Science.gov

Sample records for 12-hour night shifts

  1. Effect of a 12-hour/day shift on performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1988-06-01

    The operating crews at the Fast Flux Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to 12- hour/day work schedule. The primary reason for the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. Plant performance and safety were not adversely affected. A statistical analysis of 53 operator-related, off-normal events in 28 months concluded that there was no significant difference in either the number or the severity of off-normal events on the 12-hour shift. A statistical analysis of 200,000 log entries concluded that the error rate in completing logs actually declined by 25 percent on the 12-hour shift. Alertness, which was measured using computerized tests of mathematics and logical reasoning, reach a nadir on the first night shift for the 8- and 12-hour schedules alike, which indicates that the primary cause of fatigue was sleep disruption, not cumulative hours of work. All supervisors and 52 percent of the operators believe their crews work more effectively on the 12-hour shift; only 12 percent of the operators believe that their crews work less effectively. The evaluation indicated that the 12-hour shift scheduled is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility. 2 refs.

  2. What are 12-hour shifts good for?

    PubMed

    In the UK many hospitals use 12-hour shifts, believing it to be a cost-efficient means of providing 24-hour nursing care on wards. While healthcare organisations need to find ways to deliver nursing care around the clock and efficiency is a key consideration, nurse leaders have raised concerns about ' whether nurses can function effectively and safely when working long hours (Calkin, 2012; Rogers et al, 2004). In this Policy Plus, we focus specifically on what is known about the impact of shift length on patient safety, employee health and quality of care.

  3. Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns.

  4. Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

  5. Evaluation of a 12-hour/day shift schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-06-01

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to a 12-hour/day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility.

  6. Distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems: impacts on health, wellbeing, and on shift alertness

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, P.; Smith, L.; Macdonald, I.; Folkard, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate of the effects of distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems. Although several studies have examined the effects of compressing work schedules by comparing 8 and 12 hour shift systems, there is little published research examining the various forms of 12 hour shift system. METHODS: An abridged version of the standard shiftwork index which included retrospective alertness ratings was completed by a large sample of industrial shiftworkers. The respondents worked 12 hour shift systems that either did or did not incorporate breaks of > 24 hours between the blocks of day and night shifts. For the purposes of the analysis, each of these two groups were further subdivided into those who started their morning shift at 0600 and those who started at 0700. RESULTS: Systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts were associated with slightly higher levels of on shift alertness, slightly lower levels of chronic fatigue, along with longer sleep durations when working night shifts and between rest days. Early changeovers were associated with shorter night sleeps between successive day shifts, but longer and less disturbed day sleeps between night shifts. These effects of changeover time were broadly in agreement with previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems had only limited effects on the outcome measures, although the few modest differences that were found favoured systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts. It is conceded that the design of the study may have obscured some subtle differences between the shift systems. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the impact of distribution of rest days seems to be minor relative to previously found effects of other features of shift systems--for example, shift duration.   PMID:10448331

  7. Is it time to pull the plug on 12-hour shifts? Part 3. harm reduction strategies if keeping 12-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Trinkoff, Alison M

    2010-09-01

    This article is part 3 of the series "Pulling the Plug on 12-Hour Shifts." In part 1 (March 2010), the authors provided an update on recent evidence that challenges the current scheduling paradigm and supports the lack of safety of long work hours. Part 2 (April 2010) described the barriers to change and challenges for the nurse executive in moving away from the practice of 12-hour shifts. This article presents strategies for mitigating the effects of 12-hour shifts for nurses who continue to work 12-hour shifts despite the potential risks to their health and to patient safety.

  8. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L.; Folkard, S.; Tucker, P.; Macdonald, I.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. RESULTS: The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.   PMID:9624275

  9. Cognitive Performance During 12 Hours at 10,000 Ft Altitude During Night Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    To) 03-2008 Abstract in Journal 2007 - 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Cognitive Performance During 12 Hours at 10,000 Ft Altitude...Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine Journal. 1S. S UBJECT TERMS Cognitive performance, hypobaric exposures, night-operational ai rcraft...opiates, stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), ana lgesics, antidepressants, and cannabis

  10. Transition to 12-hour shifts - The process and the product

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, P. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines Yankee Atomic Electric Company's (YAEC's) transition to a 12-h shift schedule for the operations department staff. It presents the approach to implementation, reactions of both shift workers and management to the new schedule (including perceived benefits and shortcomings), and provides recommendations to others considering this change. Experience demonstrates the ease of any transition when the desire for change originates with the individuals directly affected. Close cooperation with any union representation is also vital to its success. When all parties are in apparent agreement (e.g., that a 12-h rotation should commence), this allows for a trial period (in this case of at least two shift cycles) in order to evaluate and refine the program, thus leaving the option open to revert back to the previous condition if things prove unsatisfactory. At all costs, mutual respect must be maintained for all parties.

  11. Self-Reported Recovery from 2-Week 12-Hour Shift Work Schedules: A 14-Day Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Merkus, Suzanne L.; Holte, Kari Anne; Huysmans, Maaike A.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recovery from fatigue is important in maintaining night workers' health. This study compared the course of self-reported recovery after 2-week 12-hour schedules consisting of either night shifts or swing shifts (i.e., 7 night shifts followed by 7 day shifts) to such schedules consisting of only day work. Methods Sixty-one male offshore employees—20 night workers, 16 swing shift workers, and 25 day workers—rated six questions on fatigue (sleep quality, feeling rested, physical and mental fatigue, and energy levels; scale 1–11) for 14 days after an offshore tour. After the two night-work schedules, differences on the 1st day (main effects) and differences during the follow-up (interaction effects) were compared to day work with generalized estimating equations analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, significant main effects were found for sleep quality for night workers (1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.89) and swing shift workers (1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.94) when compared to day workers; their interaction terms were not statistically significant. For the remaining fatigue outcomes, no statistically significant main or interaction effects were found. Conclusion After 2-week 12-hour night and swing shifts, only the course for sleep quality differed from that of day work. Sleep quality was poorer for night and swing shift workers on the 1st day off and remained poorer for the 14-day follow-up. This showed that while working at night had no effect on feeling rested, tiredness, and energy levels, it had a relatively long-lasting effect on sleep quality. PMID:26929834

  12. A study examining the impact of 12-hour shifts on critical care staff.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Annette; Turnock, Christopher; Harris, Liz; Finley, Alison; Carson, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    Twelve-hour shifts contribute to flexible patterns of work, but the effects on delivery of direct care and staff fatigue are important topics for deeper examination. To examine the impact and implications of 12-hour shifts on critical care staff. A staged dual approach using two focus groups (n = 16) and questionnaires (n = 147) with critical care staff from three critical care units. Positive effects were found with planning and prioritizing care, improved relationships with patients/relatives, good-quality time off work and ease of travelling to work. Less favourable effects were with caring for patients in isolation cubicles and the impact on staff motivation and tiredness. Acceptable patterns of work were suggested for 'numbers of consecutive shifts' and 'rest periods between shifts'. Most participants believed 12-hour shifts should continue. The challenge is to ensure existing systems and practices develop to improve on the less positive effects of working 12-hour shifts. This study provides nurse managers with important and relevant staff views on the impact of working 12-hour shifts. In particular to those working within a critical care environment and suggests the challenge is to ensure existing systems and practices develop to improve on the less encouraging effects of working 12-hour shifts. It adds an understanding of the senior nurse's view on the positive and negative effects of managing and organizing staff off duty to safely run a department with 12-hour shifts.

  13. A linear programming model for determining efficient combinations of 8-, 10-, and 12-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R B

    1981-11-01

    I have formulated a linear programming model to determine changes in efficiency and productivity that would result from scheduling personnel to work combinations of 8-, 10-, and 12-hour shifts in a section of our pulmonary medicine department. My objective was to minimize the number of staff hours worked each day, subject to the constraints imposed by the levels of staffing required during each hour of the day. I found that a combination of 8-, 10- and 12-hour shifts could increase productivity 8.1% and reduce personnel requirements by one full-time equivalent. Salary expenses would decrease 7.5% if overtime were not paid for the extended hours of the 10- and 12-hour shifts. Two considerations in implementing the proposed schedule are the willingness of staff to work extended hours and the necessity of developing a format for communication between therapists who work discontinuous shifts.

  14. [Is It Time to Implement a 12-Hour Shift for Nurses in Taiwan?

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Fung; Chang, Shiow-Ru; Wang, Li-Ting

    2017-04-01

    The twelve-hour shift system, first introduced in the U.S. in 1967 to address a nursing shortage, is now the main system of shift rotation used in numerous countries. In recent years, several hospitals in Taiwan have implemented the 12-hour shift model as one initiative to improve the problems of overtime and high turnover rate among nursing staff. Under this model, nurses work only three to four days per week for 12-hour shifts per day. Despite the increase in numbers of days off, there is growing concern that long shift hours may harm both the safety of patients and the well being of the nurses. The aim of the present article is to explain the application of the 12-hour shift system and to review the potential impacts of this model. Benefits of the 12-hour shift system include improving quality of life for nursing staff, reducing the turnover rate, and increasing job satisfaction. Primary concerns regarding this system include patient safety, nurse fatigue, and the potential negative effects on the sleep quality of nurses. These findings may be referenced by policymakers considering the development / implementation of flexible work schedules in Taiwan. The government must set a ceiling on work hours allowed per week and impose limits on overtime in order to prevent burnout in nursing staff.

  15. [Seven hour shifts versus 12 hours in intensive nursing care: going against the tide].

    PubMed

    Moreno Arroyo, M C; Jerez González, J A; Cabrera Jaime, S; Estrada Masllorens, J M; López Martín, A

    2013-01-01

    Working in shifts has an impact on the well being of health care professionals, affecting their quality of life. The main objective of this study is to describe the consequences of 12hours work shifts versus 7hours for nursing professionals working in intensive care units. A cost-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals of Barcelona, these being the Hospital Clínico and Hospital Vall d'Hebron (of 7hour and 12hour shifts, respectively). The data was collected through a questionnaire having 29 closed questions that was anonymous and self-administered. The questionnaire was based on two scales: Standard Shiftwork Index and Shiftwork. locus of control. Data was processed through SPSS V.18.0. The target population consisted of 85 people, for whom 52 surveys were valid: 22 in Hospital Clínico of Barcelona and 30 in Hospital Vall d'Hebron. Professionals working a 12-hour shift express higher levels of work and family conciliation, especially in the case of leisure time to enjoy (×2: 10.635 p=0.031) and family-friends time dedication as well as lower levels of perceived fatigue. No differences were found between type of shift and ease of development of professional work, even though the 12-hour shift has higher levels.

  16. Sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and performance of 12-hour-shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Rogers, Valerie E; Trinkoff, Alison M; Kane, Robert L; Bausell, R Barker; Scharf, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Nurses working 12-h shifts complain of fatigue and insufficient/poor-quality sleep. Objectively measured sleep times have not been often reported. This study describes sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance over three consecutive 12-h (day and night) shifts for hospital registered nurses. Sleep (actigraphy), sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]), and vigilance (Performance Vigilance Task [PVT]), were measured serially in 80 registered nurses (RNs). Occupational fatigue (Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Scale [OFER]) was assessed at baseline. Sleep was short (mean 5.5 h) between shifts, with little difference between day shift (5.7 h) and night shift (5.4 h). Sleepiness scores were low overall (3 on a 1-9 scale, with higher score indicating greater sleepiness), with 45% of nurses having high level of sleepiness (score  > 7) on at least one shift. Nurses were progressively sleepier each shift, and night nurses were sleepier toward the end of the shift compared to the beginning. There was extensive caffeine use, presumably to preserve or improve alertness. Fatigue was high in one-third of nurses, with intershift fatigue (not feeling recovered from previous shift at the start of the next shift) being most prominent. There were no statistically significant differences in mean reaction time between day/night shift, consecutive work shift, and time into shift. Lapsing was traitlike, with rare (39% of sample), moderate (53%), and frequent (8%) lapsers. Nurses accrue a considerable sleep debt while working successive 12-h shifts with accompanying fatigue and sleepiness. Certain nurses appear more vulnerable to sleep loss than others, as measured by attention lapses.

  17. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  18. Effects of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tadeu Sartini; Moreira, Clarice Zinato; Guo, James; Noce, Franco

    2017-03-09

    To assess the effect of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness at the beginning and end of the shift. Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study.It was conducted with 70 neonatal intensive care unit nurses. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and a socio-demographic profile questionnaire were administered. When the KSS and BRUMS scores were compared at the beginning of the shift associations were found with previous sleep quality (p ≤ 0.01), and quality of life (p ≤ 0.05). Statistical significant effects on BRUMS scores were also associated with previous sleep quality, quality of life, liquid ingestion, healthy diet, marital status, and shift work stress. When the beginning and end of the shift were compared, different KSS scores were seen in the group of all nurses and in the night shift one. Significant vigor and fatigue scores were observed within shift groups. A good night's sleep has positive effects on the individual`s mood states both at the beginning and the end of the shift. The self-perception of a good quality of life also positively influenced KSS and BRUMS scores at the beginning and end of the shift. Proper liquid ingestion led to better KSS and BRUMS scores. Evaluar el efecto de un turno de 12 horas en estados de ánimo y somnolencia al principio y al final del turno. Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo.Se realizó con 70 enfermeras de unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Se administró la Escala de Humor Brunel (BRUMS), la Escala de Somnolencia de Karolinska (KSS) y un cuestionario de perfil sociodemográfico. Cuando se compararon las puntuaciones de KSS y BRUMS al comienzo del turno se encontraron asociaciones con calidad de sueño previa (p ≤ 0,01) y calidad de vida (p ≤ 0,05). Los efectos estadísticos significativos en las puntuaciones de BRUMS también se asociaron con la calidad previa del sueño, la calidad de vida, la ingestión de líquidos, la dieta saludable, el

  19. Oxidative DNA damage during night shift work.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott

    2017-09-01

    We previously reported that compared with night sleep, day sleep among shift workers was associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), potentially reflecting a reduced ability to repair 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA. We identified the absence of melatonin during day sleep as the likely causative factor. We now investigate whether night work is also associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. For this cross-sectional study, 50 shift workers with the largest negative differences in night work versus night sleep circulating melatonin levels (measured as 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine) were selected from among the 223 shift workers included in our previous study. 8-OH-dG concentrations were measured in stored urine samples using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Mixed effects models were used to compare night work versus night sleep 8-OH-dG levels. Circulating melatonin levels during night work (mean=17.1 ng/mg creatinine/mg creatinine) were much lower than during night sleep (mean=51.7 ng/mg creatinine). In adjusted analyses, average urinary 8-OH-dG levels during the night work period were only 20% of those observed during the night sleep period (95% CI 10% to 30%; p<0.001). This study suggests that night work, relative to night sleep, is associated with reduced repair of 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA and that the effect is likely driven by melatonin suppression occurring during night work relative to night sleep. If confirmed, future studies should evaluate melatonin supplementation as a means to restore oxidative DNA damage repair capacity among shift workers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Can melatonin improve adaptation to night shift?

    PubMed

    James, M; Tremea, M O; Jones, J S; Krohmer, J R

    1998-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine) is effective in helping emergency medical services (EMS) personnel who work rotating night shifts reset their biological clocks and minimize circadian rhythm disruption. A double-blinded, randomized, crossover study was performed using 22 volunteers. Participants were working a span of consecutive night (2300 to 0700 hours) shifts and received either a melatonin capsule (6 mg) or placebo to be taken before each of the consecutive day sleeps. Each participant completed a total of 4 spans of consecutive night shifts (2 melatonin, 2 placebo). Collected data included daily sleep diaries, quantification of alcohol/caffeine consumed, and drug side effects. Assessment of sleep quality, posttreatment mood, and workload ratings were measured daily by 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Analysis of sleep diaries found no significant difference (P > .05) between the two treatments with respect to mean sleep latency, duration, and efficiency, and subjectively rated sleep quality. Similarly, no significant benefits were noted between the median VAS scores for daily posttreatment mood or workload ratings. Adverse effects were rare; one patient taking melatonin reported a prolonged sedative effect. Despite recent interest in melatonin for treatment of circadian-based sleep disorders, no clinical benefits were noted in EMS personnel working rotating night shifts.

  1. 5 CFR 532.505 - Night shift differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with section 5343 of title 5...

  2. 5 CFR 532.505 - Night shift differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with section 5343 of title 5...

  3. 5 CFR 532.505 - Night shift differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with section 5343 of title 5...

  4. 5 CFR 532.505 - Night shift differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with section 5343 of title 5...

  5. 5 CFR 532.505 - Night shift differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with section 5343 of title 5...

  6. Comparisons of psychosomatic health and unhealthy behaviors between cleanroom workers in a 12-hour shift and those in an 8-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Kameda, M; Noborisaka, Y; Suzuki, H; Honda, M; Yamada, S

    2001-12-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and physical fitness tests were administered to 338 workers in clean rooms producing electronic parts in 12-h shifts. The results were compared to those in 95 workers in 8-h shifts and 284 daytime management, clerical and engineering workers. The 12-h shift workers complained of poor health, dissatisfaction with life and poor recuperation from fatigue more than the 8-h shift workers although the rates of complaints were highest in the daytime workers. The GHQ scores were similar in the two shift groups, and much better than those in the daytime workers. However, the 12-h shift workers showed significantly lower fitness levels than the 8-h shift workers, and the levels were even worse than the daytime workers who had higher mean age and BMI levels compared with the shift workers. The tendency to have sedentary freetime activities and larger alcohol and cigarette consumption were observed in the 12-h shift workers. The 12-h shift work may have contributed to the unhealthy behaviors resulting in lower physical fitness levels. Health promotion services at the workplace should devote greater attention to long-hour shift workers, together with devising the ways to improve working conditions and environments for reducing fatigue at work.

  7. Extended workdays: Effects of 8-hour and 12-hour rotating shift schedules on test performance, subjective alertness, sleep patterns, and psychological variables

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.R.; Colligan, M.J.; Lewis, P.

    1986-06-01

    A newly instituted 3 to 4 day/12-hr rotating shift schedule was compared to the previous 5 to 7 day/8-hr schedule using standard laboratory-type measures of performance and alertness, and a questionnaire on sleep patterns and other personal habits. After seven months adaptation to the new schedule, a preliminary analysis indicates that there were some decrements in alertness, reductions in sleep, and disruptions of other personal activities during 12-hr workdays. Gastro-intestinal state improved during night shift, however, and increases in self-reported stress were reduced by the shortened workweek. These results are discussed in terms of trade-offs between longer workdays and shorter workweeks. It is emphasized that at this time no determination can be made of the extent of risk associated with these changes in alertness.

  8. Implementing a night-shift clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Becker, Dawn Marie

    2013-01-01

    Night-shift nurses receive fewer educational opportunities and less administrative support than do day-shift staff, tend to be newer, with less experience and fewer resources, and experience greater turnover rates, stress, and procedural errors. In an attempt to bridge the gap between day- and night-shift nursing, a night-shift clinical nurse specialist (CNS) position was created in a midsized, community teaching hospital. The goal was to provide an advanced practice presence to improve patient outcomes, communication, education, and cost-effectiveness. The night-shift CNS participated in nursing education and skill certifications, communicated new procedures and information, and created a communication committee specifically for night-shift nurses. Through regular rounding and on-call notification, the CNS was available to every area of the hospital for consultation and clinical assistance and assisted with rapid responses, codes, and traumas. Providing education during night shift reduced overtime costs and increased morale, positively affecting turnover rates. The night-shift CNS position has improved morale and equalized support for night-shift nurses. More research, most notably in specific night-shift metrics, is necessary, and with the implementation of the role in additional facilities, more can be understood about improving patient care and nursing staff satisfaction during night shift.

  9. Shifting the feeding of mice to the rest phase creates metabolic alterations, which, on their own, shift the peripheral circadian clocks by 12 hours.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Atish; Kobiita, Ahmad; Chambon, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the events through which alterations in diurnal activities impinge on peripheral circadian clocks (PCCs), and reciprocally how the PCCs affect metabolism, thereby generating pathologies, are still poorly understood. Here, we deciphered how switching the diurnal feeding from the active to the rest phase, i.e., restricted feeding (RF), immediately creates a hypoinsulinemia during the active phase, which initiates a metabolic reprogramming by increasing FFA and glucagon levels. In turn, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activation by free fatty acid (FFA), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation by glucagon, lead to further metabolic alterations during the circadian active phase, as well as to aberrant activation of expression of the PCC components nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1/RevErbα), Period (Per1 and Per2). Moreover, hypoinsulinemia leads to an increase in glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity that, through phosphorylation, stabilizes and increases the level of the RevErbα protein during the active phase. This increase then leads to an untimely repression of expression of the genes containing a RORE DNA binding sequence (DBS), including the Bmal1 gene, thereby initiating in RF mice a 12-h PCC shift to which the CREB-mediated activation of Per1, Per2 by glucagon modestly contributes. We also show that the reported corticosterone extraproduction during the RF active phase reflects an adrenal aberrant activation of CREB signaling, which selectively delays the activation of the PPARα-RevErbα axis in muscle and heart and accounts for the retarded shift of their PCCs.

  10. Rotating night shift work and the risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brown, Devin L; Feskanich, Diane; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Schernhammer, Eva S; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2009-06-01

    Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and is associated with coronary heart disease. The relation between rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke is unclear. The Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing cohort study of registered female nurses, assessed in 1988 the total number of years the nurses had worked rotating night shifts. The majority (69%) of stroke outcomes from 1988 to 2004 were confirmed by physician chart review. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation between years of rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke, adjusting for multiple vascular risk factors. Of 80,108 subjects available for analysis, 60% reported at least 1 year of rotating night shift work. There were 1,660 ischemic strokes. Rotating night shift work was associated with a 4% increased risk of ischemic stroke for every 5 years (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07; P(trend) = 0.01). This increase in risk was similar when limited to the 1,152 confirmed ischemic strokes (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.07; P(trend) = 0.10) and may be confined to women with a history of 15 or more years of rotating shift work. Women appear to have a modestly increased risk of stroke after extended periods of rotating night shift work.

  11. Patient Handoffs: Is Cross Cover or Night Shift Better?

    PubMed

    Higgins, Alanna; Brannen, Melissa L; Heiman, Heather L; Adler, Mark D

    2017-06-01

    Studies show singular handoffs between health care providers to be risky. Few describe sequential handoffs or compare handoffs from different provider types. We investigated the transfer of information across 2 handoffs using a piloted survey instrument. We compared cross-cover (every fourth night call) with dedicated night-shift residents. Surveys assessing provider knowledge of hospitalized patients were administered to pediatric residents. Primary teams were surveyed about their handoff upon completion of daytime coverage of a patient. Night-shift or cross-covering residents were surveyed about their handoff of the same patient upon completion of overnight coverage. Pediatric hospitalists rated the consistency of information between the surveys. Absolute difference was calculated between the 2 providers' rating of a patient's (a) complexity and (b) illness severity. Scores were compared across provider type. Fifty-nine complete handoff pairs were obtained. Fourteen and 45 handoff surveys were completed by a cross-covering and a night-shift provider, respectively. There was no significant difference in information consistency between primary and night-shift (median, 4.0; interquartile range [IQR], 3-4) versus primary and cross-covering providers (median, 4.0; IQR, 3-4). There was no significant difference in median patient complexity ratings (night shift, 3.0; IQR, 1-5, versus cross cover, 3.5; IQR, 1-5) or illness severity ratings (night shift, 2.0; IQR, 1-4, versus cross-cover, 3.0; IQR, 1-6) when comparing provider types giving a handoff. We did not find a difference in physicians' transfer of information during 2 handoffs among providers taking traditional call or on night shift. Development of tools to measure handoff consistency is needed.

  12. Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Night and Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, Jadwiga

    Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…

  13. Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Night and Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, Jadwiga

    Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…

  14. [Biologic rhythms: their changes in night-shift workers].

    PubMed

    Weibel, L; Follénius, M; Brandenberger, G

    1999-02-06

    ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS: Environmental cycles, such as the light-dark cycle, provide information used by the biological clock in the hypothalamus to synchronize the biological systems and maintain the organism's internal cohesion. In persons whose work schedules include night hours (approximately 20% of the working population in France) the sleep-wake cycles are not in phase with these environmental cycles. BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS: What effect does the conflicting information perceived by night-shift workers have on their biological rhythms? Indices of the processes going on in the cerebral clock, these biological rhythms are the only tool available in man to determine possible dysfunction of the clock. Several studies have identified these rhythms in night-shift workers but results have been contradictory. PARTIAL ADAPTATION: Recently we made repeated measurements every 10 min over a 24 hour period in night-shift workers to determine the precise melatonin, cortisol, and thyrotropin (TSH) patterns, which reflect the endogenous clock, and prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) patterns which are influenced by sleep but also have a circadian component. This study demonstrated that there is some, but partial, adaptation of the biological rhythms in these persons. The shift in the melatonin pattern is quite variable from one individual to another. Night work causes a distortion in the cortisol and TSH rhythms. This partial adaptation is also seen in the GH and PRL curves, mainly related to sleep, but whose endogenous component previously described in other experimental situations is found in night workers with a distribution incompletely adapted to the secretory episodes. RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES: Both daytime sleep and night-time work are associated with perturbed endocrine functions which could explain certain health problems and sleep disorders observed (or avowed) after several years of night-shift work. These problems require further research into factors susceptible of

  15. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  16. Night shift decreases cognitive performance of ICU physicians.

    PubMed

    Maltese, François; Adda, Mélanie; Bablon, Amandine; Hraeich, Sami; Guervilly, Christophe; Lehingue, Samuel; Wiramus, Sandrine; Leone, Marc; Martin, Claude; Vialet, Renaud; Thirion, Xavier; Roch, Antoine; Forel, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between tiredness and the risk of medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intensive care unit (ICU) night shift on the cognitive performance of a group of intensivists. The influence of professional experience and the amount of sleep on cognitive performance was also investigated. A total of 51 intensivists from three ICUs (24 seniors and 27 residents) were included. The study participants were evaluated after a night of rest and after a night shift according to a randomized order. Four cognitive skills were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. All cognitive abilities worsened after a night shift: working memory capacity (11.3 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 0.3; p < 0.001), speed of processing information (13.5 ± 0.4 vs. 10.9 ± 0.3; p < 0.001), perceptual reasoning (10.6 ± 0.3 vs. 9.3 ± 0.3; p < 0.002), and cognitive flexibility (41.2 ± 1.2 vs. 44.2 ± 1.3; p = 0.063). There was no significant difference in terms of level of cognitive impairment between the residents and ICU physicians. Only cognitive flexibility appeared to be restored after 2 h of sleep. The other three cognitive skills were altered, regardless of the amount of sleep during the night shift. The cognitive abilities of intensivists were significantly altered following a night shift in the ICU, regardless of either the amount of professional experience or the duration of sleep during the shift. The consequences for patients' safety and physicians' health should be further evaluated.

  17. Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Olmos, Isabel; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Milcíades

    2014-03-29

    To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p=0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p=0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts.

  18. Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez-Pinilla, Milciades

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Methods Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. Results No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p<0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p<0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Conclusions Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts. PMID:25341213

  19. Can short-wavelength depleted bright light during single simulated night shifts prevent circadian phase shifts?

    PubMed

    Regente, J; de Zeeuw, J; Bes, F; Nowozin, C; Appelhoff, S; Wahnschaffe, A; Münch, M; Kunz, D

    2017-05-01

    In single night shifts, extending habitual wake episodes leads to sleep deprivation induced decrements of performance during the shift and re-adaptation effects the next day. We investigated whether short-wavelength depleted (=filtered) bright light (FBL) during a simulated night shift would counteract such effects. Twenty-four participants underwent a simulated night shift in dim light (DL) and in FBL. Reaction times, subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin concentrations were assessed during both nights. Daytime sleep was recorded after both simulated night shifts. During FBL, we found no melatonin suppression compared to DL, but slightly faster reaction times in the second half of the night. Daytime sleep was not statistically different between both lighting conditions (n = 24) and there was no significant phase shift after FBL (n = 11). To conclude, our results showed positive effects from FBL during simulated single night shifts which need to be further tested with larger groups, in more applied studies and compared to standard lighting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shift Work, Chronotype, and Melatonin Patterns among Female Hospital Employees on Day and Night Shifts.

    PubMed

    Leung, Michael; Tranmer, Joan; Hung, Eleanor; Korsiak, Jill; Day, Andrew G; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    Shift work-related carcinogenesis is hypothesized to be mediated by melatonin; however, few studies have considered the potential effect modification of this underlying pathway by chronotype or specific aspects of shift work such as the number of consecutive nights in a rotation. In this study, we examined melatonin patterns in relation to shift status, stratified by chronotype and number of consecutive night shifts, and cumulative lifetime exposure to shift work. Melatonin patterns of 261 female personnel (147 fixed-day and 114 on rotations, including nights) at Kingston General Hospital were analyzed using cosinor analysis. Urine samples were collected from all voids over a 48-hour specimen collection period for measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations using the Buhlmann ELISA Kit. Chronotypes were assessed using mid-sleep time (MSF) derived from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). Sociodemographic, health, and occupational information were collected by questionnaire. Rotational shift nurses working nights had a lower mesor and an earlier time of peak melatonin production compared to day-only workers. More pronounced differences in mesor and acrophase were seen among later chronotypes, and shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights. Among nurses, cumulative shift work was associated with a reduction in mesor. These results suggest that evening-types and/or shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights are more susceptible to adverse light-at-night effects, whereas long-term shift work may also chronically reduce melatonin levels. Cumulative and current exposure to shift work, including nights, affects level and timing of melatonin production, which may be related to carcinogenesis and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 830-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Four Night Shifts Have a Degree of Performance Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-San; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiang-Lan; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2017-09-01

    In this case control study, we investigated the process of adaptation to night shift (NS) work and recovery back to a day schedule among nurses working a fast-rotation three-shift schedule. There is limited knowledge of how specific patterns of a fast-rotation shift affect nurses' performance. The cognitive performance of off-duty nurses (OD; n = 21), those working the first night of an NS (1NS; n = 21) and the last night of two ( n = 21), three ( n = 20), and four (4NS; n = 21) successive NSs were compared. Changes in sleep propensity, cognitive function, and anxiety were compared in the daytime after working four successive NSs followed by 24 hr off (4NS-off; n = 18) and in those off duty. The visual attention task (VAT) of cognitive function was significantly worse in the 1NS group and significantly better on the last night in the 4NS group than in the other NS groups. The nurses in the 4NS-off group were less alert and had poorer VAT performance than the OD group during the daytime. The nurses working on NS experienced a decrease in VAT performance due to acute changes in circadian rhythm but also significant performance adaptation after four consecutive NSs. One off-duty day was insufficient to recover back to a daytime shift after four consecutive NSs. In a fast-rotation three-shift schedule, performance adaptation occurred in the nurses who worked four consecutive NSs, and more than one off-duty day are needed to recover back to daytime shift after those NSs.

  2. [Night shift work and cancer risk: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Brudnowska, Joanna; Pepłońska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    About 15-20% of the employees in Europe and in the USA are engaged in shift work that involves night work. Some experimental and observational data indicate that this type of work might lead to circadian disruption, including disruption in the melatonin synthesis - a hormone of anticarcinogenic and antioxidative properties. A hypothesis that there is a potential link between exposure to light at night and the risk of breast cancer was formulated for the first time by Stevens in 1987. Since then, relatively few epidemiological studies have been carried out in this area (15 studies including 8 cohort and 7 case-control studies). All of them are reviewed in this article. The majority of the epidemiological studies performed to date have focused on the association between shift work and breast cancer risk, few studies have reported an increased risk of other cancers, including colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In six out of ten studies, a statistically significant association between night shift work and risk of breast cancer has been shown (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5 in nurses in Norway with > 30 years of night shift work). The increased cancer risk has been reported in nurses, radio-telephone operators, flight attendants, and women employed in the enterprises, in which 60% of employees work at night. Most of the analyses have been based on the data from the registries, with limited potential for the exposure assessment and confounders adjustment. Although some epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among nurses, we are still far from drawing final conclusions. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are warranted.

  3. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnell, Emily K.; Huggins, Catherine E.; Huggins, Chris T.; McCaffrey, Tracy A.; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P.

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted. PMID:28245625

  4. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Bonnell, Emily K; Huggins, Catherine E; Huggins, Chris T; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P

    2017-02-26

    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted.

  5. On the night shift: advanced nurse practice in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Advanced nurse practitioners in the author's emergency department (ED) work autonomously and as part of a team to assess, diagnose and treat patients with unexplained and undiagnosed illnesses and injuries over a 24-hour cycle of care. The complexity of the role in EDs is often not fully understood, and expectations can vary between trusts and between different clinical areas within trusts. This article describes one night shift in the author's ED to explain the complexity of advanced nurse practitioners' roles in this environment. The article focuses on autonomous decision-making skills and the use of advanced clinical skills in the context of evidence-based practice.

  6. The hidden shift: how do night shift nurses learn to adapt to circadian disruption?

    PubMed

    Lawson Carney, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythm has a significant impact on the physical, psychosocial, and professional lives of night shift nurses. How night shift nurses learn the coping techniques they employ to adapt to this disruption was examined in a qualitative, cross-sectional survey of 42 nurses. A template analysis technique was used to categorize the responses, which were then compared to industry "best practices" in fatigue countermeasures. Results documented the variety of sleep/wake routines nurses employ to cope with circadian disruption as well as a wide-ranging variety of behaviors related to driving while fatigued.

  7. Night-to-night Variability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity: Relationship to Overnight Rostral Fluid Shift

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura H.; Lyons, Owen D.; Yadollahi, Azadeh; Ryan, Clodagh M.; Bradley, T. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Overnight rostral fluid shift from the legs to the neck may narrow the pharynx and contribute to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. We hypothesized that night-to-night changes in the apneahypopnea index (AHI) would be associated with changes in overnight rostral fluid shift. Methods: Twenty-six patients with OSA (AHI ≥ 10) underwent two polysomnograms 14 days apart with measurement of neck and leg fluid volumes (LFV), neck circumference and upper-airway cross-sectional area before and after sleep. Results: Although mean AHI did not differ between polysomnograms, 35% of patients had a difference in AHI > 10, indicating significant intra-individual variability. There were direct correlations between change in non-rapid-eye movement (NREM), but not REM AHI and change in evening LFV between polysomnograms (r = 0.440, p = 0.036 and r = 0.005, p = 0.982, respectively) and between change in supine, but not non-supine AHI and change in evening LFV (r = 0.483, p = 0.020 and r = 0.269, p = 0.280, respectively). An increase in evening LFV between polysomnograms was associated with a greater overnight decrease in LFV (r = 0.560, p = 0.005) and a greater overnight increase in neck fluid volume (r = 0.498, p = 0.016). Additionally, a greater overnight increase in neck circumference was associated with a greater overnight increase in neck fluid volume between polysomnograms (r = 0.453, p = 0.020) and a greater overnight decrease in upper-airway cross-sectional area (r = −0.587, p = 0.005). Conclusion: Intra-individual variability in OSA severity may be partly explained by day-to-day changes in evening leg fluid volume and overnight rostral fluid shift, which may be most important in the pathogenesis of OSA during NREM and supine sleep. Citation: White LH, Lyons OD, Yadollahi A, Ryan CM, Bradley TD. Night-to-night variability in obstructive sleep apnea severity: relationship to overnight rostral fluid shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):149–156

  8. Night shift fatigue among anaesthesia trainees at a major metropolitan teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Lancman, B M

    2016-05-01

    Night shifts expose anaesthesia trainees to the risk of fatigue and, potentially, fatigue-related performance impairment. This study examined the workload, fatigue and coping strategies of anaesthesia trainees during night shifts. A blinded survey-based study was undertaken at a major single centre metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. All ten anaesthesia trainees who worked night shifts participated. The survey collected data on duration of night shifts, workload, and sleep patterns. Fatigue was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). There were 93 night shifts generating data out of a potential 165. Trainees tended to sleep an increasing amount before their shift as the nights progressed from 1 to 5. Night 1 was identified as an 'at risk' night due to the amount of time spent awake before arriving at work (32% awake for U+003E8 hours); on all other nights trainees were most likely to have slept 6-8 hours. The KSS demonstrated an increase in sleepiness of 3 to 4 points on the scale from commencement to conclusion of a night shift. The Night 1 conclusion sleepiness was markedly worse than any other night with 42% falling into an 'at-risk' category. The findings demonstrate fatigue and inadequate sleep in anaesthesia trainees during night shifts in a major metropolitan teaching hospital. The data obtained may help administrators prepare safer rosters, and junior staff develop improved strategies to reduce the likelihood of fatigue.

  9. Circadian rhythms in plasma concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in men working on night shift and in permanent night workers

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, R. T. W. L.; Elliott, Ann L.; Mills, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Conroy, R. T. W. L., Elliott, Ann L., and Mills, J. N. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 170-174. Circadian rhythms in plasma concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in men working on night shift and in permanent night workers. Blood samples have been collected for estimation of plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroids from three groups of workers - day and night shift workers in a light engineering factory, and night workers in a newspaper printing works. Up to five samples were collected over 24 hr, or two samples per 24 hr were collected for three days. In conformity with the observations of others, day workers showed maximal concentrations in the morning around the time when they started work. In the newspaper workers maximal concentrations were found when they awoke around 14·00 hr. Night shift workers in the engineering works showed a greater variety of pattern, some showing the pattern usual in a day worker, some showing a maximum concentration about midnight and a minimum around 06·00 hr and a large proportion showing no clear circadian rhythm. In the newspaper workers the rhythm was thus well adapted to their pattern of nocturnal work, whereas relatively few of the night shift workers in the engineering works showed such adaptation. It appears that the adrenal cortical rhythm can be adapted to night work in a community in which this is universal, accepted and lifelong, but that such adjustment is unusual in men on night shift work for limited periods, and whose associates are mainly following a usual nycthemeral existence. PMID:5428635

  10. [Night shift work and prolactin as a breast cancer risk factor].

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Agnieszka; Pepłońska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin - a hormone secreted in a circadian rhythm acts as a regulator of growth and development of the mammary glands. It has been observed that working at night increases breast cancer risk in women. Night shift work, probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A IARC), can disrupt a circadian rhythm, and thus potentially alter the rhythm of prolactin secretion. The aim of our work was to review epidemiological evidence on the association between prolactin and the risk of breast cancer and the influence of work at night on prolactin secretion. Search was done in the Medline database by keywords (shift work, work at night, risk of breast cancer and prolactin). 'The increased proliferation of breast cells activated by prolactin can promote the development of cancer. The results of the largest epidemiological prospective studies suggest the association between prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer in women. So far, only seven studies have investigated the association between work at night and prolactin secretion. In three studies lower concentrations of prolactin have been observed in night shift workers. No relationship between the night shift work duration and prolactin level in women have been reported. Night shift work can modify the profile of prolactin secretion in night workers, probably decreasing the secretion of this hormone at night. It is therefore unlikely that prolactin plays an important role in the development of breast cancer in women working at night. This conclusion is based on the results of a few epidemiological studies.

  11. Scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting improve adaptation to night shift work in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chinoy, Evan D; Harris, Michael P; Kim, Min Ju; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2016-12-01

    We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy) and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in 18 older adults (57.2±3.8 years; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol. 4 day shifts were followed by 3 night shifts in the laboratory. Participants slept at home and were randomised to either the treatment group (scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting during the latter half of night shifts) or control group (ad-lib sleep and typical lighting during night shifts). Compared with day shifts, alertness and sustained attention declined on the first night shift in both groups, and was worse in the latter half of the night shifts. Alertness and attention improved on nights 2 and 3 for the treatment group but remained lower for the control group. Sleep duration in the treatment group remained similar to baseline (6-7 hours) following night shifts, but was shorter (3-5 hours) following night shifts in the control group. Treatment group circadian timing advanced by 169.3±16.1 min (mean±SEM) but did not shift (-9.7±9.9 min) in the control group. The combined treatment of scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting increased sleep duration and partially aligned circadian phase with sleep and work timing, resulting in improved night shift alertness and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Performance and sleepiness in nurses working 12-h day shifts or night shifts in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marian; Permito, Regan; English, Ashley; Albritton, Sandra; Coogle, Carlana; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-10-05

    Hospitals are around-the-clock operations and nurses are required to care for patients night and day. The nursing shortage and desire for a more balanced work-to-home life has popularized 12-h shifts for nurses. The present study investigated sleep/wake cycles and fatigue levels in 22 nurses working 12-h shifts, comparing day versus night shifts. Nurses (11day shift and 11 night shift) were recruited from a suburban acute-care medical center. Participants wore a wrist activity monitor and kept a diary to track their sleep/wake cycles for 2 weeks. They also completed a fatigue test battery, which included the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), at the beginning, middle and end of 4 duty shifts. Daily sleep duration was 7.1h on average. No overall difference in mean daily sleep duration was found between nurses working day shifts versus night shifts. Objective performance on the PVT remained relatively good and stable at the start, middle, and end of duty shifts in day shift workers, but gradually degraded across duty time in night shift workers. Compared to day shift workers, night shift workers also exhibited more performance variability among measurement days and between participants at each testing time point. The same pattern was observed for subjective sleepiness on the KSS. However, congruence between objective and subjective measures of fatigue was poor. Our findings suggest a need for organizations to evaluate practices and policies to mitigate the inevitable fatigue that occurs during long night shifts, in order to improve patient and healthcare worker safety. Examination of alternative shift lengths or sanctioned workplace napping may be strategies to consider. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Total and Cause-Specific Mortality of U.S. Nurses Working Rotating Night Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Fangyi; Han, Jiali; Laden, Francine; Pan, An; Caporaso, Neil E.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Willett, Walter C.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Speizer, Frank; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotating night shift work imposes circadian strain and is linked to the risk of several chronic diseases. Purpose To examine associations between rotating night shift work and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort study of 74,862 registered U.S. nurses from the Nurses’ Health Study. Methods Lifetime rotating night shift work (defined as ≥3 nights/month) information was collected in 1988. During 22 years (1988–2010) of follow-up, 14,181 deaths were documented, including 3,062 CVD and 5,413 cancer deaths. Cox proportional hazards models (2013) estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results All-cause and CVD mortality were significantly increased among women with ≥5 years of rotating night shift work, compared to women who never worked night shifts. Specifically, for women with 6–14 and ≥15 years of rotating night shift work, the HRs were 1.11 (95% CI=1.06, 1.17) and 1.11 (95% CI=1.05, 1.18) for all-cause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI=1.07, 1.33) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.09, 1.38) for CVD mortality. There was no association between rotating night shift work and all-cancer mortality (HR≥15years=1.08, 95% CI=0.89, 1.19) or any other cancer, with the exception of lung cancer (HR≥15years=1.25, 95% CI=1.04, 1.51). Conclusions Women working rotating night shifts for ≥5 five years have a modest increase in all-cause and CVD mortality; those working ≥15 years of rotating night shift work have a modest increase in lung cancer mortality. These results add to prior evidence of a potentially detrimental effect of rotating night shift work on health and longevity. PMID:25576495

  14. Impact of night-shift work on the prevalence of erosive esophagitis in shipyard male workers.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Heum; Lee, Jiho; Kim, Moon Chan

    2016-08-01

    Whether night-shift work is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between night-shift work and other factors, and erosive esophagitis. A cross-sectional study with 6040 male shipyard workers was performed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopic examination and a survey about night-shift work status, lifestyle, medical history, educational status, and marital status were conducted in all workers. The odds ratios of erosive esophagitis according to night-shift work status were calculated by using the logistic regression model. The prevalence of erosive esophagitis increased in the night-shift workers [odds ratio, 95 % confidence interval: 1.41 (1.03-1.94)]. According to multiple logistic regression models, night-shift work, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption of ≥140 g/week were significant risk factors for erosive esophagitis. By contrast, Helicobacter pylori infection was negatively associated with erosive esophagitis. Night-shift work is suggested to be a risk factor for erosive esophagitis. Avoidance of night-shift work and lifestyle modification should be considered for prevention and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  15. Night shifts in emergency medicine: the american board of emergency medicine longitudinal study of emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Broderick, Kerryann B; Marco, Catherine A

    2014-09-01

    Night shift work is an integral component of the practice of emergency medicine (EM). Previous studies have demonstrated the challenges of night shift work to health and well being among health care providers. This study was undertaken to describe the self-reported experience of emergency physicians regarding night shift work with respect to quality of life and career satisfaction. The 2008 American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) Longitudinal Study of Emergency Physicians (LSEP) was administered by mail to 1003 ABEM diplomates. Among 819 participants in the 2008 LSEP Physician Survey, most participants responded that night shift work negatively influenced job satisfaction with a moderate or major negative influence (58%; n = 467/800). Forty-three percent of participants indicated that night shifts had caused them to think about leaving EM (n = 344/809). Most participants responded that working night shifts has had mild negative effects (51%; n = 407/800) or major negative effects (9%; n = 68) on their health. Respondents were asked to describe how working night shifts has affected their health. Common themes included fatigue (36%), poor quality of sleep (35%), mood decrement/irritability (29%), and health maintenance challenges (19%). Among participants in the 2008 LSEP Retired Physician Survey, night shifts were a factor in the decision to retire for 56% of participants. Emergency physicians report negative impacts of night shift work, including fatigue, poor quality of sleep, mood decrement, irritability, and health challenges. Night shifts have a negative influence on job satisfaction and can be a factor in the decision to retire. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Occupational history of night shift work and Parkinson's disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Lassen, Christina F; Kenborg, Line; Ritz, Beate; Olsen, Jørgen H; Hansen, Johnni

    2015-07-01

    We investigated whether working night shifts was associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Between January 2008 and December 2010, we recruited 1808 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PD from Denmark and 1876 population controls matched by year of birth and gender. Information on lifelong occupational history, including information on night work, smoking, caffeine and alcohol consumption habits, and family history of PD was collected through structured telephone interviews. Overall, there was no association between a history of night shift work and PD [odds ratio (OR) for any type of night work (ie, either permanent or rotating night work) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.86-1.21]. Compared with persons who never worked night shifts, risks of those with longer durations of night work did not appear to differ (OR <10 years=0.95, 95% CI 0.75-1.19, OR 10-19 years= 1.09, 95% CI 0.77-1.53, OR ≥20 years=1.05, 95% CI 0.81-1.37, P for trend=0.23). Associations were similar among men and women. These data suggest that working night shifts is not associated with PD or that low tolerance for night shift work is an early marker of PD. Due to the novel and exploratory nature of these findings, confirmation is needed.

  17. Sleep Strategies of Night-Shift Nurses on Days Off: Which Ones are Most Adaptive?

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Megan E.; Clark, C. Brendan; Molzof, Hylton E.; Johnson, Russell L.; Cropsey, Karen L.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the off-shift sleep strategies of bi-ethnic night-shift nurses, the relationship between these sleep strategies and adaptation to shift work, and identify the participant-level characteristics associated with a given sleep strategy. Methods: African-American and non-Hispanic White female, night-shift nurses from an academic hospital were recruited to complete a survey on sleep–wake patterns (n = 213). Participants completed the standard shiftwork index and the biological clocks questionnaire to determine sleep strategies and adaptation to night-shift work. In addition, chronotype was determined quantitatively with a modified version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire. Most participants worked ~3 consecutive 12-h night-shifts followed by several days off. Results: Five sleep strategies used on days off were identified: (a) night stay, (b) nap proxy, (c) switch sleeper, (d) no sleep, and (e) incomplete switcher. Nap proxy and no sleep types were associated with poorer adaptation to night-shift work. The switch sleeper and incomplete switcher types were identified as more adaptive strategies that were associated with less sleep disturbance, a later chronotype, and less cardiovascular problems. Conclusion: Behavioral sleep strategies are related to adaptation to a typical night-shift schedule among hospital nurses. Nurses are crucial to the safety and well-being of their patients. Therefore, adoption of more adaptive sleep strategies may reduce sleep/wake dysregulation in this population, and improve cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25566182

  18. Night shift work and stomach cancer risk in the MCC-Spain study.

    PubMed

    Gyarmati, Georgina; Turner, Michelle C; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Alguacil, Juan; Costas, Laura; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martin Sanchez, Vicente; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno, Victor; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Fernández-Tardon, Guillermo; Villanueva Ballester, Vicent; Capelo, Rocio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Santibáñez, Miguel; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-08-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, based on experimental studies and limited evidence on human breast cancer risk. Evidence at other cancer sites is scarce. We evaluated the association between night shift work and stomach cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. A total of 374 incident stomach adenocarcinoma cases and 2481 population controls were included from the MCC-Spain study. Detailed data on lifetime night shift work were collected including permanent and rotating shifts, and their cumulative duration (years). Adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used in analysis. A total of 25.7% of cases and 22.5% of controls reported ever being a night shift worker. There was a weak positive, non-significant association between ever having had worked for at least 1 year in permanent night shifts and stomach cancer risk compared to never having worked night shifts (OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.8). However, there was an inverse 'U' shaped relationship with cumulative duration of permanent night shifts, with the highest risk observed in the intermediate duration category (OR 10-20 years=2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6) (p for trend=0.19). There was no association with ever having had worked in rotating night shifts (OR=0.9, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.2) and no trend according to cumulative duration (p for trend=0.68). We found no clear evidence concerning an association between night shift work and stomach cancer risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Practical interventions to promote circadian adaptation to permanent night shift work: study 4.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark R; Fogg, Louis F; Eastman, Charmane I

    2009-04-01

    Scheduled bright light and darkness can phase shift the circadian clocks of night workers for complete adaptation to a night work, day sleep schedule, but few night workers would want this because it would leave them out of phase with the diurnal world on days off. This is the final study in a series designed to produce a compromise circadian phase position for permanent night shift work in which the sleepiest circadian time is delayed out of the night work period and into the first half of the day sleep episode. The target compromise phase position was a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) of 3:00, which puts the sleepiest circadian time at approximately 10:00. This was predicted to improve night shift alertness and performance while permitting sufficient daytime sleep after work as well as late-night sleep on days off. In a between-subjects design, 19 healthy subjects underwent 3 simulated night shifts (23:00-7:00), 2 days off, 4 more night shifts, and 2 more days off. Subjects "worked" in the lab and slept at home. Experimental subjects received four 15-min bright light pulses during each night shift, wore dark sunglasses when outside, slept in dark bedrooms at scheduled times, and received outdoor afternoon light exposure ("light brake") to keep their rhythms from delaying too far. Control subjects remained in normal room light during night shifts, wore lighter sunglasses, and had unrestricted sleep and outdoor light exposure. The final DLMO of the experimental group was 3:22 +/- 2.0 h, close to the target of 3:00, and later than the control group at 23:24 +/- 3.8 h. Experimental subjects slept for nearly all the permitted time in bed. Some control subjects who slept late on weekends also reached the compromise phase position and obtained more daytime sleep. Subjects who phase delayed (whether in the experimental or control group) close to the target phase performed better during night shifts. A compromise circadian phase position improved performance during night

  20. Effects of melatonin administration on daytime sleep after simulated night shift work

    PubMed Central

    SHARKEY, KATHERINE M.; FOGG, LOUIS F.; EASTMAN, CHARMANE I.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Disturbed sleep and on-the-job sleepiness are widespread problems among night shift workers. The pineal hormone melatonin may prove to be a useful treatment because it has both sleep-promoting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study was designed to isolate melatonin’s sleep-promoting effects, and to determine whether melatonin could improve daytime sleep and thus improve night time alertness and performance during the night shift. The study utilized a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. Subjects (n = 21, mean age = 27.0 ± 5.0 years) participated in two 6-day laboratory sessions. Each session included one adaptation night, two baseline nights, two consecutive 8-h night shifts followed by 8-h daytime sleep episodes and one recovery night. Subjects took 1.8 mg sustained-release melatonin 0.5 h before the two daytime sleep episodes during one session, and placebo before the daytime sleep episodes during the other session. Sleep was recorded using polysomnography. Sleepiness, performance, and mood during the night shifts were evaluated using the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and a computerized neurobehavioral testing battery. Melatonin prevented the decrease in sleep time during daytime sleep relative to baseline, but only on the first day of melatonin administration. Melatonin increased sleep time more in subjects who demonstrated difficulty in sleeping during the day. Melatonin had no effect on alertness on the MSLT, or performance and mood during the night shift. There were no hangover effects from melatonin administration. These findings suggest that although melatonin can help night workers obtain more sleep during the day, they are still likely to face difficulties working at night because of circadian rhythm misalignment. The possibility of tolerance to the sleep-promoting effects of melatonin across more than 1 day needs further investigation. PMID:11696071

  1. Diet quality and sleep quality among day and night shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Deborah; Chang, Jen Jen; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether night shift workers have a poorer diet quality and sleep quality when compared with day shift nurses. There is a dearth of research investigating the association between diet quality and sleep quality of day and night shift nurses. Data on nurses (n = 103) working either a day or night shift from two Midwestern hospitals were obtained from August 2015 to February 2016. The instruments used were the Diet History Questionnaire and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Independent samples t-tests were used to examine differences in diet and sleep quality by work shift schedule. There were no statistically significant differences between nurses working day or night shift and sleep quality (P = 0.0684), as well as diet quality (P = 0.6499). There was a significant difference between both body mass index (P = 0.0014) and exercise (P = 0.0020) with regard to diet quality. Body mass index and sleep quality were also significantly associated (P = 0.0032). Our study found no differences between day and night shift with regard to sleep and diet quality among nurses. Deliberate health initiatives and wellness programmes specifically targeting nurses are needed to increase knowledge about maintaining a healthy lifestyle while working as a nurse, whether it is day or night shift. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sleep and circadian rhythms in mining operators: limited evidence of adaptation to night shifts.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sally A; Kennaway, David J; Baker, Angela; Lamond, Nicole; Dawson, Drew

    2012-07-01

    Cumulative sleep deprivation is often associated with work patterns involving night shift or early morning shifts. Adaptation of the circadian system to the shift pattern is reported to promote improved duration and quality of sleep and a concurrent improvement in performance. The current study followed twenty-nine operators at a live-in mining operation working to a seven-day, seven-night shift pattern who collected saliva samples for melatonin measurement, recorded sleep using activity monitors and diaries, and underwent performance testing (psychomotor vigilance task) for one complete roster cycle. The time of onset of melatonin secretion changed significantly (P=0.022) across the week of both Day and Night shifts (2104 h ± 16 min versus 2130 h ± 16 min, respectively), but the small magnitude of the change indicates a lack of true circadian rhythm adaptation to the lifestyle. Total sleep time was longer following the seventh Day shift (associated with a period of 24 h off prior to the commencement of Night shifts). There were no other changes in total sleep time. Further, there were no improvements in sleep onset latency or sleep efficiency on Day or Night shifts. However, reaction times recorded at the end of the shifts slowed across the seven Day and seven Night shifts indicative of impairments in psychomotor performance (F(6,168)=6.087, P<0.001). The results suggest that previous reports of adaptation to consecutive night shifts cannot necessarily be applied to onshore or Australian environments. Adaptation is dependent on factors such as light exposure, environmental conditions, shift parameters such as wake-up, work start and work end times and individual characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. High risk of near-crash driving events following night-shift work

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael L.; Howard, Mark E.; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S.; O’Brien, Conor S.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P < 0.05 for all). Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety. PMID:26699470

  4. Day and night shift schedules are associated with lower sleep quality in Evening-types.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Laberge, Luc; Sasseville, Alexandre; Bérubé, Marilie; Alain, Samuel; Houle, Jérôme; Hébert, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Eveningness has been suggested as a facilitating factor in adaptation to shift work, with several studies reporting evening chronotypes (E-types) as better sleepers when on night shifts. Conversely, eveningness has been associated with more sleep complaints during day shifts. However, sleep during day shifts has received limited attention in previous studies assessing chronotypes in shift workers. Environmental light exposure has also been reported to differ between chronotypes in day workers. Activity is also known to provide temporal input to the circadian clock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare objective sleep, light exposure and activity levels between chronotypes, both during the night and day shifts. Thirty-nine patrol police patrol officers working on a fast rotating shift schedule (mean age ± SD: 28.9 ± 3.2 yrs; 28 males) participated in this study. All subjects completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Sleep and activity were monitored with actigraphy (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics, Bend, OR) for four consecutive night shifts and four consecutive day shifts (night work schedule: 00:00 h-07:00 h; day work schedule: 07:00 h-15:00 h). Sleep and activity parameters were calculated with Actiware software. MEQ scores ranged from 26 to 56; no subject was categorized as Morning-type. E-types (n = 13) showed significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer snooze time and spent more time awake after sleep onset than Intermediate-types (I-types, n = 26) for both the night and day shifts. E-types also exhibited shorter and more numerous sleep bouts. Furthermore, when napping was taken into account, E-types had shorter total sleep duration than I-types during the day shifts. E-types were more active during the first hours of their night shift when compared to I-types. Also, all participants spent more time active and had higher amount of activity per minute during day shifts when compared to night shifts. No

  5. The impact of sleep deprivation on surgeons' performance during night shifts.

    PubMed

    Amirian, Ilda

    2014-09-01

    The median incidence of adverse events that may result in patient injury is a total of 9% of all in-hospital admissions. In order to reduce this high incidence initiatives are continuously worked on that can reduce the risk of patient harm during admission by strengthening hospital systems. However, the influence of physicians' shift work on the risk on adverse events in patients remains controversial. In the studies included in this PhD thesis we wished to examine the impact of sleep deprivation and circadian rhythm disturbances on surgeons' during night shifts. Further we wished to examine the impact sleep deprivation had on surgeons' performance as a measure of how patient safety would be affected. We found that sleep deprivation subjectively had an impact on the surgeons and that they were aware of the effect fatigue had on their work performance. As a result they applied different mechanisms to cope with fatigue. Attending surgeons felt that they had a better overview now, due to more experience and better skills, than when they were residents, despite the fatigue on night shifts. We monitored surgeons' performance during night shifts by laparoscopic simulation and cognitive tests in order to assess their performance; no deterioration was found when pre call values were compared to on call values. The surgeons were monitored prospectively for 4 days across a night shift in order to assess the circadian rhythm and sleep. We found that surgeons' circadian rhythm was affected by working night shifts and their sleep pattern altered, resembling that of shift workers on the post call day. We assessed the quality of admission in medical records as a measure of surgeons' performance, during day, evening and night hours and found no deterioration in the quality of night time medical records. However, consistent high errors were found in several categories. These findings should be followed up in the future with respect of clarifying mechanism and consequences for

  6. Ocular Measures of Sleepiness Are Increased in Night Shift Workers Undergoing a Simulated Night Shift Near the Peak Time of the 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Ftouni, Suzanne; Sletten, Tracey L.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Kennaway, David J.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The study examined the relationship between the circadian rhythm of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and ocular measures of sleepiness and neurobehavioral performance in shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift. Methods: Twenty-two shift workers (mean age 33.4, SD 11.8 years) were tested at approximately the beginning (20:00) and the end (05:55) of a simulated night shift in the laboratory. At the time point corresponding to the end of the simulated shift, 14 participants were classified as being within range of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophase— defined as 3 hours before or after aMT6s peak—and 8 were classified as outside aMT6s acrophase range. Participants completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the auditory psychomotor vigilance task (aPVT). Waking electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and infrared reflectance oculography was used to collect ocular measures of sleepiness: positive and negative amplitude/velocity ratio (PosAVR, NegAVR), mean blink total duration (BTD), the percentage of eye closure (%TEC), and a composite score of sleepiness levels (Johns Drowsiness Scale; JDS). Results: Participants who were tested within aMT6s acrophase range displayed higher levels of sleepiness on ocular measures (%TEC, BTD, PosAVR, JDS), objective sleepiness (EEG delta power frequency band), subjective ratings of sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance, compared to those who were outside aMT6s acrophase range. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that objective ocular measures of sleepiness are sensitive to circadian rhythm misalignment in shift workers. Citation: Ftouni S, Sletten TL, Nicholas CL, Kennaway DJ, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Ocular measures of sleepiness are increased in night shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift near the peak time of the 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythm. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1131–1141. PMID:26094925

  7. A prospective study of night shift work, sleep duration, and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglei; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Ascherio, Alberto

    2006-04-15

    The authors prospectively investigated whether working rotating night shifts was associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease among 84,794 female nurses who reported years of night shift work in 1988 (the US Nurses' Health Study). After 975,912 person-years of follow-up (1988-2000), 181 incident Parkinson's disease cases were documented. Compared with nurses who never worked rotating night shifts, those with 15 years or more of night shift work had a 50% lower risk of Parkinson's disease after adjustment for age and smoking (95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.97; p(trend) = 0.01). Sleep duration was positively associated with Parkinson's disease risk: The relative risk was 1.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 3.42) when comparing nurses who reported 9 or more hours of sleep per day with those who slept 6 hours or less (p(trend) = 0.005). These data suggest that working night shifts may be protective against Parkinson's disease or that low tolerance for night shift work is an early marker of Parkinson's disease. Conversely, habitual longer sleep duration may be an earlier marker of Parkinson's disease. Because of the novelty and the exploratory nature of these findings, confirmation is needed.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of the impact of night shifts and alcohol consumption on construction tiling quality.

    PubMed

    Dzeng, Ren-Jye; Wang, Shih-Hsu; Fang, Yi-Cho

    2015-09-01

    The adverse effects of night-shift work and alcohol consumption on performance have received considerable attention. However, how night shifts and alcohol affect productivity in workers has not been quantified. This paper describes the experiments featuring multiple tiling tasks and patterns. The tiling quality performed by the graduate student participants in four different statuses was objectively evaluated by an edge-detection computer program. The results indicate that both night shift and alcohol significantly reduce the quality in general, and the effects of the factors on position and alignment-angle qualities were dissimilar in distinct areas due to tile patterns and size. Both night-shift and alcohol conditions affected the basic (-34.01% and -25.79%) and advanced tiling abilities (-40.14% and -26.16%), and night shift had a larger impact than alcohol. These results provide jobsite managers with usable information regarding how night shifts and alcohol affect workers' abilities to execute basic and advanced tasks.

  9. The influence of asociating great physical effort with night shifts on hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Morariu, S; Constantin, Brânduşa

    2013-01-01

    A great physical effort associated with work during night shifts can lead to negative effects on the worker's health. THE AIM of our study is to evaluate the risk of associating great physical effort with night shifts in hypertensive patients. We have studied 2 groups of hypertensive patients, each group being consisted of 20 male patients, age 30 to 50, that have been diagnosed with mild hypertension during the periodical medical exam, group I being consisted of subjects that performed great physical effort, and their work program implied night shifts. Group II consisted of workers that performed work that implied mild effort during day shifts. At the end of the 2 year study period, 8 patients from group I (great physical effort associated with night shifts) developed a severe increase in blood pressure (beyond 160/100 mmHg), as well as an increase in basal cardiac frequency, whilst only one patient from group II presented such modifications. Night shift work associated with great physical effort can lead to a significant rise in blood pressure and heart rate, all the more if the subject suffers from hypertension thus predisposing the patients to coronary events.

  10. Association Between Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Among Women.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Céline; Devore, Elizabeth E; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Massa, Jennifer; Speizer, Frank E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rosner, Bernard; Stampfer, Meir J; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2016-04-26

    Prospective studies linking shift work to coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent and limited by short follow-up. To determine whether rotating night shift work is associated with CHD risk. Prospective cohort study of 189,158 initially healthy women followed up over 24 years in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS [1988-2012]: N = 73,623 and NHS2 [1989-2013]: N = 115,535). Lifetime history of rotating night shift work (≥3 night shifts per month in addition to day and evening shifts) at baseline (updated every 2 to 4 years in the NHS2). Incident CHD; ie, nonfatal myocardial infarction, CHD death, angiogram-confirmed angina pectoris, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, stents, and angioplasty. During follow-up, 7303 incident CHD cases occurred in the NHS (mean age at baseline, 54.5 years) and 3519 in the NHS2 (mean age, 34.8 years). In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, increasing years of baseline rotating night shift work was associated with significantly higher CHD risk in both cohorts. In the NHS, the association between duration of shift work and CHD was stronger in the first half of follow-up than in the second half (P=.02 for interaction), suggesting waning risk after cessation of shift work. Longer time since quitting shift work was associated with decreased CHD risk among ever shift workers in the NHS2 (P<.001 for trend). [table: see text] Among women who worked as registered nurses, longer duration of rotating night shift work was associated with a statistically significant but small absolute increase in CHD risk. Further research is needed to explore whether the association is related to specific work hours and individual characteristics.

  11. Evaluating the Traditional Day and Night Shift in an Acute Care Surgery Fellowship: Is the Swing Shift a Better Choice?

    PubMed

    Chestovich, Paul J; McNicoll, Christopher F; Ingalls, Nichole K; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fraser, Douglas R; Morrissey, Shawna L; Fildes, John J

    2017-09-20

    Fellowship trainees in Acute Care Surgery require experience in the management of complex and operative trauma cases. Trauma center staffing usually follows standard 12 or 24 hour shifts, with resident and fellow trainees following a similar schedule. Although trauma admissions can be generally unpredictable, we analyzed temporal trends of trauma patient arrival times to determine the best time frame to maximize trainee experience during each day. We reviewed ten years (2007-2016) of trauma registry data for blunt and penetrating trauma activations. Hourly volumetric trends were observed, and three specific events were chosen for detailed analysis: (1) Trauma activation with Injury Severity Scale (ISS) > 15, (2) Laparotomy for trauma and (3) Thoracotomy for trauma. A retrospective shift log was created, which included day (7a-7p), night (7p-7a), and swing (12p-12a) shifts. A swing shift was chosen because it captures the peak volume for all three events. Means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and comparisons were made between shifts using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Bonferroni correction, and p<0.05 considered significant. During the ten year study period, 28,287 patients were treated at our trauma center. This included the evaluation and management of 7874 patients with ISS > 15, performance of 1766 laparotomies and 392 thoracotomies for trauma. Swing shift was superior to both day and night shifts for ISS > 15 (p<0.001). Both swing and night shifts were superior to day shift for laparotomies (p<0.001). Swing shift was superior to both day shift (p<0.001) and night shift (p=0.031). Shifts with the highest yield of ISS > 15, laparotomies, and thoracotomies include night and swing shifts on Friday and Saturday. Projected experience of ACS fellows in managing complex trauma patients increases with the integration of swing shifts into the schedule. Daily trauma volume follows a temporal pattern which, when utilized correctly, can

  12. Putting baseload to work on the night shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy storage systems to make use of baseload electric generating capacity during times of peak demand and thus conserve the more expensive fossil fuels generally employed for peak power generation is discussed. Means for storing baseload electricity generated from coal or nuclear plants are examined, with attention given to pumped water storage both above and below ground, compressed air storage and advanced-technology batteries. Systems of end-use storage, where electricity generated by the utility at night and available at lower rates is stored at the place of utilization to provide daytime space heating, hot water and even air conditioning and vehicle power, are considered, and the storage of solar energy is presented as an illustration of ways in which utility and customer energy storage can complement one another. It is concluded that the range of applications, potential benefits and technological potential of energy storage at the utility and consumer levels will ensure an important future role for this technology.

  13. Rotating night shift work, sleep quality, selected lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration in nurses and midwives.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Peplonska, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The pattern of secretion of many hormones, including prolactin, is dependent on the circadian rhythm. Night shift work involves exposure to artificial light at night and sleep deficiency, which in turn can affect prolactin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between night shift work characteristics, sleep quality, lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration, using data from a cross-sectional study of nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 327 nurses and midwives currently working on rotating night shifts, and 330 nurses and midwives working during the day (aged 40-60 years) (388 premenopausal and 269 postmenopausal). Information about night shift work characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive factors, sleep pattern and other covariates was collected through a face-to-face interview, and from a one-week work and sleep diary completed by the subjects. Weight and height were measured. Prolactin concentration was measured in the morning blood sample using the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay method. Associations were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for important confounders. Analyses were carried out separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the night shift work or sleep characteristics was significantly associated with prolactin concentration. Prolactin concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) inversely associated with smoking and time of blood sample collection. These results were consistent among both pre- and postmenopausal women. Nulliparity was significantly positively associated with prolactin among premenopausal women, but inversely among postmenopausal. Age was related to prolactin among postmenopausal women only. Our study indicates that rotating night shift work is not associated with prolactin concentration. Smoking, parity, time of blood collection and age among postmenopausal women were significant determinants of prolactin.

  14. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. Objectives The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the “Standard Shift Work Index,” validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. Results The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Conclusion Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects. PMID:27695372

  15. Napping during night shift: practices, preferences, and perceptions of critical care and emergency department nurses.

    PubMed

    Fallis, Wendy M; McMillan, Diana E; Edwards, Marie P

    2011-04-01

    Nurses working night shifts are at risk for sleep deprivation, which threatens patient and nurse safety. Little nursing research has addressed napping, an effective strategy to improve performance, reduce fatigue, and increase vigilance. To explore nurses' perceptions, experiences, barriers, and safety issues related to napping/not napping during night shift. A convenience sample of critical care nurses working night shift were interviewed to explore demographics, work schedule and environment, and napping/ not napping experiences, perceptions, and barriers. Transcripts were constantly compared, and categories and themes were identified. Participants were 13 critical care nurses with an average of 17 years' experience. Ten nurses napped regularly; 2 avoided napping because of sleep inertia. The need for and benefits of napping or not during night shift break were linked to patient and nurse safety. Ability to nap was affected by the demands of patient care and safety, staffing needs, and organizational and environmental factors. Nurses identified personal health, safety, and patient care issues supporting the need for a restorative nap during night shift. Barriers to napping exist within the organization/work environment.

  16. Measuring Light at Night and Melatonin Levels in Shift Workers: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Claudia M; Figueiro, Mariana G

    2017-07-01

    Shift work, especially that involving rotating and night shifts, is associated with an increased risk of diseases, including cancer. Attempts to explain the association between shift work and cancer in particular have focused on the processes of melatonin production and suppression. One hypothesis postulates that exposure to light at night (LAN) suppresses melatonin, whose production is known to slow the development of cancerous cells, while another proposes that circadian disruption associated with shift work, and not just LAN, increases health risks. This review focuses on six studies that employed quantitative measurement of LAN and melatonin levels to assess cancer risks in shift workers. These studies were identified via searching the PubMed database for peer-reviewed, English-language articles examining the links between shift work, LAN, and disease using the terms light at night, circadian disruption, health, risk, cancer, shift work, or rotating shift. While the results indicate a growing consensus on the relationship between disease risks (particularly cancer) and circadian disruption associated with shift work, the establishment of a direct link between LAN and disease has been impeded by contradictory studies and a lack of consistent, quantitative methods for measuring LAN in the research to date. Better protocols for assessing personal LAN exposure are required, particularly those employing calibrated devices that measure and sample exposure to workplace light conditions, to accurately assess LAN's effects on the circadian system and disease. Other methodologies, such as measuring circadian disruption and melatonin levels in the field, may also help to resolve discrepancies in the findings.

  17. [International comparison of the definition of night work - promoting health care of shift workers].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Muramatsu, Keishi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Hayashida, Kenshi; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    In order to manage occupational exposure, it is necessary to define exposure. In terms of administrative management however, shift work is difficult to define because there is a wide variance of working schedules which do not belong to ordinal day time work. Thus, many countries define night work, which is easier to define based on night working time for administrative management, rather than shift work. On the other hand, the term "night work" has not been so common in medical research compared to the term "shift work". Further, those two words were used in nearly same context among medical researchers in many cases. Given the current situation, for the purpose of promoting occupational health, it is reasonable to treat those two medical and administrative words as synonymous in order to make full use of medical evidence with linkage to the current administrative system.

  18. Aromatherapy alleviates endothelial dysfunction of medical staff after night-shift work: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenei; Fukuda, Shota; Maeda, Kumiko; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Kono, Yasushi; Jissho, Satoshi; Taguchi, Haruyuki; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2011-02-01

    Night-shift work causes mental stress and lifestyle changes, and is recognized as a risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with impaired endothelial function. Aromatherapy is becoming popular as a complementary therapy that is beneficial for mental relaxation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on the endothelial function of medical staff after night-shift work. This study consisted of 19 healthy medical personnel (19 men, mean age 32 ± 7 years), including 11 physicians and 8 technicians. Aromatherapy was performed for 30 min by inhalation of the essential oil of lavender. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured three times in each subject: on a regular workday, and after night-shift work before and immediately after aromatherapy. A control study was performed to assess the effect of a 30-min rest without aromatherapy. The mean value of sleep time during night-shift work was 3.3 ± 1.3 h. FMD after night-shift work was lower than on a regular workday (10.4 ± 1.8 vs. 12.5 ± 1.7%, P<0.001), which improved after aromatherapy (11.8 ± 2.5%, P=0.02 vs. before aromatherapy). FMD was stable in the control study (10.1 ± 1.9 vs. 10.1 ± 2.2%, P=0.9). This study demonstrated that night-shift work impaired endothelial function in medical staff, an effect that was alleviated by short-term aromatherapy.

  19. Relationship between napping during night shift work and household obligations of female nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Fischer, Frida Marina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Night shift employment involves displacing sleep to the daytime. For female workers, the opportunity for daytime sleep is influenced by routine housework demands, which aggravates sleep deprivation. Allowing naps to be taken during the night shift of work is a frequent practice at some hospitals and can help reduce the effects of sleep deprivation. We hypothesize that an association between domestic work and the length of naps during night work exists for nursing professionals. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two different hospitals. In Study 1, female workers answered questionnaires regarding sleeping habits, professional work, and housework demands. In Study 2, data regarding napping during shifts was obtained by actigraphy, a noninvasive method of monitoring the human sleep-wake cycle. The demand for the performance of housework was measured by (i) domestic work hours (total time spent performing domestic work per week), and (ii) domestic workload, which considers the degree of sharing domestic tasks and the number of people living at home. The populations from the two studies were subdivided into groups, based on the duration of napping at work. Data on naps were analyzed according to domestic demands, using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-squared tests. Among the two study populations (Studies 1 and 2), those in Study 2 were older, had shorter professional weekly work hours, worked more night shifts, and dedicated more time to housework. significant associations were only found in Study 2, where greater time napping at work was associated with both greater time spent doing housework and greater domestic workload. The known benefits of napping during night shifts seem to be especially relevant for female workers who are more sleep-deprived from working more night shifts and who have higher demands for housework.

  20. Rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk among female nurses in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Feskanich, Diane; Liang, Geyu; Han, Jiali

    2013-11-01

    The risk of lung cancer among night-shift workers is unknown. Over 20 years of follow-up (1988-2008), we documented 1,455 incident lung cancers among 78,612 women in the Nurses' Health Study. To examine the relationship between rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk, we used multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for detailed smoking characteristics and other risk factors. We observed a 28% increased risk of lung cancer among women with 15 or more years spent working rotating night shifts (multivariate relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.53; Ptrend = 0.03) compared with women who did not work any night shifts. This association was strongest for small-cell lung carcinomas (multivariate RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.47; Ptrend = 0.03) and was not observed for adenocarcinomas of the lung (multivariate RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.24; Ptrend = 0.40). Further, the increased risk associated with 15 or more years of rotating night-shift work was limited to current smokers (RR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.13; Ptrend < 0.001), with no association seen in nonsmokers (Pinteraction = 0.03). These results suggest that there are modestly increased risks of lung cancer associated with extended periods of night-shift work among smokers but not among nonsmokers. Though it is possible that this observation was residually confounded by smoking, our findings could also provide evidence of circadian disruption as a "second hit" in the etiology of smoking-related lung tumors.

  1. Night-shift work and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Biren B; Tergas, Ana I; Mateen, Farrah J; Bhayani, Neil H; Oh, Jiwon

    2013-02-01

    A 2007 report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified night-shift work as possibly carcinogenic to humans, emphasizing, in particular, its association with breast cancer. Since this report and the publication of the last systematic review on this topic, several new studies have examined this association. Hence, to provide a comprehensive update on this topic, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science (Conference Proceedings), and ProQuest dissertations for studies published before March 1, 2012, along with a manual search of articles that cited or referenced the included studies. Included were observational case-control or cohort studies examining the association between night-shift work and breast carcinogenesis in women, which all ascertained and quantified night-shift work exposure. The search yielded 15 eligible studies for inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Using random-effects models, the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer for individuals with ever night-shift work exposure was 1.21 (95 % CI, 1.00-1.47, p = 0.056, I (2) = 76 %), for short-term night-shift workers (<8 years) was 1.13 (95 % CI, 0.97-1.32, p = 0.11, I (2) = 79 %), and for long-term night-shift workers (≥8 years) was 1.04 (95 % CI, 0.92-1.18, p = 0.51, I (2) = 55 %), with substantial between-study heterogeneity observed in all analyses. Subgroup analyses suggested that flight attendants with international or overnight work exposure and nurses working night-shifts long-term were at increased risk of breast cancer, however, these findings were limited by unmeasured confounding. Overall, given substantial heterogeneity observed between studies in this meta-analysis, we conclude there is weak evidence to support previous reports that night-shift work is associated with increased breast cancer risk.

  2. Blood pressure increases during a simulated night shift in persons at risk for hypertension.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, James A; Pilcher, June J; Moore, D DeWayne

    2010-12-01

    Shift work with sleep disruption is a systemic stressor that may possibly be associated with blood pressure dysregulation and hypertension. We hypothesize that rotation to a simulated night shift with sleep deprivation will produce blood pressure elevations in persons at risk for development of hypertension. We examined the effects of a simulated night shift on resting blood pressure in 51 diurnal young adults without current hypertension. Resting blood pressure was monitored throughout a 24-h period of total sleep deprivation with sustained cognitive work. Twelve participants (23.5%) reported one or more parents with a diagnosis of hypertension. Ten participants were classified as prehypertensive by JNC-7 criteria. Only two prehypertensive subjects reported parental hypertension. Results indicate that, as the night shift progressed, participants with a positive family history of hypertension showed significantly higher resting diastolic blood pressure than those with a negative family history of hypertension (p = 0.007). Prehypertensive participants showed elevated blood pressure throughout the study. These data suggest that rotation to a simulated night shift with sleep deprivation may contribute to blood pressure dysregulation in persons with a positive family history of hypertension.

  3. Working the night shift causes increased vascular stress and delayed recovery in young women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Chang, Yu-Yin; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-08-01

    Shiftwork has been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV), factors that may increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular-related mortality and morbidity. This study explored the effect of shiftwork on dynamic changes in autonomic control of HRV (cardiac stress), systolic BP and diastolic BP, i.e., SBP and DBP (vascular stress), and recovery in the same subjects working different shifts. By studying the same subjects, the authors could reduce the effect of possible contribution of between-subject variation from genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The authors recruited 16 young female nurses working rotating shifts--day (08:00-16:00 h), evening (16:00-00:00 h), and night (00:00-08:00 h)--and 6 others working the regular day shift. Each nurse received simultaneous and repeated 48-h ambulatory electrocardiography and BP monitoring during their work day and the following off-duty day. Using a linear mixed-effect model to adjust for day shift, the results of the repeated-measurements and self-comparisons found significant shift differences in vascular stress. While working the night shift, the nurses showed significant increases in vascular stress, with increased SBP of 9.7 mm Hg. The changes of SBP and DBP seemed to peak during waking time at the same time on the day off as they did on the working day. Whereas HRV profiles usually returned to baseline level after each shift, the SBP and DBP of night-shift workers did not completely return to baseline levels the following off-duty day (p < .001). The authors concluded that although the nurses may recover from cardiac stress the first day off following a night shift, they do not completely recover from increases in vascular stress on that day.

  4. Night shift work and incident diabetes among U.S. black women

    PubMed Central

    Vimalananda, Varsha G.; Palmer, Julie R.; Gerlovin, Hanna; Wise, Lauren A.; Rosenzweig, James L.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Narváez, Edward A. Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess shift work in relation to incident type 2 diabetes among African American women. Methods In the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS), an ongoing prospective cohort study, we followed 28,041 participants for incident diabetes during 2005-2013. They answered questions in 2005 about having worked the night shift. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident diabetes using Cox proportional hazards models. The basic multivariable model included age, time period, family history of diabetes, education, and neighborhood SES. In further models, we controlled for lifestyle factors and body mass index (BMI). Results Over the 8 years of follow-up, there were 1,786 incident diabetes cases. Relative to never having worked the night shift, HRs (95% CI) of diabetes were 1.17 (1.04, 1.31) for 1-2 years of night shift work, 1.23 (1.06, 1.41) for 3-9 years, and 1.42 (1.19, 1.70) for ≥ 10 years (P-trend < 0.0001). The monotonic positive association between night shift work and type 2 diabetes remained after multivariable adjustment (P-trend = 0.02). The association did not vary by obesity status, but was stronger in women aged < 50 years. Conclusions Long durations of shift work were associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The association was only partially explained by lifestyle factors and BMI. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work may affect risk of diabetes is needed in view of the high prevalence of shift work among U.S. workers. PMID:25586362

  5. What is the preferred number of consecutive night shifts? results from a crossover intervention study among police officers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-10-01

    Among police officers in Denmark, we studied (i) how many consecutive night shifts participants preferred at baseline; (ii) preferences regarding three intervention conditions (two, four, and seven consecutive night shifts followed by the same number of days off/day shifts: '2 + 2', '4 + 4', '7 + 7') at follow-up; (iii) characteristics of participants preferring each of these intervention conditions. Questionnaire data from a crossover intervention study were used (baseline: n = 73; follow-up: n = 68). At baseline, 49% preferred four consecutive night shifts. At follow-up, 57% preferred '4 + 4', 26% preferred '2 + 2' and 26% preferred '7 + 7'. Participants, who preferred longer spells of night work experienced that night work was less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types compared with participants who preferred shorter spells of night work. The participants' preferences are likely to be influenced by their previous shift work experience. Practitioner Summary: We investigated police officers' preferences regarding the number of consecutive night shifts. The majority preferred four consecutive night shifts. Those who preferred the longer spells of night work found night work less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types.

  6. Night-shift work, sleep duration, daytime napping, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Ren, Fang-Mei; Lin, Ying; Su, Feng-Xi; Jia, Wei-Hua; Su, Xue-Fen; Tang, Lu-Ying; Ren, Ze-Fang

    2015-04-01

    Sleep habits vary among different countries, and sleep problems may cause various health problems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the separate and combined associations of night-shift work, sleep duration, and daytime napping with breast cancer risk among the Chinese population. This study conducted face-to-face interviews with 712 women diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer before treatment and 742 age-matched controls. Information on sleep habits, demographic characteristics, and suspected or established risk factors of breast cancer were collected from the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Night-shift work was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.05-1.72)]. Compared to women with a sleep duration of 6.1-8.9 h/day, women who had shorter [(≤6.0 h/day) (OR (95% CI): 1.53 (1.10-2.12)] and longer (≥9.0 h/day) sleep duration [(OR (95% CI): 1.59 (1.17-2.17)] had an increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, daytime napping was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer among night-shift workers [OR (95% CI): 0.57 (0.36-0.90)], but no association was found among women who never had night-shift work [OR (95% CI): 1.01 (0.75-1.35)] (P for interaction = 0.054). Night-shift work and longer sleep duration also synergistically increased breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 3.69 (1.94-7.02)] (P for interaction = 0.009). Sleep problems, including night-shift work, and shorter and longer sleep duration, are associated with an increased breast cancer risk. In particular, the combined effects of night-shift work with no daytime napping or longer sleep duration are greater than the independent effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Meta-analysis on night shift work and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, B; He, Y; Xie, S; Li, M; Miao, X; Chan, E Y Y; Tang, J L; Wong, M C S; Li, Z; Yu, I T S; Tse, L A

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to quantitatively summarize the association between night shift work and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), with special reference to the dose-response relationship with years of night shift work. We systematically searched all observational studies published in English on PubMed and Embase from 1971 to 2013. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, RR; or odd ratio, OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approach. Pooled RR was calculated using random- or fixed-effect model. Downs and Black scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of included studies. A total of 13 studies were included. The pooled RR for the association between 'ever exposed to night shift work' and MetS risk was 1.57 (95% CI = 1.24-1.98, pheterogeneity  = 0.001), while a higher risk was indicated in workers with longer exposure to night shifts (RR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.32-2.36, pheterogeneity  = 0.936). Further stratification analysis demonstrated a higher pooled effect of 1.84 (95% CI = 1.45-2.34) for studies using the NCEP-ATPIII criteria, among female workers (RR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and the countries other than Asia (RR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.39-1.95). Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. No evidence of publication bias was detected. The present meta-analysis suggested that night shift work is significantly associated with the risk of MetS, and a positive dose-response relationship with duration of exposure was indicated.

  8. Effects of Shift and Night Work in the Offshore Petroleum Industry: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    FOSSUM, Ingrid Nesdal; BJORVATN, Bjørn; WAAGE, Siri; PALLESEN, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Shift and night work are associated with several negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of all studies which examine effects of shift and night work in the offshore petroleum industry, to synthesize the knowledge of how shift work offshore may affect the workers. Searches for studies concerning effects on health, sleep, adaptation, safety, working conditions, family- and social life and turnover were conducted via the databases Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed. Search was also conducted through inspection of reference lists of relevant literature. We identified studies describing effects of shift work in terms of sleep, adaptation and re-adaptation of circadian rhythms, health outcomes, safety and accidents, family and social life, and work perceptions. Twenty-nine studies were included. In conclusion, the longitudinal studies were generally consistent in showing that adaptation to night work was complete within one to two weeks of work, while re-adaptation to a daytime schedule was slower. Shift workers reported more sleep problems than day workers. The data regarding mental and physical health, family and social life, and accidents yielded inconsistent results, and were insufficient as a base for drawing general conclusions. More research in the field is warranted. PMID:23803497

  9. Association between rotating night shift work and risk of coronary heart disease among women

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Céline; Devore, Elizabeth E.; Wegrzyn, Lani R.; Massa, Jennifer; Speizer, Frank E.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rosner, Bernard; Stampfer, Meir J.; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Prospective studies linking shift work to coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent and limited by short follow-up. Objective Determine whether rotating night shift work is associated with CHD risk. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective cohort study of 189,158 initially healthy women followed over 24 years in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS (1988-2012): N=73,623, and NHS2 (1989-2013): N=115,535). Exposure Questionnaire-based lifetime history of rotating night shift work (≥3 night shifts/month, plus day and evening shifts) at baseline; also updated every 2-4yrs in NHS2. Main Outcomes and Measures Incident CHD, i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction, CHD death, angiogram-confirmed angina pectoris, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), stents, and angioplasty. Results During follow-up, 7,303 incident CHD cases in NHS (mean age at baseline: 54.5yrs) and 3,519 in NHS2 (34.8yrs) occurred. In multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, increasing years of baseline rotating night shift work were associated with a significantly higher CHD risk in both cohorts (NHS: age-standardized incidence rate (IR)<5yrs per 100,000 person-years=435.1, hazard ratio (HR)<5yrs=1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.97-1.08, IR5-9yrs=525.7, HR5-9yrs=1.12, 95%CI=1.02-1.22, IR≥10yrs=596.9, HR≥10yrs=1.18, 95%CI=1.10-1.26; Ptrend<0.001; NHS2: IR<5yrs=130.6, HR<5yrs=1.05, 95%CI=0.97-1.13; IR5-9yrs=151.6, HR5-9yrs=1.12, 95%CI=0.99-1.26; HR≥10yrs=178.0, HR≥10yrs=1.15, 95%CI=1.01-1.32; Ptrend=0.01), compared to women who never worked rotating night shifts (NHS: IRnever=425.5, NHS2: IRnever=122.6). In NHS, the association between duration of rotating night shift work and CHD was stronger in the first half of follow-up (IR<5yrs=382.4, HR<5yrs=1.10, 95%CI=1.01-1.21, IR5-9yrs=483.1, HR5-9yrs=1.19, 95%CI=1.03-1.39, IR≥10yrs=494.4, HR≥10yrs=1.27, 95%CI =1.13-1.42, Ptrend <0.001) than in the second half (IR<5yrs=424.8, HR<5yrs=0.98, 95%CI=0.92-1.05, IR5

  10. Inflammatory Long Pentraxin 3 is Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in Night-Shift Workers.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Stendardo, Mariarita; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Bonci, Melissa; Bottazzi, Barbara; Campisi, Manuela; Nardini, Marco; Leone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto; Boschetto, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an emerging worldwide threat to public health, even in the workplace, as it links with risk of illness and death. Bewildered inflammatory responses and stressful conditions associate with age-related disorders. Additionally, circadian rhythm disruption, a critical health issue in night-shift workers, correlates with premature aging. We investigated the hypothesis of a link between altered inflammatory response, detected by plasmatic long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and biological aging, measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL), attrition, and possibly induced by night-shift work. Within the framework of a cross-sectional study, such possible relationships were appraised by simultaneous equation model (SEM) technique among day and night-shift hospital workers. PTX3 levels, modulated by several aging conditions [i.e., body mass index (BMI) (beta = -0.22; p = 0.022), C-reactive protein (CRP) (beta = -0.07; p = 0.000), and cardiovascular diseases with hypertension included (CVD) (beta = -0.12; p = 0.000)], positively associate with LTL (coefficient = 0.15; p = 0.033). LTL, in turn is reduced by CVD (beta = -0.15; p = 0.000), binge drinking (beta = -0.10; p = 0.004), and CRP (beta = -0.05; p = 0.026). On the other hand, night-shift work, found to be remarkably free from aging risk factors [i.e., age (beta = -0.13; p = 0.017), BMI (beta = -0.17; p = 0.030), CVD (beta = -0.14; p = 0.000), and binge drinking (beta = -0.13; p = 0.000)], does associate almost significantly with reversed PTX3 (coefficient = -0.09; p = 0.089) and even with CRP (beta = 0.17; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the SEM analysis indicates that PTX3 is positively linked to LTL. The finding suggests a possible new role of this long pentraxin that, by orchestrating an efficient governance of inflammatory processes, may protect telomere from attrition, ensuring therefore the genetic stability of cells

  11. Inflammatory Long Pentraxin 3 is Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in Night-Shift Workers

    PubMed Central

    Pavanello, Sofia; Stendardo, Mariarita; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Bonci, Melissa; Bottazzi, Barbara; Campisi, Manuela; Nardini, Marco; Leone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto; Boschetto, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an emerging worldwide threat to public health, even in the workplace, as it links with risk of illness and death. Bewildered inflammatory responses and stressful conditions associate with age-related disorders. Additionally, circadian rhythm disruption, a critical health issue in night-shift workers, correlates with premature aging. We investigated the hypothesis of a link between altered inflammatory response, detected by plasmatic long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and biological aging, measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL), attrition, and possibly induced by night-shift work. Within the framework of a cross-sectional study, such possible relationships were appraised by simultaneous equation model (SEM) technique among day and night-shift hospital workers. PTX3 levels, modulated by several aging conditions [i.e., body mass index (BMI) (beta = −0.22; p = 0.022), C-reactive protein (CRP) (beta = −0.07; p = 0.000), and cardiovascular diseases with hypertension included (CVD) (beta = −0.12; p = 0.000)], positively associate with LTL (coefficient = 0.15; p = 0.033). LTL, in turn is reduced by CVD (beta = −0.15; p = 0.000), binge drinking (beta = −0.10; p = 0.004), and CRP (beta = −0.05; p = 0.026). On the other hand, night-shift work, found to be remarkably free from aging risk factors [i.e., age (beta = −0.13; p = 0.017), BMI (beta = −0.17; p = 0.030), CVD (beta = −0.14; p = 0.000), and binge drinking (beta = −0.13; p = 0.000)], does associate almost significantly with reversed PTX3 (coefficient = −0.09; p = 0.089) and even with CRP (beta = 0.17; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the SEM analysis indicates that PTX3 is positively linked to LTL. The finding suggests a possible new role of this long pentraxin that, by orchestrating an efficient governance of inflammatory processes, may protect telomere from attrition, ensuring therefore the

  12. The Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep Quality of Nurses on Monthly Rotating Night Shifts.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Ying; Lin, Chao-Ling; Chang, Li-Yin

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of aromatherapy massage on sleep quality of nurses with monthly rotating night shifts. Subjects were enrolled at a medical center in central Taiwan with overall score ≥ 5 of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and randomly assigned to the treatment or control groups. They were validated by pretests during their first graveyard shift in the trial period and the sleep quality information was collected by using the PSQI and sleep detectors. During the second graveyard shift, the treatment group received aromatherapy massage and the control group rested in the same aromatherapy room after work. All subjects filled out the PSQI surveys and the sleep quality information was collected during massage or resting and the following night. We found that the total PSQI was significantly decreased in the treatment group following the aromatherapy massage. Specifically, the components such as subjective sleep quality, sleep disturbance, and daytime dysfunction were significantly decreased. However, there were no significant changes of average PSQI scores between the two groups before and after intervention. Taken together, our study suggested that aromatherapy massage could improve sleep quality of nurses with monthly rotating night shift.

  13. The Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep Quality of Nurses on Monthly Rotating Night Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of aromatherapy massage on sleep quality of nurses with monthly rotating night shifts. Subjects were enrolled at a medical center in central Taiwan with overall score ≥ 5 of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and randomly assigned to the treatment or control groups. They were validated by pretests during their first graveyard shift in the trial period and the sleep quality information was collected by using the PSQI and sleep detectors. During the second graveyard shift, the treatment group received aromatherapy massage and the control group rested in the same aromatherapy room after work. All subjects filled out the PSQI surveys and the sleep quality information was collected during massage or resting and the following night. We found that the total PSQI was significantly decreased in the treatment group following the aromatherapy massage. Specifically, the components such as subjective sleep quality, sleep disturbance, and daytime dysfunction were significantly decreased. However, there were no significant changes of average PSQI scores between the two groups before and after intervention. Taken together, our study suggested that aromatherapy massage could improve sleep quality of nurses with monthly rotating night shift. PMID:28761497

  14. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers

    PubMed Central

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A.; Aguiar, Stefane A.; Carvalho, Adriana N. S.; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001), postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048), and 14% (p = 0.006). Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006) and 425% (p = 0.015), respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361–0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280–0.748) and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304–0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325–0.715) and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001–0.03). Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents. PMID:27115868

  15. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A; Aguiar, Stefane A; Carvalho, Adriana N S; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001), postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048), and 14% (p = 0.006). Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006) and 425% (p = 0.015), respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361-0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280-0.748) and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304-0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325-0.715) and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001-0.03). Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.

  16. Light at Night and Measures of Alertness and Performance: Implications for Shift Workers.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Sahin, Levent; Wood, Brittany; Plitnick, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Rotating-shift workers, particularly those working at night, are likely to experience sleepiness, decreased productivity, and impaired safety while on the job. Light at night has been shown to have acute alerting effects, reduce sleepiness, and improve performance. However, light at night can also suppress melatonin and induce circadian disruption, both of which have been linked to increased health risks. Previous studies have shown that long-wavelength (red) light exposure increases objective and subjective measures of alertness at night, without suppressing nocturnal melatonin. This study investigated whether exposure to red light at night would not only increase measures of alertness but also improve performance. It was hypothesized that exposure to both red (630 nm) and white (2,568 K) lights would improve performance but that only white light would significantly affect melatonin levels. Seventeen individuals participated in a 3-week, within-subjects, nighttime laboratory study. Compared to remaining in dim light, participants had significantly faster reaction times in the GO/NOGO test after exposure to both red light and white light. Compared to dim light exposure, power in the alpha and alpha-theta regions was significantly decreased after exposure to red light. Melatonin levels were significantly suppressed by white light only. Results show that not only can red light improve measures of alertness, but it can also improve certain types of performance at night without affecting melatonin levels. These findings could have significant practical applications for nurses; red light could help nurses working rotating shifts maintain nighttime alertness, without suppressing melatonin or changing their circadian phase. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Associations among rotating night shift work, sleep and skin cancer in Nurses' Health Study II participants.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Feskanich, Diane; Culnan, Elizabeth; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2017-03-01

    Night shift work and sleep duration have been associated with breast and other cancers. Results from the few prior studies of night shift work and skin cancer risk have been mixed and not fully accounted for other potentially important health-related variables (eg, sleep characteristics). This study evaluated the relationship between rotating night shift work and skin cancer risk and included additional skin cancer risk factors and sleep-related variables. The current study used data from 74 323 Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for skin cancers across categories of shift work and sleep duration. Over 10 years of follow-up, 4308 basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 334 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 212 melanoma cases were identified. Longer duration of rotating night shifts was associated with a linear decline in risk of BCC (HR=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97 per 5-year increase). Shift work was not significantly associated with either melanoma (HR=1.02, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.21) or SCC (HR=0.92, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.06). A short sleep duration (≤6 hours per day) was associated with lower risks of melanoma (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.98) and BCC (HR=0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.00) compared with the most common report of 7 hours. SCC was not associated with duration of sleep (HR=0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). Longer duration of rotating night shift work and shorter sleep duration were associated with lower risk of some skin cancers. Further research is needed to confirm and identify the mechanisms underlying these associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Skills training after night shift work enables acquisition of endovascular technical skills on a virtual reality simulator.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Peter A; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Wang, Tim T; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; Keeling, Aoife N; Darzi, Ara W; Cheshire, Nicholas J W

    2011-03-01

    Adoption of residents' working time restrictions potentially undermines surgical training by reduction of operating room exposure. Simulation has been proposed as a way to acquire necessary skills in a laboratory environment but remains difficult to incorporate into training schedules. This study assessed whether residents working successive nights could acquire endovascular skills similar to colleagues working day shifts. This prospective observational cohort study recruited 20 junior residents, divided into day shift and night shift groups by their respective call schedule. After initial cognitive skills training, a validated renal artery stent module on an endovascular simulator was completed over a series of seven sequential shifts during 1 week. The primary outcome measure was serial technical skill assessments. Secondary measures comprised assessments of activity, cognitive performance, introspective fatigue, quality, and quantity of preceding sleep. Both groups demonstrated significant learning curves for total time at the first session median vs seventh session median (181 vs 564 seconds [P < .001]; night, 1399 vs 572 [P < .001]), fluoroscopy time (day, 702 vs 308 seconds, [P < .001]; night, 669 vs 313 [P < .001]), and contrast volume (day, 29 vs 13 mL [P < .001]; night, 40 vs 16 [P < .001]). Residents working day shifts reached plateau 1 day earlier in the above measures vs those on night duty. The night shift group walked more steps (P < .001), reviewed more patients (P < .001), performed worse on all cognitive assessments (P < .05), slept less (P < .05), had poorer quality of sleep (P = .001), and was more fatigued (P < .001) than the day shift group. Acquired skill was retained a week after completion of shifts. Technical skills training after night shift work enables acquisition of endovascular technical skills, although it takes longer than after day shift training. This study provides evidence for program directors to organize simulation

  19. Associations between Rotating Night Shifts, Sleep Duration, and Telomere Length in Women

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Geyu; Schernhammer, Eva; Qi, Lu; Gao, Xiang; De Vivo, Immaculata; Han, Jiali

    2011-01-01

    Background Telomere length has been proposed as a marker of aging. However, our knowledge of lifestyle risk factors determining telomere length is limited. Methods We evaluated the associations between years of rotating night shifts, self-reported sleep duration, and telomere length in 4,117 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was determined by Real-Time PCR assay. Information on rotating night shifts and sleep duration was collected via questionnaires prior to blood collection. We used multivariable linear regression to investigate the associations between rotating night shifts, sleep duration, and telomere length. Results Compared with women in the category (9 hours), those in the lowest category of sleep duration (≤6 hours) had a 0.12 unit decrease in z score after adjustment for age, BMI and cigarette smoking (equivalent to 9-year telomere attrition, P for trend  = 0.05). Significant positive association between sleep duration and telomere length was seen among women under age of 50 (P for trend  = 0.004), but not among those over 50 (P for trend  = 0.33) (P for interaction  = 0.005). In addition, we observed that women with a longer history of rotating night shifts tended to have shorter telomere length, but this relation was not statistically significant (P for trend  = 0.36). Conclusion We found that sleep duration was positively associated with telomere length among women under 50 years old. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations. PMID:21853136

  20. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M.

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives.

  1. Breast cancer risk and night shift work in a case-control study in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Ardanaz, Eva; Altzibar, Jone Miren; Sanchez, Vicente Martin; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Muñoz, David; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic and animal data indicate that night shift work might increase the risk for breast cancer. We evaluated the association of night work with different clinical types of breast cancer in a population based case-control study (MCC-Spain study) taking into account chronotype, an individual characteristic that may relate to night shift work adaptation. Lifetime occupational history was assessed by face-to-face interviews and shift work information was available for 1708 breast cancer cases and 1778 population controls from 10 Spanish regions, enrolled from 2008 to 2013. We evaluated three shift work domains, including shift work type (permanent vs rotating), lifetime cumulative duration and frequency. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for night work compared to day work using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for confounders. Having ever worked permanent or rotating night shift was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer compared to day workers [odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.43]. Chronotype was differentially associated with breast cancer depending on the duration of night shift work. Risk was higher in women with invasive tumors (OR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.51) and for estrogen and progestagen positive tumors among premenopausal women (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.99). Having ever performed night shift was associated with a small increased risk for breast cancer and especially in subgroups of women with particular hormone related characteristics.

  2. Napping during breaks on night shift: critical care nurse managers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marie P; McMillan, Diana E; Fallis, Wendy M

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue associated with shiftwork can threaten the safety and health of nurses and the patients in their care. Napping during night shift breaks has been shown to be an effective strategy to decrease fatigue and enhance performance in a variety of work environments, but appears to have mixed support within health care. The purpose of this study was to explore critical care unit managers'perceptions of and experiences with their nursing staff's napping practices on night shift, including their perceptions of the benefits and barriers to napping/not napping in terms of patient safety and nurses'personal health and safety. A survey design was used. Forty-seven Canadian critical care unit managers who were members of the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses responded to the web-based survey. Data analysis involved calculation of frequencies and percentages for demographic data, use of the Friedman rank test for comparison of managers' perceptions, and content analysis for responses to open-ended questions. The findings of this study offer valuable insights into the complexities and conflicts perceived by managers with respect to napping on night shift breaks by nursing staff Staff and patient health and safety issues, work and break expectations and experiences, and strengths and deficits related to organizational napping resources and policy are considerations that will be instrumental in the development of effective napping strategies and guidelines.

  3. The Prognosis of Cardiac Origin and Noncardiac Origin in-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Occurring during Night Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fu-Jen; Kung, Chia-Te

    2016-01-01

    Background. The survival rates of in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) are reportedly low at night, but the difference between the survival rates of cardiac origin and noncardiac origin IHCAs occurring at night remains unclear. Methods. Outcomes of IHCAs during different shifts (night, day, and evening) were compared and stratified according to the etiology (cardiac and noncardiac origin). Result. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was 24.7% lower for cardiac origin IHCA and 19.4% lower for noncardiac origin IHCA in the night shift than in the other shifts. The survival rate was 8.4% lower for cardiac origin IHCA occurring during the night shift, but there was no difference for noncardiac origin IHCA. After adjusting the potential confounders, chances of ROSC (aOR: 0.3, CI: 0.15–0.63) and survival to discharge (aOR: 0.1; CI: 0.01–0.90) related to cardiac origin IHCA were lower during night shifts. Regarding noncardiac origin IHCA, chances of ROSC (aOR: 0.5, CI: 0.30–0.78) were lower in the night shift, but chances of survival to discharge (aOR: 1.3, CI: 0.43–3.69) were similar in these two groups. Conclusion. IHCA occurring at night increases mortality, and this is more apparent for cardiac origin IHCAs than for noncardiac origin IHCA. PMID:27766260

  4. The Prognosis of Cardiac Origin and Noncardiac Origin in-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Occurring during Night Shifts.

    PubMed

    Syue, Yuan-Jhen; Huang, Jyun-Bin; Cheng, Fu-Jen; Kung, Chia-Te; Li, Chao-Jui

    2016-01-01

    Background. The survival rates of in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) are reportedly low at night, but the difference between the survival rates of cardiac origin and noncardiac origin IHCAs occurring at night remains unclear. Methods. Outcomes of IHCAs during different shifts (night, day, and evening) were compared and stratified according to the etiology (cardiac and noncardiac origin). Result. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was 24.7% lower for cardiac origin IHCA and 19.4% lower for noncardiac origin IHCA in the night shift than in the other shifts. The survival rate was 8.4% lower for cardiac origin IHCA occurring during the night shift, but there was no difference for noncardiac origin IHCA. After adjusting the potential confounders, chances of ROSC (aOR: 0.3, CI: 0.15-0.63) and survival to discharge (aOR: 0.1; CI: 0.01-0.90) related to cardiac origin IHCA were lower during night shifts. Regarding noncardiac origin IHCA, chances of ROSC (aOR: 0.5, CI: 0.30-0.78) were lower in the night shift, but chances of survival to discharge (aOR: 1.3, CI: 0.43-3.69) were similar in these two groups. Conclusion. IHCA occurring at night increases mortality, and this is more apparent for cardiac origin IHCAs than for noncardiac origin IHCA.

  5. Sleep on the job partially compensates for sleep loss in night-shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Flaviany; Rotenberg, Lucia; Soares, Renata Elisa; Pessanha, Joseane; Ferreira, Flavia Leticia; Oliveira, Paula; Silva-Costa, Aline; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amelia

    2006-01-01

    Nursing personnel in Brazil are usually submitted to fixed 12 h shifts with no consecutive working days or nights. Moonlighting is common in this group, with a consequent increase in the number of working hours. The possibility of sleeping on the job during the night shift in the studied hospitals had already been described. The present study aims to analyze whether the time devoted to daily activities (sleep, rest, leisure, housework, commuting, personal needs, care of children or other people, non-paid work, and study) is related to the number of worked hours and to nap-taking during the night shift. The field study took place at two public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Workers filled out a structured form on time devoted to the above-mentioned activities for at least four consecutive days. The time devoted to sleep was analyzed according to its occurrence at home or on the job. Workers were classified according to the number of jobs (one job/two jobs) and the time dedicated to work according to the median of the whole series (below the median/above the median). All workers who had at least one working night were analyzed as to nap-taking on the job. They were classified according to the sleep occurrence during the night shift-the sleep group and the non-sleep group, both of which were compared to daytime workers. Statistical treatment of data included non-parametrical procedures. The study group comprised 144 workers (mean age: 35.7+/-10.5 years old; 91% women; 78% nurse assistants, the remainder registered nurses). They recorded their daily activities for 4-11 days; 829 cumulative days were analyzed for the whole group. A total of 165 working nights were analyzed; sleep or rest occurred during 112 (68%) of them, with mean sleep/rest duration of 141+/-86 min. Time devoted to sleep and leisure varied according to the number of working hours, being significantly reduced in those submitted to longer work hours (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Results

  6. Phototherapy and orange-tinted goggles for night-shift adaptation of police officers on patrol.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Diane B; Boudreau, Philippe; Tremblay, Geneviève M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present combined field and laboratory study was to assess circadian entrainment in two groups of police officers working seven consecutive 8/8.5-h night shifts as part of a rotating schedule. Eight full-time police officers on patrol (mean age ± SD: 29.8 ± 6.5 yrs) were provided an intervention consisting of intermittent exposure to wide-spectrum bright light at night, orange-tinted goggles at sunrise, and maintenance of a regular sleep/darkness episode in the day. Orange-tinted goggles have been shown to block the melatonin-suppressing effect of light significantly more than neutral gray density goggles. Nine control group police officers (mean age ± SD: 30.3 ± 4.1 yrs) working the same schedule were enrolled. Police officers were studied before, after (in the laboratory), and during (ambulatory) a series of seven consecutive nights. Urine samples were collected at wake time and bedtime throughout the week of night work and during laboratory visits (1 × /3 h) preceding and following the work week to measure urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (UaMT6s) excretion rate. Subjective alertness was assessed at the start, middle, and end of night shifts. A 10-min psychomotor vigilance task was performed at the start and end of each shift. Both laboratory visits consisted of two 8-h sleep episodes based on the prior schedule. Saliva samples were collected 2 × /h during waking episodes to assay their melatonin content. Subjective alertness (3 × /h) and performance (1 × /2 h) were assessed during wake periods in the laboratory. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the progression of UaMt6s excreted during daytime sleep episodes at home, as well as psychomotor performance and subjective alertness during night shifts. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (factors: laboratory visit and group) were used to compare peak salivary melatonin and UaMT6s excretion rate in the laboratory. In both groups of police officers, the excretion rate of UaMT6s at home was

  7. Differences in cortisol profiles and circadian adjustment time between nurses working night shifts and regular day shifts: A prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shu-Fen; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ou, Keng-Liang; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the differences in the circadian salivary cortisol profiles between nurses working night shifts and regular day shifts following a slow rotating shift schedule to assess the number of days required for adjusting the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol levels in nurses working consecutive night shifts and the number of days off required to restore the diurnal circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol levels. This was a prospective, longitudinal, parallel-group comparative study. The participants were randomly assigned to night and day-shift groups, and saliva samples were collected to measure their cortisol levels and circadian secretion patterns. Significant differences were observed in the overall salivary cortisol pattern parameters (cortisol awakening response, changes in cortisol profiles between 6 and 12h after awakening, and changes in cortisol profiles between 30 min and 12 h after awakening) from Days 2 to 4 of the workdays between both groups. However, on Day 2 of the days off, both groups exhibited similar cortisol profiles and the cortisol profiles in the night-shift group were restored. Nurses working night shifts require at least 4 days to adjust their circadian rhythms of cortisol secretions. Moreover, on changing from night shift to other shifts, nurses must be allowed more than 2 days off work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Night and Day in the VA: Associations between Night Shift Staffing, Nurse Workforce Characteristics, and Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    de Cordova, Pamela B.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Schmitt, Susan; Stone, Patricia W.

    2014-01-01

    In hospitals, nurses provide patient care around the clock, but the impact of night staff characteristics on patient outcomes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between night nurse staffing and workforce characteristics and the length of stay (LOS) in 138 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals using panel data from 2002 through 2006. Staffing in hours per patient day was higher during the day than at night. The day nurse workforce had more educational preparation than the night workforce. Nurses’ years of experience at the unit, facility, and VA level were greater at night. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables, higher night staffing and a higher skill mix were associated with reduced LOS. PMID:24403000

  9. A combined field and laboratory design for assessing the impact of night shift work on police officer operational performance.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, Lauren B; Grant, Devon A; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Belenky, Gregory; Vila, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the utility of a combined field and laboratory research design for measuring the impact of consecutive night shift work on the sleepiness, vigilance, and driving performance of police patrol officers. For police patrol officers working their normal night shift duty cycles, simulated driving performance and psychomotor vigilance were measured in a laboratory on two separate occasions: in the morning after the last of five consecutive 10.7-h night shifts, and at the same time in the morning after three consecutive days off duty. Order of participation in conditions was randomized among subjects. Subjects experienced manipulation of sleep schedules due to working night shifts in a real operational environment, but performance testing was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. N = 29 active-duty police patrol officers (27 male, 2 female; age 37.1 ± 6.3 years) working night shift schedules participated in this study. Simulated driving performance, psychomotor vigilance, and subjective sleepiness were significantly degraded following 5 consecutive night shifts as compared to 3 consecutive days off duty, indicating that active-duty police officers are susceptible to performance degradation as a consequence of working nights. This combined field and laboratory research design succeeded in bridging the gap between the realism of the operational environment and the control of laboratory performance testing, demonstrating that this is a useful approach for addressing the relationship between shift work induced fatigue and critical operational task performance.

  10. [Comparative study of sleep patterns in nurses working day and night shifts].

    PubMed

    De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo

    2002-08-01

    To compare sleep patterns in nurses working day and night shifts in a hospital in Campinas (SP), Brazil. Fifty-nine nurses between 23 and 59 years of age participated in the study. For day shift workers, the pattern of nocturnal sleep was examined; for night shift workers, nocturnal and diurnal sleep patterns were examined. During 1 week, participants filled out a sleep diary right after waking up. The following items were assessed: time going to bed, falling asleep, and waking up; sleep latency; duration in hours of nocturnal and diurnal sleep; naps; quality of sleep; mode of waking up; and comparison between the sleep recorded in the diary with the usual sleep. Personal and professional information was also collected. Day shift workers went to bed at 23h36min, and night workers at 23h52min (P > 0.05). The nurses working a day schedule woke up earlier (7h3min) than those working a night schedule when they slept at night (8h30min) (P shift nurses versus 22min50s for night shift nurses; the duration of nocturnal sleep was 7h11min and 9h6min, respectively. Only day workers took naps (mean 2h3min). The average diurnal sleep of night shift nurses was fractionated (two periods, mean time asleep 4h7min and 2h38min). The quality of the nocturnal sleep of night shift workers was better than that of day shift workers. The mean period working in a hospital was 14.31 years for day workers versus 7.07 for night shift workers (P Night shift nurses should be able to take naps to compensate for the sleep deficit accrued when they work at night. ResumoObjetivo: Comparar os padrões de sono de enfermeiros dos turnos diurno e noturno em um hospital de Campinas (SP

  11. Can you see me? Experiences of nurses working night shift in Australian regional hospitals: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Powell, Idona

    2013-10-01

    To report a study that explored the experiences of night-shift nurses, focusing on employee interrelationships and work satisfaction. Night-shift nurses are a critical component in hospital care making it essential to understand the experiences that give meaning to their work and understand how these nurses and the organization can benefit from their contribution to hospital care. A literature review revealed minimal research in this area. Qualitative case study. A qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews and self-completed diaries was conducted in 2010 in regional public hospitals in Australia. Participants were 14 nurses working nights half or more of their shifts in medical or surgical wards. Thematic analysis identified four major areas of concern: work relationships, work environment, work practices and lifestyle impact. Notably, work relationships were most meaningful for nurses on the same shift; night-shift nurses experienced working conditions inferior to their daytime counterparts including a perception of minimal leadership. Despite limited education opportunities, night shift provided opportunity for professional growth for some nurses with a slippage in skills for others; night shift provided flexibility for family and social activities, yet impeded these same activities, primarily due to pervasive fatigue. Night-shift nurses considered their role critical, yet believed that they were poorly regarded. The strong interpersonal relationships developed between night-shift workers need to be capitalized on whilst developing a more effective leadership model, improved work environment, more equitable professional development, and genuine recognition of the critical role of night nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2010-10-26

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans.

  13. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Fonken, Laura K.; Workman, Joanna L.; Walton, James C.; Weil, Zachary M.; Morris, John S.; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J.

    2010-01-01

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans. PMID:20937863

  14. Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, Angela; Fensom, Georgina K.; Appleby, Paul N.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Wang, Xiao-Si; Roddam, Andrew W.; Gathani, Toral; Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Key, Timothy J.; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that night shift work could increase breast cancer incidence. A 2007 World Health Organization review concluded, mainly from animal evidence, that shift work involving circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans. We therefore aimed to generate prospective epidemiological evidence on night shift work and breast cancer incidence. Methods: Overall, 522 246 Million Women Study, 22 559 EPIC-Oxford, and 251 045 UK Biobank participants answered questions on shift work and were followed for incident cancer. Cox regression yielded multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for night shift work vs no night shift work, and likelihood ratio tests for interaction were used to assess heterogeneity. Our meta-analyses combined these and relative risks from the seven previously published prospective studies (1.4 million women in total), using inverse-variance weighted averages of the study-specific log RRs. Results: In the Million Women Study, EPIC-Oxford, and UK Biobank, respectively, 673, 28, and 67 women who reported night shift work developed breast cancer, and the RRs for any vs no night shift work were 1.00 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.08), 1.07 (95% CI = 0.71 to 1.62), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.61 to 1.00). In the Million Women Study, the RR for 20 or more years of night shift work was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.23), with no statistically significant heterogeneity by sleep patterns or breast cancer risk factors. Our meta-analysis of all 10 prospective studies included 4660 breast cancers in women reporting night shift work; compared with other women, the combined relative risks were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.03) for any night shift work, 1.01 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.10) for 20 or more years of night shift work, and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.14) for 30 or more years. Conclusions: The totality of the prospective evidence shows that night shift work, including long

  15. Night shift work and lung cancer risk among female textile workers in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Paul; Lundin, Jessica; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta; Littell, Christopher; Gao, Daoli; Thomas, David B; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as a probable human carcinogen. Suppression of the anti-neoplastic hormone, melatonin, is a presumed mechanism of action. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. Newly diagnosed lung cancer cases (n = 1451) identified during the study period (1989-2006) were compared with an age-stratified subcohort (n = 3040). Adjusting for age, smoking, parity, and endotoxin exposure, relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs)] were estimated by Cox regression modeling to assess associations with cumulative years and nights of rotating shift work. Results did not consistently reveal any increased risk of lung cancer among rotating shift work or statistically significant trends for both cumulative years (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.02; P(trend) = 0.294) and nights (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00; P(trend) = 0.415). Further analyses imposing 10- and 20-year lag times for disease latency also revealed similar results. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, rotating nighttime shift work appears to be associated with a relatively reduced lung cancer risk although the magnitude of the effect was modest and not statistically significant.

  16. Night shift work and lung cancer risk among female textile workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Paul; Lundin, Jessica; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta; Littell, Christopher; Li, Gao Dao; Thomas, David B.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as a probable human carcinogen. Suppression of the anti-neoplastic hormone, melatonin, is a presumed mechanism of action. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. Newly diagnosed lung cancer cases (n=1451) identified during the study period (1989–2006) were compared with an age-stratified subcohort (n=3040). Adjusting for age, smoking, parity and endotoxin exposure, relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs)] were estimated by Cox regression modeling to assess associations with cumulative years and nights of rotating shift work. Results did not consistently reveal any increased risk of lung cancer among rotating shift work or statistically significant trends for both cumulative years (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.02; Ptrend = 0.294) and nights (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.415). Further analyses imposing 10- and 20-year lag times for disease latency also revealed similar results. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, rotating nighttime shift work appears to be associated with a relatively reduced lung cancer risk although the magnitude of the effect was modest and not statistically significant. PMID:25616851

  17. How do the timing and length of a night-shift nap affect sleep inertia?

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Matsumoto, Shun; Ebara, Takeshi; Murata, Kensaburo; Tachi, Norihide; Itani, Toru

    2010-07-01

    Napping is one strategy that may assist night shiftworkers to cope with sleepiness and fatigue. However, one potential disadvantage of napping is that awakening from naps is disturbed by sleep inertia, which has also been found to impair performance and/or mood, transiently. The authors examined the effects of the timing and length of a night-shift nap on sleep inertia in a laboratory setting. Twelve male university students (mean +/- SD: 21.6 +/- 2.8 yrs) participated in this 3-day experiment, during which included a simulated night shift (22:00-08:00 h) and subsequent day (11:30-17:30 h) and night sleep (00:00-07:00 h). The simulated night shift was designed to include one of five (four nap/one no-nap) conditions. The napping conditions differed by their timing and duration: 00:00-01:00 h (Early 60 min; E60), 00:00-02:00 h (Early 120 min; E120), 04:00-05:00 h (Late 60 min; L60), 04:00-06:00 h (Late 120 min; L120). Participants completed all the experimental conditions in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature (R(T)) was recorded throughout the simulated shift and polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during the nap period. Immediately before and after each nap, participants were required to complete a visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess sleepiness and a visual vigilance test (VVT). During the simulated night shift, a set of tasks (an English transcription task, a performance test battery, and a break) was repeated hourly, except during the periods of napping. For each nap condition, the VAS and VVT (reaction time [RT]; lapses >5 s) results were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (nap [nap versus no-nap] x time point [pre-nap versus post-nap]). PSG and R(T) data were analyzed with one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Marginally significant interactions were observed for RTs and lapses in VVT for the L60 nap condition (p = .071 and p = .070, respectively). However, those effect sizes were moderate (partial eta(2) = 0.266, 0

  18. When are night shifts effective for nursing student clinical learning? Findings from a mixed-method study design.

    PubMed

    Palese, Alvisa; Basso, Felix; Del Negro, Elena; Achil, Illarj; Ferraresi, Annamaria; Morandini, Marzia; Moreale, Renzo; Mansutti, Irene

    2017-05-01

    Some nursing programmes offer night shifts for students while others do not, mainly due to the lack of evidence regarding their effectiveness on clinical learning. The principal aims of the study were to describe nursing students' perceptions and to explore conditions influencing effectiveness on learning processes during night shifts. An explanatory mixed-method study design composed of a cross-sectional study (primary method, first phase) followed by a descriptive phenomenological study design (secondary method, second phase) in 2015. Two bachelor of nursing degree programmes located in Northern Italy, three years in length and requiring night shifts for students starting in the second semester of the 1st year, were involved. First phase: all nursing students ending their last clinical placement of the academic year attended were eligible; 352 out the 370 participated. Second phase: a purposeful sample of nine students among those included in the first phase and who attended the highest amount of night shifts were interviewed. First phase: a questionnaire composed of closed and open-ended questions was adopted; data was analyzed through descriptive statistical methods. Second phase: an open-ended face-to-face audio-recorded interview was adopted and data was analyzed through content analysis. Findings from the quantitative phase, showed that students who attended night shifts reported satisfaction (44.7%) less frequently than those who attended only day shifts (55.9%). They also reported boredom (23.5%) significantly more often compared to day shift students (p=0001). Understanding of the nursing role and learning competence was significantly inferior among night shift students as compared to day shift students, while the perception of wasting time was significantly higher among night shift students compared to their counterparts. Night shift students performed nursing rounds (288; 98.2%), non-nursing tasks (247; 84.3%) and/or less often managed clinical problems

  19. Rotating Night-Shift Work and the Risk of Breast Cancer in the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Lani R; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard A; Brown, Susan B; Stevens, Richard G; Eliassen, A Heather; Laden, Francine; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2017-09-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared shift work that involved circadian disruption to be a "probable" carcinogen (group 2A), noting that human evidence was limited. Using data from 2 prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study (1988-2012; n = 78,516) and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2013; n = 114,559), we examined associations between rotating night-shift work and breast cancer risk. In the 2 cohorts, there were a total of 9,541 incident invasive breast malignancies and 24 years of follow-up. In the Nurses' Health Study, women with 30 years or more of shift work did not have a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.77, 1.17; P for trend = 0.63) compared with those who never did shift work, although follow-up occurred primarily after retirement from shift work. Among participants in the Nurses' Health Study II, who were younger than participants in the other cohort, the risk of breast cancer was significantly higher in women with 20 years or more of shift work at baseline, reflecting young-adult exposure (HR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.73; P for trend = 0.23), and was marginally significantly higher for women with 20 years or more of cumulative shift work when we used updated exposure information (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.97; P for trend = 0.74). In conclusion, long-term rotating night-shift work was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, particularly among women who performed shift work during young adulthood. Further studies should explore the role of shift work timing on breast cancer risk. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Report From the Night Shift: How Administrative Supervisors Achieve Nurse and Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Susan H; Lindgren, Teri G; Cadmus, Edna; Flynn, Linda; Thomas-Hawkins, Charlotte

    The administrative supervisor role (the nurse leader on the evening or night shift) has been present in hospitals for more than 100 years, but research is just commencing regarding how this leader achieves nurse and patient safety. This focused ethnographic study was conducted in 2 parts. The first part consisted of focus groups with night-shift staff nurses, held at 7 hospitals in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, with the objective of obtaining the staff nurses' perception of the supervisors' role. The second part consisted of interviews with 30 administrative supervisors, recruited nationally from 20 different states, to explore the supervisors' perspective on practices used to enhance safety. The focus group and interview transcripts were thematically analyzed, using an iterative, comparative method to identify codes and sort for patterns. The findings reveal that administrative supervisors "make it (whatever needs to be done) work" and achieve nurse and patient safety by building trust with the staff, doing rounds, educating, and providing support to the front line team. These shift leaders foster a culture of safety with their relationship-oriented leadership style. By gaining further understanding about the administrative supervisor role, new workflow processes can be explored; specific continuing education programs can be developed; and additional research can be conducted.

  1. Sedative and analgesic use on night and day shifts in a pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Staveski, Sandra L; Tesoro, Tiffany M; Cisco, Michael J; Roth, Stephen J; Shin, Andrew Y

    2014-01-01

    The use of sedative and analgesic medications is directly linked to patient outcomes. The practice of administering as-needed sedative or analgesic medications deserves further exploration. We hypothesized that important variations exist in the practice of administering as-needed medications in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to determine the influence of time of day on the practice of administering as-needed sedative or analgesic medications to children in the ICU. Medication administration records of patients admitted to our pediatric cardiovascular ICU during a 4-month period were reviewed to determine the frequency and timing of as-needed medication usage by shift. A total of 152 ICU admissions (1854 patient days) were reviewed. A significantly greater number of as-needed doses were administered during the night shift (fentanyl, P = .005; lorazepam, P = .03; midazolam, P = .0003; diphenhydramine, P = .0003; and chloral hydrate, P = .0006). These differences remained statistically significant after excluding doses given during the first 6 hours after cardiovascular surgery. Morphine administration was similar between shifts (P = .08). We identified a pattern of increased administration of as-needed sedative or analgesic medications during nights. Further research is needed to identify the underlying causes of this practice variation.

  2. Effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day shift before a night shift on physical activities and sleep patterns of single nurses and married nurses with children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Misuzu; Akamatsu, Yasuhiro; Furui, Hikari; Tomita, Teruyuki; Watanabe, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day before a night shift, 12 single nurses and 18 married nurses with children that engaged in night shift work in a Japanese hospital were investigated. Subjects worked 2 different shift patterns consisting of a night shift after a half-day shift (HF-N) and a night shift after a day shift (D-N). Physical activity levels were recorded with a physical activity volume meter to measure sleep/wake time more precisely without restricting subjects' activities. The duration of sleep before a night shift of married nurses was significantly shorter than that of single nurses for both shift schedules. Changing shift from the D-N to the HF-N increased the duration of sleep before a night shift for both groups, and made wake-up time earlier for single nurses only. Repeated ANCOVA of the series of physical activities showed significant differences with shift (p < 0.01) and marriage (p < 0.01) for variances, and age (p < 0.05) for a covariance. The paired t-test to compare the effects of changing shift patterns in each subject group and ANCOVA for examining the hourly activity differences between single and married nurses showed that the effects of a change in shift schedules seemed to have less effect on married nurses than single nurses. These differences might due to the differences of their family/home responsibilities.

  3. Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Manuaba, A

    2001-12-01

    Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns.

  4. Comparison of coronary microcirculation in female nurses after day-time versus night-time shifts.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomoichiro; Fukuda, Shota; Hirata, Kumiko; Shimada, Kenei; Maeda, Kumiko; Komukai, Kenichi; Kono, Yasushi; Miyahana, Reiko; Nakanishi, Koki; Otsuka, Kenichiro; Jissho, Satoshi; Taguchi, Haruyuki; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Akasaka, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2011-12-01

    Nightshift work, which is known to cause mental stress and disrupt normal biological diurnal rhythms, leads to endothelial dysfunction resulting in increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the acute effect of night-shift work on coronary microcirculation through assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. This study consisted of 36 women nurses who underwent transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic examinations after working a nightshift and on a regular day without previous nightshift work. Flow velocity in the distal portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery was measured at baseline and during adenosine infusion. CFR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal mean diastolic flow velocity. CFR after night work was lower than that on a regular workday (3.8 ± 0.6 vs 4.1 ± 0.6, p <0.001). Degree of decreases in CFR after night work was correlated to Framingham risk score (r = 0.35, p = 0.036). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that coronary microcirculation was impaired after nightshift work in women nurses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Health effects of night shift duty on nurses in a university teaching hospital in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isah, E C; Iyamu, O A; Imoudu, G O

    2008-06-01

    This study is aimed at identifying the effects of night shift duty on the health and wellbeing of nurses in order to make recommendations on ways of ameliorating them. The study was ofa cross sectional descriptive type using a total sample of nurses in the hospital. Data collection was by means of a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire and the analysis by the computer Programme for Epidemiologists (PEPI). The response rate was 79.3% with a total of 211 (68.1%) having one or more health complaints, which included muscle ache and pains (58.7%), frequent headaches (21.9%), lack of concentration (21.3%) and a negative effect on social life (66.1%). The younger nurses disliked night shift more than the older ones (2 = 57.5, df=6, p = 0.000) and 57.7% felt they were less productive during night shift. The shorter the period of sleep after the night shift, the lesser the level of productivity and the more the manifestation of health symptoms (2 = 45.5, df = 4, p = 0.000 and 2 = 29.0, df = 2, p = 0.000 respectively). Night shift duty caused both medical and psychological problems on the nurses. There is a need for medical surveillance, educational programme and the application of sleep hygiene techniques for shift working nurses.

  6. Self-reported health and sleep complaints among nursing personnel working under 12 h night and day shifts.

    PubMed

    Portela, Luciana F; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Waissmann, William

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study involved health care workers of various skill types and levels. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of diseases, sleep complaints, and insufficient time for nonprofessional activities (family, leisure, and rest) are higher among night than day workers. Data collection was carried out in two public hospitals using questionnaires and other forms. Night work was explored as a risk factor, considering a night worker as one who had at least one night job on the occasion of the research. Data were assessed by a univariate analysis. The association between work schedule and the dependent variables--health conditions, sleep complaints, and insufficient time for nonprofessional activities--was evaluated through the estimation of the prevalence ratio, with a confidence interval of 95%. Two hundred and fifty-eight female nursing personnel participated; 41.5% were moonlighters, and only 20 worked a shift of less than 12h in length. Reports of migraine and need of medical care the 2 weeks before the survey were more prevalent among day than night workers (PR=0.71; CI=0.55-0.92 and PR=0.71; CI=0.52-0.95, respectively). Migraine headaches occurred less frequently among night than day workers as confirmed by comparing the reports of the night workers and day workers whose work history was always day shifts (PR = 0.74; CI = 0.57-0.96). Reports of mild emotional disorders (mild depression, tension, anxiety, or insomnia) were less frequent among night (PR=0.76; CI=0.59-0.98) and ex-night workers (PR=0.68; CI=0.50-0.91) than day workers who never had worked a night job. The healthy worker effect does not seem to explain the results of the comparisons between day and night workers. The possible role of exposure by day workers to some risk factors, such as stress, was suggested as an explanation for these results. No significant difference was observed between night and day workers as to sleep complaints, a result that may have been

  7. Ramelteon Prior to a Short Evening Nap Impairs Neurobehavioral Performance for up to 12 Hours after Awakening

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel A.; Wang, Wei; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Planned naps can improve performance when the habitual or nocturnal sleep schedule is disrupted. It may be difficult, however, to achieve sleep during a nap, particularly during the circadian peak in alertness in the early evening. Prior studies with the melatonin agonist, ramelteon, reported that this hypnotic does not impair neurobehavioral performance. We tested whether ramelteon could improve nap efficiency in the early evening and subsequent performance during a simulated 8-h night shift. Methods: 10 healthy volunteers aged 19-31 years participated in an inpatient randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Ramelteon 8 mg or placebo was administered 30 min prior to a 2-h nap opportunity commencing 13 h after each individual's habitual morning wake time. Results: Ramelteon did not significantly affect sleep efficiency during the nap prior to the night shift. Following the nap, ramelteon was associated with significantly worse neurobehavioral performance on assessments immediately following the nap and during the simulated night shift. Conclusions: Although ramelteon did not significantly affect sleep during the nap, it was associated with significant impairments in neurobehavioral performance for up to 12 h after administration. High homeostatic sleep pressure combined with the circadian performance nadir may increase the vulnerability to hypnotic-induced neurobehavioral impairments. The findings do not support the use of ramelteon prior to an evening prophylactic nap, as there may be residual effects that last for several hours. Furthermore, this study highlights the pitfalls of applying side-effect profiles obtained in one context to another. Citation: Cohen DA; Wang W; Klerman EB; Rajaratnam SMW. Ramelteon prior to a short evening nap impairs neurobehavioral performance for up to 12 hours after awakening. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):565-571. PMID:21206545

  8. Effects of napping on sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits in night-shift workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Redeker, Nancy S

    2014-04-01

    Night-shift workers are prone to sleep deprivation, misalignment of circadian rhythms, and subsequent sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits. The purpose of this narrative systematic review is to critically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding improvements in sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits following planned naps taken during work-shift hours by night workers and to recommend directions for future research and practice. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Health and Safety Science Abstracts databases and included English-language quasi-experimental and experimental studies that evaluated the effects of a nighttime nap taken during a simulated or actual night-work shift. We identified 13 relevant studies, which consisted primarily of small samples and mixed designs. Most investigators found that, despite short periods of sleep inertia immediately following naps, night-shift napping led to decreased sleepiness and improved sleep-related performance. None of the studies examined the effects of naps on safety outcomes in the workplace. Larger-scale randomized clinical trials of night-shift napping and direct safety outcomes are needed prior to wider implementation.

  9. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-09-22

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

  10. Trapezius Muscle Load, Heart Rate and Time Pressure during Day and Night Shift in Swiss and Japanese Nurses

    PubMed Central

    NICOLETTI, Corinne; MÜLLER, Christian; TOBITA, Itoko; NAKASEKO, Masaru; LÄUBLI, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle, the heart rate and the time pressure of Swiss and Japanese nurses during day and night shifts. The parameters were measured during a day and a night shift of 17 Swiss and 22 Japanese nurses. The observed rest time of the trapezius muscle was longer for Swiss than for Japanese nurses during both shifts. The 10th and the 50th percentile of the trapezius muscle activity showed a different effect for Swiss than for Japanese nurses. It was higher during the day shift of Swiss nurses and higher during the night shift of Japanese nurses. Heart rate was higher for both Swiss and Japanese nurses during the day. The time pressure was significantly higher for Japanese than for Swiss nurses. Over the duration of the shifts, time pressure increased for Japanese nurses and slightly decreased for those from Switzerland. Considering trapezius muscle activity and time pressure, the nursing profession was more burdening for the examined Japanese nurses than for Swiss nurses. In particular, the night shift for Japanese nurses was characterized by a high trapezius muscle activity and only few rest times for the trapezius muscle. PMID:24633074

  11. Rates of ICU Transfers After a Scheduled Night-Shift Interprofessional Huddle.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ross E; Bingler, Michael A; Bauer, Paul N; Lee, Brian R; Mann, Keith J

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate a scheduled interprofessional huddle among pediatric residents, nursing staff, and cardiologists on the number of high-risk transfers to the ICU. A daily, night-shift huddle intervention was initiated between the in-house pediatric residents and nursing staff covering the cardiology ward patients with the at-home attending cardiologist. Retrospective cohort chart review identified high-risk transfers from the inpatient floor to the ICU over a 24-month period (eg, inotropic support, intubation, and/or respiratory support within 1 hour of ICU transfer). Satisfaction with the intervention and the impact of the intervention on team-based communication and resident education was collected using a retrospective pre-post survey. Ninety-three patients were identified as unscheduled transfers from the ward team to the ICU. Overall, 21 preintervention transfers were considered high risk, whereas only 8 patients were considered high risk after the intervention (P=.004). During the night shift, high risk transfers decreased from 8 of 17 (47%) to 3 of 21 patients (14%) (P=.03). Interprofessional communication improved with 12 of 14 nurses and 24 of 25 residents reporting effective communication after the intervention (P<.0001) compared with only 1 nurse and 15 residents reporting a positive experience before the intervention. Overall, all 3 provider groups stated an improved experience covering a high-risk cardiology patient population. Implementation of an interprofessional huddle may contribute to decreasing high-risk transfers to the ICU. Initiating a daily huddle was well received and allowed for open lines of communication across all provider groups. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Night shift work, chronotype and prostate cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Burgos, Javier; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Peiró, Rosana; Jimenez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Arredondo, Francisco; Tardón, Adonina; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-09-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based on experimental studies and limited human evidence on breast cancer. Evidence on other common cancers, such as prostate cancer, is scarce. Chronotype is an individual characteristic that may relate to night work adaptation. We evaluated night shift work with relation to prostate cancer, taking into account chronotype and disease severity in a population based case-control study in Spain. We included 1,095 prostate cancer cases and 1,388 randomly selected population controls. We collected detailed information on shift schedules (permanent vs. rotating, time schedules, duration, frequency), using lifetime occupational history. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and chronotype through a validated questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Subjects who had worked at least for one year in night shift work had a slightly higher prostate cancer risk [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.14; 95%CI 0.94, 1.37] compared with never night workers; this risk increased with longer duration of exposure (≥ 28 years: OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.05, 1.81; p-trend = 0.047). Risks were more pronounced for high risk tumors [D'Amico classification, Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) 1.40; 95%CI 1.05, 1.86], particularly among subjects with longer duration of exposure (≥28 years: RRR 1.63; 95%CI 1.08, 2.45; p-trend = 0.027). Overall risk was higher among subjects with an evening chronotype, but also increased in morning chronotypes after long-term night work. In this large population based study, we found an association between night shift work and prostate cancer particularly for tumors with worse prognosis.

  13. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder.

    PubMed

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L

    2014-03-01

    Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers.

  14. Analysis of polymorphisms in the circadian-related genes and breast cancer risk in Norwegian nurses working night shifts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Some studies have suggested that night work may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in nurses. We aimed to explore the role of circadian gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to night work-related breast cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of Norwegian nurses comprising 563 breast cancer cases and 619 controls within a cohort of 49,402 Norwegian nurses ages 35 to 74 years. We studied 60 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 genes involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm in cases and controls. The data were analyzed in relation to the two exposure variables "maximum number of consecutive night shifts ever worked" and "maximum number of consecutive night shifts worked for at least 5 years." The odds of breast cancer associated with each SNP was calculated in the main effects analysis and in relation to night shift work. The statistically significant odds ratios were tested for noteworthiness using two Bayesian tests: false positive report probability (FPRP) and Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). Results In the main effects analysis, CC carriers of rs4238989 and GG carriers of rs3760138 in the AANAT gene had increased risk of breast cancer, whereas TT carriers of BMAL1 rs2278749 and TT carriers of CLOCK rs3749474 had reduced risk. The associations were found to be noteworthy using both the FPRP and BFDP tests. With regard to the effect of polymorphisms and night work, several significant associations were observed. After applying FPRP and BFDP in women with at least four night shifts, an increased risk of breast cancer was associated with variant alleles of SNPs in the genes AANAT (rs3760138, rs4238989), BMAL1 (rs2290035, rs2278749, rs969485) and ROR-b (rs3750420). In women with three consecutive night shifts, a reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with carriage of variant alleles of SNPs in CLOCK (rs3749474), BMAL1 (rs2278749), BMAL2 (rs2306074), CSNK1E (rs5757037), NPAS2

  15. Effects of overlay symbology in night vision goggles on accommodation and attention shift.

    PubMed

    Schor, C M; Task, H L

    1996-11-01

    Binocular night vision goggles that have a monocular symbology overlay provide potential conflicts between perceived symbology distance and optical vergence cues for accommodation. Accommodative response was measured in subjects who perceived symbology nearer than the background to determine if accommodation could respond to the optical stimulus and override the perceptual cues. Symbology was presented to the right eye under two conditions (clear and blurred to 20/50 resolution) and the background was presented binocularly with and without added speckle noise that is typical of the NVG at low light levels. On average, subjects accommodated by less than 0.1 diopters (D) to all 4 of the stimulus combinations even though the perceived proximal depth difference between background and symbology was 10 times greater. No perceptible blur resulted from this small change in accommodation because it is well below the depth of focus of the human eye. A control experiment illustrated that an accommodative response, at least as small as 0.25 D, could easily be stimulated optically and detected by the experimental apparatus. In a final experiment, the duration required to shift attention away from the background to a peripheral symbol, acquire critical information, and return attention to the background was 0.69 s which included saccade latency and scan time of the symbol. These results indicate that small changes in accommodation that occur when pilots shift attention from background to symbology do not produce perceived blur of the symbology or the background and thereby do not impair performance.

  16. The relationship between subjective and objective sleepiness and performance during a simulated night-shift with a nap countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, Rebecca; Dorrian, Jill; Lack, Leon; Lovato, Nicole; Ferguson, Sally; Zhou, Xuan; Roach, Greg

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between perceived and actual sleepiness and performance during a simulated night-shift that included a 30-min night-nap as an on-duty sleepiness countermeasure. Twenty-four healthy young adults (nine males, fifteen females) participated in a repeated measures design comprising two experimental conditions: no night-nap and 30-min night-nap. Both groups were given a 2-h prophylactic afternoon sleep opportunity (1500-1700 h). Measures of subjective sleepiness (Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale), objective sleepiness (sleep latency tests), objective performance (Symbol-Digit Substitution Task) and reaction time (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were taken before the night-nap (0230 h) and at several intervals post-nap. Time-series correlation analyses indicated that subjective sleepiness was less correlated with objective sleepiness and objective performance when participants were given a 30-min night-nap. However subjective sleepiness and reaction time performance was strongly correlated in both conditions, and there was no significant difference between the nap and no-nap conditions. Consistent with previous research, results of the present study indicate that subjective and objective indicators of sleepiness and performance may not always correspond, and this relationship may be reduced by the inclusion of a night-nap.

  17. Work schedule and self-reported hypertension - the potential beneficial role of on-shift naps for night workers.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-01-01

    Data on the association between shift work and hypertension are controversial. Sleep restriction is hypothesized to be involved in this relationship. Since on-shift nap can partly compensate for sleep deprivation among night workers, this investigation is aimed at (i) comparing the prevalence of hypertension among workers considering both current and former night work, (ii) testing the association between on-shift naps and hypertension among night workers, and (iii) analyzing the influence of sleep complaints in the association between on-shift nap and hypertension. Nap was defined as a sleep episode with duration shorter than the average nighttime sleep. A cross-sectional study was performed at the 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010-2011 (N = 2588 female registered nurses). Nurses were informally allowed to nap for up to three consecutive hours during working nights. Workers completed a multidimensional questionnaire including self-reported information on physician diagnosis of hypertension, napping, and sleep complaints (insomnia, diurnal sleepiness, and non-satisfactory sleep). Epidemiological and statistical treatment of data included binomial logistic regression and interaction tests. Higher chances of hypertension were observed for both current and former night workers compared with workers with no previous experience in night work, i.e. exclusive day workers (OR = 1.68; CI95% 1.22-2.33 and OR = 1.40; CI95% 1.01-1.96, respectively) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, insomnia, weekly work hours, and BMI. Compared with exclusive day workers, both non-nappers and nappers were at a higher likelihood of reporting hypertension (OR = 1.93 CI95% 1.35-2.79 and OR = 1.41 CI95% 1.08-2.20, respectively). An interaction was observed between napping behavior and insomnia (p = 0.037). In the whole sample of night workers, the lower OR for nappers was confirmed when they were directly

  18. Circadian Adaptation to Night Shift Work Influences Sleep, Performance, Mood and the Autonomic Modulation of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Philippe; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate how circadian adaptation to night shift work affects psychomotor performance, sleep, subjective alertness and mood, melatonin levels, and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen healthy police officers on patrol working rotating shifts participated to a bright light intervention study with 2 participants studied under two conditions. The participants entered the laboratory for 48 h before and after a series of 7 consecutive night shifts in the field. The nighttime and daytime sleep periods were scheduled during the first and second laboratory visit, respectively. The subjects were considered “adapted” to night shifts if their peak salivary melatonin occurred during their daytime sleep period during the second visit. The sleep duration and quality were comparable between laboratory visits in the adapted group, whereas they were reduced during visit 2 in the non-adapted group. Reaction speed was higher at the end of the waking period during the second laboratory visit in the adapted compared to the non-adapted group. Sleep onset latency (SOL) and subjective mood levels were significantly reduced and the LF∶HF ratio during daytime sleep was significantly increased in the non-adapted group compared to the adapted group. Circadian adaptation to night shift work led to better performance, alertness and mood levels, longer daytime sleep, and lower sympathetic dominance during daytime sleep. These results suggest that the degree of circadian adaptation to night shift work is associated to different health indices. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate long-term clinical implications of circadian misalignment to atypical work schedules. PMID:23923024

  19. Sleep Loss, Circadian Mismatch, and Abnormalities in Reorienting of Attention in Night Workers with Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Methods: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Statistical analyses: Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. Results: First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Howard R; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Drake CL. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder. SLEEP 2014

  20. Impact of Night Shift and Training Development Factors on Performance of Professional Nurses in North West Bank Governmental Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayed, Ahmad; Thulth, Ahida Saleem; Sayej, Sumaya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organizational factors are considered to be the cornerstone in achieving psychological and professional security at work, which in turn are positively reflected in job performance both quantitatively and qualitatively. Aim of the Study: The study aimed to assess night shift and education/training developmental factors on performance of…

  1. Rotating night shifts too quickly may cause anxiety and decreased attentional performance, and impact prolactin levels during the subsequent day: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-San; Chen, Hsiang-Lan; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin

    2014-08-05

    We investigated circadian changes and effects on mood, sleep-related hormones and cognitive performance when nurses worked consecutive night shifts in a rapidly rotating shift system. Daytime cognitive function, sleep propensity and sleep-related hormones (growth hormone, cortisol, prolactin, thyrotropin) were compared after participants worked two and four consecutive night shifts. Twenty-three off-duty nurses, 20 nurses working two consecutive night shifts and 16 nurses working four consecutive night shifts were enrolled. All participants completed the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, visual attention tasks (VAT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and modified Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Hormone levels were also measured four times throughout the day, at 2-h intervals. During the day, the participants in the night shift groups were less able to maintain wakefulness, had poor performance on VAT, and higher thyrotropin levels than did those in the off-duty group. Participants who worked two night shifts were better able to maintain wakefulness, had higher anxiety scale scores, poorer initial performance and lack of learning effect on VAT, and higher prolactin levels compared with those who worked four night shifts. There were no differences in cortisol levels between the two- and four- shift groups. Rotating night shifts too quickly may cause anxiety and decreased attentional performance, and may impact daytime prolactin levels after night shifts. It is possible that the two-shift group had a higher cortisol level than did the four-shift group, which would be consistent with the group's higher state anxiety scores. The negative findings may be due to the small sample size. Further studies on the effects of consecutive night shifts on mood and cortisol levels during the daytime after sleep restriction would be valuable.

  2. Effect of LED light stimulation on sleep latency in night shift people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Yang-Chyuan; Chiu, Hui-Ling; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chen, Ming-Jie; Chang, Yu-Ting

    2014-05-01

    Sleep problems are getting worse and worse in modern world. They have a severe impact on psychological and physical health, as well as social performances. From our previous study, the brainwave α rhythm, θ wave and β wave were affected by radiating the palm of the subjects with low-level laser array. In addition, from other study, the LED array stimulator (LEDAS) also has the similar effects. In the present study, LED light was used to radiate the left palm of the subjects too, and the effects were assessed with the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and heart-rate variability (HRV) analysis. The results revealed that it doesn't have significant meaning between these two groups. However, the tendency of the sleep latency (SL) in the LED group was shorter than that in the control group. In addition, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) analysis showed that the sympathetic nervous system was getting larger in the LED group than that in the control group, and total ANS activity were mainly getting larger in the LED group. We infer that this LED stimulation could reduce SL and balance ANS activity of the night-shift people. In the future, the further study will be conducted on normal subjects.

  3. [Inhalation Effects of Aroma Essential Oil on Quality of Sleep for Shift Nurses after Night Work].

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonjong; Hur, Myung Haeng

    2016-12-01

    This study was an experimental study to compare the inhalation effects of aroma essential oil on the quality of sleep (QOS) for shift nurses after working nights. The participants were 60 healthy adults who didn't have any disease. As an experimental treatment, the participants in the experimental group were asked to inhale essential oil for 3 minutes at a distance of approximately 10 cm fromt heir nose and then they were asked to sleep with the aroma stone beside their head (within a 30 cm distance). QOS were measured four times on Pretest, Day 1, Day 2, and Day 3 after they slept. To measure QOS, Perceived QOS (Numeric Rating Scale), the Verran & Synder-Halpern (VSH) Sleep Scale were used, and number of awakenings (NoA) was measured by Actigraph. There were no significant differences in the homogeneity tests for general characteristics and dependent variables prior to the experiments, except for VSH of subjective sleep quality. Also, there was no significant interaction between group and time. The VSH of the experimental group was higher than the control group (F=6.39, p=.002). The NoA between the experimental group and the control group was significantly different after experimental treatment 3rd day (F=13.35, p=.001). The findings show that the inhalation of aroma essential oil had effects to increase the quality of sleep. Therefore, the inhalation of aroma essential oil could be applied to general nursing interventions to improve the quality of sleep.

  4. Examination of Attention Level in Nurses Working Night Shifts in terms of the Relationship between Electrodermal Activity and Sex Hormones

    PubMed Central

    DOLU, Nazan; ELALMIŞ, Derya Deniz; KELOĞLAN, Seval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an electrical activity of eccrine sweat gland stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. Skin conductance level (SCL) is measured with EDA. SCL and sweat gland activity increase in emotional situations, such as high activation, attention or stress. In this study, we investigated whether working in shifts affects attention level of nurses with EDA and explored the relationship between EDA and sex hormones. Method The study was carried out on nurses working night shifts (16.00–08.00 h) (n=22) and nurses working without a shift (08.00–16.00 h) (n=20). Firstly, The Epworth Sleepiness Scale which evaluates a person’s daytime sleepiness was applied to the subjects. For EDA measurement, Ag/AgCl electrodes were put on two fingers of their dominant hand. SCL was measured via MP30 system and GSR connection. The blood samples were analyzed for cortisol and ACTH hormone levels to investigate the changes in sleep and circadian rhythm. Result It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in skin conductance levels between the groups. Moreover, in the comparison of hormone values between the groups, the cortisol levels in night shift nurses were higher than in those working without a shift. Conclusion Night shift had no significant effect on the attention levels in the nurses. This situation is thought to be related to the fact that the nurses responsible for the night service raise their attention level to the highest point. The reason for higher level of cortisol in nurses working shifts may reflect that cortisol has no effect on the breadth of attention but reflects a high level of stress.

  5. The impact of shift and night work on health related quality of life of working women: findings from the Korea Health Panel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woorim; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Choi, Jae Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-11-28

    Night and shift work status has been associated with health related quality of life (HRQoL) in economically active women. This study aimed to investigate the association between night or shift work status and HRQoL of economically active women and to further analyze how marital status interplays in the objected relationship. Data were from the Korea Health Panel, 2011 to 2013. A total of 2238 working women were included for analysis. Work status was categorized into day work, night work, and rotating shift work and its association with HRQoL, measured using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index, was investigated using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. Compared to the day work reference group, the night work group (β: -0.9757, P = 0.0202) and the rotating shift work group (β: -0.7947, P = 0.0363) showed decreases in EQ-5D scores. This trend was maintained regardless of marital status, although decreases in health related quality of life were particularly pronounced among night shift workers with a spouse. Night and rotating shift work status was associated with HRQoL of economically active women as individuals working night and rotating shifts showed decreases in EQ-5D scores compared to individuals working day shifts. The findings of this study signify the importance of monitoring the HRQoL status of women working night and rotating shifts as these individuals may be comparatively vulnerable to reduced HRQoL.

  6. A Rodent Model of Night-Shift Work Induces Short-Term and Enduring Sleep and Electroencephalographic Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Grønli, Janne; Meerlo, Peter; Pedersen, Torhild T; Pallesen, Ståle; Skrede, Silje; Marti, Andrea R; Wisor, Jonathan P; Murison, Robert; Henriksen, Tone E G; Rempe, Michael J; Mrdalj, Jelena

    2017-02-01

    Millions of people worldwide are working at times that overlap with the normal time for sleep. Sleep problems related to the work schedule may mediate the well-established relationship between shift work and increased risk for disease, occupational errors and accidents. Yet, our understanding of causality and the underlying mechanisms that explain this relationship is limited. We aimed to assess the consequences of night-shift work for sleep and to examine whether night-shift work-induced sleep disturbances may yield electrophysiological markers of impaired maintenance of the waking brain state. An experimental model developed in rats simulated a 4-day protocol of night-work in humans. Two groups of rats underwent 8-h sessions of enforced ambulation, either at the circadian time when the animal was physiologically primed for wakefulness (active-workers, mimicking day-shift) or for sleep (rest-workers, mimicking night-shift). The 4-day rest-work schedule induced a pronounced redistribution of sleep to the endogenous active phase. Rest-work also led to higher electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave (1-4 Hz) energy in quiet wakefulness during work-sessions, suggesting a degraded waking state. After the daily work-sessions, being in their endogenous active phase, rest-workers slept less and had higher gamma (80-90 Hz) activity during wake than active-workers. Finally, rest-work induced an enduring shift in the main sleep period and attenuated the accumulation of slow-wave energy during NREM sleep. A comparison of recovery data from 12:12 LD and constant dark conditions suggests that reduced time in NREM sleep throughout the recorded 7-day recovery phase induced by rest-work may be modulated by circadian factors. Our data in rats show that enforced night-work-like activity during the normal resting phase has pronounced acute and persistent effects on sleep and waking behavior. The study also underscores the potential importance of animal models for future studies on the

  7. Sleep, Fatigue and Quality of Life: A Comparative Analysis among Night Shift Workers with and without Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes-Junior, Silvio Araújo; Ruiz, Francieli Silva; Antonietti, Leandro Stetner; Tufik, Sergio; Túlio de Mello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The reversal of the natural cycle of wakefulness and sleep may cause damage to the health of workers. However, there are few studies evaluating sleep, fatigue and quality of life of night shift workers considering the influence of small children on these variables. Aims Evaluate the sleep time, fatigue and quality of life of night shift workers and verify the relationship between these variables with the presence or absence of children in different age groups. Methods Were evaluated 78 mens shiftworkers, with or without children. Group 1, workers without children (G1-NC), group 2, workers with children pré-school age (G2-PS) and group 3, workers with children school age (G3-S). The sleep time (ST), sleep efficiency (SE), sleep latency (SL) and maximum time awake (MTA) were recorded by actigraphy. The risk of being fatigued at work was estimated by risk index for fatigue (RIF). Results The G1-NC showed a longer ST on working days and when evaluated only the first nights shift, after day off (p<0,005). This sample, the age of the children did not influence the sleep time these workers. The MTA on day off was lower in the workers from G2-PS. The RIF was lower on G1-NC in the first nights shift compared to the other groups. Conclusion In this research, workers without children had higher sleep time during the working days. These workers also were less likely to feel fatigued during night work than workers with children, regardless of age these children. PMID:27391478

  8. Driving home from the night shift: a bright light intervention study.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Denise M; Nikol, Maria; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2017-02-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs vigilance and increases the risk of driving accidents during the commute home after night work. Bright light (BL) can enhance alertness and cognitive performance. We examined the effects of BL (5600 lux) versus dim light (DL, 35 lux) at the end of a night awake on driving performance.

  9. Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species.

  10. Night-shift work and risk of compromised visual acuity among the workers in an electronics manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Ho, Kuo-Jung

    2017-09-20

    To evaluate the association between night-shift work exposure and visual health, this cross-sectional study utilized visual acuity, a surrogate measure for visual function, as a parameter, and performed an analysis comparing visual acuity between daytime and nighttime employees in an electronics manufacturing company. Data of personal histories, occupational records, physical examinations and blood tests was obtained from the electronic health records of workers. The total of 8280 workers including 3098 women and 5182 men, wearing their own daily used eyeglasses, were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the sample population was 34.7 years old (standard deviation = 5.4 years). All workers were divided into 3 work categories - consistent daytime worker (CDW), day-shift worker (DSW) and night-shift worker (NSW). The check-up results of glasses-corrected visual acuity (c-VA) were utilized to classify individuals as good (≥ 1.2, both eyes) and inadequate (< 0.8, the better eye) c-VA. Consistent daytime workers had the highest rate of good c-VA (42.5% vs. 25.1% DSW and 21.1% NSW, p = 0.047). Night-shift workers had the highest rate of inadequate c-VA (CDW, DSW and NSW: 2.6%, 6.2%, and 7.6%, p = 0.03) among all employees. After controlling for covariates, NSW were found at an increased risk for inadequate c-VA (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-3.6, vs. CDW), and less likely to have good c-VA (ORa = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.4-0.5, vs. CDW). Night-shift work is moderately associated with compromised visual acuity of employees in this electronics manufacturing company. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1).

  11. Shift in Food Intake and Changes in Metabolic Regulation and Gene Expression during Simulated Night-Shift Work: A Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Andrea Rørvik; Meerlo, Peter; Grønli, Janne; van Hasselt, Sjoerd Johan; Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Pedersen, Torhild Thue; Henriksen, Tone Elise Gjøtterud; Skrede, Silje

    2016-01-01

    Night-shift work is linked to a shift in food intake toward the normal sleeping period, and to metabolic disturbance. We applied a rat model of night-shift work to assess the immediate effects of such a shift in food intake on metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 8 h of forced activity during their rest (ZT2-10) or active (ZT14-22) phase. Food intake, body weight, and body temperature were monitored across four work days and eight recovery days. Food intake gradually shifted toward rest-work hours, stabilizing on work day three. A subgroup of animals was euthanized after the third work session for analysis of metabolic gene expression in the liver by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results show that work in the rest phase shifted food intake to rest-work hours. Moreover, liver genes related to energy storage and insulin metabolism were upregulated, and genes related to energy breakdown were downregulated compared to non-working time-matched controls. Both working groups lost weight during the protocol and regained weight during recovery, but animals that worked in the rest phase did not fully recover, even after eight days of recovery. In conclusion, three to four days of work in the rest phase is sufficient to induce disruption of several metabolic parameters, which requires more than eight days for full recovery. PMID:27834804

  12. Shift in Food Intake and Changes in Metabolic Regulation and Gene Expression during Simulated Night-Shift Work: A Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Marti, Andrea Rørvik; Meerlo, Peter; Grønli, Janne; van Hasselt, Sjoerd Johan; Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Pedersen, Torhild Thue; Henriksen, Tone Elise Gjøtterud; Skrede, Silje

    2016-11-08

    Night-shift work is linked to a shift in food intake toward the normal sleeping period, and to metabolic disturbance. We applied a rat model of night-shift work to assess the immediate effects of such a shift in food intake on metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 8 h of forced activity during their rest (ZT2-10) or active (ZT14-22) phase. Food intake, body weight, and body temperature were monitored across four work days and eight recovery days. Food intake gradually shifted toward rest-work hours, stabilizing on work day three. A subgroup of animals was euthanized after the third work session for analysis of metabolic gene expression in the liver by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results show that work in the rest phase shifted food intake to rest-work hours. Moreover, liver genes related to energy storage and insulin metabolism were upregulated, and genes related to energy breakdown were downregulated compared to non-working time-matched controls. Both working groups lost weight during the protocol and regained weight during recovery, but animals that worked in the rest phase did not fully recover, even after eight days of recovery. In conclusion, three to four days of work in the rest phase is sufficient to induce disruption of several metabolic parameters, which requires more than eight days for full recovery.

  13. Influence of night-shift and napping at work on urinary melatonin, 17-β-estradiol and clock gene expression in pre-menopausal nurses.

    PubMed

    Bracci, M; Copertaro, A; Manzella, N; Staffolani, S; Strafella, E; Nocchi, L; Barbaresi, M; Copertaro, B; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Santarelli, L

    2013-01-01

    Night-workers experience disruption of the sleep-wake cycle and light at night which may increase breast cancer risk by suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge, resulting in higher levels of circulating estrogens. Night-work may also deregulate peripheral clock genes which have been found to be altered in breast cancer. This study investigated urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), serum 17-beta-estradiol levels in premenopausal shift nurses at the end of the night-shift compared to a control group of daytime nurses. Peripheral clock gene expression in lymphocytes were also investigated. All participants were sampled in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The effect of nurses’ ability to take a short nap during the night-shift was also explored. The shift-work group had significantly lower aMT6s levels than daytime nurses independently of a nap. Night-shift napping significantly influences 17-beta-estradiol levels resulting in higher outcomes in nurses who do not take a nap compared to napping group and daytime workers. Peripheral clock genes expression investigated was not significantly different among the groups. Our findings suggest that shift nurses experience changes in aMT6s levels after a night-shift. Napping habits influence 17-beta-estradiol levels at the end of a night-shift. These findings might be related to the increased cancer risk reported in night-shift workers and suggest that a short nap during night-shifts may exert a positive effect.

  14. The Association of Sleep Deprivation on the Occurrence of Errors by Nurses Who Work the Night Shift

    PubMed Central

    RAMADAN, MOHAMED ZAKI; AL-SALEH, KHALID SAAD

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of sleep deprivation on the occurrence of errors by registered nurses working in night shift in intensive care departments. Methods: The study utilized a multi-part questionnaire which included items about demographic characteristics, reported medical errors, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 300 questionnaires were distributed to registered nurses working in intensive care departments. 138 of the 153 (51% response rate) collected questionnaires were analyzed using correlation and stepwise logistic multiple regression. Results: Registered nurses who were sleep deprived had worse sleep quality in terms of high PSQI than those who were not. None of the demographic variables was statistically significant, not providing evidence that these variables may explain odds for being sleep deprived in the population. Conclusions: Work schedule changes, offering shorter periods of time on night shift and less working hours in the week may lead to better sleep quality and less sleep deprivation. PMID:25729589

  15. Shifting from implicit to explicit knowledge: different roles of early- and late-night sleep.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-07-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in this process. Implicit and explicit knowledge (insight) related to a hidden regularity were assessed in an associative motor-learning task (number reduction task, NRT), which was performed in two sessions (initial practice and retest) separated by 3 h of either early-night sleep, rich in SWS, or of late-night sleep, rich in REM sleep. About half of the participants developed signs of implicit rule knowledge (i.e., speeded reaction times for responses determined by the hidden regularity) at initial practice preceding early or late sleep. Of these, half developed explicit knowledge across early-night sleep, significantly more than across late-night sleep. In contrast, late-night subjects preferentially remained on the level of implicit rule knowledge after sleep. Participants who did not develop implicit knowledge before sleep had comparable rates of transition to implicit or explicit knowledge across early and late sleep. If subjects gained explicit knowledge across sleep, this was associated with lower amounts of REM sleep, specifically in the late-night group. SWS predominant during the early night may restructure implicit memory representations in a way that allows creating an explicit representation afterward, whereas REM sleep in the late night appears to stabilize them in their implicit form.

  16. The effectiveness of light/dark exposure to treat insomnia in female nurses undertaking shift work during the evening/night shift.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Bi; Tsai, Mei-Chu; Chen, Ching-Yen; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

    2013-07-15

    The present study investigated whether bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift combined with light attenuation in the morning is effective in improving sleep problems in nurses undertaking rotating shift work who suffer from clinical insomnia. This was a prospective, randomized control study. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used to evaluate insomnia and anxiety/depression severity, respectively. Female hospital nurses on rotating shifts during the evening or night shift with an ISI score > 14 were enrolled. Subjects in the treatment group (n = 46) were exposed to bright light at 7,000-10,000 lux for ≥ 30 minutes. Exposure was continued for at least 10 days during 2 weeks, and the subjects avoided daytime outdoor sun exposure after work by wearing dark sunglasses. Subjects in the control group (n = 46) were not exposed to bright light, but also wore sunglasses after work. Statistical analyses were performed to examine group differences and differences across treatments. After treatment, the treatment group showed significant improvements in the ISI score and the HADS total and subscale scores as compared with pre-treatment. The ISI, HADS, and subscales of the HADS scores were significantly improved across treatments in the treatment group as compared with the control group. The design of this study is easy to put into practice in the real world. This is the first study to document that a higher intensity and briefer duration of bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift with a daytime darkness procedure performed in rotating shift work female nurses suffering from clinical insomnia could improve their insomnia, anxiety, and depression severity.

  17. Effects of two 15-min naps on the subjective sleepiness, fatigue and heart rate variability of night shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Oriyama, Sanae; Miyakoshi, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two 15-min naps on nurses who work at night in a three-shift system. Of the 15 nurses who were included as study subjects on a night shift, eight took two short naps (the Nap condition), and seven worked without taking a nap (the No-nap condition) during the night shift. We measured sublingual temperature and the bispectral index (BIS), obtained heart rate and heart rate variability measures from an electrocardiogram (ECG), and evaluated sleepiness and fatigue levels every hour using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Both subjective sleepiness and fatigue increased between 4:00 and 5:00, with no significant differences observed between the two groups. However, the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF) in the Nap condition group was found to be significantly lower than in the No-nap condition group. Furthermore, a sudden, brief increase in HF values was observed in the No-nap condition group in the morning. The results of this study suggest that taking two short naps may effectively reduce tension and prevent a brief increase in HF values by suppressing sympathetic nervous activity in the morning.

  18. Comparison of the oral health problems and behavior of male daytime-only and night-shift office workers: An Internet survey

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Yoichi; Yoshino, Koichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Maki, Yoshinobu; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the oral health problems and behavior of full-time male daytime-only and night shift office workers. Methods: The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. During the period of 20 February 2015 to 11 March 2015, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their oral health. A total of 325 daytime-only workers and 351 workers who sometimes worked night shifts, ages 30 to 69, were analyzed in this study. Results: Overall, the mean number of teeth of the night shift workers was lower than that of the daytime-only workers (p=0.002). When analyzed by age group, a significant difference was seen in the 50-69 age group (p=0.016). The percentage of night shift workers with decayed teeth was higher than that of the daytime-only workers (p<0.001). The night shift workers were more likely to report gingival bleeding (p=0.015) and stomatitis (p=0.025) than the daytime-only workers. The percentage of night shift workers reporting frequent brushing behavior was lower than that of the daytime-only workers (p=0.040). The independent variables found to correlate significantly with tooth decay were night shift work (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.20-2.67), current smoking habit (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.13-2.46), and BMI of ≥25 (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02-2.39). Conclusions: These results indicate a relationship between night shift work and oral health problems. Night shift workers may require additional support for oral health maintenance. PMID:27010087

  19. Sleep inertia associated with a 10-min nap before the commute home following a night shift: A laboratory simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Centofanti, Stephanie A; Van Dongen, Hans P; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-02-01

    Night shift workers are at risk of road accidents due to sleepiness on the commute home. A brief nap at the end of the night shift, before the commute, may serve as a sleepiness countermeasure. However, there is potential for sleep inertia, i.e. transient impairment immediately after awakening from the nap. We investigated whether sleep inertia diminishes the effectiveness of napping as a sleepiness countermeasure before a simulated commute after a simulated night shift. N=21 healthy subjects (aged 21-35 y; 12 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study. After a baseline night, subjects were kept awake for 27h for a simulated night shift. They were randomised to either receive a 10-min nap ending at 04:00 plus a 10-min pre-drive nap ending at 07:10 (10-NAP) or total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP). A 40-min York highway driving task was performed at 07:15 to simulate the commute. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Scale (SP-Fatigue) were administered at 06:30 (pre-nap), 07:12 (post-nap), and 07:55 (post-drive). In the 10-NAP condition, total pre-drive nap sleep time was 9.1±1.2min (mean±SD), with 1.3±1.9min spent in slow wave sleep, as determined polysomnographically. There was no difference between conditions in PVT-B performance at 06:30 (before the nap). In the 10-NAP condition, PVT-B performance was worse after the nap (07:12) compared to before the nap (06:30); no change across time was found in the NO-NAP condition. There was no significant difference between conditions in PVT-B performance after the drive. SP-Fatigue and driving performance did not differ significantly between conditions. In conclusion, the pre-drive nap showed objective, but not subjective, evidence of sleep inertia immediately after awakening. The 10-min nap did not affect driving performance during the simulated commute home, and was not effective as a sleepiness countermeasure.

  20. Professional shift-work drivers who adopt prophylactic naps can reduce the risk of car accidents during night work.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, Sergio; Mascialino, Barbara; Penco, Maria Antonietta; Squarcia, Sandro; De Carli, Fabrizio; Nobili, Lino; Beelke, Manolo; Cuomo, Gianni; Ferrillo, Franco

    2004-11-01

    Night work can be dangerous because both circadian sleep propensity (process C) and sleep pressure due to the prolonged wakefulness (process S) contribute to the reduction of vigilance levels. As naps are a countermeasure to sleepiness, this study evaluates the role they play in preventing sleep-related accidents in Italian shift-working police drivers. The study concerns highway car accidents that occurred to Italian shift-working police drivers; it was performed in 2 steps: a retrospective analysis of the overall number of accidents that occurred during the years 1993--1997 (n, 1195), followed by a validation analysis of a smaller cohort of accidents prospectively collected during 2003 (n, 84). N/A. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: The influence of process S, process C, driver characteristics, and context conditions on accident risk, estimated by means of Cox hazard regression, revealed that nighttime accident risk was mainly influenced by process S levels. Consequently, an experimental mathematical model linking the hourly observed number of accidents to process S levels was designed. Its generalization to the theoretical case of drivers omitting naps showed an increase of about 38% of accidents. PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: In order to validate our results, we compared retrospective and prospective sleep patterns: no statistical difference was found. Again, the hourly number of accidents increased with homeostatic sleep pressure; the theoretical efficacy of napping was quantified in 48% accidents decrease. Our data seem to confirm that napping before working a night shift is an effective countermeasure to alertness and performance deterioration associated with night work. Moreover, this self-initiated behavior could have a prophylactic efficacy in reducing the number of car accidents.

  1. Did a brief nap break have positive benefits on information processing among nurses working on the first 8-h night shift?

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-San; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Mei Rou; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers frequently experience acute sleep deprivation on first night shift. This study compared the efficacy of 30-min nap (between 2 and 3 a.m.) on the visual attention ability of the nurses working at first 8-h night shift at the time of maximum fatigue (between 3 and 4 a.m.). In addition, we measured cognitive function (between 9 and 10 a.m.) in nurses working on daytime shift, which we defined as baseline wakefulness. The results showed that working on the night shift groups was associated with sleep loss, leading to a decrease in visual attention performance compared to the daytime shift group. There was no statistically significant difference in the visual attention performance between those taking and not taking a nap during the night shift, however the effect size was medium in the information process. It was still needed increase sample size to draw the conclusion regarding a 30-min nap break have positive benefits on perceptual speed during the first night shift.

  2. Night-Vision Goggle Visual Performance During 12 Hours at 10,000 ft Altitude at Night Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) I 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From...Balldin, Ulf, 1. 1, T utt, Ronald, c. 2 , Dart, Todd, S. 2 , and Fischer, Joseph3 7757 5e. TASK NUMBER P8 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 09 7. PERFORMING...calculated that 7.98% .of the pilots In thiS study will require specific health improvement programs and clase medical manitarin~ ta madify their cardi

  3. The effects of a self-selected nap opportunity on the psychophysiological, performance and subjective measures during a simulated industrial night shift regimen.

    PubMed

    Davy, Jonathan; Göbel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a 1 h self-selected recovery period to those of a standard night shift arrangement (with a total break time of 1-h) over a simulated three-day night shift schedule in a laboratory setting. Results showed that the inclusion of the flexible nap scheme resulted in higher performance output, improvements in physiological strain responses and reduced sleepiness during each night shift and generally over the three-night cycle. Certain variables also revealed the impact of napping compared with the standard rest break condition on the circadian rhythm. The sleep diary records show that the inclusion of the current intervention did not significantly reduce daytime recovery sleep. The results suggest that the potential benefits of flexible napping may outweigh the logistical effort it requires in a workplace environment. Consensus on appropriate napping strategies for shift work remains a challenge. This simulated night shift laboratory study sought to determine the effects of a 1-h self-selected nap opportunity relative to a normal shift set-up. The nap improved performance and decreased sleepiness, without affecting daytime sleep.

  4. Job demands and resting and napping opportunities for nurses during night shifts: impact on sleepiness and self-evaluated quality of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Barthe, Béatrice; Tirilly, Ghislaine; Gentil, Catherine; Toupin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this field study is to describe night shift resting and napping strategies and to examine their beneficial effects on sleepiness and quality of work. The study was carried out with 16 nurses working in an intensive care unit. Data collected during 20 night shifts were related to job demands (systematic observations), to the duration and timing of rests and naps taken by nurses (systematic observations, sleep diaries), to sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and to quality of work scores (visual analog scale). The results showed that the number of rests and naps depended on the job demands. Resting and napping lowered the levels of sleepiness at the end of the shift. There was no direct relationship between sleepiness and the quality of work score. Discussions about the choice of indicators for the quality of work are necessary. Suggestions for implementing regulations for prescribed napping during night shifts are presented.

  5. Morphogenesis, Flowering, and Gene Expression of Dendranthema grandiflorum in Response to Shift in Light Quality of Night Interruption.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Gyeong; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-07-21

    The impact of shifts in the spectral quality of light on morphogenesis, flowering, and photoperiodic gene expression during exposure to light quality of night interruption (NI) was investigated in Dendranthema grandiflorum. The circadian rhythms of plants grown in a closed walk-in growth chamber were interrupted at night for a total of 4 h, using light-emitting diodes with an intensity of 10 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ PPF. The light quality of the NI was shifted from one wavelength to another after the first 2 h. Light treatments consisting of all possible pairings of blue (B), red (R), far-red (Fr), and white (W) light were tested. Plants in the NI treatment groups exposed to Fr light grew larger than plants in other treatment groups. Of plants in NI treatment groups, those in the NI-WB treatment grew the least. In addition, the impact of shifts in the light quality of NI on leaf expansion was greater in treatment groups exposed to a combination of either B and R or R and W light, regardless of their order of supply. Flowering was observed in the NI-RB, NI-FrR, NI-BFr, NI-FrB, NI-WB, NI-FrW, NI-WFr, NI-WR, and SD (short-day) treatments, and was especially promoted in the NI-BFr and NI-FrB treatments. In a combined shift treatment of B and R or B and W light, the NI concluded with B light (NI-RB and NI-WB) treatment induced flowering. The transcriptional factors phyA, cry1 and FTL (FLOWERING LOCUS T) were positively affected, while phyB and AFT were negatively affected. In conclusion, morphogenesis, flowering, and transcriptional factors were all significantly affected either positively or negatively by shifts in the light quality of NI. The light quality of the first 2 h of NI affected neither morphogenesis nor flowering, while the light quality of the last 2 h of NI significantly affected both morphogenesis and flowering.

  6. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (<2 weeks) exposure to DLAN are unspecified. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations would arise in response to just 2 weeks of DLAN. Specifically, we predicted that mice exposed to dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  7. Response to Dr Stevens' letter ref. Visitisen et al: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data".

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Frydenberg, Morten; Christiansen, Peer; Vistisen, Helene Tilma; Bonde, Jens Peter E

    2017-01-01

    We thank Dr Richard Stevens for his comments (1) on our recent article that showed no increased risk of breast cancer following recent night shift work when compared with recent day shift work (2). This finding was based on linkage of day-by-day information on working hours and breast cancer incidence data. Results are thus less likely to have been biased by differential misclassification than findings from earlier studies relying on self-report (3). We defined a night shift as ≥3 hours of work between 24:00-05:00 hours and a day shift as ≥3 hours work between 6:00-20:00 hours. This day shift definition did not exclude shifts starting before 05:00 or ending after 24:00 hours. However, this affected only 0.02% and 0.3% of all day shifts, respectively. This diminutive misclassification, that is expected to be non-differential, can hardly explain our negative findings. It is suggested that shifts that begin after 07:00 and end before 18:00 would constitute a more sensible baseline comparison group. Since the biological mechanism is not certain, it is not obvious to us if this will be a more appropriate reference than the present. However, we agree that future studies should test how different definitions of shifts affect the risk of breast cancer, which will be possible using this type of data. We only had information on working hours from 2007 and onwards, and night shift work prior to 2007 could have confounded our analyses towards no effect but only if inversely associated with night shift work in 2007 or later. We find this unlikely. Left truncation could also have biased findings towards the null. We therefore supplemented analyses of the total study population with analyses of the one-third of the population with first recorded employment in 2008 or later (the inception population). Even if the mean age was 35.5 years - and many undoubtedly had been working (with and without night shifts) prior to 2008 - this population should be less affected by such

  8. Effects of night shift working on some immunological, prostate specific antigen, cortisol level and malondialdehyde in male nurses at Hawler city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Dilshad Hussein; Qadir, Fikry Ali

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to show the effects of nightshift working on some immunological, serum cortisol level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) on male nurses in Hawler city hospitals. After performing the exclusion and inclusion criteria, ninety-six male nurses were participated in this study. According to working shifts, the participants were divided into two groups. First group includes sixty seven night-shift male nurses working for 3-12 years with 8-10 nights/month. The second group consisted of twenty-nine day-shift male nurses working for 3-12 years. The age range of both groups was (≥20-40≤). The second group was used as a control group for statistical comparison. The results showed that night-shift working in male nurses was associated with significant increases in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (77.15 ± 3.328 vs.101.1 ± 6.968, p=0.024), interleukin-2 (IL-2) (1147 ± 59.54vs1626 ± 34.71, p=0.001), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (272.3 ± 16.00 vs. 319.6 ± 12.48, p=0.029) when compared with day-shift group. Two-fold significant increase of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (3154 ± 403.3 vs. 6739 ± 334.0, p=0.001) was found in nightshift group as compared with day-shift group. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) estimation showed no significant increase in night-shift group in comparison with day-shift group (1.755 ± 0.202 vs. 1.987 ± 0.159, p=0.424). The results also showed that night-shift working was associated with significant elevations in serum cortisol levels when compared with dayshift nurses (7.844 ± 0.529 vs. 11.18 ± 0.406, p=0.001). Similar significant increasing was also observed for serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (1.124 ± 0.075 vs. 1.681 ± 0.079, p=0.001) in night-shift group when compared with day-shift group.

  9. Health consequences of electric lighting practices in the modern world: A report on the National Toxicology Program's workshop on shift work at night, artificial light at night, and circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Lunn, Ruth M; Blask, David E; Coogan, Andrew N; Figueiro, Mariana G; Gorman, Michael R; Hall, Janet E; Hansen, Johnni; Nelson, Randy J; Panda, Satchidananda; Smolensky, Michael H; Stevens, Richard G; Turek, Fred W; Vermeulen, Roel; Carreón, Tania; Caruso, Claire C; Lawson, Christina C; Thayer, Kristina A; Twery, Michael J; Ewens, Andrew D; Garner, Sanford C; Schwingl, Pamela J; Boyd, Windy A

    2017-12-31

    The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN. Because of the complexity of this topic, the National Toxicology Program convened an expert panel at a public workshop entitled "Shift Work at Night, Artificial Light at Night, and Circadian Disruption" to obtain input on conducting literature-based health hazard assessments and to identify data gaps and research needs. The Panel suggested describing light both as a direct effector of endogenous circadian clocks and rhythms and as an enabler of additional activities or behaviors that may lead to circadian disruption, such as night-shift work and atypical and inconsistent sleep-wake patterns that can lead to social jet lag. Future studies should more comprehensively characterize and measure the relevant light-related exposures and link these exposures to both time-independent biomarkers of circadian disruption and biomarkers of adverse health outcomes. This information should lead to improvements in human epidemiological and animal or in vitro models, more rigorous health hazard assessments, and intervention strategies to minimize the occurrence of adverse health outcomes due to these exposures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of extended work shifts on employee fatigue, health, satisfaction, work/family balance, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    12-hour shifts are quickly spreading in Europe. From our multivariate analysis concerning 25,924 European nurses, including twenty explanatory variables simultaneously, we found that work schedule itself is not a major determinant factor. Nurses aim to choose or accept night shifts or 12-hour shift in order to reduce their work/home conflicts, however, at the expense of the patient's safety, as well as their own health and safety. Therefore, it is important to develop measures, such as extended child care, association of nurses to the elaboration of their rota, 9- or 10-hour shifts in the afternoon, allowing naps during night shifts, and reduction of changing shifts with short notice. Work schedules must be organized in order to allow time for shift handover, social support and team building.

  11. Sleep duration as a mediator between an alternating day and night shift work schedule and metabolic syndrome among female hospital employees.

    PubMed

    Korsiak, Jill; Tranmer, Joan; Day, Andrew; Aronson, Kristan J

    2017-08-23

    The main objective was to determine whether sleep duration on work shifts mediates the relationship between a current alternating day and night shift work schedule and metabolic syndrome among female hospital employees. The secondary objective was to assess whether cumulative lifetime shift work exposure was associated with metabolic syndrome. In this cross-sectional study of 294 female hospital employees, sleep duration was measured with the ActiGraph GT3X+. Shift work status was determined through self-report. Investigation of the total, direct and indirect effects between shift work, sleep duration on work shifts and metabolic syndrome was conducted using regression path analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between cumulative shift work exposure and metabolic syndrome. Shift work is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome (ORTotal=2.72, 95% CI 1.38 to 5.36), and the relationship is attenuated when work shift sleep duration is added to the model (ORDirect=1.18, 95% CI 0.49 to 2.89). Sleep duration is an important intermediate between shift work and metabolic syndrome (ORIndirect=2.25, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.26). Cumulative shift work exposure is not associated with metabolic syndrome in this population. Sleep duration mediates the association between a current alternating day-night shift work pattern and metabolic syndrome. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Who wants feedback? An investigation of the variables influencing residents' feedback-seeking behavior in relation to night shifts.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Pim W; Stapel, Diederik A; van der Vleuten, Cees; Scherpbier, Albert; Boor, Klarke; Scheele, Fedde

    2009-07-01

    The literature on feedback in clinical medical education has predominantly treated trainees as passive recipients. Past research has focused on how clinical supervisors can use feedback to improve a trainee's performance. On the basis of research in social and organizational psychology, the authors reconceptualized residents as active seekers of feedback. They investigated what individual and situational variables influence residents' feedback-seeking behavior on night shifts. Early in 2008, the authors sent obstetrics-gynecology residents in the Netherlands--both those in their first two years of graduate training and those gaining experience between undergraduate and graduate training--a questionnaire that assessed four predictor variables (learning and performance goal orientation, and instrumental and supportive leadership), two mediator variables (perceived feedback benefits and costs), and two outcome variables (frequency of feedback inquiry and monitoring). They used structural equation modeling software to test a hypothesized model of relationships between variables. The response rate was 76.5%. Results showed that residents who perceive more feedback benefits report a higher frequency of feedback inquiry and monitoring. More perceived feedback costs result mainly in more feedback monitoring. Residents with a higher learning goal orientation perceive more feedback benefits and fewer costs. Residents with a higher performance goal orientation perceive more feedback costs. Supportive physicians lead residents to perceive more feedback benefits and fewer costs. This study showed that some residents actively seek feedback. Residents' feedback-seeking behavior partially depends on attending physicians' supervisory style. Residents' goal orientations influence their perceptions of the benefits and costs of feedback-seeking.

  13. Letter in reference to: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data".

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    There are major flaws with the analyses in the Vistisen et al (1) cohort study examining if night shift work is a short-term risk factor for breast cancer. The crucial problem is the potential for exposure misclassification, which is very high. The authors' definition of day shift is "≥3 hours of work between 06:00-20:00 hours". This means that a worker on an 8-hour shift that begins at 03:00 hours would be classified as a day rather than night shift worker because he/she worked only two hours between 24:00-05:00 hours. Similarly, a second shifter might start work at 17:00 but not get off until 01:00 and yet still be classified as a "day shift" worker. This does not make sense as a baseline comparison group "unexposed" to work during the night hours. A sensible classification system would be to define "day shift" as any shift that begins after 07:00 and ends before 18:00 hours. This is straightforward and avoids all of the ambiguities inherent in the definition used by the authors. In addition, the authors claim that the "inception population" is less likely to have had past prior non-day work hours. However, this group has an average age of >35 years. It is inconceivable that all of these women were new graduates who started a public health sector job for the first time. Rather, the majority must surely have worked elsewhere for many years but then started in the regions covered only after 2006. This topic is too important, and this cohort too valuable, not to carefully define the baseline comparison group of "day workers" in a sensible manner. All the inferences rely crucially on this definition. The authors have the data to define the day-working baseline group in a way that avoids these obvious biases. That is why it is so frustrating that the authors chose to conduct the analyses as they did, with a highly flawed definition of "day work", when they could have done so much better. A highly flawed epidemiological report is worse than no report at all because

  14. Klokwerk + study protocol: An observational study to the effects of night-shift work on body weight and infection susceptibility and the mechanisms underlying these health effects.

    PubMed

    Loef, Bette; van Baarle, Debbie; van der Beek, Allard J; van Kerkhof, Linda W; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla; Proper, Karin I

    2016-08-02

    Night-shift work may cause severe disturbances in the worker's circadian rhythm, which has been associated with the onset of health problems and diseases. As a substantial part of the workforce is exposed to night-shift work, harmful aspects of night-shift work should not be overlooked. The aim of the Klokwerk + study is to study the effects of night-shift work on body weight and infection susceptibility and the mechanisms underlying these health effects. First, we will study the relation between night-shift work exposure and body weight and between night-shift work exposure and infection susceptibility. Second, we will examine the mechanisms linking night-shift work exposure to body weight and infection susceptibility, with a specific focus on sleep, physical activity, diet, light exposure, vitamin D level, and immunological factors. Lastly, we will focus on the identification of biomarkers for chronic circadian disturbance associated with night-shift work. The design of this study is a prospective observational cohort study consisting of 1,960 health care workers aged 18-65 years. The study population will consist of a group of night-shift workers and an equally sized group of non-night-shift workers. During the study, there will be two measurement periods. As one of the main outcomes of this study is infection susceptibility, the measurement periods will take place at approximately the first (September/October) (T0) and the last month (April/May) (T1, after 6 months) of the flu season. The measurements will consist of questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, a smartphone application to determine infection susceptibility, food diaries, actigraphy, light sensors, and blood sample analyses. The Klokwerk + study will contribute to the current need for high-quality data on the health effects of night-shift work and its underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms. The findings can be the starting point for the development of interventions that

  15. Personal light-at-night exposures and components of variability in two common shift work industries: uses and implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2017-09-26

    Objectives Shift workers' increased risk of various adverse health outcomes has been linked to light-at-night (LAN) exposure, but few studies have measured LAN exposure in workplaces. To inform future research methods, this study aimed to (i) measure shift workers' exposures to LAN across industries, occupations, and work environments and (ii) assess components of variance across different exposure groupings and metrics. Methods Between October 2015 and March 2016, 152 personal full-shift measurements were collected from 102 night shift workers in emergency health services (paramedics, dispatchers) and healthcare industries (nurses, care aides, security guards, unit clerks, and laboratory, pharmacy, and respiratory therapy staff) in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Descriptive and variance component analyses were conducted for the 23:00-05:00 period to characterize exposures using multiple metrics of potential biological relevance (median lux, 90 (th)percentile lux, sum of minutes ≥30 lux, and sum of minutes ≥100 lux). Results Average exposure levels were highest in the healthcare industry. By occupation, laboratory workers and care aides displayed the highest and emergency dispatch officers displayed the lowest levels for all LAN exposure metrics. Between-group variance was large relative to within-group variance for all exposure groupings and metrics, and increased as grouping specificity increased (moving from industry to occupation). Conclusions Results from this study suggest that high-level grouping schemes may provide a simple yet effective way of characterizing individual LAN exposures in epidemiological studies of shift work. Ongoing measurement of LAN exposures and assessment of exposure variability is needed in future studies of shift workers as a means to increase sampling efficiency, reduce measurement error, and maximize researchers' ability to detect relationships where they exist.

  16. Abbreviated (12-hour) versus traditional (24-hour) postpartum magnesium sulfate therapy in severe pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Maia, Sabina B; Katz, Leila; Neto, Carlos Noronha; Caiado, Bárbara V R; Azevedo, Ana P R L; Amorim, Melania M R

    2014-09-01

    To compare the use of magnesium sulfate for 12 hours versus 24 hours in postpartum women with stable severe pre-eclampsia. In 2011, an open randomized clinical trial was conducted with 120 postpartum women with severe pre-eclampsia who gave birth at a tertiary hospital in Brazil; 60 women received magnesium sulfate for 24 hours and 60 for 12 hours. The analysis was by intention-to-treat and the intervention was not masked. Abbreviated (12-hour) magnesium sulfate therapy was associated with less exposure to the drug, and clinical outcomes were similar in both groups. No woman developed eclampsia and there was no need to re-initiate treatment after completing the scheduled magnesium sulfate therapy in either group. Magnesium sulfate therapy was extended in only three women in the 12-hour group. In addition, in this group, significant reductions were found in the duration of postpartum use of an indwelling bladder catheter, the time to ambulation, and the time to maternal contact with the newborn. Abbreviated postpartum magnesium sulfate therapy in patients with stable severe pre-eclampsia was associated with less drug exposure, similar outcomes, and benefits such as a reduction in the time to contact with the newborn. clinicaltrials.gov NCT1408979. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Night shift work and inflammatory markers in male workers aged 20-39 in a display manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Woo; Jang, Eun-Chul; Kwon, Soon-Chan; Han, Wook; Kang, Min-Sung; Nam, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Yong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between shift work and inflammatory markers, which are independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, in male manual workers at a display manufacturing company. This study was conducted between June 1 and July 31, 2015 on 244 male manual workers aged 20-39 years old at a display manufacturing company and investigated age, marital status, education level, alcohol consumption habit, smoking habit, regular exercise habit, sleep duration, sleep debt, sleep insufficiency, past medical history, current and past shift work experience, duration of shift work, and weekly work hours through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires and performed blood tests. Study participants were divided into daytime, former shift, and current shift workers based on the work schedule. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were performed to compare inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease risk factors, and analyses of covariance were conducted after adjusting for variables potentially affecting inflammatory markers. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; mean ± standard deviation) levels in daytime, former shift, and current shift workers were 0.65 ± 0.43, 0.75 ± 0.43, and 0.86 ± 0.72 mg/L, respectively (p = 0.029). The leukocyte count (mean ± standard deviation) was 5,556 ± 1,123, 6,210 ± 1,366, and 6,530 ± 1,216 cells/μL, respectively (p < 0.001). Both hs-CRP level and leukocyte count were significantly higher in current shift workers than in daytime workers, and leukocyte count was higher in former shift workers than in daytime workers. After adjusting for variables potentially affecting inflammatory markers, hs-CRP levels (adjusted mean ± standard deviation) in daytime and current shift workers were 0.59 ± 0.06 and 0.92 ± 0.07 mg/L, respectively (p = 0.002). The leukocyte count (adjusted mean ± standard deviation) was 5

  18. Night Sweats

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Night sweats By Mayo Clinic Staff Night sweats are repeated episodes of extreme perspiration that may soak your nightclothes or ... these episodes are usually not labeled as night sweats and typically aren't a sign of a ...

  19. Ramelteon prior to a short evening nap impairs neurobehavioral performance for up to 12 hours after awakening.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Daniel A; Wang, Wei; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2010-12-15

    Planned naps can improve performance when the habitual or nocturnal sleep schedule is disrupted. It may be difficult, however, to achieve sleep during a nap, particularly during the circadian peak in alertness in the early evening. Prior studies with the melatonin agonist, ramelteon, reported that this hypnotic does not impair neurobehavioral performance. We tested whether ramelteon could improve nap efficiency in the early evening and subsequent performance during a simulated 8-h night shift. 10 healthy volunteers aged 19-31 years participated in an inpatient randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Ramelteon 8 mg or placebo was administered 30 min prior to a 2-h nap opportunity commencing 13 h after each individual's habitual morning wake time. Ramelteon did not significantly affect sleep efficiency during the nap prior to the night shift. Following the nap, ramelteon was associated with significantly worse neurobehavioral performance on assessments immediately following the nap and during the simulated night shift. Although ramelteon did not significantly affect sleep during the nap, it was associated with significant impairments in neurobehavioral performance for up to 12 h after administration. High homeostatic sleep pressure combined with the circadian performance nadir may increase the vulnerability to hypnotic-induced neurobehavioral impairments. The findings do not support the use of ramelteon prior to an evening prophylactic nap, as there may be residual effects that last for several hours. Furthermore, this study highlights the pitfalls of applying side-effect profiles obtained in one context to another.

  20. Risk Balancing of Cold Ischemic Time against Night Shift Surgery Possibly Reduces Rates of Reoperation and Perioperative Graft Loss

    PubMed Central

    Boeckler, Julius; Ringe, Bastian P.; Koch, Hans Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Background. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the advantages of risk balancing between prolonged cold ischemic time (CIT) and late night surgery. Methods. 1262 deceased donor kidney transplantations were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) for reoperation, graft loss, delayed graft function (DGF), and discharge on dialysis. CIT was categorized according to a forward stepwise pattern ≤1h/>1h, ≤2h/>2h, ≤3h/>3h,…, ≤nh/>nh. ORs for DGF were plotted against CIT and a nonlinear regression function with best R2 was identified. First and second derivative were then implemented into the curvature formula k(x) = f′′(x)/(1 + f′(x)2)3/2 to determine the point of highest CIT-mediated risk acceleration. Results. Surgery between 3 AM and 6 AM is an independent risk factor for reoperation and graft loss, whereas prolonged CIT is only relevant for DGF. CIT-mediated risk for DGF follows an exponential pattern f(x) = A · (1 + k · e(I · x)) with a cut-off for the highest risk increment at 23.5 hours. Conclusions. The risk of surgery at 3 AM–6 AM outweighs prolonged CIT when confined within 23.5 hours as determined by a new mathematical approach to calculate turning points of nonlinear time related risks. CIT is only relevant for the endpoint of DGF but had no impact on discharge on dialysis, reoperation, or graft loss. PMID:28203455

  1. Risk Balancing of Cold Ischemic Time against Night Shift Surgery Possibly Reduces Rates of Reoperation and Perioperative Graft Loss.

    PubMed

    Emmanouilidis, Nikos; Boeckler, Julius; Ringe, Bastian P; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Lehner, Frank; Koch, Hans Friedrich; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schrem, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Background. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the advantages of risk balancing between prolonged cold ischemic time (CIT) and late night surgery. Methods. 1262 deceased donor kidney transplantations were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) for reoperation, graft loss, delayed graft function (DGF), and discharge on dialysis. CIT was categorized according to a forward stepwise pattern ≤1h/>1h, ≤2h/>2h, ≤3h/>3h,…, ≤nh/>nh. ORs for DGF were plotted against CIT and a nonlinear regression function with best R(2) was identified. First and second derivative were then implemented into the curvature formula k(x) = f''(x)/(1 + f'(x)(2))(3/2) to determine the point of highest CIT-mediated risk acceleration. Results. Surgery between 3 AM and 6 AM is an independent risk factor for reoperation and graft loss, whereas prolonged CIT is only relevant for DGF. CIT-mediated risk for DGF follows an exponential pattern f(x) = A · (1 + k · e((I · x))) with a cut-off for the highest risk increment at 23.5 hours. Conclusions. The risk of surgery at 3 AM-6 AM outweighs prolonged CIT when confined within 23.5 hours as determined by a new mathematical approach to calculate turning points of nonlinear time related risks. CIT is only relevant for the endpoint of DGF but had no impact on discharge on dialysis, reoperation, or graft loss.

  2. Effect of sleep deprivation after a night shift duty on simulated crisis management by residents in anaesthesia. A randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Arzalier-Daret, Ségolène; Buléon, Clément; Bocca, Marie-Laure; Denise, Pierre; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc

    2017-09-04

    Sleep deprivation has been associated with an increased incidence of medical errors and can jeopardise patients' safety during medical crisis management. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of sleep deprivation on the management of simulated anaesthesia crisis by residents in anaesthesiology. A randomised, comparative, monocentric crossover study involving 48 residents in anaesthesia was performed on a high fidelity patient simulator. Each resident was evaluated in a sleep-deprived state (deprived group, after a night shift duty) and control state (control group, after a night of sleep). Performance was assessed through points obtained during crisis scenario 1 (oesophageal intubation followed by anaphylactic shock) and scenario 2 (anaesthesia-related bronchospasm followed by ventricular tachycardia). Sleep periods were recorded by actigraphy. Two independent observers assessed the performances. The primary endpoint of the study was the score obtained for each scenario. Resident's crisis management performance is associated with sleep deprivation (scenario 1: control=39 [33-42] points vs. deprived=26 [19-40] points, P=0.02; scenario 2: control=21 [17-24] vs. deprived=14 [12-19], P=0.01). The main errors observed were: error in drug administration and dose, delay in identification of hypotension, and missing communication with the surgical team about situation. The present study showed that sleep deprivation is associated with impairment of performance to manage crisis situations by residents in anaesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of shift work on sleep and circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Boivin, D B; Boudreau, P

    2014-10-01

    Shift work comprises work schedules that extend beyond the typical "nine-to-five" workday, wherein schedules often comprise early work start, compressed work weeks with 12-hour shifts, and night work. According to recent American and European surveys, between 15 and 30% of adult workers are engaged in some type of shift work, with 19% of the European population reportedly working at least 2 hours between 22:00 and 05:00. The 2005 International Classification of Sleep Disorders estimates that a shift work sleep disorder can be found in 2-5% of workers. This disorder is characterized by excessive sleepiness and/or sleep disruption for at least one month in relation with the atypical work schedule. Individual tolerance to shift work remains a complex problem that is affected by the number of consecutive work hours and shifts, the rest periods, and the predictability of work schedules. Sleepiness usually occurs during night shifts and is maximal at the end of the night. Impaired vigilance and performance occur around times of increased sleepiness and can seriously compromise workers' health and safety. Indeed, workers suffering from a shift work sleep-wake disorder can fall asleep involuntarily at work or while driving back home after a night shift. Working on atypical shifts has important socioeconomic impacts as it leads to an increased risk of accidents, workers' impairment and danger to public safety, especially at night. The aim of the present review is to review the circadian and sleep-wake disturbances associated with shift work as well as their medical impacts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. An evaluation of the deterrent impact of Ontario's 12-hour licence suspension law.

    PubMed

    Vingilis, E; Blefgen, H; Lei, H; Sykora, K; Mann, R

    1988-02-01

    The deterrent impact of Ontario's 12-hour licence suspension law, a law intended to mete out swift punishment is evaluated. A process model of deterrence is included. Time series analyses of the monthly log odds of number of positive B.A.C. fatalities over the number of negative B.A.C. fatalities indicated a small, short-term effect. The intermediate measures of four surveys of media coverage, Toronto residents, Ontario residents, and police forces supported these results, and affirmed the potential validity of the process model of deterrence. The results suggest that laws to increase the celerity and certainty of punishment will have little deterrent impact without enforcement and publicity of the new laws.

  5. Sink or Night Float: University of British Columbia Radiology Residents' Experience With Overnight Call.

    PubMed

    Scali, Elena P; Strovski, Evgeny; Forster, Bruce B; Mar, Colin; Chang, Silvia D

    2015-05-01

    In July 2012, in response to residents' concerns regarding the impact of the traditional 24-hour call system on their personal well-being and educational experience, the University of British Columbia Radiology residency program adopted a 12-hour night float system. This shift takes place in the context of increasing concerns, both across Canada and internationally, about resident well-being and the impact of prolonged duty hours on patient care. An anonymous survey was distributed to all 25 postgraduate years 2-5 University of British Columbia radiology residents 12 months after the introduction of night float. This study sought to solicit residents' feedback about these changes and to identify potential future changes to optimize the call system. The response rate was 100%; 96% of residents were in favor of continuing with night float rather than the traditional call system; 72% of residents reported that their judgement was affected secondary to being on night float. Although most residents described varying degrees of impairment, the rate of acute discrepancies between resident preliminary and attending radiologist final reports decreased by more than half, from 2% to less than 1%. The vast majority of our residents were in favor of maintaining the night float call system. Night float had a beneficial effect on the resident educational experience: by eliminating the pre-call morning and post-call day off rotation, residents gained an additional 24 days per year on other clinical rotations. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nursing student clinical shift completion as a predictor of NCLEX failure.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    As competition for clinical sites increases, hospitals and nursing schools report the use of nontraditional student placements such as one 12-hour clinical shift; that was an option offered by the author's school. The author discusses implementation of 12-hour shifts and compared NCLEX fail rates of students on one 12-hour shift with students who had 2 weekly 6-hour shifts.

  7. Perceptions of Quality of Nursing Care: Patients and Registered Nurses in a Hospital Using 12-Hour Shifts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Donabedian, 1982; Stufflebeam , 1971). It was also assumed throughout the study that more than one type of individual’s perception of quality of...satisfaction is con- sidered by some authors (Abdellah & Levine, 1979; Chance, 1980; DeGeyndt, 1970; Donabedian, 1982; Stufflebeam , 1971) as an... Stufflebeam , D. L. (Ed.). Educational evaluation and decision making. Itasca, Il.: Peacock, 1971. Szilagyi, A. D., & Wallace, M. J. Organizational

  8. Comparison of Effects of Change from 8 to 12 Hour Shifts on Air Force Aircraft Maintenance Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    Environmental Medicine, 66(6), 571-578. Hackman and Oldham (1975). "Specific Satisfaction In J. D. Cook , S. J. Hepworth, T. D. Wall , and P. B. Warr . (1981). The...Cammann, Fichman, Jenkins and Kesh (1982). "Supervision," In J. D. Cook , S. J. Hepworth, T. D. Wall , and P. B. Warr . (1981). The Experience of Work: A...Compendium and Review of 249 Measures and Their Use. Academic Press: London. 245 - 247. Cook , J. D., S. J. Hepworth, T. D. Wall , and P. B. Warr .(1981

  9. Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. The reason is the conflict between the day oriented circadian physiology and the requirement for work and sleep at the “wrong” biological time of day. Other factors that negatively impact work shift sleepiness and accident risk include long duration shifts greater than 12 hours and individual vulnerability for phase intolerance that may lead to a diagnosis of shift work disorder; i.e., those shift workers with the greatest sleepiness and performance impairment during the biological night and insomnia during the biological day. Whereas some countermeasures may be used to ameliorate the negative impact of shift work on nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia (combined countermeasures may be the best available), there seems at present to be no way to eliminate most of the negative effects of shift work on human physiology and cognition. PMID:20640236

  10. Subzero 12-hour Nonfreezing Cryopreservation of Porcine Heart in a Variable Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Seguchi, Ryuta; Watanabe, Go; Kato, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    Background A novel subzero nonfreezing heart preservation method has been developed. It uses a refrigerating device that generates a variable magnetic field, allowing the whole organ to be cooled simultaneously to a supercooled state without the use of cryoprotectant. As a fundamental experiment for heart preservation, we verified whether this novel method is able to suppress anaerobic metabolism and reduce damage in the hearts of large animals. Methods Twelve porcine hearts were collected and preserved for 12 hours using a simple immersion method. The hearts were divided into 2 groups: 6 underwent nonfreezing preservation at −3°C in a variable magnetic field (subzero group), and 6 underwent conventional preservation at 4°C (conventional group). The quantity of anaerobic metabolism and the degree of ultrastructural change in the 2 groups were evaluated and compared. Results The concentration of adenosine triphosphate in the myocardial tissue was significantly greater in the subzero group than in the conventional group (21.06±5.87 μmol/g vs 5.96±3.41 μmol/g; P < 0.05). The accumulated lactate concentration was significantly lower in the subzero group than in the conventional group (6.58±2.28 μmol/g vs 11.15±3.74 μmol/g; P < 0.05). The Flameng score, an index of ultrastructural changes to the mitochondria, was significantly lower in the subzero group than in the conventional group (1.28±0.40 vs 2.73±0.30; P < 0.05). Conclusions Subzero nonfreezing preservation using a variable magnetic field resulted in a remarkable suppression of anaerobic metabolism and myocardial protection in porcine hearts. PMID:27500233

  11. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery evolution within 12 hours from stroke onset: a reliable tissue clock?

    PubMed

    Ebinger, Martin; Galinovic, Ivana; Rozanski, Michal; Brunecker, Peter; Endres, Matthias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-02-01

    It has recently been proposed that fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging may serve as a surrogate marker for time of symptom onset after stroke. We assessed the hypothesis that FLAIR imaging could be used to decide if an MRI was performed within 4.5 hours from symptom onset or later. All consecutive patients with presumed stroke who underwent an MRI within 12 hours after known symptom onset were included regardless of stroke subtype and severity between May 2008 and May 2009. Blinded to time of symptom onset, 2 raters judged the visibility of lesions on FLAIR. Apparent diffusion coefficient values, lesion volume on diffusion-weighted imaging, and relative signal intensity of FLAIR lesions were determined. In 94 consecutive patients with stroke, we found that median time from symptom onset for FLAIR-positive patients (189 minutes; interquartile range, 110 to 369 minutes) was significantly longer compared with FLAIR-negative patients (103 minutes; interquartile range, 75 to 183 minutes; P=0.011). Negative FLAIR had a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 79% for allocating patients to a time window of less than 4.5 hours. FLAIR positivity increased with diffusion-weighted imaging lesion volume (P<0.001) but showed no correlation with apparent diffusion coefficient values (P=0.795). There was no significant correlation between relative signal intensity and time from symptom onset (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.152, P=0.128). Based on our findings, we cannot recommend the use of FLAIR visibility as an estimate of time from symptom onset within the first 4.5 hours.

  12. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers.

  13. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  14. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  15. Night terror

    MedlinePlus

    ... not be disoriented after the episode. Exams and Tests In many cases, no further examination or testing is needed. If the night terror is severe or prolonged, the child may need a psychological evaluation. Treatment In many cases, a child who ...

  16. Technology Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Albert P.

    1998-01-01

    A Maryland elementary school enlightened parents and community members about school technology by hosting a technology night showcasing student work. Through staff and community members' cooperative efforts, the technology committee created a comprehensive program composed of several elements: student involvement, district vision,…

  17. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Bob; Hall, Jan D.

    1992-01-01

    Installation of a new metal halide lighting system at an old athletic high school stadium serving the Red Lion School District in Pennsylvania made night games possible. Community members raised funds for the installation. Because of increased attendance, the district made a $10,000 profit. Provides facts and figures on the stadium lighting. (MLF)

  18. The association between shift work and sick leave: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

    2012-01-01

    Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871

  19. [The relationship between fatigue and the specific features of a flight shift of civil aviation flight crew].

    PubMed

    Rodionov, O N

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers the development of fatigue in civil pilots in relation to the specific features of a flight shift, the duration of a flight, the size of a crew size, and the number of night flight hours. The flight lasting 28 consecutive days negatively affects the pilot's working capacity, with flight hours exceeding 90 hours, due to accumulated fatigue. At the stages "before landing" and "after landing", the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders depends on the duration of a flight shift, peaking with the flights lasting more than 10-13 working hours. Inclusion of additional crewmen during flight shifts of more than 12 hours results in a reduction in the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders. Night air departure and arrival are most unfavorable according to the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders, i.e. the length of night time during flights, they are followed by a night air departure and daylight air arrival; a daylight air departure and night arrival rank third. Flights with daylight departure and daylight arrival are least of all exhausting. A night air arrival is characterized by the greatest degrees of integral fatigue at the stages "before landing" and "after landing", these are little associated with the duration of a flight shift. The existing provision, that such flights may be made thrice in succession, carries a risk for chronic fatigue. It is proposed to permit not more two flight shifts in succession during night air arrival. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account the factor of possible fatigue development on developing the regulation of flight shifts.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in permanent night workers.

    PubMed

    Biggi, Nicoletta; Consonni, Dario; Galluzzo, Valeria; Sogliani, Marco; Costa, Giovanni

    2008-04-01

    Night and shift work might be risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders due to interference with diet, circadian metabolic rhythms, and lifestyle. The relationship between permanent night work and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors was explored in a retrospective longitudinal study of workers employed in a large municipal enterprise in charge of street cleaning and domestic waste collection. All subjects who had worked night shifts between 1976 and 2007 as hand sweepers, motor sweepers, and delivery tricar drivers were compared with subjects who always worked the same jobs but on day shifts. From the periodical medical surveillance files, we identified 488 male workers who had been examined on average five times (minimum 2, maximum 14) during the study period, for a total of 2,328 medical examinations; 157 always had worked day shifts, 12 always the night shift, and 319 both (initially day and subsequently night shifts). Their age ranged from 22 to 62 yrs, and work experience varied from 1 to 28 yrs. Lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol consumption), body mass index, serum glucose, total cholesterol, tryglicerides, hepatic enzymes, blood pressure, resting electrocardiogram, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and related drugs were taken into consideration for the analysis. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) models (exchangeable correlation matrix) to analyze the relationship between night work and health effects while accounting for within-subject correlations and adjusting for study period, job, age, and lifestyle variables. As a whole, night workers smoked more and had significantly higher BMI, serum total cholesterol, and triglycerides than day workers. Both the inter-individual comparison between day and night workers and the intra-individual comparison among the workers, who were day workers at the beginning of their employment and later became night workers, showed a significant increase in BMI, total cholesterol

  1. Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in young and older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Reid, K; Dawson, D

    2001-01-01

    hour shifts.


Keywords: 12 hour shifts; performance; age; sleep reduction; circadian rhythms; night work PMID:11119636

  2. "A hard day's night?" The effects of Compressed Working Week interventions on the health and work-life balance of shift workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bambra, C; Whitehead, M; Sowden, A; Akers, J; Petticrew, M

    2008-09-01

    To systematically review studies of the effects of the Compressed Working Week on the health and work-life balance of shift workers, and to identify any differential impacts by socio-economic group. Systematic review. Following QUORUM guidelines, published or unpublished experimental and quasi-experimental studies were identified. Data were sourced from 27 electronic databases, websites, bibliographies, and expert contacts. Fourty observational studies were found. The majority of studies only measured self-reported outcomes and the methodological quality of the included studies was not very high. Interventions did not always improve the health of shift workers, but in the five prospective studies with a control group, there were no detrimental effects on self-reported health. However, work-life balance was generally improved. No studies reported differential impacts by socio-economic group; however, most of the studies were conducted on homogeneous populations. This review suggests that the Compressed Working Week can improve work-life balance, and that it may do so with a low risk of adverse health or organisational effects. However, better designed studies that measure objective health outcomes are needed.

  3. Of duty hour violations and shift work: changing the educational paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kohlbrenner, Amanda; Dirks, Rachel; Davis, James; Wolfe, Mary; Maser, Christina

    2016-06-01

    Successful surgical education balances learning opportunities with Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour requirements. We instituted a night shift system and hypothesized that implementation would decrease duty hour violations while maintaining quality education. A system of alternating teams working 12-hour shifts was instituted and was assessed via an electronic survey distributed at 2, 6, and 12 months after implementation. Resident duty hour violations and resident case volume were evaluated for 1 year before and 2 years after implementation of the night shift system. Survey data revealed a decrease in the perception that residents had problems meeting duty hour restrictions from 44% to 14% at 12 months (P = .012). Total violations increased 26% in the 1st year, subsequently decreasing by 62%, with shift length violations decreasing by 90%. Resident availability for didactics was improved, and average operative cases per academic year increased by 65%. Night shift systems are feasible and help meet duty hour requirements. Our program decreased violations while increasing operative volume and didactic time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation for use in combat operations more than 12 hours after injury.

    PubMed

    Coldren, Rodney L; Kelly, Mark P; Parish, Robert V; Dretsch, Michael; Russell, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis and management of concussion can be difficult in a combat environment, especially in the absence of loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia. As no validated test exists to diagnose or grade neurocognitive impairment from a concussion, the military currently employs the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) in Iraq. This is a two-part test, which incorporates the standardized assessment of concussion (SAC) as its objective score, although it has not been shown to be valid unless administered shortly after injury. A research team deployed to Iraq between January and April 2009 to examine the validity of several tests of neurocognitive function following a concussion, including the MACE. When administered more than 12 hours after the concussive injury, the MACE lacked sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be clinically useful.

  5. Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 12-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 120 ps Pulsed Laser Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    years or younger, either sex, with no mitigating ocular or retinal pathology such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa , etc. Donor: The...USAFA TR 2004-01 Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 12-hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 120 ps Pulsed...TR 2004-01 This article, "Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 12-hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 120 ps

  6. The Effects of 12 Hours of Low-Grade Hypoxia at 10,000 ft at Night in Special Operations Forces Aircraft Operations on Cognition, Night Vision, Goggle Vision and Subjective Symptoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-28

    SUBJECTS 7 DURATION 7 DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENT 7 COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE BATTERY 8 WORK LOAD 10 VISUAL...Once During the Experimental Session vi LIST OF...shared performance on several sub tasks under experimenter manipulated workload conditions such as monitoring of dials and displays with dynamic

  7. Providing Housing, Food and Medical Support for 25,000 Katrina Evacuees with 12 Hours Notice: The Harris County Medical Support of the Superdome Evacuees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Gavagan, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina was responsible for trapping 25,000 people in the New Orleans Superdome and isolating many others throughout Louisiana and Mississippi. The transport of these evacuees to the Reliant Park (Houston, Texas) used 500 buses each containing about 55 people. Processing the arriving evacuees included addressing their health status and medical needs as follows: an initial triage at disembarkation, a secondary triage in the Reliant Astrodome and Center, and definitive clinical care in the Reliant Arena "Katrina" Clinic. Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) physicians boarded buses and identified the sickest for emergency transport to Harris County Hospital District (HCHD) hospitals. BCM departments represented included pediatrics, family and community medicine, internal medicine, radiology, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, surgery, and psychiatry. Astrodome and Center triage was managed by BCM physicians and staffed by HCHD Nurses and volunteers from Texas and beyond. The Reliant Astrodome, Center and Arena reached peak headcounts of 15,000,4500, and 2500, respectively Most evacuees visiting the triage sites in the Astrodome and Center were treated using "over-the-counter" medications with the remaining being transported to the "Katrina" clinic. The clinic was equipped with a lab, pharmacy, digital X-ray, and ultrasound machines in addition to electronic patient records created using 80 computer terminals. The Katrina clinic saw more than 15,000 patients during 15 days of operations (2,000 on the first full day), administered 10,000 tetanus shots, and filled thousands of prescriptions. At the peak of operations, the clinic saw 150 patients/hour with 25 physicians scheduled for each 12-hour shift. Approximately 900 people were transported to hospital emergency rooms. Within 3 weeks of arriving at the Reliant Park facilities, more than 90% of the families found permanent housing, enrolled children in schools, and found work. Using data obtained from

  8. Metabolic Characteristics of Human Hearts Preserved for 12 Hours by Static Storage, Antegrade Perfusion or Retrograde Coronary Sinus Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cobert, Michael L.; Merritt, Matthew E.; West, LaShondra M.; Ayers, Colby; Jessen, Michael E.; Peltz, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) Machine perfusion of donor hearts is a promising strategy to increase the donor pool. Antegrade perfusion is effective but can lead to aortic valve incompetence and non-nutrient flow. Experience with retrograde coronary sinus perfusion of donor hearts has been limited. We tested the hypothesis that retrograde perfusion could support myocardial metabolism over an extended donor ischemic interval. Methods Human hearts from donors rejected or not offered for transplantation were preserved for 12 hours in University of Wisconsin Machine Perfusion Solution by: 1. Static hypothermic storage 2. Hypothermic antegrade machine perfusion or 3. Hypothermic retrograde machine perfusion. Myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and lactate accumulation were measured. Ventricular tissue was collected for proton (1H) and phosphorus-31 (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to evaluate the metabolic state of the myocardium. Myocardial water content was determined at end-experiment. Results Stable perfusion parameters were maintained throughout the perfusion period with both perfusion techniques. Lactate/alanine ratios were lower in perfused hearts compared to static hearts (p<.001). Lactate accumulation (Antegrade 2.0±.7, Retrograde 1.7±.1 mM) and MVO2 (Antegrade 0.25±.2, Retrograde 0.26±.3 mL O2/min/100g) were similar in machine perfused groups. High energy phosphates were better preserved in both perfused groups (p<.05). Left ventricular myocardial water content was increased in retrograde perfused (80.2±.8%) compared to both antegrade perfused (76.6±.8%, p=.02) and static storage hearts (76.7±1%, p=.02). Conclusions In conclusion, machine perfusion by either the antegrade or the retrograde technique can support myocardial metabolism over long intervals. Machine perfusion appears promising for long term preservation of human donor hearts. PMID:24642559

  9. Teaching Tu Fu on the Night Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Philip

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's unsuccessful attempt to introduce the poetry of Tu Fu, a wayward bureaucrat of the T'ang dynasty, to a class of part-time students. Uses his students' resistance to this poetry as an occasion to discuss the importance of personal responses to poetry, as opposed to "correct" academic responses. (TB)

  10. Teaching Tu Fu on the Night Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Philip

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's unsuccessful attempt to introduce the poetry of Tu Fu, a wayward bureaucrat of the T'ang dynasty, to a class of part-time students. Uses his students' resistance to this poetry as an occasion to discuss the importance of personal responses to poetry, as opposed to "correct" academic responses. (TB)

  11. The Effects of a 12-Hour Shift in the Wake-Sleep Cycle on Physiological and Biochemical Responses and on Multiple Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    norepinepnrine, epinephrlne, potassium, sodium, internal body temperature, and 17- ketogenic steroids. Performance data based on the Civil Aeromedlcal...34 and 17- ketogenic steroids5 were determined by using Technicon Autoanalyzer systems. Sodium and potassium were measured with an Atomic Absorption...norepinephrine (NE) in Figure 6, 17- ketogenic steroids fl7-KGS) in Figure 7, sodium (Na*) in Figure 8. and potassium (K*) in Figure 9, We did not anticipate

  12. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p < 0.05) between C and T groups. From 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season, cows in the T group experienced a positive energy balance (3%) while those in the C group had a negative energy balance (-0.1%). It was concluded that 12 h calf separation at night increases the conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  13. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  14. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kids often remember, kids won't have any memory of a night terror the next day because they were in deep sleep when it happened — and there are no mental images to recall. What Causes Night Terrors? Night terrors are caused ...

  15. Melatonin production and light exposure of rotating night workers.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Marie; Lanctôt, Valérie; Cadieux-Viau, Raphaëlle; Paquet, Jean

    2012-03-01

    Decreased melatonin production, due to acute suppression of pineal melatonin secretion by light exposure during night work, has been suggested to underlie higher cancer risks associated with prolonged experience of night work. However, the association between light exposure and melatonin production has never been measured in the field. In this study, 24-h melatonin production and ambulatory light exposure were assessed during both night-shift and day/evening-shift periods in 13 full-time rotating shiftworkers. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), and light exposure was measured with an ambulatory photometer. There was no difference in total 24-h aMT6s excretion between the two work periods. The night-shift period was characterized by a desynchrony between melatonin and sleep-wake rhythms, as shown by higher melatonin production during work and lower melatonin production during sleep when working night shifts than when working day/evening shifts. Light exposure during night work showed no correlation with aMT6s excreted during the night of work (p > .5), or with the difference in 24-h aMT6s excretion between the two work periods (p > .1). However, light exposure during night work was negatively correlated with total 24-h aMT6s excretion over the entire night-shift period (p < .01). In conclusion, there was no evidence of direct melatonin suppression during night work in this population. However, higher levels of light exposure during night work may have decreased total melatonin production, possibly by initiating re-entrainment and causing internal desynchrony. This interpretation is consistent with the proposition that circadian disruption, of which decreased melatonin production is only one of the adverse consequences, could be the mediator between night shiftwork and cancer risks.

  16. Circadian Misalignment Increases C-Reactive Protein and Blood Pressure in Chronic Shift Workers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Mistretta, Joseph; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts. Thus, our objectives were to determine the independent effect of circadian misalignment on 24-h high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of systemic inflammation) and blood pressure levels-cardiovascular disease risk factors-in chronic shift workers. Chronic shift workers undertook two 3-day laboratory protocols that simulated night work, comprising 12-hour inverted behavioral and environmental cycles (circadian misalignment) or simulated day work (circadian alignment), using a randomized, crossover design. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h hs-CRP by 11% ( p < 0.0001). Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 1.4 mmHg and 0.8 mmHg, respectively (both p ≤ 0.038). The misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h SBP was primarily explained by an increase in SBP during the wake period (+1.7 mmHg; p = 0.017), whereas the misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h DBP was primarily explained by an increase in DBP during the sleep opportunity (+1.8 mmHg; p = 0.005). Circadian misalignment per se increases hs-CRP and blood pressure in shift workers. This may help explain the increased inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers.

  17. "Starry Night" on Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an exploration of depth in landscape painting using Vincent van Gogh's "Starry Night" as an example. Used computer drawing software for children to allow students to create their own interpretations of "Starry Night" while exploring means of portraying depth in two-dimensional art. (DSK)

  18. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  19. Shedding light on night myopia.

    PubMed

    López-Gil, Norberto; Peixoto-de-Matos, Sofia C; Thibos, Larry N; González-Méijome, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    First described during the 18th century, the cause of night myopia remains a controversial topic. Whereas several explanations have been suggested in the literature, particularly related with accommodation or chromatic shift in scotopic light conditions, no definitive explanation for its aetiology has been provided. We describe an experiment in which ocular refractive state was objectively and subjectively measured while viewing two kind of stimulus: letters on a bright background and a punctual source of light in a dark background. We found that under photopic conditions the optimum refractive state of the accommodating eye is significantly more myopic when maximizing perceived quality of a point source on a dark background compared to a conventional letter chart with black letters on a white background. Optical modeling suggested this difference in refractive state is due to spherical aberration. Since isolated point sources are more likely encountered at night, whereas extended objects are more likely encountered in the daytime, our results suggest that a significant part of the night myopia phenomenon is determined by the nature of the visual stimulus and the visual task used to assess ocular refractive state.

  20. Comparison of Celsior and Perfadex lung preservation solutions in rat lungs subjected to 6 and 12 hours of ischemia using an ex-vivo lung perfusion system.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Arteiro Queiroz; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Braga, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira; Nepomuceno, Natalia Aparecida; Pazetti, Rogerio; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Canzian, Mauro; Santim, Jacqueline Klarosk; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the performance of lungs that were preserved with different solutions (Celsior, Perfadex or saline) in an ex vivo rat lung perfusion system. Sixty Wistar rats were anesthetized, anticoagulated and randomized into three groups (n = 20). The rats were subjected to antegrade perfusion via the pulmonary artery with Perfadex, Celsior, or saline, followed by 6 or 12 hours of ischemia (4ºC, n = 10 in each group). Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were measured at 10-minute intervals during the reperfusion of heart-lung blocks in an ex vivo system (IL2-Isolated Perfused Rat or Guinea Pig Lung System, Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, Massachusetts, USA; Hugo Sachs Elektronik, Germany) for 60 minutes. The lungs were prepared for histopathology and evaluated for edema following reperfusion. Group comparisons were performed using ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test with a 5% level of significance. Gas exchange was not significantly different between lungs perfused with either Perfadex or Celsior at the same ischemic times, but it was very low in lungs that were preserved with saline. Airway resistance was greater in the lungs that were preserved for 12 hours. Celsior lungs that were preserved for 6 and 12 hours exhibited lower airway resistance (p = 0.01) compared to Perfadex lungs. Pulmonary artery pressure was not different between the groups, and no significant differences in histopathology and apoptosis were observed between the groups. Lungs that were preserved with Celsior or Perfadex exhibited similar gas exchange and histopathological findings. Airway resistance was slightly lower in the Celsior-preserved lungs compared with the Perfadex-preserved lungs.

  1. The Starry Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Jerome J.

    1985-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh's painting "The Starry Night" is discussed, and ways that an art teacher can use this painting as a resource for learning are suggested. Specific activities to use with elementary and secondary students are included. (RM)

  2. Night Pass over Malaysia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video showing night lights over Malaysia was taken by the crew of Expedition 28 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Aug. 21, 2011, from 19:33:05 to 19:3...

  3. One Night in January.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottmann, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Describes student demonstrations on the night that U.S. planes bombed Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Compares attitudes and feelings to the Vietnam War era. Concludes that the students incorrectly supported the Gulf War action. (CFR)

  4. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

  5. Menstrual characteristics and night work among nurses

    PubMed Central

    MOEN, Bente E.; BASTE, Valborg; MORKEN, Tone; ALSAKER, Kjersti; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Night work has been associated with adverse effects in terms of reproductive health. Specifically, menstruation has been suggested to be negatively impacted by night work, which again may influence fertility. This study investigated whether working nights is related to menstrual characteristics and if there is a relationship between shift work disorder (SWD) and menstruation. The study was cross-sectional, response rate 38%. The sample comprised female nurses who were members of the Norwegian Nurses Association; below 50 yr of age, who were not pregnant, did not use hormonal pills or intrauterine devices and who had not reached menopause (n=766). The nurses answered a postal survey including questions about night work and menstrual characteristics. Fifteen per cent reported to have irregular menstruations. Thirty-nine per cent of the nurses were classified as having SWD. Logistic regression analyses concerning the relationship between irregular menstruations and night work did not show any associations. Furthermore, no associations were found between cycle length or bleeding period and night work parameters. No associations were found between menstrual characteristics and SWD. PMID:25914071

  6. Use of a Night Float System to Comply With Resident Duty Hours Restrictions: Perceptions of Workplace Changes and Their Effects on Professionalism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning-Zi; Gan, Runye; Snell, Linda; Dolmans, Diana

    2016-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that resident duty hours reforms can lead to shift-worker mentality and loss of patient ownership, other evidence links long hours and fatigue to poor work performance and loss of empathy, suggesting the restrictions could positively affect professionalism. The authors explored perceived impacts of a 16-hour duty restriction, achieved using a night float (NF) system, on the workplace and professionalism. In 2013, the authors conducted semistructured interviews with 18 residents, 9 staff physicians, and 3 residency program directors in the McGill University core internal medicine residency program regarding their perceptions of the program's 12-hour shift-based NF system. Interviews were transcribed and coded for common themes. The authors used a descriptive qualitative methodology. Participants viewed implementation of the NF system as leading to decreased physical and mental exhaustion, more consistent interaction with patients, and more stable team structure within shifts compared with the previous 24-hour call system. These workplace changes were felt to improve teamwork and patient ownership within shifts, quality of work performed, and empathy. Across shifts, however, more frequent sign-overs, stricter application of shift time boundaries, and loose integration between daytime and NF teams were perceived as leading to emergence of shift-worker mentality around sign-over. Perceptions of optimal patient ownership changed from the traditional single-physician-24/7 model to team-based shared ownership. Duty hours restrictions, as exemplified by an NF system, have both positive and negative impacts on professionalism. Interventions and training toward effective team-based care are needed to curb emergence of shift-worker mentality.

  7. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleeping during the day. Do you have any sleep tips for shift workers? Answers from Timothy Morgenthaler, ... to be awake during the day and to sleep at night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, ...

  8. Family Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Holly; Alderman, Helen Christine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Family Science Night (FSN) described in this article was to involve culturally and linguistically diverse families in school life so that students would be more vocal, successful, and interactive in science class. The project would also demonstrate to the students that their teacher valued their input in the classroom. The setting…

  9. "Twelfth Night" for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

    Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with…

  10. Challenger's night flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-08-01

    STS Mission 8 and its night flight (both launch and landing) are highlighted in this color video. The 5-member crew is introduced and their special assignments for this flight are discussed, along with their continuous weightlessness experiments performed during the flight. The first black astronaut, Guion S. Blufords, Jr., is introduced and file footage of an STS Mission orbiting the earth is shown.

  11. Challenger's Night Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    STS Mission 8 and its night flight (both launch and landing) are highlighted in this color video. The 5-member crew is introduced and their special assignments for this flight are discussed, along with their continuous weightlessness experiments performed during the flight. The first black astronaut, Guion S. Blufords, Jr., is introduced and file footage of an STS Mission orbiting the earth is shown.

  12. 2005 Disability Awareness Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The mission of Disability Awareness Night is to expand awareness of the 54 million Americans with disabilities, by highlighting their extraordinary achievements and the perseverance and dedication of the families, caregivers, physicians, nurses, therapists and teachers involved in their care and development. The presentation of the EP Maxwell…

  13. Night Side of Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-02-23

    NASA Voyager 2 obtained this wide-angle image of the night side of Titan on Aug. 25, 1979. This is a view of Titan extended atmosphere. the bright orangish ring being caused by the atmosphere scattering of the incident sunlight.

  14. Family Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Holly; Alderman, Helen Christine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Family Science Night (FSN) described in this article was to involve culturally and linguistically diverse families in school life so that students would be more vocal, successful, and interactive in science class. The project would also demonstrate to the students that their teacher valued their input in the classroom. The setting…

  15. "Twelfth Night" for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

    Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with…

  16. A night sky model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  17. Acute sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment associated with transition onto the first night of work impairs visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Nayantara; Horowitz, Todd S; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A

    2007-11-28

    Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift. To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search), vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT]) and alertness (with a visual analog scale) in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p = .04), and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming 'fast and sloppy'. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05) indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05). These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work.

  18. Emergency/Night Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.

  19. Emergency/Night Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from 8,000 a year to 300 per year.

  20. Jupiter Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

  1. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  2. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  3. Night Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-04

    ISS032-E-012070 (4 Aug. 2012) --- This night time image of Valencia on the Mediterranean coast of Spain was captured with a digital still camera by one of the Expedition 32 crew members aboard the International Space Station on Aug. 4, 2012. The nocturnal lighting of the city make it easy to locate numerous features within the metropolitan area, which, with a population exceeding two million, is the country's third largest.

  4. Ares Valles: Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 15 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Ares Valles region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.6, Longitude 339.9 East (20.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  5. Channel by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  6. Lomonosov Crater, Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Lomonosov Crater.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 64.9, Longitude 350.7 East (9.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  7. Why things go bump in the night

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    Visual processing leads to false security. Professor Emeritus Herschel W. Leibowitz of Pennsylvania State University pointed out some important facts about night-time navigation-vehicular or other - in a 1995 Distinguished Scientific Award Address, printed last spring in American Psychologist. People are often more tired at night. If they are working overtime or doing shift work, their systems are probably off-kilter. Unquestionably, they cannot see as well at night-night myopia has been investigated since the 18th century. The problem is this: with those factors so obvious, why do people fail to compensate for them by changing their driving habits enough to balance out the risks? First, researchers poking around in, among other places, the brains of hamsters, discovered that there are two functionally separate visual processing systems. The orientation and guidance system is much less sensitive to the amount of light than is the focal systems; the latter is the system with which we recognize objects. That means a worker can securely find his or her way to the substation entrance form the parking lot, despite low light, but can easily stumble in an unexpected pot-hole on the way. Or a driver can stick to his lane, with the familiar help of feedback from the steering wheel, but be too slow to identify objects in the road.

  8. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  9. Diurnal variation in insulin-stimulated systemic glucose and amino acid utilization in pigs fed with identical meals at 12-hour intervals.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, S J; van der Meulen, J; Dekker, R; Corbijn, H; Mroz, Z

    2006-09-01

    The diurnal variation in insulin-stimulated systemic glucose and amino acid utilization was investigated in eleven pigs of approximately 40 kg. Pigs were fed isoenergetic/isoproteinic diets (366 kJ/kg BW (0.75) per meal) in two daily rations (06:00 and 18:00 h). After a 3-week habituation period, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic euaminoacidemic clamp studies (by intra-portal insulin, glucose and amino acids infusion and arterial blood sampling) were performed starting at 06:00 or 18:00 h (while skipping the meal), using a cross-over within-animal design. Basal (preclamp) plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, lactate, individual amino acids and urea were similar in the morning compared to the evening. Insulin-stimulated ( approximately 4-fold increase over basal) systemic glucose utilization was similar (17.6+/-1.4 and 18.9+/-1.8 mg x kg (-1) x min (-1)) but amino acid utilization was 19% greater in the morning VS. the evening (2.37+/-0.21 VS. 1.99+/-0.15 mg x kg (-1) x min (-1), p<0.05), respectively. Insulin-stimulated plasma lactate concentrations remained constant in the morning (0.77+/-0.06 to 0.71+/-0.04 mmol x l (-1)) but declined in the evening (0.89+/-0.09 to 0.65+/-0.06 mmol x l (-1), p<0.05). By contrast, insulin-stimulated plasma urea concentrations declined in the morning (2.48+/-0.11 to 2.03+/-0.10 mmol x l (-1), p<0.005) but remained constant in the evening (2.18+/-0.14 to 2.12+/-0.12 mmol x l (-1)). In conclusion, pigs fed identical meals at 12-hour intervals follow a clear diurnal biorhythm in protein anabolism, with greater insulin-stimulated systemic amino acid utilization and lower plasma urea response in the morning compared to the evening.

  10. Evaluation of a 12-Hour Sustained-Release Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Formulation: A Randomized, 3-Way Crossover Pharmacokinetic and Safety Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yong; Collaku, Agron; Liu, Dongzhou J

    2017-08-16

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a first-line treatment for mild and moderate pain. A twice-daily sustained-release (SR) formulation may be more convenient for chronic users than standard immediate-release (IR) acetaminophen. This randomized, 3-way crossover study evaluated pharmacokinetics and safety of single-dose 1500- and 2000-mg SR acetaminophen formulations and 2 doses of IR acetaminophen 1000 mg given 6 hours apart in healthy adults (n = 14). Primary outcome was time that plasma acetaminophen concentration was ≥4 μg/mL (TC≥4μg/mL ). Key secondary outcomes were area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to time t, when plasma acetaminophen was detectable (AUC0-t ), AUC from 0 to infinity (AUC0-inf ), and maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax ). TC≥4μg/mL from 2000-mg SR acetaminophen was similar to that from 2 doses of IR acetaminophen, whereas TC≥4μg/mL for 1500-mg SR acetaminophen was significantly shorter than that for IR acetaminophen (P = .004). The extent of acetaminophen absorption from 2000-mg SR and 2 doses of the IR formulation was similar and within bioequivalence limits with regard to AUC0-12 , AUC0-t , and AUC0-inf . The extent of acetaminophen absorption from 1500-mg SR was significantly lower than that from IR acetaminophen. The 2000-mg SR represents a potential candidate formulation for 12-hour dosing with acetaminophen. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. The impact of a week of simulated night work on sleep, circadian phase, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Lamond, N; Dorrian, J; Roach, G; McCulloch, K; Holmes, A; Burgess, H; Fletcher, A; Dawson, D

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects participated in an adaptation and baseline night sleep, directly followed by seven simulated eight-hour night shifts (2300 to 0700 hours). At the end of each shift they were taken outside and exposed to natural light for 20 minutes. They then slept from approximately 0800 hours until they naturally awoke. Results: There was a significant increase in mean performance on a visual psychomotor vigilance task across the week. Daytime sleep quality and quantity were not negatively affected. Total sleep time (TST) for each of the daytime sleeps was reduced, resulting in an average cumulative sleep debt of 3.53 hours prior to the final night shift. TST for each of the daytime sleep periods did not significantly differ from the baseline night, nor did TST significantly vary across the week. There was a significant decrease in wake time after sleep onset and sleep onset latency across the week; sleep efficiency showed a trend towards greater efficiency across the consecutive daytime sleeps. Hours of wakefulness prior to each simulated night shift significantly varied across the week. The melatonin profile significantly shifted across the week. Conclusions: Results suggest that under optimal conditions, the sleep debt that accumulates during consecutive night shifts is relatively small and does not exacerbate decrements in night-time performance resulting from other factors. When sleep loss is minimised, adaptation of performance during consecutive night shifts can occur in conjunction with circadian adaptation. PMID:14573724

  12. Evaluation of a twelve-hour/day shift schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-06-18

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8-hour to a 12-hour a day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility.

  13. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  14. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  15. Strangers in the Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Gene D.

    Strangers in the Night was written by a father and son team, the elder of whom is a cosmochemist. Probably because of this view-point, the book makes a few novel points about the evolution of thinking on the origin of life and extraterrestrial life. A notable example is the mention of the first synthesis of a biological molecule (urea) by Freidrich Wohler in 1828, as one of the turning points in the gradual acceptance of the possibility of extraterrestrial life. Another high point in the book is the discussion of the other “life in meteorites” controversy the debate in the early 1960s concerning “organized elements” in carbonaceous chondrites. This chapter in the history of meteoritics is not very widely known and is highlighted with good cause by the authors as a stern warning about interpretation of possible biological structures in meteorites.

  16. Starshade Night Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-09

    A night test of a small-scale starshade model, in a dry lake bed in central Nevada's Smith Creek by Northrup Grumman, took place in May to June 2014. A telescope points toward a bright light, which in the darkness of the desert mimics the conditions of starlight in space. Other lights, which are up to 10 million times fainter than the light source standing in for the star, represent the reflected light of planets. Telescopes searching for the relatively dim light of an exoplanet next to its much brighter star are faced with a challenge as difficult as searching from Los Angeles for a firefly in New York -- if the firefly is next to the brightness of a lighthouse. The tests by Northrup Grumman determined that a starshade, or external occulter, is capable of blocking starlight to a degree that can indeed reveal the light of a planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20901

  17. Dead of night.

    PubMed

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  18. Rapid adaptation to night work at an oil platform, but slow readaptation after returning home.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, B; Kecklund, G; Akerstedt, T

    1998-07-01

    Previous research indicates that night workers' circadian rhythms do not adapt to night work and that disturbed sleep and wakefulness persist, even after weeks of working on night shift. We studied adjustment to 14 days of consecutive night work at an oil platform and the readjustment to day life at home, using the Karolinska sleep/wake diary. The platform workers adapted to night work within a few days, as indicated by the rapid reduction of night-work sleepiness, and by the gradual delay of bedtime to an hour commensurate with the behavior of day workers. Readaptation to day life was slower and more difficult, adding evidence of a complete adaptation to night work. We conclude that the lack of conflicting exposure to daylight in the morning may have facilitated the rapid adjustment to night work.

  19. Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-Hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium John W. Obringer Martin D. Johnson Laser and Optics...Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 12-hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Lightl2-hours...Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial USAFA F05611-02-P-0471 Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser-Light and 1064nm, 170 ps Pulsed

  20. BBC's All Night Star Party !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J.

    2003-12-01

    Coinciding with the closest approach of Mars to Earth in the last 60,000 years, BBC Two had a party. The All Night Star Party, a special live Open University programme for BBC Two, took place on 23 August night and lasted for one hour and a half.

  1. Making hospitals safer at night.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Caroline

    2016-08-17

    In the middle of the night, when the rest of the country is asleep, ward nurses up and down the UK are calling the Hospital at Night service. They may be looking for a technician to take a blood sample, or calling for medical help as a patient suddenly deteriorates.

  2. Cortisol, reaction time test and health among offshore shift workers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anette; Waage, Siri; Ursin, Holger; Hansen, Ase Marie; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Eriksen, Hege R

    2010-10-01

    The stress hormone cortisol shows a pronounced endogenous diurnal rhythm, which is affected by the sleep/wake cycle, meals and activity. Shift work and especially night work disrupts the sleep/wake cycle and causes a desynchronization of the natural biological rhythms. Therefore, different shift schedules may have different impact on performance at work and health. The purpose was to study if health, reaction time, and the cortisol rhythm were negatively affected when a group of shift workers changed their work schedule from ordinary day-night shift (fixed shift) to "swing shift". 19 healthy workers on a Norwegian oil rig participated in the study. They worked 2 weeks offshore followed by 4 weeks off work. The ordinary schedule consisted of 12-h day shift and 12-h night shift every other work period (14 days or nights=fixed shift). "Swing shift" involved 1 week of night shift, followed by 1 week of day shift during the work period. All participants worked ordinary day-night shift when baseline data were collected (questionnaires, saliva cortisol, and reaction time during work). After collection of baseline data the workers changed their work schedule to "swing shift", for every working period, and 9 months later the same data were collected. "Swing shift" did not give any negative health effects or any negative changes in reaction time during the day they shifted from night work to day work. Personnel adapted to night shift within a week regardless of schedule, but recovery from night shift took longer time. During swing shift the cortisol rhythm went back towards a normal rhythm in the second week, but it was not returned completely to normal values when they returned home for the 4 weeks off period. However, the cortisol rhythms were readapted to normal values after 1 week at home. For personnel returning home directly from 14 consecutive night shifts, cortisol adaptation was not complete after 1 week at home. We found no increase in health complaints from swing

  3. Fatigue and Psychological Distress: A Case Study Among Shift Workers of an Iranian Petrochemical Plant, During 2013, in Bushehr

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Bazazan, Ahmad; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Dianat, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shift work is a well-recognized occupational health hazard in both industrialized and industrially developing countries. Prolonged working time, day/night shift rotation, circadian rhythm and sleep disorders, family and social problems are the most important features of shift working, which have serious complications. Objectives: The present study evaluated the fatigue and psychological distress and their relationship among shift workers, in a petrochemical plant (Southern Pars gas field) in Southwest Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional field study, 400 shift workers from a plant were involved, with participation rate of 72.5% (290 persons). The multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used to evaluate the level of fatigue and psychological distress, respectively. Results: The results showed that the fatigue and psychological distress (particularly social dysfunction, anxiety and insomnia) are frequent among 12-hour shift workers (the total MFI and total GHQ scores were 42.68 ± 17.88 and 34.66 ± 18.56). A relatively strong positive correlation was found between fatigue and psychological distress (r = 0.62). The results of the stepwise regression model indicated that the psychological distress was significantly related only to general fatigue, mental fatigue and reduced motivation, whereas it was not to the physical fatigue and reduced activity. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the importance of the mental aspect of fatigue in this working group. These results have possible implications for workers’ health and well-being and for the design of shift work systems, for industrial workers. PMID:26568862

  4. Low night temperature acclimation of Phalaenopsis.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Bruno; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Dambre, Pieter; Lootens, Peter; Steppe, Kathy

    2011-06-01

    The capability of Phalaenopsis to acclimate its photosynthetic capacity and metabolic activity to cool night temperature conditions is crucial for improving orchid production in terms of efficient greenhouse heating. The extent to which Phalaenopsis possesses acclimation potential and the mechanistic background of the metabolic processes involved, have, however, not been studied before. Plants were subjected to a direct and gradual shift from a day to night temperature regime of 28/28-28/16°C, the cold stress and cold acclimation treatment, respectively. In comparison with the cold stress treatment, the cold acclimation treatment led to a higher malate accumulation and a reduction in leaf net CO(2) uptake. Consistently, the contribution of respiratory CO(2) recycling to nocturnal malate synthesis was calculated to be 23.5 and 47.0% for the cold stress and cold acclimation treatment, respectively. Moreover, the lower levels of starch measured in the cold acclimated leaves confirmed the suggested enhanced respiratory CO(2) recycling, implying that Phalaenopsis CAM operation evolved towards CAM idling. It is, however, plausible that this adjustment was not an effect of the low night temperature per se but a consequence of cool-root induced drought stress. Apart from that, at the start of the photoperiod, membrane stability showed a depression which was directly counteracted by an increased generation of glucose, fructose and sucrose. From these observations, it can be concluded that the observed plasticity in CAM operation and metabolic flexibility may be recognized as important steps in the low night temperature acclimation of Phalaenopsis.

  5. Altitude Wind Tunnel Operating at Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1945-04-21

    The Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) during one of its overnight runs at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. The AWT was run during night hours so that its massive power loads were handled when regional electric demands were lowest. At the time the AWT was among the most complex wind tunnels ever designed. In order to simulate conditions at high altitudes, NACA engineers designed innovative new systems that required tremendous amounts of electricity. The NACA had an agreement with the local electric company that it would run its larger facilities overnight when local demand was at its lowest. In return the utility discounted its rates for the NACA during those hours. The AWT could produce wind speeds up to 500 miles per hour through its 20-foot-diameter test section at the standard operating altitude of 30,000 feet. The airflow was created by a large fan that was driven by an 18,000-horsepower General Electric induction motor. The altitude simulation was accomplished by large exhauster and refrigeration systems. The cold temperatures were created by 14 Carrier compressors and the thin atmosphere by four 1750-horsepower exhausters. The first and second shifts usually set up and broke down the test articles, while the third shift ran the actual tests. Engineers would often have to work all day, then operate the tunnel overnight, and analyze the data the next day. The night crew usually briefed the dayshift on the tests during morning staff meetings.

  6. Ultraviolet night airglow of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, A. I.; Barth, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    The night airglow spectrum of Venus in the ultraviolet is dominated by the V-prime = 0 progressions of the gamma and delta bands of nitric oxide. The bands are produced by two-body radiative recombination of nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Since the source of these atoms is in the dayside thermosphere, the night airglow is a tracer of the day-to-night thermospheric circulation. The airglow is brightest at equatorial latitudes and at longitudes on the morning side of the antisolar meridian.

  7. "Antigone" on the Night Shift: Classics in the Contemporary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devenish, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Examines community college students' choices of favorite works after a one-year composition and literature course. Finds "Antigone" was the favorite. Claims Greek classical works put students in contact with a distant culture that they find intriguing. Suggests juxtaposing a classical work with one from another time and culture to avoid…

  8. "Antigone" on the Night Shift: Classics in the Contemporary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devenish, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Examines community college students' choices of favorite works after a one-year composition and literature course. Finds "Antigone" was the favorite. Claims Greek classical works put students in contact with a distant culture that they find intriguing. Suggests juxtaposing a classical work with one from another time and culture to avoid…

  9. Adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules measured with sleep diary and actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Harvey, Allison G; Waage, Siri; Harris, Anette; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-07-01

    In this study we examine sleep during adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules in the offshore oil industry. The sleep of 19 offshore workers was assessed daily for 1 week before, during the work period, and for 1 week after 3 different work schedules: (1) day (14 consecutive days of work), (2) night (14 consecutive nights of work), and (3) swing shift work (first 7 nights with night work then 7 days of day work). The workers' sleep was assessed for 84 days. Actigraphy and sleep diary estimates of sleep was applied assessing: (1) adaptation to offshore shift work, (2) sleep across the 2 offshore work weeks, and (3) readaptation after the work period. Regarding adaptation, sleep efficiency was higher when working day than night and swing shift the first week of work. Sleep quality was better during swing than regular day/night shifts the first week of work. Total sleep time was longer during day and night shift than swing shift across the 2 work weeks. Sleep efficiency, based on sleep diaries, was higher during day than night and swing shift during the 2 work weeks. There were no significant differences between the shifts in readaptation in terms of sleep. To conclude, adaptation to swing shift was more difficult than adaptation to regular day and night shifts in terms of sleep. Readaptation to day work after 1 week of night work affected sleep negatively. There were no differences between the shift schedules the week after the work period.

  10. The night before your surgery - children

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery - child; Preoperative - night before ... food after 11 p.m. the night before surgery. Your child should not eat or drink any ... child the night before or the day of surgery, call the doctor. Stop giving your child any ...

  11. Night-to-night variability in sleep in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Milross, Maree A; Piper, Amanda J; Norman, Mark; Willson, Grant N; Grunstein, Ronald R; Sullivan, Colin E; Bye, Peter T P

    2002-05-01

    The impact of night-to-night variability (NNV) on polysomnography (PSG) has been reported mainly in normal subjects, the elderly and patients with obstructive sleep apnea with focus on changes in the apnea/hypopnea index, rather than measures of nocturnal oxygenation. There is very limited data on NNV in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this study was to assess for first-night effect and reliability of PSG measurements on nocturnal oxygenation and respiratory disturbance in CF. A prospective observational study was performed in patients with CF who consented to PSG on two consecutive nights. Paired t-tests and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for repeated measures of sleep stage time, sleep efficiency, arousal indices, measures of nocturnal oxygenation, and respiratory events in all sleep stages. Thirty-one patients with CF were studied, aged 27+/-8 (mean+/-1 SD) years and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) of 37+/-11% of predicted. Relative to the first-night PSG, on the second PSG, we observed the following: shorter latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (P<0.001), increased sleep efficiency (P<0.01), decreased wake after sleep onset (WASO) time (P<0.01), decreased percentage of non-REM time with oxyhemoglobin saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO(2))< or =90% (P<0.05), decreased number of central apneas per hour (P<0.05) and reduced respiratory rate in stage 2 sleep on night 2 (P<0.05). Despite these changes, the ICCs between night 1 and night 2 showed good repeatability/reliability for measures of nocturnal oxygenation and indices of respiratory disturbance, including the percentage of total sleep time with SpO(2)< or =90% (ICC=0.85) and apnea-hypopnea index (ICC=0.75). Likewise, the ICCs were extremely high for respiratory rate in stage 2 (ICC=0.94), slow wave sleep (ICC=0.97), and REM sleep (ICC=0.96). Although a first-night effect is seen with sleep efficiency, REM latency, and WASO, a single-night PSG in

  12. Applications: Cloud Height at Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The method used at airports in determining the cloud height at night is presented. Several problems, the equation used, and a simple design of an alidade (an instrument that shows cloud heights directly) are also included. (MP)

  13. Human Factors And Safety Considerations Of Night Vision Systems Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, Robert W.; Rash, Clarence E.

    1989-03-01

    Military aviation night vision systems greatly enhance the capability to operate during periods of low illumination. After flying with night vision devices, most aviators are apprehensive about returning to unaided night flight. Current night vision imaging devices allow aviators to fly during ambient light conditions which would be extremely dangerous, if not impossible, with unaided vision. However, the visual input afforded with these devices does not approach that experienced using the unencumbered, unaided eye during periods of daylight illumination. Many visual parameters, e,g., acuity, field-of-view, depth perception, etc., are compromised when night vision devices are used. The inherent characteristics of image intensification based sensors introduce new problems associated with the interpretation of visual information based on different spatial and spectral content from that of unaided vision. In addition, the mounting of these devices onto the helmet is accompanied by concerns of fatigue resulting from increased head supported weight and shift in center-of-gravity. All of these concerns have produced numerous human factors and safety issues relating to thb use of night vision systems. These issues are identified and discussed in terms of their possible effects on user performance and safety.

  14. Resident productivity: does shift length matter?

    PubMed

    Jeanmonod, Rebecca; Jeanmonod, Donald; Ngiam, Ryan

    2008-09-01

    It has been established that residents are able to evaluate more patients per hour as they progress through training. However, it is unknown if shift length influences resident productivity. The aim of this study is to assess whether there is a difference in second-year resident productivity as a function of shift length. This is a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in the emergency department (ED) by second-year residents in a 65,000 volume center; 9- and 12-hour shifts were included. Nine-hour shifts provide a 1-hour overlap, such that three 9-hour shifts provide 24 hours of resident coverage. Shifts on weekly conference day were excluded. A patient was determined as having been evaluated by a resident if the resident initiated care on the patient and dictated the chart. Data were analyzed using 2-tailed t test. A total of 193 nine-hour shifts and 90 twelve-hour shifts met inclusion criteria. Residents working 12-hour shifts evaluated 1.06 patients per hour, and residents working 9-hour shifts evaluated 1.15 patients per hour (95% confidence interval, 0.031-0.151). In an ED with 120 hours of resident coverage per day, this results in 10 additional patients seen by residents working 9-hour shifts. In our department with 9 ED months in the second year of residency, this results in 180 additional patient encounters per resident during that year. Shorter shift lengths appear to result in more patients evaluated per hour by second-year residents and an increase in patient encounters.

  15. Night Myopia Studied with an Adaptive Optics Visual Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Artal, Pablo; Schwarz, Christina; Cánovas, Carmen; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called “night myopia” has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. Methods We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration) as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m2 to the lowest luminance of 22×10−6 cd/m2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. Results We found large inter-subject variability and an average of −0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. Conclusions An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors. PMID:22768343

  16. Night airglow in RGB mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Podlesny, Stepan; Stoeva, Penka

    2016-09-01

    To study dynamics of the upper atmosphere, we consider results of the night sky photometry, using a color CCD camera and taking into account the night airglow and features of its spectral composition. We use night airglow observations for 2010-2015, which have been obtained at the ISTP SB RAS Geophysical Observatory (52° N, 103° E) by the camera with KODAK KAI-11002 CCD sensor. We estimate the average brightness of the night sky in R, G, B channels of the color camera for eastern Siberia with typical values ranging from ~0.008 to 0.01 erg*cm-2*s-1. Besides, we determine seasonal variations in the night sky luminosities in R, G, B channels of the color camera. In these channels, luminosities decrease in spring, increase in autumn, and have a pronounced summer maximum, which can be explained by scattered light and is associated with the location of the Geophysical Observatory. We consider geophysical phenomena with their optical effects in R, G, B channels of the color camera. For some geophysical phenomena (geomagnetic storms, sudden stratospheric warmings), we demonstrate the possibility of the quantitative relationship between enhanced signals in R and G channels and increases in intensities of discrete 557.7 and 630 nm emissions, which are predominant in the airglow spectrum.

  17. Laboratory and field studies of naps and caffeine as practical countermeasures for sleep-wake problems associated with night work.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Paula K; Randazzo, Angela C; Stone, Kara; Erman, Milton; Walsh, James K

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of napping, caffeine, and napping plus caffeine on performance and alertness in both laboratory and field settings. (1) Laboratory Study: parallel-groups design with random assignment to 1 of 4 experimental conditions. (2) Field Study: crossover design. Sleep laboratory and field settings. (1) Laboratory Study: 68 healthy individuals; (2) Field Study: 53 shiftworkers who worked nights or rotating shifts. (1) Laboratory Study: an evening nap opportunity before the first 2 of 4 consecutive simulated night shifts plus placebo taken all 4 nights, caffeine taken nightly, the combination of the nap and caffeine conditions, or placebo. (2) Field Study: an evening nap on the first 2 of 4 consecutive night shifts plus caffeine taken nightly versus placebo taken nightly without naps. (1) Laboratory Study: Napping, caffeine, and their combination all improved alertness and performance as measured by Maintenance of Wakefulness Test and Psychomotor Vigilance Task, but the combination of napping and caffeine was best in improving alertness. (2) Field Study: Napping plus caffeine improved performance as measured by Psychomotor Vigilance Test and decreased subjective sleepiness in individuals working the night shift. Napping plus caffeine helps improve performance and alertness of night-shift workers.

  18. Long-Lasting Efficacy of an Experimental 1450 ppm Fluoride/Zinc-Based Dentifrice as Measured by Calcium Buildup Using an In Situ Intra-Oral Device After 12 Hours: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Richter, R; Jogun, S; Won, B; Zhang, Y P; Miller, S

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of an experimental 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP)/zinc-based dentifrice (Test), a clinically proven 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-based dentifrice (Positive Control), and a 1000 ppm fluoride as SMFP and 450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF) dentifrice (Negative Control) in delivering 12-hour anti-tartar benefits as measured by calcium buildup after a single product brushing. Fourteen (14) adult subjects completed this single-center, double-blind, randomized, cross-over clinical study conducted in Piscataway, New Jersey. An intra-oral appliance was custom-made for each subject as a surface on which the anti-calculus agents' inhibition of early calculus formation could be analyzed. After brushing with their assigned toothpaste, each subject wore their respective appliance for 12 hours overnight. When the appliance was removed, it was washed, suspended in 0.1 MHCL to release Ca2+ from deposits, and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) for deposited calcium. There was a one-week washout period between each product use. Statistical analyses were performed on the mean level of calcium (μg). Comparisons of the treatment groups with respect to 12-hour post-brushing (overnight) calcium levels were performed via a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with subjects and products as factors in the ANOVA model. Post-ANOVA pair-wise comparisons of the study treatments were performed using the Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. All statistical tests of hypothesis were two-sided, and employed a level of significance of α = 0.05. At the 12-hour post-brushing examination, the mean level of calcium buildup was 0.46 μg for subjects assigned to the experimental Test dentifrice, 0.41 μg for subjects assigned to the Positive Control dentifrice, and 2.47 μg for subjects assigned to the Negative Control dentifrice. After 12 hours post-brushing, subjects assigned to the experimental Test dentifrice and Positive Control

  19. TWAN: The World at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.

  20. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    PubMed

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2015-01-01

    One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation in workplace health promotion. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie, fixed day work (reference) and shift work (four categories), psychosocial work factors, and health behaviors. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses both in the total sample (N=7555) and in a sub-sample consisting of job groups with representatives in all shift work categories (N=2064). In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion. Within job groups undertaking shift work, we found few differences between day and shift workers, and these few differences appear to favor shift workers. Day workers and shift workers did not differ significantly with respect to their participation in health promotion. The present study could not confirm that shift workers in general report a lower availability of and participation in workplace health promotion.

  1. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  2. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  3. Long Day Journey into Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-06

    NASA Cassini spacecraft shows Saturn shadow cutting sharply across its rings as the orbits of ring particles carry them suddenly from day to night. With no atmosphere to scatter light, shadows in space are much darker than were used to here on Earth.

  4. Shedding Light on Night Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    1986-01-01

    Shows how darkness and night provide a potentially excellent arena for experiential learning opportunities. Recommends learning must be gradual, beginning with appreciation and allaying fear of the dark. Suggests sensory activities, hikes, games, aquatic activities, ecological simulations, historical presentations, and writing or reciting poetry.…

  5. Shift work and hypertension: Prevalence and analysis of disease pathways in a German car manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Johan; Keskin, Mekail-Cem; Stork, Joachim; Radon, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may share a similar pathophysiology. Despite shift workers' CVD excess risk, studies on shift work and hypertension are inconclusive. Blood pressure and shift status for 25,343 autoworkers were obtained from medical check-ups and company registers. Cross-sectional associations modeling the total effect from shift work (day shifts, shift work without nights, rotating shift work with nights, and night shifts) on hypertension were assessed. By sequential adjustments, the influence of behavioral, psychosocial, and physiological factors on the total effect was examined, with subsequent mediation and moderation analyses. Adjusted for confounders, shift work without nights (vs. day shifts) was significantly associated with hypertension (OR 1.15, 95%CI 1.02-1.30). The total effect was mediated by BMI, physical inactivity, and sleep disorders. No moderation of the total effect by behaviors was found. The association between shift work and hypertension seems mainly attributable to behavioral mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Shift Work and Sleep Quality Among Urban Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine association of shift work with sleep quality in police officers. Methods Data were obtained from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study (n =363). An electronic work history database was used to define shift as day, afternoon, or night for three durations: past month, 1 year, and 15 years. Sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results The overall prevalence of poor sleep quality was 54%; 44% for day, 60% for afternoon, and 69% for night shift. Poor sleep quality was 70% more prevalent among night-shift officers (P <0.001) and 49% higher among those on the afternoon shift (P =0.003) relative to officers working on the day shift. Conclusions Night and evening work schedules are associated with elevated prevalence of poor sleep quality among police officers. PMID:26949891

  7. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    PubMed

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  8. Effects of shift work on noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Fung; Lai, Jim-Shoung; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated concerning the adverse effects of noise on hearing acuity, but it is not clear whether working shifts may decelerate the effects of hearing loss. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of shift work on hearing loss in a noisy work environment. A sample of 218 male workers recruited at a semiconductor factory with no known occupational hazards that affected hearing acuity other than noise was chosen. The subjects worked either in an eight-hour or 12-hour shift. A standardized audiometric procedure was performed by a qualified audiologist to measure pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 3 kHz, 4 kHz, 6 kHz and 8 kHz in both ears. Using multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking habits, and work duration, the results showed that the severity of hearing loss in both ears was significantly lower in subjects who worked a 12-hour shift. In conclusion, working a 12-hour shift followed by a day off is best for workers and hearing protection should be provided in high noise areas.

  9. The effect of shift length on fatigue and cognitive performance in air medical providers.

    PubMed

    Guyette, Francis Xavier; Morley, Julia L; Weaver, Matthew D; Patterson, P Daniel; Hostler, David

    2013-01-01

    To employ a battery of previously validated surveys and neuropsychological tests to compare changes in fatigue and cognitive abilities of air medical providers after 12- and 24-hour shifts. A convenience sample of 34 flight nurses and flight paramedics employed by one air medical service completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ) to determine fatigue before and after 12-hour (n = 16) and 24-hour (n = 19) shifts. A battery of neuropsychological tests, including the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Stroop Color-Word Test were administered before and after the shift to measure changes in cognition. We compared the change in scores stratified by shift length using t-tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Fisher's exact test. Participants in the 12- and 24-hour shift groups were aged 36 ± 8 years (12-hour shifts) and 39 ± 6 years (24-hour shifts) (mean ± standard deviation) and were preponderantly male (62% 12-hour shifts; 63%, 24 hour shifts). The PSQI scores identified 50% of both 12-hour and 24-hour shift subjects as having poor sleep quality. Preshift fatigue was described as a median 2/10 (interquartile range [IQR] = 2-4) and fatigue declined by the end of the shift to a median 1/10 [IQR = 1-2], p = 0.006. Providers averaged 6.8 hours of sleep during 24-hour shifts and 1 hour of sleep during 12-hour shifts. Changes in cognitive scores did not differ between groups. This study identified no changes in cognitive performance following 12- and 24-hour shifts in air medical providers. This suggests that 24-hour shifts in an air medical service with low to moderate utilization do not have a detrimental effect on cognition as measured by this test battery, and are comparable to 12-hour shifts in terms of impact on cognitive function.

  10. Controlled patterns of daytime light exposure improve circadian adjustment in simulated night work.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Marie; Blais, Hélène; Roy, Joanie; Paquet, Jean

    2009-10-01

    Circadian misalignment between the endogenous circadian signal and the imposed rest-activity cycle is one of the main sources of sleep and health troubles in night shift workers. Timed bright light exposure during night work can reduce circadian misalignment in night workers, but this approach is limited by difficulties in incorporating bright light treatment into most workplaces. Controlled light and dark exposure during the daytime also has a significant impact on circadian phase and could be easier to implement in real-life situations. The authors previously described distinctive light exposure patterns in night nurses with and without circadian adaptation. In the present study, the main features of these patterns were used to design daytime light exposure profiles. Profiles were then tested in a laboratory simulation of night work to evaluate their efficacy in reducing circadian misalignment in night workers. The simulation included 2 day shifts followed by 4 consecutive night shifts (2400-0800 h). Healthy subjects (15 men and 23 women; 20-35 years old) were divided into 3 groups to test 3 daytime light exposure profiles designed to produce respectively a phase delay (delay group, n=12), a phase advance (advance group, n=13), or an unchanged circadian phase (stable group, n=13). In all 3 groups, light intensity was set at 50 lux during the nights of simulated night work. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) showed a significant phase advance of 2.3 h (+/-1.3 h) in the advance group and a significant phase delay of 4.1 h (+/-1.3 h) in the delay group. The stable group showed a smaller but significant phase delay of 1.7 h (+/-1.6 h). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophases were highly correlated to salivary DLMOs. Urinary aMT6s acrophases were used to track daily phase shifts. They showed that phase shifts occurred rapidly and differed between the 3 groups by the 3rd night of simulated night work. These results show that significant phase shifts can

  11. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    PubMed Central

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure–response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Methods Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Results Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1–4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure–response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Conclusions Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:27872151

  12. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  13. Simplified night sky display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

  14. Night Operations - The Soviet Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    cannons 4 - 5 Muzzle flashes from small arms 1.5 - 2 Bonfire 6 - 8 Flashlight up to 1.5 Lighted match up to 1.5 Lighted cigarette up to .8 Audibility...60,,.6o d-o "NORM NOT GIVEN DIRECTORS-SQUAD COMMANDERS Figure 3 Firing Range DDT -1100-128-76, Soviet Ground Porces, Night Operations,tMarch 1976

  15. Old Night Vision Meets New

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired November 11-12, 2012. On November 12, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite captured the top nighttime image of city, village, and highway lights near Delhi, India. For comparison, the lower image shows the same area one night earlier, as observed by the Operational Line Scan (OLS) system on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft. Since the 1960s, the U.S. Air Force has operated DMSP in order to observe clouds and other weather variables in key wavelengths of infrared and visible light. Since 1972, the DMSP satellites have included the Operational Linescan System (OLS), which gives weather forecasters some ability to see in the dark. It has been a highly successful sensor, but it is dependent on older technology with lower resolution than most scientists would like. And for many years, DMSP data were classified. Through improved optics and “smart” sensing technology, the VIIRS “day-night band,” is ten to fifteen times better than the OLS system at resolving the relatively dim lights of human settlements and reflected moonlight. Each VIIRS pixel shows roughly 740 meters (0.46 miles) across, compared to the 3-kilometer footprint (1.86 miles) of DMSP. Beyond the resolution, the new sensor can detect dimmer light sources. And since the VIIRS measurements are fully calibrated (unlike DMSP), scientists now have the precision required to make quantitative measurements of clouds and other features. “In contrast to the Operational Line Scan system, the imagery from the new day-night band is almost like a nearsighted person putting on glasses for the first time and looking at the Earth anew,” says Steve Miller, an atmospheric scientist at Colorado State University. “VIIRS has allowed us to bring this coarse, blurry view of night lights into clearer focus. Now we can see things in such great detail and at such high precision that we’re really talking about a new kind of

  16. Psychotherapy with night-terror patients.

    PubMed

    Kales, J C; Cadieux, R J; Soldatos, C R; Kales, A

    1982-07-01

    This is the first report of the effectiveness of psychotherapy in treating adult night-terror patients. Night terrors were eliminated or drastically reduced in two patients who completed psychotherapy. A third patient discontinued therapy and showed no improvement. Thus, the primary role of psychopathology in the production of night terrors in adulthood was illustrated.

  17. Arsia Mons by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Arsia Mons.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -19.6, Longitude 241.9 East (118.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the

  18. Crater Ejecta by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 24 June 2004 This pair of images shows a crater and its ejecta.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 164.2 East (195.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  19. Noctus Labyrinthus by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 25 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Noctus Labyrinthus.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9.6, Longitude 264.5 East (95.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  20. Meridiani Crater in Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 June 2004 This pair of images shows crater ejecta in the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1.6, Longitude 4.1 East (355.9 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will

  1. Ius Chasma by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Ius Chasma.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1, Longitude 276 East (84 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the

  2. Gusev Crater by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 23 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Gusev Crater.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -14.5, Longitude 175.5 East (184.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  3. Albor Tholus by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 21 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Albor Tholus.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 150.3 East (209.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  4. Day And Night In Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  5. [Possibilities and limits of sleep recovery for night-nursing workers].

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Soraya Maria; de Macêdo, Maria Lúcia Azevedo Ferreira; de Oliveira, Jonas Sâmi Albuquerque; Ribeiro, Laiane Medeiros

    2009-03-01

    The present study had the objective of investigating the possibilities/limits of sleep recovery in women workers with medium level in nursing that develop their activities in night shifts in a first-aid clinic at a public hospital in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This was an analytic study, with a qualitative approach which used the technique of thematic oral history Fifteen women workers with medium level in nursing were interviewed. The following empirical categories were defined: night shift work and night sleep and night rest at work environment Physiological and psychological sufferings are evident on their speech as well as what the lack of sleep causes in health and personal life of these women workers, making the overload of work clear and also the sociocultural imperfections of feminine gender

  6. Dispositional factors and work mastery among shift workers.

    PubMed

    Foldal, Vegard; Langvik, Eva; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how broad personality dimensions and dispositional resistance to change are associated with mastery of work among shift workers. A total of 285 shift workers employed in rotating shifts with morning, evening and night work and night shift schedules in a municipality in Norway completed electronic questionnaires. The findings suggest that the broad personality dimensions neuroticism and conscientiousness were significant predictors of perceived work mastery among shift workers in this sample, whereas the narrow trait dispositional resistance to change was not.

  7. Night terrors: strategies for family coping.

    PubMed

    Gates, D; Morwessel, N

    1989-02-01

    This article discusses the occurrence of night terrors (parvor nocturnus) in children. The characteristics of a typical night terror incident are described, as are the common parental reactions to such frightening events. Nurses who work with children and families need to know about the etiology and clinical course of night terrors. They need to be able to differentiate night terrors from other sleep disturbances and determine possible ways to alleviate the occurrences. This article emphasizes assessment, anticipatory guidance, education, and counseling. A practical guide for parents is included to provide families with information on ways to cope with night terrors.

  8. Improved night vision demonstrator program status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Roberts, David W.; Knotts, Michael E.; Wasilewski, Anthony A.; West, Leanne L.; Robinson, William G.; Bennett, Gisele

    2007-04-01

    Although existing night vision equipment provides a significant improvement in target detection in low light conditions, there are several limitations that limit their effectiveness. Focus is a significant problem for night vision equipment due to the low f-number optics required to obtain sufficient sensitivity as well as the dynamic nature of night vision applications, which requires frequent focus adjustments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a prototype next-generation night vision device called the Improved Night Vision Demonstrator (INVD) in order to address these shortfalls. This paper will describe the design of the INVD system as well as an analysis of its performance.

  9. Circadian Activity Rhythms and Sleep in Nurses Working Fixed 8-hr Shifts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Miao, Nae-Fang; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-05-01

    Shift work is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of shift work on circadian activity rhythms (CARs) and objective and subjective sleep quality in nurses. Female day-shift (n = 16), evening-shift (n = 6), and night-shift (n = 13) nurses wore a wrist actigraph to monitor the activity. We used cosinor analysis and time-frequency analysis to study CARs. Night-shift nurses exhibited the lowest values of circadian rhythm amplitude, acrophase, autocorrelation, and mean of the circadian relative power (CRP), whereas evening-shift workers exhibited the greatest standard deviation of the CRP among the three shift groups. That is, night-shift nurses had less robust CARs and evening-shift nurses had greater variations in CARs compared with nurses who worked other shifts. Our results highlight the importance of assessing CARs to prevent the adverse effects of shift work on nurses' health.

  10. Night nursing – staff's working experiences

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Campbell, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Ewa Pilhammar

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the duties and working conditions of registered, and enrolled nurses have previously been described from different perspectives, they have not been examined from the night nursing aspect. The aim of the study was to describe the night nursing staff's working experiences. Methods The design of the study is qualitative and descriptive. Interviews were conducted with 10 registered and 10 enrolled nurses working as night staff at a Swedish University Hospital. The interview guide was thematic and concerned the content of their tasks, as well as the working conditions that constitute night nursing. In addition, the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Results The night duties have to be performed under difficult conditions that include working silently in dimmed lighting, and making decisions when fatigue threatens. According to the night staff, its main goals are to provide the patients with rest and simultaneously ensure qualified care. Furthermore, the night nursing staff must prepare the ward for the daytime activities. Conclusion The most important point is the team work, which developed between the registered and enrolled nurses and how necessary this team work is when working at night. In order for nurses working at night to be fully appreciated, the communication between day and night staff in health care organizations needs to be developed. Furthermore, it is important to give the night staff opportunities to use its whole field of competence. PMID:18976475

  11. Tactical Night Terrain Flight Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    an reverse aide It necesarmy and identify by block unmber) Terrain flight Night flight Surface nav’igation 20,. AW4~ACT ( C ~venoUa sov ero " eom a maa...were used on each test flight. The helicopter used for the low-level flights were equipped initially with a commercial radar altimeter with a single...indicator, which was later changed to a military AN/APN-209 radar altimeter with dual indicators. The second helicopter was used for command and

  12. Excessive sleepiness, sleep hygiene, and coping strategies among night bus drivers: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Uma Maheswari; Chhabria, Mamta S.; Rao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep disruption and excessive sleepiness are the known consequences of shift work. The recent spate of night-time road and air accidents, with some being directly attributed to driver sleepiness prompted us to undertake this study. Aims: To screen for excessive sleepiness, coping practices, and post-shift sleep hygiene in night bus drivers. Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out on night bus drivers of a public transport organization in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Bus drivers driving for ≥8 h at night were screened with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a prevalidated shift work questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the compiled data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: One hundred and eighty bus drivers aged 22–63 years were screened. Excessive Sleepiness: Although only 2 (1.1%) drivers scored above the cutoff on ESS, 10 (5.6%) and 103 (57.2%) drivers admitted to feeling sleepy during daytime and night driving respectively. None of the drivers admitted to causing accidents related to sleepiness. The coping strategies for nocturnal sleepiness included consuming coffee/tea (16.7%), chewing tobacco (12.8%), smoking (6.1%), and walking (3.9%). Post-Shift Sleep Practices: Post-shift sleep duration ranged between 1 h and 10 h. Twenty-six (14.4%) and 16 (8.9%) drivers had difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, respectively, while 9 (5%) reported frequent awakening during daytime sleep. Conclusion and Implications: This study has demonstrated a high incidence of nocturnal sleepiness and daytime sleep disruption among night bus drivers, thus necessitating the need for education about shift work and alertness testing among shift workers in critical professions. PMID:28194081

  13. Night terrors. Clinical characteristics and personality patterns.

    PubMed

    Kales, J D; Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Caldwell, A B; Charney, D S; Martin, E D

    1980-12-01

    The development and clinical course of night terrors and the personality patterns of patients with this disorder were evaluated in 40 adults who had a current complaint of night terrors. Compared with a group of adult sleepwalkers, the patients with night terrors had a later age of onset for their disorder, a higher frequency of events, and an earlier time of night for the occurrence of episodes. Both groups had high levels of psychopathology, with higher values for the night terror group. This sleepwalkers showed active, outwardly directed behavioral patterns, whereas the night terror patients showed an inhibition of outward expressions of aggression and a predominance of anxiety, depression, tendencies obsessive-compulsive/, and phobicness. Although night terrors and sleepwalking in childhood seem to be related primarily to genetic and developmental factors, their persistence and especially their onset in adulthood are found to be related more to psychological factors.

  14. Circadian rhythm of catecholamine excretion in rats after phase shift of light-dark cycle.

    PubMed

    Sudo, A; Miki, K

    1995-01-01

    To clarify the time course of circadian rhythm adaptation to a phase shift of the light-dark (LD) cycle, urinary excretion of catecholamines was measured in rats before and after a 12-hour or 6-hour phase delay of a 12-hour light and 12-hour dark schedule. In rats under a basal condition, distinct circadian rhythms in catecholamine excretion were observed, especially in adrenaline excretion. During the 1st and 2nd days after a 12-hour phase delay, the acrophase and amplitude of adrenaline rhythm remained almost unchanged, but thereafter the acrophase was retarded and the amplitude was reduced. The acrophase once again became constant after 5 or 6 days, but the ratio of amplitude to mesor in the circadian rhythm of adrenaline excretion and the ratio of light-period to 24-hour noradrenaline excretion were readjusted to the new LD schedule on 11th or 12th day. IN the 6-hour phase delay of the LD cycle, similar findings were observed, and the results suggested adaptation on the 5-6th day. It is considered that the circadian rhythms of the sympathetic adrenomedullary function are restored, at the latest, 12 days after a 12-hour delay of the LD cycle, and 6 days after a 6-hour delay, suggesting that rats need approximately 1 day to adapt to a 1-hour phase shift.

  15. Effects of a night-team system on resident sleep and work hours.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kao-Ping; Gordon, Mary Beth; Sectish, Theodore; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Children's Hospital Boston implemented a night-team system on general pediatric wards to reduce extended work shifts. Residents worked 5 consecutive nights for 1 week and worked day shifts for the remainder of the rotation. Of note, resident staffing at night decreased under this system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of this system on resident sleep and work hours. We conducted a prospective cohort study in which residents on the night-team system logged their sleep and work hours on work days. These data were compared with similar data collected in 2004, when there was a traditional call system. In 2004 and 2009, mean shift length was 15.22 ± 6.86 and 12.92 ± 5.70 hours, respectively (P = .161). Daily work hours were 10.49 ± 6.85 and 8.79 ± 6.42 hours, respectively (P = .08). Nightly sleep time decreased from 6.72 ± 2.60 to 4.77 ± 2.46 hours (P < .001). Total sleep time decreased from 7.50 ± 3.13 to 5.47 ± 2.34 hours (P < .001). Implementation of a night-team system was unexpectedly associated with decreased sleep hours. As residency programs create work schedules that are compliant with the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour standards, resident sleep should be monitored carefully.

  16. Internal dissociation of the circadian markers of the cortisol rhythm in night workers.

    PubMed

    Weibel, L; Spiegel, K; Follenius, M; Ehrhart, J; Brandenberger, G

    1996-04-01

    To determine whether the circadian system of night workers is adapted to a night-active schedule, we submitted 11 night workers and 11 day-active subjects to a 10-min blood sampling procedure during their usual sleep-wake cycle, permitting a precise determination of circadian and ultradian cortisol variations. In night works, the usual shift of 8 h in the sleep period was associated with a distortion of the normal 24-h cortisol rhythm. The acrophase exhibited a shift of approximately 6.5 h, whereas the quiescent period, abruptly interrupted by a large peak, underwent a shift of only 3 h and lasted for approximately 5 h, as in day-active subjects. Slow-wave sleep and sleep onset occurred during periods of low or decreasing cortisol secretory rates, whereas awakenings were associated with an increase in cortisol secretory rates. These results revealed that the circadian system of night workers only partially adapts to night work and that adaptation processes rely on an internal dissociation of the markers of the cortisol pattern, without disturbing the processes that couple cortisol release and specific sleep stages.

  17. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.

  18. Calculation of thermal inertia from day-night measurements separated by days or weeks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The calculation of the thermal inertia of an area from remotely sensed data involves the measurement of the surface albedo and the determination of the diurnal temperature range of the surface in image format. The temperature-range image is calculated from surface thermal radiance measured as near as possible to the time of maximum surface temperature and (predawn) surface minimum temperature. Ordinarily, both surface-temperature images are measured within the same 12-hour period. If this is impossible, then the measurement of the predawn surface radiance within a 36-hour period has been considered to be adequate, although less satisfactory. The problems arising in connection with the impossibility to conduct measurements within the same 12-hour period are studied, and suggestions are made for cases in which only relative thermal inertia across an area is required. In such cases investigators should consider using the best day-night temperature pairs available, even if not acquired within a 12 to 36 hour period.

  19. Calculation of thermal inertia from day-night measurements separated by days or weeks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The calculation of the thermal inertia of an area from remotely sensed data involves the measurement of the surface albedo and the determination of the diurnal temperature range of the surface in image format. The temperature-range image is calculated from surface thermal radiance measured as near as possible to the time of maximum surface temperature and (predawn) surface minimum temperature. Ordinarily, both surface-temperature images are measured within the same 12-hour period. If this is impossible, then the measurement of the predawn surface radiance within a 36-hour period has been considered to be adequate, although less satisfactory. The problems arising in connection with the impossibility to conduct measurements within the same 12-hour period are studied, and suggestions are made for cases in which only relative thermal inertia across an area is required. In such cases investigators should consider using the best day-night temperature pairs available, even if not acquired within a 12 to 36 hour period.

  20. Day or night administration of ketamine and pentobarbital differentially affect circadian rhythms of pineal melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Tatsuaki; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Koga, Motokazu; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu; Goto, Takahisa

    2012-10-01

    Surgery with general anesthesia disturbs circadian rhythms, which may lead to postoperative sleep disorders and delirium in patients. However, it is unclear how circadian rhythms are affected by different anesthetics administered at different times during the rest-activity cycle. We hypothesized that pentobarbital (an agonist at the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors) and ketamine (an antagonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors) would have differential effects on circadian rhythms, and these effects would also be influenced by the time of their administration (the active versus resting phase). Rats were divided into 4 groups according to the anesthetic administered (pentobarbital or ketamine) and the timing of intraperitoneal administration (active/night phase or resting/day phase). Using online pineal microdialysis, we analyzed pineal melatonin secretion and locomotor activity rhythms in rats under a light/dark (12/12-hour) cycle for 5 days after anesthesia and microdialysis catheter implantation. The data were analyzed for rhythmicity by cosinor analysis. Ketamine administered during the resting phase produced 65- and 153-minute phase advances, respectively, in melatonin secretion and locomotor activity rhythms on the first day after anesthesia. In contrast, ketamine administered during the active phase produced 43- and 235-minute phase delays. Pentobarbital had no effect on the phase of either melatonin secretion or locomotor activity, irrespective of the timing of administration. When administered during the active phase, both anesthetics decreased the amplitude of melatonin secretion on the day after anesthesia; when administered during the resting phase, however, neither anesthetic affected the amplitude. The amplitude of locomotor activity decreased in all animals for 3 days after anesthesia. Ketamine has opposite phase-shifting effects on circadian rhythms according to the time of administration, whereas pentobarbital has no effect. Furthermore, both

  1. [Night work and health of nurses and midviwes--a review].

    PubMed

    Burdelak, Weronika; Peplońska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Night shift work has been thought to play a role in the etiology of chronic diseases through a disruption of the circadian rhythm, decreased synthesis of melatonin and sleep deprivation. Our aim was to review the epidemiological studies on the association between night shift work and some pathologies in nurses and midwives. We reviewed publications available in the MEDLINE database and published before June 2012, describing the cross-sectional (almost two thirds of all papers) and cohort studies. In total, we identified 26 original papers, including 5 epidemiological studies addressing diseases or disorders of the digestive system, 3--metabolic syndrome, 2--type 2 diabetes, 9--cardiovascular diseases and (CVD risk factors, 5--obesity/overweight, 2--menstrual disorders and 3--poor pregnancy outcomes. The analysis of the literature indicates that night shift work of nurses and midwives is most strongly associated with a higher risk ofobesity/overweight. In each of the five studies, which we identified this association was observed (confirmed by the statistical significance of the results), also after adjustment for confounders. The results for type 2 diabetes and disorders of the menstrual cycle are also suggestive. Epidemiological data on the other disorders or pathologies discussed in this article seem to be less certain - their results are inconsistent or their number is too small to draw definite conclusions. Further epidemiological studies of nurses and midwives working on night shifts and prospective observations in particular are recommended to find out whether potential association between the night work and discussed health issues is causal.

  2. [Analysis of cognitive function and sleep of nursing staff on different shift work].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Beatriz; De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze short-term memory, attention and sleep patterns of the nursing staff working night and day shifts. Study participants were 109 subjects in a hospital in Minas Gerais working on the day shift (n = 68) or night shift (n = 41). Data collection was performed using the Sleep Diary and WAIS-III Test Battery. The results showed a significant difference for the quality of sleep of those on night shift work (p < 0.0001; ANOVA). The subjects on the day shifts performed better on the Digit Symbol with a significant difference (p = 0.0008; Mann-Whitney test). In conclusion, the quality of sleep of the group on the night shift showed lower averages compared with those on the day shifts, although they had greater total sleep. The level of attention showed to be best for the group on the day shift work.

  3. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  4. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  5. Melas Chasma, Day and Night.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National

  6. Excessive sleepiness, sleep hygiene, and coping strategies among night bus drivers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Uma Maheswari; Chhabria, Mamta S; Rao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disruption and excessive sleepiness are the known consequences of shift work. The recent spate of night-time road and air accidents, with some being directly attributed to driver sleepiness prompted us to undertake this study. To screen for excessive sleepiness, coping practices, and post-shift sleep hygiene in night bus drivers. This prospective study was carried out on night bus drivers of a public transport organization in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Bus drivers driving for ≥8 h at night were screened with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a prevalidated shift work questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the compiled data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. One hundred and eighty bus drivers aged 22-63 years were screened. Although only 2 (1.1%) drivers scored above the cutoff on ESS, 10 (5.6%) and 103 (57.2%) drivers admitted to feeling sleepy during daytime and night driving respectively. None of the drivers admitted to causing accidents related to sleepiness. The coping strategies for nocturnal sleepiness included consuming coffee/tea (16.7%), chewing tobacco (12.8%), smoking (6.1%), and walking (3.9%). Post-shift sleep duration ranged between 1 h and 10 h. Twenty-six (14.4%) and 16 (8.9%) drivers had difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, respectively, while 9 (5%) reported frequent awakening during daytime sleep. This study has demonstrated a high incidence of nocturnal sleepiness and daytime sleep disruption among night bus drivers, thus necessitating the need for education about shift work and alertness testing among shift workers in critical professions.

  7. Trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms in Norwegian nurses with and without night work and rotational work.

    PubMed

    Thun, Eirunn; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Åkerstedt, Torbjørn; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Waage, Siri; Molde, Helge; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies report high prevalence rates of sleepiness and insomnia in shift workers, but few longitudinal studies exist. We investigated trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms in a sample of Norwegian nurses across four measurements, spanning a total of four years (sleepiness) and five years (insomnia). The participants completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Bergen Insomnia Scale at each measurement instance. Latent growth curve models were used to analyse the data. Separate models examined night work (night work, entering and leaving night work) and rotational work (rotational work, entering and leaving rotational work) as predictors for trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms, respectively. Baseline values of sleepiness and insomnia were higher among rotational shift workers than among workers with fixed shifts (day or night). The results showed that night work throughout the period and entering night work during the period were not associated with different trajectories of sleepiness or insomnia symptoms, compared to not having night work. The same results were found for rotational work and entering rotational work, compared to not having rotational work. Leaving night work and leaving rotational work were associated with a decrease in sleepiness and insomnia symptoms, compared to staying in such work.

  8. Intermittent bright light and exercise to entrain human circadian rhythms to night work.

    PubMed

    Baehr, E K; Fogg, L F; Eastman, C I

    1999-12-01

    Bright light can phase shift human circadian rhythms, and recent studies have suggested that exercise can also produce phase shifts in humans. However, few studies have examined the phase-shifting effects of intermittent bright light, exercise, or the combination. This simulated night work field study included eight consecutive night shifts followed by daytime sleep/dark periods (delayed 9 h from baseline). There were 33 subjects in a 2 x 2 design that compared 1) intermittent bright light (6 pulses, 40-min long each, at 5,000 lx) versus dim light and 2) intermittent exercise (6 bouts, 15-min long each, at 50-60% of maximum heart rate) versus no exercise. Bright light and exercise occurred during the first 6 h of the first three night shifts. The circadian phase marker was the demasked rectal temperature minimum. Intermittent bright-light groups had significantly larger phase delays than dim-light groups, and 94% of subjects who received bright light had phase shifts large enough for the temperature minimum to reach daytime sleep. Exercise did not affect phase shifts; neither facilitating nor inhibiting phase shifts produced by bright light.

  9. International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-18

    Visitors get a rare opportunity to view laser beams pointed at the moon at Optical Site. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Debbie Mccallum On September 18, 2010 the world joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Md., as well as other NASA Centers to celebrate the first annual International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/features/2010/moon-nigh... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center contributes to NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s endeavors by providing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  10. International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Cathie Peddie - Deputy Project Manager LRO (center) shows a young visitor shadows demo. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Debbie Mccallum On September 18, 2010 the world joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Md., as well as other NASA Centers to celebrate the first annual International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/features/2010/moon-nigh... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center contributes to NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s endeavors by providing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  11. International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-18

    A young girl sees the moon through one of many telescopes set up at VC. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Debbie Mccallum On September 18, 2010 the world joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Md., as well as other NASA Centers to celebrate the first annual International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/features/2010/moon-nigh... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center contributes to NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s endeavors by providing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  12. International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A young boy views the moon through a hand made telescope at VC. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Debbie Mccallum On September 18, 2010 the world joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Md., as well as other NASA Centers to celebrate the first annual International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/features/2010/moon-nigh... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center contributes to NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s endeavors by providing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  13. Hereditary factors in sleepwalking and night terrors.

    PubMed

    Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Bixler, E O; Ladda, R L; Charney, D S; Weber, G; Schweitzer, P K

    1980-08-01

    The families of 25 probands with sleepwalking and 27 probands with night terrors were studied. Eighty per cent of the sleepwalking pedigrees and 96 per cent of the night terror pedigrees included one or more individuals, other than the proband, who were affected by sleepwalking, night terrors, or both. Our data appear to fit a 'two threshold' multifactorial mode of inheritance. This finding supports the hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors share a common genetic predisposition, with sleepwalking being a more prevalent and less severe manifestation of the same substrate that underlies night terrors. Heritable factors predispose an individual to develop sleepwalking and/or night terrors, but expression of the trait may be influenced by environmental factors.

  14. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  15. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  16. Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test by Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett, and Elizabeth S. Redden ARL-TR-3839 August...Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-3839 August 2006 Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett...NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 62716AH70 5e

  17. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Brum, Maria Carlota Borba; Filho, Fábio Fernandes Dantas; Schnorr, Claudia Carolina; Bottega, Gustavo Borchardt; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2015-01-01

    Although the health burden of shift work has not been extensively studied, evidence suggests that it may affect the metabolic balance and cause obesity and other metabolic disorders. Sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronization and behavioral changes in diet and physical activity are among the most commonly mentioned factors in studies of the association between night work and metabolic disorders. Individual adaptation to night work depends greatly on personal factors such as family and social life, but occupational interventions may also make a positive contribution to the transition to shift work, such as exposure to bright lights during the night shift, melatonin use, shift regularity and clockwise rotation, and dietary adaptations for the metabolic needs of night workers. The evaluation of the impact of night work on health and of the mechanisms underlying this relationship can serve as a basis for intervention strategies to minimize the health burden of shift work. This review aimed to identify highlights regarding therapeutic implications following the association between night and shift work and metabolic disorders, as well as the mechanisms and pathways responsible for these relationships.

  18. Diagnostic Performance of Ultrasonography for Pediatric Appendicitis: A Night and Day Difference?

    PubMed

    Mangona, Kate Louise M; Guillerman, R Paul; Mangona, Victor S; Carpenter, Jennifer; Zhang, Wei; Lopez, Monica; Orth, Robert C

    2017-08-18

    For imaging pediatric appendicitis, ultrasonography (US) is preferred because of its lack of ionizing radiation, but is limited by operator dependence. This study investigates the US diagnostic performance during night shifts covered by radiology trainees compared to day shifts covered by attending radiologists. Appy-Scores (1 = completely visualized normal appendix; 2 = partially visualized normal appendix; 3 = nonvisualized appendix with no inflammatory changes in the expected region of the appendix; 4 = equivocal; 5a = nonperforated appendicitis; 5b = perforated appendicitis) from 2935 US examinations (2161:774, day-to-night) from July 2013 to 2014 were correlated with the intraoperative diagnoses and the clinical follow-up. The diagnostic performance of trainees and attendings was compared with Fisher exact test. Interobserver agreement was measured by Cohen kappa coefficient. Appendicitis prevalence was 25.3% (day) and 22.5% (night). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and positive predictive vale were 94.0%, 93.7%, 93.8%, 97.9%, and 83.4% during the day and 92.0%, 91.2%, 91.3%, 97.5%, and 75.2% at night. Specificity (P = .048) and positive predictive value (P = .011) differed, with more false positives at night (7%) than during the day (4.7%). Trainee and attending agreement was high (k = 0.995), with Appy-Scores of 1, 4, and 5a most frequently discordant. US has a high diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement for pediatric appendicitis when interpreted by radiology trainees during night shifts or attending radiologists during day shifts. However, lower specificity and positive predictive value at night warrants a thorough trainee education to avoid false-positive examinations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Years worked at night and body mass index among registered nurses from eighteen public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Bastos, Leonardo S; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Silva-Costa, Aline; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Toivanen, Susanna; Rotenberg, Lucia

    2014-11-29

    Employees working night shifts are at a greater risk of being overweight or obese. Few studies on obesity and weight gain analyze the years of exposure to night work. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the years of exposure to night work and body mass index (BMI) among registered nurses. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2,372 registered nurses (2,100 women) completed a comprehensive questionnaire concerning sociodemographic, professional, lifestyle, and health behavioral data. Current and past exposures to night shifts as well as BMI values were measured as continuous variables. A gamma regression model was used with an identity link function to establish the association. The association between years of exposure to night work and BMI was statistically significant for both women and men after adjusting for all covariates [β = 0.036; CI95% = 0.009-0.063) and β = 0.071 (CI95% = 0.012-0.129), respectively]. The effect of night work was greater among men than women. For example, for those women who have worked at night for 20 years the estimated average BMI was 25.6 kg/m2 [range, 25.0-26.2]. In relation to men, after 20 years of exposure to night work the estimated average BMI was 26.9 kg/m2 [range, 25.6-28.1]. These findings suggest that night shift exposure is related to BMI increases. Obesity prevention strategies should incorporate improvements in work environments, such as the provision of proper meals to night workers, in addition to educational programs on the health effects of night work.

  20. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  1. Civilian use of night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Guillermo; Temme, Leonard; Antonio, J Charles

    2003-01-01

    Civil aviation operators have expressed an increased interest in conducting night operations with night vision imaging systems. The development of special operational concepts, hardware requirements, training requirements, and regulatory change and oversight is necessary to control for the known performance constraints associated with these devices. In 2001, the Aerospace Medical Association initiated an internal request to review the human factors issues concerning the use of night vision goggles (NVGs) in civilian flight operations. This paper provides some basic information on night vision imaging systems to highlight the Association's position for supporting the appropriate use of NVGs in civilian aviation while concurrently expressing the need for a judicious and studied approach to their deployment.

  2. Depth perception after prolonged usage of night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, J B; Wilkinson, M

    1989-06-01

    The present study was initiated following a report that a few helicopter pilots had failed a test of stereoscopic depth perception after a prolonged training flight employing night vision goggles (NVGs). In order to determine the cause of the loss, 12 helicopter pilots/copilots were assessed for depth perception, lateral and vertical phoria, and contrast sensitivity before and after training flights requiring the pilots to wear night vision goggles for the duration of the flight. Pilots flew one to three missions while wearing either PVS-5A or AN/AVS-6 goggles. Mission duration ranged from 1 to 4 h. The results indicate that contrast sensitivity and depth perception when monocular cues are present did not degrade over the course of the mission. Lateral phoria, however, did demonstrate an average exophoric shift of 1.5 prism diopters for 12 out of the 24 missions. The results indicate that the original report of a loss of depth perception based on a test of depth requiring stereopsis might have been caused by a shift in lateral phoria. It would be expected that as additional fusional effort is required, the minimum resolvable disparity degrades due to the increase in accommodation brought about through vergence accommodation. Possible causes for the phoria shift and future testing are discussed.

  3. Influence of rotating shift work on visual reaction time and visual evoked potential.

    PubMed

    R V, Hemamalini; N, Krishnamurthy; A, Saravanan

    2014-10-01

    The present day life style is changing the circadian rhythm of the body especially in rotating night shift workers. The impact of this prolongs their reaction time. Night shift also interferes with the circadian variation of pupil size which may affect the visual evoked potential. To compare the visual reaction time, visual evoked potential (VEP) in rotating night shift workers & day workers and also to correlate the changes in visual reaction time with visual evoked potential. Forty healthy male security guards & staff (25 - 35 y) who did rotating night shifts at least for six months & 40 d workers (25 - 35 y) who did not do night shift in last two years were involved in the study. Visual reaction time and the latency & amplitude of VEP were recorded. Kolmogorov- Smirnov test for normalcy showed the latencies & amplitude of VEP to be normally distributed. Student's unpaired t test showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the visual time and in the latencies of VEP between night shift & day workers. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of VEP. Night shift workers who are prone to circadian rhythm alteration will have prolonged visual reaction time & visual evoked potential abnormalities. Implementation of Bright Light Therapy would be beneficial to the night shift worker.

  4. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  5. The effect of consistent nursing shifts on teamwork and continuity of care.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Begeny, Suzanne; Anderson, Christine

    2008-03-01

    To attract nurses to the workforce, scheduling of nurses on patient care units has evolved into a mixture of 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-hour shifts. The result is chaotic as staff members come and go at varying times, creating the need for multiple handoffs and reassignment of patients. Effective teamwork and continuity of care are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve under these circumstances. The authors describe the effect of using just 1 shift length for all nursing staff.

  6. An observational study of shift length, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Matthew D.; Patterson, P. Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Songer, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians are shift workers deployed in two-person teams. Extended shift duration, workplace fatigue, poor sleep, and lack of familiarity with teammates are common in the EMS workforce and may contribute to workplace injury. We sought to examine the relationship between shift length and occupational injury while controlling for relevant shift work and teamwork factors. Methods We obtained three years of shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports were from 14 large EMS agencies. We abstracted shift length and additional scheduling and team characteristics from shift schedules. We matched occupational injury and illness reports to shift records and used hierarchical logistic regression models to test the relationship between shift length and occupational injury and illness while controlling for teammate familiarity. Results The cohort contained 966,082 shifts, 4,382 employees, and 950 outcome reports. Risk of occupational injury and illness was lower for shifts ≤8 hours in duration (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51–0.96) compared to shifts >8 & ≤12 hours. Relative to shifts >8 & ≤12 hours, risk of injury was 60% greater (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.22–2.10) for employees that worked shifts >16 and ≤24 hours. Conclusions Shift length is associated with increased risk of occupational injury and illness in this sample of EMS shift workers. PMID:26371071

  7. STEM Girls Night In at Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-04

    Girls Night In was held at Goddard on Nov 4-5, 2016. This is a pilot program which reinvigorates, Girls Night In was held at Goddard on Nov 4-5, inspires and engages high school girls who may be struggling or not fully engaged in STEM

  8. Evaluation of Two Night-Vision Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twelve legally blind men tested two night-vision devices: one wide-angle light and one with a high-intensity beam. The study concluded that no one night light is best for all individuals and in some cases a smaller angle, high-intensity light may be more useful than a wider angle one. (Author/JDD)

  9. The Night Sky on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. This time-lapse composite, acquired the evening of Spirit's martian sol 590 (Aug. 30, 2005) from a perch atop 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater, shows Phobos, the brighter moon, on the left, and Deimos, the dimmer moon, on the right. In this sequence of images obtained every 170 seconds, both moons move from top to bottom. The bright star Aldebaran forms a trail on the right, along with some other stars in the constellation Taurus. Most of the other streaks in the image mark the collision of cosmic rays with pixels in the camera.

    Scientists will use images of the two moons to better map their orbital positions, learn more about their composition, and monitor the presence of nighttime clouds or haze. Spirit took the six images that make up this composite using Spirit's panoramic camera with the camera's broadband filter, which was designed specifically for acquiring images under low-light conditions.

  10. Hiding in the night sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-04

    This striking NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image captures the galaxy UGC 477, located just over 110 million light-years away in the constellation of Pisces (The Fish). UGC 477 is a low surface brightness (LSB) galaxy. First proposed in 1976 by Mike Disney, the existence of LSB galaxies was confirmed only in 1986 with the discovery of Malin 1. LSB galaxies like UGC 477 are more diffusely distributed than galaxies such as Andromeda and the Milky Way. With surface brightnesses up to 250 times fainter than the night sky, these galaxies can be incredibly difficult to detect. Most of the matter present in LSB galaxies is in the form of hydrogen gas, rather than stars. Unlike the bulges of normal spiral galaxies, the centres of LSB galaxies do not contain large numbers of stars. Astronomers suspect that this is because LSB galaxies are mainly found in regions devoid of other galaxies, and have therefore experienced fewer galactic interactions and mergers capable of triggering high rates of star formation. LSB galaxies such as UGC 477 instead appear to be dominated by dark matter, making them excellent objects to study to further our understanding of this elusive substance. However, due to an underrepresentation in galactic surveys — caused by their characteristic low brightness — their importance has only been realised relatively recently.

  11. Craters 'Twixt Day and Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-12-20

    Three sizeable impact craters, including one with a marked central peak, lie along the line that divides day and night on the Saturnian moon, Dione (dee-OH-nee), which is 1,118 kilometers, or 695 miles across. The low angle of the Sun along the terminator, as this dividing line is called, brings details like these craters into sharp relief. This view shows principally the leading hemisphere of Dione. Some of this moon's bright, wispy streaks can be seen curling around its eastern limb. Cassini imaged the wispy terrain at high resolution during its first Dione flyby on Dec. 14, 2004. This image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on Nov. 1, 2004, at a distance of 2.4 million kilometers (1.5 million miles) from Dione and at a Sun-Dione-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 106 degrees. North is up. The image scale is 14 kilometers (8.7 miles) per pixel. The image has been magnified by a factor of two and contrast-enhanced to aid visibility of surface features. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06542

  12. Night time blood pressure dip

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Dennis; Park, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure, called the “dip”, is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%, referred to as blunted or absent, have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load, whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon, whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors. PMID:26225196

  13. Night time blood pressure dip.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Dennis; Park, Alex

    2015-07-26

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure, called the "dip", is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%, referred to as blunted or absent, have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load, whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon, whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  14. Health Effects of Shift Work

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended. PMID:6962577

  15. Ascertaining Human Identity in Night Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourlai, T.; Kalka, N.; Cao, D.; Decann, B.; Jafri, Z.; Nicolo, F.; Whitelam, C.; Zuo, J.; Adjeroh, D.; Cukic, B.; Dawson, J.; Hornak, L.; Ross, A.; Schmid, N. A.

    Understanding patterns of human activity from the fusion of multimodal sensor surveillance sources is an important capability. Most related research emphasizes improvement in the performance of biometric systems in controlled conditions characterized by suitable lighting and favorable acquisition distances. However, the need for monitoring humans in night environments is of equal if not greater importance. This chapter will present techniques for the extraction, processing and matching of biometrics under adverse night conditions in the presence of either natural or artificial illumination. Our work includes capture, analysis and evaluation of a broad range of electromagnetic bands suitable for night-time image acquisition, including visible light, near infrared (IR), extended near IR and thermal IR. We develop algorithms for human detection and tracking from night-time imagery at ranges between 5 and 200 meters. Identification algorithms include face, iris, and gait recognition, supplemented by soft biometric features. Our preliminary research indicates the challenges in performing human identification in night-time environments.

  16. Abrupt switch to migratory night flight in a wild migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Zúñiga, Daniel; Falconer, Jade; Fudickar, Adam M.; Jensen, Willi; Schmidt, Andreas; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2016-01-01

    Every year, billions of wild diurnal songbirds migrate at night. To do so, they shift their daily rhythm from diurnality to nocturnality. In captivity this is observed as a gradual transition of daytime activity developing into nocturnal activity, but how wild birds prepare their daily rhythms for migration remains largely unknown. Using an automated radio-telemetry system, we compared activity patterns of free-living migrant and resident European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in a partially migratory population during the pre-migratory season. We found that activity patterns between migrant and resident birds did not differ during day and night. Migrants did not change their daily rhythm in a progressive manner as has been observed in captivity, but instead abruptly became active during the night of departure. The rapid shift in rhythmicity might be more common across migratory songbird species, but may not have been observed before in wild animals due to a lack of technology. PMID:27666200

  17. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  18. Inconsolable night-time awakening: beyond night terrors.

    PubMed

    Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T

    2008-08-01

    Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health

  19. Associations between night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Buchvold, Hogne Vikanes; Pallesen, Ståle; Øyane, Nicolas M F; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2015-11-12

    Shift work is associated with negative health effects. Increased prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors among shift workers/night workers compared with day workers have been shown resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular events among shift workers and night workers. Previous studies have taken a dichotomous approach to the comparison between day and night workers. The present study uses a continuous approach and provides such a new perspective to the negative effects of night work load as a possible risk factor for undesirable health effects. This cross sectional study (The SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep and Health (SUSSH)) uses data collected from December 2008 to March 2009. The study population consists of Norwegian nurses. The study collected information about demographic and lifestyle factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking habits, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption and exercise habits. The lifestyle parameters were evaluated using multiple hierarchical regression and binary logistic regression. Number of night shifts worked last year (NNL) was used as operationalization of night work load. Adjustment for possible confounders were made. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30. Alcohol Consumption was evaluated using the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. We had data from 2059 nurses. NNL was significantly and positively associated with BMI, both when evaluated against BMI as a continuous parameter (Beta = .055, p < .05), and against obesity (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.01). The AUDIT-C score was significantly and positively associated with hours worked per week (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.05). We found a positive significant association between night work load and BMI. This suggests that workers with a heavy night work load might need special attention and frequent health checks due to higher risk of undesirable health effects.

  20. Effects of Fatigue on Driving Safety: A Comparison of Brake Reaction Times in Night Float and Postcall Physicians in Training

    PubMed Central

    Talusan, Paul G.; Long, Theodore; Halim, Andrea; Guliani, Laura; Carroll, Nicole; Reach, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns about duty hour and resident safety have fostered discussion about postshift fatigue and driving impairment. Objective We assessed how converting to a night float schedule for overnight coverage affected driving safety for trainees. Methods Brake reaction times were measured for internal medicine and orthopaedic surgery resident volunteers after a traditional 28-hour call shift and after a night float shift. We conducted matched paired t tests of preshift and postshift reaction time means. Participants also completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale pre- and postshift. Results From June to July 2013, we enrolled 58 interns and residents (28 orthopaedic surgery, 30 internal medicine). We included 24 (41%) trainees on night float rotations and 34 (59%) trainees on traditional 28-hour call shifts. For all residents on night float rotations, there was no significant difference pre- and postshift. An increase in reaction times was noted among trainees on 28-hour call rotations. This included no effect on reaction times for internal medicine trainees pre- and postshift, and an increase in reaction times for orthopaedic trainees. For both night float and traditional call groups, there were significant increases in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Conclusions Trainees on traditional 28-hour call rotations had significantly worse postshift brake reaction times, whereas trainees on night float rotations had no difference. Orthopaedic trainees had significant differences in brake reaction times after a traditional call shift. PMID:26140113

  1. Organization and management of ATLAS nightly builds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luehring, F.; Obreshkov, E.; Quarrie, D.; Rybkine, G.; Undrus, A.

    2010-04-01

    The automated multi-platform software nightly build system is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation and code approval schemes. Code developers from ATLAS participating Institutes spread all around the world use about 30 branches of nightly releases for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers. The nightly releases lead up to, and are the basis of, stable software releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS nightly builds are managed by the fully automated NICOS framework on the computing farm with 44 powerful multiprocessor nodes. The ATN test tool is embedded within the nightly system and provides results shortly after full compilations complete. Other test frameworks are synchronized with NICOS jobs and run larger scale validation jobs using the nightly releases. NICOS web pages dynamically provide information about the progress and results of the builds. For faster feedback, e-mail notifications about nightly releases problems are automatically distributed to the developers responsible.

  2. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light.

  3. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  4. Decreasing Adverse Events through Night Talks: An Interdisciplinary, Hospital-Based Quality Improvement Project

    PubMed Central

    White, Christine; del Rey, Javier Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    Background: The majority of medical adverse events are secondary to errors in communication. The Joint Commission (known until 2007 as the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations) reports that 70% of sentinel events are the result of communication failures. Review of nonperioperative adverse events at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in 2007 found similar statistics: 57% were related to failure to recognize abnormal vital signs and to communicate or address parents’ or nurses’ concerns. Objective: To increase by 80% the number of days between near misses in pediatric neurosurgical patients because of failure to address abnormal vital signs or parents’ or nurses’ concerns during the night shift. Materials and Methods: Baseline data on near misses from the previous night were collected with the use of a written questionnaire completed the next morning by the interns, patient-care facilitators or charge nurse, and attending physicians. Laminated cards with three standardized questions were created to guide a late-evening review of patients’ status by residents, attending physicians, and nurses: the Night Talks discussion. After initiation of Night Talks, data were collected for issues addressed by Night Talks as well as for preventable adverse events. Main Outcome Measure: Number of days between near misses. Results: During a two-month period before the introduction of Night Talks, there was an average of 3.8 days between near misses on neurosurgery patients. After the initiation of Night Talks, days between near misses due to the failure to address abnormal vital signs or parents’ or nurses’ concerns increased to 201 days, a 5360% change. Conclusion: Instituting standardized Night Talks substantially reduced near misses in neurosurgical patients at our institution at night. PMID:20740098

  5. New experiments on the effect of clock shifts on homing in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt-Koenig, K.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of clock shifts as an experimental tool for predictably interfering with the homing ability of birds is discussed. Clock shifts introduce specific errors in the birds' sun azimuth compass, resulting in corresponding errors during initial orientation and possibly during orientation enroute. The effects of 6 hour and 12 hour clock shifts resulted in a 90 degree deviation and a 180 degree deviation from the initial orientation, respectively. The method for conducting the clock shift experiments and results obtained from previous experiments are described.

  6. Time-dependent effects of dim light at night on re-entrainment and masking of hamster activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Frank, David W; Evans, Jennifer A; Gorman, Michael R

    2010-04-01

    Bright light has been established as the most ubiquitous environmental cue that entrains circadian timing systems under natural conditions. Light equivalent in intensity to moonlight (<1 lux), however, also strongly modulates circadian function in a number of entrainment paradigms. For example, compared to completely dark nights, dim nighttime illumination accelerated re-entrainment of hamster activity rhythms to 4-hour phase advances and delays of an otherwise standard laboratory photocycle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a sensitive period existed in the night during which dim illumination had a robust influence on speed of re-entrainment. Male Siberian hamsters were either exposed to dim light throughout the night, for half of the night, or not at all. Compared to dark nights, dim illumination throughout the entire night decreased by 29% the time for the midpoint of the active phase to re-entrain to a 4-hour phase advance and by 26% for a 4-hour delay. Acceleration of advances and delays were also achieved with 5 hours of dim light per night, but effects depended on whether dim light was present in the first half, second half, or first and last quarters of the night. Both during phase shifting and steady-state entrainment, partially lit nights also produced strong positive and negative masking effects, as well as entrainment aftereffects in constant darkness. Thus, even in the presence of a strong zeitgeber, light that might be encountered under a natural nighttime sky potently modulates the circadian timing system of hamsters.

  7. Patterns of paging medical interns during night calls at two teaching hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R; Jarrett, P G; Peltekian, K M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the patterns of paging medical interns during night calls. DESIGN: Descriptive study; diaries were used to log calls between 7 pm and 7 am for 1 week in February 1991. SETTING: Two teaching hospitals in Halifax. PARTICIPANTS: All 10 interns assigned to the 15 medical units and nurses from 3 representative medical units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and nature of calls. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 90%. A total of 309 calls were logged by the interns and 107 by the nurses. Each intern had 17 calls on average (range 6 to 33) per 12-hour period. Of the calls 27% occurred after midnight, 25% disrupted sleeping, and 19% interrupted direct patient contact. Overall, the most common reasons for paging interns were related to prescribing of medications (42% of the calls), direct patient assessment (25%) and reporting of laboratory results (18%). According to the nurses, there were no delays in the interns' responding to the pages, and 61% of the calls led to a new physician order. CONCLUSIONS: Paging frequently interrupts interns during work and rest on night calls. Assessment of paging patterns may be useful in identifying specific interventions to reduce the number of calls so that interns will have fewer interruptions during patient encounters and more rest. The collection of data from nurses in a routine nursing audit may be useful for evaluating the communication between interns and nurses and, indirectly, for assessing interns' workload. PMID:8039084

  8. Vernier acuity through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1993-08-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) are being used increasingly in military and civilian environments. Despite the use of these devices, relatively few tests exist to assess visual performance through NVG's. Hyperacuity tasks may provide a sensitive index of performance through night vision devices. In this study, grating vernier acuity was measured through NVG's. As reported previously, a power law relation was observed between vernier acuity and stimulus contrast. Comparison of vernier acuity with and without NVG's indicated that performance is limited by the contrast transfer of the device. Vernier acuity measurements can be used to assess the quality of vision and quantity of contrast transferred through night vision devices.

  9. Bedtime problems and night wakings in children.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melisa; Meltzer, Lisa J; Mindell, Jodi A

    2008-09-01

    Bedtime problems and night wakings in children are extremely common, and the treatment literature demonstrates strong empirical support for behavioral interventions. Empirically validated interventions for bedtime problems and night wakings include extinction, graduated extinction, positive routines, and parental education. Most children respond to behavioral interventions, resulting not only in better sleep for the child, but also better sleep and improved daytime functioning for the entire family. This article reviews the presentation of bedtime problems and night wakings, empirically validated interventions, and challenges to treatment in both typically developing and special populations of children.

  10. Nurses' shift length and overtime working in 12 European countries: the association with perceived quality of care and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter; Dall'Ora, Chiara; Simon, Michael; Ball, Jane; Lindqvist, Rikard; Rafferty, Anne-Marie; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Tishelman, Carol; Aiken, Linda H

    2014-11-01

    Despite concerns as to whether nurses can perform reliably and effectively when working longer shifts, a pattern of two 12- to 13-hour shifts per day is becoming common in many hospitals to reduce shift to shift handovers, staffing overlap, and hence costs. To describe shift patterns of European nurses and investigate whether shift length and working beyond contracted hours (overtime) is associated with nurse-reported care quality, safety, and care left undone. Cross-sectional survey of 31,627 registered nurses in general medical/surgical units within 488 hospitals across 12 European countries. A total of 50% of nurses worked shifts of ≤ 8 hours, but 15% worked ≥ 12 hours. Typical shift length varied between countries and within some countries. Nurses working for ≥ 12 hours were more likely to report poor or failing patient safety [odds ratio (OR)=1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.76], poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.53), and more care activities left undone (RR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.09-1.16). Working overtime was also associated with reports of poor or failing patient safety (OR=1.67; 95% CI, 1.51-1.86), poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.23-1.42), and more care left undone (RR=1.29; 95% CI, 1.27-1.31). European registered nurses working shifts of ≥ 12 hours and those working overtime report lower quality and safety and more care left undone. Policies to adopt a 12-hour nursing shift pattern should proceed with caution. Use of overtime working to mitigate staffing shortages or increase flexibility may also incur additional risk to quality.

  11. Shift Work and Sleep Quality Among Urban Police Officers: The BCOPS Study.

    PubMed

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine association of shift work with sleep quality in police officers. Data were obtained from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study (n = 363). An electronic work history database was used to define shift as day, afternoon, or night for three durations: past month, 1 year, and 15 years. Sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The overall prevalence of poor sleep quality was 54%; 44% for day, 60% for afternoon, and 69% for night shift. Poor sleep quality was 70% more prevalent among night-shift officers (P < 0.001) and 49% higher among those on the afternoon shift (P = 0.003) relative to officers working on the day shift. Night and evening work schedules are associated with elevated prevalence of poor sleep quality among police officers.

  12. Shift work and the incidence of injury among police officers.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2012-03-01

    Police officers may be injury prone due to fatigue, erratic work hours, and insufficient sleep. This study explored injury incidence among police officers across shifts. Day-to-day shift data from computerized payroll records (1994-2010) were available from a mid-sized urban police department (n = 430). Sleep duration, shift activity level, returning to work after days off, and injury incidence over time were also examined. Age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for injury on the midnight shift was 72% larger than the day shift (IRR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.26-2.36) and 66% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.23-2.25). Injury incidence for the first day back on the midnight shift was 69% larger than day shift (IRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.23-2.32) and 54% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36-1.76). High activity level combined with midnight shift work put officers at increased injury risk (IRR = 2.31; P = 0.0003). Probability of remaining free of injury was significantly higher for day shift than midnight shift (P < 0.0001). Higher injury risk was associated with night shift work in police officers. Night shift combined with high work activity was strongly associated with injury risk. There was a significantly higher probability of not being injured on day compared to midnight or afternoon shifts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A comparison of the effects of fixed- and rotating-shift schedules on nursing staff attention levels: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shu-Fen; Chu, Hsin; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Chung, Min-Huey; Chang, Yu-Shiun; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-10-01

    Sleep deficit affects neurobehavioral functioning, reduces attention and cognitive function, and negatively impacts occupational safety. This study investigated selective attention levels of nursing staff on different shifts. Using a prospective, randomized parallel group study, selective attention was measured using the d2 test in 62 nursing staff in a medical center in Taiwan. There were significant differences in selective attention indicators (E%) between the fixed-day-shift group (control group) and rotating-shift group (experimental group): The percentage of errors (E%) for night-shift workers in the rotating-shift group was higher than that of fixed-day-shift workers, while the total number of items scanned minus error (TN - E) and concentration performance (CP) scores were higher for fixed-day-shift workers. Within the experimental group, the error rate on night shift was 0.44 times more than that on day shift and .62 times more than on evening shift; the TN-E on night shift was 38.99 items less than that on day shift, and the CP was 27.68 items less on night shift than on day shift; indicating that staff on the night shift demonstrated poorer speed and accuracy on the overall test than did the staff on day shifts. Inadequate sleep and a state of somnolence adversely affected the attention and operation speed of work among night-shift workers. More than 2 days off is suggested when shifting from the night shift to other shifts to provide adequate time for circadian rhythms to adjust.

  14. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers.

    PubMed

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-05-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1-4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure-response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness X-linked congenital stationary night blindness Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  18. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  19. MSFC Catches Geminids In The Night Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video shows meteors captured by a wide-field camera at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the night of December 12. There are 141 events; at least 77 of these are Geminids, based on thei...

  20. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  1. SHIFT WORK AND BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN TEXTILE WORKERS IN SHANGHAI, CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Davis, Scott; Yost, Michael; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Although night shift work has been associated with elevated risk of breast cancer in numerous epidemiologic studies, evidence is not consistent. We conducted a nested case-cohort study to investigate a possible association between shift work including a night shift and risk of breast cancer within a large cohort of women textile workers in Shanghai, China. METHODS The study included 1709 incident breast cancer cases and 4780 non-cases. Data on historical shift-work schedules were collected by categorized jobs from the factories where the study subjects had worked, and then were linked to the complete work histories of each subject. No jobs in the factories involved exclusively night shift work. Therefore, night shift was evaluated as part of a rotating shift work pattern. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling adapted for the case-cohort design for years of night-shift work and the total number of nights worked. Additionally, analyses were repeated with exposures lagged by 10 and 20 years. RESULTS We observed no associations with either years of night-shift work, or number of nights worked during the entire employment period, irrespective of lag intervals. Findings from the age-stratified analyses were very similar to those observed for the entire study population. CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study provide no evidence to support the hypothesis that shift work increases breast cancer risk. The positive association between shift work and breast cancer observed in Western populations, but not observed in this and other studies of the Chinese population, suggest that the effect of shift work on breast cancer risk may be different in Asian and Caucasian women. PMID:25421377

  2. Shift rotation, overtime, age, and anxiety as predictors of offshore sleep patterns.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2015-01-01

    Shift work on offshore oil/gas installations necessitates 12 h shifts and rapid day/night shift changes. In the North Sea, both 'fixed-shift' (alternate day-shift and night-shift tours) and 'swing-shift' rotations (with a midtour shift change) are operated. The present study used survey data (n = 775) to examine sleep patterns over 3 'phases' of the offshore work cycle (day shifts, DS; night shifts, NS; and leave weeks, LS) in relation to shift roster, overtime, age, offshore shift work exposure, and anxiety. Specific predictions were tested in a mixed-model ANOVA in which DS, NS, and LS sleep were treated as repeated measures. Sleep duration and sleep quality were predicted by significant interactions of phase with roster, anxiety, age, and shift work exposure, but the patterns of findings differed across DS, NS and LS. Consistent with other published findings, personnel working 2-week nights-to-days swing shifts reported shorter DS and NS sleep duration than those working fixed shifts. Extended 3-week tours (7 nights/14 days) showed an advantage only for DS sleep. There was no evidence that LS sleep was impaired following night-shift work. Overtime was negatively related only to NS sleep duration. Anxiety predicted poor NS and DS sleep; the relationship between age and NS sleep quality was curvilinear with minimum values at 38-42 y. Shift work exposure negatively predicted NS (but not DS or LS) sleep. The results are discussed in relation to the initial predictions; more general implications of the findings, and methodological limitations of the work, are considered in a final section. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    may cause night blindness are glaucoma, progressive cone/rod dystrophies (e.g., retinitis pigmentosa , Stargardt’s disease), drug toxicity (e.g...Alabama, July 1989. 38. Berson EL, Rabin AR, Mehaffey L. Advances in night vision twchnology: A pocketscope for patients with retinitis pigmentosa ... retinal sensitivity to dim light. Regeneration of the photopigments occurs during dark adaptation. The fully dark-adapted eye, in which photopigment

  4. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  5. Night cough and general practice research

    PubMed Central

    Toop, L.J.; Howie, J.G.R.; Paxton, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four children, aged between three and nine years, presenting with nocturnal cough, were studied on successive nights using an automatic voice activated tape recorder system. Children with a family history of atopy coughed significantly more than children without such a family history. A wide variation in cough frequency was found both between and within subjects. No effects of treatment on cough frequency were demonstrated. Some of the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying night cough are discussed. PMID:3712337

  6. The relationship between shift work schedules and spillover in a sample of nurses.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Jonas Rønningsdalen; Løset, Gøril Kvamme; Hosøy, Daniel; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E; Magerøy, Nils; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate spillover effects between the work and the family sphere in a sample of nurses (N = 2058). Hierarchical regression analyses investigated whether shift work schedules were associated with negative or positive spillover, both from family to work and vice versa, controlling for demographic factors, job demands and decision latitude. With daytime work as a reference group, all types of shift work (day and evening shift, night shift only and rotating 3 shift) were associated with higher negative work-to-family spillover. Night work was associated with significantly less negative family-to-work spillover. None of the different shift work schedules were related to any type of positive spillover. The results indicate that working outside of daytime hours is less compatible with workers' family lives, compared to working ordinary day shifts. On the other hand, working night shifts only was associated with reduced negative family-to-work spillover.

  7. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  8. Is Transcriptomic Regulation of Berry Development More Important at Night than During the Day?

    PubMed Central

    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T.; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far. PMID:24551177

  9. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].

    PubMed

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be

  10. Breast cancer among shift workers: results of the WOLF longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Knutsson, Anders; Alfredsson, Lars; Karlsson, Berndt; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work (with or without night work) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. The population consisted of 4036 women. Data were obtained from WOLF (Work, Lipids, and Fibrinogen), a longitudinal cohort study. Information about baseline characteristics was based on questionnaire responses and medical examination. Cancer incidence from baseline to follow-up was obtained from the national cancer registry. Two exposure groups were identified: shift work with and without night work. The group with day work only was used as the reference group in the analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate relative risk. In total, 94 women developed breast cancer during follow-up. The average follow-up time was 12.4 years. The hazard ratio for breast cancer was 1.23 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70-2.17] for shifts without night work and 2.02 (95% CI 1.03-3.95) for shifts with night work. When including only women <60 years of age, the risk estimates were 1.18 (95% CI 0.67-2.07) for shifts without night work, and 2.15 (95% CI 1.10-4.21) for shifts with night work. Our results indicate an increased risk for breast cancer among women who work shifts that includes night work.

  11. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  12. Is light-at-night a health risk factor or a health risk predictor?

    PubMed

    Kantermann, Thomas; Roenneberg, Till

    2009-08-01

    In 2007, the IARC (WHO) has classified "shift-work that involves circadian disruption" as potentially carcinogenic. Ample evidence leaves no doubt that shift-work is detrimental for health, but the mechanisms behind this effect are not well understood. The hormone melatonin is often considered to be a causal link between night shift and tumor development. The underlying "light-at-night" (LAN) hypothesis is based on the following chain of arguments: melatonin is a hormone produced under the control of the circadian clock at night, and its synthesis can be suppressed by light; as an indolamine, it potentially acts as a scavenger of oxygen radicals, which in turn can damage DNA, which in turn can cause cancer. Although there is no experimental evidence that LAN is at the basis of increased cancer rates in shiftworkers, the scenario "light at night can cause cancer" influences research, medicine, the lighting industry and (via the media) also the general public, well beyond shiftwork. It is even suggested that baby-lights, TVs, computers, streetlights, moonlight, emergency lights, or any so-called "light pollution" by urban developments cause cancer via the mechanisms proposed by the LAN hypothesis. Our commentary addresses the growing concern surrounding light pollution. We revisit the arguments of the LAN theory and put them into perspective regarding circadian physiology, physical likelihood (e.g., what intensities reach the retina), and potential risks, specifically in non-shiftworkers.

  13. Shifting Plasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Strands of plasma at the sun edge shifted and twisted back and forth over a 22-hour period, May 2-3, 2017. In this close-up from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory, the strands are being manipulated by strong magnetic forces associated with active region. This kind of activity is not at all uncommon, but best viewed in profile. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. To give a sense of scale, the strands hover above the sun more than several times the size of Earth. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21632

  14. Meal composition and shift work performance.

    PubMed

    Love, Heather L; Watters, Corilee A; Chang, Wei-Ching

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that the ability to perform a task can be affected by the composition of the meal preceding the task. This study investigated the effect of shift workers' consumption of a medium-fat, medium-carbohydrate meal on alertness scores. Six subjects (four men, two women) aged 19 to 44 recorded food intake, sleep, and quality of sleep for two weeks, and measured their body temperature and performed cognitive tests during two night shifts at baseline and in test periods. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to quantify sleepiness, and a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was used to measure cognitive performance. In comparison with the score at baseline, when subjects had a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intake (1,335 kcal/5,588 kJ, 56% carbohydrate, 28% fat), the 1.6-second PASAT score improved significantly (p=0.042) during night shifts when subjects consumed a test meal (987 kcal/4,131 kJ, 46% carbohydrate, 42% fat). No statistically significant difference in SSS was found between baseline and test periods. The reduced body temperature between 2400 hours and 0530 hours was similar for both baseline and test periods. Meal composition and size during night shifts may affect cognitive performance.

  15. Associations Between Night Work and Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia, Sleepiness and Fatigue in a Sample of Norwegian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Øyane, Nicolas M. F.; Pallesen, Ståle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    Background Night work has been reported to be associated with various mental disorders and complaints. We investigated relationships between night work and anxiety, depression, insomnia, sleepiness and fatigue among Norwegian nurses. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, based on validated self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 5400 nurses were invited to participate in a health survey through the Norwegian Nurses' Organization, whereof 2059 agreed to participate (response rate 38.1%). Nurses completed a questionnaire containing items on demographic variables (gender, age, years of experience as a nurse, marital status and children living at home), work schedule, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire). They were also asked to report number of night shifts in the last 12 months (NNL). First, the parameters were compared between nurses i) never working nights, ii) currently working nights, and iii) previously working nights, using binary logistic regression analyses. Subsequently, a cumulative approach was used investigating associations between NNL with the continuous scores on the same dependent variables in hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results Nurses with current night work were more often categorized with insomnia (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10–1.99) and chronic fatigue (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.11) than nurses with no night work experience. Previous night work experience was also associated with insomnia (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04–2.02). NNL was not associated with any parameters in the regression analyses. Conclusion Nurses with current or previous night work reported more insomnia than nurses without any night work experience, and current night work was also associated with chronic fatigue. Anxiety, depression and sleepiness were not associated with night work, and no cumulative

  16. Quality of life in shift work syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

    1996-01-01

    Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients.

  17. Supportive leadership in Swedish community night nursing.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Christine; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Asp, Margareta

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the support night nurses' give to staff in community night nursing. Studies have shown that support given to staff is one of night registered nurses' (RNs') experiences of the meaning of caring. This support, that community RNs display for staff in night-time care, is sparsely described. All community night-duty nurses in a medium-sized municipal in Sweden participated in the present study. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse data from observations. The support given by RNs to staff is described using three themes: (1) a conditional supporting stance, (2) preparing propitious conditions for caring and (3) confidence in the abilities of individual staff members and adaptation to their individual needs. The results reveal that RNs consider support to staff in terms of nursing leadership. Out of 'concern for the staff' the RNs try to be there for them, which corresponds to nursing leadership. Such concern also arises from the RNs' awareness that by giving support to staff this affects the staffs' caring for older people. The current municipal social care organization of community nursing of older people in which RNs have extensive responsibilities with insufficient control, is a working condition with a risk for decreased quality of care and a high risk for work-related stress syndrome. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Export of carbon from chloroplasts at night

    SciTech Connect

    Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1998-12-01

    Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.

  19. Association between light at night, melatonin secretion, sleep deprivation, and the internal clock: Health impacts and mechanisms of circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Yvan; Reinberg, Alain; Touitou, David

    2017-03-15

    Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer. The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption. Shift and/or night work generally decreases the time spent sleeping, and it disrupts the circadian time structure. In the long run, this desynchronization is detrimental to health, as underscored by a large number of epidemiological studies that have uncovered elevated rates of several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular risks, obesity, mood disorders and age-related macular degeneration. It amounts to a public health issue in the light of the very substantial number of individuals involved. The IARC has classified shift work in group 2A of "probable carcinogens to humans" since "they involve a circadian disorganization". Countermeasures to the effects of ALAN, such as melatonin, bright light, or psychotropic drugs, have been proposed as a means to combat circadian clock disruption and improve adaptation to shift and night work. We review the evidence for the ALAN impacts on health. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of an in-depth mechanistic understanding to combat the detrimental properties of exposure to ALAN and develop strategies of prevention.

  20. Influence of inverse day/night temperature on ozone sensitivity and selected morphological and physiological responses of cucumber

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, M.; Krizek, D.T.; Agrawal, S.B.; Kramer, G.F.; Lee, E.H.; Mirecki, R.M.; Rowland, R.A. . Climate Stress Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    Cucumis sativus L. (evs. Poinsett and Ashley) plants were grown from seed in a growth chamber at a +10C (28/18) or a [minus]10C (18/28) difference (DIF) between day temperature (DT) and night temperature (NT) on a 12-hour photoperiod for 24 days prior to ozone (O[sub 3]) fumigation. Negative DIF, compared to +DIF, reduced plant height, node count, fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area in both cultivars. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll concentration, and variable chlorophyll fluorescence (F[sub v]) were lower and O[sub 3] injury and polyamine concentrations were higher at [minus]DIF than at +DIF. Ozone fumigation generally increased leaf concentration of polyamines and reduced Pn, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Poinsett'' generally had a higher specific leaf mass and higher concentrations of chlorophyll [alpha] and polyamines than did Ashley'', but there was no cultivar difference in O[sub 3] injury, growth response, Pn, or stomatal conductance.

  1. NightSkyLive.net: Bringing the Night Sky into Your Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Night Sky Live

    2004-12-01

    Show your class a full live night sky with a single click. The Night Sky Live project now has 10 fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras (CONCAMs) deployed around the world that send live images of the night sky back to http://NightSkyLive.net every few minutes. Any classroom that has access to a web browser can see the current night sky, live, horizon to horizon, similar in depth to what the human eye can see, and annotated, above a major observatory somewhere in the world. Additionally, archived images and automatically generated movies show how the night sky appeared over the past night and the past year, and how it will likely appear above your student's heads tonight, all through the night. Stars, planets, and constellations are automatically labelled. In addition to live products, canned on-line tutorials for beginning students use archived NSL images to explain concepts such as diurnal motion and and demonstrate the transience of variable stars. Projects for more advanced undergraduates include using the automatically generated photometry files to follow the light curves of well known stars such as Polaris, Betelgeuse, and Alpha Centauri.

  2. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds' eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day.

  3. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds’ eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day. PMID:20618826

  4. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  5. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  6. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  7. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  8. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  9. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  10. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  11. Solar power for the lunar night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

  12. Night sweats: it may be hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Murday, H K M; Rusli, F D; Blandy, C; Vollenhoven, B

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this case report is to show that hemochromatosis can present, unusually, with night sweats. At presentation, hemochromatosis often tends to have non-specific symptoms, making it easy to misdiagnose, especially if it presents with rare symptoms. Misdiagnosis of hemochromatosis can lead to lethal outcomes, given it can cause multiple organ dysfunctions if left untreated and hence the need to identify it early on. The case we present is a 41-year-old woman with previously undiagnosed hemochromatosis complaining of night sweats. She thought she was menopausal. The diagnosis of hemochromatosis was made solely on investigations given that she did not have any other symptoms other than night sweats. Her serum iron concentrations were within the normal range due to menstruation. It is uncommon for women to present with symptoms of hemochromatosis during their reproductive life since their iron concentration is kept within normal range through monthly menstrual bleeding.

  13. Night sky brightness measurement at PERMATApintar observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. D.; Gopir, G.; Kamil, W. M. A. Wan Mohd; Mohamad, N. S.; Azmi, N. Che

    2016-11-01

    One of the quality parameter of an astronomical site testing is sky brightness. We measure the night sky brightness over PERMATApintar Observatory to obtain the first preliminary sky brightness reading. The measurement is done by using an Unihedron Sky Quality Meter (SQM-LU) with a position pointing zenith. Six measurements have been done during the period of January to March 2016. The measurement is taken between approximately 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. on each of the night. The best (darken) night sky brightness reading is 19.54 mag/arcsec2 obtained on March 11th, 2016. The preliminary average reading of sky brightness is 17.20 mag/arcsec2. Comparison with previous similar measurement for the same type of area (suburban area) shows that our data is within the range of the sky brightness for suburban area, which is 19.5 to 20.7 mag/arcsec2.

  14. LINE-1 activity as molecular basis for genomic instability associated with light exposure at night.

    PubMed

    Belancio, Victoria P

    2015-01-01

    The original hypothesis that exposure to light at night increases risk of breast cancer via suppression of nocturnal melatonin production was proposed over 2 decades ago. In 2007, shift work that involves circadian disruption has been recognized by the World Health Organization as a probable human carcinogen. Our discovery of melatonin-dependent regulation of LINE-1 retrotransposon expression and mobilization is the latest addition to the list of cellular genes and processes that are affected by light exposure at night. This finding establishes an unexpected health relevant connection between this endogenous DNA damaging agent and environmental light exposure. It also offers an appealing hypothesis pertaining to the origin of genomic instability in the genomes of individuals with light at night- or age-associated disruption of melatonin signaling.

  15. Shift Work and Occupational Stress in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Claudia C.; Andrew, Michael E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K.; Hartley, Tara A.; Charles, Luenda E.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. Methods The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27–66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. Results During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p < 0.05). These differences were independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and police rank. The frequency of these stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Conclusion Non–day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered. PMID:25830066

  16. Shift work and occupational stress in police officers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Claudia C; Andrew, Michael E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-03-01

    Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27-66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p < 0.05). These differences were independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and police rank. The frequency of these stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Non-day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered.

  17. A New Nightly Build System for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2014-06-01

    The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

  18. [Blood transfusion practices: about transfusions at night].

    PubMed

    Roche, C; Théfenne, H; Hance, P; Garnotel, E

    2013-12-01

    Blood transfusion safety covers all stages from prescription of immuno-haematological examinations until the completion of the transfusion. According to the 05/11/2006 Afssaps' decision on good transfusion practices, transfusions should not be given at night unless the patient is actively bleeding or has some other urgent clinical need. A retrospective study was used to assess the proportion of transfusions at night. Through this professional practice evaluation, we analyze the reasons leading to perform transfusions at late hours, in order to reduce errors and improve safety for patients.

  19. Cockpit Readiness For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-09-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cockpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  20. Cockpit readiness for night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cocklpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  1. Children Show Individual Night-to-Night Variability of Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Picchietti, Matthew A.; Picchietti, Daniel L.; England, Sandra J.; Walters, Arthur S.; Couvadelli, Barbara V.; Lewin, Daniel S.; Hening, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: Several studies have documented the occurrence of significant night-to-night variability of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the night-to-night variability of PLMS in children. Design and Measurements: Two to 4 nights of polysomnography were performed as part of a multisite, placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of carbidopa/levodopa on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children who were not taking other medications that impacted the central nervous system. Baseline polysomnograms from all children and endpoint polysomnograms from children who were randomly assigned to a placebo group were scored using International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group criteria for PLMS. PLMS indexes from 101 sleep studies of 36 children, aged 7 to 12 years, were compared. Interventions: N/A. Results: For all 36 children as a group, PLMS index on Night 1 was predictive of PLMS index on Night 2 (odds ratio 7.0, 95% confidence interval 1.4-38.4), suggesting that overall diagnostic classification (PLMS index above or below 5/h) was accurate. In addition, for the 15 children with 5 or more PLMS per hour on either night, there was no significant group difference on Night 1 versus Night 2 for mean PLMS index (10.6 vs 8.5/h, P = 0.92) or chance of having 5 or more PLMS per hour, indicating no first-night effect. When looking at individual data, however, 9 of these 15 children (60%) had PLMS indexes over and under the 5 per hour cutoff on these 2 nights. Of these 15, 10 had clinical diagnoses of restless legs syndrome and 5 of periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). The PLMS indexes of all children who were medication free for a third and fourth night (n = 7) or just a third night (n = 2) and had not shown a PLMS index of 5 or greater on either of the first 2 nights remained under this threshold. Conclusions: In this sample of children, considerable individual night-to-night variability of PLMS

  2. Sleepiness, Long Distance Commuting and Night Work as Predictors of Driving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Di Milia, Lee; Rogers, Naomi L.; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of working night shift and long distance commuting. We examined the association between several sleep related and demographic variables, commuting distance, night work and use of mobile phones on driving performance. We used a prospective design to recruit participants and conducted a telephone survey (n = 649). The survey collected demographic and journey details, work and sleep history and driving performance concerning the day the participant was recruited. Participants also completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Night workers reported significantly more sleepiness, shorter sleep duration and commuting longer distances. Seven variables were significant predictors of lane crossing. The strongest predictor was acute sleepiness (OR = 5.25, CI, 1.42–19.49, p<0.01) followed by driving ≥150 kms (OR = 3.61, CI, 1.66–7.81, p<0.001), obtaining less than 10 hours sleep in the previous 48 hours (OR = 2.58, CI, 1.03–6.46, p<0.05), driving after night shift (OR = 2.19, CI, 1.24–3.88, p<0.001), being <43 years old (OR = 1.95, CI, 1.11–3.41, p<0.05) and using mobile phones during the journey (OR = 1.90, CI, 1.10–3.27, p<0.05). Sleep related variables, long-distance commuting and night work have a major impact on lane crossing. Several interventions should be considered to reduce the level of sleepiness in night workers. PMID:23029278

  3. Prolonged Nightly Fasting and Breast Cancer Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Marinac, Catherine R; Nelson, Sandahl H; Breen, Caitlin I; Hartman, Sheri J; Natarajan, Loki; Pierce, John P; Flatt, Shirley W; Sears, Dorothy D; Patterson, Ruth E

    2016-08-01

    Rodent studies demonstrate that prolonged fasting during the sleep phase positively influences carcinogenesis and metabolic processes that are putatively associated with risk and prognosis of breast cancer. To our knowledge, no studies in humans have examined nightly fasting duration and cancer outcomes. To investigate whether duration of nightly fasting predicted recurrence and mortality among women with early-stage breast cancer and, if so, whether it was associated with risk factors for poor outcomes, including glucoregulation (hemoglobin A1c), chronic inflammation (C-reactive protein), obesity, and sleep. Data were collected from 2413 women with breast cancer but without diabetes mellitus who were aged 27 to 70 years at diagnosis and participated in the prospective Women's Healthy Eating and Living study between March 1, 1995, and May 3, 2007. Data analysis was conducted from May 18 to October 5, 2015. Nightly fasting duration was estimated from 24-hour dietary recalls collected at baseline, year 1, and year 4. Clinical outcomes were invasive breast cancer recurrence and new primary breast tumors during a mean of 7.3 years of study follow-up as well as death from breast cancer or any cause during a mean of 11.4 years of surveillance. Baseline sleep duration was self-reported, and archived blood samples were used to assess concentrations of hemoglobin A1c and C-reactive protein. The cohort of 2413 women (mean [SD] age, 52.4 [8.9] years) reported a mean (SD) fasting duration of 12.5 (1.7) hours per night. In repeated-measures Cox proportional hazards regression models, fasting less than 13 hours per night (lower 2 tertiles of nightly fasting distribution) was associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer recurrence compared with fasting 13 or more hours per night (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76). Nightly fasting less than 13 hours was not associated with a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95

  4. Effect of total sleep deprivation on postprandial metabolic and insulin responses in shift workers and non-shift workers.

    PubMed

    Wehrens, Sophie M T; Hampton, Shelagh M; Finn, Rebecca E; Skene, Debra J

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that shift workers are at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease which may, in part, be related to metabolic and hormonal changes. Partial sleep deprivation, a common consequence of rotating shift work, has been shown to affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The current study investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation, as a proxy for the first night shift, on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid (triacylglycerols (TAGs) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs)) responses under controlled laboratory conditions in shift workers and non-shift workers. Eleven experienced shift workers (35.7+/-7.2 years, mean+/-s.d.) who had worked in shifts for 8.7+/-5.25 years were matched with 13 non-shift workers who had worked for 32.8+/-6.4 years. After an adaptation night and a baseline sleep night, volunteers were kept awake for 30.5 h, followed by a nap (4 h) and recovery sleep. Blood samples were taken prior to and after a standard breakfast following baseline sleep, total sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Basal TAG levels prior to the standard breakfast were significantly lower after sleep deprivation, indicating higher energy expenditure. Basal NEFA levels were significantly lower after recovery sleep. Postprandial insulin and TAG responses were significantly increased, and the NEFA response was decreased after recovery sleep, suggestive of insulin insensitivity. Although there were no overall significant differences between non-shift workers and shift workers, non-shift workers showed significantly higher basal insulin levels, lower basal NEFA levels, and an increased postprandial insulin and a decreased NEFA response after recovery sleep. In future, the reasons for these inter-group differences are to be investigated.

  5. Investigating the night-to-night variability of REM without atonia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Melehan, Kerri; Yee, Brendon J; Coeytaux, Alessandra; Lewis, Simon J G

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder is frequently observed in Parkinson's disease and is characterized electrophysiologically by the absence of atonia during REM sleep. However, the night-to-night variability of REM sleep without atonia is yet to be determined in Parkinson's disease. Using polysomnography, this study measured the variability of REM sleep without atonia across two consecutive nights, using the REM atonia index in 38 patients with Parkinson's disease. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the REM sleep atonia index across two nights was 0.816 (F = 9.795, p < 0.001) and the difference between the two nights was 4.7% (standard deviation (SD) 8.2). The REM atonia index demonstrated low variability across two consecutive nights of PSG. Furthermore, the diagnosis of REM sleep behaviour disorder based on this electrophysiological marker and other clinical variables was in agreement across the two nights. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a night-driving simulator concept for night vision image-intensification device training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Piccione, Dino; Woodward, Kim G.

    1997-06-01

    The use of night vision devices (NVDs) by US Army foot soldiers, aviator,s and drivers of combat and tactical wheeled vehicles has enhanced operations at night by allowing increased mobility and potentially safer operations. With this increased capability in the night environment has come an increased exposure to the hazards of that environment and the risks that the command structure must manage and balance with mission requirements. Numerous vehicular accidents have occurred during night filed exercises involving drivers wearing image intensification (I2) systems. These accidents can frequently be attributed to perceptual problems experienced by the drivers. Performance with NVDs generally increases with practice and experience. However, there is little formal training provided in night driving skills and few opportunities to practice these skills under realistic conditions. This paper reports the approach and preliminary result of an effort to define and demonstrate a low-cost night driving simulator concept for training night driving skills with I2 devices and to identify and evaluate the techniques and resources that are available for implementing this approach.

  7. Night-to-Night Sleep Variability in Older Adults with and Without Chronic Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Buysse, Daniel J.; Cheng, Yu; Germain, Anne; Moul, Douglas E.; Franzen, Peter L.; Fletcher, Mary; Monk, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives 1) To quantify night-to-night variability in sleep behaviors and sleep measures among older chronic insomnia (CI) subjects and non-insomnia (NI) controls; 2) to investigate systematic temporal patterns of sleep behaviors and sleep measures across nights; and 3) to examine clinical correlates of sleep variability. Methods Sixty-one older adults with CI (71.4 years old, 67%F) and 31 older adults with NI (70.7 years old, 65%F) completed questionnaires and kept sleep diaries and wore wrist actigraphs for two weeks. Mixed models were used to estimate within-subject mean and standard deviation values; these were then compared across groups. Mixed models were also used to determine associations across nights of sleep measures. Results CI and NI differed on mean values for clinical ratings and sleep diary measures, but not for actigraphy measures. CI also showed significantly greater variability than NI on most sleep diary measures and on actigraphically-measured wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency. Among CI, neither diary nor actigraphy measures from one night correlated with values from the previous night. Diary WASO and sleep time and actigraphy sleep latency and sleep time, however, positively correlated with values from the previous two nights. Variability measures were not correlated with other global clinical measures among CI. Conclusions Compared to NI, older adults with CI report worse sleep and greater night-tonight variability, which was confirmed with actigraphy. There was little evidence for positive or negative correlation of sleep measures across nights. Variability of sleep may be an important target for insomnia treatments. PMID:19962939

  8. Color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color and dual band night image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua

    2009-07-01

    Color night vision technology can effectively improve the detection and identification probability. Current color night vision method based on gray scale modulation fusion, spectrum field fusion, special component fusion and world famous NRL method, TNO method will bring about serious color distortion, and the observers will be visual tired after long time observation. Alexander Toet of TNO Human Factors presents a method to fuse multiband night image a natural day time color appearance, but it need the true color image of the scene to be observed. In this paper we put forward a color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color image and dual band night image. Color display is attained through dual-band low light level images and their fusion image. Actual color image of the similar scene is needed to obtain color night vision image, the actual color image is decomposed to three gray-scale images of RGB color module, and the short wave LLL image, long wave LLL image and their fusion image are compared to them through gray-scale spatial correlation method, and the color space mapping scheme is confirmed by correlation. Gray-scale LLL images and their fusion image are adjusted through the variation of HSI color space coefficient, and the coefficient matrix is built. Color display coefficient matrix of LLL night vision system is obtained by multiplying the above coefficient matrix and RGB color space mapping matrix. Emulation experiments on general scene dual-band color night vision indicate that the color display effect is approving. This method was experimented on dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.

  9. Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

  10. Analysis of Thursday Night NFL Winning Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a dataset and associated analysis of the scores of National Football League (NFL) games over the 2012, 2013, and first five weeks of the 2014 season. In the face of current media attention to "lopsided" scores in Thursday night games in the early part of the 2014 season, t-test results indicate no statistically…

  11. Family Reading Night: A How to Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehmer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    A family reading night is the ideal way to introduce the library media center and actively involve parents in their child's reading success. This event is an opportunity to explain how a reading program works and provide parents with strategies to encourage further reading at home. Parents can sit down with their children and read in the library,…

  12. Helicopter Night Vision System Simulation Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    mision safety. The enroute evaluation indicates a con- sistent preference for the 4HMD-PMD configuration. The copilot felt that the virtual HUD...pilot but never allowed Cho copilot to slow in a hover. In edsencer the night cranpore mision appears wo be a two pilot task with a t consant verbal

  13. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

  14. Education in the Night: A Serious Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Tangiwai Mere Appleton

    Education is one of the social institutions manipulated by New Zealand's European people to establish and perpetuate a painfully fragmented society. Po Ako is a community-based educational project where immigrant teachers, parents, and children from Tonga educate themselves at night about their own culture to better understand themselves and their…

  15. Stennis hosts NASA Night at Zephyr Field

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-20

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Director Patrick Scheuermann throws the first pitch of the game Aug. 20 at New Orleans Zephyr Field. Stennis employees traveled to New Orleans to host NASA Night at Zephyr Field. Stennis personnel provided a variety of activities and materials for persons attending a game between the New Orleans Zephyrs and the Las Vegas 51s.

  16. NASA Night at Houston Astros, pregame ceremonies

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-09-13

    Images from the pregame ceremonies during NASA Night at the Houston Astros game, taken at Minute Maid Park, Houston. View of Center Director Jefferson Howell, Astros owner Drayton McLane, and STS-114 crewmembers Eileen Collins, James Kelly and Charles Camarda, with Collins holding an Astros jersey reading Discovery 114.

  17. Family Reading Night: A How to Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehmer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    A family reading night is the ideal way to introduce the library media center and actively involve parents in their child's reading success. This event is an opportunity to explain how a reading program works and provide parents with strategies to encourage further reading at home. Parents can sit down with their children and read in the library,…

  18. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  19. Things That Go "Peent" in the Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidich, Carole Louise

    1981-01-01

    Describes early spring night field trips by two naturalists and ten adults, armed with cameras and flashlights, in search of Spotted Salamanders performing ritual mating dances. Although dancing salamanders proved elusive, their habits and those of other pond life were examined and Spring American Woodcock nuptial flights were observed. (NEC)

  20. Picayune students participate in Congressional Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    About 20 sixth- through eighth-grade students from Picayune, Miss., were hosted at Congressional Night at the FiberNet 2000 computer center at Stennis, where they were linked by audio and video to the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C. Students were able to speak to scientists about research of Mars.

  1. Sleepless Nights Could Pose Heart Risk Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep a night may double the odds of dying from heart disease or stroke for people who already have risk factors for heart disease ... to die from heart disease or stroke than people without metabolic syndrome who ... hours, the risk of dying from heart disease or stroke was increased about ...

  2. HH-60D night hawk helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental development issues, system requirements and improvements are reported for the HH-60D night hawk helicopter. The HH-60D mission requirements are for combat search and rescue (aerospace rescue and recovery service user based at Scott AFB) and special operations (special operations forces based at Hurlburt AFB). Cockpit design, computer architecture and software are described in detail.

  3. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    a different methodology . The second study was prompted by the inconclusiveness of the first study. METHOD - STUDY ONE Observers The trained observers......3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  5. Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

  6. Stennis hosts NASA Night at Zephyr Field

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-20

    Stennis employee Chris Smith helps a young child 'launch' a balloon rocket. Employees from NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center traveled to New Orleans on Aug. 20 to host NASA Night at Zephyr Field. Stennis personnel provided a variety of activities and materials for persons attending a game between the New Orleans Zephyrs and the Las Vegas 51s.

  7. Analysis of Thursday Night NFL Winning Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a dataset and associated analysis of the scores of National Football League (NFL) games over the 2012, 2013, and first five weeks of the 2014 season. In the face of current media attention to "lopsided" scores in Thursday night games in the early part of the 2014 season, t-test results indicate no statistically…

  8. Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

  9. 77 FR 62147 - Night Definition; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... [Docket No. FAA-2012-1043; Amdt. Nos. 1-1] Night Definition; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Technical amendment. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting the title of the publication ``American Air Almanac'' to its current title ``Air Almanac''. This document corrects this minor technical...

  10. Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

  11. Urban planning and traffic safety at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispas, N.; Trusca, D.

    2016-08-01

    Urban planning including traffic signs serve vital functions, providing road users with regulatory, warning and guidance information about the roadway and surrounding environment. There are a large number of signs and even more guidelines on how these signs should be designed, installed, and maintained in concordance with on road surface traffic signs. More requirements for signs are made for night urban traffic, including appearance (size, shape, colour), placement (height, lateral, and longitudinal), maintenance (visibility, position, damage) and signs light and retroreflective. In the night, traffic signs visibility can interact by on pedestrian visibility and diminish urban traffic safety. The main aim of this paper are the scientific determination of an urban specific zone visibility for evaluate at night real conditions in case of a traffic accident in the Braşov city area. The night visibility study was made using PC-Rect version 4.2. Other goal of the paper was to modify some urban planning solution in order to increase the urban safety in Brașov.

  12. Do night naps impact driving performance and daytime recovery sleep?

    PubMed

    Centofanti, Stephanie A; Dorrian, Jillian; Hilditch, Cassie J; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-02-01

    Short, nighttime naps are used as a fatigue countermeasure in night shift work, and may offer protective benefits on the morning commute. However, there is a concern that nighttime napping may impact upon the quality of daytime sleep. The aim of the current project was to investigate the influence of short nighttime naps (<30min) on simulated driving performance and subsequent daytime recovery sleep. Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 21-35 y; 18 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study. After a 9-h baseline sleep opportunity (22:00h-07:00h), subjects were kept awake the following night with random assignment to: a 10-min nap ending at 04:00h plus a 10-min nap at 07:00h; a 30-min nap ending at 04:00h; or a no-nap control. A 40-min driving simulator task was administered at 07:00h and 18:30h post-recovery sleep. All conditions had a 6-h daytime recovery sleep opportunity (10:00h-16:00h) the next day. All sleep periods were recorded polysomnographically. Compared to control, the napping conditions did not significantly impact upon simulated driving lane variability, percentage of time in a safe zone, or time to first crash on morning or evening drives (p>0.05). Short nighttime naps did not significantly affect daytime recovery total sleep time (p>0.05). Slow wave sleep (SWS) obtained during the 30-min nighttime nap resulted in a significant reduction in SWS during subsequent daytime recovery sleep (p<0.05), such that the total amount of SWS in 24-h was preserved. Therefore, short naps did not protect against performance decrements during a simulated morning commute, but they also did not adversely affect daytime recovery sleep following a night shift. Further investigation is needed to examine the optimal timing, length or combination of naps for reducing performance decrements on the morning commute, whilst still preserving daytime sleep quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Keeping Residents in the Dark: Do Night-Float Rotations Provide a Valuable Educational Experience?

    PubMed

    Landmann, Alessandra; Mahnken, Heidi; Antonoff, Mara B; White, SuAnn; Patel, Arpit; Scifres, Aaron M; Lees, Jason S

    2017-08-18

    To qualify and characterize resident overnight activity. A prospective 3-phase study was conducted of surgical residents with attention to activities performed on the overnight rotation: needs assessment, direct observation of activities, and feedback. This study was conducted at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. This is both a tertiary referral center and the only American College of Surgeons (ACS) verified level 1 trauma center in the state. This study included current surgical residents within the residency program. During the study period, 270 pages were individually recorded, with 60% of these pages defined as time-sensitive activities. In addition, most of the pages involved pressing patient-care issues irrespective of postgraduate year level. Analyses revealed that residents spend most of their time performing educational activities (62%). On feedback, residents reported overall satisfaction with the learning opportunities during night-shift (6.4/7.0) and indicated their perceptions of an adequate balance of service and education on night float (6.6/7.0). This correlates with our annual rotation assessment where residents identify night-float as an overall positive experience which provides educational benefit. Work-hour restrictions induce residency programs to adapt to new training models. Our results report a breakdown of resident activities while on night-float and demonstrate that overnight shifts continue to provide important educational opportunities during training. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don

    2008-01-01

    Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical

  15. Exercise, Energy Balance and the Shift Worker

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don; Waterhouse, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst ‘white collar’ occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep-deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality have not been confirmed in shift workers. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. ‘Normal’ eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomised controlled studies on the efficacy of

  16. Sleep patterns among shift-working flight controllers of the International Space Station: an observational study on the JAXA Flight Control Team.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koh; Matsumoto, Akiko; Aiba, Tatsuya; Abe, Takashi; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    Flight controllers of the International Space Station (ISS) are engaged in shift work to provide 24-h coverage to support ISS systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) among Japanese ISS flight controllers. A questionnaire study was conducted using the Standard Shiftwork Index to evaluate sleep-related problems and possible associated variables. Among 52 respondents out of 73 flight controllers, 30 subjects were identified as night shift workers who worked 3 or more night shifts per month. Those night shift workers who answered "almost always" to questions about experiencing insomnia or excessive sleepiness in any case of work shifts and days off were classified as having SWSD. Additionally, 7 night shift workers participated in supplemental wrist actigraphy data collection for 7 to 8 days including 3 to 4 days of consecutive night shifts. Fourteen of 30 night shift workers were classified as having SWSD. Significant group differences were observed where the SWSD group felt that night shift work was harder and reported more frequent insomniac symptoms after a night shift. However, no other variables demonstrated remarkable differences between groups. Actigraphy results characterized 5 subjects reporting better perceived adaptation as having regular daytime sleep, for 6 to 9 h in total, between consecutive night shifts. On the other hand, 2 subjects reporting perceived maladaptation revealed different sleep patterns, with longer daytime sleep and large day-to-day variation in daytime sleep between consecutive night shifts, respectively. As the tasks for flight control require high levels of alertness and cognitive function, several characteristics, namely shift-working schedule (2 to 4 consecutive night shifts), very short break time (5 to 10 min/h) during work shifts, and cooperative work with onboard astronauts during the evening/night shift, accounted for increasing

  17. PAVE LOW III: interior lighting reconfiguration for night lighting and night vision goggle compatibility.

    PubMed

    Task, H L; Griffin, L L

    1982-12-01

    The PAVE LOW III aircraft is a modified HH-53H helicopter that has a low altitude--below 30.48 m (100 ft)--night/day rescue mission. The desired night flying configuration is for the pilot to wear night vision goggles (NVGs) to fly the aircraft while the copilot, without NVGs, observes the video display and monitors the aircraft instruments. The problems of NVG incompatibility in the cockpit were successfully countered using several light control techniques. The light control modifications were evaluated on the ground in the PAVE LOW III helicopter at Kirtland AFB in April, 1980, by PAVE LOW instructor pilots. The evaluation results were extremely positive.

  18. Mixing processes within the polar night jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Grose, William L.; Swinbank, Richard; O'Neill, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Lagrangian material line simulations are performed using U.K. Meteorological Office simulated winds and temperatures to examine mixing processes in the middle- and lower-stratospheric polar night jet during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring and Northern Hemisphere winter. The Lagrangian simulations are undertaken to provide insight into the effects of mixing within the polar night jet on observations of the polar vortex made by instruments onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) during these periods. A moderate to strong kinematic barrier to large-scale isentropic exchange, similar to the barrier identified in General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations, is identified during both of these periods. Characteristic timescales for mixing by large-scale isentropic motions within the polar night jet range from 20 days in the Southern Hemisphere lower stratosphere to years in the Northern Hemisphere middle stratosphere. The long mixing timescales found in the Northern Hemisphere polar night jet do not persist. Instead, the Northern Hemisphere kinematic barriers are broken down as part of the large-scale stratospheric response to a strong tropospheric blocking event. A series of Lagrangian experiments are conducted to investigate the sensitivity of the kinematic barrier to diabatic effects and to small-scale inertial gravity wave motions. Differential diabatic descent is found to have a significant impact on mixing processes within the Southern Hemisphere middle-stratospheric jet core. The interaction between small-scale displacements by idealized, inertial gravity waves and the large-scale flow is found to have a significant impact on mixing within the polar night jet in both hemispheres. These sensitivity experiments suggest that scales of motion that are unresolved in global assimilated datasets may contribute to mass exchange across the kinematic barrier to large-scale isentropic motion.

  19. We still need to operate at night!

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, Omar; Banerjee, Saswata; Tekkis, Paris; Papagrigoriadis, Savvas; Rennie, John; Leather, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In the past the National Confidential Enquiry into Peri-operative deaths (NCEPOD) have advocated a reduction in non-essential night-time operating in NHS hospitals. In this study a retrospective analysis of the emergency general surgical operative workload at a London Teaching centre was performed. Methods All general surgical and vascular emergency operations recorded prospectively on the theatre database between 1997 and 2004 were included in the study. Operations were categorised according to whether they commenced during the daytime(08:01–18:00 hours), evening(18:01–00:00 hours) or night-time(00:01–08:00 hours). The procedure type and grade of the participating surgical personnel were also recorded. Bivariate correlation was used to analyse changing trends in the emergency workload. Results In total 5,316 emergency operations were performed over the study period. The numbers of daytime, evening and night-time emergency procedures performed were 2,963(55.7%), 1,832(34.5%), and 521(9.8%) respectively. Laparotomies and complex vascular procedures collectively accounted for half of all cases performed after midnight whereas they represented only 30% of the combined daytime and evening emergency workload. Thirty-two percent (n = 166) of all night-time operations were supervised or performed by a consultant surgeon. The annual volume of emergency cases performed increased significantly throughout the study period. Enhanced daytime (r = 0.741, p < 0.01) and evening (r = 0.548, p < 0.01) operating absorbed this increase in workload. There was no significant change in the absolute number of cases performed at night but the proportion of the emergency workload that took place after midnight decreased significantly throughout the study (r = -0.742, p < 0.01). Conclusion A small but consistent volume of complex cases require emergency surgery after midnight. Provision of an emergency general surgical service must incorporate this need. PMID:17973987

  20. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undrus, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  1. Heart rate variability in male shift workers in automobile manufacturing factories in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoon; Kim, Ho; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Yum, Myunggul; Son, Mia

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of circadian rhythm disruption on cardiovascular autonomic regulation by examining potential differences in heart rate variability (HRV) between day- and night-shift workers. The study population consisted of 162 workers who worked both day and night shifts in two automobile manufacturing companies who underwent ambulatory 24-h electrocardiogram recording and completed questionnaires and sleep diaries. Both time and frequency domain indices of HRV were compared. HRV parameters (mean RR, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, TP, HF, LF, LF/HF ratio) reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation varied less with activity in night-shift workers. Circadian rhythm-mediated changes in autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system were blunted in night-shift workers, which could contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in overnight workers.

  2. Quick returns and night work as predictors of sleep quality, fatigue, work-family balance and satisfaction with work hours.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Anna; Tucker, Philip; Gustavsson, Petter; Rudman, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Quick returns (intervals of <11 h between the end of one shift and the start of the next) are associated with short sleeps and fatigue on the subsequent shift. Recent evidence suggests that shift workers regard quick returns as being more problematic than night work. The current study explored quick returns and night work in terms of their impact on sleep, unwinding, recovery, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-family interference. Data from the 2006 cohort of Swedish nursing students within the national Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study were analysed (N = 1459). Respondents completed a questionnaire prior to graduation (response rate 69.2%) and 3 years after graduation (65.9%). The analyses examined associations between frequency of quick returns and night work and measures taken in year three, while adjusting for confounding factors (in year three and prior graduation). Frequency of quick returns was a significant predictor of poor sleep quality, short sleeps, unwinding, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-to-family interference, with higher frequency predicting more negative outcomes. Quick returns did not predict recovery after rest days. Frequency of night work did not predict any of the outcomes. In conclusion, quick returns were an important determinant of sleep, recovery and wellbeing, whereas night work did not show such an association.

  3. Shift work and long-term injury among police officers.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2013-07-01

    Our previous work has suggested that the incidence of any occurrence of injury leave among police officers is higher on night shifts. In this study, we extended our inquiry to determine whether the incidence of long-term injury leave varies across shifts. Police officers (N=419) from an urban department were included in the analysis. Daily payroll work history data from 1994-2010 was collected. Injury leave duration was examined ranging from ≥1-≥90 days. Poisson regression models were used to compute incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) of long-term injury. Cumulative incidence of injury for different durations of leave defined as ≥1, ≥5, ≥10, ≥15, ≥30, and ≥90 days were 61.3%, 45.4%, 39.9%, 33.9%, 26.5%, and 9.6% respectively. Age-and gender adjusted IRR of long-term injury (≥90 days) for night versus day shifts was IRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35-7.21 and IRR 2.21, 95% CI 1.04-4.68, for night versus afternoon shifts. Among all durations examined, the largest IRR was for injury ≥90 days, night versus day shifts (IRR 3.12, 95% CI 1.35-7.21). Night shift work was significantly associated with long-term injury among police officers after adjustment for age and gender. Although type of injury was not available, it is possible that variation in injury type across shifts might account for some of this association.

  4. [Night-to-night variability of the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Ouahchi, Y; Toujani, S; Snen, H; Ben Salah, N; Ben Hmida, A; Louzir, B; Mhiri, N; Cherif, J; Beji, M

    2016-11-01

    The apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) is the primary measurement used to characterize the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Despite its popularity, there are limiting factors to its application such as night-to-night variability. To evaluate the variability of AHI in the OSAHS. A prospective study was designed in our university hospital's sleep unit. Adults with clinical suspicion of OSAHS underwent 2 consecutive nights of polysomnographic recording. The population was divided in two groups according to an AHI>or<10. Patients with psychiatric disorders or professions that might result in sleep deprivation or an altered sleep/wake cycle were excluded. Twenty patients were enrolled. The mean age was 50.6±9.3 years. OSAHS was mild in 4 cases, moderate in 6 cases and severe in 8 cases. AHI was less than 5 in two cases. AHI values were not significantly altered throughout both recording nights (33.2 vs. 31.8 events/h). A significant positive correlation was found between AHI measured on the first and the second night. However, a significant individual variability was noted. Comparison between both patient's groups showed a correlation between AHI and the body mass index. This study demonstrates that the AHI in OSAHS patients is well correlated between two consecutive nights. However, a significant individual variability should be taken into consideration, especially when AHI is used in the classification of OSAHS or as a criterion of therapeutic success. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Photosynthesis affects following night leaf conductance in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Richards, James H

    2009-01-01

    Night-time stomatal opening in C(3) plants may result in significant water loss when no carbon gain is possible. The objective of this study was to determine if endogenous patterns of night-time stomatal opening, as reflected in leaf conductance, in Vicia faba are affected by photosynthetic conditions the previous day. Reducing photosynthesis with low light or low CO(2) resulted in reduced night-time stomatal opening the following night, irrespective of the effects on daytime stomatal conductance. Likewise, increasing photosynthesis with enriched CO(2) levels resulted in increased night-time stomatal opening the following night. Reduced night-time stomatal opening was not the result of an inability to regulate stomatal aperture as leaves with reduced night-time stomatal opening were capable of greater night-time opening when exposed to low CO(2). After acclimating plants to long or short days, it was found that night-time leaf conductance was greater in plants acclimated to short days, and associated with greater leaf starch and nitrate accumulation, both of which may affect night-time guard cell osmotic potential. Direct measurement of guard cell contents during endogenous night-time stomatal opening will help identify the mechanism of the effect of daytime photosynthesis on subsequent night-time stomatal regulation.

  6. Clinical presentation of shift workers to a sleep clinic.

    PubMed

    Walia, Harneet K; Hayes, Amanda L; Przepyszny, Kathryn A; Karumanchi, Prudhvi; Patel, Sanjay R

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between shift work (SW) history and symptom severity in a sleep clinic population. A retrospective chart review of 1,275 employed adult patients referred to a sleep disorders clinic was performed. Patients were categorized as working day shift, fixed evening or night shift, or rotating shifts. Sleep-related symptoms were assessed across three domains-sleepiness, insomnia, and apnea-related symptoms. The distribution of work shift was 69% day shift, 8% fixed evening or night shift, and 23% rotating shifts. In general, sleepiness and insomnia symptoms were greatest in fixed shift workers. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, race, BMI, habitual sleep duration, marital status, education level, alcohol intake, and smoking history, fixed shift workers were 4.8 times (95% CI, 1.9-12.5) more likely to report sleep onset difficulties, 3.3 times (95% CI, 1.2-9.1) more likely to report excessive caffeine intake, and 1.8 times (95% CI, 1.1-3.0) more likely to report drowsy driving as compared to day shift workers. In contrast, rotating shift workers reported more difficulty with sleep onset (OR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6) relative to day shift workers. No relationship between work shift and apnea-related symptoms was identified. Among patients referred to a sleep disorders clinic, shift workers and in particular fixed shift workers have greater difficulties with sleep onset, drowsy driving, and excessive caffeine intake. Given the presence of effective treatments for SW-related sleep symptoms, these findings suggest an underutilization of sleep medicine specialists for the care of patients with symptoms related to SW.

  7. Night-time image quality at Roque de LOS Muchachos Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Tunon, C.; Vernin, J.; Varela, A. M.

    1997-10-01

    Nine months' seeing statistics at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) are presented. Measurements were taken with a differential image motion monitor on top of a 5-m high tower. From the whole campaign the mean seeing is 0.76", the median value is 0.64" and 7% of the time the seeing is better than 0.3". The best seeing measured is 0.17". A seasonal variation is noticeable, better seeing conditions appearing during summer, which corresponds to the occurrence of a well-defined inversion layer due to the high prevalence of trade winds. During the summer, 50% of the time seeing is better than 0.54", value which drops to 0.46" during June, with a narrow distribution (rms = 0.17"). These figures place the ORM among, or better than, the best astronomical sites (Paranal and La Silla, Chile) where seeing statistics are available. When inspecting individual nights, it sporadically happens that seeing deteriorates abruptly and slowly recovers, with a 1.2-hour exponential decay time. This phenomenon is interpreted in terms of meteorological instabilities (gravity waves) which trigger a turbulent regime.

  8. Multi-channel automotive night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source,the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

  9. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths.

    PubMed

    van Langevelde, Frank; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Veenendaal, Elmar M; Fijen, Thijs P M

    2017-03-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand these declines, the question remains whether artificial light causes only increased mortality or also sublethal effects. We show that moths subjected to artificial night lighting spend less time feeding than moths in darkness, with the shortest time under light conditions rich in short wavelength radiation. These findings provide evidence for sublethal effects contributing to moth population declines. Because effects are strong under various types of light compared with dark conditions, the potential of spectral alterations as a conservation tool may be overestimated. Therefore, restoration and maintenance of darkness in illuminated areas is essential for reversing declines of moth populations.

  10. Exploring the Night Sky with Binoculars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick

    On a clear, starry night, the jewelled beauty and unimaginable immensity of our Universe is awe-inspiring. Star-gazing with binoculars is rewarding and may begin a lifelong hobby! Patrick Moore has painstakingly researched Exploring the Night Sky with Binoculars to describe how to use binoculars for astronomical observation. He explains basic astronomy and the selection of binoculars, then discusses the stars, clusters, nebulae and galaxies that await the observer. The sky seen from northern and southern hemispheres is charted season by season, with detailed maps of all the constellations. The reader can also observe the Sun, Moon, planets, comets and meteors. With many beautiful illustrations, this handbook will be helpful and encouraging to casual observers and those cultivating a more serious interest. The enjoyment of amateur astronomy is now available to everybody.

  11. Statistical assessment of night vision goggle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, Jesse G.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2006-05-01

    New advancements in charged-coupled device (CCD) technology allow for further investigation into the spatial nature of night vision goggle (NVG) noise distributions. This is significant because it is common practice in new NVG technology to combine image intensifiers with CCDs for night vision imaging. In this study, images of NVG noise are recorded by a CCD camera while varying input radiance and using multiple goggle types. Noise distributions characterized using histograms of these images are analyzed and fitted with curves. Using the changes in the distribution and relating distribution changes (coefficient changes) to input radiance and goggle performance provides a very accurate noise characterization. This study finds that a Weibull distribution seems more appropriate than a Poisson distribution, producing higher correlation coefficient fits. In addition, the paper suggests possible ways the noise models developed here can impact advancements in NVG image enhancement using this new technology.

  12. Shift work and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Ulhôa, M A; Marqueze, E C; Burgos, L G A; Moreno, C R C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  13. The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    inclined by 3o from the true north-south direction, and the spacecraft is flying from north-to-south on the day side and from south-to-north on the night side of the planet. These images provide a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In these views the Cydonia region is seen to numerous interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face'. The 3-km long 'face' knob was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and the THEMIS visible and infrared cameras on Mars Odyssey have provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. Many of the knobs in Cydonia, including the 'face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has co