. To reduce the masking effects of physical activity on temperature, 0.28 C was added to each subject's raw temperature data whenever he reported being asleep. For both masked and unmasked data, daily temperature minima were estimated from the multiple complex demodulated waveform. The temperature minima did not show a progressive adaptation to night duty, which was interrupted by a night off after 5 nights on one trip pattern and after 3 nights on the other. On duty days, the average temperature minimum delayed by about 3 h, occurring near the end of the duty period. Daytime sleep episodes averaged 2.9 h shorter than nighttime sleep episodes, and were rated as lighter, less restorative, and poorer overall. Fifty-three percent of subjects slept more than once per 24 h while they were on night duty, compared to 17% when able to sleep at night. The total sleep per 24 h on duty days averaged 1.2 h less than pretrip. Twenty-nine percent of subjects lost more than 2 h of sleep per 24 h across the 8-day duty patterns. After night duty, subjects awoke around 1400 local time, even when they had slept 2-3 h less than a normal nocturnal sleep episode. Consequently, the duration of morning sleep episodes was correlated with the off-duty time (multiple r(sup 2)=0.44, F=37.23, p less than 0.0001). Anecdotally, crew members complained of being unable to sleep longer and not feeling well-rested. These wakeups were clustered 6 h after the temperature minimum, which suggests that they may have been a response to the circadian wakeup signal. Daytime layovers in which crew members were able to sleep again in the evening ended later (0200

  8. Survey of overnight academic hospitalist supervision of trainees.

    PubMed

    Farnan, Jeanne M; Burger, Alfred; Boonyasai, Romsai T; Boonayasai, Romsai T; Leykum, Luci; Harrison, Rebecca; Machulsky, Julie; Parekh, Vikas; Sharpe, Bradley A; Schleyer, Anneliese M; Arora, Vineet M

    2012-09-01

    In 2003, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) announced the first in a series of guidelines related to the residency training. The most recent recommendations include explicit recommendations regarding the provision of on-site clinical supervision for trainees of internal medicine. To meet these standards, many internal medicine residency programs turned to hospitalist programs to fill that need. However, much is unknown about the current relationships between hospitalist and residency programs, specifically with regard to supervisory roles and supervision policies. We aimed to describe how academic hospitalists currently supervise housestaff during the on-call, or overnight, period and hospitalist program leader their perceptions of how these new policies would impact trainee-hospitalist interactions.

  9. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  10. Do environmental variables influence overnight weight loss of yearling steers in semiarid rangelands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to measure the weight gains of free-ranging livestock, animals are frequently corralled and confined overnight prior to weighing. Animals may take several days to recover from this overnight loss in weight associated with dehydration and excretion of urine and feces. Quantitative estimates ...

  11. Lean mass influences overnight changes in hydration, blood pressure and strength in community-dwelling older women.

    PubMed

    Benton, Melissa J; Schlairet, Maura C

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that greater lean mass promotes better overnight hydration, improved postural blood pressure and greater strength. Thirty women, aged 71 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SE), completed one measurement in a euhydrated state and another the following morning after an overnight fast. Measurements included hydration, lean mass, orthostatic blood pressure and strength. Participants were grouped by fat-free mass index (FFMI), with cut-points defined as low (< 15.0 kg/m(2)) and normal (≥ 15.0 kg/m(2)). Women with normal FFMI had significantly greater hydration (p < 0.01), lean mass (p < 0.001) and upper body strength (p < 0.05), while those with low FFMI had more unstable blood pressure. On day 1, women with low FFMI experienced significant postural systolic blood pressure changes from sitting to standing (-11.3 ± 4.0 mmHg, p < 0.05). On day 2, they experienced significant systolic changes from lying to sitting (-8.0 ± 2.2 mmHg, p < 0.01) and sitting to standing (-14.9 ± 5.5 mmHg, p < 0.05), and diastolic changes from lying to sitting (-8.9 ± 2.8 mmHg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, overnight fluid shifts in older women with low lean mass result in unstable postural blood pressure and loss of strength that increases the risk for early morning falls. PMID:27104659

  12. An Overnight Success?: Usage Patterns and Demographics of Academic Library Patrons during the Overnight Period from 11 p.m.-8 a.m.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark; Hodges, Chris

    2014-01-01

    During the Fall 2013 semester East Carolina University's main library piloted 24/5 hours of operation by opening on Sunday morning and not closing until Friday night. This article details the planning and execution of the pilot program, as well the findings from the data collected during the overnight period by people-counting cameras and a…

  13. Ocular microbiota and polymorphonuclear leucocyte recruitment during overnight contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, F; Willcox, M D; Sansey, N; Holden, B A

    1997-05-01

    Bacterial colonization of the ocular surface and contact lens (CL) and recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) during overnight CL wear was examined in 11 asymptomatic wearers. The ocular surface was more frequently colonized than the CL, with commensal bacteria (P < 0.05). Following sleep, more bacteria were recovered from the CL compared with daily use (P < 0.05), and fewer PMN were recruited compared to sleep without CL wear (P < 0.05). Overnight CL wear may inhibit physiological PMN recruitment to the cornea by preventing their access, by modifying the chemotactic signal or by altering the activation state of the recruited cells.

  14. Is Everything All Right at Night? Measuring User Response to Overnight Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrzastowski, Tina E.; Nutefall, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    A multiple methods study was conducted over three academic terms during the 2015 fiscal year at Santa Clara University Library to assess the impact and value of overnight library hours. A survey was conducted after midnight during times the Library was open 24 hours, five days a week (24/5), the last two weeks of the quarter. The survey was…

  15. EVALUATION OF SPERM CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAY (SCSA REGISTERED TRADEMARK) IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Home semen collection kits allow men to collect a sample at their convenience and send it via overnight mail to the laboratory. Benefits of this approach include facilitated sample collection from different geographic locations, minimized variability through analysis by a central...

  16. Effects of Model Performances on Music Skill Acquisition and Overnight Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Carla D.; Allen, Sarah E.; Simmons, Amy L.; Duke, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which the presentation of an auditory model prior to learning a novel melody affects performance during active practice and the overnight consolidation of procedural memory. During evening training sessions, 32 nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody with their left…

  17. EVALUATION OF CHROMOMYCIN A3 ASSAY IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF CHROMOMYCIN A3ASSAY IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT.
    SC Jeffay1, R Morris Buus1, LF Strader1, AF Olshan2, DP Evenson3, SD Perreault1. 1US EPA/ORD, RTP, NC;2UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC;3SDSU, Brookings, SD.

    Semen collection kits that allow ...

  18. Crew Factors in Flight Operations 7: Psychophysiological Responses to Overnight Cargo Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Connell, Linda J.; Miller, Donna L.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    To document the psychophysiological effects of flying overnight cargo operations, 41 B-727 crew members (average age 38 yr) were monitored before, during, and after one of two typical 8-day trip patterns. During daytime layovers, the average sleep episode was 3 hr (41%) shorter than nighttime sleeps and was rated as lighter, less restorative, and poorer overall. Sleep was frequently split into several episodes and totaled 1.2 hr less per 24 hr than on pretrip days. Each trip pattern included a night off, which was an effective countermeasure against the accumulating sleep debt. The organization of sleep during daytime layovers reflected the interaction of duty timing with circadian physiology. The circadian temperature rhythm did not adapt completely to the inverted wake-rest schedule on duty days, being delayed by about 3 hr. Highest subjective fatigue and lowest activation occurred around the time of the temperature minimum. On duty days, reports of headaches increased by 400%, of congested nose by 200%, and of burning eyes by 900%. Crew members also reported eating more snacks. Compared with daytime short-haul air-transport operations, the overnight cargo trips included fewer duty and flight hours, and had longer layovers. Overnight cargo crews also averaged 5.4 yr younger than their daytime short-haul counterparts. On trips, both groups lost a comparable amount of sleep per 24 hr, but the overnight cargo crews had shorter individual sleep episodes and more broken sleep. These data clearly demonstrate that overnight cargo operations, like other night work, involve physiological disruption not found in comparable daytime operations.

  19. Fasting of mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T L; Kiersgaard, M K; Sørensen, D B; Mikkelsen, L F

    2013-10-01

    Fasting of mice is a common procedure performed in association with many different types of experiments mainly in order to reduce variability in investigatory parameters or to facilitate surgical procedures. However, the effects of fasting not directly related to the investigatory parameters are often ignored. The aim of this review is to present and summarize knowledge about the effects of fasting of mice to facilitate optimization of the fasting procedure for any given study and thereby maximize the scientific outcome and minimize the discomfort for the mice and hence ensure high animal welfare. The results are presented from a number of experimental studies, providing evidence for fasting-induced changes in hormone balance, body weight, metabolism, hepatic enzymes, cardiovascular parameters, body temperature and toxicological responses. A description of relevant normal behaviour and standard physiological parameters is given, concluding that mice are primarily nocturnal and consume two-thirds of their total food intake during the night. It is argued that overnight fasting of mice is not comparable with overnight fasting of humans because the mouse has a nocturnal circadian rhythm and a higher metabolic rate. It is suggested that because many physiological parameters are regulated by circadian rhythms, fasting initiated at different points in the circadian rhythm has different impacts and produces different results.

  20. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  1. Overnight Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy N.; Stahl, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines objectives for an elementary science camping program and summarizes general operational procedures. Campsite activities related to such topics as microorganisms, eye and sight, nature trails, bees, carpentry, and astronomy are described. (DS)

  2. Tank 12H Acidic Chemical Cleaning Sample Analysis And Material Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C. J.; Reboul, S. H.; Wiersma, B. J.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-11-08

    A process of Bulk Oxalic Acid (BOA) chemical cleaning was performed for Tank 12H during June and July of 2013 to remove all or a portion of the approximately 4400 gallon sludge heel. Three strikes of oxalic acid (nominally 4 wt% or 2 wt%) were used at 55°C and tank volumes of 96- to 140-thousand gallons. This report details the sample analysis of a scrape sample taken prior to BOA cleaning and dip samples taken during BOA cleaning. It also documents a rudimentary material balance for the Tank 12H cleaning results.

  3. Hantavirus infections among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Jonathan J; Fritz, Curtis L; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P; Vugia, Duc J

    2014-03-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice. PMID:24565589

  4. Overnight S100B in Parkinson's Disease: A glimpse into sleep-related neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D Z; Schönwald, S V; Schumacher-Schuh, A F; Braga, C W; Souza, D O; Oses, J P; Donis, K C; Rieder, C R

    2015-11-01

    Calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a primary product of astrocytes, is a proposed marker of Parkinson's Disease (PD) pathophysiology, diagnosis and progression. However, it has also been implicated in sleep disruption, which is very common in PD. To explore the relationship between S100B, disease severity, sleep symptoms and polysomnography (PSG) findings, overnight changes in serum S100B levels were investigated for the first time in PD. 17 fully treated, non-demented, moderately advanced PD patients underwent PSG and clinical assessment of sleep symptoms. Serum S100B samples were collected immediately before and after the PSG. Results are shown as median [interquartile range]. Night and morning S100B levels were similar, but uncorrelated (rs=-0.277, p=0.28). Morning S100B levels, as opposed to night levels, positively correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (UPDRS) subsections I and II (rs=0.547, p=0.023; rs=0.542, p=0.025). Compared to those with overnight S100B reduction, patients with overnight S100B elevation had higher H&Y scores (2.5 [0.87] vs. 2 [0.25], p=0.035) and worse total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scores (10 [3.2] vs. 8 [4.5], p=0.037; 92.9 [39] vs. 131.4 [28], p=0.034). Correlation between morning S100B levels and total UPDRS score was strengthened after controlling for total PSQI score (rs=0.531, p=0.034; partial rs=0.699, p=0.004, respectively). Overnight S100B variation and morning S100B were associated with PD severity and perceived sleep disruption. S100B is proposed as a putative biomarker for sleep-related neuroinflammation in PD. Noradrenergic-astrocytic dysfunction is hypothesized as a possible mechanism underlying these findings. PMID:26453767

  5. Overnight heart rate variability in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: a time and frequency domain study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kaixian; Chemla, Denis; Roisman, Gabriel; Mao, Wenyuan; Bazizi, Samir; Lefevre, Amaury; Escourrou, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Heightened sympathetic activity plays a role in the cardiovascular sequelae of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Cardiac autonomic function may be assessed non-invasively by studying heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of the present study was to compare overnight HRV between a control group and a group of subjects with severe OSA. The potential confounding effects of age, sex, baseline autonomic status and sleep stage distribution were taken into account. Our prospective Holter study compared overnight (0030-0530 hours) HRV in 23 controls (apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) = 5 ± 3 /h) and 23 subjects with severe OSA (AHI = 65 ± 23 /h), matched for age and sex and with a similar percentage of rapid eye movement sleep. The mean normal-to-normal RR interval (NN) was shorter in the OSA compared with control group (903 vs 1039 ms, respectively), whereas the other time-domain indices of HRV, as well as the classic frequency-domain indices, were similar. Essentially similar results were obtained hourly and when only subjects with high mean values of the standard deviation of all NN (≥ 90 ms) were evaluated. In the 0.01-0.06 Hz range corresponding to the typical OSA pattern of bradycardia-tachycardia termed cyclic variation of heart rate (CVHR), higher power was documented hourly in OSA, with a significant correlation between overnight power and both AHI and mean oxyhaemoglobin saturation. The percentage of NN > x ms different from the previous one (pNNx family) had no diagnostic value. The results of the present study suggest that NN may be the best index to quantify the overnight sympathovagal balance in OSA and that a spectral band overlapping the apnoea-related pattern of CVHR slightly improved the characterization of the apnoea-related HRV patterns.

  6. Overnight S100B in Parkinson's Disease: A glimpse into sleep-related neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D Z; Schönwald, S V; Schumacher-Schuh, A F; Braga, C W; Souza, D O; Oses, J P; Donis, K C; Rieder, C R

    2015-11-01

    Calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a primary product of astrocytes, is a proposed marker of Parkinson's Disease (PD) pathophysiology, diagnosis and progression. However, it has also been implicated in sleep disruption, which is very common in PD. To explore the relationship between S100B, disease severity, sleep symptoms and polysomnography (PSG) findings, overnight changes in serum S100B levels were investigated for the first time in PD. 17 fully treated, non-demented, moderately advanced PD patients underwent PSG and clinical assessment of sleep symptoms. Serum S100B samples were collected immediately before and after the PSG. Results are shown as median [interquartile range]. Night and morning S100B levels were similar, but uncorrelated (rs=-0.277, p=0.28). Morning S100B levels, as opposed to night levels, positively correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (UPDRS) subsections I and II (rs=0.547, p=0.023; rs=0.542, p=0.025). Compared to those with overnight S100B reduction, patients with overnight S100B elevation had higher H&Y scores (2.5 [0.87] vs. 2 [0.25], p=0.035) and worse total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scores (10 [3.2] vs. 8 [4.5], p=0.037; 92.9 [39] vs. 131.4 [28], p=0.034). Correlation between morning S100B levels and total UPDRS score was strengthened after controlling for total PSQI score (rs=0.531, p=0.034; partial rs=0.699, p=0.004, respectively). Overnight S100B variation and morning S100B were associated with PD severity and perceived sleep disruption. S100B is proposed as a putative biomarker for sleep-related neuroinflammation in PD. Noradrenergic-astrocytic dysfunction is hypothesized as a possible mechanism underlying these findings.

  7. Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explored the generalization of phonetic learning across talkers following training on a nonnative (Hindi dental and retroflex) contrast. Participants were trained in two groups, either in the morning or in the evening. Discrimination and identification performance was assessed in the trained talker and an untrained talker three times over 24 h following training. Results suggest that overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in identification, but not necessarily discrimination, of nonnative speech sounds. PMID:25618106

  8. Behavioral changes in female Asian elephants when given access to an outdoor yard overnight.

    PubMed

    Powell, David M; Vitale, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted at the Bronx Zoo to determine whether providing elephants with access to an outdoor corral at night had any significant effects on behavior, use of space, and use of a sand corral. Activity budgets for three female Asian elephants were compared when the subjects were housed indoors overnight and when they were given access to an outdoor yard overnight. Observations were recorded via infrared video cameras between the hours of 1900 and 0700 during the months of July-September. Two of the three elephants showed a significant preference for spending time outdoors, whereas, the third elephant spent most of her time indoors. Standing and play behavior increased when the elephants had outdoor access while lying down and feeding behavior decreased. Swaying behavior decreased significantly when the elephants had access to the outdoor yard. The elephants made very little use of a sand-floor stall regardless of whether or not they had access to outdoors. The results of this study, suggest that having access to alternate areas overnight can promote well-being by reducing repetitive behavior and allowing animals to express their preferences for different locations. The relative importance of choice alone vs. the behavioral opportunities provided by choice options for zoo animals is discussed. Zoo Biol. 35:298-303, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Differences between measured and linearly interpolated synoptic variables over a 12-h period during AVE 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupuis, L. R.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Results of analyses revealed that nonlinear changes or differences formed centers or systems, that were mesosynoptic in nature. These systems correlated well in space with upper level short waves, frontal zones, and radar observed convection, and were very systematic in time and space. Many of the centers of differences were well established in the vertical, extending up to the tropopause. Statistical analysis showed that on the average nonlinear changes were larger in convective areas than nonconvective regions. Errors often exceeding 100 percent were made by assuming variables to change linearly through a 12-h period in areas of thunderstorms, indicating that these nonlinear changes are important in the development of severe weather. Linear changes, however, accounted for more and more of an observed change as the time interval (within the 12-h interpolation period) increased, implying that the accuracy of linear interpolation increased over larger time intervals.

  10. Preparation of bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate

    DOEpatents

    Naud, Darren L.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2003-05-27

    A process of preparing bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate is provided including combining a dicyanamide salt, an azide salt and water to form a first reaction mixture, adding a solution of a first strong acid characterized as having a pKa of less than about 1 to said first reaction mixture over a period of time characterized as providing a controlled reaction rate so as to gradually form hydrazoic acid without loss of significant quantities of hydrazoic acid from the solution while heating the first reaction mixture at temperatures greater than about 65.degree. C., heating the resultant reaction mixture at temperatures greater than about 65.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to substantially completely form a reaction product, treating the reaction product with a solution of a second strong acid to form a product of bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate, and, recovering the bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate product.

  11. Epileptiform activity in children with developmental dysphasia: quantification of discharges in overnight sleep video-EEG.

    PubMed

    Neuschlová, Lenka; Sterbová, Katalin; Zácková, Jitka; Komárek, Vladimír

    2007-12-01

    We present results of analysis of overnight sleep video-EEG in 8 patients with developmental dysphasia and rolandic discharges. We evaluated the incidence of epileptiform discharges (expressed as paroxysmal activity density) at one or more electrodes in different sleep stages in three different periods of the night (after falling asleep, around midnight and before awakening). The difference of paroxysmal activity density was never higher than 21%, indicating that quantifying the discharges in the whole night recording is not necessary. We also showed that two independent foci may differ in the frequency of discharges. We propose a scheme for evaluation of EEG reflecting both frequency and distribution of discharges.

  12. Quinolone-1-(2H)-ones as hedgehog signalling pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Trieu N; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed K; Gordon, Christopher P; Bernstein, Ilana R; Pye, Victoria; Cossar, Peter; Sakoff, Jennette A; McCluskey, Adam

    2016-07-14

    A series of quinolone-2-(1H)-ones derived from the Ugi-Knoevenagel three- and four-component reaction were prepared exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity against a panel of eight human cancer cell lines known to possess the Hedgehog Signalling Pathway (HSP) components, as well as the seminoma TCAM-2 cell line. A focused SAR study was conducted and revealed core characteristics of the quinolone-2-(1H)-ones required for cytotoxicity. These requirements included a C3-tethered indole moiety, an indole C5-methyl moiety, an aliphatic tail or an ester, as well as an additional aromatic moiety. Further investigation in the SAG-activated Shh-LIGHT2 cell line with the most active analogues: 2-(3-cyano-2-oxo-4-phenylquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-N-(pentan-2-yl)acetamide (5), 2-(3-cyano-2-oxo-4-phenylquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-N-(pentan-2-yl)acetamide (23) and ethyl (2-(3-cyano-2-oxo-4-phenylquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetyl)glycinate (24) demonstrated a down regulation of the HSP via a reduction in Gli expression, and in the mRNA levels of Ptch1 and Gli2. Analogues 5, 23 and 24 returned in cell inhibition values of 11.6, 2.9 and 3.1 μM, respectively, making this new HSP-inhibitor pharmacophore amongst the most potent non-Smo targeted inhibitors thus far reported. PMID:27272335

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  14. Thermal stability of hexaprismane C12H12 and octaprismane C16H16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shostachenko, S. A.; Maslov, M. M.; Prudkovskii, V. S.; Katin, K. P.

    2015-05-01

    The results of quantum-mechanical calculations of elementary prismanes—hexaprismane C12H12 and octaprismane C16H16—have been presented. Their stability has been investigated in terms of the density functional theory and nonorthogonal tight-binding model, and the heights of potential barriers preventing isomerization and decay have been determined. It has been established based on the analysis of the molecular dynamics data and the hypersurface of the potential energy of these metastable compounds that hexaprismane and octaprismane have a rather high kinetic stability, which indicates the possibility of the formation of carbon polyprismanes for applications in microelectronics and nanoelectronics, power engineering, pharmaceutics, metrology, and information technologies.

  15. Sleep quantity and quality is not compromised during planned burn shifts of less than 12 h.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Grace E; Aisbett, Brad; Hall, Sarah J; Ferguson, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Planned burning is a preventative strategy aimed at decreasing fuel loads to reduce the severity of future wildfire events. During planned burn operations, firefighters can work long shifts. Furthermore, remote burning locations may require firefighters to sleep away from home between shifts. The existing evidence surrounding firefighters' sleep during such operations is exclusively anecdotal. The aims of the study were to describe firefighters' sleep during planned burn operations and evaluate the impact of the key operational factors (shift start time, shift length and sleeping location) that may contribute to inadequate sleep. Thirty-three salaried firefighters were recruited from Australia's fire agencies and sleep was measured objectively using wrist actigraphy for four weeks. All variables were examined in two conditions: (1) burn days, and (2) non-burn days. Time in bed, total sleep time, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were evaluated objectively. Subjective reports of pre- and post-sleep fatigue, sleep location, sleep quality, sleep quantity, number of times woken and sleep timing were also recorded. Analyses revealed no differences in measures of sleep quantity and quality when comparing non-burn and burn days. Total sleep time was less when planned burn shifts were >12 h. However, on burn days, work shift start time as well as sleeping location did not impact firefighters' sleep quantity. Self-reported levels of pre- and post-sleep fatigue were greater on burn days compared to non-burn days. These findings indicate that sleep quantity and quality are not compromised during planned burn operations <12 h in duration.

  16. Overnight suppression of HPA axis after mineraolocorticoid receptor stimulation: A sleep endocrine study.

    PubMed

    Demiralay, Cüneyt; Agorastos, Agorastos; Jahn, Holger; Kellner, Michael; Yassouridis, Alexander; Wiedemann, Klaus

    2015-05-30

    Nocturnal hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) indicates decreased feedback inhibition with stress-related conditions such as major depression and sleep disorders. To characterize the role of mineralocorticoid (MR) in regulation of HPA axis activity during nocturnal sleep and involvement in sleep architecture, we investigated sleep endocrine effects of the MR agonist fludrocortisone in healthy men after pretreatment with metyrapone to minimize the impact of endogenous cortisol. Subjects (n=8) were treated on three occasions in a single-blinded design in random order with a) metyrapone, b) fludrocortisone after metyrapone, and c) placebo. Polysomnography was recorded and blood samples were drawn for determination of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol during the entire night. After metyrapone administration ACTH was significantly enhanced, while overall nocturnal cortisol secretion remained largely unchanged. Whereas administration of fludrocortisone induced a significant inhibitory effect on basal ACTH and cortisol secretion, no considerable effects on sleep pattern were detectable. While the involvement of MR in sleep regulation needs further study, endocrine findings underline the role of MR in tonic regulation of HPA axis during nocturnal sleep and demonstrate the ability of fludrocortisone to further suppress HPA axis activity overnight. Additional studies would be required to evaluate endocrine and clinical fludrocortisone effects in depressive patients showing HPA hyperactivity.

  17. Infrequent dream recall associated with low performance but high overnight improvement on mirror-tracing.

    PubMed

    Dumel, Gaëlle; Carr, Michelle; Marquis, Louis-Philippe; Blanchette-Carrière, Cloé; Paquette, Tyna; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-08-01

    Although sleep facilitates learning and memory, the roles of dreaming and habitual levels of recalling dreams remain unknown. This study examined if performance and overnight improvement on a rapid eye movement sleep-sensitive visuomotor task is associated differentially with habitually high or low dream recall frequency. As a relation between dream production and visuospatial skills has been demonstrated previously, one possibility is that frequency of dream recall will be linked to performance on visuomotor tasks such as the Mirror Tracing Task. We expected that habitually low dream recallers would perform more poorly on the Mirror Tracing Task than would high recallers and would show less task improvement following a night of sleep. Fifteen low and 20 high dream recallers slept one night each in the laboratory and performed the Mirror Tracing Task before and after sleep. Low recallers had overall worse baseline performance but a greater evening-to-morning improvement than did high recallers. Greater improvements in completion time in low recallers were associated with Stage 2 rather than rapid eye movement sleep. Findings support the separate notions that dreaming is related to visuomotor processes and that different levels of visuomotor skill engage different sleep- and dream-related consolidation mechanisms. PMID:25726721

  18. Hot rocks or no hot rocks: overnight retreat availability and selection by a diurnal lizard.

    PubMed

    Sabo, John L

    2003-08-01

    I used radio telemetry to determine the effects of substrate size and composition on overnight retreat site selection by western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). In watersheds of northern California (USA), these lizards occupy two habitat types differing in substrate characteristics: rocky cobble bars found in the dry, active channels of rivers and grassy upland meadows. Rocky substrates, found almost exclusively on cobble bars, provided warmer potential retreat sites than all available retreat sites on meadows during the first 5 h of inactivity. Only cobble and sand substrates provided retreats with temperatures within the preferred daily active range (32-36 degrees C) during the inactive period for these lizards (1900-0900 hours). Females on a cobble bar used rocks as retreats on >90% of nights during the breeding season whereas females on a meadow used wood (>70% of nights) and burrows (>25% of nights). In contrast to females, cobble bar males used rocks significantly less frequently (<70%) and slept in the open air significantly more frequently (25% vs. <1%). Cobble bar females further, showed a significant preference for cobbles 15 cm thick, whereas the rocks used by males did not differ significantly in thickness from those measured in randomly placed transects. Rocks 15 cm thick were the warmest retreats commonly available on this habitat type. Thus, thermal microenvironments available to and chosen by gravid female lizards differ considerably between river and non-river habitats. PMID:12802672

  19. Corneal deswelling following overnight wear of rigid and hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Holden, B A; Sweeney, D F; La Hood, D; Kenyon, E

    1988-01-01

    The edema response over a 24-hour sleep/wake cycle of ten subjects wearing a rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lens in one eye and a hydrogel lens in the other was evaluated. Lenses that result in equivalent amounts of overnight edema were selected. There was no significant difference in the rates of deswelling during the initial hour. However, at three and five hours after eye opening, the amount of residual edema was greater in the eye wearing the hydrogel lens. We suggest that when an RGP lens provides the same closed-eye level of oxygen as a hydrogel lens, the greater tear exchange of the RGP lens will result in a greater open-eye oxygen supply, leading to less daytime edema. This suggests that the more complete deswelling we observed with RGP lenses can be attributed to a lower stimulus to open-eye swelling. Biomicroscopy, subjective vision, and patient comfort were also rated on waking and ten hours after eye opening. On eye opening there was significantly more back-surface debris (P = 0.01) with the RGP lenses. Patients wearing RGPs rated comfort as poorer and vision as better but only the latter attained statistical significance. PMID:3162866

  20. Development of an overnight rapid bovine identification test (ORBIT) for field use.

    PubMed

    Mageau, R P; Cutrufelli, M E; Schwab, B; Johnston, R W

    1984-01-01

    An Overnight Rapid Bovine Identification Test (ORBIT) has been developed as a serological screen test for species verification of raw, whole tissue, bovine meat products. The test, an agar-gel immunodiffusion technique, uses stabilized reagent paper discs and prepared agar plates that have a printed template for correct placement of test components. This test is reliable, practical, economical, and easily performed in the field, such as at a meat import inspection station. The only nonbovine species found to react in the test are the bovine-related species of American bison (buffalo) and water buffalo (from Australia); however, these rare-occurring species do not present a problem for the intended application of the test. Stability of all test components, when stored in a refrigerator, is excellent for at least 1 year. The nature and stability of the test make it suitable for commercial development into test kits which should be highly practical and economical for wide availability and application of this procedure to meat inspection programs concerned with species verification.

  1. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  2. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  3. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  4. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  5. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  6. Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H

    SciTech Connect

    FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

    2004-03-12

    Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

  7. Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Marui, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family. PMID:26965760

  8. Complex high-temperature phase transitions in Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} and Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect

    Verdal, Nina; Her, Jae-Hyuk; Stavila, Vitalie; Soloninin, Alexei V.; Babanova, Olga A.; Skripov, Alexander V.; Udovic, Terrence J.; Rush, John J.

    2014-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements of Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} and Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} indicate hysteretic transformations to high-temperature phases at ≈615 K and 529 K, respectively, upon heating (1 K/min) from room temperature. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction measurements corroborate the phase-change behavior. For Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12}, the diffraction data are consistent with a previous study suggesting that the overall face-centered-cubic arrangement of icosahedral B{sub 12}H{sub 12}{sup 2−} anions is maintained upon transformation to the high-temperature polymorph, although the anions are now orientationally disordered and the Li{sup +} cations crystallographically disordered within an enlarged lattice. For Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12}, the diffraction data indicate the existence of three different high-temperature phases in addition to the known low-temperature monoclinic phase. The highest-temperature structure possesses Im3{sup -}m symmetry and exhibits a body-centered-cubic arrangement of orientationally disordered anions. The interstitial, disordered Na{sup +} cations appear to favor off-center positions within the distorted tetrahedral sites formed by the anions in this structure. An intermediate Pm3{sup -}n-symmetric phase at lower temperature is the result of a partial ordering of this higher-temperature structure. A third, minor, face-centered-cubic phase coexists with these high-temperature polymorphs. {sup 1}H NMR measurements of Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} and Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} reveal an approximately two-orders-of-magnitude increase in the reorientational jump rate of the anions in both cases upon transformation to their high-temperature structures. The enhanced anion mobilities were corroborated by neutron scattering fixed-window scans across the respective phase boundaries. The inherent cation disorder associated with these high-temperature polymorphs suggests their potential use as superionic

  9. Spectromicroscopy of boron in human glioblastomas following administration of Na2B12H11SH.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, B; Perfetti, L; Fauchoux, O; Redondo, J; Baudat, P A; Andres, R; Neumann, M; Steen, S; Gabel, D; Mercanti, D; Ciotti, M T; Perfetti, P; Margaritondo, G; De Stasio, G

    2000-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental, binary treatment for brain cancer which requires as the first step that tumor tissue is targeted with a boron-10 containing compound. Subsequent exposure to a thermal neutron flux results in destructive, short range nuclear reaction within 10 microm of the boron compound. The success of the therapy requires than the BNCT agents be well localized in tumor, rather than healthy tissue. The MEPHISTO spectromicroscope, which performs microchemical analysis by x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy from microscopic areas, has been used to study the distribution of trace quantities of boron in human brain cancer tissues surgically removed from patients first administered with the compound Na2B12H11SH (BSH). The interpretation of XANES spectra is complicated by interference from physiologically present sulfur and phosphorus, which contribute structure in the same energy range as boron. We addressed this problem with the present extensive set of spectra from S, B, and P in relevant compounds. We demonstrate that a linear combination of sulfate, phosphate and BSH XANES can be used to reproduce the spectra acquired on boron-treated human brain tumor tissues. We analyzed human glioblastoma tissue from two patients administered and one not administered with BSH. As well as weak signals attributed to BSH, x-ray absorption spectra acquired from tissue samples detected boron in a reduced chemical state with respect to boron in BSH. This chemical state was characterized by a sharp absorption peak at 188.3 eV. Complementary studies on BSH reference samples were not able to reproduce this chemical state of boron, indicating that it is not an artifact produced during sample preparation or x-ray exposure. These data demonstrate that the chemical state of BSH may be altered by in vivo metabolism.

  10. Spectromicroscopy of boron in human glioblastomas following administration of Na2B12H11SH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, B.; Perfetti, L.; Fauchoux, O.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P.-A.; Andres, R.; Neumann, M.; Steen, S.; Gabel, D.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.; de Stasio, Gelsomina

    2000-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental, binary treatment for brain cancer which requires as the first step that tumor tissue is targeted with a boron-10 containing compound. Subsequent exposure to a thermal neutron flux results in destructive, short range nuclear reaction within 10 μm of the boron compound. The success of the therapy requires than the BNCT agents be well localized in tumor, rather than healthy tissue. The MEPHISTO spectromicroscope, which performs microchemical analysis by x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy from microscopic areas, has been used to study the distribution of trace quantities of boron in human brain cancer tissues surgically removed from patients first administered with the compound Na2B12H11SH (BSH). The interpretation of XANES spectra is complicated by interference from physiologically present sulfur and phosphorus, which contribute structure in the same energy range as boron. We addressed this problem with the present extensive set of spectra from S, B, and P in relevant compounds. We demonstrate that a linear combination of sulfate, phosphate and BSH XANES can be used to reproduce the spectra acquired on boron-treated human brain tumor tissues. We analyzed human glioblastoma tissue from two patients administered and one not administered with BSH. As well as weak signals attributed to BSH, x-ray absorption spectra acquired from tissue samples detected boron in a reduced chemical state with respect to boron in BSH. This chemical state was characterized by a sharp absorption peak at 188.3 eV. Complementary studies on BSH reference samples were not able to reproduce this chemical state of boron, indicating that it is not an artifact produced during sample preparation or x-ray exposure. These data demonstrate that the chemical state of BSH may be altered by in vivo metabolism.

  11. Infrared and Polarized Raman Spectra of RbAl(SO 4) 2·12H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, G.; Ratheesh, R.; Jayasree, R. S.; Nayar, V. U.; Keresztury, G.

    1996-03-01

    The IR and polarized Raman spectra of a single crystal RbAl(SO4)2·12H2O is recorded and analyzed at room temperature. Bands indicate a stronger S-O bond in RbAl(SO4)2·12H2O than that in a free SO2-4ion. The fraction of reversed sulfate group in the Rb alum is much lower than that in the potassium alum. Broad bands with frequencies considerably shifted from the free state values indicate that water molecules form hydrogen bonds of various strengths. Two crystallographically distinct water molecules are identified in the crystal.

  12. Detecting failures of the glucose sensor-insulin pump system: improved overnight safety monitoring for Type-1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Andrea; Del Favero, Simone; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    New sensors for real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and pumps for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), possibly mounted on the same device, opened new scenarios for Type-1 diabetes treatment. However, possible failures of either CGM or CSII can expose diabetic patients to risks that can be dangerous especially overnight. In this contribution we present a proof-of-concept method, developed in a state-space context and implemented through a Kalman estimator, to detect in real time possible overnight failures of the sensor-pump system by simultaneously using CGM and CSII data. The method is tested on two simulated and one real subject. Results show that the method is able to correctly generate alerts for sensor-pump failures and stimulates further investigation on its development.

  13. Preoperative overnight parenteral nutrition (TPN) improves skeletal muscle protein metabolism indicated by microarray algorithm analyses in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Engström, Cecilia; Lundholm, Kent

    2016-06-01

    Loss of muscle mass is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Uncertainties of treatment efficiency by short-term artificial nutrition remain, specifically improvement of protein balance in skeletal muscles. In this study, algorithmic microarray analysis was applied to map cellular changes related to muscle protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle tissue during provision of overnight preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Twenty-two patients (11/group) scheduled for upper GI surgery due to malignant or benign disease received a continuous peripheral all-in-one TPN infusion (30 kcal/kg/day, 0.16 gN/kg/day) or saline infusion for 12 h prior operation. Biopsies from the rectus abdominis muscle were taken at the start of operation for isolation of muscle RNA RNA expression microarray analyses were performed with Agilent Sureprint G3, 8 × 60K arrays using one-color labeling. 447 mRNAs were differently expressed between study and control patients (P < 0.1). mRNAs related to ribosomal biogenesis, mRNA processing, and translation were upregulated during overnight nutrition; particularly anabolic signaling S6K1 (P < 0.01-0.1). Transcripts of genes associated with lysosomal degradation showed consistently lower expression during TPN while mRNAs for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of proteins as well as transcripts related to intracellular signaling pathways, PI3 kinase/MAPkinase, were either increased or decreased. In conclusion, muscle mRNA alterations during overnight standard TPN infusions at constant rate altered mRNAs associated with mTOR signaling; increased initiation of protein translation; and suppressed autophagy/lysosomal degradation of proteins. This indicates that overnight preoperative parenteral nutrition is effective to promote muscle protein metabolism. PMID:27273879

  14. Preoperative overnight parenteral nutrition (TPN) improves skeletal muscle protein metabolism indicated by microarray algorithm analyses in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Engström, Cecilia; Lundholm, Kent

    2016-06-01

    Loss of muscle mass is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Uncertainties of treatment efficiency by short-term artificial nutrition remain, specifically improvement of protein balance in skeletal muscles. In this study, algorithmic microarray analysis was applied to map cellular changes related to muscle protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle tissue during provision of overnight preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Twenty-two patients (11/group) scheduled for upper GI surgery due to malignant or benign disease received a continuous peripheral all-in-one TPN infusion (30 kcal/kg/day, 0.16 gN/kg/day) or saline infusion for 12 h prior operation. Biopsies from the rectus abdominis muscle were taken at the start of operation for isolation of muscle RNA RNA expression microarray analyses were performed with Agilent Sureprint G3, 8 × 60K arrays using one-color labeling. 447 mRNAs were differently expressed between study and control patients (P < 0.1). mRNAs related to ribosomal biogenesis, mRNA processing, and translation were upregulated during overnight nutrition; particularly anabolic signaling S6K1 (P < 0.01-0.1). Transcripts of genes associated with lysosomal degradation showed consistently lower expression during TPN while mRNAs for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of proteins as well as transcripts related to intracellular signaling pathways, PI3 kinase/MAPkinase, were either increased or decreased. In conclusion, muscle mRNA alterations during overnight standard TPN infusions at constant rate altered mRNAs associated with mTOR signaling; increased initiation of protein translation; and suppressed autophagy/lysosomal degradation of proteins. This indicates that overnight preoperative parenteral nutrition is effective to promote muscle protein metabolism.

  15. Aversive-bias and stage-selectivity in neurons of the primate amygdala during acquisition, extinction, and overnight retention.

    PubMed

    Livneh, Uri; Paz, Rony

    2012-06-20

    Extensive evidence implicates the amygdala as a major station for acquisition, extinction, and consolidation of emotional memories. Most of this work relies on fear-conditioning in rodents and imaging in humans. Few studies have explored coding of value in the primate amygdala, but the circuitry that underlies extinction and overnight retention remains largely unexplored. We developed a learning paradigm for nonhuman primates (macaca fascicularis) and recorded the activity of single neurons during the different stages of acquisition, extinction, and overnight consolidation of pleasant and aversive tone-odor associations. We find that many neurons become phase-locked to respiratory cycles in a stage-dependent manner, emphasizing the flexibility of amygdala neurons to represent the current state and change their spontaneous activity accordingly. We suggest that these changes can serve to increase neuronal sensitivity to an upcoming event and facilitate learning mechanisms. We further show formation of aversive-bias during the acquisition of associations and during overnight retention, in the sense that neurons preferentially code for the aversive conditioned stimuli, even if they initially homogenously represent value of the reinforcer. Our findings show flexible representations in the primate amygdala during the different cycles of learning and memory, and suggest selective potentiation of aversive information.

  16. Short-Term Effects of Overnight Orthokeratology on Corneal Epithelial Permeability and Biomechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Thao N.; Green, Harry M.; Zhou, Yixiu; Pitts, Julie; Kitamata-Wong, Britney; Lee, Sophia; Wang, Shiyin L.; Lin, Meng C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effects of 30 nights of overnight orthokeratology (OOK) on corneal epithelial permeability (Pdc) and corneal biomechanical properties. Methods. BE Retainer and Paragon CRT lenses were used. Visits were scheduled approximately 4 hours after awakening at baseline and after 1, 5, 10, 14, and 30 days of treatment. Pdc was measured at baseline and at day 30, whereas corneal biomechanical properties and visual acuities (VAs) were measured at all visits. Results. Thirty-nine neophytes and soft contact lens wearers completed the study. There was no difference in Pdc between baseline (ln[Pdc] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = −2.65 [−2.80 to −2.50]) and day 30 (ln[Pdc][CI] = −2.68 [−2.85 to −2.50]) (P = 0.88). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) reduced significantly from baseline (CH [CI] = 10.89 [10.59–11.19] mm Hg and CRF [CI] = 10.35 [9.99–10.72] mm Hg) to day 30 (CH [CI] = 10.59 [10.31–10.87] mm Hg and CRF [CI] = 9.58 [9.26–9.89] mm Hg) (P = 0.001 for CH and P < 0.001 for CRF). Posttreatment VA did not reach baseline targets, and the difference was worse with low-contrast letters. Asian individuals (n = 18) had significantly worse VA than non-Asian individuals (n = 21) under most conditions through day 5, and the difference extended through day 14 with low-contrast letters under mesopic conditions. The percentage of participants who achieved 20/20 uncorrected was 17% Asian and 40% non-Asian individuals after day 1 and reached 69% Asian and 83% non-Asian individuals at day 30. Conclusions. Thirty nights of OOK did not alter Pdc when measured 4 hours after awakening. OOK caused CH and CRF to decrease, but the changes were not clinically significant compared with diseased and postsurgical cases. Asian individuals, who had lower baseline CH in this study, responded slower to OOK based on early uncorrected VA and overrefraction measurements. PMID:23652492

  17. 76 FR 28482 - Notice of an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Notice of an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 May 12, 2011. The Securities and Exchange Commission gives notice that BF Enterprises, Inc. has filed an application under Section...

  18. The impact of on-site attending radiologist overnight coverage on radiology resident learning: a preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Berko, Netanel S; Levin, Terry L; Scheinfeld, Meir H

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the impact of on-site attending radiologist overnight coverage on resident education during transition to 24/7 attending coverage. The study was exempted from IRB review. An anonymous survey was sent to 9 second year radiology residents who completed their first night call rotation (NC) with an attending radiologist (group 1) and 18 residents who completed their first NC prior to overnight attending coverage (group 2). This addressed anxiety level prior to NC, work pace, autonomy and confidence, and attending feedback, with responses graded on a five-point scale. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. Diagnostic Radiology In-Training (DXIT(TM)) exam scores were collected prior to and following completion of the NC rotation, and results were compared. Case volume before and after the transition was recorded. p value <0.05 indicated statistical significance. Eight out of nine residents in group 1 and 16 out of/18 residents in group 2 completed the survey. Group 1 was more likely to report working at a comfortable pace (p = 0.008) and receiving attending feedback (p = 0.004) than group 2. A non-significant trend towards reduced anxiety prior to NC was present in group 1 (p = 0.077). No difference in independence (p = 0.918), autonomy (p = 0.635), or confidence during (p = 0.431) or after NC (p = 1.00) was identified. DXIT(TM) scores were not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.396). While overall case volume dictated by residents increased, fewer plain radiographs were dictated. Overnight attending coverage provides a more comfortable pace of study interpretation and increased attending feedback without decreasing resident independence or DXIT(TM) scores. Plain radiograph interpretation may need to be further emphasized. PMID:24902658

  19. Caustic Leaching of SRS Tank 12H Sludge With and Without Chelating Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    2003-04-30

    The primary objective of this study was to measure the effect of adding triethanolamine (TEA) to caustic leaching solutions to improve the solubility of aluminum in actual tank-waste sludge. High-level radioactive waste sludge that had a high aluminum assay was used for the tests. This waste, which originated with the processing of aluminum-clad/aluminum-alloy fuels, generates high levels of heat because of the high {sup 90}Sr concentration and contains hard-to-dissolve boehmite phases. In concept, a chelating agent, such as TEA, can both improve the dissolution rate and increase the concentration in the liquid phase. For this reason, TEA could also increase the solubility of other sludge components that are potentially problematic to downstream processing. Tests were conducted to determine if this were the case. Because of its relatively high vapor pressure, process design should include methods to minimize losses of the TEA. Sludge was retrieved from tank 12H at the Savannah River Site by on-site personnel, and then shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the study. The sludge contained a small quantity of rocky debris. One slate-like flat piece, which had approximate dimensions of 1 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/8 in., was recovered. Additional gravel-like fragments with approximate diameters ranging from 1/8 to 1/4 in. were also recovered by sieving the sludge slurry through a 1.4-mm square-pitch stainless steel mesh. These particles ranged from a yellow quartz-like material to grey-colored gravel. Of the 32.50 g of sludge received, the mass of the debris was only 0.89 g, and the finely divided sludge comprised {approx}97% of the mass. The sludge was successfully subdivided into uniform aliquots during hot-cell operations. Analytical measurements confirmed the uniformity of the samples. The smaller sludge samples were then used as needed for leaching experiments conducted in a glove box. Six tests were performed with leachate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 m Na

  20. Subtask 12H2: Status of the dynamic helium charging experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the dynamic helium charging experiment (DHCE) is to investigate the effects of concurrent helium production and fast-neutron irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium-based alloys for fusion blanket applications. A major task in this reporting period was to disassemble the tritium-bearing DHCE capsules to retrieve irradiated specimens for examination and testing. Seven DHCE capsules containing vanadium-alloy specimens were irradiated in the MOTA-2B vehicle in FFTF to {approx}20-29 dpa. In this and the previous reporting periods, equipment and procedures were developed at Argonne National Laboratory-East to disassemble these capsules. Six of the seven capsules have been disassembled. (The seventh capsule was processed in April 1994, immediately following this reporting period.) Effluence of tritium into the cell exhaust was <2% of the total inventory. No contamination incidents occurred during the DHCE disassembly work. Initial testing of the retrieved specimens is under way. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclooctane C8H16 + C12H22 Bicyclohexyl (VMSD1211, LB3529_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclooctane C8H16 + C12H22 Bicyclohexyl (VMSD1211, LB3529_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Synthesis and formation mechanism of hydrogenated boron clusters B{sub 12}H{sub n} with controlled hydrogen content

    SciTech Connect

    Ohishi, Yuji; Kimura, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Uchida, Noriyuki; Kanayama, Toshihiko

    2010-08-21

    We present the formation of hydrogen-content-controlled B{sub 12}H{sub n}{sup +} clusters through the decomposition and ion-molecule reactions of the decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}) and diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) molecules in an external quadrupole static attraction ion trap. The hydrogen- and boron-contents of the B{sub 10-y}H{sub x}{sup +} cluster are controlled by charge transfer from ambient gas ions. In the process of ionization, a certain number of hydrogen and boron atoms are detached from decaborane ions by the energy caused by charge transfer. The energy caused by the ion-molecule reactions also induces H atom detachment. Ambient gas of Ar leads to the selective generation of B{sub 10}H{sub 6}{sup +}. The B{sub 10}H{sub 6}{sup +} clusters react with B{sub 2}H{sub 6} molecules, resulting in the selective formation of B{sub 12}H{sub 8}{sup +} clusters. Ambient gas of Ne (He) leads to the generation of B{sub 10-y}H{sub x}{sup +} clusters with x=4-10 and y=0-1 (with x=2-10 and y=0-2), resulting in the formation of B{sub 12}H{sub n}{sup +} clusters with n=4-8 (n=2,4-8). The introduction of ambient gas also increases the production of clusters. PBE0/6-311+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31G(d)-level density functional theory calculations are conducted to investigate the structure and the mechanism of formation of B{sub 10-y}H{sub x}{sup +} and B{sub 12}H{sub n}{sup +} clusters.

  3. Oxidative stress is involved in fatigue induced by overnight deskwork as assessed by increase in plasma tocopherylhydroqinone and hydroxycholesterol.

    PubMed

    Shichiri, Mototada; Harada, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Noriko; Komaba, Lilian Kaede; Iwaki, Sunao; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Niki, Etsuo; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between fatigue and plasma concentrations of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation products. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed overnight desk work for 18h then took a nap for 4h. Participants answered questionnaires of subjective symptoms of fatigue (QSSF) and completed a self-assessment of fatigue using a visual analog scale (VAS). At each test time, they underwent a critical flicker frequency (CFF) test and blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of α-tocopherol (αT) decreased and α-tocopherylquinone (αTQ), the oxidation product of αT, increased. The ratio of 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHCh), the oxidation product of cholesterol, against total cholesterol increased until the end of experiment. αTQ levels correlated with VAS and QSSF scores. The ratio of 7β-OHCh to total cholesterol and the value of CFF showed a significant correlation. From these results, plasma levels of αTQ and 7β-OHCh are useful and objective indicators of fatigue induced by overnight deskwork.

  4. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.

    PubMed

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD.

  5. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems. II - The effects of temperature under 24-h and 12-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Steffen, Kenneth L.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of temperature and the photoperiod length on the growth and tuberization of Norland potatoes were investigated for two photoperiods, 12-h and 24-hr at 400 micromol/sq m per sec PPF, and at temperatures of 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 C. It was found that stem length increased with increasing temperature under both photoperiods. The highest tuber yield was obtained at 16 C under the 24-hr photoperiod and at 20 C under the 12-hr photoperiod (i.e., increasing the photoperiod from 12 to 24 hrs effectively decreases the optimal temperature for tuber formation). Little or no tuber formation occurred at 28 C under either photoperiod.

  6. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods.

  7. Effects of early and late rest breaks during training on overnight memory consolidation of a keyboard melody.

    PubMed

    Duke, Robert A; Allen, Sarah E; Cash, Carla D; Simmons, Amy L

    2009-07-01

    In two experiments, we tested the extent to which overnight procedural memory consolidation is affected by extended rest breaks during training. In the first experiment, nonmusicians practiced a 5-element keypress sequence with their nondominant hand in 12 30-s practice intervals separated by 30-s pauses. In the second experiment, nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody using the same procedures. In both experiments, approximately one-third of the subjects took a 5-min break after the first three blocks of practice; another third took a break after nine blocks of practice; the remaining participants did not take an extended break. All were trained in the evening and were retested the following morning. Participants in both experiments made dramatic improvements over the course of the training and retest sessions, and participants who took an extended rest break early in practice made the largest gains in performance between the end of training and the beginning of retest. PMID:19673774

  8. Improvement of antibacterial activity of some sulfa drugs through linkage to certain phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M

    2014-10-01

    RAB1 5 is a lead antibacterial agent in which trimethoprim is linked to phthalazine moiety. Similarly, our strategy in this research depends on the interconnection between some sulfa drugs and certain phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffolds in an attempt to enhance their antibacterial activity. This approach was achieved through the combination of 4-substituted phthalazin-1(2H)-ones 9a, b or 14a, b with sulfanilamide 1a, sulfathiazole 1b or sulfadiazine 1c through amide linkers 6a, b to produce the target compounds 10a-d and 15a-e, respectively. The antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized compounds showed that all tested compounds have antibacterial activity higher than that of their reference sulfa drugs 1a-c. Compound 10c represented the highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC = 0.39 μmol/mL. Moreover, compound 10d displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium with MIC = 0.39 and 0.78 μmol/mL, respectively.

  9. 4'-hydroxylation of flurbiprofen by rat liver microsomes in fasting and feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Makiko; Matsushita, Reiko; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Fukuoka, Masamichi

    2003-10-01

    We examined the 4'-hydroxylation of flurbiprofen in rat hepatocytes and liver microsomes in order to know whether the metabolism of flurbiprofen is changed on its administration to experimental animals after overnight fasting, because starvation and fasting change both the composition of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and metabolic activity. CYPs involved in the hydroxylation were determined by various CYP inhibitors and inhibitory antibodies against rat CYP2C11 and CYP2E1 using the microsomes in fasting and feeding. The results provided a possibiliy that the 4'-hydroxylation might be regulated by CYP2C11, but not by CYP2E1, at fasting rather than feeding.

  10. Lattice potential energy and standard molar enthalpy in the formation of 1—dodecylamine hydrobromide (1-C12H25NH3·Br)(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Pu; Di, You-Ying; Dan, Wen-Yan; He, Dong-Hua; Kong, Yu-Xia; Yang, Wei-Wei

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports that 1-dodecylamine hydrobromide (1-C12H25NH3·Br)(s) has been synthesized using the liquid phase reaction method. The lattice potential energy of the compound 1-C12H25NH3·Br and the ionic volume and radius of the 1-C12H25NH3+ cation are obtained from the crystallographic data and other auxiliary thermodynamic data. The constant-volume energy of combustion of 1-C12H25NH3·Br(s) is measured to be ΔcUmo(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s) = -(7369.03±3.28) kJ·mol-1 by means of an RBC-II precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter at T = (298.15±0.001) K. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound is derived to be ΔcHmo(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s) = -(7384.52±3.28) kJ·mol-1 from the constant-volume energy of combustion. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound is calculated to be ΔfHmo(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s)=-(1317.86±3.67) kJ·mol-1 from the standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the title compound and other auxiliary thermodynamic quantities through a thermochemical cycle.

  11. Electronic and Structural Properties of MatSi12 and MatSi12H12 Clusters, M = Ni, Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukaras, Emmanuel N.; Zdetsis, Aristides D.

    2007-12-01

    The electronic and structural characteristics of M@Si12 and M@Si12H12 clusters are studied in parallel for both Ni and Zn with the help of partial and total densities of States (DOS) and Crystal-Orbital-Overlap-Population (COOP) diagrams. These results are compared with those for empty hydrogenated cages. In this case the emphasis is placed on the role of hydrogen in the stabilization of the cages as an alternative to metal (M) atom encapsulation, as was suggested recently (A. D. Zdetsis Phys. Rev. B 75, 085409, and Phys. Rev. B 76, 075402, 2007). The present results support this idea. Furthermore, it is verified that surface hydrogen considerably weakens the contribution of the metal atom to the overall binding, which is dominated by the silicon-hydrogen interaction.

  12. Syntheses, characterization and energetic properties of closo-(B12H12)2- salts of imidazolium derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hanumantha Rao, Muddamarri; Muralidharan, Krishnamurthi

    2013-06-28

    The diimidazolium derivative of acetylene and its salt 3,3'-(but-2-yne-1,4-diyl)bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium)chloride (1) was synthesized by a solvent free sonochemical method and then the counter chloride ions were replaced by closo-dodecaborate [(B12H12)(2-)] and perchlorate (ClO4(-)) anions respectively. Along with these two ionic salts, a series of salts with closo-dodecaborate and alkyl imidazolium cations were also synthesized. All the compounds were characterized by NMR and MASS spectral data, elemental analyses and thermogravimetric analyses. In addition to that enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of formation and heat of explosion of all the compounds were experimentally determined. Based on the properties of these compounds, they can be used as insensitive energetic materials in various fields in propellant research and technology such as solid rocket propellants and burn rate accelerators.

  13. Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h Warm Season QPF be Improved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that numerical warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for numerous reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the numerical algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.

  14. 17 CFR 240.12h-6 - Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of securities under section 12(g) or the duty to file reports under section 13(a) or section 15(d). 240.12h-6 Section 240.12h-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  15. Relations of parenting quality, interparental conflict, and overnights with mental health problems of children in divorcing families with high legal conflict.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin N; Wheeler, Lorey A; Braver, Sanford L

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors: quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study came from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered together in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child-behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high-conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high-quality parenting.

  16. Impact of Denture Cleaning Method and Overnight Storage Condition on Denture Biofilm Mass and Composition: A Cross-Over Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duyck, Joke; Vandamme, Katleen; Krausch-Hofmann, Stefanie; Boon, Lies; De Keersmaecker, Katrien; Jalon, Eline; Teughels, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate oral hygiene is required to maintain oral health in denture wearers. This study aims to compare the role of denture cleaning methods in combination with overnight storage conditions on biofilm mass and composition on acrylic removable dentures. Methods In a cross-over randomized controlled trial in 13 older people, 4 conditions with 2 different mechanical cleaning methods and 2 overnight storage conditions were considered: (i) brushing and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, (ii) brushing and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet, (iii) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, and (iv) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet. Each test condition was performed for 5 consecutive days, preceded by a 2-days wash-out period. Biofilm samples were taken at baseline (control) and at the end of each test period from a standardized region. Total and individual levels of selected oral bacteria (n = 20), and of Candida albicans were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Denture biofilm coverage was scored using an analogue denture plaque score. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon-signed rank tests were used to compare the test conditions. The level of significance was set at α< 5%. Results Overnight denture storage in water with a cleansing tablet significantly reduced the total bacterial count (p<0.01). The difference in total bacterial level between the two mechanical cleaning methods was not statistically significant. No significant effect was observed on the amount of Candida albicans nor on the analogue plaque scores. Conclusions The use of cleansing tablets during overnight denture storage in addition to mechanical denture cleaning did not affect Candida albicans count, but reduced the total bacterial count on acrylic removable dentures compared to overnight storage in water. This effect was more pronounced when combined with ultrasonic cleaning compared to

  17. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity. PMID:25314812

  18. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity.

  19. Effects of short-term fasting on energy reserves of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mariella B; Passos, Cejana B C; Vasconcelos, Rosângela B; Pinheiro, Eliana C

    2005-01-01

    Studies on metabolic responses to fasting in common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) have demonstrated the susceptibility of this species when subjected to long-term fasting. We investigated the effects of short-term fasting (12 h), a period similar to what they face in the field, on their energy reserves. Blood glucose (BG) levels in fed bats were similar to other mammals, but after 12 h without food, these levels were reduced. Plasma lactate and free fatty acids levels in fed bats were higher than in other mammals, although no changes in these levels were detected in response to fasting. Liver glycogen content decreased significantly following fasting. Muscle glycogen, as well as liver and muscle lipid and protein levels, remained unaltered for up to 12 h of fasting. Although BG levels decreased after short-term fasting, body energy reserves do not seem to play an important role for maintenance of glycemic homeostasis during fasting. Despite the decrease in liver glycogen, this small reserve seems insufficient to maintain adequate levels of BG, even during short periods of fasting. Because other reserves were not decreased after fasting, it is possible that the main source of glucose for common vampire bats might be the glucose content of their blood diet.

  20. Overnight Social Isolation in Pigs Decreases Salivary Cortisol but Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory or Performance in a Decision-Making Task.

    PubMed

    van der Staay, F Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive holeboard (HB) task (Experiment 1) and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT) (Experiment 2), a decision-making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of 19 female pigs with a birth weight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16, and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 min after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision-making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance of the

  1. Overnight Social Isolation in Pigs Decreases Salivary Cortisol but Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory or Performance in a Decision-Making Task.

    PubMed

    van der Staay, F Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive holeboard (HB) task (Experiment 1) and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT) (Experiment 2), a decision-making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of 19 female pigs with a birth weight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16, and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 min after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision-making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance of the

  2. Overnight Social Isolation in Pigs Decreases Salivary Cortisol but Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory or Performance in a Decision-Making Task

    PubMed Central

    van der Staay, F. Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J.; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive holeboard (HB) task (Experiment 1) and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT) (Experiment 2), a decision-making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of 19 female pigs with a birth weight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16, and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 min after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision-making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance of the

  3. Treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage in rats with 12 h, 3 days and 6 days of selective brain hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Matthew; Penner, Mark; Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-09-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke with no proven treatment to reduce brain injury. In this study we modeled ICH by injecting 100 microL of autologous blood into the striatum of rats. We then tested whether hypothermia would reduce brain injury and improve recovery as has been repeatedly observed for ischemic and traumatic brain damage. Aside from reducing blood-brain barrier disruption, inflammation and edema, hypothermia has not consistently improved behavioral or histological outcome after ICH in animal studies. As this might relate to the choice of cooling method and the duration of hypothermia, we used a system that selectively cooled the injured hemisphere to approximately 32 degrees C (striatum) while the body remained normothermic. Cooling (vs. normothermia) started 1 h after ICH and lasted for 12 h, 3 days or 6 days followed by slow re-warming (approximately 1 degrees C/h). Functional impairment was evaluated from 2 to 3 weeks post-ICH at which time brain injury was determined. The ICH caused significant impairment on a neurological deficit scale and in tests of walking (horizontal ladder), skilled reaching (tray task) and spontaneous limb usage (cylinder test). Only the limb use asymmetry deficit was significantly mitigated by hypothermia, and then only by the longest treatment. Lesion volume, which averaged 16.9 mm3, was not affected. These results, in conjunction with earlier studies, suggest that prolonged mild hypothermia will not be a profound neuroprotectant for patients with striatal ICH, but it may nonetheless improve functional recovery in addition to its use for treating cerebral edema. PMID:19445934

  4. Clinical comparison of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh vs a commercially available fluoride breath-freshening toothpaste in reducing breath odor overnight: a multiple-use study.

    PubMed

    Niles, Hollandra P; Hunter, Catherine M; Vazquez, Joe; Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effectiveness of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh toothpaste to a commercially available breath-freshening dentifrice containing fluoride for its ability to reduce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) responsible for breath odor overnight. The study followed a two-treatment, two-period crossover design. Subjects were given a test product, along with a soft-bristled toothbrush, and instructed to brush their teeth for 1 minute, twice daily (once in the morning and the evening) using the assigned dentifrice for 7 consecutive days. After their evening brushing on the seventh day, subjects reported to the testing facility without oral hygiene, eating, or drinking for the overnight evaluation. After a washout period, subjects repeated the same regimen, now using the other test product. The levels of breath VSC were evaluated instrumentally using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector.

  5. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  6. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  7. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  8. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  9. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  10. Overnight storage of blood in ACD tubes at 4{degrees}C increases NK cell fraction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Woon; Jang, Youn-Young; Shin, Myung-Geun; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Yoon, Meesun; Lee, Je-Jung; Kim, Sang-Ki; Cho, Duck

    2013-01-01

    A considerable variabilility in the effects of sample handling on NK cytotoxicity has been observed. Using flow cytometry, NK cytotoxicity assays and lymphocyte subset analysis of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from whole blood stored under various conditions were performed. The NK cytotoxicity of samples in heparin tubes stored overnight at 4 and 22°C, as well as at 22°C in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) tubes, was lower than that of a fresh sample. However, the NK cytotoxicity of samples in an ACD tube stored at 4°C was similar to that of a fresh sample. Based on lymphocyte subset analysis, samples in an ACD tube stored at 4°C showed a lower percentage of CD3+ T cells and a higher percentage of CD16/56+ NK cells compared to samples stored under other conditions. The NK cytotoxicity of fresh samples and samples in ACD tubes stored in a Styrofoam cooler box did not differ significantly; however, the differences were inconsistent. Overnight storage of peripheral blood in ACD tubes at 4°C is optimum for retention of NK cytotoxicity, the level of which is similar to that of fresh blood. This may be associated with an increased NK-cell fraction in Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PBMCs after overnight storage. PMID:23884220

  11. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  12. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  13. Effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken breast muscle early postmortem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sidang; Li, Chunbao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2013-04-01

    Pre-slaughter fasting is a very important practice in the meat industry. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken muscle early postmortem. A total of 30 Yellow-feathered chickens were deprived of feed for 0 h, 12 h and 24 h before slaughter (n=10 each group). Breast muscles were removed and cut into 3 parts and stored at 0°C for 0 h, 3 h and 10 h. Samples were used for analyses of zymography, cathepsins, pH, glycogen/ATP/ADP/AMP, hormones and ultrastructure. Fasting caused the accelerated depletion (p<0.05) of glycogen, ATP and ADP before or immediately after slaughter, but no difference existed in ATP at 3 and 10 h (p>0.05). Fasting resulted in greater ultimate pH (p<0.05). Zymography indicated that fasting delayed the activation of μ/m-calpain (p<0.05), however, it accelerated the release of lysosomal enzymes (p<0.05). Fasting for 24 h resulted in greater ultrastructural changes and plasma corticosterone levels than fasting for 12 h and control groups. Therefore, fasting for no more than 12 h is acceptable in practice.

  14. Multiple short bouts of exercise over 12-h period reduce glucose excursions more than an energy-matched single bout of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrup, ME; Fairchild, TJ; Keslacy, S; Weinstock, RS; Kanaley, JA

    2014-01-01

    Objective Long, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior are thought to negatively influence postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined the effects of a 1-h bout of morning exercise versus intermittent walking bouts of short duration on glucose excursions and insulin secretion over 12-h. Materials/Methods Eleven young, obese individuals (18–35y, BMI>30kg/m2) with impaired glucose tolerance were studied on three 12-h study days: 1) sedentary behavior (SED); 2) sedentary behavior with 1-h morning exercise (EX) at 60–65% VO2peak; and 3) sedentary behavior with 12-hourly, 5-min intervals of exercise (INT) at 60–65% VO2peak. Meals (1046 kJ/meal) were provided every 2-h. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and measured for glucose, insulin, and c-peptide concentrations. Results Glucose iAUC (12-h) was attenuated in the INT and SED conditions compared to the EX condition (P<0.05). Glucose concentrations were higher in the EX compared to the SED condition for ~150 min (20% of the study day), and comparison of the EX-INT study days revealed that glucose concentrations were greater for ~ 240 minutes (~1/3 of the 12-h day). In the SED condition, the 12-h insulin iAUC was ~15% higher (P<0.05) compared to the INT and EX conditions. Insulin production rate was found to increase ~20% with INT exercise vs. the SED and EX condition (P<0.05). Conclusions Short, frequent periods of exercise attenuated glucose excursions and insulin concentrations in obese individuals to a greater degree than an equal amount of exercise performed continuously in the morning. PMID:24439242

  15. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  16. Synthesis and crystal structure of 3-ammoniumphenyl sulfone selenate, 3-aminophenyl sulfone [C{sub 12}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}S]SeO{sub 4} {center_dot} [C{sub 12}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}S

    SciTech Connect

    Mahroug, A.; Belhouchet, M. Mhiri, T.

    2013-07-15

    The crystal structure of [C{sub 12}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}S]SeO{sub 4} {center_dot} [C{sub 12}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}S] was determined by X-ray diffraction on single crystal. Crystals are orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with cell parameters a = 11.545 (1), b = 8.143 (1), c = 55.783(1)A, V = 5244.2 (8)A{sup 3} and Z = 8. The structure can be described as organic layers built by [C{sub 12}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}S]{sup 2+} cations and [C{sub 12}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}S] molecules, parallel to ab plane, between which the inorganic groups SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} are inserted. In this atomic arrangement, H-bonds between the different species play an important role in the three-dimensional network cohesion.

  17. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclooctane C8H16 + C12H22 Bicyclohexyl (HMSD1111, LB3908_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclooctane C8H16 + C12H22 Bicyclohexyl (HMSD1111, LB3908_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Effect of fasting versus feeding on the bone metabolic response to running.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan P R; Sale, Craig; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Dutton, John; Fraser, William D

    2012-12-01

    Individuals often perform exercise in the fasted state, but the effects on bone metabolism are not currently known. We compared the effect of an overnight fast with feeding a mixed meal on the bone metabolic response to treadmill running. Ten, physically-active males aged 28 ± 4y (mean ±SD) completed two, counterbalanced, 8d trials. After 3d on a standardised diet, participants performed 60 min of treadmill running at 65% VO(2max) on Day 4 following an overnight fast (FAST) or a standardised breakfast (FED). Blood samples were collected at baseline, before and during exercise, for 3h after exercise, and on four consecutive follow-up days (FU1-FU4). Plasma/serum were analysed for the c-terminal telopeptide region of collagen type 1 (β-CTX), n-terminal propeptides of procollagen type 1 (P1NP), osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), albumin-adjusted calcium, phosphate, osteoprotegerin (OPG), cortisol, leptin and ghrelin. Only the β-CTX response was significantly affected by feeding. Pre-exercise concentrations decreased more in FED compared with FAST (47% vs 26%, P<0.001) but increased during exercise in both groups and were not significantly different from baseline at 1h post-exercise. At 3h post-exercise, concentrations were decreased (33%, P<0.001) from baseline in FAST and significantly lower (P<0.001) than in FED. P1NP and PTH increased, and OC decreased during exercise. Bone markers were not significantly different from baseline on FU1-FU4. Fasting had only a minor effect on the bone metabolic response to subsequent acute, endurance exercise, reducing the duration of the increase in β-CTX during early recovery, but having no effect on changes in bone formation markers. The reduced duration of the β-CTX response with fasting was not fully explained by changes in PTH, OPG, leptin or ghrelin. PMID:22960044

  19. Done that: short-term repetition related modulations of motor cortex activity as a stable signature for overnight motor memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Gabitov, Ella; Manor, David; Karni, Avi

    2014-12-01

    An almost universally accepted tacit expectation is that learning and memory consolidation processes must be reflected in the average brain activity in brain areas relevant to task performance. Motor cortex (M1) plasticity has been implicated in motor skill acquisition and its consolidation. Nevertheless, no consistent pattern of changes in the average signal, related to motor learning or motor memory consolidation following a single session of training, has emerged from imaging studies. Here we show that the pattern and magnitude of short-term brain activity modulations in response to task repetition, in M1, may provide a robust signature for effective motor memory consolidation processes. We studied participants during the paced performance of a finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS), intensively trained a day earlier, and a similarly constructed untrained FOS. In addition to within-session "on-line" gains, most participants expressed delayed, consolidation-phase gains in the performance of the trained FOS. The execution of the trained FOS induced repetition enhancements in the contralateral M1 and bilaterally in the medial-temporal lobes, offsetting novelty-related repetition suppression effects. Moreover, the M1 modulations were positively correlated with the magnitude of each participant's overnight delayed gains but not with absolute performance levels. Our results suggest that short-term enhancements of brain signals upon task repetition reflect the effectiveness of overnight motor memory consolidation. We propose that procedural memory consolidation processes may affect the excitation-inhibition balance within cortical representations of the trained movements; this new balance is better reflected in repetition effects than in the average level of evoked neural activity. PMID:24893741

  20. Administration of low dose methamphetamine 12 h after a severe traumatic brain injury prevents neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Rau, Thomas F; Kothiwal, Aakriti S; Rova, Annela R; Brooks, Diane M; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Poulsen, Austin J; Hutchinson, Jim; Poulsen, David J

    2014-03-01

    We recently published data that showed low dose of methamphetamine is neuroprotective when delivered 3 h after a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the current study, we further characterized the neuroprotective potential of methamphetamine by determining the lowest effective dose, maximum therapeutic window, pharmacokinetic profile and gene expression changes associated with treatment. Graded doses of methamphetamine were administered to rats beginning 8 h after severe TBI. We assessed neuroprotection based on neurological severity scores, foot fault assessments, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze, and histopathology. We defined 0.250 mg/kg/h as the lowest effective dose and treatment at 12 h as the therapeutic window following severe TBI. We examined gene expression changes following TBI and methamphetamine treatment to further define the potential molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection and determined that methamphetamine significantly reduced the expression of key pro-inflammatory signals. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that a 24-hour intravenous infusion of methamphetamine at a dose of 0.500 mg/kg/h produced a plasma Cmax value of 25.9 ng/ml and a total exposure of 544 ng/ml over a 32 hour time frame. This represents almost half the 24-hour total exposure predicted for a daily oral dose of 25mg in a 70 kg adult human. Thus, we have demonstrated that methamphetamine is neuroprotective when delivered up to 12 h after injury at doses that are compatible with current FDA approved levels.

  1. Oxidation behaviour of ferritic stainless steel grade Crofer 22 APU at 700 °C in flowing Ar-75%CO2-12%H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Nurul Atikah; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Jalar, Azman

    2013-11-01

    The oxidation of Ferritic Stainless Steel (FSS) grade Crofer 22 APU has been investigated. FSS alloys were exposed to isothermal conditions in a horizontal tube furnace at a 700 °C in flowing Ar-75%CO2-12%H2O at a pressure of approximately 1 atm. The results showed that the growth of non protective Fe2O3 and spinel was observed after 50 h exposure in the presence of 12% H2O. The weight was increased significantly with time of exposure. The formation of different oxides is presented on the interface of the specimen such as MnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 were revealed by X-ray diffraction and supported by EDAX analysis. FSS did not form a protective Cr2O3 layer due to water vapour accelerates the kinetics oxidation. Data of microstructure observation is presented and discussed in this paper in term of water vapour effects.

  2. Effects of oral cyclosporine on canine T-cell expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma across a 12-h dosing interval

    PubMed Central

    FELLMAN, C. L.; ARCHER, T. M.; STOKES, J. V.; WILLS, R. W.; LUNSFORD, K. V.; MACKIN, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The duration of immunosuppressive effects following oral cyclosporine in dogs is unknown. This study used flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to evaluate the effects of high-dose oral cyclosporine across a 12-h dosing interval. Expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was compared before and after 8 days of cyclosporine at 10 mg/kg every 12 h in six healthy dogs. Samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, and 8 h postdosing for analysis of unactivated and activated T-cell and whole blood cytokine expression using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR, respectively, and at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h postdosing for measurement of cyclosporine concentrations. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR both demonstrated significant marked reductions in IL-2 and IFN-γ levels at 0, 2, 4, and 8 h after dosing compared to pretreatment levels (P < 0.05) for activated samples, with less consistent effects observed for unactivated samples. Both flow cytometry and qRT-PCR are viable techniques for measuring cyclosporine pharmacodynamics in dogs, yielding comparable results with activated samples. Two hours postdrug administration is the preferred time for concurrent assessment of peak drug concentration and cytokine expression, and T-cell activation is needed for optimal results. PMID:26676223

  3. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Travis J.; Kauffman, Kyle T.; Amrine, Katherine C. H.; Carper, Dana L.; Lee, Raymond S.; Becich, Peter J.; Canales, Claudia J.; Ardell, David H.

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought. PMID:26042145

  4. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Travis J; Kauffman, Kyle T; Amrine, Katherine C H; Carper, Dana L; Lee, Raymond S; Becich, Peter J; Canales, Claudia J; Ardell, David H

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  5. Polymer-bonded NiZn ferrite magnetic cores mixed with titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C12H28O4Ti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, K. W. E.; Ding, Kai; Ho, S. L.; Fu, W. N.; Wang, Junhua; Wang, Shuxiao

    2011-04-01

    For decades, the technology and engineering domains have been constantly demanding high-performance magnetic materials. Recently, polymer bonded NiZn ferrite magnetic materials mixed with titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C12H28O4Ti) for power converter applications have been found to be very promising in reducing the loss, cost, and material weight when compared to their conventional counterparts using air-core technology, conventional soft ferrites, and powder iron. The proposed magnetic core is flexible in both size and shape and is not brittle. The design of a high-frequency transformer for a 100 W two-transistor forward converter-based electric vehicle battery charger operating at a switching frequency of 360 kHz is reported in this paper. Printed circuit board prototyping and experimental results as well as comparisons with conventional converters are provided to validate the application feasibility of the proposed materials.

  6. Measurements of (C-12)H4 nu-4 band halfwidths using a tunable diode laser system and a Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. M.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Air-broadened and N2-broadened halfwidths at room temperature for twenty-five transitions in the nu-4 fundamental band of (C-12)H4 have been determined from IR absorption spectra recorded with a tunable diode laser spectrometer. Two tunable diode lasers operating in the 1250-1380-kayser region were used to obtain these data. Air-broadened halfwidths for twenty of these lines were also determined from additional spectra recorded at 0.01-kayser resolution with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex on Kitt Peak. The air-broadened halfwidths obtained from these two techniques are very consistent with agreement better than 3 percent in most cases.

  7. Differences in Dry Eye Questionnaire Symptoms in Two Different Modalities of Contact Lens Wear: Silicone-Hydrogel in Daily Wear Basis and Overnight Orthokeratology

    PubMed Central

    Rico-del-Viejo, Laura; Martin-Gil, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the ocular surface symptoms and signs in an adult population of silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lens (CL) wearers with another modality of CL wear, overnight orthokeratology (OK). Materials and Methods. This was a prospective and comparative study in which 31 myopic subjects were fitted with the same Si-Hy CL and 23 underwent OK treatment for 3 months. Dry eye questionnaire (DEQ) was filled in at the beginning of the study and then after 15 days, 1 month, and 3 months using each CL modality. The tear quality was evaluated with noninvasive tear break-up time. Tear production was measured with Schirmer test. Tear samples were collected with Schirmer strips being frozen to analyze the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) concentration with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results. After refitting with ortho-k, a reduction in discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day (p < 0.05, χ2) was observed. No significant changes were observed in Ap4A concentration in any group. Bulbar redness, limbal redness, and conjunctival staining increased significantly in the Si-Hy group (p < 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis test). Conclusion. Discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day are lower in the OK CL group than in the Si-Hy CL group. PMID:27689073

  8. Differences in Dry Eye Questionnaire Symptoms in Two Different Modalities of Contact Lens Wear: Silicone-Hydrogel in Daily Wear Basis and Overnight Orthokeratology

    PubMed Central

    Rico-del-Viejo, Laura; Martin-Gil, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the ocular surface symptoms and signs in an adult population of silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lens (CL) wearers with another modality of CL wear, overnight orthokeratology (OK). Materials and Methods. This was a prospective and comparative study in which 31 myopic subjects were fitted with the same Si-Hy CL and 23 underwent OK treatment for 3 months. Dry eye questionnaire (DEQ) was filled in at the beginning of the study and then after 15 days, 1 month, and 3 months using each CL modality. The tear quality was evaluated with noninvasive tear break-up time. Tear production was measured with Schirmer test. Tear samples were collected with Schirmer strips being frozen to analyze the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) concentration with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results. After refitting with ortho-k, a reduction in discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day (p < 0.05, χ2) was observed. No significant changes were observed in Ap4A concentration in any group. Bulbar redness, limbal redness, and conjunctival staining increased significantly in the Si-Hy group (p < 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis test). Conclusion. Discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day are lower in the OK CL group than in the Si-Hy CL group.

  9. Pre-transport loading of farmed red deer: effects of previous overnight housing environment, vehicle illumination and shape of loading race.

    PubMed

    Grigor, P N; Goddard, P J; Littlewood, C A; Deakin, D W

    1998-03-14

    The behaviour of farmed red deer was studied while they were being loaded on to a transporter. In experiment 1, the effects of previous overnight housing conditions (indoors, at a space allowance of either 4 or 8 m2 per deer, or in an outdoor raceway) on the ease of loading were investigated. The number of attempts required to load the deer was not significantly affected by their housing conditions or their sex, but there was a significant increase in the number of attempts required after the first day (P < 0.05), suggesting that some aspect of the loading procedure was aversive to the deer. In experiment 2, the effects of illumination inside the vehicle (bright or dim) and the shape of the loading race (straight or curved) were examined. Neither factor significantly influenced the time taken by deer to enter the trailer. However, deer took significantly (P < 0.05) less time to load as the number of trials increased. It is concluded that the loading of deer may be facilitated if the loading raceway is wide enough to allow the deer to move as a group, but narrow enough to prevent the deer from turning round.

  10. Computation-guided development of Au-catalyzed cycloisomerizations proceeding via 1,2-Si or 1,2-H migrations: regiodivergent synthesis of silylfurans.

    PubMed

    Dudnik, Alexander S; Xia, Yuanzhi; Li, Yahong; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2010-06-01

    A novel highly efficient regiodivergent Au-catalyzed cycloisomerization of allenyl and homopropargylic ketones into synthetically valuable 2- and 3-silylfurans has been designed with the aid of DFT calculations. This cascade transformation features 1,2-Si or 1,2-H migrations in a common Au-carbene intermediate. Both experimental and computational results clearly indicate that the 1,2-Si migration is kinetically favored over the 1,2-shifts of H, alkyl, and aryl groups in the beta-Si-substituted Au-carbenes. In addition, experimental results on the Au(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of homopropargylic ketones demonstrated that counterion and solvent effects could reverse the above migratory preference. The DFT calculations provided a rationale for this 1,2-migration regiodivergency. Thus, in the case of Ph(3)PAuSbF(6), DFT-simulated reaction proceeds through the initial propargyl-allenyl isomerization followed by the cyclization into the Au-carbene intermediate with the exclusive formation of 1,2-Si migration products and solvent effects cannot affect this regioselectivity. However, in the case of a TfO(-) counterion, reaction occurs via the initial 5-endo-dig cyclization to give a cyclic furyl-Au intermediate. In the case of nonpolar solvents, subsequent ipso-protiodeauration of the latter is kinetically more favorable than the generation of the common Au-carbene intermediate and leads to the formation of formal 1,2-H migration products. In contrast, when polar solvent is employed in this DFT-simulated reaction, beta-to-Au protonation of the furyl-Au species to give a Au-carbene intermediate competes with the ipso-protiodeauration. Subsequent dissociation of the triflate ligand in this carbene in polar media due to efficient solvation of charged intermediates facilitates formation of the 1,2-Si shift products. The above results of the DFT calculations were validated by the experimental data. The present study demonstrates that DFT calculations could efficiently support experimental results, providing guidance for rational design of new catalytic transformations. PMID:20476771

  11. Fasting biases brain reward systems towards high-calorie foods.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Prechtl de Hernandez, Christina G; Beaver, John D; Muhammed, Kinan; Croese, Charlotte; Bell, Gabriel; Durighel, Giuliana; Hughes, Emer; Waldman, Adam D; Frost, Gary; Bell, Jimmy D

    2009-10-01

    Nutritional state (e.g. fasted vs. fed) and different food stimuli (e.g. high-calorie vs. low-calorie, or appetizing vs. bland foods) are both recognized to change activity in brain reward systems. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we have studied the interaction between nutritional state and different food stimuli on brain food reward systems. We examined how blood oxygen level-dependent activity within a priori regions of interest varied while viewing pictures of high-calorie and low-calorie foods. Pictures of non-food household objects were included as control stimuli. During scanning, subjects rated the appeal of each picture. Twenty non-obese healthy adults [body mass index 22.1 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SEM), age range 19-35 years, 10 male] were scanned on two separate mornings between 11:00 and 12:00 h, once after eating a filling breakfast ('fed': 1.6 +/- 0.1 h since breakfast), and once after an overnight fast but skipping breakfast ('fasted': 15.9 +/- 0.3 h since supper) in a randomized cross-over design. Fasting selectively increased activation to pictures of high-calorie over low-calorie foods in the ventral striatum, amygdala, anterior insula, and medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Furthermore, fasting enhanced the subjective appeal of high-calorie more than low-calorie foods, and the change in appeal bias towards high-calorie foods was positively correlated with medial and lateral OFC activation. These results demonstrate an interaction between homeostatic and hedonic aspects of feeding behaviour, with fasting biasing brain reward systems towards high-calorie foods.

  12. Corticotropin-releasing factor-overexpressing mice exhibit reduced neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and food intake in response to fasting.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Million, Mulugeta; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Taché, Yvette; Wang, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress. We investigated whether the adaptive feeding response to a hypocaloric challenge induced by food deprivation is impaired under conditions of chronic CRF overproduction. Food intake response to a 16-h overnight fast and ip injection of gut hormones regulating food intake were compared in CRF-OE and wild type (WT) littermate mice along with brain Fos expression, circulating ghrelin levels, and gastric emptying of a nonnutrient meal. CRF-OE mice injected ip with saline showed a 47 and 44% reduction of 30-min and 4-h cumulative food intake response to an overnight fast, respectively, compared with WT. However, the 30-min food intake decrease induced by ip cholecystokinin (3 microg/kg) and increase by ghrelin (300 microg/kg) were similar in CRF-OE and WT mice. Overnight fasting increased the plasma total ghrelin to similar levels in CRF-OE and WT mice, although CRF-OE mice had a 2-fold reduction of nonfasting ghrelin levels. The number of Fos-immunoreactive cells induced by fasting in the arcuate nucleus was reduced by 5.9-fold in CRF-OE compared with WT mice whereas no significant changes were observed in other hypothalamic nuclei. In contrast, fasted CRF-OE mice displayed a 5.6-fold increase in Fos-immunoreactive cell number in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and a 34% increase in 20-min gastric emptying. These findings indicate that sustained overproduction of hypothalamic CRF in mice interferes with fasting-induced activation of arcuate nucleus neurons and the related hyperphagic response.

  13. Study on interaction between a new fluorescent probe 2-methylbenzo[b][1,10]phenanthrolin-7(12H)-one and BSA.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Chen, Mingluan; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2011-03-01

    A new fluorescence reagent, 2-methylbenzo[b][1,10]phenanthrolin-7(12H)-one (mBPO), synthesized in our laboratory was used as the probe for protein and its interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was investigated in detail in this paper. It was found that BSA had the ability to quench the fluorescence of mBPO at 411 nm (λ(ex) = 286 nm), and the quenched intensity of fluorescence was proportional to the concentration of BSA. Based on this fact, mBPO has been used as a fluorescence probe for the detection of BSA. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph is linear up to 0.5 mg L(-1) for BSA and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 mg L(-1). The regression equation is y = 1048.8x + 7.2093 with R(2) = 0.9913. The mechanism for the interaction of mBPO with BSA was also studied, while the binding constant and the number of binding sites were calculated. According to the thermodynamics parameter, the binding mode between mBPO and BSA was deduced. The results suggested the interaction between mBPO and BSA to be hydrophobic force in nature. It also proved that the fluorescence quenching reaction was affected by the tryptophan residue of BSA. For there are two tryptophan (Trp) residues, in site 134 and site 212 of BSA, and mBPO maybe has interaction with them respectively.

  14. Measurements of argon broadened Lorentz width and pressure-induced line shift coefficients in the nu4 band of (C-12)H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris

    1989-01-01

    Room temperature argon broadened halfwidth and pressure-induced line shift coefficients have been determined for 118 transitions in the nu4 band of (C-12)H4 from analysis of high resolution laboratory absorption spectra recorded with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer operated on Kitt Peak by the National Solar Observatory. Transitions up to J-double-prime = 12 have been measured using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure. The variation of the measured halfwidth coefficients with symmetry type and rotational quantum number is very similar to that measured previously for N2 and air broadening, but the absolute values of the argon broadening coefficients are all smaller. On average, the ratio of the argon broadened halfwidth coefficient to the corresponding N2 broadened halfwidth coefficient is 0.877 + or - 0.017 (2 Sigma). More than 95 percent of the pressure-induced shifts are negative with values ranging from -0.0081 to +0.0055/cm atm. The pressure shifts in argon are nearly equal to corresponding values measured previously in N2 and air.

  15. Crystal growth and characterization of a novel inorganic-organic hybrid NLO crystal: (NH4)[Cd(NCS)3]·C12H24O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, V.; Rajarajan, K.

    2013-10-01

    It is reported here, for the first time, that high-quality bulk size (18 × 5 × 4 mm3) single crystals of a new nonlinear optical crystal, [(NH4)[Cd(NCS)3]·C12H24O6] [Ammonium (18-crown-6-ether) Cadmium(II) tri-thiocyanate; ACCTC], have been grown from aqueous solution via slow evaporation technique. Solubility of ACCTC has been determined for various temperatures. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, FT-Raman, and UV-Vis-NIR studies. ACCTC crystallizes in orthorhombic system with cell parameters a = 14.7568 Ǻ, b = 15.4378 Ǻ, and c = 10.6383 Ǻ with space group Cmc21. The optical second-harmonic generation effect has been measured by using the Kurtz powder technique and is found to be 2 times higher than that of KDP (KH2PO4). The sample possesses wide optical transparency range from 200 to 2,500 nm. The TG-DSC thermal analysis revealed that the sample is thermally stable up to 237.92 °C, which is comparatively far better than the thermal stability of [(18C6)Li][Cd(SCN)3]; CLTC (170 °C).

  16. Fungal transcript pattern during the preinfection stage (12 h) of ectomycorrhiza formed between Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa roots, identified using cDNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pessoa, Fernando; Sousa, Lisete; Figueiredo, Andreia; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Baldé, Aladje; Maia, Leonor C; Pais, Maria S

    2008-12-01

    Transcriptional changes in Pisolithus tinctorius leading to ectomycorrhizal formation in P. tinctorius- Castanea sativa were investigated using a 12-h fungal interaction in vitro system. Using a 3107-cDNA clone microarray, 34 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were found to be differentially expressed. These ESTs represent 14 known genes, 5 upregulated and 9 downregulated, and 20 orphan sequences. Some transcripts of upregulated genes (with unknown function) were previously identified in other mycorrhizal Pisolithus spp. associations. ESTs for S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and several orphan sequences were identified in our system. The identified transcript of downregulated genes involved hydrophobins, 5S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, large subunits of ribosomal RNA (mitochondrial gene), and two types of heat shock proteins. This study demonstrates the high complexity of molecular events involved in the preinfection steps and suggests the utilization of different fungal gene repertories before ectomycorrhizal formation. These data constitute a first contribution for the molecular understanding of early signaling events between P. tinctorius and C. sativa roots during ectomycorrhizal formation.

  17. Glucose turnover in 48-hour-fasted running rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sonne, B.; Mikines, K.J.; Galbo, H.

    1987-03-01

    In fed rats, hyperglycemia develops during exercise. This contrasts with the view based on studies of fasted human and dog that euglycemia is maintained in exercise and glucose production (R/sub a/) controlled by feedback mechanisms. Forty-eight-hour-fasted rats (F) were compared to fed rats (C) and overnight food-restricted (FR) rats. (3-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)glucose were infused and blood and tissue sampled. During running (21 m/min, 0% grade) R/sub a/ increased most in C and least in F and only in F did R/sub a/ not significantly exceed glucose disappearance. Plasma glucose increased more in C (3.3 mmol/1) than in FR (1.6 mmol/l) and only modestly (0.6 mmol/l) and transiently in F. Resting liver glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and similar in FR and F. Resting muscle glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and lowest in F. During running, lactate production and gluconeogenesis were higher in FR than in F. At least in rats, responses of production and plasma concentration of glucose to exercise depend on size of liver and muscle glycogen stores; glucose production matches increase in clearance better in fasted than in fed states. Probably glucose production is stimulated by feedforward mechanisms and feedback mechanisms are added if plasma glucose decreases.

  18. Synthesis and structural characterisation of new ettringite and thaumasite type phases: Ca6[Ga(OH)6·12H2O]2(SO4)3·2H2O and Ca6[M(OH)6·12H2O]2(SO4)2(CO3)2, M = Mn, Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Rachel L.; Dann, Sandra E.; Hogg, Simon C.; Kirk, Caroline A.

    2013-11-01

    Investigations into the formation of new ettringite-type phases with a range of trivalent and tetravalent cations were carried out to further study the potential this structure type has to incorporate cations covering a range of ionic radii (0.53-0.69 Å). We report the synthesis and structural characterisation of a new ettringite-type phase, Ca6[Ga(OH)6·12H2O]2(SO4)3·2H2O, which was indexed in space group P31c with the unit cell parameters a = 11.202(2) Å, c = 21.797(3) Å and two new thaumasite-type phases Ca6[M(OH)6·12H2O]2(SO4)2(CO3)2, M = Mn, Sn which were indexed in space group P63 with the unit cell parameters a = 11.071(5) Å, c = 21.156(8) Å and a = 11.066(1) Å, c = 22.420(1) Å respectively. These new phases show the versatility of the ettringite family of structures to tolerate a large range of cation sizes on the octahedral M site and highlights the preference of tetravalent cations to crystallise with the thaumasite structure over the ettringite structure.

  19. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  20. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  1. The pattern of glycogen withdrawal within the liver acinus during fasting.

    PubMed

    Kanamura, S; Asada-Kubota, M; Kanai, K

    1980-01-01

    Intraacinar regionality in glycogen withdrawal during fasting was studied in the liver of the mouse. When animals were fasted from 10.00 a.m. onwards, glycogen withdrawal began in zone 1, spreading gradually to zone 3, and after 12 h glycogen disappeared throughout the acinus. After 24 h new glycogen accumulated in various portions of the acinus. However, when animals were fasted from 10.00 p.m. or 12 midnight to the following morning, glycogen was withdrawn evenly throughout the lobule. After 24 h glycogen disappeared throughout the acinus. These results show that there is a heterogeneity in the hepatocyte with respect to glycogen withdrawal during fasting by day but not by night. Therefore, the discrepancy in reported results on the intraacinar distribution of glycogen during fasting is probably due to the time of sacrificing animals.

  2. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Popp, Roland Fj; Maier, Stefanie; Rothe, Siegfried; Zulley, Jürgen; Crönlein, Tatjana; Wetter, Thomas C; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM) phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074) and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059). Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092). The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  3. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  4. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Roland FJ; Maier, Stefanie; Rothe, Siegfried; Zulley, Jürgen; Crönlein, Tatjana; Wetter, Thomas C; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM) phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074) and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059). Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092). The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders. PMID:26572698

  5. Recruitment of healthy adults into a study of overnight sleep monitoring in the home: experience of the Sleep Heart Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lind, Bonnie K; Goodwin, James L; Hill, Joel G; Ali, Tauqeer; Redline, Susan; Quan, Stuart F

    2003-03-01

    The Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) is a prospective cohort study using participants from several ongoing cardiovascular and respiratory disease research projects to investigate the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease. This study design required unusual and different recruiting techniques to meet the study's enrollment goal of between 6000 and 6600 participants. Individuals were recruited to undergo an overnight home polysomnogram, completion of several questionnaires, and collection of a small amount of physical examination data. This article describes the methods used to recruit these participants and how these procedures influenced the final participation rate and the representativeness of SHHS to its parent cohorts. Of 30,773 people eligible for recruitment into SHHS, attempts were made to enroll 11,145 (36%). Of those contacted, 6441 ultimately agreed to participate (58%). Recruitment rates (38 to 91%) varied among sites. SHHS participants were slightly younger (63.0 vs. 65.0 years, p < 0.001), had more years of education (14.1 vs. 13.7, p < 0.001), more likely to snore (34% vs. 23%, p < 0.001), had higher Epworth sleepiness scores (7.7 vs. 6.5, p < 0.001), slightly higher higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures (127.6/73.9 vs. 127.2/72.1, p < 0.001 for diastolic only), and a slightly higher body mass index (BMI) (28.5 vs. 27.5, p < 0.001). We conclude that it is feasible to recruit existing participants from one large-scale epidemiologic study into another with a high degree of success. However, the characteristics of the new cohort may vary in several respects from their original cohorts and therefore interpretation of study results will have to consider these differences.

  6. Effects of Moderate-to-Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Overnight and Next-Day Hypoglycemia in Active Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Kristen M.; Singhvi, Ajay; Tsalikian, Eva; Tansey, Michael J.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Esliger, Dale W.; Janz, Kathleen F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical activity (PA) provides many benefits to adolescents with type 1 diabetes; however, these individuals tend to have lower fitness and PA levels than their disease-free counterparts. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute temporal associations between moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and hypoglycemia (continuous glucose monitor [CGM] reading ≤70 mg/dL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nineteen participants (53% females) 14–20 years old with type 1 diabetes were recruited. Participant fitness was evaluated via indirect calorimetry using a maximal exercise test; body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. An accelerometer was worn continuously (3–5 days) and acceleration data used to estimate MVPA (minutes per day). Blood glucose values were simultaneously tracked using CGM. Controlling for sex, percent body fat (%BF), fitness, and concurrent MVPA, the likelihood of nighttime and next-day hypoglycemia due to MVPA was examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Participants were of average fitness (females: 43.9 mL/kg/min; males: 49.8 mL/kg/min) and adiposity (females: 26.2%; males: 19.2%); 63.2% met the U.S. federal guideline of accumulating 60 min/day of MVPA. Hypoglycemia was 31% more likely in those who accumulated 30 min/day more MVPA in the previous afternoon than those with less (95% CI 1.05–1.63; P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that participating in afternoon MVPA increases the risk of overnight and next-day hypoglycemia, independent of sex, %BF, fitness, and concurrent MVPA. While promoting PA as a healthy behavior, it is important to educate adolescents with type 1 diabetes on prevention of hypoglycemia following PA. PMID:24574352

  7. Overnight improvements in two REM sleep-sensitive tasks are associated with both REM and NREM sleep changes, sleep spindle features, and awakenings for dream recall.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T; O'Reilly, C; Carr, M; Dumel, G; Godin, I; Solomonova, E; Lara-Carrasco, J; Blanchette-Carrière, C; Paquette, T

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is associated with sleep physiology but the contribution of specific sleep stages remains controversial. To clarify the contribution of REM sleep, participants were administered two REM sleep-sensitive tasks to determine if associated changes occurred only in REM sleep. Twenty-two participants (7 men) were administered the Corsi Block Tapping and Tower of Hanoi tasks prior to and again after a night of sleep. Task improvers and non-improvers were compared for sleep structure, sleep spindles, and dream recall. Control participants (N = 15) completed the tasks twice during the day without intervening sleep. Overnight Corsi Block improvement was associated with more REM sleep whereas Tower of Hanoi improvement was associated with more N2 sleep. Corsi Block improvement correlated positively with %REM sleep and Tower of Hanoi improvement with %N2 sleep. Post-hoc analyses suggest Tower of Hanoi effects-but not Corsi Block effects-are due to trait differences. Sleep spindle density was associated with Tower of Hanoi improvement whereas spindle amplitude correlated with Corsi Block improvement. Number of REM awakenings for dream reporting (but not dream recall per se) was associated with Corsi Block, but not Tower of Hanoi, improvement but was confounded with REM sleep time. This non-replication of one of 2 REM-sensitive task effects challenges both 'dual-process' and 'sequential' or 'sleep organization' models of sleep-dependent learning and points rather to capacity limitations on REM sleep. Experimental awakenings for sampling dream mentation may not perturb sleep-dependent learning effects; they may even enhance them. PMID:25291630

  8. Overnight improvements in two REM sleep-sensitive tasks are associated with both REM and NREM sleep changes, sleep spindle features, and awakenings for dream recall.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T; O'Reilly, C; Carr, M; Dumel, G; Godin, I; Solomonova, E; Lara-Carrasco, J; Blanchette-Carrière, C; Paquette, T

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is associated with sleep physiology but the contribution of specific sleep stages remains controversial. To clarify the contribution of REM sleep, participants were administered two REM sleep-sensitive tasks to determine if associated changes occurred only in REM sleep. Twenty-two participants (7 men) were administered the Corsi Block Tapping and Tower of Hanoi tasks prior to and again after a night of sleep. Task improvers and non-improvers were compared for sleep structure, sleep spindles, and dream recall. Control participants (N = 15) completed the tasks twice during the day without intervening sleep. Overnight Corsi Block improvement was associated with more REM sleep whereas Tower of Hanoi improvement was associated with more N2 sleep. Corsi Block improvement correlated positively with %REM sleep and Tower of Hanoi improvement with %N2 sleep. Post-hoc analyses suggest Tower of Hanoi effects-but not Corsi Block effects-are due to trait differences. Sleep spindle density was associated with Tower of Hanoi improvement whereas spindle amplitude correlated with Corsi Block improvement. Number of REM awakenings for dream reporting (but not dream recall per se) was associated with Corsi Block, but not Tower of Hanoi, improvement but was confounded with REM sleep time. This non-replication of one of 2 REM-sensitive task effects challenges both 'dual-process' and 'sequential' or 'sleep organization' models of sleep-dependent learning and points rather to capacity limitations on REM sleep. Experimental awakenings for sampling dream mentation may not perturb sleep-dependent learning effects; they may even enhance them.

  9. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  10. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  11. New activity-based funding model for Australian private sector overnight rehabilitation cases: the rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian; Predl, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models in the private sector are not based on a rigorous classification system and vary greatly between contracts with no consideration of patient complexity. The payment rates are not based on relative cost and the length-of-stay (LOS) point at which a reduced rate applies (step downs) varies markedly. The rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model (RAM), which has been in place for over 2 years in some private hospitals, bases payment on a rigorous classification system, relative cost and industry LOS. RAM is in the process of being rolled out more widely. This paper compares and contrasts RAM with traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models. It considers the advantages of RAM for hospitals and Australian Health Service Alliance. It also considers payment model changes in the context of maintaining industry consistency with Electronic Claims Lodgement and Information Processing System Environment (ECLIPSE) and health reform generally. PMID:25725655

  12. New activity-based funding model for Australian private sector overnight rehabilitation cases: the rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian; Predl, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models in the private sector are not based on a rigorous classification system and vary greatly between contracts with no consideration of patient complexity. The payment rates are not based on relative cost and the length-of-stay (LOS) point at which a reduced rate applies (step downs) varies markedly. The rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model (RAM), which has been in place for over 2 years in some private hospitals, bases payment on a rigorous classification system, relative cost and industry LOS. RAM is in the process of being rolled out more widely. This paper compares and contrasts RAM with traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models. It considers the advantages of RAM for hospitals and Australian Health Service Alliance. It also considers payment model changes in the context of maintaining industry consistency with Electronic Claims Lodgement and Information Processing System Environment (ECLIPSE) and health reform generally.

  13. Van Allen probes, NOAA, GOES, and ground observations of an intense EMIC wave event extending over 12 h in magnetic local time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Posch, J. L.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Lessard, M. R.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H. E.; Smith, C. W.; Singer, H. J.; Omura, Y.; Horne, R. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Gkioulidou, M.; Oksavik, K.; Mann, I. R.; Raita, T.; Shiokawa, K.

    2015-07-01

    Although most studies of the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on Earth's outer radiation belt have focused on events in the afternoon sector in the outer plasmasphere or plume region, strong magnetospheric compressions provide an additional stimulus for EMIC wave generation across a large range of local times and L shells. We present here observations of the effects of a wave event on 23 February 2014 that extended over 8 h in UT and over 12 h in local time, stimulated by a gradual 4 h rise and subsequent sharp increases in solar wind pressure. Large-amplitude linearly polarized hydrogen band EMIC waves (up to 25 nT p-p) appeared for over 4 h at both Van Allen Probes, from late morning through local noon, when these spacecraft were outside the plasmapause, with densities ~5-20 cm-3. Waves were also observed by ground-based induction magnetometers in Antarctica (near dawn), Finland (near local noon), Russia (in the afternoon), and in Canada (from dusk to midnight). Ten passes of NOAA-POES and METOP satellites near the northern foot point of the Van Allen Probes observed 30-80 keV subauroral proton precipitation, often over extended L shell ranges; other passes identified a narrow L shell region of precipitation over Canada. Observations of relativistic electrons by the Van Allen Probes showed that the fluxes of more field-aligned and more energetic radiation belt electrons were reduced in response to both the emission over Canada and the more spatially extended emission associated with the compression, confirming the effectiveness of EMIC-induced loss processes for this event.

  14. Fast food: friendly?

    PubMed

    Rice, S; McAllister, E J; Dhurandhar, N V

    2007-06-01

    Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast food, we examined the possibility of imaginative selection of fast food, which would attenuate the potentially unfavorable nutrient composition. We present a sample menu to demonstrate that it is possible to design a fast food menu that provides reasonable level of essential nutrients without exceeding the caloric recommendations. We would like to alert health-care professionals that fast food need not be forbidden under all circumstances, and that a fresh look at the role of fast food may enable its inclusion in meal planning for those who depend on it out of necessity, while adding flexibility.

  15. FAST User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  16. The facile construction of the phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffold via copper-mediated C–H(sp2)/C–H(sp) coupling under mild conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Bao; Zhou, Shengbin

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel strategy for the construction of the phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffold has been developed by means of a copper-mediated cascade C–H/C–H coupling and intramolecular annulations and a subsequent facile hydrazinolysis. This C–H activation transformation proceeds smoothly with wide generality, good functional tolerance and high stereo- and regioselectivity under mild conditions. Through the removal of the directing group, the resulting moiety could easily be transformed into the phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffold, which is known to be a privileged moiety and a bioactive nucleus in pharmaceuticals. PMID:26664581

  17. Acute ethanol effects on focal cerebral ischemia in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Yang, G Y; Ben-Joseph, O; Ross, B D; Chenevert, T L; Domino, E F

    1998-05-01

    The effects of acute ethanol intoxication were investigated in a rat model of unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Groups of 5 to 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 hr of left middle cerebral artery occlusion. All groups were deprived of food overnight and were pretreated intraperitoneally with 5% dextrose solution (10 ml/kg), 20% ethyl alcohol in 5% dextrose solution (2 g/kg), or 30% ethyl alcohol in a 5% dextrose solution (3 g/kg) 1 hr before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow during ipsilateral occlusion was approximately 9.1 to 10% of baseline in all groups. The mean % brain water content in control, 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups, and 3 g/kg ethanol-treated groups were: in the ischemic core--81.6, 81.2, and 82.4; intermediate zone--80.5, 80.6, and 81.7; and outer zone--79.7, 79.7, and 80.8, respectively. Brain Na+ and K+ content in the three groups was related to water content, but much greater with ethanol pretreatment. The water content of the intermediate zones in the 3 g/kg ethanol-treated animals was significantly greater than in the control (p < 0.01 and 0.001) and the 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups. One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant dose-effect relationship in which the lower dose of ethanol tended to reduce ischemic core water content, and the larger dose increased ischemic core water, compared with the control. None of the overnight fasted groups had any significant hyperglycemia. The group given 3 g/kg i.p. ethanol 1 hr before had exacerbated edema formation with a mean whole blood level of ethanol of approximately 230 mg/dl. The neurotoxic effects of high concentrations of ethanol were unrelated to any change in plasma glucose concentrations.

  18. Crystal structure analysis and chiral recognition study of Delta-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2][(+)-O,O'-dibenzoylD-tartrate].12H2O and Lambda-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2][(-)-O,O'-dibenzoyl-L-tartrate].12H2O.

    PubMed

    Kolp, B; Viebrock, H; von Zelewsky, A; Abeln, D

    2001-03-12

    The molecular structure and crystal-packing mode of the enantiopure chiral building blocks Delta-[Ru(bpy)(2)(py)(2)][(+)-O,O'-dibenzoyl-D-tartrate].12H(2)O (I) and Lambda-[Ru(bpy)(2)(py)(2)][(-)-O,O'-dibenzoyl-L-tartrate].12H(2)O (II) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. This study proposes a model of how the L- and D-dibenzoyltartrate anions recognize the chirality of the hydrophobic [Ru(bpy)(2)(py)(2)](2+) complex. The monoclinic unit cell contains four complex cations, four tartrate anions, and 48 water molecules. Since there are no possibilities to form hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions, chiral recognition is due to crystal packing. Two benzoyl rings of two different tartrate anions are gripping the two bpy-planes of the Ru-complex. Further a third benzoyl ring from a tartrate anion is packed between the two pyridine rings, favoring one enantiomeric form to crystallize from aqueous solution. Crystal structure data for I at 153 K: a = 15.342(3) A, b = 19.200(4) A, c = 18.872(4) A, beta = 104.841(3) degrees, monoclinic space group C(2), R(1)= 0.0239 (I > 2sigma(I)), R(2) = 0.0606, Flack parameter = 0.0115 (with esd 0.0166). For II at 293 K: a = 15.376(4) A, b = 19.388(11) A, c = 19.085(7) A, beta = 105.11(2) degrees, monoclinic space group C121, R(1)= 0.0686 (I > 2sigma(I)), R(2) = 0.1819, Flack parameter = -0.0100 (with esd 0.0521).

  19. Effects of an overnight intravenous lipid infusion on intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity in African-American versus Caucasian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Boesch, Chris; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explain the predisposition for insulin resistance among African American (AA) adolescents, this study aimed to: 1) examine changes in intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), and insulin sensitivity with intralipid (IL) infusion; and 2) determine whether the increase in IMCL is comparable between AA and Caucasian adolescents. Materials and Methods Thirteen AA and 15 Caucasian normal-weight adolescents (BMI <85th) underwent a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, on two occasions in random order, after an overnight 12-hr infusion of: 1) 20% IL and 2) normal saline (NS). IMCL was quantified by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in tibialis anterior muscle before and after IL infusion. Results During IL infusion, plasma TG, glycerol, FFA and fat oxidation increased significantly, with no race differences. Hepatic insulin sensitivity decreased with IL infusion with no difference between the groups. IL infusion was associated with a significant increase in IMCL, which was comparable between AA (Δ 105%; NS: 1.9 ± 0.8 vs. IL: 3.9 ± 1.6 mmol/kg wet weight) and Caucasian (Δ 86%; NS: 2.8 ± 2.1 vs. IL: 5.2 ± 2.4 mmol/kg wet weight), with similar reductions (P<0.01) in insulin sensitivity between the groups (Δ −44%: NS: 9.1 ± 3.3 vs. IL: 5.1 ± 1.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in AA) and (Δ−39%: NS: 12.9 ± 6.0 vs. IL: 7.9 ± 3.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in Caucasian) adolescents. Conclusions In healthy adolescents, an acute elevation in plasma FFA with IL infusion is accompanied by significant increases in IMCL and reductions in insulin sensitivity with no race differential. Our findings suggest that AA normal-weight adolescents are not more susceptible than Caucasians to FFA-induced IMCL accumulation and insulin resistance. PMID:23122836

  20. Short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; de Vries, Emmely M; van Nierop, F Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies indicate that short-term fasting alters drug metabolism. However, the effects of short-term fasting on drug metabolism in humans need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term fasting (36 h) on P450-mediated drug metabolism. In a randomized crossover study design, nine healthy subjects ingested a cocktail consisting of five P450-specific probe drugs [caffeine (CYP1A2), S-warfarin (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4)] on two occasions (control study after an overnight fast and after 36 h of fasting). Blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. In addition, we studied in Wistar rats the effects of short-term fasting on hepatic mRNA expression of P450 isoforms corresponding with the five studied P450 enzymes in humans. In the healthy subjects, short-term fasting increased oral caffeine clearance by 20% (P = 0.03) and decreased oral S-warfarin clearance by 25% (P < 0.001). In rats, short-term fasting increased mRNA expression of the orthologs of human CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 (P < 0.05), and decreased the mRNA expression of the ortholog of CYP2C9 (P < 0.001) compared with the postabsorptive state. These results demonstrate that short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in a nonuniform pattern. Therefore, short-term fasting is another factor affecting cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

  1. No gender difference in peak performance in ultra-endurance swimming performance - analysis of the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' from 1996 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, Evelyn; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Christoph, Alexander Rüst; Knechtle, Patrizia; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-10-31

    The aims of the study were to [1] investigate the performance trends at the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' in Switzerland from 1996 to 2010; and [2] determine the gender difference in peak performance in ultraendurance swimming. In total, 113 male and 53 female swimmers competed in this indoor ultraendurance event while swimming in a heated pool. The number of male participants significantly increased (r² = 0.36, P = 0.04) over time while the participation of females remained unchanged (r² = 0.12, P = 0.26). In the age group < 19 years, the male swimmers achieved a significantly greater distance than the females (32.7 km vs. 21.9 km, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the older age groups (20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and 50-59 years, respectively) was no gender difference in swimming performances (P < 0.05). The best performance was achieved in the age groups 30-39 years and 40-49 years for both genders, respectively. The athletes in the age groups < 19 years, 20-29 years and 50-59 years in females were significantly slower than the athletes in the age group 30-39 years and 40-49 years (P < 0.05). For the males, the athletes in the age group 30-39 years were significantly faster than the athletes in the age group < 19 years. The annual best performance was not significantly different between males and females (38.3 ± 2.9 km vs. 34.4 ± 8.2 km, respectively) (P < 0.05). The best male and female swim performances remained unchanged across the years. Females are able to achieve a similar swim performance in an indoor ultra-endurance swim event of ~40 km. Further studies are needed to investigate whether females are able to achieve similar or even better performances than males in openwater ultra-swimming events such as 'Channel Swimming'.

  2. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: the effect of duration of food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Ozünal, Zeynep Güneş; Zengin, Asli

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that mice and rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs, scopolamine or atropine, after fasting for 48 h develop convulsions soon after refeeding. The present study was performed to evaluate whether mice also develop convulsions after being deprived of food for 1-24 h. The effect of day-night fasting on the development of convulsions was also determined in 12-h deprived animals. Mice were deprived of food for periods of 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h. Animals fasted for 12 h during the day or night were deprived of food at 08:00 or 20:00 h, respectively. At the time of testing, animals were treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline or 3 mg/kg scopolamine. Twenty minutes later, they were given food and allowed to eat ad lib. All animals were observed for 30 min for the incidence and onset of convulsions. Fasted animals treated with scopolamine developed clonic convulsions after food intake. Incidence of convulsions was significant in 2-, 3-, 12-, 18-, 24-, and 48-h deprived animals. Convulsions observed after deprivation of food for 12 h during the day or at night were almost similar in both regimens. Our results indicate that food deprivation itself, rather than its duration, seems to be the principal factor in the development of these convulsions.

  3. Molecular mechanisms underlying fasting modulated liver insulin sensitivity and metabolism in male lipodystrophic Bscl2/Seipin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqin; Zhou, Hongyi; Saha, Pradip; Li, Luge; Chan, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    Bscl2(-/-) mice recapitulate many of the major metabolic manifestations in Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) individuals, including lipodystrophy, hepatomegly, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. The mechanisms that underlie hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in Bscl2(-/-) mice are poorly understood. To address this issue, we performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp on Bscl2(-/-) and wild-type mice after an overnight (16-h) fast, and found that Bscl2(-/-) actually displayed increased hepatic insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, liver in Bscl2(-/-) mice after a short term (4-h) fast had impaired acute insulin signaling, a defect that disappeared after a 16-hour fast. Notably, fasting-dependent hepatic insulin signaling in Bscl2(-/-) mice was not associated with liver diacylglyceride and ceramide contents, but could be attributable in part to the expression of hepatic insulin signaling receptor and substrates. Meanwhile, increased de novo lipogenesis and decreased β-oxidation led to severe hepatic steatosis in fed or short-fasted Bscl2(-/-) mice whereas liver lipid accumulation and metabolism in Bscl2(-/-) mice was markedly affected by prolonged fasting. Furthermore, mice with liver-specific inactivation of Bscl2 manifested no hepatic steatosis even under high-fat diet, suggesting Bscl2 does not play a cell autonomous role in regulating liver lipid homeostasis. Overall, our results offered new insights into the metabolic adaptations of liver in response to fasting and uncovered a novel fasting-dependent regulation of hepatic insulin signaling in a mouse model of human BSCL2.

  4. fast-matmul

    SciTech Connect

    Grey Ballard, Austin Benson

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.

  5. Fast robust correlation.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Alistair J; Kadyrov, Alexander; Christmas, William J; Kittler, Josef

    2005-08-01

    A new, fast, statistically robust, exhaustive, translational image-matching technique is presented: fast robust correlation. Existing methods are either slow or non-robust, or rely on optimization. Fast robust correlation works by expressing a robust matching surface as a series of correlations. Speed is obtained by computing correlations in the frequency domain. Computational cost is analyzed and the method is shown to be fast. Speed is comparable to conventional correlation and, for large images, thousands of times faster than direct robust matching. Three experiments demonstrate the advantage of the technique over standard correlation.

  6. Ramadan fasting and the goals of sports nutrition around exercise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; King, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Ramadan fasting, involving abstinence from fluid and food from sunrise to sundown, results in prolonged periods without nutrient intake and inflexibility with the timing of eating and drinking over the day. Dietary choices may also change due to special eating rituals. Although nutrition guidelines are specific to the sport, to the periodized training and competition calendar, and to the individual, many promote the consumption of carbohydrate and fluid before and during exercise, and consumption of protein, carbohydrate, and fluids soon after the session is completed. Failing to meet overall nutritional needs, or to provide specific nutritional support to a session of exercise, is likely to impair acute performance and reduce the effectiveness of training or recovery. Muslim athletes who fast during Ramadan should use overnight opportunities to consume foods and drinks that can supply the nutrients needed to promote performance, adaptation, and recovery in their sports. Because of the benefits of being able to consume at least some of these nutrients before, during or after an exercise session, the schedule of exercise should be shifted where possible to the beginning or end of the day, or during the evening when some nutritional support can be provided.

  7. NMR relaxation study of the phase transitions and relaxation mechanisms of the alums MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Ae Ran; Paik, Younkee; Lim, Kye-Young

    2011-06-15

    The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) single crystals have been investigated. The phase transition temperatures, NMR spectra, and the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei in the two crystals were determined using DSC and FT NMR spectroscopy. The resonance lines and relaxation times of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei undergo significant changes at the phase transition temperatures. The sudden changes in the splitting of the Rb and Cs resonance lines are attributed to changes in the local symmetry of their sites, and the changes in the temperature dependences of T{sub 1} are related to variations in the symmetry of the octahedra of water molecules surrounding Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +}. We also compared these {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs NMR results with those obtained for the trivalent cations Cr and Al in MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O and MAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O crystals. - Graphical Abstract: The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb, Cs, and NH{sub 4}) single crystals have been investigated. Highlights: > The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) crystals {yields} The NMR spectra and the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei in the two crystals {yields} The variations in the symmetry of the octahedra of water molecules surrounding Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +}.

  8. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  9. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-04-01

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting. PMID:27065168

  10. Fast protein folding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even “slow” folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816

  11. fastKDE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Travis A.; Kashinath, Karthik

    2015-05-22

    This software implements the fast, self-consistent probability density estimation described by O'Brien et al. (2014, doi: ). It uses a non-uniform fast Fourier transform technique to reduce the computational cost of an objective and self-consistent kernel density estimation method.

  12. Fast and effective?

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2013-12-18

    The 5.2 diet involves two days of fasting each week. It is being promoted as the key to sustained weight loss, as well as wider health benefits, despite the lack of evidence on the long-term effects. Nurses need to support patients who wish to try intermittent fasting. PMID:24345130

  13. Quantitative comparison of pathways of hepatic glycogen repletion in fed and fasted humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, G.I.; Cline, G.; Schumann, W.C.; Chandramouli, V.; Kumaran, K.; Landau, B.R. )

    1990-09-01

    The effect of fasting vs. refeeding on hepatic glycogen repletion by the direct pathway, i.e., glucose----glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)----glycogen, was determined. Acetaminophen was administered during an infusion of glucose labeled with (1-13C)- and (6-14C)glucose into four healthy volunteers after an overnight fast and into the same subjects 4 h after breakfast. 13C enrichments in C-1 and C-6 of glucose formed from urinary acetaminophen glucuronide compared with enrichments in C-1 and C-6 of plasma glucose provided an estimate of glycogen formation by the direct pathway. The specific activity of glucose from the glucuronide compared with the specific activity of the plasma glucose, along with the percentages of 14C in C-1 and C-6 of the glucose from the glucuronide, also provided an estimate of the amount of glycogen formed by the direct pathway. The estimates were similar. Those from (6-14C)glucose would have been higher than from (1-13C)glucose if the pentose cycle contribution to overall glucose utilization had been significant. After an overnight fast, during the last hour of infusion, 49 +/- 3% of the glycogen formed was formed via the direct pathway. After breakfast, at similar plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, the percentage increased to 69 +/- 7% (P less than 0.02). Thus the contributions of the pathways to hepatic glycogen formation depend on the dietary state of the individual. For a dietary regimen in which individuals consume multiple meals per day containing at least a moderate amount of carbohydrates most glycogen synthesis occurs by the direct pathway.

  14. Effects of feeding, fasting, and caerulein treatment on ornithine decarboxylase in rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Langlois, A; Morisset, J

    1991-09-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. We examined circadian variations in pancreatic ODC activity and time-course effects of caerulein in fed and fasted rats. Significant circadian variations in amount of ODC activity were observed. The highest values were obtained during the dark period (1855 +/- 406 pmoles CO2/h), and the lowest during the light period (359 +/- 84 pmoles CO2/h). Caerulein treatment induced hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas in fed rats; increases in pancreatic ODC activity preceded the rise in protein and DNA contents (447 +/- 44 pmoles CO2/h and 5573 +/- 893 pmoles CO2/h, 6 and 12 h after the first injection of caerulein, respectively). In fasted rats, pancreatic ODC activity was very low (149 +/- 37 pmoles CO2/h) and caerulein treatment induced a transient increase in this activity 12 h after the first injection; hypertrophy but not hyperplasia of the pancreas was observed. In caerulein-treated fasted rats, refeeding during the night following a 48 h fasting period was not enough to increase either ODC activity or DNA content. These findings demonstrate that nutritional status is an important factor in the regulation of ODC activity and, thereby, in caerulein-induced pancreatic growth.

  15. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P.; Emin, David

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  16. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  17. fast-matmul

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fastmore » matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.« less

  18. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  19. Fasting improves static apnea performance in elite divers without enhanced risk of syncope.

    PubMed

    Schagatay, Erika; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    In competitive apnea divers, the nutritional demands may be essentially different from those of, for example, endurance athletes, where energy resources need to be maximised for successful performance. In competitive apnea, the goal is instead to limit metabolism, as the length of the sustainable apneic period will depend to a great extent on minimising oxygen consumption. Many but not all elite divers fast before performing static apnea in competition. This may increase oxygen consumption as mainly lipid stores are metabolised but could also have beneficial effects on apneic duration. Our aim was to determine the effect of over-night fasting on apnea performance. Six female and seven male divers performed a series of three apneas after eating and fasting, respectively. The series consisted of two 2-min apneas spaced by 3 min rest and, after 5 min rest, one maximal effort apnea. Apneas were performed at supine rest and preceded by normal respiration and maximal inspiration. Mean (± SD) time since eating was 13 h (± 2 h 43 min) for the fasting and 1 h 34 min (± 33 min) for the eating condition (P < 0.001). Mean blood glucose was 5.1 (± 0.4) mmol/L after fasting and 5.9 (± 0.7) mmol/L after eating (P<0.01). Lung volumes were similar in both conditions (NS). For the 2-min apneas, nadir SaO2 during fasting was 95 (± 1)% and 92 (± 2)% (P < 0.001) on eating and ETCO2 was lower in the fasting condition (P < 0.01) while heart rate (HR) during apnea was 74 (± 10) bpm for fasting and 80 (± 10) bpm for eating conditions (P < 0.01). Maximal apnea durations were 4 min 41 s (± 43 s) during fasting and 3 min 51 s (± 37 s) after eating (P < 0.001), and time without respiratory contractions was 31 s (25%) longer after fasting (P < 0.01). At maximal apnea termination, SaO2 and ETCO2 were similar in both conditions (NS) and apneic HR was 63 (± 9) bpm for fasting and 70 (± 10) bpm for eating (P < 0.01). The 22% longer apnea duration after fasting with analogous end apnea

  20. Fasting improves static apnea performance in elite divers without enhanced risk of syncope.

    PubMed

    Schagatay, Erika; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    In competitive apnea divers, the nutritional demands may be essentially different from those of, for example, endurance athletes, where energy resources need to be maximised for successful performance. In competitive apnea, the goal is instead to limit metabolism, as the length of the sustainable apneic period will depend to a great extent on minimising oxygen consumption. Many but not all elite divers fast before performing static apnea in competition. This may increase oxygen consumption as mainly lipid stores are metabolised but could also have beneficial effects on apneic duration. Our aim was to determine the effect of over-night fasting on apnea performance. Six female and seven male divers performed a series of three apneas after eating and fasting, respectively. The series consisted of two 2-min apneas spaced by 3 min rest and, after 5 min rest, one maximal effort apnea. Apneas were performed at supine rest and preceded by normal respiration and maximal inspiration. Mean (± SD) time since eating was 13 h (± 2 h 43 min) for the fasting and 1 h 34 min (± 33 min) for the eating condition (P < 0.001). Mean blood glucose was 5.1 (± 0.4) mmol/L after fasting and 5.9 (± 0.7) mmol/L after eating (P<0.01). Lung volumes were similar in both conditions (NS). For the 2-min apneas, nadir SaO2 during fasting was 95 (± 1)% and 92 (± 2)% (P < 0.001) on eating and ETCO2 was lower in the fasting condition (P < 0.01) while heart rate (HR) during apnea was 74 (± 10) bpm for fasting and 80 (± 10) bpm for eating conditions (P < 0.01). Maximal apnea durations were 4 min 41 s (± 43 s) during fasting and 3 min 51 s (± 37 s) after eating (P < 0.001), and time without respiratory contractions was 31 s (25%) longer after fasting (P < 0.01). At maximal apnea termination, SaO2 and ETCO2 were similar in both conditions (NS) and apneic HR was 63 (± 9) bpm for fasting and 70 (± 10) bpm for eating (P < 0.01). The 22% longer apnea duration after fasting with analogous end apnea

  1. Discovery with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2016-02-01

    FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.

  2. Basic surface-active properties in the homologous series of β-alkyl (C12H25/C18H37) polyethyleneoxy (n = 0-20) propionamides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heterogeneous β-Alkyl (C12H25/C18H37) polyethyleneoxy (n = 0-20) propionamides [R(EO)nPD] represent new “hybrid” nonionic-ionic colloidal structures in the field of surface-active products (technical products). These “niche” compounds have three structural and compositional characteristics that also define their basic colloidal properties: mixture of R and PEO chain homologues; specific conformations due to the PEO chains; and the presence of side products from the addition of higher alcohols, polyethyleneglycols and traces of water to acrylamide. The proposed major objective of this paper is the basic informative colloidal characterization (functional classification, HLB balance, surface tension, critical micelle concentration) in direct correlation with the structural changes in the homologous series of LM(EO)nPD and CS(EO)nPD. The structures were obtained either indirectly by cyanoethylation followed by partial acid hydrolysis of the corresponding β-propionitriles, or directly by the nucleophilic addition under alkaline catalysis of linear higher alcohols C12H25/C14H29 (7/3) (LM) and C16H33/C18H37 (CS) as such and heterogeneous polyethoxylated (n = 3-20) to acrylamide monomer, through an adapted classic reaction scheme. Results In the series of basic colloidal characteristics investigated the structure-surface activity dependence is confirmed. Their indicative character for R(EO)nPD is based on the assumption that the structures studied are not unitary (heterogeneous) because: a) the hydrophobic chains C12H25/C18H37 have been grouped in two variants, C12H25/C14H29 (LM); C16H33/C18H37 (CS), each with an internal mass ratio of 7/3; b) the hydrophilic polyoxyethylene chains (n = 3-20) have polydisperse character; the meaning and value the oligomerization degree, n, is that of weighted average. In these conditions the surface tension increases proportionally with the oligomerization degree of the polyoxyethylene chain, while the

  3. Fasting levels of ghrelin covary with the brain response to food pictures.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Nils B; Krebs, Lena; Kobiella, Andrea; Grimm, Oliver; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2013-09-01

    Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.e. a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and correlated it with blood plasma levels of ghrelin. Twenty-six healthy female and male volunteers viewed food and control pictures in a block design and rated their appetite after each block. Fasting levels of ghrelin correlated positively with food-cue reactivity in a bilateral network of visual processing-, reward- and taste-related regions, including limbic and paralimbic regions. Notably, among those regions were the hypothalamus and the midbrain where ghrelin receptors are densely concentrated. In addition, high fasting ghrelin levels were associated with stronger increases of subjective appetite during the food-cue-reactivity task. In conclusion, brain activation and subjective appetite ratings suggest that ghrelin elevates the hedonic effects of food pictures. Thereby, fasting ghrelin levels may generally enhance subjective craving when confronted with reward cues.

  4. Effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on simulated cycling time-trial performance commenced in a fed or fasted state.

    PubMed

    Lane, Stephen C; Bird, Stephen R; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2013-02-01

    It is presently unclear whether the reported ergogenic effect of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on cycling time-trial performance is affected by the acute nutritional status of an individual. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a CHO mouth rinse on a 60-min simulated cycling time-trial performance commenced in a fed or fasted state. Twelve competitive male cyclists each completed 4 experimental trials using a double-blinded Latin square design. Two trials were commenced 2 h after a meal that contained 2.5 g·kg(-1) body mass of CHO (FED) and 2 after an overnight fast (FST). Prior to and after every 12.5% of total time during a performance ride, either a 10% maltodextrin (CHO) or a taste-matched placebo (PLB) solution was mouth rinsed for 10 s then immediately expectorated. There were significant main effects for both pre-ride nutritional status (FED vs. FST; p < 0.01) and CHO mouth rinse (CHO vs. PLB; p < 0.01) on power output with an interaction evident between the interventions (p < 0.05). The CHO mouth rinse improved mean power to a greater extent after an overnight fast (282 vs. 273 W, 3.4%; p < 0.01) compared with a fed state (286 vs. 281 W, 1.8%; p < 0.05). We concluded that a CHO mouth rinse improved performance to a greater extent in a fasted compared with a fed state; however, optimal performance was achieved in a fed state with the addition of a CHO mouth rinse.

  5. A Fast Hermite Transform★

    PubMed Central

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed. PMID:20027202

  6. Fast Overcurrent Tripping Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.

    1993-01-01

    Fast overcurrent tripping circuit designed for incorporation into power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) switching circuit. Serves as fast electronic circuit breaker by sensing voltage across MOSFET's during conduction and switching MOSFET's off within 1 microsecond after voltage exceeds reference value corresponding to tripping current. Acts more quickly than Hall-effect current sensor and, in comparison with shunt current-measuring circuits, smaller and consumes less power. Also ignores initial transient overcurrents during first 5 microseconds of switching cycle.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R M; de Roos, B; Duthie, S J; Bouwman, F G; Rubio-Aliaga, I; Crosley, L K; Mayer, C; Polley, A C; Heim, C; Coort, S L; Evelo, C T; Mulholland, F; Daniel, H; Mariman, E C; Johnson, I T

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R M; de Roos, B; Duthie, S J; Bouwman, F G; Rubio-Aliaga, I; Crosley, L K; Mayer, C; Polley, A C; Heim, C; Coort, S L; Evelo, C T; Mulholland, F; Daniel, H; Mariman, E C; Johnson, I T

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans. PMID:25260660

  9. Calibration and Data Analysis for the KCIF Fast Magnetics System

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Fasoli, A. F.; Ali-Arshad, A. S.; Moret, J, M.

    2000-03-01

    Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) and other magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena have been studied at the Joint European Torus (JET) using a new 8-channel, 4 s, 1 MHz, 12-bit data acquisition system KC1F in conjunction with the JET fast Mirnov magnetic fluctuation pickup coils. The JET magnetic pickup coils were calibrated for the first time in the range 30-460 kHz using a new remote calibration technique which accounts for the presence of the first few LRC circuit resonances. A data-processing system has been developed within the MATLAB software environment to produce spectrograms of fluctuation amplitude and toroidal mode number versus frequency and time. The analysis software has been automated to allow routine overnight production of spectrogram web pages. Modes with amplitudes {delta}B/B {ge} 10{sup -8} and toroidal mode numbers |n| < 32 are now routinely detected. A pulse-characterization database has also been developed to select for the analysis of various useful subsets of the 4000+ JET discharges for which KC1F data is now available. Based on the work presented here and recent advances in data-acquisition technology, it should now be possible to obtain complete diagnostic data on the AEs.

  10. Fast focus field calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, Marcel; Geissbuehler, Matthias; Märki, Iwan; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo

    2008-02-01

    We present a method for fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field in the aperture of the objective. Our fast calculation method is particularly useful for engineering the point-spread function or for fast image deconvolution. We present several case studies by calculating the focus fields of high NA oil immersion objectives for various amplitude, polarization and phase distributions of the input field. In addition, the calculation of an extended polychromatic focus field generated by a Bessel beam is presented. This extended focus field is of particular interest for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography because it preserves a lateral resolution of a few micrometers over an axial distance in the millimeter range.

  11. Fast ForWord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Fast ForWord, a CD-ROM and Internet-based training program for children (pre-K to grade 8) with language and reading problems that helps children rapidly build oral language comprehension and other critical skills necessary for learning to read or becoming a better reader. With the help of computers, speech…

  12. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Absolute intensities and self-, N2-, and air-broadened Lorentz halfwidths for selected lines in the nu3 band of (C-12)H3D from measurements with a tunable diode laser spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Thakur, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute intensities and self-, air- and N2-broadened half-widths have been determined for the first time for individual lines in the nu3(A1) band of (C-12)H3D near 7.6 microns from measurements of individual vibration-rotation lines using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. The intensity measurements are believed to be accurate to within three percent. Within experimental uncertainties, equal broadening efficiencies are found for both air and nitrogen. Self-broadened half-widths determined for three transitions yield an average half-width value of 0.803 + or -0.0010/cm/atm at 296 K.

  14. Cascade alkylarylation of substituted N-allylbenzamides for the construction of dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones and isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-diones

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ping; Du, Bingnan; Jiao, Wei; Mei, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Summary An oxidative reaction for the synthesis of 4-alkyl-substituted dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones with N-allylbenzamide derivatives as starting materials has been developed. The radical alkylarylation reaction proceeds through a sequence of alkylation and intramolecular cyclization. The substituent on the C–C double bond was found to play a key role for the progress of the reaction to give the expected products with good chemical yields. Additionally, N-methacryloylbenzamides were also suitable substrates for the current reaction and provided the alkyl-substituted isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-diones in good yield. PMID:26977189

  15. The effects of fasting on the thermogenic, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to infused adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Webber, J; Taylor, J; Greathead, H; Dawson, J; Buttery, P J; Macdonald, I A

    1995-10-01

    The effects of fasting on the thermogenic, lipolytic and cardiovascular responses to adrenaline were examined in nine normal, young, non-obese subjects. Each subject attended for study after 12, 36 and 72 h fasting. After basal measurements adrenaline was infused at 25 ng/min per kg ideal body weight for 90 min. Fasting increased the thermogenic effect of the adrenaline (mean 14.6 (SE 1.7), 16.6 (SE 1.8), 22.6 (SE 1.6) J/min per kg fat-free mass after 12, 36 and 72 h fasting respectively; P < 0.001, ANOVA). Basal plasma palmitate turnover increased with duration of fasting (1.48 (SE 0.22), 1.95 (SE 0.34) and 2.26 (SE 0.33) mumol/min per kg body weight; P < 0.001, ANOVA), but the response to adrenaline was unaffected by fasting. The percentage values for basal plasma palmitate turnover oxidized were 44 (SE 2; 12 h), 46 (SE 5; 36 h) and 42 (SE 4)% (72 h). In response to adrenaline this percentage fell, suggesting that adrenaline infusion may favour intra-tissue lipid oxidation.

  16. Temperature-dependent drug release from DPPC:C12H25-PNIPAM-COOH liposomes: control of the drug loading/release by modulation of the nanocarriers' components.

    PubMed

    Pippa, Natassa; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2015-05-15

    Novel polymer-modified thermosensitive liposomes were developed for the delivery of indomethacin in order to control its release profile. When attached to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes, the end functionalized C12H25-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-COOH (C12H25-PNIPAM-COOH) polymer was membrane-disruptive in a temperature-dependent manner. The interest for this polymer is driven by its famous lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior, where heating an aqueous solution of PNIPAM above 32°C induces nanophase separation and polymer chain aggregation. The physicochemical/structural behavior of these polymer-modified thermosensitive liposomes was found to depend on the PNIPAM:lipid molar ratio and the composition of the polymeric guest. The incorporation of PNIPAM has caused alterations in the thermotropic behavior of DPPC liposomes, as the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments revealed. The drug loading and the release were found to be strongly dependent on the thermotropic characteristics of the PNIPAM grafted DPPC liposomes. Namely, the in vitro release is immediate at 37°C (>LCST) ("burst" effect), while the prepared mixed nanocarriers did not release the encapsulated bioactive substance at <32°C (

  17. Rapid and robust spatiotemporal dynamics of the first-order phase transition in crystals of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C12H25NH3)2PbI4

    PubMed Central

    Yangui, Aymen; Sy, Mouhamadou; Li, Liang; Abid, Younes; Naumov, Panče; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of the thermally induced first-order structural phase transition in a high-quality single crystal of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C12H25NH3)2PbI4 was investigated by optical microscopy. The propagation of the straight phase front (habit plane) during the phase transition along the cooling and heating pathways of the thermal hysteresis was observed. The thermochromic character of the transition allowed monitoring of the thermal dependence of average optical density and aided the visualization of the interface propagation. The thermal hysteresis loop is 10 K wide, and the interface velocity is constant at V ≈ 1.6 mm s–1. The transition is accompanied with sizeable change in crystal size, with elongation of ~6% along the b axis and compression of ~ –2% along the a axis, in excellent agreement with previously reported X-ray diffraction data. The progression of the habit plane is at least 160 times faster than in spin-crossover materials, and opens new prospects for organic-inorganic perovskites as solid switching materials. Moreover, the crystals of (C12H25NH3)2PbI4 are unusually mechanically robust and present excellent resilience to thermal cycling. These hitherto unrecognized properties turn this and possibly similar hybrid perovskites into perspective candidates as active medium for microscopic actuation. PMID:26568147

  18. Oxidation behaviour of ferritic stainless steel grade Crofer 22 APU at 700 °C in flowing Ar−75%CO{sub 2}−12%H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Shariff, Nurul Atikah; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Jalar, Azman

    2013-11-27

    The oxidation of Ferritic Stainless Steel (FSS) grade Crofer 22 APU has been investigated. FSS alloys were exposed to isothermal conditions in a horizontal tube furnace at a 700 °C in flowing Ar−75%CO{sub 2}−12%H{sub 2}O at a pressure of approximately 1 atm. The results showed that the growth of non protective Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and spinel was observed after 50 h exposure in the presence of 12% H{sub 2}O. The weight was increased significantly with time of exposure. The formation of different oxides is presented on the interface of the specimen such as MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were revealed by X-ray diffraction and supported by EDAX analysis. FSS did not form a protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer due to water vapour accelerates the kinetics oxidation. Data of microstructure observation is presented and discussed in this paper in term of water vapour effects.

  19. Magnetically assisted fast ignition.

    PubMed

    Wang, W-M; Gibbon, P; Sheng, Z-M; Li, Y-T

    2015-01-01

    Fast ignition (FI) is investigated via integrated particle-in-cell simulation including both generation and transport of fast electrons, where petawatt ignition lasers of 2 ps and compressed targets of a peak density of 300  g cm(-3) and areal density of 0.49  g cm(-2) at the core are taken. When a 20 MG static magnetic field is imposed across a conventional cone-free target, the energy coupling from the laser to the core is enhanced by sevenfold and reaches 14%. This value even exceeds that obtained using a cone-inserted target, suggesting that the magnetically assisted scheme may be a viable alternative for FI. With this scheme, it is demonstrated that two counterpropagating, 6 ps, 6 kJ lasers along the magnetic field transfer 12% of their energy to the core, which is then heated to 3 keV. PMID:25615473

  20. Fast electrochemical actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Postnikov, A. V.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-03-01

    Lack of fast and strong microactuators is a well-recognized problem in MEMS community. Electrochemical actuators can develop high pressure but they are notoriously slow. Water electrolysis produced by short voltage pulses of alternating polarity can overcome the problem of slow gas termination. Here we demonstrate an actuation regime, for which the gas pressure is relaxed just for 10 μs or so. The actuator consists of a microchamber filled with the electrolyte and covered with a flexible membrane. The membrane bends outward when the pressure in the chamber increases. Fast termination of gas and high pressure developed in the chamber are related to a high density of nanobubbles in the chamber. The physical processes happening in the chamber are discussed so as problems that have to be resolved for practical applications of this actuation regime. The actuator can be used as a driving engine for microfluidics.

  1. Fast Ion Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Alan V.

    Fast ion conductors, sometimes referred to as superionic conductors or solid electrolytes, are solids with ionic conductivities that are comparable to those found in molten salts and aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes, i.e., 10-2-10 S cm-1. Such materials have been known of for a very long time and some typical examples of the conductivity are shown in Fig. 1, along with sodium chloride as the archetypal normal ionic solid. Faraday [1] first noted the high conductivity of solid lead fluoride (PbF2) and silver sulphide (Ag2S) in the 1830s and silver iodide was known to be unusually high ionic conductor to the German physicists early in the 1900s. However, the materials were regarded as anomalous until the mid 1960s when they became the focus of intense interest to academics and technologists and they have remained at the forefront of materials research [2-4]. The academic aim is to understand the fundamental origin of fast ion behaviour and the technological goal is to utilize the properties in applications, particularly in energy applications such as the electrolyte membranes in solid-state batteries and fuel cells, and in electrochemical sensors. The last four decades has seen an expansion of the types of material that exhibit fast ion behaviour that now extends beyond simple binary ionic crystals to complex solids and even polymeric materials. Over this same period computer simulations of solids has also developed (in fact these methods and the interest in fast ion conductors were almost coincidental in their time of origin) and the techniques have played a key role in this area of research.

  2. PHENIX Fast TOF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aria; Chiu, Mickey; Mannel, Eric; Stoll, Sean; Lynch, Don; Boose, Steve; Northacker, Dave; Alfred, Marcus; Lindesay, James; Chujo, Tatsuya; Inaba, Motoi; Nonaka, Toshihiro; Sato, Wataru; Sakatani, Ikumi; Hirano, Masahiro; Choi, Ihnjea

    2014-01-15

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of PHENIX Fast TOF group who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the FY2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The goals for this test beam experiment are to verify the timing performance of the two types of time-of-flight detector prototypes.

  3. Fast track evaluation methodology.

    PubMed

    Duke, J R

    1991-06-01

    Evaluating hospital information systems has taken a variety of forms since the initial development and use of automation. The process itself has moved from a hardware-based orientation controlled by data processing professionals to systems solutions and a user-driven process overseen by management. At Harbor Hospital Center in Baltimore, a fast track methodology has been introduced to shorten system evaluation time to meet the rapid changes that constantly affect the healthcare industry.

  4. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  5. The fast Hartley transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar, Mark H.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of testing the fast Hartley transform (FHT) and comparing it with the fast Fourier transform (FFT). All the definitions and equations in this paper are quoted and cited from the series of references. The author of this report developed a FORTRAN program which computes the Hartley transform. He tested the program with a generalized electromagnetic pulse waveform and verified the results with the known value. Fourier analysis is an essential tool to obtain frequency domain information from transient time domain signals. The FFT is a popular tool to process many of today's audio and electromagnetic signals. System frequency response, digital filtering of signals, and signal power spectrum are the most practical applications of the FFT. However, the Fourier integral transform of the FFT requires computer resources appropriate for the complex arithmetic operations. On the other hand, the FHT can accomplish the same results faster and requires fewer computer resources. The FHT is twice as fast as the FFT, uses only half the computer resources, and so could be more useful than the FFT in typical applications such as spectral analysis, signal processing, and convolution. This paper presents a FORTRAN computer program for the FHT algorithm along with a brief description and compares the results and performance of the FHT and the FFT algorithms.

  6. Fasting - the ultimate diet?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, A M

    2007-05-01

    Adult humans often undertake acute fasts for cosmetic, religious or medical reasons. For example, an estimated 14% of US adults have reported using fasting as a means to control body weight and this approach has long been advocated as an intermittent treatment for gross refractory obesity. There are unique historical data sets on extreme forms of food restriction that give insight into the consequences of starvation or semi-starvation in previously healthy, but usually non-obese subjects. These include documented medical reports on victims of hunger strike, famine and prisoners of war. Such data provide a detailed account on how the body adapts to prolonged starvation. It has previously been shown that fasting for the biblical period of 40 days and 40 nights is well within the overall physiological capabilities of a healthy adult. However, the specific effects on the human body and mind are less clearly documented, either in the short term (hours) or in the longer term (days). This review asks the following three questions, pertinent to any weight-loss therapy, (i) how effective is the regime in achieving weight loss, (ii) what impact does it have on psychology? and finally, (iii) does it work long-term? PMID:17444963

  7. Carotid body denervation prevents fasting hyperglycemia during chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Yao, Qiaoling; Jun, Jonathan C; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Yoo, Doo-Young; Han, Woobum; Mesarwi, Omar; Richardson, Ria; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Schwartz, Alan R; Shirahata, Machiko; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, but mechanisms are unknown. Carotid bodies orchestrate physiological responses to hypoxemia by activating the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that carotid body denervation would abolish glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by chronic IH. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent carotid sinus nerve dissection (CSND) or sham surgery and then were exposed to IH or intermittent air (IA) for 4 or 6 wk. Hypoxia was administered by decreasing a fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9% to 6.5% once per minute, during the 12-h light phase (9 a.m.-9 p.m.). As expected, denervated mice exhibited blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses. In sham-operated mice, IH increased fasting blood glucose, baseline hepatic glucose output (HGO), and expression of a rate-liming hepatic enzyme of gluconeogenesis phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), whereas the whole body glucose flux during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was not changed. IH did not affect glucose tolerance after adjustment for fasting hyperglycemia in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. CSND prevented IH-induced fasting hyperglycemia and increases in baseline HGO and liver PEPCK expression. CSND trended to augment the insulin-stimulated glucose flux and enhanced liver Akt phosphorylation at both hypoxic and normoxic conditions. IH increased serum epinephrine levels and liver sympathetic innervation, and both increases were abolished by CSND. We conclude that chronic IH induces fasting hyperglycemia increasing baseline HGO via the CSN sympathetic output from carotid body chemoreceptors, but does not significantly impair whole body insulin sensitivity. PMID:25103977

  8. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  9. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  10. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID

  11. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  12. Calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06)Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07)(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, Barbara; Downs, Robert T.; Yang, Hexiong; Jenkins, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcioferrite, ideally Ca4MgFe3+ 4(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O (tetra­calcium magnesium tetrairon(III) hexakis-phosphate tetra­hydroxide dodeca­hydrate), is a member of the calcioferrite group of hydrated calcium phosphate minerals with the general formula Ca4 AB 4(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O, where A = Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+ and B = Al, Fe3+. Calcioferrite and the other three known members of the group, montgomeryite (A = Mg, B = Al), kingsmountite (A = Fe2+, B = Al), and zodacite (A = Mn2+, B = Fe3+), usually occur as very small crystals, making their structure refinements by conventional single-crystal X-ray diffraction challenging. This study presents the first structure determination of calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06)Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07)(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from the Moculta quarry in Angaston, Australia. Calcioferrite is isostructural with montgomeryite, the only member of the group with a reported structure. The calcioferrite structure is characterized by (Fe/Al)O6 octa­hedra (site symmetries 2 and -1) sharing corners (OH) to form chains running parallel to [101]. These chains are linked together by PO4 tetra­hedra (site symmetries 2 and 1), forming [(Fe/Al)3(PO4)3(OH)2] layers stacking along [010], which are connected by (Ca/Sr)2+ cations (site symmetry 2) and Mg2+ cations (site symmetry 2; half-occupation). Hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules (one of which is equally disordered over two positions) and OH function are also present between these layers. The relatively weaker bonds between the layers account for the cleavage of the mineral parallel to (010). PMID:24764934

  13. Simplified fast neutron dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    1979-01-01

    Direct fast-neutron-induced recoil and alpha particle tracks in polycarbonate films may be enlarged for direct visual observation and automated counting procedures employing electrochemical etching techniques. Electrochemical etching is, for example, carried out in a 28% KOH solution at room temperature by applying a 2000 V peak-to-peak voltage at 1 kHz frequency. Such recoil particle amplification can be used for the detection of wide neutron dose ranges from 1 mrad. to 1000 rads. or higher, if desired.

  14. The fast encryption package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1988-01-01

    The organization of some tools to help improve passwork security at a UNIX-based site is described along with how to install and use them. These tools and their associated library enable a site to force users to pick reasonably safe passwords (safe being site configurable) and to enable site management to try to crack existing passworks. The library contains various versions of a very fast implementation of the Data Encryption Standard and of the one-way encryption functions used to encryp the password.

  15. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  16. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  17. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  18. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  19. C12H20Cl3NTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhova, B. M.

    This document is part of Subvolume D5 `Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13. Part 5: Organometallic Compounds' of Volume 35 `Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data' of Landolt-Börnstein Group III: `Condensed Matter'.

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of bis(3-ammoniumphenyl) sulfone dinitrate [C{sub 12}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}S](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mahroug, A.; Belhouchet, M. Mhiri, T.

    2013-07-15

    A new organic nitrate with the formula [C{sub 12}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}S](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, has been prepared and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system: a = 16.771 (3), b = 13.884(2), c = 13.884(2) A, V = 3232.7(7)A{sup 3}, Z = 8, space group Pna2{sub 1}. Crystal structure can be described as a succession of organic and inorganic layers parallel to b, c plane. H-bonds between the different species play an important role in the three-dimensional network cohesion.

  1. Measurements of air-broadened and nitrogen-broadened Lorentz width coefficients and pressure shift coefficients in the nu4 and nu2 bands of C-12H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris

    1988-01-01

    Air-broadened and N2-broadened halfwidth and pressure shift coefficients of 294 transitions in the nu4 and nu2 bands of C-12H4 have been measured from laboratory absorption spectra recorded at room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope facility of the National Solar Observatory. Total pressures of up to 551 Torr were employed with absorption paths of 5-150 cm, CH4 volume mixing ratios of 2.6 percent or less, and resolutions of 0.005 and 0.01/cm. A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting technique has been utilized in the analysis of the twenty-five measured spectra. Lines up to J double-prime = 18 in the nu4 band and J double-prime = 15 in the nu2 band have been analyzed.

  2. Fast separable nonlocal means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sanjay; Chaudhury, Kunal N.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple and fast algorithm called PatchLift for computing distances between patches (contiguous block of samples) extracted from a given one-dimensional signal. PatchLift is based on the observation that the patch distances can be efficiently computed from a matrix that is derived from the one-dimensional signal using lifting; importantly, the number of operations required to compute the patch distances using this approach does not scale with the patch length. We next demonstrate how PatchLift can be used for patch-based denoising of images corrupted with Gaussian noise. In particular, we propose a separable formulation of the classical nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm that can be implemented using PatchLift. We demonstrate that the PatchLift-based implementation of separable NLM is a few orders faster than standard NLM and is competitive with existing fast implementations of NLM. Moreover, its denoising performance is shown to be consistently superior to that of NLM and some of its variants, both in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio/structural similarity index and visual quality.

  3. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  4. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-15

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog{sub 2}N rather than N{sup 2}) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  5. The influence of sucrose on the crystallization behaviour in the system CaO-SiO{sub 2}-C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}-H{sub 2}O under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, A.; Buhl, J.-Ch.

    2010-04-15

    Hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of sucrose has been carried out at 200 {sup o}C and autogeneous pressure in the system CaO-SiO{sub 2}-C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}-H{sub 2}O to investigate the influence of C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11} on phase formation and the crystal habit of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH-phases). A sucrose/lime ratio of 0.5 was utilized in all experiments and the reactivity of the SiO{sub 2} source was varied using educts of different grain size of {approx}40 mesh and >230 mesh. CaO/SiO{sub 2} concentration ratios of 0.5 and 0.8 have been selected, the latter with respect to the composition of the important CSH-phase 11 A tobermorite. The results were compared with experiments under similar but sucrose-free conditions. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX-analysis) as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-spectroscopy) have been applied for analyses. A retarding effect of sucrose on CSH-phase formation has been observed. Only minor amount of CSH without regular morphology was observed instead of typically fibrous 11 A tobermorite formed in the sucrose-free system. Sucrose altered the reaction mechanism in the CSH-system and hydrothermal process started with rapid reaction of sucrose and lime. The further course of crystallization was dominated by an extended precipitation of calcium carbonate and small amounts of calcium oxalate hydrate. Formation of these stable hydrothermal decomposition products of saccharated lime is strongly suppressing the CSH-crystallization.

  6. Impurity gradients in solution-grown ice and MgSO4·12H2O crystals measured by cryo-laser ablation and high-resolution-induced-coupled plasma mass spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, R. S.; Genceli, F. E.; Trambitas, D. O.; Witkamp, G. J.

    2005-02-01

    During the eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC) of an industrial aqueous MgSO4 solution, ice and magnesium sulfate duodecahydrate ( MgSO4·12H2O(s)) were crystallized simultaneously near the eutectic point. It was found that the crystallization was highly selective: although the industrial feed solution contained appreciable levels of inorganic impurities (typically: 320 mg/L Cl-, 410 mg/L Ca2, 40 mg/L Mn, 70 mg/L Na+ and 50 mg/L K+), the formed ice and salt crystals contained lower levels of impurities (typically: 17 mg/L Cl-, 8 mg/L Ca, 17 mg/L Mn, and 5 mg/L Na). Also the ice was pure: only traces (typically: 20 mg/L SO42- and 5 mg/L Mg) of magnesium and sulfate were found in the ice crystals. In this work the spatial distribution of the impurities in the crystals is investigated. Gradients of composition in solids are measured by laser ablation high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS). A special cryogenic sampling cell (<-80C) for laser ablation has been constructed. The focused (5- 10 μm width) laser shoots at the frozen sample, scanning its surface. The vapor is fed to the mass spectrometer. In this way, the impurity concentration as a function of position in the crystal can be measured. The results of this method with MgSO4·12H2O and ice are presented.

  7. Data on the phospholipid fatty acyl composition of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue in ad libitum fed and fasted mice

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Kristin A.; Marvyn, Phillip M.; Henao, Juan J. Aristizabal; Bradley, Ryan M.; Stark, Ken D.; Duncan, Robin E.

    2016-01-01

    Data are presented on the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid from retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of female mice that were either given ad libitum access to food or fasted for 16 h overnight prior to sacrifice. Our data show that total adipose phospholipid concentrations were more than 2-fold higher in the fasted animals compared with the fed animals (33.48±7.40 versus 16.57±4.43 μg phospholipid fatty acids/100 mg tissue). Concentrations of several individual phospholipid fatty acyl species, including palmitic acid (16:0), vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as well as total phospholipid saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly higher in adipose tissue from the fasted animals compared with the fed animals. However, when the relative abundance of phospholipid fatty acyl species was analyzed, only 20:4n-6 was specifically enriched (by ~2.5-fold) in adipose phospholipid with fasting. PMID:27014729

  8. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  9. Day-night treatment difference of tobramycin serum and intrarenal drug distribution and nephrotoxicity in rats: effects of fasting.

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Grenier, L; LeBrun, M; Bergeron, M G; Thibault, L; Labrecque, G; Beauchamp, D

    1996-07-01

    The effects of short-term food deprivation on the serum and renal distribution and nephrotoxicity of tobramycin were studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a 14-h light/10-h dark cycle (light on: 06:00). For the distribution study, a single injection of tobramycin (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered at 14:00 or 02:00 to normally fed animals or to animals fasted for 12 h before tobramycin injection; these treatment times correspond to the peak and trough of tobramycin nephrotoxicity as previously determined in other studies. The serum and cortical levels of tobramycin were significantly higher 60, 120, and 240 min after the injection in fasted animals treated at 02:00 compared with normally fed animals treated at the same time (p < 0.05). In animals injected at 14:00, similar levels of tobramycin were measured in both fasted and fed rats. In the nephrotoxicity study, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 12 h before and 24 h after the timed single injection of tobramycin (150 mg/kg, i.p.). The 24-h urinary excretion of beta-galactosidase was significantly higher in fasted animals treated at 02:00 than in fed rats treated at the same time of day. Seventy-two hours following tobramycin injection, serum creatinine levels and cortical levels of tobramycin were significantly higher in fasted rats treated at 14:00 than at 02:00 and in fed rats treated at 14:00. These data suggest that a short period of food deprivation modulates the temporal variations of tobramycin nephrotoxicity.

  10. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  11. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  12. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  13. Chemistry of fast electrons

    PubMed Central

    Maximoff, Sergey N.; Head-Gordon, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    A chemicurrent is a flux of fast (kinetic energy ≳ 0.5−1.3 eV) metal electrons caused by moderately exothermic (1−3 eV) chemical reactions over high work function (4−6 eV) metal surfaces. In this report, the relation between chemicurrent and surface chemistry is elucidated with a combination of top-down phenomenology and bottom-up atomic-scale modeling. Examination of catalytic CO oxidation, an example which exhibits a chemicurrent, reveals 3 constituents of this relation: The localization of some conduction electrons to the surface via a reduction reaction, 0.5 O2 + δe− → Oδ− (Red); the delocalization of some surface electrons into a conduction band in an oxidation reaction, Oδ− + CO → CO2δ− → CO2 + δe− (Ox); and relaxation without charge transfer (Rel). Juxtaposition of Red, Ox, and Rel produces a daunting variety of metal electronic excitations, but only those that originate from CO2 reactive desorption are long-range and fast enough to dominate the chemicurrent. The chemicurrent yield depends on the universality class of the desorption process and the distribution of the desorption thresholds. This analysis implies a power-law relation with exponent 2.66 between the chemicurrent and the heat of adsorption, which is consistent with experimental findings for a range of systems. This picture also applies to other oxidation-reduction reactions over high work function metal surfaces. PMID:19561296

  14. Effects of 2-, 4- and 12-hour fasting intervals on preoperative gastric fluid pH and volume, and plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis in children.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, N; Mikawa, K; Yaku, H; Nishina, K; Obara, H

    1993-11-01

    We evaluated 105 randomly-selected unpremedicated children aged 1-14 years to determine the effects of a 2-, 4- and 12-h preoperative fasting interval on the preoperative gastric fluid pH and volume, and plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis. Each child undergoing elective surgery ingested a large volume (approximately 10 ml/kg b.w.) of apple juice and then fasted for 2, 4 or 12 h before the estimated induction of anaesthesia. After induction of anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through a large-bore, multiorifice orogastric tube. Plasma concentrations of glucose, total ketone bodies, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triglycerides, and cortisol were measured at the time of induction to evaluate the fasting interval effects on preoperative plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis. There were no significant differences between the three groups in either gastric fluid volume or pH. In addition, there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the proportion with a pH < 2.5 and volume > 0.4 ml/kg b.w. Neither plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, nor cortisol at the time of anaesthetic induction differed between the three groups. Both 4 and 12 h nil per os (NPO) caused an increase in lipolysis, which was presumably a compensatory mechanism to maintain normoglycaemia. The plasma NEFA and total ketone bodies concentrations were therefore significantly higher in these two fasting intervals than in 2 h NPO. These data suggest that a 2-h NPO, after a large volume of ingested apple juice, may offer additional benefits by preventing an increase in lipolysis during the fasting interval without either increasing the volume of gastric fluid or decreasing the gastric pH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effects of fasting on maximum thermogenesis in temperature-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C. H.

    1981-09-01

    To further investigate the limiting effect of substrates on maximum thermogenesis in acute cold exposure, the present study examined the prevalence of this effect at different thermogenic capabilities consequent to cold- or warm-acclimation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11) were acclimated to 6, 16 and 26‡C, in succession, their thermogenic capabilities after each acclimation temperature were measured under helium-oxygen (21% oxygen, balance helium) at -10‡C after overnight fasting or feeding. Regardless of feeding conditions, both maximum and total heat production were significantly greater in 6>16>26‡C-acclimated conditions. In the fed state, the total heat production was significantly greater than that in the fasted state at all acclimating temperatures but the maximum thermogenesis was significant greater only in the 6 and 16‡C-acclimated states. The results indicate that the limiting effect of substrates on maximum and total thermogenesis is independent of the magnitude of thermogenic capability, suggesting a substrate-dependent component in restricting the effective expression of existing aerobic metabolic capability even under severe stress.

  16. Performance Impact of Fast Flow Paths Through Grout Monoliths Used for Radioactive Waste Disposal - 13224

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Walter, Gary R.; Esh, David W.; Barr, Cynthia S.

    2013-07-01

    Empty HLW handling and storage tanks at SRS and INL contain residual radioactivity; these tanks are being stabilized with cementitious grout during closure operations. The US NRC directed the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA{sup R}) to develop physical analogs of cementitious grout monoliths to investigate their potential to form fast flow pathways such as macro-cracks, separations between grout lifts, and annuli around pipes, supports, and along tank walls. CNWRA developed and tested 15 55-gal-drum-scale specimens and 2 larger specimens of tank-filling cementitious grout, and 9 specimens of pipe-filling grout. These experiments demonstrated that the size of fast flow pathways that develop and the peak temperatures attained during hydration are proportional to the scale of the specimen, and that annular apertures and bulk grout permeability generally increased with time post-placement. Cracks developed overnight following placement of each grout lift in the largest specimen, but developed more slowly in smaller specimens, perhaps due to a ∼20 deg. C difference in peak temperatures, which influence the thermal gradients that can induce cracking. Plastic and drying shrinkage commonly led to poor grout-to-metal and grout-to-grout bonding. Cracks, annular gaps, and grout flow lobe seams transmitted fluids during injection testing. Macro-scale flow pathways such as these are not readily observed in bench-scale specimens of cementitious tank grout. (authors)

  17. Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial".

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha; Hachmann, Wibke; Neubauer, Claudia; Konieczny, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading in which individuals process letters serially with a pronounced length effect. Yet, there is considerable variation in the performance of alexic readers with generally very slow, but also occasionally fast responses, an observation addressed rarely in previous reports. It has been suggested that "fast" responses in pure alexia reflect residual parallel letter processing or that they may even be subserved by an independent reading system. Four experiments assessed fast and slow reading in a participant (DN) with pure alexia. Two behavioral experiments investigated frequency, neighborhood, and length effects in forced fast reading. Two further experiments measured eye movements when DN was forced to read quickly, or could respond faster because words were easier to process. Taken together, there was little support for the proposal that "qualitatively different" mechanisms or reading strategies underlie both types of responses in DN. Instead, fast responses are argued to be generated by the same serial-reading strategy.

  18. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sweety; Krug, Susanne; Skurk, Thomas; Halama, Anna; Stank, Antonia; Artati, Anna; Prehn, Cornelia; Malek, Joel A; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Adamski, Jerzy; Hauner, Hans; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-06-06

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient

  19. In situ monitoring and optimization of room temperature ultra-fast sensitization for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Davies, Matthew L; Watson, Trystan M; Holliman, Peter J; Connell, Arthur; Worsley, David A

    2014-10-25

    We describe the fastest dyeing of TiO2 photo-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells reported to date (<2 min) at room temperature giving η = 7.5% for an N719-SQ1-CDCA mixture which is significantly higher than devices dyed for >12 h using the same dye mixture (η = 5.5%). Time-lapse photography has been used to monitor the ultra-fast co-sensitization. The data show significantly different dye uptake between passive and pump dyeing reflecting competitive sorption between a Ru complex (N719) and an organic dye (SQ1).

  20. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  1. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  2. 46 CFR 116.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear... reinforced plastic, or metal. A berth located more than 1,525 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be... least 610 millimeters (24 inches) wide. An aisle joining two or more aisles in an...

  3. 46 CFR 116.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear... reinforced plastic, or metal. A berth located more than 1,525 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be... least 610 millimeters (24 inches) wide. An aisle joining two or more aisles in an...

  4. 46 CFR 116.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear... reinforced plastic, or metal. A berth located more than 1,525 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be... least 610 millimeters (24 inches) wide. An aisle joining two or more aisles in an...

  5. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  6. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  7. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  8. 46 CFR 116.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear... reinforced plastic, or metal. A berth located more than 1,525 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be... least 610 millimeters (24 inches) wide. An aisle joining two or more aisles in an...

  9. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  10. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  11. 46 CFR 116.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear... reinforced plastic, or metal. A berth located more than 1,525 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be... least 610 millimeters (24 inches) wide. An aisle joining two or more aisles in an...

  12. Overnight lexical consolidation revealed by speech segmentation.

    PubMed

    Dumay, Nicolas; Gareth Gaskell, M

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of the existing word: they start at the same time point and overlap on most of their segments; and the fully embedding case (such as "lirmucktoze"), where the existing word corresponds to a smaller embedded portion of its novel competitor and is thus less noticeable. Experiment 1 (pause detection) revealed a similar performance for both cases, with no competitor effect immediately after exposure, but significant inhibition after 24 h and seven days. Experiment 2 (word spotting) produced exactly the same pattern; however, as is the case with existing word carriers (cf. McQueen, Norris, & Cutler, 1994), the inhibition was much stronger for fully embedded than for onset-aligned targets (e.g., "lirmuckt" vs. "frenzyl"). Meanwhile, explicit measures of learning, i.e., free recall and recognition, improved over time. These results cannot be explained by either consolidation of episodic traces or acquisition of new phonological/dialectal variants. We argue instead that they reflect a general trait of vocabulary learning and consolidation. PMID:22261419

  13. Overnight Lexical Consolidation Revealed by Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumay, Nicolas; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of…

  14. Fast ignition breakeven scaling.

    SciTech Connect

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E{sub T} = 7.5({rho}/100){sup -1.87} kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E{sub UT} = 15.3({rho}/100){sup -1.5} kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even.

  15. Responder fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  16. Responder fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-09-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  17. Parallel fast gauss transform

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Rahul S; Sundar, Hari; Veerapaneni, Shravan

    2010-01-01

    We present fast adaptive parallel algorithms to compute the sum of N Gaussians at N points. Direct sequential computation of this sum would take O(N{sup 2}) time. The parallel time complexity estimates for our algorithms are O(N/n{sub p}) for uniform point distributions and O( (N/n{sub p}) log (N/n{sub p}) + n{sub p}log n{sub p}) for non-uniform distributions using n{sub p} CPUs. We incorporate a plane-wave representation of the Gaussian kernel which permits 'diagonal translation'. We use parallel octrees and a new scheme for translating the plane-waves to efficiently handle non-uniform distributions. Computing the transform to six-digit accuracy at 120 billion points took approximately 140 seconds using 4096 cores on the Jaguar supercomputer. Our implementation is 'kernel-independent' and can handle other 'Gaussian-type' kernels even when explicit analytic expression for the kernel is not known. These algorithms form a new class of core computational machinery for solving parabolic PDEs on massively parallel architectures.

  18. Fast Fuzzy Arithmetic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Michael; Kosheleva, Olga

    1997-01-01

    In engineering applications of fuzzy logic, the main goal is not to simulate the way the experts really think, but to come up with a good engineering solution that would (ideally) be better than the expert's control, In such applications, it makes perfect sense to restrict ourselves to simplified approximate expressions for membership functions. If we need to perform arithmetic operations with the resulting fuzzy numbers, then we can use simple and fast algorithms that are known for operations with simple membership functions. In other applications, especially the ones that are related to humanities, simulating experts is one of the main goals. In such applications, we must use membership functions that capture every nuance of the expert's opinion; these functions are therefore complicated, and fuzzy arithmetic operations with the corresponding fuzzy numbers become a computational problem. In this paper, we design a new algorithm for performing such operations. This algorithm is applicable in the case when negative logarithms - log(u(x)) of membership functions u(x) are convex, and reduces computation time from O(n(exp 2))to O(n log(n)) (where n is the number of points x at which we know the membership functions u(x)).

  19. Fast Feedback in Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Katrina; Klaassen, Kees; Eijkelhof, Harrie

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe one application of the fast feedback method (see Berg 2003 "Aust. Sci. Teach. J." 28-34) in secondary mechanics education. Two teachers tried out a particular sequence twice, in consecutive years, once with and once without the use of fast feedback. We found the method to be successful, and the data that we obtained…

  20. Fast-Polynomial-Transform Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Chu, Y. F.

    1987-01-01

    Computer program uses fast-polynomial-transformation (FPT) algorithm applicable to two-dimensional mathematical convolutions. Two-dimensional cyclic convolutions converted to one-dimensional convolutions in polynomial rings. Program decomposes cyclic polynomials into polynomial convolutions of same length. Only FPT's and fast Fourier transforms of same length required. Modular approach saves computional resources. Program written in C.

  1. Discovery of 2-(6-(5-Chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide (PF-06282999): A Highly Selective Mechanism-Based Myeloperoxidase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Roger B; Buckbinder, Leonard; Bagley, Scott W; Carpino, Philip A; Conn, Edward L; Dowling, Matthew S; Fernando, Dilinie P; Jiao, Wenhua; Kung, Daniel W; Orr, Suvi T M; Qi, Yingmei; Rocke, Benjamin N; Smith, Aaron; Warmus, Joseph S; Zhang, Yan; Bowles, Daniel; Widlicka, Daniel W; Eng, Heather; Ryder, Tim; Sharma, Raman; Wolford, Angela; Okerberg, Carlin; Walters, Karen; Maurer, Tristan S; Zhang, Yanwei; Bonin, Paul D; Spath, Samantha N; Xing, Gang; Hepworth, David; Ahn, Kay; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2015-11-12

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme peroxidase that catalyzes the production of hypochlorous acid. Clinical evidence suggests a causal role for MPO in various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders including vasculitis and cardiovascular and Parkinson's diseases, implying that MPO inhibitors may represent a therapeutic treatment option. Herein, we present the design, synthesis, and preclinical evaluation of N1-substituted-6-arylthiouracils as potent and selective inhibitors of MPO. Inhibition proceeded in a time-dependent manner by a covalent, irreversible mechanism, which was dependent upon MPO catalysis, consistent with mechanism-based inactivation. N1-Substituted-6-arylthiouracils exhibited low partition ratios and high selectivity for MPO over thyroid peroxidase and cytochrome P450 isoforms. N1-Substituted-6-arylthiouracils also demonstrated inhibition of MPO activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human whole blood. Robust inhibition of plasma MPO activity was demonstrated with the lead compound 2-(6-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide (PF-06282999, 8) upon oral administration to lipopolysaccharide-treated cynomolgus monkeys. On the basis of its pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile, PF-06282999 has been advanced to first-in-human pharmacokinetic and safety studies. PMID:26509551

  2. Crystal structure of a subcomplex of human transcription factor TFIID formed by TATA binding protein-associated factors hTAF4 (hTAF(II)135) and hTAF12 (hTAF(II)20).

    PubMed

    Werten, Sebastiaan; Mitschler, André; Romier, Christophe; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Thuault, Sylvie; Davidson, Irwin; Moras, Dino

    2002-11-22

    The crystal structure is presented of a complex formed by the interacting domains from two subunits of the general transcription factor TFIID, the human TATA binding protein-associated factors hTAF4 (hTAF(II)135) and hTAF12 (hTAF(II)20). In agreement with predictions, hTAF12 forms a histone fold that is very similar to that of histone H2B, yet unexpected differences are observed between the structures of the hTAF12 interaction domain of hTAF4 and histone H2A. Most importantly, the hTAF4 fragment forms only the first two helices of a classical histone fold, which are followed by a 26-residue disordered region. This indicates that either full-length TAF4 contains an unusually long connecting loop between its second and third helix, and this helix is not required for stable interaction with TAF12, or that TAF4 represents a novel class of partial histone fold motifs. Structural models and structure-based sequence alignments support a role for TAF4b and hSTAF42/yADA1 as alternative partners for TAF12 and are consistent with the formation of nucleosome-like histone-fold octamers through interaction of TAF12 with a TAF6-TAF9 tetramer, yet argue against involvement of TAF12-containing histone-fold pairs in DNA binding. PMID:12237304

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of metal-organic frameworks with the mellitate linker M2(OH)2[C12O12H2]·2H2O (M = Al, Ga, In) MIL-116

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkringer, Christophe; Loiseau, Thierry; Guillou, Nathalie; Férey, Gérard; Popov, Dmitry; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian

    2013-12-01

    A new series of isostructural MOF-type carboxylates called MIL-116 (M2(OH)2[C12O12H2]·2H2O), was synthesized from the combination of mellitic acid and trivalent p cations M = Al3+, Ga3+ or In3+. Their structures were analyzed either by single-crystal microdiffraction using the synchrotron radiation beamline (ID13 station at ESRF, Grenoble) or solved from powder X-ray diffraction. The 3D hybrid framework is built up from the connection of infinite straight chains of metal-centered octahedra sharing trans corners linked to each other through the mellitate ligands. Here the ligand acts as octadentate linker with four of the carboxylic groups involved in the M-O-C bondings. The two other carboxylate arms remain non-bonded under their protonated form. This represents a rare case of the occurrence of both non-bonding and bonding organic functionalities in a MOF-type solid. Within the tunnels are located water species that interact with the non-coordinated -COOH groups pointing towards the channel.

  4. 5-Substituted 3-isopropyl-7-[4-(2-pyridyl)benzyl]amino-1(2)H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines with anti-proliferative activity as potent and selective inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Vymětalová, Ladislava; Havlíček, Libor; Šturc, Antonín; Skrášková, Zuzana; Jorda, Radek; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Strnad, Miroslav; Kryštof, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    A series of 5-substituted 3-isopropyl-7-[4-(2-pyridyl)benzyl]amino-1(2)H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for their cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibition activity. The most potent compounds contained various hydroxyalkylamines at the 5 position and possessed low nanomolar IC50 values for CDK2 and CDK5. Preliminary profiling of one of the most active compounds on a panel of 50 protein kinases revealed its high selectivity for CDKs. The compounds arrested cells in S and G2/M phases, and induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Significant dephosphorylation of the C-terminus of RNA polymerase II and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), well-established substrates of CDKs, has been found in treated cells. Cleavage of PARP-1, down-regulation of Mcl-1 and activation of caspases correlated well with CDK inhibition and confirmed apoptosis as the primary type of cell death induced in cancer cells treated with the compounds in vitro. A comparison of known purine-based CDK inhibitor CR8 with its pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine bioisosteres confirmed that the novel compounds are more potent in cellular assays than purines. Therefore, pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine may emerge as a novel scaffold in medicinal chemistry and as a source of potent CDK inhibitors. PMID:26851505

  5. Synthesis and crystal structure of a copper complex with (E)-2-(4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)benzylidene)-3, 4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shu-Wen; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Gao-Feng

    2015-12-15

    The title compound, C{sub 35}H{sub 23}CuF{sub 6}N{sub 3}O{sub 5}S{sub 2} (1), was synthesized by the reaction of Cu(tta){sub 2} and L{sup 1}, (L{sup 1} = (E)-2-(4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)benzylidene)-3, 4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one) in the dichloromethane solution. It crystallizes in the monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/c with a = 33.8388(5), b = 9.3874(2), c = 21.8194(4) Å, β = 95.522(2), V = 6898.9(2) Å{sup 3}, Z = 8, D{sub x} = 1.554 Mg/m{sup 3}, F(000) = 3272, µ = 0.834 mm{sup –1}, R{sub 1} = 0.0639, wR{sub 2} = 0.1637. The copper(II) ion of 1 is in a distorted square-pyramidal environment with four O atoms of the two tta ligands and one N atom of triazole ligand L{sup 1}. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealed that the hydrogen bonds, weak C–H···π and π···π interactions in the crystals link the coordination units to form 3D supramolecular structures.

  6. Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile. V. Iquiqueite, Na4K3Mg(CrO4)B24O39(OH).12H2O, a new saline mineral.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.; Mrose, M.E.; Marinenko, J.W.; McGee, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Iquiqueite (Na4K3Mg(CrO4)B24O39(OH).12H2O, a 11.6369(14), c 30.158(7) A, P31c, Z = 3) occurs as a widespread minor constituent in the nitrate fields of northern Chile. It is particularly abundant in the vicinity of Zapiga, Tarapaca province. Associated minerals include nitratite, halite, nitre, darapskite, blodite, glauberite, dietzeite, bruggenite, ulexite and gypsum. Iquiqueite forms thin, yellow, hexagonal platelets (5-50 mu m in diameter, <5 mu m in thickness) that are disseminated singly or in vermiform aggregates in nitrate ore. Observed forms are c(0001) and m(1010). Cleavage is perfect on (0001) and imperfect on (1010); H. = or <2. D(calc.) 2.05 g/cm3 and measured sp. gr. 2.05 + or - 0.09. The mineral is uniaxial negative, epsilon 1.447(2), omega 1.502(2). The XRD pattern has the six strongest lines 3.02(100), 2.856(100), 10.11(85), 6.04(85), 3.28(85), 3.22(85) A. The name is for the city of Iquique, Chile.-J.A.Z.

  7. Rational design, synthesis, anti-HIV-1 RT and antimicrobial activity of novel 3-(6-methoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-1-(piperazin-1-yl)propan-1-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chander, Subhash; Wang, Ping; Ashok, Penta; Yang, Liu-Meng; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Murugesan, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, fifteen novel 3-(6-methoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-1-(piperazin-1-yl)propan-1-one (6a-o) derivatives were designed as inhibitor of HIV-1 RT using ligand based drug design approach and in-silico evaluated for drug-likeness properties. Designed compounds were synthesized, characterized and in-vitro evaluated for RT inhibitory activity against wild HIV-1 RT strain. Among the tested compounds, four compounds (6a, 6b, 6j and 6o) exhibited significant inhibition of HIV-1 RT (IC50⩽10μg/ml). All synthesized compounds were also evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity as well as cytotoxicity on T lymphocytes, in which compounds 6b and 6l exhibited significant anti-HIV activity (EC50 values 4.72 and 5.45μg/ml respectively) with good safety index. Four compounds (6a, 6b, 6j and 6o) found significantly active against HIV-1 RT in the in-vitro assay were in-silico evaluated against two mutant RT strains as well as one wild strain. Further, titled compounds were evaluated for in-vitro antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) activities.

  8. Synthesis and crystal structure of a copper complex with ( E)-2-(4-(1 H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)benzylidene)-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2 H)-one ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shu-Wen; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Gao-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C35H23CuF6N3O5S2 ( 1), was synthesized by the reaction of Cu( tta)2 and L 1, ( L 1 = ( E)-2-(4-(1 H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)benzylidene)-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2 H)-one) in the dichloromethane solution. It crystallizes in the monoclinic, space group P21/ c with a = 33.8388(5), b = 9.3874(2), c = 21.8194(4) Å, β = 95.522(2), V = 6898.9(2) Å3, Z = 8, D x = 1.554 Mg/m3, F(000) = 3272, µ = 0.834 mm-1, R 1 = 0.0639, wR 2 = 0.1637. The copper(II) ion of 1 is in a distorted square-pyramidal environment with four O atoms of the two tta ligands and one N atom of triazole ligand L 1. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealed that the hydrogen bonds, weak C-H···π and π···π interactions in the crystals link the coordination units to form 3D supramolecular structures.

  9. Performance of VITEK-2 Compact and overnight MicroScan panels for direct identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative bacilli from positive FAN BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Quesada, M D; Giménez, M; Molinos, S; Fernández, G; Sánchez, M D; Rivelo, R; Ramírez, A; Banqué, G; Ausina, V

    2010-02-01

    We describe the reliability of the VITEK-2 Compact and overnight MicroScan panels for direct identification and susceptibility testing from the BacT/ALERT blood culture system when using FAN (FA and FN) bottles. A simple procedure, in two centrifugation steps, was designed to remove the charcoal particles present in FA and FN bottles. A total of 113 positive blood cultures showing Gram-negative rods were investigated. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated in 104 cases, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in nine. The MicroScan system correctly identified 106 (93.8%) of the 113 isolates. The seven identificaction errors included P. aeruginosa (three), Enterobacter cloacae (one), Escherichia coli (one), Klebsiella oxytoca (one), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (one). The VITEK-2 system correctly identified 109 (96.5%) of the 113 samples obtained directly from the blood culture bottles. The four unidentified isolates were Enterobacter cloacae (two), Escherichia coli (one), and P. aeruginosa (one). MicroScan yielded 4/779 (0.5%) very major errors and 28/2825 (0.9%) minor errors. VITEK-2 yielded 2/550 (0.36%) very major errors, 1/1718 (0.05%) major error, and 32/2373 (1.3%) minor errors. Both systems provided excellent identification (correlation of >90%) and susceptibility (correlation of >98%) results. The average times required to obtain identification and susceptibility results using the direct test applied to the VITEK-2 Compact system were 4.57 +/- 1.37 h and 6.52 +/- 1.64 h, respectively. The VITEK-2 compact system provided results on the same day that the blood culture was found to be positive. PMID:19778301

  10. Daily Rhythms of Serum Lipids in Dogs: Influences of Lighting and Fasting Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Bertolucci, Cristiano; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Circadian clocks organize a wide array of metabolic functions in a coherent daily schedule and ensure synchrony of this schedule with environmental rhythms. Daily rhythmicity of lipid metabolism occurs in rodents and ruminants. We examined daily level variations of serum lipids (nonesterified fatty acids [NEFA], triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol and total lipids) in healthy dogs, particularly focusing on their temporal relationship to lighting and fasting cycles. Whereas serum NEFA levels did not change across the day, levels of total lipids, total cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides occurred in dogs maintained under 12:12-h light:dark cycles and fed a single meal daily. Only the rhythmic pattern of triglycerides responded to a 6 h delay in light onset, suggesting a cardinal role of a light-entrained circadian oscillator in its generation. To investigate whether temporal variations in serum lipids depend to physiological postprandial changes, we measured lipid levels in fasted dogs. Rhythms of total lipids, total cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides vanished when dogs were food-deprived, indicating that these rhythms are driven by the digestive process. Levels of serum NEFA patterns were significantly higher during fasting than after food intake. The increase of NEFA concentrations during fasting may reflect the mobilization of adipose tissue NEFA mediated by the decrease in insulin with its lypolitic effects. Elucidating the daily rhythmicity of lipid levels is fundamental to understanding the metabolism of the dog, an animal model frequently used for research in metabolic pathophysiology. PMID:19004375

  11. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A; Davenport, Gary M; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure. PMID:26479244

  12. A fast neighbor joining method.

    PubMed

    Li, J F

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of sequencing technologies, an increasing number of sequences are available for evolutionary tree reconstruction. Although neighbor joining is regarded as the most popular and fastest evolutionary tree reconstruction method [its time complexity is O(n(3)), where n is the number of sequences], it is not sufficiently fast to infer evolutionary trees containing more than a few hundred sequences. To increase the speed of neighbor joining, we herein propose FastNJ, a fast implementation of neighbor joining, which was motivated by RNJ and FastJoin, two improved versions of conventional neighbor joining. The main difference between FastNJ and conventional neighbor joining is that, in the former, many pairs of nodes selected by the rule used in RNJ are joined in each iteration. In theory, the time complexity of FastNJ can reach O(n(2)) in the best cases. Experimental results show that FastNJ yields a significant increase in speed compared to RNJ and conventional neighbor joining with a minimal loss of accuracy. PMID:26345805

  13. Potentiation of Hormonal Responses to Hemorrhage and Fasting, but not Hypoglycemia in Conscious Adrenalectomized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    Bilateral adrenalectomy (ADRX) in rats removes the source of two major stress-responsive hormones, corticosterone and epinephrine. To test how ADRX rats with-stand stress, we performed the following experiments in adult male rats provided with indwelling femoral arterial and venous cannulae and either ADRX or sham-adrenalectomized (Sham) 3 days later and given 0.5% NaCl to drink. Five to 6 days after adrenal surgery the rats were studied after either a 15 ml/kg.5 min hemorrhage or after an overnight fast followed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In fed unstressed ADRX rats, basal mean arterial blood pressure was slightly decreased; heart rate was increased; blood volume, vasopressin, and oxytocin concentrations were not different from sham values; and renin and norepinephrine were significantly elevated. The recovery of arterial pressure after hemorrhage in the ADRX rats was similar to that in the sham group over a 5-h period; however, the responses of vasopressin and oxytocin were significantly greater, and those of renin and norepinephrine were markedly potentiated in the ADRX group. Heart rate recovered faster in the ADRX group and was elevated, compared to the sham value, for most of the 5-h period. Restitution of blood volume was attenuated in the ADRX group, although the restitution of plasma protein was not different between the groups. A significant difference in the change in plasma osmolality between groups after hemorrhage may account for the attenuated restitution of blood volume. After an overnight fast, which reduced blood volume in both groups of rats, the plasma renin concentration rose still further in ADRX rats; the differences in other measured variables observed between fed ADRX and sham groups remained the same. The insulin-induced 50% decrease in glucose caused minor effects on arterial blood pressure and heart rate and occasioned responses in renin and norepinephrine of similar magnitudes in the two groups. We conclude that in the absence of

  14. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval −54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=−1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval −1645 kJ, −2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of

  15. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal) with female university students living in Osaka (Japan), Poznan (Poland) and Chiang Mai (Thailand). Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement). Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were different seasonal

  16. Fast Access Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Vladimir Katsman

    1998-03-17

    Our goal in this program is to develop Fast Access Data Acquisition System (FADAS) by combining the flexibility of Multilink's GaAs and InP electronics and electro-optics with an extremely high data rate for the efficient handling and transfer of collider experimental data. This novel solution is based on Multilink's and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) unique components and technologies for extremely fast data transfer, storage, and processing.

  17. Clinical phase-I study of Na[sub 2]B[sub 12]H[sub 11]SH (BSH) in patients with malignant glioma as precondition for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Haritz, D. ); Gabel, D. ); Huiskamp, R. )

    1994-03-30

    Within the European collaboration on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a clinical Phase I study is being carried out to establish BNCT as an alternative treatment modality for malignant glioma (WHO III/IV). Data about the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and toxicity of the boron compound Na[sub 2]B[sub 12]H[sub 11]SH (BSH) are of great importance to avoid radiation damage of healthy tissue and to deliver a sufficient radiation dose. Twenty four patients suffering from a glioblastoma multiforme entered the study to date, infused with a maximum concentration of up to 50 mg BSH/kg. Boron concentration measurements in tissues, urine, and blood were carried out, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and quantitative neutron capture radiography (QNCR). A cross-calibration of these determination techniques was carried out. In tumor tissue, confirmed by histopathology of small biopsies, they found a consistently high but heterogeneous boron uptake. Necrotic parts contain much lower amounts of boron; normal brain tissue has shown no significant uptake. In skin, bone, muscle, and dura mater only small amounts of boron were found. In blood samples, they found biphasic kinetics, but with variations of the half-lives from patient to patient. The compound is mainly excreted through the urine, but an additional entero-hapatic pathway can be demonstrated. Systematic investigations revealed no toxic side effect of the intravenously administered BSH. Comparable data were obtained by using ICP-AES and QNCR for boron concentration measurements. Taking into account the radiobiological considerations of the neutron beam source, they found promising facts that BNCT could be a useful irradiation method for highly malignant brain tumors. Favorable amounts of the boron compound BSH were found in tumor tissue, whereas healthy brain tissue has shown no significant uptake. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of new 12H hexagonal perovskite-related oxides Ba 6M2Na 2X2O 17 ( M=Ru, Nb, Ta, Sb; X=V, Cr, Mn, P, As)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarez, Eric; Abraham, Francis; Mentré, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    The new Ba 6Ru 2Na 2X2O 17 ( X=V, Mn) compounds have been prepared by electrosynthesis in molten NaOH and their crystal structures have been refined from single crystals X-ray diffraction, space group P6 3/ mmc, Z=2, for X=V: a =5.8506(1) Å, c =29.6241(4) Å, R1=4.76%, for X=Mn : a =5.8323(1) Å, c =29.5299(3) Å, R1=3.48%. The crystal structure is a 12H-type perovskite with a ( c' cchcc) 2 stacking sequence of [BaO 3] c, [BaO 3] h and [BaO 2] c' layers. The tridimensional edifice is formed by blocks of Ru 2O 9 dimers that share corners with NaO 6 octahedra. These blocks sandwich double sheets of X5+O 4 tetrahedra. Several isotypic Ba 6M5+2Na 2X5+2O 17 materials ( X=V, Cr, Mn, P, As) and ( M=Ru, Nb, Ta, Sb) have been prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by Rietveld analysis. The magnetic and electric properties have been investigated and show besides the Ru 5+2O 9 typical intradimer antiferromagnetic couplings, discrepancies of both χ and ρ versus T at 50 and 100 K for Ba 6Ru 2Na 2X2O 17 ( X=V, As). In this work, a review of the identified Ru-hexagonal perovskite materials is also reported in order to overview the wide variety of possibilities in the field of new compounds synthesis.

  19. Effects of T2-relaxation in MAS NMR spectra of the satellite transitions for quadrupolar nuclei: a 27Al MAS and single-crystal NMR study of alum KAl(SO 4) 2 · 12H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans J.; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2005-04-01

    Asymmetries in the manifold of spinning sidebands (ssbs) from the satellite transitions have been observed in variable-temperature 27Al MAS NMR spectra of alum (KAl(SO 4) 2 · 12H 2O), recorded in the temperature range from -76 to 92 °C. The asymmetries decrease with increasing temperature and reflect the fact that the ssbs exhibit systematically different linewidths for different spectral regions of the manifold. From spin-echo 27Al NMR experiments on a single-crystal of alum, it is demonstrated that these variations in linewidth originate from differences in transverse ( T2) relaxation times for the two inner ( m = 1/2 ↔ m = 3/2 and m = -1/2 ↔ m = -3/2) and correspondingly for the two outer ( m = 3/2 ↔ m = 5/2 and m = -3/2 ↔ m = -5/2) satellite transitions. T2 relaxation times in the range 0.5-3.5 ms are observed for the individual satellite transitions at -50 °C and 7.05 T, whereas the corresponding T1 relaxation times, determined from similar saturation-recovery 27Al NMR experiments, are almost constant ( T1 = 0.07-0.10 s) for the individual satellite transitions. The variation in T2 values for the individual 27Al satellite transitions for alum is justified by a simple theoretical approach which considers the cross-correlation of the local fluctuating fields from the quadrupolar coupling and the heteronuclear ( 27Al- 1H) dipolar interaction on the T2 relaxation times for the individual transitions. This approach and the observed differences in T2 values indicate that a single random motional process modulates both the quadrupolar and heteronuclear dipolar interactions for 27Al in alum at low temperatures.

  20. Fast Fourier transform to measure pressure coefficient of muons in the GRAPES-3 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, P. K.; Ahmad, S.; Antia, H. M.; Arunbabu, K. P.; Chandra, A.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Hariharan, B.; Hayashi, Y.; Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Kawakami, S.; Kojima, H.; Morris, S. D.; Nayak, P. K.; Oshima, A.; Rao, B. S.; Reddy, L. V.; Shibata, S.

    2016-06-01

    The GRAPES-3 large area (560 m2) tracking muon telescope is operating at Ooty in India since 2001. It records 4 × 109 muons of energy ≥ 1 GeV every day. These high statistics data have enabled extremely sensitive measurements of solar phenomena, including the solar anisotropies, Forbush decreases, coronal mass ejections etc. to be made. However, prior to such studies, the variation in observed muon rate caused by changes in atmospheric pressure needs to be corrected. Traditionally, the pressure coefficient (β) for the muon rate was derived from the observed data. But the influence of various solar effects makes the measurement of β somewhat difficult. In the present work, a different approach to circumvent this difficulty was used to measure β, almost independent of the solar activity. This approach exploits a small amplitude (∼1 hPa) periodic (12 h) variation of atmospheric pressure at Ooty that introduces a synchronous variation in the muon rate. By using the fast Fourier transform technique the spectral power distributions at 12 h from the atmospheric pressure, and muon rate were used to measure β. The value of pressure coefficient was found to be β =(- 0.128 ± 0.005) % hPa-1.

  1. Psychophysiological study on fasting therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Suzuki, J; Yamauchi, Y

    1979-01-01

    The Tohoku University method of fasting therapy was performed on 380 patients. The clinical results revealed an efficacy rate of 87%. With regard to psychosomatic diseases, irritable colon syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, mild diabetes mellitus, obesity and borderline hypertension were good indications for this therapy. In order to clarify the therapeutic mechanism, several clinical examinations were administered before, during and after therapy. EEG data was analysed according to the power spectral method. The peak frequency decreased as fasting progressed, while it increased as re-fed continued. Percent energy of alpha waves after fasting therapy was significantly higher than that of the pre-fasting stage. The dexamethasone suppression rate of urine 17-OHCS after fasting therapy was significantly lower than that of the pre-fasting stage. It seems that ketone nutrition may work as a strong stressor in the brain cell, temporarily placing all biological mechanisms in a stress state and then activating the natural healing power inherent to the human body, thereby bringing about homeostasis.

  2. Fast Poisson, Fast Helmholtz and fast linear elastostatic solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegmann, A.

    1999-06-01

    FFT-based fast Poisson and fast Helmholtz solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds for periodic boundary conditions in one-, two and three space dimensions can also be used to solve Dirichlet and Neumann boundary value problems. For non-zero boundary conditions, this is the special, grid-aligned case of jump corrections used in the Explicit Jump Immersed Interface method. Fast elastostatic solvers for periodic boundary conditions in two and three dimensions can also be based on the FFT. From the periodic solvers we derive fast solvers for the new 'normal' boundary conditions and essential boundary conditions on rectangular parallelepipeds. The periodic case allows a simple proof of existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the discretization of normal boundary conditions. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the fast elastostatic solvers for non-periodic boundary conditions. More importantly, the fast solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds can be used together with the Immersed Interface Method to solve problems on non-rectangular domains with general boundary conditions. Details of this are reported in the preprint The Explicit Jump Immersed Interface Method for 2D Linear Elastostatics by the author.

  3. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism. PMID:26004166

  4. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  5. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of structurally-precise quantum-confined Au25(SC8H9)18 and Au38(SC12H25)24 metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Green, Thomas D; Yi, Chongyue; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao; McGill, Stephen; Knappenberger, Kenneth L

    2014-11-13

    Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of structurally precise Au25(SC8H9)18 and Au38(SC12H25)24 monolayer-protected cluster (MPC) nanoparticles were studied using energy-resolved, intensity-integrated, and time-resolved spectroscopy. Measurements were carried out at sample temperatures spanning the range from 4.5 to 200 K following electronic excitation using 3.1 eV pulsed lasers. The integrated PL intensity for Au25(SC8H9)18 increased sharply by 70% as the sample temperature was increased from 4.5 to 45 K. The PL intensity was statistically invariant for temperatures between 45 and 65 K but was quenched when the sample temperature was raised above 65 K. For both MPC samples, the global PL emission included several components. Each PL component exhibited an increase in emission energy when the sample temperature was increased from 4.5 to 40 K. This unexpected behavior may imply that MPCs in the 1 nm domain have negative expansion coefficients. Quantitative analysis of PL emission energies and peak widths obtained at sample temperatures greater than 45 K indicated MPC nonradiative relaxation dynamics are mediated by coupling to low-frequency vibrations associated with the ligand shell that passivated the nanoclusters, which accounted for the low emission yields at high sample temperatures. Contributions from two different vibrational modes were identified: Au(I)-S stretching (200 cm(-1)) and Au(0)-Au(I) stretching (90 cm(-1)). Analysis of each PL component revealed that the magnitude of electronic-vibration coupling was state-specific, and consistently larger for the high-energy portions of the PL spectra. The total integrated PL intensity of the Au25(SC8H9)18 MPC was correlated to the relative branching ratios of the emission components, which confirmed decreased emission for recombination channels associated with strong electron-vibration coupling and high emission yields for low emission energies at low temperature. The efficient low-energy emission was

  6. HI Intensity Mapping with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Battye, R. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Chen, T.; Dickinson, C.; Harper, S.; Maffei, B.; Olivari, L. C.; Wilkinsondagger, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the detectability of large-scale HI intensity fluctuations using the FAST telescope. We present forecasts for the accuracy of measuring the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and constraining the properties of dark energy. The FAST 19-beam L-band receivers (1.05-1.45 GHz) can provide constraints on the matter power spectrum and dark energy equation of state parameters (w0,wa) that are comparable to the BINGO and CHIME experiments. For one year of integration time we find that the optimal survey area is 6000 deg2. However, observing with larger frequency coverage at higher redshift (0.95-1.35 GHz) improves the projected errorbars on the HI power spectrum by more than 2 σ confidence level. The combined constraints from FAST, CHIME, BINGO and Planck CMB observations can provide reliable, stringent constraints on the dark energy equation of state.

  7. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  8. Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST) motivates and prepares talented students with disabilities to further their education and achieve High Tech and professional employment. The FAST program is managed by local professionals, business, and industry leaders; it is modeled after High School High Tech project TAKE CHARGE started in Los Angeles in 1983. Through cooperative efforts of Alabama Department of Education, Vocational Rehabilitation, Adult and Children Services, and the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, north central Alabama was chosen as the second site for a High School High Tech project. In 1986 local business, industry, education, government agencies, and rehabilitation representatives started FAST. The program objectives and goals, results and accomplishments, and survey results are included.

  9. Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile: VII. Two new saline minerals with the composition K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10 (XO4) 12(IO3)12.12H2O: fuenzalidaite (X = S) and carlosruizite (X = Se)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konnert, J.A.; Evans, H.T.; McGee, J.J.; Ericksen, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Two new isostructural saline minerals from the nitrate deposits of northern Chile have the composition K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(XO4)12(IO3)12.12H2O: fuenzalidaite (X = S) and carlosruizite (X = Se,S,Cr). -from Authors

  10. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    PubMed

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery.

  11. Fast generation of stereolithographic models.

    PubMed

    Raic, K; Jansen, T; von Rymon-Lipinski, B; Tille, C; Seitz, H; Keeve, E

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a work-in-progress method for fast and efficient generation of stereolithographic models. The overall approach is embedded in our general software framework Julius, which runs on high-end-graphic systems as well as on low-level PCs. The design of the support structures needed for the stereolithographic process will allow semiautomatic generation of the model. We did produce support structures for stereolithographic models with this fast data processing pipeline and will show future perspectives in this paper. PMID:12451779

  12. Fast-response cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Wall structure keeps chambers at constant, uniform temperature, yet allows them to be cooled rapidly if necessary. Wall structure, used in fast-response cloud chamber, has surface heater and coolant shell separated by foam insulation. It is lightweight and requires relatively little power.

  13. Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, W

    2004-08-20

    Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays.

  14. Fast Facts 26-42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    The document is a compilation of Fast Facts on a wide range of issues affecting the Florida Community College System (FCCS) and higher education in general. It uses data extracted from a federal publication entitled "Answers in the Tool Box." Some of the topics that are addressed are as follows: important variables for student baccalaureate…

  15. Enhanced Model for Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Rodney J.

    2010-10-12

    Laser Fusion is a prime candidate for alternate energy production, capable of serving a major portion of the nation's energy needs, once fusion fuel can be readily ignited. Fast Ignition may well speed achievement of this goal, by reducing net demands on laser pulse energy and timing precision. However, Fast Ignition has presented a major challenge to modeling. This project has enhanced the computer code ePLAS for the simulation of the many specialized phenomena, which arise with Fast Ignition. The improved code has helped researchers to understand better the consequences of laser absorption, energy transport, and laser target hydrodynamics. ePLAS uses efficient implicit methods to acquire solutions for the electromagnetic fields that govern the accelerations of electrons and ions in targets. In many cases, the code implements fluid modeling for these components. These combined features, "implicitness and fluid modeling," can greatly facilitate calculations, permitting the rapid scoping and evaluation of experiments. ePLAS can be used on PCs, Macs and Linux machines, providing researchers and students with rapid results. This project has improved the treatment of electromagnetics, hydrodynamics, and atomic physics in the code. It has simplified output graphics, and provided new input that avoids the need for source code access by users. The improved code can now aid university, business and national laboratory users in pursuit of an early path to success with Fast Ignition.

  16. Fast and Easy Website Tuneups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This article presents fast, easy and helpful hints for making web sites that people will want to use over and over again. These tips include: (1) Making sure that the website's copyright statement is up-to-date; (2) Adding "last updated" code to each webpage at the site; (3) Adding photos to the site's contact information; (4) Turning boring old…

  17. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1995-12-31

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with an electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater than the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. Magnetic switches and particularly fast kicker magnets are used in the accelerator industry to quickly deflect particle beams into and out of various transport lines, storage rings, dumps, and specifically to differentially route individual bunches of particles from a train of bunches which are injected or ejected from a given ring.

  18. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Kenneth L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses reactions and characteristics of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectroscopy in which samples are ionized in a condensed state by bombardment with xenon or argon atoms, yielding positive/negative secondary ions. Includes applications of FAB to structural problems and considers future developments using the technique. (Author/JN)

  19. Fast Neutron Sensitivity with HPGe

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Allen; Hensley, Walter K.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Pitts, W. K.

    2008-01-22

    In addition to being excellent gamma-ray detectors, germanium detectors are also sensitive to fast neutrons. Incident neutrons undergo inelastic scattering {Ge(n,n')Ge*} off germanium nuclei and the resulting excited states emit gamma rays or conversion electrons. The response of a standard 140% high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a bismuth germanate (BGO) anti-coincidence shield was measured for several neutron sources to characterize the ability of the HPGe detector to detect fast neutrons. For a sensitivity calculation performed using the characteristic fast neutron response peak that occurs at 692 keV, the 140% germanium detector system exhibited a sensitivity of ~175 counts / kg of WGPumetal in 1000 seconds at a source-detector distance of 1 meter with 4 in. of lead shielding between source and detector. Theoretical work also indicates that it might be possible to use the shape of the fast-neutron inelastic scattering signatures (specifically, the end-point energy of the long high energy tail of the resulting asymmetric peak) to gain additional information about the energy distribution of the incident neutron spectrum. However, the experimentally observed end-point energies appear to be almost identical for each of the fast neutron sources counted. Detailed MCNP calculations show that the neutron energy distributions impingent on the detector for these sources are very similar in this experimental configuration, due to neutron scattering in a lead shield (placed between the neutron source and HPGe detector to reduce the gamma ray flux), the BGO anti-coincidence detector, and the concrete floor.

  20. Cold exposure and/or fasting modulate the relationship between sleep and body temperature rhythms in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuo; Marui, Shuri; Ozaki, Makoto; Nagashima, Kei

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the relationship between core temperature (Tc) and sleep rhythms in mice, and examined the effects of ambient temperature and fasting. Tc, electroencephalograms (EEG), electromyograms (EMG), and spontaneous activity in male ICR mice (n=9) were measured by telemetry for 3 days under a 12:12h dark-light cycle. Mice were fed or fasted at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 27°C or 20°C for the final 30h of the experiment. The vigilance state was categorized into a wake state, rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep, and the total sleep time (TST) was assessed. Relationships between Tc and TST, NREM periods, and REM sleep were estimated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. During cold exposure, Tc decreased during the dark and light phases, and TST and the periods of NREM and REM sleep decreased during the dark phase. Throughout the fasting period, Tc also decreased during the dark and light phases. Furthermore, the decrease in Tc was augmented when fasting and cold were combined. TST and NREM sleep periods decreased in the light and dark phases, respectively, whereas REM sleep periods decreased in both phases. Negative linear correlations (r=-0.884 to -0.987) were observed between Tc and TST, NREM sleep periods, and REM sleep periods, except for Tc and REM sleep periods where fasting and cold conditions were combined. The correlations between sleep and Tc rhythms were well maintained during cold exposure and fasting. However, when cold and fasting were combined, REM sleep and Tc rhythms were desynchronized.

  1. Insulin resistance after a 72-h fast is associated with impaired AS160 phosphorylation and accumulation of lipid and glycogen in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vendelbo, M. H.; Clasen, B. F. F.; Treebak, J. T.; Møller, L.; Krusenstjerna-Hafstrøm, T.; Madsen, M.; Nielsen, T. S.; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H.; Pedersen, S. B.; Jørgensen, J. O. L.; Goodyear, L. J.; Wojtaszewski, J. F. P.; Møller, N.

    2012-01-01

    During fasting, human skeletal muscle depends on lipid oxidation for its energy substrate metabolism. This is associated with the development of insulin resistance and a subsequent reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The underlying mechanisms controlling insulin action on skeletal muscle under these conditions are unresolved. In a randomized design, we investigated eight healthy subjects after a 72-h fast compared with a 10-h overnight fast. Insulin action on skeletal muscle was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and by determining insulin signaling to glucose transport. In addition, substrate oxidation, skeletal muscle lipid content, regulation of glycogen synthesis, and AMPK signaling were assessed. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was reduced profoundly in response to a 72-h fast and substrate oxidation shifted to predominantly lipid oxidation. This was associated with accumulation of both lipid and glycogen in skeletal muscle. Intracellular insulin signaling to glucose transport was impaired by regulation of phosphorylation at specific sites on AS160 but not TBC1D1, both key regulators of glucose uptake. In contrast, fasting did not impact phosphorylation of AMPK or insulin regulation of Akt, both of which are established upstream kinases of AS160. These findings show that insulin resistance in muscles from healthy individuals is associated with suppression of site-specific phosphorylation of AS160, without Akt or AMPK being affected. This impairment of AS160 phosphorylation, in combination with glycogen accumulation and increased intramuscular lipid content, may provide the underlying mechanisms for resistance to insulin in skeletal muscle after a prolonged fast. PMID:22028408

  2. A fast meteor detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gural, P.

    2016-01-01

    A low latency meteor detection algorithm for use with fast steering mirrors had been previously developed to track and telescopically follow meteors in real-time (Gural, 2007). It has been rewritten as a generic clustering and tracking software module for meteor detection that meets both the demanding throughput requirements of a Raspberry Pi while also maintaining a high probability of detection. The software interface is generalized to work with various forms of front-end video pre-processing approaches and provides a rich product set of parameterized line detection metrics. Discussion will include the Maximum Temporal Pixel (MTP) compression technique as a fast thresholding option for feeding the detection module, the detection algorithm trade for maximum processing throughput, details on the clustering and tracking methodology, processing products, performance metrics, and a general interface description.

  3. Causes of Extremely Fast CMEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We study CMEs observed by LASCO to have plane of the sky velocities exceeding 1500 km/sec. We find that these extremely fast CMEs are typically associated with flares accompanied by erupting prominences. Our results are consistent with a single CME initiation process that consists of three stages. The initial stage is brought about by the emergence of new magnetic flux, which interacts with the pre-existing magnetic configuration and results in a slow rise of the magnetic structure. The second stage is a fast reconnection phase with flaring, filament eruption and a sudden increase of the rise velocity of the magnetic structure (CME). The third stage consists of propagation in the corona. We discuss the sources of these CMEs and the need for improved understanding of the first and third stages.

  4. Electron Beams for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. A.; Davies, J. R.; Silva, L. O.

    2004-11-01

    In the fast ignitor scenario an intense relativistic electron beam is used to deposit energy inside the fuel target and trigger the thermonuclear reaction. This electron beam is produced on the outer plasma layer of the target by the interaction of an ultra-intense laser. The energy transfer from the laser to the electron beam, and the stability of the propagation of the electron beam are crucial for a successful fast ignitor scheme. We have used three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using the OSIRIS.framework [1] to explore the self-consistent generation of high current electron beams by ultra intense lasers. Novel laser pulse configurations are explored in order to generate electron beams transporting more energy, and capable of avoiding the deleterious effects of collisionless instabilities in the plasma corona. [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342-351, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2002);

  5. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  6. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  7. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  8. Fast track to 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals that are newly qualified for the 340B Drug Pricing Program may have an opportunity for fast-track approval to participate in the program. Three steps are required to seize this opportunity: Use data analytics to assess current and future percentages of Medicaid utilization and eligibility for federal SSI cash benefits. Determine the feasibility of early cost report filing. Prepare appropriate documentation and undertake the initial enrollment process. PMID:26863836

  9. Fast track to 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals that are newly qualified for the 340B Drug Pricing Program may have an opportunity for fast-track approval to participate in the program. Three steps are required to seize this opportunity: Use data analytics to assess current and future percentages of Medicaid utilization and eligibility for federal SSI cash benefits. Determine the feasibility of early cost report filing. Prepare appropriate documentation and undertake the initial enrollment process.

  10. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  11. The use of citric acid to prolong the in vivo gastro-retention of a floating dosage form in the fasted state.

    PubMed

    Stops, Frances; Fell, John T; Collett, John H; Martini, Luigi G; Sharma, Harbans L; Smith, Anne-Marie

    2006-02-01

    Gastro-retentive dosage forms have the potential to improve local therapy and decrease the variation in bioavailability that is observed with a number of commercially available immediate and modified release preparations. In this study, a dosage form has been developed, utilising freeze-dried calcium alginate beads, designed to float on the surface of the stomach contents thus prolonging the retention time. The aim of the study was to also assess the in vivo behaviour of the radio-labelled calcium alginate beads when they were administered under fasting conditions with either water or an aqueous solution of citric acid, a potential gut transit delaying substance. The study was performed in healthy male volunteers who swallowed the radio-labelled calcium alginate beads after a 10h overnight fast. Gamma scintigraphy was selected as the method to monitor the movement of the calcium alginate beads. The volunteers consumed no further food or drink until gastric emptying of the calcium alginate beads was complete. The results indicated that prolonged gastric retention was achieved when the dosage form was administered with the citric acid solution when compared to retention in the absence of citric acid. Citric acid, therefore, has the potential to delay the gastric emptying of the calcium alginate beads when administered to fasted volunteers.

  12. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star. PMID:26934226

  13. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  14. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  15. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  16. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  17. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  18. Clinical predictors of injuries not identified by focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) examinations.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lance; Pierce, Daniel; Puumala, Susan

    2009-04-01

    This study's objective was to identify clinical characteristics of patients with a blunt traumatic injury that increased the risk of peritoneal or pericardial fluid collections and abdominal organ injuries not identified by a bedside focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) examination. This observational study used a retrospective chart review of a cohort of patients identified through a query of the University of Nebraska Medical Center's trauma registry, a tertiary referral center for portions of Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri. Adult patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) for an evaluation of blunt traumatic injury from September 1996 to December 2002 were eligible if their ED course included admission to the trauma service after completion of a bedside FAST examination (US) and a confirmatory study (Conf) such as an abdominopelvic computed tomography scan or exploratory laparotomy within 12 h of completion of the ED FAST examination. The medical records of those patients with a US+/Conf+ or US-/Conf+ examination were reviewed. Clinical characteristics were recorded on a standard data collection form. Statistically significant predictors of a US-/Conf+ examination were found using a stepwise logistic regression procedure. A query of the trauma registry for the study period revealed 1453 adult individuals with blunt abdominal trauma, with 458 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The clinical characteristics of the 79 US+/Conf+ examinations were compared to those of the 53 US-/Conf+ examinations. The presence of a radiographically proven pelvic fracture (odds ratio 3.459; 95% confidence interval of 1.308-9.157) and a radiographically or operatively proven renal injury (odds ratio 3.667; 95% confidence interval of 1.013-13.275) were found to be significant predictors. The presence of a pelvic fracture or renal injury in adult victims of blunt abdominal trauma increases the likelihood of a US-/Conf+ examination. Patients with a negative FAST

  19. The digital backend of FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinying; Zhang, Xia; Duan, Ran; li, di; Hao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The receiver system is an important part of FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope) and plays a key role in determining the performance of the telescope.This research covers three major aspects: establishment of system synchronization and timestamps, field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based data transmission and analysis, and the rear receiver monitoring system. We intend to combine the use of GPS and a frequency standard instrument with network access to Unix timestamps to form actual timestamps. The data are stored with timestamps that contain integer and fractional seconds to be precise and headers, which are primarily intended to distinguish the data from each other.The data analysis procedures includes converting the timestamp information to real-time information, and merging the 8 channels’ data conversion results into frequency and energy data using corresponding conversion formulae. We must develop tailored monitoring software for the FAST receiver to customize the data format and perform data transmission. Signals on the front-end and back-end of the receiver can be monitored and controlled by adjusting the parameters on the software to increase the flexibility of the receiver.Most operations are performed on FPGA board, which can be shown from the figure, including the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), fast Fourier transform (FFT), and pulse per second (1PPS) and Unix timestamp access operations.When analog data arrive, we initialize two ADCs at a sampling rate of 3Gsps, following by 8-channel FFT parallel processing.In collaboration with the Institute of Automation, we have developed a custom FPGA board which we call "FDB"("FAST Digital Backend"). The board is integrated with two Virtex-6 and one Virtex-5 high-speed Xilinx chips. The main function of the two Virtex-6 devices is to run the FFT and PFB programs, whereas the main function of Virtex-5 is configuration of the board.This research is indispensable for realizing the

  20. Fasting Increases Tobramycin Oral Absorption in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    De Leo, Luigina; Di Toro, Nicola; Decorti, Giuliana; Malusà, Noelia; Ventura, Alessandro; Not, Tarcisio

    2010-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the aminoglycoside tobramycin was evaluated after oral administration to fed or fasting (15 h) mice. As expected, under normal feeding conditions, oral absorption was negligible; however, fasting induced a dramatic increase in tobramycin bioavailability. The dual-sugar test with lactulose and l-rhamnose confirmed increased small bowel permeability via the paracellular route in fasting animals. When experiments aimed at increasing the oral bioavailability of hydrophilic compounds are performed, timing of fasting should be extremely accurate. PMID:20086144

  1. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    DOEpatents

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  2. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  3. Very fast thermal measurements by means of fast line scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Bo

    1999-03-01

    Many thermal processes pass very quickly. The normal frame rate of radiometric scanners or FPA cameras is sometimes far below what might be needed in order to see what is happening with the object. When it comes to measurement there is nothing yet to match the measurement accuracy of the best scanning devices. When very high measurement accuracy has to be combined with highest possible data acquisition rate, the best way today is to use the scanning technique, with the scanner set for line scanning. Thus it is possible to acquire thermal information also from very fast processes. Computer processing of thermal information is today applied in almost 100% of the cases. If this is applied to thermal information, which is acquired by Fast line scanning, the results can be very interesting. This method has been successfully applied e.g. to tires, disk brakes, fusion research, and to analysis of explosions in connections with the development of air-bags. The paper describes the above mentioned applications. This includes a method description and some thermograms, which show the final result.

  4. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  5. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A.; Davenport, Gary M.; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increased interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. A nutraceutical can broadly be considered a food (or a part of) that provides a health benefit. Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados, is being investigated as a nutraceutical for dogs. In this study, dogs fed a diet containing MH had increased concentrations of blood biomarkers related to energy intake. In addition, dogs fed MH were less physically active than dogs fed a control diet. These findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to alter energy intake and lower daily energy expenditure. Abstract There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure. PMID:26479244

  6. Fast pulse nonthermal plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2005-06-14

    A fast pulsed nonthermal plasma reactor includes a discharge cell and a charging assembly electrically connected thereto. The charging assembly provides plural high voltage pulses to the discharge cell. Each pulse has a rise time between one and ten nanoseconds and a duration of three to twenty nanoseconds. The pulses create nonthermal plasma discharge within the discharge cell. Accordingly, the nonthermal plasma discharge can be used to remove pollutants from gases or break the gases into smaller molecules so that they can be more efficiently combusted.

  7. Fast-acting valve actuator

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Nakwon

    1980-01-01

    A fast-acting valve actuator utilizes a spring driven pneumatically loaded piston to drive a valve gate. Rapid exhaust of pressurized gas from the pneumatically loaded side of the piston facilitates an extremely rapid piston stroke. A flexible selector diaphragm opens and closes an exhaust port in response to pressure differentials created by energizing and de-energizing a solenoid which controls the pneumatic input to the actuator as well as selectively providing a venting action to one side of the selector diaphragm.

  8. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.

    1995-05-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.

  9. Isochoric implosions for fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Tabak, M

    2006-06-05

    Fast Ignition (FI) exploits the ignition of a dense, uniform fuel assembly by an external energy source to achieve high gain. In conventional ICF implosions, however, the fuel assembles as a dense shell surrounding a low density, high-pressure hotspot. Such configurations are far from optimal for FI. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942).] may be employed to implode a dense, quasi-uniform fuel assembly with minimal energy wastage in forming a hotspot. A scheme for realizing these specialized implosions in a practical ICF target is also described.

  10. A Sucrose Mouth Rinse Does Not Improve 1-hr Cycle Time Trial Performance When Performed in the Fasted or Fed State.

    PubMed

    Trommelen, Jorn; Beelen, Milou; Mullers, Marjan; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C; Cermak, Naomi M

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrate mouth rinsing during exercise has been suggested to enhance performance of short (45-60 min) bouts of high-intensity (>75% VO2peak) exercise. Recent studies indicate that this performance enhancing effect may be dependent on the prandial state of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on ~1-hr time trial performance in both the fasted and fed states. Using a double-blind, crossover design, 14 trained male cyclists (27 ± 6 years; 5.0 ± 0.5 W · kg(-1)) were selected to perform 4 time trials of ~1 hr (1,032 ± 127 kJ) on a cycle ergometer while rinsing their mouths with a 6.4% sucrose solution (SUC) or a noncaloric sweetened placebo (PLA) for 5 s at the start and at every 12.5% of their set amount of work completed. Two trials were performed in an overnight fasted state and two trials were performed 2 h after consuming a standardized breakfast. Performance time did not differ between any of the trials (fasted-PLA: 68.6 ± 7.2; fasted-SUC: 69.6 ± 7.5; fed-PLA: 67.6 ± 6.6; and fed-SUC: 69.0 ± 6.3 min; Prandial State × Mouth Rinse Solution p = .839; main effect prandial state p = .095; main effect mouth rinse solution p = .277). In line, mean power output and heart rate during exercise did not differ between trials. In conclusion, a sucrose mouth rinse does not improve ~1-hr time trial performance in well-trained cyclists when performed in either the fasted or the fed state.

  11. Exploiting Resistive Guiding for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Devising methods and schemes for controlling fast electron transport remains a major challenge in Fast Ignition research. Realistic estimates of the fast electron divergence angle require this control in order to ensure that the fast electron to hot spot coupling efficiency does not reach excessively low values. Resistivity gradients in the target will lead to strong magnetic field growth (via ∇ηxj) which can be exploited for the purposes of controlling the fast electron propagation (Robinson and Sherlock, PoP (2007)). There are a number of possible schemes which might be considered. Here we will report on numerical simulations that we have carried out on both simple configurations such as parabolic reflectors, and complex arrangements (Robinson, Key and Tabak, PRL (2012)). Substantial improvements to the fast electron to hot spot coupling efficiency have been found even for realistic fast electron divergence angles.

  12. Cortical Specializations Underlying Fast Computations

    PubMed Central

    Volgushev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    The time course of behaviorally relevant environmental events sets temporal constraints on neuronal processing. How does the mammalian brain make use of the increasingly complex networks of the neocortex, while making decisions and executing behavioral reactions within a reasonable time? The key parameter determining the speed of computations in neuronal networks is a time interval that neuronal ensembles need to process changes at their input and communicate results of this processing to downstream neurons. Theoretical analysis identified basic requirements for fast processing: use of neuronal populations for encoding, background activity, and fast onset dynamics of action potentials in neurons. Experimental evidence shows that populations of neocortical neurons fulfil these requirements. Indeed, they can change firing rate in response to input perturbations very quickly, within 1 to 3 ms, and encode high-frequency components of the input by phase-locking their spiking to frequencies up to 300 to 1000 Hz. This implies that time unit of computations by cortical ensembles is only few, 1 to 3 ms, which is considerably faster than the membrane time constant of individual neurons. The ability of cortical neuronal ensembles to communicate on a millisecond time scale allows for complex, multiple-step processing and precise coordination of neuronal activity in parallel processing streams, while keeping the speed of behavioral reactions within environmentally set temporal constraints. PMID:25689988

  13. Manybeam velocimeter for fast surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Goosman, D.; Avara, G.; Steinmetz, L.; Lai, C.; Perry, S.

    1996-09-01

    For the past 5 years, we have conceived, built and successfully used a new 10 beam laser velocimeter for monitoring velocity vs time histories of fast moving surfaces, and will have a 20 beam capability soon. We conceived a method to multiplex 5 to 10 beams through a single Fabry-Perot interferometer, without losing any light that our equivalently-performing single beam system could use, and with negligible cross- talk. This saves the cost of 16 interferometers, simplifies operation and takes less space than without multiplexing. We devised special efficient light collecting probes, streak cameras that change sweep speed during the course of the record, and a new double cavity interferometer which is better, cheaper and more flexible than our previous versions. With the 10 recorders, we conceived and employ a method of using both a fast and a slow streak camera on each of 5 beams without reducing the light that is available to either camera separately. Five new galvanometrically-driven triggerable CCD streak cameras will be installed soon.

  14. RCD+: Fast loop modeling server.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, José Ramón; Canosa-Valls, Alejandro Jesús; Li, Yaohang; Chacón, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Modeling loops is a critical and challenging step in protein modeling and prediction. We have developed a quick online service (http://rcd.chaconlab.org) for ab initio loop modeling combining a coarse-grained conformational search with a full-atom refinement. Our original Random Coordinate Descent (RCD) loop closure algorithm has been greatly improved to enrich the sampling distribution towards near-native conformations. These improvements include a new workflow optimization, MPI-parallelization and fast backbone angle sampling based on neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions. The server starts by efficiently searching the vast conformational space from only the loop sequence information and the environment atomic coordinates. The generated closed loop models are subsequently ranked using a fast distance-orientation dependent energy filter. Top ranked loops are refined with the Rosetta energy function to obtain accurate all-atom predictions that can be interactively inspected in an user-friendly web interface. Using standard benchmarks, the average root mean squared deviation (RMSD) is 0.8 and 1.4 Å for 8 and 12 residues loops, respectively, in the challenging modeling scenario in where the side chains of the loop environment are fully remodeled. These results are not only very competitive compared to those obtained with public state of the art methods, but also they are obtained ∼10-fold faster. PMID:27151199

  15. The Ignitor Fast Pellet Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Bombarda, F.; Milora, S. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.

    2004-11-01

    A collaboration between the ENEA Laboratory at Frascati and the Fusion Technology Group of Oak Ridge for the development of a fast pellet injector for the Ignitor ignition experiment has been established. The program aims at the construction of a 4 barrel, double stage gun able to reach speeds up to 4 km/s and thus penetrate to the core of the plasma column. The compact size of the Ignitor machine favors the injection from the low field side, for which very positive results have been obtained on the FTU machine [1], in terms of density profile peaking and good energy confinement. The ongoing activities include the procurement of all the hardware for the criocooler, diagnostics and control electronics, from the ORNL side, and the design and construction of the gun by ENEA. A new fast valve has been developed that considerably reduces the requirements on the expansion volumes necessary to prevent the propulsion gas to reach the plasma chamber. [1] D. Frigione, et al., Nuclear Fusion 41, 1613 (2001).

  16. RCD+: Fast loop modeling server

    PubMed Central

    López-Blanco, José Ramón; Canosa-Valls, Alejandro Jesús; Li, Yaohang; Chacón, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Modeling loops is a critical and challenging step in protein modeling and prediction. We have developed a quick online service (http://rcd.chaconlab.org) for ab initio loop modeling combining a coarse-grained conformational search with a full-atom refinement. Our original Random Coordinate Descent (RCD) loop closure algorithm has been greatly improved to enrich the sampling distribution towards near-native conformations. These improvements include a new workflow optimization, MPI-parallelization and fast backbone angle sampling based on neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions. The server starts by efficiently searching the vast conformational space from only the loop sequence information and the environment atomic coordinates. The generated closed loop models are subsequently ranked using a fast distance-orientation dependent energy filter. Top ranked loops are refined with the Rosetta energy function to obtain accurate all-atom predictions that can be interactively inspected in an user-friendly web interface. Using standard benchmarks, the average root mean squared deviation (RMSD) is 0.8 and 1.4 Å for 8 and 12 residues loops, respectively, in the challenging modeling scenario in where the side chains of the loop environment are fully remodeled. These results are not only very competitive compared to those obtained with public state of the art methods, but also they are obtained ∼10-fold faster. PMID:27151199

  17. Addition of one and two units of C2H to styrene: A theoretical study of the C10H9 and C12H9 systems and implications toward growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landera, Alexander; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Mebel, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    Various mechanisms of the formation of naphthalene and its substituted derivatives have been investigated by ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** calculations of potential energy surfaces for the reactions of one and two C2H additions to styrene combined with RRKM calculations of product branching ratios under single-collision conditions. The results show that for the C2H + styrene reaction, the dominant routes are H atom eliminations from the initial adducts; C2H addition to the vinyl side chain of styrene is predicted to produce trans or cis conformations of phenylvinylacetylene (t- and c-PVA), whereas C2H addition to the ortho carbon in the ring is expected to lead to the formation of o-ethynylstyrene. Although various reaction channels may lead to a second ring closure and the formation of naphthalene, they are not competitive with the direct H loss channels producing PVAs and ethynylstyrenes. However, c-PVA and o-ethynylstyrene may undergo a second addition of the ethynyl radical to ultimately produce substituted naphthalene derivatives. α- and β-additions of C2H to the side chain in c-PVA are calculated to form 2-ethynyl-naphthalene with branching ratios of about 30% and 96%, respectively; the major product in the case of α-addition would be cis-1-hexene-3,5-diynyl-benzene produced by an immediate H elimination from the initial adduct. C2H addition to the ethynyl side chain in o-ethynylstyrene is predicted to lead to the formation of 1-ethynyl-naphthalene as the dominant product. The C2H + styrene → t-PVA + H/c-PVA + H/ o-ethynylstyrene, C2H + c-PVA → 2-ethynyl-naphthalene + H, and C2H + o-ethynylstyrene → 1-ethynyl-naphthalene + H reactions are calculated to occur without a barrier and with high exothermicity, with all intermediates, transition states, and products lying significantly lower in energy than the initial reactants, and hence to be fast even at very low temperature conditions prevailing in Titan's atmosphere or in the interstellar medium

  18. Hydrodynamic assembly for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabak, Max; Clark, Daniel; Town, Richard; Hatchett, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    We present directly and indirectly driven implosion designs for Fast Ignition. Directly driven designs using various laser illumination wavelengths are described. We compare these designs with simple hydrodynamic efficiency models. Capsules illuminated with less than 1 MJ of light with perfect zooming at low intensity and low contrast ratio in power can assemble 4 mg of fuel to column density in excess of 3 g/cm^2. We contrast these designs with more optimized designs that lead to Guderley-style self similar implosions. Indirectly driven capsules absorbing 75 kJ of xrays can assemble 0.7 mg to column density 2.7 g/cm^2 in 1D simulations. We describe 2-D simulations including both capsules and attached cones driven by radiation. We describe issues in assembling fuel near the cone tip and cone disruption.

  19. On fast reactor kinetics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Seleznev, E. F.; Belov, A. A.; Matveenko, I. P.; Zhukov, A. M.; Raskach, K. F.

    2012-07-01

    The results and the program of fast reactor core time and space kinetics experiments performed and planned to be performed at the IPPE critical facility is presented. The TIMER code was taken as computation support of the experimental work, which allows transient equations to be solved in 3-D geometry with multi-group diffusion approximation. The number of delayed neutron groups varies from 6 to 8. The code implements the solution of both transient neutron transfer problems: a direct one, where neutron flux density and its derivatives, such as reactor power, etc, are determined at each time step, and an inverse one for the point kinetics equation form, where such a parameter as reactivity is determined with a well-known reactor power time variation function. (authors)

  20. Fast data parallel polygon rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, F.A.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a parallel method for polygonal rendering on a massively parallel SIMD machine. This method, based on a simple shading model, is targeted for applications which require very fast polygon rendering for extremely large sets of polygons such as is found in many scientific visualization applications. The algorithms described in this paper are incorporated into a library of 3D graphics routines written for the Connection Machine. The routines are implemented on both the CM-200 and the CM-5. This library enables a scientists to display 3D shaded polygons directly from a parallel machine without the need to transmit huge amounts of data to a post-processing rendering system.

  1. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL3 + L4), while existing algorithms take O(nL4). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier–Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA. PMID:27570801

  2. First results on fast baking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visentin, B.; Gasser, Y.; Charrier, J. P.

    2006-07-01

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120 °C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q0 is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the “fast baking” (145 °C/3 h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to: time reduction and possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  3. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A uv-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  4. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90.degree. and 180.degree. excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A UV-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  5. Fast Randomized STDMA Link Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Sergio; Gras, Oriol; Friderikos, Vasilis

    In this paper a fast randomized parallel link swap based packing (RSP) algorithm for timeslot allocation in a spatial time division multiple access (STDMA) wireless mesh network is presented. The proposed randomized algorithm extends several greedy scheduling algorithms that utilize the physical interference model by applying a local search that leads to a substantial improvement in the spatial timeslot reuse. Numerical simulations reveal that compared to previously scheduling schemes the proposed randomized algorithm can achieve a performance gain of up to 11%. A significant benefit of the proposed scheme is that the computations can be parallelized and therefore can efficiently utilize commoditized and emerging multi-core and/or multi-CPU processors.

  6. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  7. FastBit Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng

    2007-08-02

    An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.

  8. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  9. Physical studies of fast ignition in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X. T.; Cai, Hong-bo; Wu, Si-zhong; Cao, Li-hua; Zhang, Hua; He, Ming-qing; Chen, Mo; Wu, Jun-feng; Zhou, Cang-tao; Zhou, Wei-Min; Shan, Lian-qiang; Wang, Wei-wu; Zhang, Feng; Bi, Bi; Zhao, Zong-qing; Gu, Yu-qiu; Zhang, Bao-han; Wang, Wei; Fang, Zhi-heng; Lei, An-le; Wang, Chen; Pei, Wen-bing; Fu, Si-zu

    2015-06-01

    Fast ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion is one of the important goals today, in addition to central hot spot ignition in China. The SG-IIU and PW laser facilities are coupled to investigate the hot spot formation for fast ignition. The SG-III laser facility is almost completed and will be coupled with tens kJ PW lasers for the demonstration of fast ignition. In recent years, for physical studies of fast ignition, we have been focusing on the experimental study of implosion symmetry, M-band radiation preheating and mixing, advanced fast ignition target design, and so on. In addition, the modeling capabilities and code developments enhanced our ability to perform the hydro-simulation of the compression implosion, and the particle-in-cell (PIC) and hybrid-PIC simulation of the generation, transport and deposition of relativistic electron beams. Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding the critical issues of fast ignition.

  10. Should Type 1 diabetics fast in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Fauzia; Azad, Kishwar; Zabeen, Bedowra; Tayyeb, Samin; Baki, Abdul; Nahar, Nazmun

    2015-05-01

    Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. This involves abstaining from eating or drinking from early dawn (Suhur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar).Fasting is not meant to create excessive hardships or impart any adverse effect to the Muslim individual. As such, Islam has exempted certain categories of people from fasting including young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly,and pregnant and lactating women. According to expert opinion, people with type 1 diabetes who fast during Ramadan are at very high risk of metabolic deterioration. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that individuals with type 1 diabetes who are otherwise healthy and stable, can fast during Ramadan provided they comply with the Ramadan focused management plan and are under close professional supervision. This article discusses how to assess, counsel, monitor and manage people with type 1 diabetes who wish to fast during Ramadan.

  11. Novel Regulator of Acylated Ghrelin, CF801, Reduces Weight Gain, Rebound Feeding after a Fast, and Adiposity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Martin K; Patterson, Zachary R; MacKay, Harry; Darling, Joseph E; Mani, Bharath K; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Hougland, James L; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid hormonal peptide that is intimately related to the regulation of food intake and body weight. Once secreted, ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a, the only known receptor for ghrelin and is capable of activating a number of signaling cascades, ultimately resulting in an increase in food intake and adiposity. Because ghrelin has been linked to overeating and the development of obesity, a number of pharmacological interventions have been generated in order to interfere with either the activation of ghrelin or interrupting ghrelin signaling as a means to reducing appetite and decrease weight gain. Here, we present a novel peptide, CF801, capable of reducing circulating acylated ghrelin levels and subsequent body weight gain and adiposity. To this end, we show that IP administration of CF801 is sufficient to reduce circulating plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Acutely, intraperitoneal injections of CF801 resulted in decreased rebound feeding after an overnight fast. When delivered chronically, they decreased weight gain and adiposity without affecting caloric intake. CF801, however, did cause a change in diet preference, decreasing preference for a high-fat diet and increasing preference for regular chow diet. Given the complexity of ghrelin receptor function, we propose that CF801, along with other compounds that regulate ghrelin secretion, may prove to be a beneficial tool in the study of the ghrelin system, and potential targets for ghrelin-based obesity treatments without altering the function of ghrelin receptors.

  12. A multiparametric PCR-based tool for fast detection and identification of spore-forming bacteria in food.

    PubMed

    Postollec, Florence; Bonilla, Stéphane; Baron, Florence; Jan, Sophie; Gautier, Michel; Mathot, Anne Gabrielle; Hallier-Soulier, Sylvie; Pavan, Sonia; Sohier, Danièle

    2010-08-15

    The presence of psychrotrophic or highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria in food and feedstuff responsible for food poisoning and spoilage raises major safety and economical issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of a ready-to-use PCR assay (alternative method) in comparison with the standard microbiological plating method regarding spore-forming bacteria detection in food samples. An overnight sample enrichment was selected to increase sporeformer diversity recovery, spore germination, bacterial growth and favour DNA extraction. A total of 180 sporeformer isolates representing 38 different species and 8 genera were tested in the PCR assays. Inclusivity and exclusivity results ensured specific detection and identification of the majority of targeted genera and species. Validation studies carried on artificially contaminated food samples showed detection of the inoculated contaminants in most cases, with increased detection limit for the alternative method which enabled detection with up 1 spore of B. cereus in 25 g food sample. Using naturally contaminated food samples, standard method comforted the alternative method. In a number of cases, the alternative method was able to identify species not detected with the standard method. In addition, identification and discrimination between the B. cereus group members was possible. Thus, associated to a key element, i.e., the enrichment step, the developed multiparametric PCR-based assays reported in this study provide a fast, sensitive and reliable detection and identification tool for mostly encountered spore-forming food contaminants.

  13. Novel Regulator of Acylated Ghrelin, CF801, Reduces Weight Gain, Rebound Feeding after a Fast, and Adiposity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Martin K.; Patterson, Zachary R.; MacKay, Harry; Darling, Joseph E.; Mani, Bharath K.; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Hougland, James L.; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid hormonal peptide that is intimately related to the regulation of food intake and body weight. Once secreted, ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a, the only known receptor for ghrelin and is capable of activating a number of signaling cascades, ultimately resulting in an increase in food intake and adiposity. Because ghrelin has been linked to overeating and the development of obesity, a number of pharmacological interventions have been generated in order to interfere with either the activation of ghrelin or interrupting ghrelin signaling as a means to reducing appetite and decrease weight gain. Here, we present a novel peptide, CF801, capable of reducing circulating acylated ghrelin levels and subsequent body weight gain and adiposity. To this end, we show that IP administration of CF801 is sufficient to reduce circulating plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Acutely, intraperitoneal injections of CF801 resulted in decreased rebound feeding after an overnight fast. When delivered chronically, they decreased weight gain and adiposity without affecting caloric intake. CF801, however, did cause a change in diet preference, decreasing preference for a high-fat diet and increasing preference for regular chow diet. Given the complexity of ghrelin receptor function, we propose that CF801, along with other compounds that regulate ghrelin secretion, may prove to be a beneficial tool in the study of the ghrelin system, and potential targets for ghrelin-based obesity treatments without altering the function of ghrelin receptors. PMID:26441834

  14. Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-02-01

    Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but, only recently, studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism, and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity, in part, by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. In rodents intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease, and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic dietary interventions. PMID:24440038

  15. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-01-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. Images PMID:7687254

  16. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-06-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol.

  17. Relationship of attitudes toward fast food and frequency of fast-food intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jayna M; An, Lawrence C; Jeffery, Robert W; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults (94% white, 65% women, 70% married, 42% with college educated). Attitudes toward fast food was measured using an 11-item, 4-dimensional scale: perceived convenience of fast food (alpha=0.56); fast food is fun and social (alpha=0.55); fast food perceived as unhealthful (alpha=0.45); and dislike toward cooking (alpha=0.52). Frequency of fast-food intake was found to be significantly associated with age (odds ratios (OR)=0.981, P=0.001), gender (men>women), and marital status of the participants (single>married/partnered and divorced/separated/widowed). Additionally, frequency of fast-food intake was also found to be significantly associated with perceived convenience of fast food (OR=1.162, P<0.001) and dislike toward cooking (OR=1.119, P<0.001) but not with perceived unhealthfulness of fast food (OR=0.692, P=0.207). These findings suggest public education regarding the unhealthfulness of fast food may not influence fast food consumption. Interventions targeting the issue of convenience and quick or efficient preparation of nutritious alternatives to fast food could be more promising. PMID:19247277

  18. Development of a method for fast and automatic radiocarbon measurement of aerosol samples by online coupling of an elemental analyzer with a MICADAS AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, G.; Zhang, Y. L.; Agrios, K.; Szidat, S.

    2015-10-01

    A fast and automatic method for radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples is presented. This type of analysis requires high number of sample measurements of low carbon masses, but accepts precisions lower than for carbon dating analysis. The method is based on online Trapping CO2 and coupling an elemental analyzer with a MICADAS AMS by means of a gas interface. It gives similar results to a previously validated reference method for the same set of samples. This method is fast and automatic and typically provides uncertainties of 1.5-5% for representative aerosol samples. It proves to be robust and reliable and allows for overnight and unattended measurements. A constant and cross contamination correction is included, which indicates a constant contamination of 1.4 ± 0.2 μg C with 70 ± 7 pMC and a cross contamination of (0.2 ± 0.1)% from the previous sample. A Real-time online coupling version of the method was also investigated. It shows promising results for standard materials with slightly higher uncertainties than the Trapping online approach.

  19. Fast and Efficient non-reduced Lys-C digest using pressure cycling technology for antibody disulfide mapping by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Chen, Yonghong; Yu, Christopher

    2016-09-10

    Conventional sample preparation for antibody disulfide mapping often requires relatively long digestion time (from several hours to overnight) and relatively high endoproteinase concentration. These conditions are typically necessitated by the fact that antibody molecules are not sufficiently denatured under non-reduced conditions and chaotropic agents are used during digestion to achieve optimal denaturation. Disulfide scrambling can occur as artifacts of digestion as proteins are incubated for extended periods, often at neutral to slightly alkaline pH conditions. Shortening digestion time and lowering the pH during digestion frequently result in incomplete peptide cleavages or variable recoveries. Here, we report the development of a fast and efficient non-reduced Lys-C digestion method based on pressure cycling technology (PCT) and its application in determining disulfide-linkages in monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Conditions were optimized to ensure complete digestion of the mAb with minimal sample preparation-related disulfide scrambling. The PCT-based method was able to generate up to 10-fold signal increase for some disulfide peptides in a 1h Lys-C digestion compared to the conventional bench-top digestion method. As a result of the shorter digestion time, disulfide scrambling that is seen as a major assay artifact of the conventional method was reduced to less than 0.05% in tested molecules. The results show that the PCT-based method offers fast digestion in a shorter time for all the mAbs tested. PMID:27429370

  20. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  1. Impulsively generated fast coronal pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwin, P. M.; Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid oscillations in the corona are discussed from a theoretical standpoint, developing some previous work on ducted, fast magnetoacoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium. In the theory, impulsively (e.g., flare) generated mhd (magnetohydrodynamic) waves are ducted by regions of low Alfven speed (high density) such as coronal loops. Wave propagation in such ducts is strongly dispersive and closely akin to the behavior of Love waves in seismology, Pekeris waves in oceanography and guided waves in fiber optics. Such flare-generated magnetoacoustic waves possess distinctive temporal signatures consisting of periodic, quasi-periodic and decay phases. The quasi-periodic phase possesses the strongest amplitudes and the shortest time scales. Time scales are typically of the order of a second for inhomogeneities (coronal loop width) of 1000 km and Alfven speeds of 1000/kms, and pulse duration times are of tens of seconds. Quasi-periodic signatures have been observed in radio wavelengths for over a decade and more recently by SMM. It is hoped that the theoretical ideas outlined may be successfully related to these observations and thus aid the interpretation of oscillatory signatures recorded by SMM. Such signatures may also provide a diagnostic of coronal conditions. New aspects of the ducted mhd waves, for example their behavior in smoothly varying as opposed to tube-like inhomogeneities, are currently under investigation. The theory is not restricted to loops but applied equally to open field regions.

  2. Isochoric Implosions for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel; Tabak, Max

    2006-10-01

    Various gain models have shown the potentially great advantages of Fast Ignition (FI) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) over its conventional hotspot ignition counterpart. These gain models, however, all assume nearly uniform-density fuel assemblies. By contrast, typical ICF implosions yield hollowed fuel assemblies with a high-density shell of fuel surrounding a low-density, high-pressure hotspot. To realize fully the advantages of FI, then, an alternative implosion design must be found which yields nearly isochoric fuel assemblies without substantial hotspots. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942)] may be employed to yield precisely such quasi-isochoric imploded states. The difficulty remains, however, of accessing these self-similarly imploding configurations from initial conditions representing an actual ICF target, namely a uniform, solid-density shell at rest. Furthermore, these specialized implosions must be realized for practicable drive parameters, i.e., accessible peak pressures, shell aspect ratios, etc. An implosion scheme is presented which meets all of these requirements, suggesting the possibility of genuinely isochoric implosions for FI.

  3. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  4. Isochoric Implosions for Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Tabak, M

    2007-04-04

    Various gain models have shown the potentially great advantages of Fast Ignition (FI) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) over its conventional hot spot ignition counterpart [e.g., S. Atzeni, Phys. Plasmas 6, 3316 (1999); M. Tabak et al., Fusion Sci. & Technology 49, 254 (2006)]. These gain models, however, all assume nearly uniform-density fuel assemblies. In contrast, conventional ICF implosions yield hollowed fuel assemblies with a high-density shell of fuel surrounding a low-density, high-pressure hot spot. Hence, to realize fully the advantages of FI, an alternative implosion design must be found which yields nearly isochoric fuel assemblies without substantial hot spots. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942)] may be employed to yield precisely such quasi-isochoric imploded states. The difficulty remains, however, of accessing these self-similarly imploding configurations from initial conditions representing an actual ICF target, namely a uniform, solid-density shell at rest. Furthermore, these specialized implosions must be realized for practicable drive parameters and at the scales and energies of interest in ICF. A direct-drive implosion scheme is presented which meets all of these requirements and reaches a nearly isochoric assembled density of 300 g=cm{sup 3} and areal density of 2.4 g=cm{sup 2} using 485 kJ of laser energy.

  5. Fasting: The History, Pathophysiology and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kerndt, Peter R.; Naughton, James L.; Driscoll, Charles E.; Loxterkamp, David A.

    1982-01-01

    An appreciation of the physiology of fasting is essential to the understanding of therapeutic dietary interventions and the effect of food deprivation in various diseases. The practice of prolonged fasting for political or religious purposes is increasing, and a physician is likely to encounter such circumstances. Early in fasting weight loss is rapid, averaging 0.9 kg per day during the first week and slowing to 0.3 kg per day by the third week; early rapid weight loss is primarily due to negative sodium balance. Metabolically, early fasting is characterized by a high rate of gluconeogenesis with amino acids as the primary substrates. As fasting continues, progressive ketosis develops due to the mobilization and oxidation of fatty acids. As ketone levels rise they replace glucose as the primary energy source in the central nervous system, thereby decreasing the need for gluconeogenesis and sparing protein catabolism. Several hormonal changes occur during fasting, including a fall in insulin and T3 levels and a rise in glucagon and reverse T3 levels. Most studies of fasting have used obese persons and results may not always apply to lean persons. Medical complications seen in fasting include gout and urate nephrolithiasis, postural hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. ImagesFigure 4. PMID:6758355

  6. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  7. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki; Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki; GOTO, Shoji

    2006-07-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)

  8. Optical imaging of fast, dynamic neurophysiological function.

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D. M.; Carter, K. M.; Yao, X.; George, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Fast evoked responses were imaged from rat dorsal medulla and whisker barrel cortex. To investigate the biophysical mechanisms involved, fast optical responses associated with isolated crustacean nerve stimulation were recorded using birefringence and scattered light. Such studies allow optimization of non-invasive imaging techniques being developed for use in humans.

  9. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, S. A.; Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-07-01

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ˜4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ˜0.3 micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25.

  10. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  11. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Can Fast and Slow Intelligence Be Differentiated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partchev, Ivailo; De Boeck, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Responses to items from an intelligence test may be fast or slow. The research issue dealt with in this paper is whether the intelligence involved in fast correct responses differs in nature from the intelligence involved in slow correct responses. There are two questions related to this issue: 1. Are the processes involved different? 2. Are the…

  13. Fast ion JET diagnostics: confinement and losses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Sharapov, S. E.; Syme, D. B.; Cecconello, M.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Yavorskij, V.; Johnson, T.; Murari, A.; Reich, M.; Gorini, G.; Zoita, V.

    2008-03-12

    A study of magnetically confined fast ions in tokamaks plays an important role in burning plasma research. To reach ignition and steady burning of a reactor plasma an adequate confinement of energetic ions produced by NBI heating, accelerated with ICRF and born in fusion reactions is essential to provide efficient heating of the bulk plasma. Thus, investigation of the fast ion behaviour is an immediate task for present-day large machines, such as JET, in order to understand the main mechanisms of slowing down, redistribution and losses, and to develop optimal plasma scenarios. Today's JET has an enhanced suite of fast ion diagnostics both of confined and lost ions that enable to significantly contribute to this important area of research. Fast ion populations of p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He, made with ICRF, NBI, and fusion reactions have been investigated in experiments on JET with sophisticated diagnostics in conventional and shear-reversed plasmas, exploring a wide range of effects. This paper will introduce to the JET fast-ion diagnostic techniques and will give an overview of recent observations. A synergy of the unique diagnostic set was utilised in JET, and studies of the response of fast ions to MHD modes (e.g. tornado modes, sawtooth crashes), fast {sup 3}He-ions behaviour in shear-reversed plasmas are impressive examples of that. Some results on fast ion losses in JET experiments with various levels of the toroidal field ripple will be demonstrated.

  14. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…

  15. Fasting during Ramadan in adolescents with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zabeen, Bedowra; Tayyeb, Samin; Benarjee, Biplob; Baki, Abdul; Nahar, Jebun; Mohsin, Fauzia; Nahar, Nazmun; Azad, Kishwar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fasting (Sawm) during Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Some children with diabetes, despite their exemption insist on fasting in Ramadan. We evaluated the safety of fasting among children with type 1 diabetes. Materials and Mathods: A prospective observational study was designed for diabetic children and adolescents who wish to fast during Ramadan 2012. Patients with their caregivers were given intensive education and instructions were provided by diabetic educators, dieticians and physicians on insulin adjustment, home blood glucose monitoring and dietary adjustments prior to Ramadan. Results: A total of 33 children and adolescents were included in this study. Of these, 16 were male and 17 were female. Majority (60.6%) of the patients could complete their fasting during the Ramadan. Patients were divided into two groups, those who completed fasting were considered as Group-I, whereas patients who broke the fast were in Group-ll. Blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c weight, and insulin dose before and after Ramadan in two groups showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Children older than 11 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus with conventional twice-a-day regimen can fast safely during Ramadan provided they have proper education and intensive follow-up during Ramadan. PMID:24701429

  16. FAST User's Guide - Updated August 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L. Jr.

    2005-10-01

    The FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) Code is a comprehensive aeroelastic simulator capable of predicting both the extreme and fatigue loads of two- and three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). This document covers the features of FAST and outlines its operating procedures.

  17. Fast Mapping Verb Meaning from Argument Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine lexical knowledge in children through a fast mapping task. Method: This study compared the performance of 60 African American English-speaking and general American English-speaking children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. They were presented with a comprehension task involving the fast mapping of novel verbs in 4 different…

  18. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghasemi, S. A. Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-07-15

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ∼4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ∼0.3  micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25.

  19. Impaired glucose tolerance and predisposition to the fasted state in liver glycogen synthase knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Jose M; Meyer, Catalina M; Peper, Caron L; Zhai, Lanmin; Bock, Cheryl B; Previs, Stephen F; McGuinness, Owen P; DePaoli-Roach, Anna; Roach, Peter J

    2010-04-23

    Conversion to glycogen is a major fate of ingested glucose in the body. A rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen is glycogen synthase encoded by two genes, GYS1, expressed in muscle and other tissues, and GYS2, primarily expressed in liver (liver glycogen synthase). Defects in GYS2 cause the inherited monogenic disease glycogen storage disease 0. We have generated mice with a liver-specific disruption of the Gys2 gene (liver glycogen synthase knock-out (LGSKO) mice), using Lox-P/Cre technology. Conditional mice carrying floxed Gys2 were crossed with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the albumin promoter. The resulting LGSKO mice are viable, develop liver glycogen synthase deficiency, and have a 95% reduction in fed liver glycogen content. They have mild hypoglycemia but dispose glucose less well in a glucose tolerance test. Fed, LGSKO mice also have a reduced capacity for exhaustive exercise compared with mice carrying floxed alleles, but the difference disappears after an overnight fast. Upon fasting, LGSKO mice reach within 4 h decreased blood glucose levels attained by control floxed mice only after 24 h of food deprivation. The LGSKO mice maintain this low blood glucose for at least 24 h. Basal gluconeogenesis is increased in LGSKO mice, and insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production is impaired as assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. This observation correlates with an increase in the liver gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression and activity. This mouse model mimics the pathophysiology of glycogen storage disease 0 patients and highlights the importance of liver glycogen stores in whole body glucose homeostasis.

  20. Fast-Food Consumption, Diet Quality, and Neighborhood Exposure to Fast Food

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, David R.; Franco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000–2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45–84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or ≥1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2–3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food ≥1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%–61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%–17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

  1. Fast response liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yung-Hsun

    Liquid crystal (LC) has been widely used for displays, spatial light modulators, variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and other tunable photonic devices. The response time of these devices is mainly determined by the employed liquid crystal material. The response time of a LC device depends on the visco-elastic coefficient (gamma1/K11), LC cell gap (d), and applied voltage. Hence, low visco-elastic coefficient LC materials and thinner cell gap are favorable for reducing the response time. However, low visco-elastic coefficient LCs are usually associated with a low birefringence because of shorter molecular conjugation. For display applications, such as LCD TVs, low birefringence (Deltan<0.1) LCs are commonly used. However, for optical communications at 1550 nm, low birefringence requires to a thick cell gap which, in turn, increases the response time. How to obtain fast response for the LC devices is a fundamentally important and technically challenging task. In this dissertation, we investigate several methods to improve liquid crystal response time, for examples, using dual-frequency liquid crystals, polymer stabilized liquid crystals, and sheared polymer network liquid crystals. We discover a new class of material, denoted as sheared polymer network liquid crystal (SPNLC) which exhibits a submillisecond response time. Moreover, this response time is insensitive to the LC cell gap. This is the first LC device exhibiting such an interesting property. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the motivation and background of this dissertation. From chapter 3 to chapter 6, dual-frequency liquid crystals and polymer network methods are demonstrated as examples for the variable optical attenuators. Variable optical attenuator (VOA) is a key component in optical communications. Especially, the sheared PNLC VOA shows the best result; its dynamic range reaches 43 dB while the response time is in the submillisecond range at 1550 nm wavelength, which is 50 times faster than the commercial

  2. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-09-15

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB{sup 11}) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  3. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

  4. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Bajaj, Sarita; Gupta, Yashdeep; Agarwal, Pankaj; Singh, S K; Julka, Sandeep; Chawla, Rajeev; Agrawal, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts. PMID:25729681

  5. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Bajaj, Sarita; Gupta, Yashdeep; Agarwal, Pankaj; Singh, S. K.; Julka, Sandeep; Chawla, Rajeev; Agrawal, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts. PMID:25729681

  6. Fast diffraction computation algorithms based on FFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logofatu, Petre Catalin; Nascov, Victor; Apostol, Dan

    2010-11-01

    The discovery of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm by Cooley and Tukey meant for diffraction computation what the invention of computers meant for computation in general. The computation time reduction is more significant for large input data, but generally FFT reduces the computation time with several orders of magnitude. This was the beginning of an entire revolution in optical signal processing and resulted in an abundance of fast algorithms for diffraction computation in a variety of situations. The property that allowed the creation of these fast algorithms is that, as it turns out, most diffraction formulae contain at their core one or more Fourier transforms which may be rapidly calculated using the FFT. The key in discovering a new fast algorithm is to reformulate the diffraction formulae so that to identify and isolate the Fourier transforms it contains. In this way, the fast scaled transformation, the fast Fresnel transformation and the fast Rayleigh-Sommerfeld transform were designed. Remarkable improvements were the generalization of the DFT to scaled DFT which allowed freedom to choose the dimensions of the output window for the Fraunhofer-Fourier and Fresnel diffraction, the mathematical concept of linearized convolution which thwarts the circular character of the discrete Fourier transform and allows the use of the FFT, and last but not least the linearized discrete scaled convolution, a new concept of which we claim priority.

  7. Fast magnetoacoustic wave trains in coronal holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Kupriyanova, E. G.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Rapidly propagating coronal EUV disturbances recently discovered in the solar corona are interpreted in terms of guided fast magnetoacoustic waves. Fast magnetoacoustic waves experience geometric dispersion in waveguides, which causes localised, impulsive perturbations to develop into quasi-periodic wave trains. Aims: We consider the formation of fast wave trains in a super-radially expanding coronal hole modelled by a magnetic funnel with a field-aligned density profile that is rarefied in comparison to the surrounding plasma. This kind of structure is typical of coronal holes, and it forms a fast magnetoacoustic anti-waveguide as a local maximum in the Alfvén speed. Methods: We performed 2D MHD numerical simulations for impulsively generated perturbations to the system. Both sausage and kink perturbations are considered and the role of the density contrast ratio investigated. Results: The anti-waveguide funnel geometry refracts wave energy away from the structure. However, in this geometry the quasi-periodic fast wave trains are found to appear, too, and so can be associated with the observed rapidly propagating coronal EUV disturbances. The wave trains propagate along the external edge of the coronal hole. The fast wave trains generated in coronal holes exhibit less dispersive evolution than in the case of a dense waveguide. Conclusions: We conclude that an impulsive energy release localised in a coronal plasma inhomogeneity develops into a fast wave train for both kink and sausage disturbances and for both waveguide and anti-waveguide transverse plasma profiles.

  8. Fast Physics Testbed for the FASTER Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Hogan, R.; Neggers, R.; Jensen, M.; Fridlind, A.; Lin, Y.; Wolf, A.

    2010-03-15

    This poster describes the Fast Physics Testbed for the new FAst-physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project. The overall objective is to provide a convenient and comprehensive platform for fast turn-around model evaluation against ARM observations and to facilitate development of parameterizations for cloud-related fast processes represented in global climate models. The testbed features three major components: a single column model (SCM) testbed, an NWP-Testbed, and high-resolution modeling (HRM). The web-based SCM-Testbed features multiple SCMs from major climate modeling centers and aims to maximize the potential of SCM approach to enhance and accelerate the evaluation and improvement of fast physics parameterizations through continuous evaluation of existing and evolving models against historical as well as new/improved ARM and other complementary measurements. The NWP-Testbed aims to capitalize on the large pool of operational numerical weather prediction products. Continuous evaluations of NWP forecasts against observations at ARM sites are carried out to systematically identify the biases and skills of physical parameterizations under all weather conditions. The highresolution modeling (HRM) activities aim to simulate the fast processes at high resolution to aid in the understanding of the fast processes and their parameterizations. A four-tier HRM framework is established to augment the SCM- and NWP-Testbeds towards eventual improvement of the parameterizations.

  9. TiO{sub 2} nanorods branched on fast-synthesized large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Anzheng; Li Haina; Jia Zhiyong; Xia Zhengcai

    2011-11-15

    A large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (LTAs) has been synthesized by a not more than 12 h anodization duration and based on this a branched TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (BLTs) has been achieved through TiO{sub 2} nanorods branch-like grown on the LTAs. Some key factors and probable mechanisms of the fabrication processes on two novel nanoarchitectures are discussed. Exhilaratingly, it is found that the obtained LTAs has demonstrated large pore diameter and void spaces (pore diameter {approx}350 nm; void spaces {approx}160 nm; and tube length {approx}3.5 {mu}m), and the synthesized hierarchical BLTs, compared with conventional TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, has shown a much stronger dye absorption performance and an approximately double of the solar cell efficiency (in our case from 1.62% to 3.18% under simulated AM 1.5 conditions). - Graphical Abstract: The schematic diagram of synthesis process for LTAs and BLTs is on the above and the corresponding FESEM images of obtained photoanodes samples are shown below. Highlights: > Large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (LTAs) was synthesized by a fast anodization process of 12 h. > Anodization time of 12 h is just 10% of about 120 h reported in the previous references. > Branch-like TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (BLTs) was achieved by growing TiO{sub 2} nanorods on the LTAs. > Obtained BLTs and LTAs show impressive morphology and noticeable improvement of surface area. > BLTs shows about more than 1 times higher solar cell efficiency than that of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays.

  10. Fast Food and Neighborhood Stroke Risk

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Escobar, James D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hughes, Rebecca; Zuniga, Belinda G.; Garcia, Nelda; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the number of fast food restaurants and ischemic stroke in neighborhoods. Methods This work was a pre-specified part of the Brain Attack in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Ischemic stroke cases were prospectively ascertained in Nueces County, Texas. Home addresses were geocoded and used to establish the census tract for each stroke case. Census tracts were used as proxies for neighborhoods (n=64). Using a standard definition, fast food restaurants were identified from a commercial list. Poisson regression was used to study the association between the number of fast food restaurants in the neighborhood, using a 1-mile buffer around each census tract, and the risk of stroke in the neighborhood. Models were adjusted for demographics and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Results There were 1,247 completed ischemic strokes from January 2000 through June 2003 and 262 fast food restaurants. The median number of fast food restaurants per census tract including buffer was 22 (IQR 12–33). Adjusting for neighborhood demographics and SES, the association of fast food restaurants with stroke was significant (p=0.02). The association suggested that the risk of stroke in a neighborhood increased by 1% for every fast food restaurant (RR 1.01 95% CI: 1.00–1.01). The relative risk of stroke comparing neighborhoods in the 75th to the 25th percentile of the distribution of fast food restaurants was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Interpretation Controlling for demographic and SES factors, there was a significant association between fast food restaurants and stroke risk in neighborhoods in this community-based study. PMID:19743456

  11. A model for fast axonal transport.

    PubMed

    Blum, J J; Reed, M C

    1985-01-01

    A model for fast axonal transport is developed in which the essential features are that organelles may interact with mechanochemical cross-bridges that in turn interact with microtubules, forming an organelle-engine-microtubule complex which is transported along the microtubules. Computer analysis of the equations derived to describe such a system show that most of the experimental observations on fast axonal transport can be simulated by the model, indicating that the model is useful for the interpretation and design of experiments aimed at clarifying the mechanism of fast axonal transport. PMID:2416456

  12. The fast debris evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G.; Swinerd, G. G.; Newland, R. J.; Saunders, A.

    2009-09-01

    The 'particles-in-a-box' (PIB) model introduced by Talent [Talent, D.L. Analytic model for orbital debris environmental management. J. Spacecraft Rocket, 29 (4), 508-513, 1992.] removed the need for computer-intensive Monte Carlo simulation to predict the gross characteristics of an evolving debris environment. The PIB model was described using a differential equation that allows the stability of the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment to be tested by a straightforward analysis of the equation's coefficients. As part of an ongoing research effort to investigate more efficient approaches to evolutionary modelling and to develop a suite of educational tools, a new PIB model has been developed. The model, entitled Fast Debris Evolution (FADE), employs a first-order differential equation to describe the rate at which new objects ⩾10 cm are added and removed from the environment. Whilst Talent [Talent, D.L. Analytic model for orbital debris environmental management. J. Spacecraft Rocket, 29 (4), 508-513, 1992.] based the collision theory for the PIB approach on collisions between gas particles and adopted specific values for the parameters of the model from a number of references, the form and coefficients of the FADE model equations can be inferred from the outputs of future projections produced by high-fidelity models, such as the DAMAGE model. The FADE model has been implemented as a client-side, web-based service using JavaScript embedded within a HTML document. Due to the simple nature of the algorithm, FADE can deliver the results of future projections immediately in a graphical format, with complete user-control over key simulation parameters. Historical and future projections for the ⩾10 cm LEO debris environment under a variety of different scenarios are possible, including business as usual, no future launches, post-mission disposal and remediation. A selection of results is presented with comparisons with predictions made using the DAMAGE environment model

  13. A portable device for fast analysis of explosives in the environment.

    PubMed

    Čapka, Lukáš; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Bumbová, Alena

    2015-04-01

    A novel portable device for fast and sensitive analysis of explosives in environmental samples is presented. The developed system consists of miniaturized microcolumn liquid chromatograph, photolytic converter and chemiluminescence detector. The device is able to determine selectively nitramine- and nitroester- and most of nitroaromates-based explosives as well as inorganic nitrates at trace concentrations in water or soil extracts in less than 8 min. The device allows to analyze various environmental samples such as soils or water materials without previous preconcentration. Because of internal power supply, the device ensures 12h of continuous operation. Limits of detection of compounds of interest are in the range of concentrations from 5.0 × 10(-9)M to 8.0 × 10(-5)M for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Limits of quantification are in the range of concentrations from 1.7 × 10(-8)M to 2.7 × 10(-4)M for a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. The repeatability of the method (RSD=2.9-5.6%) was determined by repeated injections (n=10) of the standard samples during 4h.

  14. Fast Action Can Prevent Sepsis Death: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160574.html Fast Action Can Prevent Sepsis Death: CDC Know the signs of extreme response to ... treated long before it causes severe illness or death, U.S. health officials report. Sepsis, or septicemia, occurs ...

  15. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Monkenbusch, M; Stadler, A; Biehl, R; Ollivier, J; Zamponi, M; Richter, D

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D2O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains. PMID:26298156

  16. Fast and practical parallel polynomial interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Egecioglu, O.; Gallopoulos, E.; Koc, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    We present fast and practical parallel algorithms for the computation and evaluation of interpolating polynomials. The algorithms make use of fast parallel prefix techniques for the calculation of divided differences in the Newton representation of the interpolating polynomial. For n + 1 given input pairs the proposed interpolation algorithm requires 2 (log (n + 1)) + 2 parallel arithmetic steps and circuit size O(n/sup 2/). The algorithms are numerically stable and their floating-point implementation results in error accumulation similar to that of the widely used serial algorithms. This is in contrast to other fast serial and parallel interpolation algorithms which are subject to much larger roundoff. We demonstrate that in a distributed memory environment context, a cube connected system is very suitable for the algorithms' implementation, exhibiting very small communication cost. As further advantages we note that our techniques do not require equidistant points, preconditioning, or use of the Fast Fourier Transform. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Cosmology: Home of a fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2016-02-01

    Our understanding of fast radio bursts -- intense pulses of radio waves -- and their use as cosmic probes promises to be transformed now that one burst has been associated with a galaxy of known distance from Earth. See Letter p.453

  18. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Monkenbusch, M.; Stadler, A. Biehl, R.; Richter, D.; Ollivier, J.; Zamponi, M.

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D{sub 2}O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains.

  19. FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2009-06-23

    As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.

  20. Interpretation of fast-ion signals during beam modulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Collins, C. S.; Stagner, L.; Zhu, Y. B.; Petty, C. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    Fast-ion signals produced by a modulated neutral beam are used to infer fast-ion transport. The measured quantity is the divergence of perturbed fast-ion flux from the phase-space volume measured by the diagnostic, \

  1. Development and characterization of pharmacokinetic parameters of fast-dissolving films containing levocetirizine.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dhagla R; Patel, Vishnu A; Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Patel, Harsha V; Kundawala, Aliasgar J

    2012-09-01

    A fast-dissolving film containing levocetirizine, a non-sedative antihistamine drug, was developed using pullulan, xanthan gum, propylene glycol, and tween 80 as the base materials. The drug content of the prepared films was within an acceptable limit as prescribed by the USP. The film exhibited excellent stability for four months when stored at 40 °C and 75% humidity. In vitro dissolution studies suggested a rapid disintegration, in which most of levocetirizine (93.54 ± 3.9%) dissolved within 90 seconds after insertion into the medium. Subsequently, Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of the film preparation administered to the oral cavity, to those with oral administration of the pure drug solution. The pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between the two groups in which AUC(0-t) (ng h/ml), AUC(0-∞) (ng h/ml) C(max) (ng/ml), T(max) (min), K(el) (h(-1)), and t(1/2) (h) of the reference were 452.033 ± 43.68, 465.78 ± 48.16, 237.16 ± 19.87, 30, 0.453 ± 0.051, and 1.536 ± 0.118, respectively, for the film formulation 447.233 ± 46.24, 458.22 ± 46.74, 233.32 ± 17.19, 30, 0.464 ± 0.060, and 1.496 ± 0.293, respectively. These results suggest that the present levocetirizine containing fast-dissolving film is likely to become one of the choices to treat different allergic conditions. PMID:23008821

  2. Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Importance Fiscal food policies (e.g., taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. Objective We estimated subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardio-metabolic outcomes, hypothesizing inverse associations between fast food price with fast food consumption, BMI, and insulin resistance and stronger associations among blacks (vs. whites) and participants with relatively lower education or income. Design 20-year follow-up (5 exams) in a biracial U.S. prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/86–2005/06, baseline n=5,115). Participants Aged 18–30 at baseline; designed for equal recruitment by race (black/white), educational attainment, age, and gender. Exposures Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) temporally- and geographically-linked to study participants’ home address at each exam. Main outcome and measures Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week; BMI (kg/m2) from clinical assessment of weight and height; homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin. Covariates included individual- and community-level social and demographic factors. Results In repeated measures regression, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were non-linear (quadratic, p<0.001), with significant inverse estimated effects on consumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction term p=0.04), income (p=0.07), and education (p=0.03). For example, at the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption (times/week) of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.3) and 1.6 (1.5–1.7), respectively, while at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.9 (1.8–2.0) and 1.5 (1.4–1.6). We

  3. Fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.

    2013-01-15

    Results of studies on fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are reviewed. The aspects of the fast ignition concept, which consists in the separation of the processes of target ignition and compression due to the synchronized action of different energy drivers, are considered. Criteria for the compression ratio and heating rate of a fast ignition target, the energy balance, and the thermonuclear gain are discussed. The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the heating of a compressed target by various types of igniting drivers, namely, beams of fast electrons and light ions produced under the action of a petawatt laser pulse on the target, a heavy-ion beam generated in the accelerator, an X-ray pulse, and a hydrodynamic flow of laser-accelerated matter, are analyzed. Requirements to the igniting-driver parameters that depend on the fast ignition criteria under the conditions of specific target heating mechanisms, as well as possibilities of practical implementation of these requirements, are discussed. The experimental programs of various laboratories and the prospects of practical implementation of fast ignition of ICF targets are reviewed. To date, fast ignition is the most promising method for decreasing the ignition energy and increasing the thermonuclear gain of an ICF plasma. A large number of publications have been devoted to investigations of this method and adjacent problems of the physics of igniting drivers and their interaction with plasma. This review presents results of only some of these studies that, in the author's opinion, allow one to discuss in detail the main physical aspects of the fast ignition concept and understand the current state and prospects of studies in this direction.

  4. COUPLED FAST-THERMAL POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Avery, R.

    1961-07-18

    A nuclear reactor having a region operating predominantly on fast neutrons and another region operating predominantly on slow neutrons is described. The fast region is a plutonium core and the slow region is a natural uranium blanket around the core. Both of these regions are free of moderator. A moderating reflector surrounds the uranium blanket. The moderating material and thickness of the reflector are selected so that fissions in the uranium blanket make a substantial contribution to the reactivity of the reactor.

  5. A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recktenwald, Geoff; Deinert, Mark

    2010-03-01

    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks.

  6. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  7. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  8. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  9. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality. PMID:24801125

  10. FAST - FREEDOM ASSEMBLY SEQUENCING TOOL PROTOTYPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    FAST is a project management tool designed to optimize the assembly sequence of Space Station Freedom. An appropriate assembly sequence coordinates engineering, design, utilization, transportation availability, and operations requirements. Since complex designs tend to change frequently, FAST assesses the system level effects of detailed changes and produces output metrics that identify preferred assembly sequences. FAST incorporates Space Shuttle integration, Space Station hardware, on-orbit operations, and programmatic drivers as either precedence relations or numerical data. Hardware sequencing information can either be input directly and evaluated via the "specified" mode of operation or evaluated from the input precedence relations in the "flexible" mode. In the specified mode, FAST takes as its input a list of the cargo elements assigned to each flight. The program determines positions for the cargo elements that maximize the center of gravity (c.g.) margin. These positions are restricted by the geometry of the cargo elements and the location of attachment fittings both in the orbiter and on the cargo elements. FAST calculates every permutation of cargo element location according to its height, trunnion fitting locations, and required intercargo element spacing. Each cargo element is tested in both its normal and reversed orientation (rotated 180 degrees). The best solution is that which maximizes the c.g. margin for each flight. In the flexible mode, FAST begins with the first flight and determines all feasible combinations of cargo elements according to mass, volume, EVA, and precedence relation constraints. The program generates an assembly sequence that meets mass, volume, position, EVA, and precedence constraints while minimizing the total number of Shuttle flights required. Issues associated with ground operations, spacecraft performance, logistics requirements and user requirements will be addressed in future versions of the model. FAST is written in C

  11. Trapped ion scaling with pulsed fast gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. D. B.; Carvalho, A. R. R.; Hope, J. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fast entangling gates for trapped ion pairs offer vastly improved gate operation times relative to implemented gates, as well as approaches to trap scaling. Gates on a neighbouring ion pair only involve local ions when performed sufficiently fast, and we find that even a fast gate between a pair of distant ions with few degrees of freedom restores all the motional modes given more stringent gate speed conditions. We compare pulsed fast gate schemes, defined by a timescale faster than the trap period, and find that our proposed scheme has less stringent requirements on laser repetition rate for achieving arbitrary gate time targets and infidelities well below 10-4. By extending gate schemes to ion crystals, we explore the effect of ion number on gate fidelity for coupling two neighbouring ions in large crystals. Inter-ion distance determines the gate time, and a factor of five increase in repetition rate, or correspondingly the laser power, reduces the infidelity by almost two orders of magnitude. We also apply our fast gate scheme to entangle the first and last ions in a crystal. As the number of ions in the crystal increases, significant increases in the laser power are required to provide the short gate times corresponding to fidelity above 0.99.

  12. The Physics of Fast Z Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    RYUTOV,D.D.; DERZON,MARK S.; MATZEN,M. KEITH

    1999-10-25

    The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizing the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 36 figures and more than 300 references.

  13. The physics of fast Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.; Derzon, M.S.; Matzen, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizes the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z-pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 52 figures and nearly 300 references.

  14. Subwavelength nanobrush target to collimate fast electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zongqing; Cao, Lihua; Cao, Leifeng; Zhou, Weimin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Dong, Kegong; Zhang, Baohan; Ding, Yongkun; Gu, Yuqiu

    2011-10-01

    A subwavelength nanobrush target was proposed to collimate fast electrons in laser plasma interaction, which consists of a 5 μm copper underlay covered with a 20 μm thick layer of metallic fibers. The diameter of the individual fibers is about 200 nm and the spacing between them is about 150 nm. The experiment was hold at SILEX-I laser facility (10 J, 31 fs, 300 TW). When a subwavelength nanobrush target interacts with ultraintense laser of 7.9*1018/cm2, highly collimated fast electron beam with divergence angle nearly zero whereas the divergence of the plane target is 40 degree. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that the fast electrons will be accelerated and guided by strong transient electromagnetic fields created at the wall surfaces of nanobrushs. Both experiment and simulation show that the subwavelength nanobrush target can indeed generate fast electrons more efficiency and collimate them. The scheme should be useful for fast ignition and K α source research in inertial confinement fusion.

  15. Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Tomás; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behavior—such fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momenta—in other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.

  16. Processing of fast speech by elderly listeners.

    PubMed

    Janse, Esther

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates the relative contributions of auditory and cognitive factors to the common finding that an increase in speech rate affects elderly listeners more than young listeners. Since a direct relation between non-auditory factors, such as age-related cognitive slowing, and fast speech performance has been difficult to demonstrate, the present study took an on-line, rather than off-line, approach and focused on processing time. Elderly and young listeners were presented with speech at two rates of time compression and were asked to detect pre-assigned target words as quickly as possible. A number of auditory and cognitive measures were entered in a statistical model as predictors of elderly participants' fast speech performance: hearing acuity, an information processing rate measure, and two measures of reading speed. The results showed that hearing loss played a primary role in explaining elderly listeners' increased difficulty with fast speech. However, non-auditory factors such as reading speed and the extent to which participants were affected by increased rate of presentation in a visual analog of the listening experiment also predicted fast speech performance differences among the elderly participants. These on-line results confirm that slowed information processing is indeed part of elderly listeners' problem keeping up with fast language.

  17. 48 CFR 52.213-1 - Fast Payment Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fast Payment Procedure. 52....213-1 Fast Payment Procedure. As prescribed in 13.404, insert the following clause: Fast Payment... contract, order, or blanket purchase agreement; and (ii) Display prominently on the invoice “FAST...

  18. 48 CFR 52.213-1 - Fast Payment Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fast Payment Procedure. 52....213-1 Fast Payment Procedure. As prescribed in 13.404, insert the following clause: Fast Payment... contract, order, or blanket purchase agreement; and (ii) Display prominently on the invoice “FAST...

  19. 48 CFR 52.213-1 - Fast Payment Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fast Payment Procedure. 52....213-1 Fast Payment Procedure. As prescribed in 13.404, insert the following clause: Fast Payment... contract, order, or blanket purchase agreement; and (ii) Display prominently on the invoice “FAST...

  20. 48 CFR 52.213-1 - Fast Payment Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fast Payment Procedure. 52....213-1 Fast Payment Procedure. As prescribed in 13.404, insert the following clause: Fast Payment... contract, order, or blanket purchase agreement; and (ii) Display prominently on the invoice “FAST...

  1. 48 CFR 52.213-1 - Fast Payment Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fast Payment Procedure. 52....213-1 Fast Payment Procedure. As prescribed in 13.404, insert the following clause: Fast Payment... contract, order, or blanket purchase agreement; and (ii) Display prominently on the invoice “FAST...

  2. Slow and fast light switching in ruby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Rajitha P.; Riesen, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Studies about light propagation have been undertaken for more than a century. It is now well established that any material that has normal or anomalous dispersion generates slow or fast light. In this paper, we demonstrate an experimental technique to rapidly switch between slow and fast light in ruby. The experiment utilizes transient holeburning to create drastic variation in refractive index of ruby to produce slow as well as fast light. Transient hole-burning involves the depletion of the ground state leading to a highly populated excited state by single frequency laser excitation. This leads to a hole in the absorption spectrum when readout by a laser. We observed a delay of 29 ns and advancement of -11 ns in an external magnetic field of B║c = 12 mT corresponding to a group velocity of c/961 and negative group velocity of -c/365 respectively.

  3. A fast tool for minimum hybridization networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to hybridization events in evolution, studying two different genes of a set of species may yield two related but different phylogenetic trees for the set of species. In this case, we want to combine the two phylogenetic trees into a hybridization network with the fewest hybridization events. This leads to three computational problems, namely, the problem of computing the minimum size of a hybridization network, the problem of constructing one minimum hybridization network, and the problem of enumerating a representative set of minimum hybridization networks. The previously best software tools for these problems (namely, Chen and Wang’s HybridNet and Albrecht et al.’s Dendroscope 3) run very slowly for large instances that cannot be reduced to relatively small instances. Indeed, when the minimum size of a hybridization network of two given trees is larger than 23 and the problem for the trees cannot be reduced to relatively smaller independent subproblems, then HybridNet almost always takes longer than 1 day and Dendroscope 3 often fails to complete. Thus, a faster software tool for the problems is in need. Results We develop a software tool in ANSI C, named FastHN, for the following problems: Computing the minimum size of a hybridization network, constructing one minimum hybridization network, and enumerating a representative set of minimum hybridization networks. We obtain FastHN by refining HybridNet with three ideas. The first idea is to preprocess the input trees so that the trees become smaller or the problem becomes to solve two or more relatively smaller independent subproblems. The second idea is to use a fast algorithm for computing the rSPR distance of two given phylognetic trees to cut more branches of the search tree in the exhaustive-search stage of the algorithm. The third idea is that during the exhaustive-search stage of the algorithm, we find two sibling leaves in one of the two forests (obtained from the given trees by cutting

  4. Single-beam heterodyne FAST CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yujie; Voronine, Dmitri V; Sokolov, Alexei V; Scully, Marlan O

    2016-09-19

    We demonstrate, for the first time, single-beam heterodyne FAST CARS imaging without data post-processing and with nonresonant background subtraction in a simple setup via the real-time piezo modulation of the probe delay. Our fast signal acquisition scheme does not require a spatial light modulator in the pulse shaper, and is suitable for high-resolution imaging and time-resolved dynamics. In addition, the spectral detection of the back-scattered FAST CARS signal is incorporated into the pulse shaper, allowing for a compact and more efficient design. Such epi-detection capability is demonstrated by imaging Si and MoS2 microstructures. PMID:27661903

  5. Fast Intersection Algorithms for Sorted Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Salinger, Alejandro

    This paper presents and analyzes a simple intersection algorithm for sorted sequences that is fast on average. It is related to the multiple searching problem and to merging. We present the worst and average case analysis, showing that in the former, the complexity nicely adapts to the smallest list size. In the latter case, it performs less comparisons than the total number of elements on both inputs, n and m, when n = αm (α> 1), achieving O(m log(n/m)) complexity. The algorithm is motivated by its application to fast query processing in Web search engines, where large intersections, or differences, must be performed fast. In this case we experimentally show that the algorithm is faster than previous solutions.

  6. Epinephrine depletion exacerbates the fasting-induced protein breakdown in fast-twitch skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Graça, Flávia A; Gonçalves, Dawit A P; Silveira, Wilian A; Lira, Eduardo C; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Zanon, Neusa M; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C C

    2013-12-01

    The physiological role of epinephrine in the regulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism under fasting is unknown. We examined the effects of plasma epinephrine depletion, induced by adrenodemedullation (ADMX), on muscle protein metabolism in fed and 2-day-fasted rats. In fed rats, ADMX for 10 days reduced muscle mass, the cross-sectional area of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, and the phosphorylation levels of Akt. In addition, ADMX led to a compensatory increase in muscle sympathetic activity, as estimated by the rate of norepinephrine turnover; this increase was accompanied by high rates of muscle protein synthesis. In fasted rats, ADMX exacerbated fasting-induced proteolysis in EDL but did not affect the low rates of protein synthesis. Accordingly, ADMX activated lysosomal proteolysis and further increased the activity of the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS). Moreover, expression of the atrophy-related Ub ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 and the autophagy-related genes LC3b and GABARAPl1 were upregulated in EDL muscles from ADMX-fasted rats compared with sham-fasted rats, and ADMX reduced cAMP levels and increased fasting-induced Akt dephosphorylation. Unlike that observed for EDL muscles, soleus muscle proteolysis and Akt phosphorylation levels were not affected by ADMX. In isolated EDL, epinephrine reduced the basal UPS activity and suppressed overall proteolysis and atrogin-1 and MuRF1 induction following fasting. These data suggest that epinephrine released from the adrenal medulla inhibits fasting-induced protein breakdown in fast-twitch skeletal muscles, and these antiproteolytic effects on the UPS and lysosomal system are apparently mediated through a cAMP-Akt-dependent pathway, which suppresses ubiquitination and autophagy.

  7. Leptins and leptin receptor expression in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Regulation by food intake and fasting/overfeeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Ana Belén; Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María Jesús; de Pedro, Nuria

    2012-04-01

    Leptin is a hormone involved in feeding and body weight regulation in vertebrates, but the relationship between energy status and leptin has not been clearly established in fish. The aim of this study was to investigate in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), the tissue expression pattern of two leptins (gLep-aI and gLep-aII) and leptin receptor (gLepR); and the effect of feeding on expression of these genes. Leptin system expression in goldfish was firstly analyzed in fish under overfeeding (2 weeks) or fasting (1 week), and secondly, at different postfeeding times (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12h). Goldfish has two Lep-a paralog genes, gLep-aI was widely expressed in central and peripheral tissues, whereas gLep-aII was preferentially expressed in brain. This different distribution pattern of leptins suggests that they can play different physiological roles in goldfish. The gLepR mRNA was ubiquitous expressed, with the highest expression in the telencephalon and hypothalamus. No significant differences in the leptin system expression were found among control, overfed and fasting groups, suggesting an apparent lack of correlation between nutritional status and leptin system in goldfish. Hepatic expression of gLep-aI significantly increased 9h after feeding time, while hypothalamic leptin system expression did not change after feeding. In summary, leptin in goldfish could signal short-term changes in food intake, as postprandial satiety, but seems to be independent of fasting/overfeeding conditions in this teleost. The widespread distribution of leptins and leptin receptor in goldfish strongly supports that this hormone may have pleitropic actions in fish.

  8. Fast Fourier Transform algorithm design and tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamin, Ray A., III; Adams, George B., III

    1988-01-01

    The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a mainstay of certain numerical techniques for solving fluid dynamics problems. The Connection Machine CM-2 is the target for an investigation into the design of multidimensional Single Instruction Stream/Multiple Data (SIMD) parallel FFT algorithms for high performance. Critical algorithm design issues are discussed, necessary machine performance measurements are identified and made, and the performance of the developed FFT programs are measured. Fast Fourier Transform programs are compared to the currently best Cray-2 FFT program.

  9. Fast arithmetic in MacLISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, G. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    MacLISP provides a compiler which produces numerical code competitive in speed with some FORTRAN implementations and yet compatible with the rest of the MacLISP system. All numerical programs can be run under the MacLISP interpreter. Additional declarations to the compiler specify type information which allows the generation of optimized numerical code which generally does not require the garbage collection of temporary numerical results. Array accesses are almost as fast as in FORTRAN, and permit the use of dynamically allocated arrays of varying dimensions. The implementation decisions regarding user interface, data representations, and interfacing conventions are discussed which allow the generation of fast numerical LISP code.

  10. A fast chopper for medium energy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The key elements have been constructed for a fast chopper system capable of removing single 2.5 MeV proton bunches spaced at 325 MHz. The average chopping rate is ~ 1 MHz. The components include a pulse delaying microstrip structure for deflecting the beam, high voltage (1.2 kV) fast (ns rise time) pulsers, and an associated wideband combiner. Various designs for the deflecting structures have been studied. Measurements of the microstrip structures' coverage factors and pulse shapes are presented.

  11. Fast Fluorescence Microscopy with Light Sheets.

    PubMed

    Daetwyler, Stephan; Huisken, Jan

    2016-08-01

    In light sheet microscopy, optical sectioning by selective fluorescence excitation with a sheet of light is combined with fast full-frame acquisition. This illumination scheme provides minimal photobleaching and phototoxicity. Complemented with remote focusing and multi-view acquisition, light sheet microscopy is the method of choice for acquisition of very fast biological processes, large samples, and high-throughput applications in areas such as neuroscience, plant biology, and developmental biology. This review explains why light sheet microscopes are much faster and gentler than other established fluorescence microscopy techniques. New volumetric imaging schemes and highlights of selected biological applications are also discussed. PMID:27638692

  12. Uncertainty Propagation with Fast Monte Carlo Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochman, D.; van der Marck, S. C.; Koning, A. J.; Sjöstrand, H.; Zwermann, W.

    2014-04-01

    Two new and faster Monte Carlo methods for the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties in Monte Carlo nuclear simulations are presented (the "Fast TMC" and "Fast GRS" methods). They are addressing the main drawback of the original Total Monte Carlo method (TMC), namely the necessary large time multiplication factor compared to a single calculation. With these new methods, Monte Carlo simulations can now be accompanied with uncertainty propagation (other than statistical), with small additional calculation time. The new methods are presented and compared with the TMC methods for criticality benchmarks.

  13. FOMA: A Fast Optical Multichannel Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskovec, J. S.; Bramson, G.; Brooks, N. H.; Perry, M.

    1989-12-01

    A Fast Optical Multichannel Analyzer (FOMA) was built for spectroscopic measurements with fast time resolution on the DIII-D tokamak. The FOMA utilizes a linear photodiode array (RETICON RL 1024 SA) as the detector sensor. An external recharge switch and ultrafast operational amplifiers permit a readout time per pixel of 300 ns. In conjunction with standard CAMAC digitizer and timing modules, a readout time of 500 microns is achieved for the full 1024-element array. Data acquired in bench tests and in actual spectroscopic measurements on the DIII-D tokamak is presented to illustrate the camera's capability.

  14. Fast Neutral Pressure Measurements in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raman; H.W. Kugel; T. Provost; R. Gernhardt; T.R. Jarboe; M.G. Bell

    2002-08-06

    Several fast neutral pressure gauges have been installed on NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] to measure the vessel and divertor pressure during inductive and coaxial helicity injected (CHI) plasma operations. Modified, PDX [Poloidal Divertor Experiment]-type Penning gauges have been installed on the upper and lower divertors. Neutral pressure measurements during plasma operations from these and from two shielded fast Micro ion gauges at different toroidal locations on the vessel mid-plane are described. A new unshielded ion gauge, referred to as the In-vessel Neutral Pressure (INP) gauge is under development.

  15. A fast chopper for medium energy beams

    SciTech Connect

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.

    2014-10-30

    The key elements have been constructed for a fast chopper system capable of removing single 2.5 MeV proton bunches spaced at 325 MHz. The average chopping rate is ~ 1 MHz. The components include a pulse delaying microstrip structure for deflecting the beam, high voltage (1.2 kV) fast (ns rise time) pulsers, and an associated wideband combiner. Various designs for the deflecting structures have been studied. Measurements of the microstrip structures' coverage factors and pulse shapes are presented.

  16. FFTLog: Fast Fourier or Hankel transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2015-12-01

    FFTLog is a set of Fortran subroutines that compute the fast Fourier or Hankel (= Fourier-Bessel) transform of a periodic sequence of logarithmically spaced points. FFTLog can be regarded as a natural analogue to the standard Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), in the sense that, just as the normal FFT gives the exact (to machine precision) Fourier transform of a linearly spaced periodic sequence, so also FFTLog gives the exact Fourier or Hankel transform, of arbitrary order m, of a logarithmically spaced periodic sequence.

  17. A pragmatic overview of fast multipole methods

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.H.; Baty, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    A number of physics problems can be modeled by a set of N elements which have pair-wise interactions with one another. A direct solution technique requires computational effort which is O(N{sup 2}). Fast multipole methods (FMM) have been widely used in recent years to obtain solutions to these problems requiring a computational effort of only 0 (N lnN) or O (N). In this paper we present an overview of several variations of the fast multipole method along with examples of its use in solving a variety of physical problems.

  18. Fast neutron dosemeter using pixelated detector Timepix.

    PubMed

    Bulanek, Boris; Ekendahl, Daniela; Prouza, Zdenek

    2014-10-01

    A Timepix detector covered with polyethylene convertors of different thicknesses is presented as a fast neutron real-time dosemeter. The application of different weighting factors in connection with the position of a signal in a Timepix detector enables one to obtain an energy-dependent signal equal to neutron dose equivalents. A simulation of a Timepix detector covered with polyethylene convertors using monoenergetic neutrons is presented. The experimental set-up of a dosemeter was also produced. The first results of detector response using different fast neutron sources are presented.

  19. DIS: an architecture for fast lisp execution

    SciTech Connect

    Yerazunis, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    DIS is an architecture for very fast execution of LISP and other artificial intelligence languages. The DIS architecture uses a number of functional units controlled by a wide (256 bit) instruction. A simulator, compiler,and optimizer were constructed for the DIS architecture. A simulated 100-nanosecond cycle time single-processor DIS machine appears to run LISP on the order of twice as fast as a CRAY-1, and on the order of ten to fifteen times faster than other LISP-directed architectures.

  20. Fasting, post-OGTT challenge, and nocturnal free fatty acids in prediabetic versus normal glucose tolerant overweight and obese Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Alderete, Tanya L; Richey, Joyce; Sequeira, Paola; Goran, Michael I; Weigensberg, Marc J

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes risk and its relationship to free fatty acid (FFA) exposure and visceral fat by prediabetes status in minority adolescents have yet to be explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association of circulating FFA under varying conditions with prediabetes in Latino adolescents and to determine the relative relationships of FFA and visceral adiposity to insulin sensitivity, secretion, and β-cell function. Overweight or obese, but otherwise healthy Latino adolescent males and females (n = 164, 14.2 ± 2.5 years), were recruited for assessment of prediabetes, abdominal fat, and FFA levels taken at a fasting state (FFAF), during an OGTT (FFAOGTT), and overnight (FFANOCTURNAL). Prediabetic adolescents had a higher FFAF than those with normal glucose tolerance when controlling for age, sex, pubertal status, total percent body fat, and visceral fat. FFAOGTT and FFANOCTURNAL did not differ between participants with prediabetes and those with normal glucose tolerance after adjusting for covariates. Visceral fat was independently related to insulin sensitivity and secretion in pubertal adolescents; however, in post-pubertal adolescents, FFAF and visceral fat were both independent and negatively related to β-cell function. These results support a plausible progression of the lipotoxicity theory of diabetes development during the pubertal transition. PMID:25109287

  1. Does earwax lose its pathogens on your auriscope overnight?

    PubMed Central

    Overend, A.; Hall, W. W.; Godwin, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To describe the organisms cultured from general practitioners' auriscope earpieces; and to explore general practitioners' perceptions of the possibility of cross infection from contaminated auriscope earpieces and of how their auriscope earpieces are cleaned. DESIGN--Microbiological survey of auriscope earpieces in two general practices and a semistructured questionnaire sent to 105 general practitioners. SETTING--General practitioners served by one district general hospital microbiology laboratory in the north of England. RESULTS--Organisms were cultured from 41 (93%) of 44 auriscope earpieces, of which 14 (32%) carried potential pathogens; four (9%) were heavily contaminated. Of the 85 (81%) general practitioners who responded, 72 (85%) believed that contaminated auriscope earpieces could cause serious infection, 66 (78%) did not clean earpieces between patients, and 70 (82%) thought that patients would mind if they knew that dirty earpieces were used. CONCLUSIONS--Almost a third of auriscope earpieces were contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. Although general practitioners suspected this, most did not ensure that a clean earpiece was used for each patient. Images p1571-a p1572-a PMID:1286392

  2. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine N.; Frascino, Jennifer C.; Kripke, Donald L.; McHugh, Paul R.; Treisman, Glenn J.; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film “50 First Dates”. On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL’s memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-hour intervals. PMID:20493889

  3. Learning word meanings: overnight integration and study modality effects.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Frauke; Takashima, Atsuko; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    According to the complementary learning systems (CLS) account of word learning, novel words are rapidly acquired (learning system 1), but slowly integrated into the mental lexicon (learning system 2). This two-step learning process has been shown to apply to novel word forms. In this study, we investigated whether novel word meanings are also gradually integrated after acquisition by measuring the extent to which newly learned words were able to prime semantically related words at two different time points. In addition, we investigated whether modality at study modulates this integration process. Sixty-four adult participants studied novel words together with written or spoken definitions. These words did not prime semantically related words directly following study, but did so after a 24-hour delay. This significant increase in the magnitude of the priming effect suggests that semantic integration occurs over time. Overall, words that were studied with a written definition showed larger priming effects, suggesting greater integration for the written study modality. Although the process of integration, reflected as an increase in the priming effect over time, did not significantly differ between study modalities, words studied with a written definition showed the most prominent positive effect after a 24-hour delay. Our data suggest that semantic integration requires time, and that studying in written format benefits semantic integration more than studying in spoken format. These findings are discussed in light of the CLS theory of word learning.

  4. Overnight orthokeratology is comparable with atropine in controlling myopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many efforts have been invested in slowing progression of myopia. Among the methods, atropine administration and orthokeratology (OK) are most widely used. This study analyzed the efficacy of atropine and OK lens in controlling myopia progression and elongation of axial length. Methods This retrospective study included 105 patients (210 eyes) who wore OK lenses and 105 patients (210 eyes) who applied 0.125% atropine every night during the 3 following period. Student t-test, linear regression analysis, repeated measure ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results The change in axial length per year was 0.28 ± 0.08 mm, 0.30 ± 0.09 mm, and 0.27 ± 0.10 mm in the OK lens group, and 0.38 ± 0.09 mm, 0.37 ± 0.12 mm, and 0.36 ± 0.08 mm in the atropine group for years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed an increase in myopia of 0.28 D and 0.34 D per year, and an increase in axial length of 0.28 mm and 0.37 mm per year in the OK lens and atropine groups, respectively. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant differences in myopia (p = 0.001) and axial length (p < 0.001) between the atropine and OK lens groups; in astigmatism, there was no significant difference in these parameters (p = 0.320). Comparison of increases in axial length in relation to baseline myopia showed significant correlations both in the OK lens group (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.259; p < 0.001) and atropine group (r = 0.169; p = 0.014). High myopia patients benefited more from both OK lenses and atropine than did low myopia patients. The correlation of baseline myopia and myopia progression was stronger in the OK lens group then in the atropine group. Conclusions OK lens is a useful method for controlling myopia progression even in high myopia patients. PMID:24685184

  5. Parallel Visualization Co-Processing of Overnight CFD Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David E.; Haimes, Robert

    1999-01-01

    An interactive visualization system pV3 is being developed for the investigation of advanced computational methodologies employing visualization and parallel processing for the extraction of information contained in large-scale transient engineering simulations. Visual techniques for extracting information from the data in terms of cutting planes, iso-surfaces, particle tracing and vector fields are included in this system. This paper discusses improvements to the pV3 system developed under NASA's Affordable High Performance Computing project.

  6. An overnight habitat for expanding lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Samuel S.; Setterfield, Timothy P.; Roberson, Daniel R.; Putbrese, Benjamin; Kotowick, Kyle; Vanegas, Morris D.; Curry, Mike; Geiger, Lynn M.; Barmore, David; Foley, Jordan J.; LaTour, Paul A.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Head, James W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design and analysis of a system intended to increase the range, scientific capability, and safety of manned lunar surface exploration, requiring only a modest increase in capability over the Apollo mission designs. The system is intended to enable two astronauts, exploring with an unpressurized rover, to remove their space suits for an 8-h rest away from the lunar base and then conduct a second day of surface exploration before returning to base. This system is composed of an Environmental Control and Life Support System on the rover, an inflatable habitat, a solar shield and a solar power array. The proposed system doubles the distance reachable from the lunar base, thus increasing the area available for science and exploration by a factor of four. In addition to increasing mission capability, the proposed system also increases fault tolerance with an emergency inflatable structure and additional consumables to mitigate a wide range of suit or rover failures. The mass, volume, and power analyses of each subsystem are integrated to generate a total system mass of 124 kg and a volume of 594 L, both of which can be accommodated on the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle with minor improvements.

  7. Ascent to moderate altitude impairs overnight memory improvements.

    PubMed

    Tesler, Noemi; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Stadelmann, Katrin; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-02-01

    Several studies showed beneficial effects of sleep on memory performance. Slow waves, the electroencephalographic characteristic of deep sleep, reflected on the neuronal level by synchronous slow oscillations, seem crucial for these benefits. Traveling to moderate altitudes decreases deep sleep. In a randomized cross-over design healthy male subjects performed a visuo-motor learning task in Zurich (490 m) and at Davos Jakobshorn (2590 m) in random order. Memory performance was assessed immediately after learning, before sleep, and in the morning after a night of sleep. Sleep EEG recordings were performed during the nights. Our findings show an altitude induced reduction of sleep dependent memory performance. Moreover, this impaired sleep dependent memory performance was associated with reduced slow wave derived measures of neuronal synchronization. Our results are consistent with a critical role of slow waves for the beneficial effects of sleep on memory that is susceptible to natural environmental influences. PMID:25449393

  8. Overnight Therapy? The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Matthew P.; van Der Helm, Els

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience continues to build meaningful connections between affective behavior and human brain function. Within the biological sciences, a similar renaissance has taken place, focusing on the role of sleep in various neurocognitive processes and, most recently, on the interaction between sleep and emotional regulation. This review…

  9. Fast-ion D{alpha} measurements of the fast-ion distribution (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.

    2010-10-15

    The fast-ion D{alpha} (FIDA) diagnostic is an application of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Fast ions that neutralize in an injected neutral beam emit Balmer-{alpha} light with a large Doppler shift. The spectral shift is exploited to distinguish the FIDA emission from other bright sources of D{alpha} light. Background subtraction is the main technical challenge. A spectroscopic diagnostic typically achieves temporal, energy, and transverse spatial resolution of {approx}1 ms, {approx}10 keV, and {approx}2 cm, respectively. Installations that use narrow-band filters achieve high spatial and temporal resolution at the expense of spectral information. For high temporal resolution, the bandpass-filtered light goes directly to a photomultiplier, allowing detection of {approx}50 kHz oscillations in FIDA signal. For two-dimensional spatial profiles, the bandpass-filtered light goes to a charge-coupled device camera; detailed images of fast-ion redistribution at instabilities are obtained. Qualitative and quantitative models relate the measured FIDA signals to the fast-ion distribution function. The first quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment found excellent agreement in beam-heated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-quiescent plasmas. FIDA diagnostics are now in operation at magnetic-fusion facilities worldwide. They are used to study fast-ion acceleration by ion cyclotron heating, to detect fast-ion transport by MHD modes and microturbulence, and to study fast-ion driven instabilities.

  10. Fast-ion Dα measurements of the fast-ion distribution (invited).

    PubMed

    Heidbrink, W W

    2010-10-01

    The fast-ion Dα (FIDA) diagnostic is an application of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Fast ions that neutralize in an injected neutral beam emit Balmer-α light with a large Doppler shift. The spectral shift is exploited to distinguish the FIDA emission from other bright sources of Dα light. Background subtraction is the main technical challenge. A spectroscopic diagnostic typically achieves temporal, energy, and transverse spatial resolution of ∼1 ms, ∼10 keV, and ∼2 cm, respectively. Installations that use narrow-band filters achieve high spatial and temporal resolution at the expense of spectral information. For high temporal resolution, the bandpass-filtered light goes directly to a photomultiplier, allowing detection of ∼50 kHz oscillations in FIDA signal. For two-dimensional spatial profiles, the bandpass-filtered light goes to a charge-coupled device camera; detailed images of fast-ion redistribution at instabilities are obtained. Qualitative and quantitative models relate the measured FIDA signals to the fast-ion distribution function. The first quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment found excellent agreement in beam-heated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-quiescent plasmas. FIDA diagnostics are now in operation at magnetic-fusion facilities worldwide. They are used to study fast-ion acceleration by ion cyclotron heating, to detect fast-ion transport by MHD modes and microturbulence, and to study fast-ion driven instabilities.

  11. Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.

    This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

  12. Retention by "Fast" and "Slow" Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, J. Ronald; And Others

    1982-01-01

    In four experiments to replicate and extend the findings of Shuell and Keppel (EJ 016 150), "fast" and "slow" learners were brought to a similar learning criterion, with the result that their forgetting curves were parallel. The experiments involved American and Nigerian students in learning word lists and poems. (Author/CM)

  13. Fast Faraday Cup With High Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, Craig E

    2006-03-14

    A circuit card stripline Fast Faraday cup quantitatively measures the picosecond time structure of a charged particle beam. The stripline configuration maintains signal integrity, and stitching of the stripline increases the bandwidth. A calibration procedure ensures the measurement of the absolute charge and time structure of the charged particle beam.

  14. Narcotics detection using fast-neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in luggage and cargo containers. This paper discusses two different fast-neutron techniques. The first uses a pulsed accelerator or sealed-tube source to produce monoenergetic fast neutrons. Gamma rays characteristic of carbon and oxygen are detected and the elemental densities determined. Spatial localization is accomplished by either time of flight or collimators. This technique is suitable for examination of large containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays. The second technique uses an accelerator to produce nanosecond pulsed beams of deuterons that strike a target to produce a pulsed beam of neutrons with a continuum of energies. Elemental distributions are obtained by measuring the neutron spectrum after the source neutrons pass through the items being interrogated. Spatial variation of elemental densities is obtained by tomographic reconstruction of projection data obtained for three to five angles and relatively low (2 cm) resolution. This technique is best suited for examination of luggage or small containers with average neutron transmissions greater than about 0.01. Analytic and Monte-Carlo models are being used to investigate the operational characteristics and limitations of both techniques.

  15. Measurements of hohlraum-produced fast ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Izumi, N.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Koch, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    We report the first fast ion measurements in indirect-drive experiments, which were taken on OMEGA hohlraum and halfraum shots using simple filtered CR-39, a nuclear track detector, and a charged-particle spectrometer. Protons are observed in two energy regimes that are associated with different fast ion production mechanisms. In the first, resonance absorption at the hohlraum wall early in the laser pulse accelerates runaway electrons. In the second, fast electrons are produced with high energy from the two-plasmon decay instability in the exploding laser entrance hole, or from stimulated Raman scattering in the underdense gas fill. In both cases, the runaway electrons set up a strong electrostatic field that accelerates the measured ions. The former mechanism is observed to have an energy conversion efficiency ˜(0.6-4)×10-4 into fast protons depending on the hohlraum and drive. The latter mechanism has an estimated conversion efficiency from the main drive of ˜(0.5-2)×10-5 depending on the assumptions made.

  16. Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1998-01-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.

  17. Beginning Plant Biotechnology Laboratories Using Fast Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mike

    This set of 16 laboratory activities is designed to illustrate the life cycle of Brassicae plants from seeds in pots to pods in 40 days. At certain points along the production cycle of the central core of labs, there are related lateral labs to provide additional learning opportunities employing this family of plants, referred to as "fast plants,"…

  18. Efficiency of current drive by fast waves

    SciTech Connect

    Karney, C.F.F.; Fisch, N.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Rosenbluth form for the collision operator for a weakly relativistic plasma is derived. The formalism adopted by Antonsen and Chu can then be used to calculate the efficiency of current drive by fast waves in a relativistic plasma. Accurate numerical results and analytic asymptotic limits for the efficiencies are given.

  19. Fast transmittance model for satellite sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayer, P. J.

    1995-11-01

    Through the use of new line-by-line spectral calculations in both the infrared and microwave regions, coefficients have been generated for the transmittance stage of the fast radiative transfer model used by the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. These permit the fast model to calculate the transmittance for the high-resolution infrared sounder and the microwave sounding unit instruments aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellite for a given atmospheric profile, simply by taking these coefficients in linear combination with a set of predictors. These are expressed in terms of the deviation of the profile from a reference. However, the method can be applied to any instrument within the range of the spectral calculations, thereby permitting new coefficients to be calculated as soon as the spectral response details for the instrument become available. It also permits effective consideration to be given in the longer term to new line data or improvements in line-shape theory. The process by which these coefficients have been obtained is described, along with a discussion of some of the tests carried out on their installation into the fast model; these tests show that they are suitable for operational use. The predictors employed by the fast model are discussed, and changes are proposed for those that relate to the water-vapor transmittance. In this respect it was found that the inclusion of predictors that depend primarily on the zenith angle of the radiation path leads to improvements in the transmittance calculation.

  20. Fasting or caloric restriction for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. PMID:23639403

  1. Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Parks, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study…

  2. MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kiehn, R.M.; King, L.D.P.; Peterson, R.E.; Swickard, E.O. Jr.

    1962-06-26

    A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for criticality control. (AEC)

  3. Final Technical Report CMS fast optical calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, David R.

    2012-07-12

    This is the final report of CMS FAST OPTICAL CALORIMETRY, a grant to Fairfield University for development, construction, installation and operation of the forward calorimeter on CMS, and for upgrades of the forward and endcap calorimeters for higher luminosity and radiation damage amelioration.

  4. High power fast ramping power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  5. Accelerated Leadership Development: Fast Tracking School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Peter; Jones, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    "Accelerated Leadership Development" captures and communicates the lessons learned from successful fast-track leadership programmes in the private and public sector, and provides a model which schools can follow and customize as they plan their own leadership development strategies. As large numbers of headteachers and other senior staff retire,…

  6. A Fast-Spectrum Test Reactor Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Youssef A.; Loewen, Eric P.

    2005-09-15

    The need for a new steady-state fast-neutron reactor has been the subject of numerous national meetings and discussions. This type of reactor will be able to open new frontiers of research for Generation IV reactors, the Space Propulsion Program, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. With the confluence of these three programs' fast-spectrum testing needs, we set out to conceptualize a new system by looking at previous successful reactor concepts. This paper presents a new concept for a fast-spectrum test reactor that is horizontal in orientation, with individual pressure tubes running the entire length of the scattering-medium tank filled with a liquid heavy metal. This approach for a test reactor will provide more flexibility in refueling, sample removal, and ability to completely reconfigure the core to meet different users' requirements. Full core neutronic analysis of more than 14 combinations showed that a large hexagonal steam-cooled U-10Zr fuel, with a core power of 267 MW(thermal), produced a fast flux (>0.1 MeV) of 1.3 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}.s averaged over the whole length of the irradiation channel. A depletion run with an initial enrichment of 20 wt% {sup 235}U had a flat reactivity curve for the first 180 days of cycle due to in-core breeding. Although considerable neutronic optimization and a thermal-hydraulic analysis remain to be performed, it appears that a reactor core with this innovative geometry could meet future fast flux testing needs.

  7. A Fast-Spectrum Test Reactor Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef A Shatilla; Eric Loewen

    2005-09-01

    The need for a new steady-state fast-neutron reactor has been the subject of numerous national meetings and discussions. This type of reactor will be able to open new frontiers of research for Generation IV reactors, the Space Propulsion Program, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. With the confluence of these three programs' fast-spectrum testing needs, we set out to conceptualize a new system by looking at previous successful reactor concepts. This paper presents a new concept for a fast-spectrum test reactor that is horizontal in orientation, with individual pressure tubes running the entire length of the scattering-medium tank filled with a liquid heavy metal. This approach for a test reactor will provide more flexibility in refueling, sample removal, and ability to completely reconfigure the core to meet different users' requirements. Full core neutronic analysis of more than 14 combinations showed that a large hexagonal steam-cooled U-10Zr fuel, with a core power of 267 MW(thermal), produced a fast flux (>0.1 MeV) of 1.3 × 1015 n/cm2s averaged over the whole length of the irradiation channel. A depletion run with an initial enrichment of 20 wt% 235U had a flat reactivity curve for the first 180 days of cycle due to in-core breeding. Although considerable neutronic optimization and a thermal-hydraulic analysis remain to be performed, it appears that a reactor core with this innovative geometry could meet future fast flux testing needs.

  8. FastDIRC: a fast Monte Carlo and reconstruction algorithm for DIRC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, J.; Williams, M.

    2016-10-01

    FastDIRC is a novel fast Monte Carlo and reconstruction algorithm for DIRC detectors. A DIRC employs rectangular fused-silica bars both as Cherenkov radiators and as light guides. Cherenkov-photon imaging and time-of-propagation information are utilized by a DIRC to identify charged particles. GEANT4-based DIRC Monte Carlo simulations are extremely CPU intensive. The FastDIRC algorithm permits fully simulating a DIRC detector more than 10 000 times faster than using GEANT4. This facilitates designing a DIRC-reconstruction algorithm that improves the Cherenkov-angle resolution of a DIRC detector by ≈ 30% compared to existing algorithms. FastDIRC also greatly reduces the time required to study competing DIRC-detector designs.

  9. The Effect of Different Fast-ion Instabilities on the Fast-ion Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W.; Liu, D.; Fredrickson, E.; Bortolon, A.

    2014-10-01

    Fast-ion driven instabilities in NSTX take many forms, including steady, bursting, and avalanching toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), avalanching global AEs, energetic particle modes (EPM), long-lived modes (LLM) and abrupt large-amplitude events (ALE). The occurrence or absence of these modes on Mirnov signals correlates with the ratio of fast-ion to Alfven speed and the ratio of fast-ion to thermal pressure. The drop in neutron rate at these events correlates differently with mode amplitude for the different types of events. In this study, we expand this database to investigate the correlation of vertical fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) data with the different types of MHD. The measured profiles are compared with classically-predicted profiles. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-06ER54867.

  10. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T

    2014-07-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network. PMID:25685515

  11. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N.; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T.

    2014-01-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network. PMID:25685515

  12. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T

    2014-07-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network.

  13. Unusual fast secondary relaxation in metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Zhang, S.T.; Yang, Y.; Dong, Y.D.; Liu, C.T.; Lu, J.

    2015-01-01

    The relaxation spectrum of glassy solids has long been used to probe their dynamic structural features and the fundamental deformation mechanisms. Structurally complicated glasses, such as molecular glasses, often exhibit multiple relaxation processes. By comparison, metallic glasses have a simple atomic structure with dense atomic packing, and their relaxation spectra were commonly found to be simpler than those of molecular glasses. Here we show the compelling evidence obtained across a wide range of temperatures and frequencies from a La-based metallic glass, which clearly shows two peaks of secondary relaxations (fast versus slow) in addition to the primary relaxation peak. The discovery of the unusual fast secondary relaxation unveils the complicated relaxation dynamics in metallic glasses and, more importantly, provides us the clues which help decode the structural features serving as the ‘trigger' of inelasticity on mechanical agitations. PMID:26204999

  14. Rotary fast tool servo system and methods

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Trumper, David L.

    2007-10-02

    A high bandwidth rotary fast tool servo provides tool motion in a direction nominally parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. Three or more flexure blades having all ends fixed are used to form an axis of rotation for a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from the axis of rotation. An actuator rotates a swing arm assembly such that a cutting tool is moved in and away from the lathe-mounted, rotating workpiece in a rapid and controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. A pair of position sensors provides rotation and position information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in-feed slide of a precision lathe.

  15. A simulated Antarctic fast ice ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Kremer, James N.; Sullivan, Cornelius W.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D numerical ecosystem model of Antarctic land fast ice is developed to elucidate the primary production with the Antarctic sea ice zone. The physical component employs atmospheric data to simulate congelation ice growth, initial brine entrapment, desalination, and nutrient flux. The biological component is based on the concept of a maximum temperature-dependent algal growth rate which is reduced by limitations imposed from insufficient light or nutrients, as well as suboptimal salinity. Preliminary simulations indicate that, during a bloom, microalgae are able to maintain their vertical position relative to the lower congelation ice margin and are not incorporated into the crystal matrix as the ice sheet thickens. It is inferred that land fast sea ice contains numerous microhabitats that are functionally distinct based upon the unique set of processes that control microalgal growth and accumulation within each.

  16. Photochronographic registration of fast light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Dmitri N.; Lazarchuk, Valeri P.; Murugov, Vasili M.; Petrov, Sergei I.; Senik, Alexei V.

    1999-06-01

    A possibility of registration of fast ions (protons, alpha- particles) with the help of an X-ray streak camera is demonstrated. The spatial resolution of the device is 50 micrometer, the physical time resolution with the use of a CsJ-cathode is 7 ps. From (alpha) -emission a secondary electrons yield is determined of (eta) equals 8 el../part. The device sensitivity makes it possible to register separate (alpha) -particles and protons. On the basis of the device there have been elaborated techniques of spatial-spectral registering of radiation of fast ions emitted by laser thermonuclear targets. The techniques are destined to study processes of interaction of high-intensive laser radiation with an appliance Iskra-5 target.

  17. Fast Neutral Pressure Gauges in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raman; H.W. Kugel; R. Gernhardt; T. Provost; T.R. Jarboe; V. Soukhanovskii

    2004-04-26

    Successful operation in NSTX of two prototype fast-response micro ionization gauges during plasma operations has motivated us to install five gauges at different toroidal and poloidal locations to measure the edge neutral pressure and its dependence on the type of discharge (L-mode, H-mode, CHI) and the fueling method and location. The edge neutral pressure is also used as an input to the transport analysis codes TRANSP and DEGAS-2. The modified PDX-type Penning gauges are well suited for pressure measurements in the NSTX divertor where the toroidal field is relatively high. Behind the NSTX outer divertor plates where the field is lower, an unshielded fast ion gauge of a new design has been installed. This gauge was developed after laboratory testing of several different designs in a vacuum chamber with applied magnetic fields.

  18. Compact fast analyzer of rotary cuvette type

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1976-01-01

    A compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type is provided for simultaneously determining concentrations in a multiplicity of discrete samples using either absorbance or fluorescence measurement techniques. A rigid, generally rectangular frame defines optical passageways for the absorbance and fluorescence measurement systems. The frame also serves as a mounting structure for various optical components as well as for the cuvette rotor mount and drive system. A single light source and photodetector are used in making both absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Rotor removal and insertion are facilitated by a swing-out drive motor and rotor mount. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to concentration measuring instruments and more specifically to a compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type which is suitable for making either absorbance or fluorescence measurements. It was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  19. Precision fast kickers for kiloampere electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Y.J.; Weir, J.T.

    1999-10-06

    These kickers will be used to make fast dipoles and quadrupoles which are driven by sharp risetime pulsers to provide precision beam manipulations for high current kA electron beams. This technology will be used on the 2nd axis of the DARHT linac at LANL. It will be used to provide 4 micropulses of pulse width 20 to 120 nsec. selected from a 2 {micro}sec., 2kA, 20MeV macropulse. The fast pulsers will have amplitude modulation capability to compensate for beam-induced steering effects and other slow beam centroid motion to within the bandwidth of the kicker system. Scaling laws derived from theory will be presented along with extensive experimental data obtained on the test bed ETA-II.

  20. Sodium fast reactor evaluation: Core materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Chan Bock; Lee, Byoung Oon; Raison, J. P.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Carmack, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) Program the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. In this paper the status of available and developmental materials for SFR core cladding and duct applications is reviewed. To satisfy the Generation IV SFR fuel requirements, an advanced cladding needs to be developed. The candidate cladding materials are austenitic steels, ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. A large amount of irradiation testing is required, and the compatibility of cladding with TRU-loaded fuel at high temperatures and high burnup must be investigated. The more promising F/M steels (compared to HT9) might be able to meet the dose requirements of over 200 dpa for ducts in the GEN-IV SFR systems.

  1. Subnoise detection of a fast random event.

    PubMed

    Ataie, V; Esman, D; Kuo, B P-P; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-12-11

    Observation of random, nonrepetitive phenomena is of critical importance in astronomy, spectroscopy, biology, and remote sensing. Heralded by weak signals, hidden in noise, they pose basic detection challenges. In contrast to repetitive waveforms, a single-instance signal cannot be separated from noise through averaging. Here, we show that a fast, randomly occurring event can be detected and extracted from a noisy background without conventional averaging. An isolated 80-picosecond pulse was received with confidence level exceeding 99%, even when accompanied by noise. Our detector relies on instantaneous spectral cloning and a single-step, coherent field processor. The ability to extract fast, subnoise events is expected to increase detection sensitivity in multiple disciplines. Additionally, the new spectral-cloning receiver can potentially intercept communication signals that are presently considered secure. PMID:26659052

  2. Fast blur removal via optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Jinli; Yue, Tao; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Non-uniform image blur caused by camera shake or lens aberration is a common degradation in practical capture. Different from the uniform blur, non-uniform one is hard to deal with for its extremely high computation complexity as the blur model computation cannot be accelerated by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). We propose to compute the most computational consuming operation, i.e. blur model calculation, by an optical computing system to realize fast and accurate non-uniform image deblur. A prototype system composed by a projector-camera system as well as a high dimensional motion platform (for motion blur) or original camera lens (for optics aberrations) is implemented. Our method is applied on a series of experiments, either on synthetic or real captured images, to verify its effectiveness and efficient.

  3. An overview of fast multipole methods

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.H.; Baty, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    A number of physics problems may be cast in terms of Hilbert-Schmidt integral equations. In many cases, the integrals tend to be zero over a large portion of the domain of interest. All of the information is contained in compact regions of the domain which renders their use very attractive from the standpoint of efficient numerical computation. Discrete representation of these integrals leads to a system of N elements which have pair-wise interactions with one another. A direct solution technique requires computational effort which is O(N{sup 2}). Fast multipole methods (FMM) have been widely used in recent years to obtain solutions to these problems requiring a computational effort of only O(Nln N) or O(N). In this paper we present an overview of several variations of the fast multipole method along with examples of its use in solving a variety of physical problems.

  4. Fast interferometric second harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Couture, Charles-André; Légaré, Katherine; Pinsard, Maxime; Rivard, Maxime; Brown, Cameron; Légaré, François

    2016-01-01

    We report the implementation of fast Interferometric Second Harmonic Generation (I-SHG) microscopy to study the polarity of non-centrosymmetric structures in biological tissues. Using a sample quartz plate, we calibrate the spatially varying phase shift introduced by the laser scanning system. Compensating this phase shift allows us to retrieve the correct phase distribution in periodically poled lithium niobate, used as a model sample. Finally, we used fast interferometric second harmonic generation microscopy to acquire phase images in tendon. Our results show that the method exposed here, using a laser scanning system, allows to recover the polarity of collagen fibrils, similarly to standard I-SHG (using a sample scanning system), but with an imaging time about 40 times shorter. PMID:26977349

  5. Fast diffusion of water nanodroplets on graphene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Tocci, Gabriele; Michaelides, Angelos; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion across surfaces generally involves motion on a vibrating but otherwise stationary substrate. Here, using molecular dynamics, we show that a layered material such as graphene opens up a new mechanism for surface diffusion whereby adsorbates are carried by propagating ripples in a motion similar to surfing. For water nanodroplets, we demonstrate that the mechanism leads to exceedingly fast diffusion that is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the self-diffusion of water molecules in liquid water. We also reveal the underlying principles that regulate this new mechanism for diffusion and show how it also applies to adsorbates other than water, thus opening up the prospect of achieving fast and controllable motion of adsorbates across material surfaces more generally.

  6. A fast, preconditioned conjugate gradient Toeplitz solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Victor; Schrieber, Robert

    1989-01-01

    A simple factorization is given of an arbitrary hermitian, positive definite matrix in which the factors are well-conditioned, hermitian, and positive definite. In fact, given knowledge of the extreme eigenvalues of the original matrix A, an optimal improvement can be achieved, making the condition numbers of each of the two factors equal to the square root of the condition number of A. This technique is to applied to the solution of hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz systems. Large linear systems with hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz matrices arise in some signal processing applications. A stable fast algorithm is given for solving these systems that is based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. The algorithm exploits Toeplitz structure to reduce the cost of an iteration to O(n log n) by applying the fast Fourier Transform to compute matrix-vector products. Matrix factorization is used as a preconditioner.

  7. Fast scintillation counter system and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, H.; Nishioka, A.; Ohmori, N.; Kusumose, M.; Nakatsuka, T.; Horiki, T.; Hatano, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study of the fast scintillation counter (FS) system to observe a shower disk structure at Mt. Norikura is described, especially the system performance and a pulse wave-form by a single charge particles. The photomultiplier tube (PT) pulse appears at the leading edge of the main pulse. To remove this PT-pulse from the main pulse, the frame of the scintillator vessel was changed. The fast triggering system was made to decrease the dead time which came from the use of the function of the self triggering of the storage oscilloscope (OSC). To provide a new field on the multi-parameter study of the cosmic ray showers, the system response of the FS system also improved as a result of many considerations.

  8. Fast diffusion of water nanodroplets on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ming; Tocci, Gabriele; Michaelides, Angelos; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion across surfaces generally involves motion on a vibrating but otherwise stationary substrate. Here, using molecular dynamics, we show that a layered material such as graphene opens up a new mechanism for surface diffusion whereby adsorbates are carried by propagating ripples in a motion similar to surfing. For water nanodroplets, we demonstrate that the mechanism leads to exceedingly fast diffusion that is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the self-diffusion of water molecules in liquid water. We also reveal the underlying principles that regulate this new mechanism for diffusion and show how it also applies to adsorbates other than water, thus opening up the prospect of achieving fast and controllable motion of adsorbates across material surfaces more generally.

  9. Fast magnetic reconnection with large guide fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stanier, A.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Chacón, L.; Daughton, W.

    2015-01-09

    Here, we demonstrate using two-fluid simulations that low-βmagnetic reconnection remains fast, regardless of the presence of fast dispersive waves, which have been previously suggested to play a critical role. In order to understand these results, a discrete model is constructed that offers scaling relationships for the reconnection rate and dissipation region (DR) thickness in terms of the upstream magnetic field and DR length. We verify these scalings numerically and show how the DR self-adjusts to process magnetic flux at the same rate that it is supplied to a larger region where two-fluid effects become important. Ultimately, the rate is independent of the DR physics and is in good agreement with kinetic results.

  10. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  11. Pluto Fast Flyby Mission and Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    Planning for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission centers on the launch of two small (110-160 kg) spacecraft late in the 1990s on fast, 6-8-year trajectories that do not require Jupiter flybys. The cost target of the two-spaceraft PFF mission is $400 million. Scientific payload definition by NASA's Outer Planets Science Working Group (OPSWG) and JPL design studies for the Pluto flyby spacecraft are now being completed, and the program is in Phase A development. Selection of a set of lightweight, low-power instrument demonstrations is planned for May 1993. According to plan, the completion of Phase A and then detailed Phase B spacecraft and payload design work will occur in FY94. The release of an instrument payload AO, followed by the selection of the flight payload, is also scheduled for FY94.

  12. FRBCAT: The Fast Radio Burst Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, E.; Barr, E. D.; Jameson, A.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Kramer, M.; Morello, V.; Tabbara, D.; van Straten, W.

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present a catalogue of known Fast Radio Burst sources in the form of an online catalogue, FRBCAT. The catalogue includes information about the instrumentation used for the observations for each detected burst, the measured quantities from each observation, and model-dependent quantities derived from observed quantities. To aid in consistent comparisons of burst properties such as width and signal-to-noise ratios, we have re-processed all the bursts for which we have access to the raw data, with software which we make available. The originally derived properties are also listed for comparison. The catalogue is hosted online as a Mysql database which can also be downloaded in tabular or plain text format for off-line use. This database will be maintained for use by the community for studies of the Fast Radio Burst population as it grows.

  13. Fast magnetic reconnection with large guide fields

    DOE PAGES

    Stanier, A.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Chacón, L.; Daughton, W.

    2015-01-09

    Here, we demonstrate using two-fluid simulations that low-βmagnetic reconnection remains fast, regardless of the presence of fast dispersive waves, which have been previously suggested to play a critical role. In order to understand these results, a discrete model is constructed that offers scaling relationships for the reconnection rate and dissipation region (DR) thickness in terms of the upstream magnetic field and DR length. We verify these scalings numerically and show how the DR self-adjusts to process magnetic flux at the same rate that it is supplied to a larger region where two-fluid effects become important. Ultimately, the rate is independentmore » of the DR physics and is in good agreement with kinetic results.« less

  14. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  15. Fast atomic transport without vibrational heating

    SciTech Connect

    Torrontegui, E.; Ibanez, S.; Chen Xi; Ruschhaupt, A.; Guery-Odelin, D.; Muga, J. G.

    2011-01-15

    We use the dynamical invariants associated with the Hamiltonian of an atom in a one dimensional moving trap to inverse engineer the trap motion and perform fast atomic transport without final vibrational heating. The atom is driven nonadiabatically through a shortcut to the result of adiabatic, slow trap motion. For harmonic potentials this only requires designing appropriate trap trajectories, whereas perfect transport in anharmonic traps may be achieved by applying an extra field to compensate the forces in the rest frame of the trap. The results can be extended to atom stopping or launching. The limitations due to geometrical constraints, energies, and accelerations involved are analyzed along with the relation to previous approaches based on classical trajectories or ''fast-forward'' and ''bang-bang'' methods, which can be integrated in the invariant-based framework.

  16. Fast Learning with Weak Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Yger, Pierre; Stimberg, Marcel; Brette, Romain

    2015-09-30

    New sensory stimuli can be learned with a single or a few presentations. Similarly, the responses of cortical neurons to a stimulus have been shown to increase reliably after just a few repetitions. Long-term memory is thought to be mediated by synaptic plasticity, but in vitro experiments in cortical cells typically show very small changes in synaptic strength after a pair of presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Thus, it is traditionally thought that fast learning requires stronger synaptic changes, possibly because of neuromodulation. Here we show theoretically that weak synaptic plasticity can, in fact, support fast learning, because of the large number of synapses N onto a cortical neuron. In the fluctuation-driven regime characteristic of cortical neurons in vivo, the size of membrane potential fluctuations grows only as √N, whereas a single output spike leads to potentiation of a number of synapses proportional to N. Therefore, the relative effect of a single spike on synaptic potentiation grows as √N. This leverage effect requires precise spike timing. Thus, the large number of synapses onto cortical neurons allows fast learning with very small synaptic changes. Significance statement: Long-term memory is thought to rely on the strengthening of coactive synapses. This physiological mechanism is generally considered to be very gradual, and yet new sensory stimuli can be learned with just a few presentations. Here we show theoretically that this apparent paradox can be solved when there is a tight balance between excitatory and inhibitory input. In this case, small synaptic modifications applied to the many synapses onto a given neuron disrupt that balance and produce a large effect even for modifications induced by a single stimulus. This effect makes fast learning possible with small synaptic changes and reconciles physiological and behavioral observations.

  17. Fast ion orbits in spherical tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Solano, E.R.

    1995-07-20

    In a spherical tokamak, the 1/R variation of the toroidal field is extreme, and for a given value of the safety factor a relatively low average toroidal field can be used, together with large plasma current and large plasma minor radius and elongation. The poloidal and toroidal fields are then of similar size. In consequence, the orbits of fast ions depart considerably from the guiding center orbits because of gyromotion in the small magnetic fields in the low field side.

  18. Measurements of fast transition instability in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn, V.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Lee, R.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    A fast transition instability presents a limiting factor for ion beam intensity in RHIC. Several pieces of evidence show that electron clouds play an important role in establishing the threshold of this instability. In RHIC Runs8 the measurements of the instability, using a button BPM, were done in order to observe details of the instability development on the scale over hundreds and thousands turns. The paper presents and discusses the results of those measurements in time and frequency domains.

  19. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears.

    PubMed

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology. PMID:27617359

  20. Fast pulsed excitation wiggler or undulator

    DOEpatents

    van Steenbergen, Arie

    1990-01-01

    A fast pulsed excitation, electromagnetic undulator or wiggler, employing geometrically alternating substacks of thin laminations of ferromagnetic material, together with a single turn current loop excitation of the composite assembly, of such shape and configuration that intense, spatially alternating, magnetic fields are generated; for use as a pulsed mode undulator or wiggler radiator, for use in a Free Electron Laser (FEL) type radiation source or, for use in an Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) charged particle accelerator.