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Sample records for 12-month longitudinal study

  1. PREVALENCE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN A 12-MONTH LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN DAIRY CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected regularly from 30 calves from birth until 12 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. Samples were collected weekly the first 8 weeks after calves were born, biweekly for calves 3 to 5 months of age, an...

  2. Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K L; Malcolm, S A; Khan, K M; Thomas, S A; Reid, S J; Brukner, P D; Ebeling, P R; Wark, J D

    1997-05-01

    Strain magnitude may be more important than the number of loading cycles in controlling bone adaptation to loading. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 12 month longitudinal cohort study comparing bone mass and bone turnover in elite and subelite track and field athletes and less active controls. The cohort comprised 50 power athletes (sprinters, jumpers, hurdlers, multievent athletes; 23 women, 27 men), 61 endurance athletes (middle-distance runners, distance runners; 30 women, 31 men), and 55 nonathlete controls (28 women, 27 men) aged 17-26 years. Total bone mineral content (BMC), regional bone mineral density (BMD), and soft tissue composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover was assessed by serum osteocalcin (human immunoradiometric assay) indicative of bone formation, and urinary pyridinium crosslinks (high-performance liquid chromatography) indicative of bone resorption. Questionnaires quantified menstrual, dietary and physical activity characteristics. Baseline results showed that power athletes had higher regional BMD at lower limb, lumbar spine, and upper limb sites compared with controls (p < 0.05). Endurance athletes had higher BMD than controls in lower limb sites only (p < 0.05). Maximal differences in BMD between athletes and controls were noted at sites loaded by exercise. Male and female power athletes had greater bone density at the lumbar spine than endurance athletes. Over the 12 months, both athletes and controls showed modest but significant increases in total body BMC and femur BMD (p < 0.001). Changes in bone density were independent of exercise status except at the lumbar spine. At this site, power athletes gained significantly more bone density than the other groups. Levels of bone formation were not elevated in athletes and levels of bone turnover were not predictive of subsequent changes in bone mass. Our results provide further support for the concept that bone response to mechanical loading depends

  3. Health-related quality of life and functional changes in DMD: A 12-month longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Sframeli, Maria; Mondello, Stefania; Mazzone, Elena; D'Amico, Adele; Berardinelli, Angela; La Rosa, Matteo; Bruno, Claudio; Distefano, Maria Grazia; Baranello, Giovanni; Barcellona, Costanza; Scutifero, Marianna; Marcato, Sonia; Palmieri, Arianna; Politano, Luisa; Morandi, Lucia; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Pane, Marika; Rodolico, Carmelo; Minetti, Carlo; Bertini, Enrico; Vita, Giuseppe; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) little has been reported on the association between clinical outcome measures and patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tools. Our study evaluated the relationship between 12 month changes on the Generic Core Scales (GCS), the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale and the Neuromuscular Module of the PedsQLTM with several outcome measures (6 minute walk test, North Star Ambulatory Assessment and timed items) in ambulatory DMD. Ninety-eight ambulatory DMD in a multicentric setting were included in the study. At baseline, the PedsQLTM inventories correlated with almost all the functional measures On the Child Self-Report there was a significant decrease between baseline and 12 months on the PedsQLTM GCS and its first domain, in parallel with the decrement in the functional outcome measures. Correlation between the 12 month changes on the PedsQLTM inventories and functional measures were almost all negligible. Similar results were obtained on the Parent Proxy-Report. In conclusion, PedsQLTM correlates with the level of impairment at baseline, but this does not hold true when 12 month changes are considered. Further studies comparing different tools are needed to better elucidate the complexity of the relationship between HRQOL and functional performances. PMID:26916554

  4. Infants' Evolving Representations of Object Motion during Occlusion: A Longitudinal Study of 6- to 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; von Hofsten, Claes

    2004-01-01

    Infants' ability to track temporarily occluded objects that moved on circular trajectories was investigated in 20 infants using a longitudinal design. They were first seen at 6 months and then every 2nd month until the end of their 1st year. Infants were presented with occlusion events covering 20% of the target's trajectory (effective occlusion…

  5. Maternal feeding practices predict fruit and vegetable consumption in young children. Results of a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jane E; Paxton, Susan J; Brozovic, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the prospective relationship between maternal feeding practices and young children's frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and sweets, and also child weight-for-height z-scores. Participants were 60 mothers who completed questionnaires when their children were 1 year old and again when their children were 2 years old. Regression analyses were performed. After controlling for availability and prior child consumption of the target food, maternal use of pressure to eat at 1 year predicted lower child frequency of fruit consumption at 2 years and approached significance for lower vegetable consumption. Maternal modelling of healthy eating at 1 year predicted higher child frequency of vegetable consumption at 2 years. Restriction did not significantly predict child frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or sweets over time. Child weight-for-height scores at 2 years were predicted by weight-for-height at 1 year but not by feeding practices. The findings suggest that maternal feeding practices can influence child eating at a very young age. Interventions should focus on encouraging parents to model healthy eating to promote healthy eating in children. PMID:21569809

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid Status in Pregnancy Determines the Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status 3-, 6- and 12 Months Postpartum. Results from a Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Frøyland, Livar; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Graff, Ingvild Eide

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential fatty acid status as well as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) declines during pregnancy and lactation. As a result, the DHA status may not be optimal for child development and may increase the risk for maternal postpartum depression. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the maternal fatty acid status from pregnancy to 12 months postpartum, and to study the impact of seafood consumption on the individual fatty acid status. Methods Blood samples and seafood consumption habits (gestation week 28, and three-, six- and 12 months postpartum) were collected in a longitudinal observational study of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 118). Multilevel linear modeling was used to assess both changes over time in the fatty acid status of red blood cells (RBC), and in the seafood consumption. Results Six fatty acids varied the most (>80%) across the four time points analyzed, including the derivative of the essential α-linoleic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), DHA; the essential linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6); and the LA derivative, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). Over all, a large variation in individuals’ DHA- and AA status was observed; however, over the 15-month study period only small inter-individual differences in the longitudinal trajectory of DHA- and AA abundance in the RBC were detected. The median intake of seafood was lower than recommended. Regardless, the total weekly frequency of seafood and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)/DHA-supplement intake predicted the maternal level of DHA (μg/g RBC). Conclusion The period of depletion of the maternal DHA status during pregnancy and lactation, seem to turn to repletion from about six months postpartum towards one year after childbirth, irrespective of RBC concentration of DHA during pregnancy. Seafood and EPA/DHA-supplement intake predicted the DHA levels over time. Trial Registration www.helseforskning.etikkom.no 2009/570/REC, project number: 083.09 PMID:26331947

  7. Asymmetrical motor behaviour as a window to early leg preference: a longitudinal study in infants 7-12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Atun-Einy, Osnat

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored leg preference in infancy during half-kneel pulling-to-stand (PTS) and asymmetrical four-point kneeling, which is part of the typical motor repertoire of infants. The special characteristics of the half-kneel PTS as a discrete task, performed in a bilateral context provide the opportunity to explore leg preference during an asymmetrical behaviour. Twenty-seven infants were observed in their homes, every 3 weeks between the ages of 7-12 months. Leg preference was determined by the "lead-out" limb used as the infants pulled to stand from the half-kneeling position (half-kneel PTS). As a complementary measure, the leading leg during asymmetrical four-point kneeling and crawling ("asymmetrical four-point patterns") was used in the 10 infants who developed these patterns. The infants studied showed a general preference for using a leading leg during half-kneel PTS, which was mostly consistent over the study period. A strong correlation was found between leg preferences during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns. The findings documented functional asymmetry in infant lower limbs during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns, highlighting the importance of the tasks used to define leg preference. PMID:26469885

  8. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  9. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  10. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Maria; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Liguori, Giorgio; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Capasso, Lorenzo; D'Amario, Claudio; Boccia, Stefania; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. Design Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. Data Sources Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. Methods Adults (30–75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. Main Outcome Measures Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. Data Synthesis We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. Results Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35–8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). Conclusions Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate

  11. The First Year Inventory: a longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-old to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Baranek, Grace T; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R

    2013-09-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the First Year Inventory when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool version and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at risk for autism spectrum disorder based on liberal cut points on the First Year Inventory, Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool, and/or Developmental Concerns Questionnaire were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder from the sample of 699. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cutoffs had autism spectrum disorder and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age 3. These results suggest that the First Year Inventory is a promising tool for identifying 12-month-old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:22781058

  12. The First Year Inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-olds to 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Brown, L. M.; Baranek, G. T.; Reznick, J. S.; Watson, L. R.; Crais, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the FYI when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale – Preschool version (SRS-P) and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at-risk for ASD based on liberal cut points on the FYI, SRS-P, and/or DCQ were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of ASD from the sample of 699. ROC analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cut-offs had ASD and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age three. These results suggest that the FYI is a promising tool for identifying 12-month old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of ASD. PMID:22781058

  13. Case Study Analyses of Play Behaviors of 12-Month-Old Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Case study research methodology was used to describe the play behaviors of three infants at 12 months of age, who were later diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Data included standardized test scores, and analyses of video footage of semi-structured play sessions from infants identified as high risk for autism, because of having a sibling…

  14. Stress fracture injury in female endurance athletes in the United Kingdom: A 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, R L; Brooke-Wavell, K; Summers, G D; Cameron, N; Peirce, N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of stress fracture (SF) incidence are limited in number and geographical location; this study determined the incidence of SF injury in female endurance athletes based in the United Kingdom. A total of 70 athletes aged between 18 and 45 years were recruited and prospectively monitored for 12 months. Questionnaires at baseline and 12 months assessed SF, menstrual and training history, eating psychopathology, and compulsive exercise. Peak lower leg muscle strength was assessed in both legs using an isometric muscle rig. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, spine, hip, and radius was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Among the 61 athletes who completed the 12-month monitoring, two sustained a SF diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, giving an incidence rate (95% confidence intervals) of 3.3 (0.8, 13.1) % of the study population sustaining a SF over 12 months. The SF cases were 800 m runners aged 19 and 22 years, training on average 14.2 h a week, eumenorrheic with no history of menstrual dysfunction. Case 1 had a higher than average energy intake and low eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise scores, while the reverse was true in case 2. BMD in both cases was similar to mean values in the non-SF group. The incidence of SF in our female endurance athlete population based in the United Kingdom was 3.3%, which is lower than previously reported. Further work is needed to confirm the current incidence of SF and evaluate the associated risk factors. PMID:25892560

  15. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure of surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for ferric sulfate (FS), electrosurgery (ES) and laser pulpotomy in human primary molars. Materials and methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 30 primary molars indicated for pulpotomy in children aged 4 to 10 years were treated using either a FS (10 teeth), ES technique (10 teeth) and laser (10 teeth). Following the pulpotomy, the teeth were evaluated for clinical and radiographic success at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on the basis of the presence of pain, sinus, mobility, internal and external resorption, periapical radiolucency, calcification in the canal and bone loss. Statistical analysis: The data were assessed with Chi-square test. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, both clinical and radiographic success rates were 100% in the laser group but only 80% in both ES and FS groups. There was statistically significant difference between the success rates of three groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Laser pulpotomy showed better clinical as well as radiographical results than ES and FS pulpotomy. Laser pulpotomy was also found superior in terms of operating time, patient cooperation, ease of use and pain. Although results of the study showed the failure rates for electrosurgical pulpotomy to be equal to those for FS pulpotomy, electrosurgical pulpotomy being a nonpharmacological technique considered more favorable. Further studies using larger sample size and longer evaluation periods are suggested. How to cite this article: Gupta G, Rana V, Srivastava N, Chandna P. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):18-21. PMID:26124576

  16. Paliperidone Palmitate and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Schizophrenia: A 12-Month Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gianluca; Pessina, Enrico; Martini, Azzurra; Di Salvo, Gabriele; Maina, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Oral and long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics are known to be associated with a high risk of metabolic adverse effects. Together with other drug treatments, poor lifestyle choices, and genetic liability, they contribute to development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which occurs in nearly one third of patients with schizophrenia.The primary objective of this multicenter prospective observational study was to explore the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 60 real-world patients treated with paliperidone palmitate (PP) over a period of 12 months. The secondary objectives were to assess other tolerability aspects and the efficacy of PP on schizophrenic symptoms.The proportion of patients with MetS at baseline (33%) did not significantly change neither at 6 (39.0%) nor at 12 months (29.5%) of PP treatment. The same applies to each individual component of MetS. We found a slight but statistically significant increase in body mass index (26.3 ± 6.0 vs 27.1 ± 4.6, P = 0.031) and of waist circumference (98.2 ± 17.9 vs 100.3 ± 15.9, P = 0.021) from baseline to end point. Weight gain was detected in approximately 15% of patients.At least 1 mild or moderate adverse event was found in 71.3%, 88.0%, and 52.1% of patients, respectively, at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A significant improvement in schizophrenic symptoms emerged by means of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and subscale scores.Together with previous literature findings, our results seem to indicate that PP could be a valid therapeutic option for patients with a severe disorder and with a high metabolic risk profile. PMID:27043122

  17. Plasma CRP Levels in Premenopausal Women with Major Depression: A 12-Month Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ∼30–50% and ∼70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression. PMID:19408214

  18. Agricultural accidents: A study of 132 patients seen at addenbrooke's hospital, Cambridge, in 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D. K. C.

    1969-01-01

    In a 12-month study 132 patients injured in agricultural accidents were treated at the Accident Service of Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Agricultural machinery and implements were concerned in 50% of the accidents and animals in 10%. The state of immunity against tetanus of these patients was found to be extremely low, only 9% being fully immunized, and 56% having never received a course of prophylactic adsorbed tetanus toxoid. While prevention is obviously the only real solution to accidents of any nature, legislation is not enough to achieve this, and the final responsibility lies with the farmworker to ensure that all safety precautions are followed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5388731

  19. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    PubMed

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise. PMID:26298416

  20. Long-Term Patterns of Online Evidence Retrieval Use in General Practice: A 12-Month Study

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Kidd, Michael R; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Provision of online evidence at the point of care is one strategy that could provide clinicians with easy access to up-to-date evidence in clinical settings in order to support evidence-based decision making. Objective The aim was to determine long-term use of an online evidence system in routine clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. 59 clinicians who had a computer with Internet access in their consulting room participated in a 12-month trial of Quick Clinical, an online evidence system specifically designed around the needs of general practitioners (GPs). Patterns of use were determined by examination of computer logs and survey analysis. Results On average, 9.9 searches were conducted by each GP in the first 2 months of the study. After this, usage dropped to 4.4 searches per GP in the third month and then levelled off to between 0.4 and 2.6 searches per GP per month. The majority of searches (79.2%, 2013/2543) were conducted during practice hours (between 9 am and 5 pm) and on weekdays (90.7%, 2315/2543). The most frequent searches related to diagnosis (33.6%, 821/2291) and treatment (34.5%, 844/2291). Conclusion GPs will use an online evidence retrieval system in routine practice; however, usage rates drop significantly after initial introduction of the system. Long-term studies are required to determine the extent to which GPs will integrate the use of such technologies into their everyday clinical practice and how this will affect the satisfaction and health outcomes of their patients. PMID:18353750

  1. A 12-month prospective study of the relationship between stress fractures and bone turnover in athletes.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K L; Malcolm, S A; Brukner, P D; Green, R M; Hopper, J L; Wark, J D; Ebeling, P R

    1998-07-01

    Bone remodeling may be involved in the pathogenesis of stress fractures in athletes. We conducted a 12-month prospective study to evaluate bone turnover in 46 female and 49 male track and field athletes aged 17-26 years (mean age 20.3; SD 2.0) 20 of whom developed a stress fracture. Baseline levels of bone turnover were evaluated in all athletes and monthly bone turnover levels were evaluated in a subset consisting of the 20 athletes who sustained a stress fracture and a matched comparison group who did not sustain a stress fracture. Bone formation was assessed using serum osteocalcin (OC) measured by human immunoradiometric assay and bone resorption by urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links (Pyr and D-Pyr); high performance liquid chromatography and N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen (NTx) using ELISA assay. Athletes who developed stress fractures had similar baseline levels of bone turnover compared with their nonstress fracture counterparts (P > 0.10). Results of serial measurements showed no differences in average levels of Pyr, D-Pyr, or OC in those who developed stress fractures (P = 0.10) compared with the control group. In the athletes with stress fractures, there was also no difference in bone turnover levels prior to or following the onset of bony pain. Our results show that single and multiple measurements of bone turnover are not clinically useful in predicting the likelihood of stress fractures in athletes. Furthermore, there were no consistent temporal changes in bone turnover associated with stress fracture development. However, our results do not negate the possible pathogenetic role of local changes in bone remodeling at stress fracture sites, given the high biological variability of bone turnover markers and the fact that levels of bone turnover reflect the integration of all bone remodeling throughout the skeleton. PMID:9632851

  2. Effectiveness and Predictors of Continuation of Paliperidone Palmitate Long-Acting Injection Treatment: A 12-Month Naturalistic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Whale, Richard; Pereira, Marco; Cuthbert, Sharon; Fialho, Renata

    2015-10-01

    Antipsychotic long-acting injectable (LAI) medication has an important place as a treatment option in schizophrenia with evolving evidence to support clinical benefit over oral medication. Paliperidone palmitate is recently licensed as an LAI. We studied a naturalistic cohort of all identifiable patients who initiated paliperidone LAI in a specific United Kingdom region (Sussex) from first availability up to January 2013 (n = 179). Favorably, 60% of the cohort continued paliperidone LAI beyond 12 months from initiation. Schizophrenia diagnosis was significantly associated with 12-month continuation on univariate analysis (65% continuation rate at 12 months in this diagnostic subgroup). No baseline variables were identified as independently associated with 12-month continuation. However, fewer inpatient days after initiation (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.003-1.011; P = 0.002), dose adjustment up or down (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.26-9.51; P = 0.016), and a higher maintenance dose (OR, 8.31; 95% CI, 1.84-37.51; P = 0.006) during treatment course were all independently associated with continuation on multivariate analysis. Our findings support the importance of a collaborative approach with the LAI recipient in treatment decision making to enhance treatment effectiveness. PMID:26267419

  3. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: A 12-month prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R.; Chiu, Bryan K.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W.; Handy, Todd C.; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12 months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants’ physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12 months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  4. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W; Handy, Todd C; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants' physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  5. Predicting the Onset of Anxiety Syndromes at 12 Months in Primary Care Attendees. The PredictA-Spain Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Luna, Juan de Dios; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Motrico, Emma; GildeGómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Torres-González, Francisco; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Bellón, Juan Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no risk algorithms for the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months in primary care. We aimed to develop and validate internally a risk algorithm to predict the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Methods A prospective cohort study with evaluations at baseline, 6 and 12 months. We measured 39 known risk factors and used multilevel logistic regression and inverse probability weighting to build the risk algorithm. Our main outcome was generalized anxiety, panic and other non-specific anxiety syndromes as measured by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, Patient Health Questionnaire (PRIME-MD-PHQ). We recruited 3,564 adult primary care attendees without anxiety syndromes from 174 family physicians and 32 health centers in 6 Spanish provinces. Results The cumulative 12-month incidence of anxiety syndromes was 12.2%. The predictA-Spain risk algorithm included the following predictors of anxiety syndromes: province; sex (female); younger age; taking medicines for anxiety, depression or stress; worse physical and mental quality of life (SF-12); dissatisfaction with paid and unpaid work; perception of financial strain; and the interactions sex*age, sex*perception of financial strain, and age*dissatisfaction with paid work. The C-index was 0.80 (95% confidence interval = 0.78–0.83) and the Hedges' g = 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.04–1.29). The Copas shrinkage factor was 0.98 and calibration plots showed an accurate goodness of fit. Conclusions The predictA-Spain risk algorithm is valid to predict anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Although external validation is required, the predictA-Spain is available for use as a predictive tool in the prevention of anxiety syndromes in primary care. PMID:25184313

  6. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted. PMID:25974364

  7. Immediate loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla: 12-month results from a multicenter clinical study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Samarani, Rawad; Guazzi, Paolo; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate survival and peri-implant bone levels of single, immediately loaded post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla 12 months after implant placement. Thirty-six consecutive patients from 3 study centers were included in the study. The concerned sites were upper premolars, canines, and incisors. For each patient the following data were recorded: reason for tooth extraction, bone quality, implant size, and final insertion torque. Implants were placed using a flapless technique and immediately loaded with a nonoccluding temporary restoration. Final restorations were provided 4 months later. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically after 6 and 12 months. The average final insertion torque was 70.55 Ncm. One implant inserted in D3 quality bone with a 35-Ncm seating torque was lost. All other implants had a final insertion torque ranging between 50 and 80 Ncm. The average peri-implant bone loss was 0.437 and 0.507 mm at 6 and 12 months, respectively. All the sites maintained excellent papillae and peri-implant soft-tissue conditions. The resulting 1-year success rate was 97.2%. Immediate nonfunctional loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla is a predictable treatment. And it seems that achieving high insertion torques by placing self-tapping/self-condensing implants in an underprepared osteotomy is favorable. PMID:21905885

  8. Incident Vertebral Fractures among Children with Rheumatic Disorders 12 Months Post-Glucocorticoid Initiation: a National Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Celia; Lang, Bianca; Ramsay, Timothy; Alos, Nathalie; Huber, Adam M.; Cabral, David A.; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Roth, Johannes; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Dent, Peter B.; Ellsworth, Janet; Hay, John; Houghton, Kristin; Jurencak, Roman; Larché, Maggie; LeBlanc, Claire; Oen, Kiem; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Stein, Robert; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Shenouda, Nazih; Moher, David; Rauch, Frank; Siminoski, Kerry; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency of incident vertebral fractures (IVF) 12 months after glucocorticoid (GC) initiation in children with rheumatic diseases and to identify children at higher risk. Methods Children with rheumatic diseases initiating GC were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Annual spine radiographs were evaluated using the Genant semi-quantitative method. Spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured every 6 months. Clinical features, including cumulative GC dose, back pain, disease and physical activity, calcium and vitamin D intake, and spine aBMD Z-scores were analyzed for association with IVF. Results Seven (6%) of 118 children (95% Confidence Interval 2.9 to 11.7) had IVF. Their diagnoses were: juvenile dermatomyositis (n = 2), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 3), systemic vasculitis (n = 1) and mixed connective tissue disease (n = 1). One child was omitted from the analyses after 4 months because of osteoporosis treatment for symptomatic IVF. Children with IVF received on average 50% more GC than those without (p=0.030), had a greater increase in body mass index (BMI) at 6 months (p=0.010), and had greater decrements in spine aBMD Z-scores in the first 6 months (p=0.048). Four (67%) of 6 children with IVF and data to 12 months had spine aBMD Z-scores less than −2.0 at 12 months compared to 16% of children without IVF (p=0.011). Conclusions The incidence of VF 12 months following GC initiation was 6%; most children were asymptomatic. Children with IVF received more GC, had greater increases in BMI and greater declines in spine aBMD Z-scores in the first 6 months. PMID:22213727

  9. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 12 months; Growth milestones for children - 12 months; Childhood growth milestones - 12 months ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS A 12-month-old child is expected to: Be 3 times ...

  10. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  11. Relapse After Methylprednisolone Oral Minipulse Therapy in Childhood Vitiligo: A 12-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral minipulse (OMP) therapy with methylprednisolone is presently one of the most common oral treatments used for progressive vitiligo in children. The treatment is usually given for a period of 6 months during which majority of patients are reported to go into remission. However, there are no follow-up studies to comment upon what happens to the disease after OMP therapy is withdrawn. Aim of the study: To document the incidence of relapse over a period of 1 year after OMP therapy is stopped in children with vitiligo. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 180 patients of childhood vitiligo (<15 years of age) who had been on OMP therapy with oral methylprednisolone for at least 6 months and who had achieved a complete remission of their disease during the treatment period. The enrolled patients were followed up for a period of 1 year and examined clinically for any sign of reactivation of their disease over either the old lesions or at any new area of the body. Results: Forty-two patients were lost and could not complete the follow-up period of 1 year. Out of the 138 patients available at the end of 1 year, relapse was observed in 48 patients (34.8%). Rest of 90 patients remained in remission over the follow-up period of 1 year. Relapse was more common in patients below 10 years of age (47.4%) as compared with older children (25.9%). Conclusion: Relapse after using methylprednisolone OMP therapy in children with vitiligo is quite common especially in younger age groups. Studies are needed to see whether these relapses could be avoided by giving the treatment for a period longer than 6 months. PMID:23716799

  12. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  13. The prospective role of defeat and entrapment in depression and anxiety: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Alys Wyn; Wood, Alex M; Maltby, John; Taylor, Peter J; Tai, Sara

    2014-04-30

    The concepts of "defeat" (representing failed social struggle) and "entrapment" (representing an inability to escape from a situation) have emerged from the animal literature, providing insight into the health consequences of low social rank. Evolutionary models suggest that these constructs co-occur and can lead to the development of mental disorders, although there is limited empirical evidence supporting these predictions. Participants (N=172) were recruited from economically deprived areas in North England. Over half of participants (58%) met clinical cut-offs for depression and anxiety, therefore we conducted analyses to establish whether participant outcomes were dependent on baseline defeat and entrapment levels. Participants completed measures of defeat, entrapment, depression and anxiety at two time-points twelve months apart. Factor analysis demonstrated that defeat and entrapment were best defined as one factor, suggesting that the experiences co-occurred. Regression analyses demonstrated that changes in depression and anxiety between T1 and T2 were predicted from baseline levels of defeat and entrapment; however, changes in defeat and entrapment were also predicted from baseline depression and anxiety. There are implications for targeting perceptions of defeat and entrapment within psychological interventions for people experiencing anxiety and depression and screening individuals to identify those at risk of developing psychopathology. PMID:24529814

  14. Clinical and physiological study of anal sphincter and ileal J pouch before preileostomy closure and 6 and 12 months after closure of loop ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Chaussade, S; Michopoulos, S; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Guerre, J; Couturier, D

    1991-02-01

    Spontaneous evolution of pouch and anal function, and absorption features has been assessed in 15 patients who underwent proctocolectomy with J ileal pouch anastomosis without conservation of a rectal muscular cuff. All the patients were studied before preileostomy closure and six and 12 months after the closure of the protection loop ileostomy. Stool frequency was identical at six and 12 months (mean +/- SEM: 5.0 +/- 0.4 and 5.3 +/- 0.5/day, respectively). Sixty-six percent of patients at six months and 40% of patients at 12 months need to defecate at least one time during night. Stool weight as well as steatorrhea decreased significantly six months after the closure of loop ileostomy (P less than 0.05). Mean resting anal pressure remained unchanged six and 12 months after closure of the loop ileostomy (41 +/- 6 and 45 +/- 5 cm H2O, respectively). Maximum squeeze anal pressures increased significantly at six (P less than 0.05) and 12 months (P less than 0.05). The rectoanal inhibitory reflex was always absent at the same period. The maximum pouch capacity increased significantly during the first six months (P less than 0.01) from 142 +/- 17 to 279 +/- 27 ml. The maximum infused volume during a saline continence test was not significantly different at six and 12 months; the percentage of evacuation of the reservoir and the volume at which the first ileal contraction appeared in the reservoir increased significantly (P less than 0.05) at six and 12 months. In conclusion, in patients with ileoanal anastomosis and pouch reservoir, the closure of the loop ileostomy is associated with spontaneous modifications of the anal and pouch parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1988259

  15. Test of an hypothesized structural model of the relationships between cognitive style and social anxiety: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    González-Díez, Zahira; Calvete, Esther; Riskind, John H; Orue, Izaskun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether social looming cognitive style accounts for the predictive association between early maladaptive schema domains and social anxiety. We predicted that early maladaptive schema domains would predict the increase of social anxiety over time and that social looming would act as a mediator between schema domains and social anxiety. A three-wave longitudinal design was used. The participants (N=471, 56.95% women) were Spanish adolescents and young adults aged between 16 and 25 years old (Mage=17.81, SD age=3.19). The results showed that three schema domains (impaired autonomy and performance, impaired limits, and other-directedness) predicted the increase in social anxiety and that LCS for social threat acted as a mediator between other-directedness and social anxiety at T3. These results are important to improve the knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that are involved in the occurrence and development of social anxiety. PMID:25602785

  16. The Effects of Irlen Colored Lenses on Students' Specific Reading Skills and Their Perception of Ability: A 12-Month Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gregory L. W.; Conway, Robert N. F.

    1990-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of the use of nonoptical tinted (Irlen) lenses with 44 children (ages 9-16) with reading disabilities. Evaluation after 6 and 12 months indicated a significant improvement in attitude to school and to basic academic skills. Reading comprehension and accuracy, but not rate, were also significantly improved.…

  17. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  18. Subacute Pain as a Predictor of Long-Term Pain Following Orthopedic Surgery: An Australian Prospective 12 Month Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Veal, Felicity C; Bereznicki, Luke R E; Thompson, Angus J; Peterson, Gregory M; Orlikowski, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document the level of pain and functionality in the 12 months following orthopedic surgery and identify if high pain levels following discharge were associated with pain persisting at 12 months.An observational prospective cohort study was undertaken, following 87 patients (mean age 62.4 years [18-92]; 47.1% male) who required orthopedic surgery at the Royal Hobart Hospital, Australia. Following an initial survey, patients were telephoned at 10 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after discharge.Postdischarge pain levels were high with 97.4% of patients suffering pain at 10 days, 81.2% at 6 weeks and 79.5% at 3 months. Pain affected the ability to undertake activities of daily living (ADLs) for 32.7% and 20.0% of patients at 10 days and 6 weeks, respectively. Twelve months after discharge, 65.5% of patients reported pain persisting at the surgical site, with 29.9% of all patients suffering moderate-severe incidental pain; and nearly one quarter of patients reported pain affected their sleep or ADLs. Average pain levels rated as moderate-severe at 10 days (P = 0.01) and 6 weeks (P = 0.02) and pain of neuropathic origin at 3 months (30.2% vs 10.3% P = 0.03) and 12 months (30.4% vs 4.9% P = 0.01) were associated with persistent pain at 12 months.Pain in the period following discharge from hospital is significant and undermanaged. Previous studies has shown that that acute pain, particularly in the first 48 hours following surgery is a predictor for long-term pain after surgery. This study adds to the current literature by showing that pain in the subacute period, following discharge from hospital is also associated with the pain persisting at 12 months. These findings have important implications for improving quality of life as well as potentially preventing persistent pain with increased follow-up and more intensive management of post-discharge pain. PMID:26356717

  19. Improved asthma control in patients with severe, persistent allergic asthma after 12 months of nightly temperature-controlled laminar airflow: an observational study with retrospective comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Uwe; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Gerstlauer, Michael; Lehmann, Sylvia; Gappa, Monika; Brenneken, Amelie; Schulz, Christian; Ahrens, Peter; Schreiber, Jens; Wittmann, Michael; Hamelmann, Eckard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Continuous or episodic allergen exposure is a major risk factor of frequent symptoms and exacerbations for patients with allergic asthma. It has been shown that temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) significantly reduced allergen exposure and airway inflammation and improved quality of life of patients with poorly controlled allergic asthma. Objective The objective was to evaluate the effects of nighttime TLA when used during real-life conditions for 12 consecutive months in addition to the patients’ regular medication. Methods This multicenter, pre- and postretrospective observational study included patients with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthma who received add-on treatment with TLA for 12 consecutive months. Data on medication use, asthma control, asthma symptoms, lung function, use of hospital resources, and exacerbations were collected after 4 and 12 months and compared with corresponding data collected retrospectively from medical records during the year prior to inclusion in the study. Results Data from 30 patients (mean age 28; range 8–70) completing 4 months and 27 patients completing 12 months of TLA use are presented. The mean number of exacerbations was reduced from 3.6 to 1.3 (p<0.0001), and the ratio of asthma-related emergency room visits or hospitalizations diminished from 72.4 to 23.3% (p=0.001) or from 44.8 to 20.0% (p<0.05), respectively, after 12 months of TLA use. The Asthma Control Test index increased from 14.1 to 18.5 (p<0.0001). After 4 months of TLA use, clear improvements can be shown for most variables in line with the data collected after 12 months. Conclusions The addition of TLA to the patients’ regular medication significantly reduced exacerbations, asthma symptoms, and the utilization of hospital resources. The data support that TLA may be an important new non-pharmacological approach in the management of poorly controlled allergic asthma. PMID:26557252

  20. Clinical outcome and bone healing of implants placed with high insertion torque: 12-month results from a multicenter controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, T; Guazzi, P; Samarani, R; Grandi, G

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the clinical outcome and the crestal bone resorption of implants placed with high insertion torque (up to 80 N cm). 102 patients were treated with 156 tapered implants. 42 implants (control group) presented insertion torque between 30 and 45 N cm (mean=37.4 SD 8.2). 114 implants (experimental group) were placed with insertion torque between 50 and 80 N cm (mean=74.8 SD 7.9). All implants were early loaded after 2 months. Peri-implant marginal bone levels were assessed immediately after surgery, and at 6- and 12-month follow up examinations. At the 12-month follow up all implants were clinically stable. After 12 months, patients in the experimental group lost an average of 0.41 mm (CI 95% 0.522; 0.263) of crestal bone compared with 0.45 mm (CI 95% 0.561; 0.286) for those in the control group. There were no significant differences between the two groups. No direct or inverse relationship was observed between the insertion torque values and crestal bone resorption. The results show that the use of high insertion torque (up to 80 N cm) did not prevent osseointegration and did not increase bone resorption around tapered implants early loaded up to 1 year after implant placement. PMID:23159169

  1. A Case Study Assessing the Auditory and Speech Development of Four Children Implanted with Cochlear Implants by the Chronological Age of 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with severe hearing loss most likely receive the greatest benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) when implanted at less than 2 years of age. Children with a hearing loss may also benefit greater from binaural sensory stimulation. Four children who received their first CI under 12 months of age were included in this study. Effects on auditory development were determined using the German LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, closed- and open-set monosyllabic word tests, aided free-field, the Mainzer and Göttinger speech discrimination tests, Monosyllabic-Trochee-Polysyllabic (MTP), and Listening Progress Profile (LiP). Speech production and grammar development were evaluated using a German language speech development test (SETK), reception of grammar test (TROG-D) and active vocabulary test (AWST-R). The data showed that children implanted under 12 months of age reached open-set monosyllabic word discrimination at an age of 24 months. LiP results improved over time, and children recognized 100% of words in the MTP test after 12 months. All children performed as well as or better than their hearing peers in speech production and grammar development. SETK showed that the speech development of these children was in general age appropriate. The data suggests that early hearing loss intervention benefits speech and language development and supports the trend towards early cochlear implantation. Furthermore, the data emphasizes the potential benefits associated with bilateral implantation. PMID:23509653

  2. Predictors of outcome after 6 and 12 months following anthroposophic therapy for adult outpatients with chronic disease: a secondary analysis from a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medicine is a physician-provided complementary therapy system involving counselling, artistic and physical therapies, and special medications. The purpose of this analysis was to identify predictors of symptom improvement in patients receiving anthroposophic treatment for chronic diseases. Methods 913 adult outpatients from Germany participated in a prospective cohort study. Patients were starting anthroposophic treatment for mental (30.4% of patients, n = 278/913), musculoskeletal (20.2%), neurological (7.6%), genitourinary (7.4%) or respiratory disorders (7.2%) or other chronic indications. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the improvement of Symptom Score (patients' assessment, 0: not present, 10: worst possible) after 6 and 12 months as dependent variables. 61 independent variables pertaining to socio-demographics, life style, disease status, co-morbidity, health status (SF-36), depression, and therapy factors were analysed. Results Compared to baseline, Symptom Score improved by average 2.53 points (95% confidence interval 2.39-2.68, p < 0.001) after six months and by 2.49 points (2.32-2.65, p < 0.001) after 12 months. The strongest predictor for improvement after six months was baseline Symptom Score, which alone accounted for 25% of the variance (total model 32%). Improvement after six months was also positively predicted by better physical function, better general health, shorter disease duration, higher education level, a diagnosis of respiratory disorders, and by a higher therapy goal documented by the physician at baseline; and negatively predicted by the number of physiotherapy sessions in the pre-study year and by a diagnosis of genitourinary disorders. Seven of these nine variables (not the two diagnoses) also predicted improvement after 12 months. When repeating the 0-6 month analysis on two random subsamples of the original sample, three variables (baseline Symptom Score, physical function

  3. Effect of recent spinal cord injury on wnt signaling antagonists (sclerostin and dkk-1) and their relationship with bone loss. A 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gifre, Laia; Vidal, Joan; Carrasco, Josep L; Filella, Xavier; Ruiz-Gaspà, Silvia; Muxi, Africa; Portell, Enric; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Nuria; Peris, Pilar

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with a marked increase in bone loss and bone remodeling, especially short-term after injury. The absence of mechanical load, mediated by osteocyte mechanosensory function, seems to be a causative factor related to bone loss in this condition. However, the pathogenesis and clinical management of this process remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the effect of recent SCI on the Wnt pathway antagonists, sclerostin and Dickkopf (Dkk-1), and their relationship with bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) evolution. Forty-two patients (aged 35 ± 14yrs) with a recent (<6months) complete SCI were prospectively included. Sclerostin and Dkk-1, bone turnover markers (bone formation: PINP, bone ALP; resorption: sCTx) and BMD (lumbar spine, proximal femur, total body and lower extremities [DXA]) were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. The results were compared with a healthy control group. 22/42 patients completed the 12-month follow-up. At baseline, SCI patients showed a marked increase in bone markers (PINP and sCTx), remaining significantly increased at up to 6 months of follow-up. Additionally, they presented significantly increased Dkk-1 values throughout the study, whereas sclerostin values did not significantly change. BMD markedly decreased at the proximal femur (-20.2 ± 5.4%, p < 0.01), total body (-5.7 ± 2.2%, p = 0.02) and lower extremities (-13.1 ± 4.5%, p = 0.01) at 12 months. Consequently, 59% of patients developed densitometric osteoporosis at 12 months. Patients with higher Dkk-1 values (>58 pmol/L) at baseline showed higher sublesional BMD loss. In conclusion, this study shows that short-term after SCI there is a marked increase in bone turnover and bone loss, the latter associated with an increase in Dkk-1 serum levels. The persistence of increased levels of this Wnt antagonist throughout the study and their relationship with the magnitude of

  4. Silicon Matrix Calcium Phosphate as a Bone Substitute: Early Clinical and Radiological Results in a Prospective Study With 12-Month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pesántez, Carlos Fernando Arias; Oliveira, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Autograft has been the “gold standard” for orthopedic bone grafting applications, but with some clinical challenges. Here we present the rationale and clinical outcomes supporting the use of a bone substitute material that consists of a mixture of two calcium phosphates (HA and ß-TCP), which are integrated into a silicon xerogel matrix, promoting nanocrystalline apatite layers on the surface of the material following implantation into a physiological environment. Methods Twenty-four patients with a median age of 53.80 (36–81) years underwent lumbar spinal fusion for degenerative disease, selected by clinical presentation, X-rays, and MRI findings. Subjects were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The outcome assessment consisted of visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and radiological assessment analyzing the state of fusion on X-ray and CT evaluation by 3 independent radiologists. Results All patients completed 12-month follow-up. The mean VAS decreased from 9.3 (± 0.9) to 2.4 (± 1.6) and the mean ODI decreased from 55.0 (± 9.2) to 19.3 (± 11.4) at 12-month follow-up. Three months after surgery, 10 patients (41.67%) had solid fusion based on analysis of CT scans and dynamic radiographs. At 6 months postoperatively, the fusion rate had increased to 75% (18 patients). Twelve months after surgery, 95.83% of patients had solid fusion (23 patients). Conclusions The clinical results from this study of silicon matrix calcium phosphate are consistent with previous in vitro studies indicating that this material stimulates formation of a bioactive layer and provides an effective bone graft material for lumbar fusion applications. In comparison with previous studies involving rhBMP-2, silicon matrix calcium phosphate provided a lower fusion rate at 3- and 6-month follow-up points, but after 12 months, the fusion rate was similar, with no statistical differences and lower overall costs. No

  5. A 12 Months Clinical and Radiographic Study to Assess the Efficacy of Open Flap Debridement and Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft in Management of Supracrestal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Chhina, Shivjot

    2015-01-01

    Background: An improvement in clinical parameters along with regeneration is the desired outcome of periodontal therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze and contrast the efficaciousness of combined open flap debridement (OFD) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SECTG) to OFD in the management of periodontal supracrestal defects. Materials and Methods: Totally, 20 paired sites exhibiting supracrestal defects were subjected to surgical treatment adopting the split mouth design. The defects were divided randomly for treatment with OFD and SECTG (test) or OFD alone (control). The clinical effectiveness of the two arms of treatment was evaluated at 6 months and 12 months post-operatively by assessing clinical and radiographic parameters. The measurements carried out included probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), gingival marginal level, radiographic bone level (BL). Results: The mean reduction in PPD at 0-12 months was 3.20 ± 0.82 mm and RAL gain of 3.10 ± 1.51 mm was observed, the OFD and SECTG (test) group; corresponding observations for OFD (control) were 2.10 ± 0.63 mm and 1.90 ± 0.57 mm. However, BL changes did not follow the pattern of clinical improvement on the radiographic assessment of either treatment group. Post-operative evaluation was made. Improvement in different clinical parameters was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Treatment of supracrestal defects with a combination of OFD and SECTG led to significantly better clinical results compared to OFD alone. PMID:26464551

  6. A 12-month, open-label, comparative study of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Victor; Cañas, Fernando; Tafalla, Monica

    2008-05-01

    This multicentre, observational, prospective, nonrandomized study compared the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia in a clinical setting. Patients admitted to an acute unit with schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV), who were prescribed quetiapine or risperidone (3 : 1 ratio) within the first week of treatment, according to the physician's usual practice, were recruited. In total, 492 patients (quetiapine: 367; risperidone: 125) were followed up at weeks 1 and 2, discharge and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Mean doses at 12 months were: quetiapine 718.5 mg/day and risperidone 7.0 mg/day. Efficacy measures (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness and Improvement) indicated similar results for both agents. No difference was found in rehospitalization rate with either drug. In terms of tolerability, orthostatic hypotension was more frequent with quetiapine, but extrapyramidal symptoms and male sexual dysfunction were more frequent with risperidone. In conclusion, quetiapine and risperidone had comparable effectiveness, but there were differences between treatments in their side effect profile. PMID:18408528

  7. Job stress as a risk factor for absences among manual workers: a 12-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    HEO, Yong-Seok; LEEM, Jong-Han; PARK, Shin-Goo; JUNG, Dal-Young; KIM, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of job stress on absence from work caused by illnesses and accidents through a prospective research design. A total of 2,349 manual workers were included in this analysis. In the first survey, job stress was determined using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form. In the second survey, information on absence due to accidents or illnesses during the past one year was obtained through a questionnaire. The relationship was analyzed using a logistic regression model with multiple imputation. After adjusting for confounding variables for males, absence due to accidents was statistically associated with high job demand, insufficient job control, inadequate social support, and organizational injustice. In addition, high job demands and organizational injustice were related to increased absence due to illnesses in both genders. A lack of reward was associated with increased absence due to illnesses among female workers. We found that job stress was associated with a higher risk of absence caused by accidents or illnesses of manual workers. PMID:26212413

  8. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  9. Recovery 3 and 12 months after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Maurice; Peters, Madelon L.; Schepers, Jan; Maas, Jacques W.M.; Tournois, Fleur; van Suijlekom, Hans A.; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is 1 important aspect of surgical recovery. To improve perioperative care and postoperative recovery knowledge on predictors of impaired recovery is essential. The aim of this study is to assess predictors and epidemiological data of CPSP, physical functioning (SF-36PF, 0–100), and global surgical recovery (global surgical recovery index, 0–100%) 3 and 12 months after hysterectomy for benign indication. A prospective multicenter cohort study was performed. Sociodemographic, somatic, and psychosocial data were assessed in the week before surgery, postoperatively up to day 4, and at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Generalized linear model (CPSP) and linear-mixed model analyses (SF-36PF and global surgical recovery index) were used. Baseline data of 468 patients were collected, 412 (88%) patients provided data for 3-month evaluation and 376 (80%) patients for 12-month evaluation. After 3 and 12 months, prevalence of CPSP (numeric rating scale ≥ 4, scale 0–10) was 10.2% and 9.0%, respectively, SF-36PF means (SD) were 83.5 (20.0) and 85.9 (20.2), global surgical recovery index 88.1% (15.6) and 93.3% (13.4). Neuropathic pain was reported by 20 (5.0%) patients at 3 months and 14 (3.9%) patients at 12 months. Preoperative pain, surgery-related worries, acute postsurgical pain on day 4, and surgery-related infection were significant predictors of CPSP. Baseline level, participating center, general psychological robustness, indication, acute postsurgical pain, and surgery-related infection were significant predictors of SF-36PF. Predictors of global surgical recovery were baseline expectations, surgery-related worries, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, type of anesthesia, acute postsurgical pain, and surgery-related infection. Several predictors were identified for CPSP, physical functioning, and global surgical recovery. Some of the identified factors are modifiable and optimization of patients’ preoperative

  10. Updates on the Epidemiology and Pattern of Traumatic Maxillofacial Injuries in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital: A 12-Month Prospective Cohort In-Hospital Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Adeola Adenike; Adeleye, Amos Olufemi; Aladelusi, Timothy Olukunle; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have been undertaken in Nigeria on maxillofacial trauma. However, only a few have considered both the skeletal and soft tissue injuries (in general) involving all the aspects of the maxillofacial region or considered other etiological sources of trauma apart from road traffic crashes. Fewer still have reviewed the outcome of management of facial injuries in our low-resource environment. This study sets out to examine the recent trends in both the clinical and epidemiological patterns of all facial injuries from all causes seen in a low-resource practice of a developing country. It also assessed the in-hospital treatment outcomes, and the levels of the patients' satisfaction with treatment received in this setting. Over a 12-month period, the clinical records of consecutive patients who were evaluated and treated for maxillofacial injuries in our unit were prospectively acquired, entered into predesigned forms and subsequently analyzed. There were 259 patients (79.5% males) during the study period. The mean age was 32.21( ± 16.588) years. Overall, motor bike crashes, 42.1%, were the commonest source of these traumas; and armed robbery was the commonest form (69.0%) of assault. Mandibular fractures were the commonest maxillofacial fractures (37.8%) whereas head injury had the highest frequency among the associated injuries (71.4%). Closed reduction and immobilization was deployed in 88.0% of those who had treatment and majority was satisfied with the esthetic outcome of the treatment received. Mean length of hospital stay was 12.6 ( ± 4.423) days. Maxillofacial trauma poses a significant socioeconomic burden on affected individuals in this study population. This is made worse by the presence of associated injuries in the other body systems. More local studies on the outcome of management of maxillofacial trauma will improve the available literature in this region. PMID:25709753

  11. Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Combined Phaco-ExPress and Phacotrabeculectomy in Open Angle Glaucoma Treatment: 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Konopińska, Joanna; Deniziak, Marta; Saeed, Emil; Bartczak, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Renata; Mariak, Zofia; Rękas, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. To compare the efficacy and safety of phacotrabeculectomy (P-Trab) and phacoemulsification with the ExPress (P-ExPress) mini glaucoma shunt implantation. Study Plan. Prospective randomized study. Material and Methods. 85 eyes with cataract and unregulated open angle glaucoma. There were 46 eyes in the P-ExPress and 39 the P-Trab group. Intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma medications, qualified and complete surgical success (defined as IOP ≤ 18.0 mmHg), visual acuity (CDVA), the number of endothelial cells, and postoperative complications and additional procedures were assessed. Results. After 12 months of observation, the average IOP in the P-Express group went from 26.4 ± 9.3 down to 17.1 ± 5 mmHg (P < 0.05) and from 27.9 ± 12.9 down to 15.9 ± 2.7 mmHg in the P-Trab group (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the amount of medications used after surgery and CDVA were discovered between the groups. In the P-ExPress group, greater loss of endothelial cells was noted (CDloss%), compared to the P-Trab group. Conclusions. Both P-ExPress and P-Trab have comparable efficacy and similar early postoperative complication profile. The presence of additional implant (as is the case of the ExPress mini glaucoma shunt implantation) may cause progressive loss of endothelial cells. PMID:26137318

  12. Early colonization of the oral cavity in 6- and 12-month-old infants by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Merglova, Vlasta; Polenik, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens occurs earlier than previously thought. This study aimed to identify the presence and quantity of representative cariogenic and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavities of 6- and 12-month olds and to evaluate the influence of C-section delivery on early Streptococcus mutans (Sm) colonization of the oral cavity. The research cohort was composed of 59 infants (35 infants were delivered vaginally and 24 via C-section) and their mothers. At 6 months of age, the infants were examined, and unstimulated saliva samples were collected. Variables concerning mothers were DMF index and salivary levels of Sm. Repeated saliva samples were taken 6 months later. The representative cariogenic and periodontal microorganisms were identified, and their quantities were measured using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The relationships between the presence of detected microbes, the mode of delivery, and maternal variables were evaluated using paired t tests, chi-squared test, and ANOVAs. High rates of cariogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), were found in both infant cohorts. An analysis of the differences between delivery methods revealed that the group of 6-month-old vaginally delivered infants had a significantly higher amount of Sm. We conclude that the cariogenic bacteria, Aa and Fn, are present in edentulous infants. This presence increases in the months following the eruption of the deciduous teeth. Results did not confirm the influence of C-section delivery on the early Sm colonization of the oral cavity. PMID:26914065

  13. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Cibella, Fabio; Morjaria, Jaymin B.; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a ‘smoking’ experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are based on science. Methods ECLAT is a prospective 12-month randomized, controlled trial that evaluates smoking reduction/abstinence in 300 smokers not intending to quit experimenting two different nicotine strengths of a popular e-cigarette model (‘Categoria’; Arbi Group Srl, Italy) compared to its non-nicotine choice. GroupA (n = 100) received 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks; GroupB (n = 100), a 6-week 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges followed by a further 6-week 5.4 mg nicotine cartridges; GroupC (n = 100) received no-nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks. The study consisted of nine visits during which cig/day use and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels were measured. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. Results Declines in cig/day use and eCO levels were observed at each study visits in all three study groups (p<0.001 vs baseline), with no consistent differences among study groups. Smoking reduction was documented in 22.3% and 10.3% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. Complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was documented in 10.7% and 8.7% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. A substantial decrease in adverse events from baseline was observed and withdrawal symptoms were infrequently reported during the study. Participants’ perception and acceptance of the product under investigation was satisfactory. Conclusion In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption and

  14. WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

  15. Social and Object Mastery Play in 12-Month Olds with Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers: Developmental Changes and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popper, Sally D.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of postpartum adjustment and infant development, this study examined whether securely attached 12-month-old infants show greater object mastery motivation and social-object mastery motivation than do insecurely attached infants. Object mastery relates to infants' goal-directed behavior that is oriented toward…

  16. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  17. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF 6- AND 12-MONTH OLD INFANTS HAVING THE NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS FROM THE BIRTH: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vekovischeva O; Lyakso, E E

    2015-12-01

    Ethological approach was applied to compare a non-verbal behavior of the 6- and 12-month old infants having neurological diagnosis by the birth (P 91.8 according to ICD-10 scale; risk infants) with the behavior of their healthy (norm infants) peers. The double-blind controlled uninterrupted observation of 1- and 2-minute videos was done to estimate duration and sequence of behavioral elements manifested by infants in familiar home environment during everyday activity. We suggested that if the specific behavioral differences exist it would be considered as predictive markers of infant's development problems. Ethological analysis indicated that the main behavioral differences were related with infant's eye and hand activities. The risk infants of the both age distracted from an object in their hands "looking aside" more often than their healthy peers. The 12-month old risk infants displayed less communicative and explorative abilities than their norm peers. It was proposed that the short-term observations of nonverbal behavior would be useful like an addition to a diagnostic scale to estimate briefly an infant's cognitive condition. PMID:26987232

  18. Self-help smoking cessation and maintenance programs: a comparative study with 12-month follow-up by the American Lung Association.

    PubMed

    Davis, A L; Faust, R; Ordentlich, M

    1984-11-01

    One thousand two hundred thirty seven smokers responding to lung association announcements in five geographic areas were randomly assigned to one of four groups and mailed American Lung Association materials: 1) leaflets (L); 2) leaflets plus maintenance manual (L + M); 3) cessation manual (C); and 4) cessation and maintenance manuals (C + M). Five telephone interviews over one year achieved a 95 per cent follow-up completion rate. Nonrespondents as well as exclusive cigar and pipe users were classified as smokers. Twenty per cent quit initially, with 5 per cent continually abstinent in (C + M) at 12 months vs 2 per cent in (L) (p less than .05). Nonsmoking prevalence rates (no tobacco smoking in the past month), on the other hand, gradually increased after six months; at 12 months those with the maintenance component, (L + M) and (C + M), had higher rates (18 per cent) than (L) (12 per cent) or (C) (15 per cent). Leaflets and manual alone were least cost effective. Rising nonsmoking prevalence rates observed in all groups suggest that successful attempts to quit increased over time and that a contributing factor might have been the follow-up method. Although achieving lower quit rates than methods requiring attendance at a course, the self-help intervention has the advantages of greater availability, flexibility, and in some instances lower cost. PMID:6437257

  19. The precision of 12-month-old infants’ link between language and categorization predicts vocabulary size at 12 and 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Brock; Havy, Mélanie; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2015-01-01

    Infants’ initially broad links between language and object categories are increasingly tuned, becoming more precise by the end of their first year. In a longitudinal study, we asked whether individual differences in the precision of infants’ links at 12 months of age are related to vocabulary development. We found that, at 12 months, infants who had already established a precise link between labels and categories understood more words than those whose link was still broad. Six months later, this advantage held: At 18 months, infants who had demonstrated a precise link at 12 months knew and produced more words than did infants who had demonstrated a broad link at 12 months. We conclude that individual differences in the precision of 12-month-old infants’ links between language and categories provide a reliable window into their vocabulary development. We consider several causal explanations of this relation. PMID:26379614

  20. Language Development: 8 to 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Print Share Language Development: 8 to 12 Months Page Content Article Body Toward the end of ... notice the coos, gurgles, and screeches of earlier months now giving way to recognizable syllables, such as “ ...

  1. Concurrent Heroin Use and Correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clients: A 12-Month Follow-up Study in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Peizhen; Gong, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Weiming; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess concurrent heroin use and correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clients in Guangdong Province, China. Method: Demographic and drug use data were collected with a structured questionnaire, and MMT information was obtained from the MMT clinic registration system in Guangdong. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected status and urine morphine results were obtained from laboratory tests. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the factors associated with concurrent heroin use. Results: Among the 6848 participants, 75% continued using heroin more than once during the first 12 months after treatment initiation. Concurrent heroin use was associated with inharmonious family relationship (OR (odds ratio) = 1.49, 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.24–1.78), HIV positivity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.55), having multiple sex partners (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.69), having ever taken intravenous drugs (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.95), higher maintenance dose (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28) and poorer MMT attendance (OR<20% = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53; OR20%– = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14–1.54; OR50%– = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.44–2.00). Among those who used heroin concurrently, the same factors, and additionally being older (OR35– = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43; OR≥45 = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.30–2.05) and female (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), contribute to a greater frequency of heroin use. Conclusions: Concurrent heroin use was prevalent among MMT participants in Guangdong, underscoring the urgent needs for tailored interventions and health education programs for this population. PMID:27005649

  2. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  3. Breastfeeding beyond 12 months. An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Piovanetti, Y

    2001-02-01

    A decade ago, child psychiatrist Coello-Novello, in her term as Surgeon General of the United States, said, "It's the lucky baby, I feel, who continues to nurse until he's two." The accumulated evidence supports her statement. The understanding of the benefits of breastfeeding beyond 12 months should support the cultural change in which eventually prolonged breastfeeding becomes normal. PMID:11236726

  4. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  5. Effects of Early Relationships on Children's Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan

    2011-01-01

    People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…

  6. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  7. 12-Month-Olds Produce Others' Intended but Unfulfilled Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Following Meltzoff's (1995) behavioral reenactment paradigm, this study investigated the ability of 12-month-olds (N = 44) to reproduce a model's attempted-but-failed actions on objects. Testing was conducted using a novel set of objects designed to enable young infants to readily identify the potential outcome of the model's actions. Infants who…

  8. Timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors among children aged 6 to 12 months in Northern Ethiopia: an institution-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life is critical for the wellbeing of the child. In the mean while, timely initiation and starting nutritionally-adequate, safe, age-appropriate complementary feeding at six months is recommended for the better health and development of infants. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, timely initiation of complementary feeding in Ethiopia at the 6th month was only 51%. The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors in Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 422 mothers of infants aged from six months to one year selected from six public health facilities. Sample size proportional to the patient flow rate of each institution was allocated and systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participant. An exit interview using structured questionnaire was conducted about their experience on complementary feeding and related experience. The questionnaire was pretested among 21 mothers. Data were entered with EPI info version 3.5.1 and cleaning and analysis was done by using SPSS version 16. Frequencies distribution, binary and multiple logistic regressions were done. OR and 95% confidence interval was computed. Result The prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding at sixth month was 62.8% (265/422, 95% C.I: 58.1, 67.31%). Educational level, occupation of mother, parity, having ANC follow up, and birth preparedness were found to be independent predictor of timely initiation of complementary feeding. Conclusions Almost two-third of mothers initiated complementary feeding at six month of child’ age as recommended. This was relatively higher prevalence than most developing countries. However, significant proportion of mothers still did not initiate complementary feeding timely. Mothers who are illiterate

  9. Child weighing by the unschooled: a report of a controlled study of growth monitoring over 12 months of Maasai children using direct recording scales.

    PubMed

    Meegan, M; Morley, D C; Brown, R

    1994-01-01

    Growth monitoring was developed as a clinic-based programme in the early 1960s, and has spread widely in many countries. The results of weighing children are usually presented in a graphic form, unintelligible to most mothers and difficult for many health workers to interpret. This study suggests that the TALC Direct Recording Scale will allow growth monitoring to be undertaken even by illiterate mothers in the community and reports the results of a trial with a group of illiterate mothers amongst the Maasai of Kenya. PMID:7886753

  10. Dynamic versus Adynamic Graciloplasty in Treatment of End-Stage Fecal Incontinence: Is the Implantation of the Pacemaker Really Necessary? 12-Month Follow-Up in a Clinical, Physiological, and Functional Study

    PubMed Central

    Walega, Piotr; Romaniszyn, Michal; Siarkiewicz, Benita; Zelazny, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to compare functional results of end-stage fecal incontinence treatment with dynamic graciloplasty and adynamic graciloplasty augmented with transanal conditioning of the transposed muscle. Methods. A total of 20 patients were qualified for graciloplasty procedure due to end-stage fecal incontinence. 7 patients underwent dynamic graciloplasty (DGP), whereas 13 patients were treated with adynamic graciloplasty, with transanal stimulation in the postoperative period (AGP). Clinical, functional, and quality of life assessments were performed 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedures. Results. There were no intraoperative or early postoperative complications. The detachment of gracilis muscle tendon was observed in one patient in DGP group and two in AGP group. There was a significant improvement of Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) scores in both groups 12 months after procedure. Anorectal manometry showed improvement regarding basal and squeeze pressures in both groups, with significantly better squeeze pressures in AGP group. Conclusions. The functional effects in the DGP and AGP groups were similar. Significantly lower price of the procedure and avoidance of implant-related complication risk suggest the attractiveness of the AGP method augmented by transanal stimulation. PMID:25861261

  11. Pattern of Skin Diseases at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: A 12 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ukonu, B. A.; Eze, E. U

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. Results: A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi’s sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. Conclusion: The current pattern of

  12. Patient-reported outcomes 3 months after spine surgery: is it an accurate predictor of 12-month outcome in real-world registry platforms?

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Asher, Anthony L; Godil, Saniya S; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT The health care landscape is rapidly shifting to incentivize quality of care rather than quantity of care. Quality and outcomes registry platforms lie at the center of all emerging evidence-driven reform models and will be used to inform decision makers in health care delivery. Obtaining real-world registry outcomes data from patients 12 months after spine surgery remains a challenge. The authors set out to determine whether 3-month patient-reported outcomes accurately predict 12-month outcomes and, hence, whether 3-month measurement systems suffice to identify effective versus noneffective spine care. METHODS All patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery for degenerative disease at a single medical institution over a 2-year period were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal registry. Patient-reported outcome instruments (numeric rating scale [NRS], Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], EQ-5D, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) were recorded prospectively at baseline and at 3 months and 12 months after surgery. Linear regression was performed to determine the independent association of 3- and 12-month outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine whether improvement in general health state (EQ-5D) and disability (ODI) at 3 months accurately predicted improvement and achievement of minimum clinical important difference (MCID) at 12 months. RESULTS A total of 593 patients undergoing elective lumbar surgery were included in the study. There was a significant correlation between 3-month and 12-month EQ-5D (r = 0.71; p < 0.0001) and ODI (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001); however, the authors observed a sizable discrepancy in achievement of a clinically significant improvement (MCID) threshold at 3 versus 12 months on an individual patient level. For postoperative disability (ODI), 11.5% of patients who achieved an MCID threshold at 3 months dropped below this threshold at 12 months; 10

  13. Efficacy of baby-CIMT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on infants below age 12 months, with clinical signs of unilateral CP

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with unilateral brain lesions are at high risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Given the great plasticity of the young brain, possible interventions for infants at risk of unilateral CP deserve exploration. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is known to be effective for older children with unilateral CP but is not systematically used for infants. The development of CIMT for infants (baby-CIMT) is described here, as is the methodology of an RCT comparing the effects on manual ability development of baby-CIMT versus baby-massage. The main hypothesis is that infants receiving baby-CIMT will develop manual ability in the involved hand faster than will infants receiving baby-massage in the first year of life. Method and design The study will be a randomised, controlled, prospective parallel-group trial. Invited infants will be to be randomised to either the baby-CIMT or the baby-massage group if they: 1) are at risk of developing unilateral CP due to a known neonatal event affecting the brain or 2) have been referred to Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital due to asymmetric hand function. The inclusion criteria are age 3–8 months and established asymmetric hand use. Infants in both groups will receive two 6-weeks training periods separated by a 6-week pause, for 12 weeks in total of treatment. The primary outcome measure will be the new Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) for evaluating manual ability. In addition, the Parenting Sense of Competence scale and Alberta Infant Motor Scale will be used. Clinical neuroimaging will be utilized to characterise the brain lesion type. To compare outcomes between treatment groups generalised linear models will be used. Discussion The model of early intensive intervention for hand function, baby-CIMT evaluated by the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) will have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of how early intervention of upper limb function in infants at risk of

  14. Reduced Cognitive Function Predicts Functional Decline in Patients with Heart Failure over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown. Aims This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population. Methods 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Activities of Daily Living Scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody, including total, instrumental, and basic ADLs. Results HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADLs, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADLs from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p < .05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (β = .15, p = .049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p < .05 for all). Conclusion The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

  15. BRAVISSIMO: 12-month results from a large scale prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Callaert, J; Maene, L; Beelen, R; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Schroë, H; Lauwers, G; Lansink, W; Vanslembroeck, K; D'archambeau, O; Hendriks, J; Lauwers, P; Vermassen, F; Randon, C; Van Herzeele, I; De Ryck, F; De Letter, J; Lanckneus, M; Van Betsbrugge, M; Thomas, B; Deleersnijder, R; Vandekerkhof, J; Baeyens, I; Berghmans, T; Buttiens, J; Van Den Brande, P; Debing, E; Rabbia, C; Ruffino, A; Tealdi, D; Nano, G; Stegher, S; Gasparini, D; Piccoli, G; Coppi, G; Silingardi, R; Cataldi, V; Paroni, G; Palazzo, V; Stella, A; Gargiulo, M; Muccini, N; Nessi, F; Ferrero, E; Pratesi, C; Fargion, A; Chiesa, R; Marone, E; Bertoglio, L; Cremonesi, A; Dozza, L; Galzerano, G; De Donato, G; Setacci, C

    2013-04-01

    The BRAVISSIMO study is a prospective, non-randomized, multi-center, multi-national, monitored trial, conducted at 12 hospitals in Belgium and 11 hospitals in Italy. This manuscript reports the findings up to the 12-month follow-up time point for both the TASC A&B cohort and the TASC C&D cohort. The primary endpoint of the study is primary patency at 12 months, defined as a target lesion without a hemodynamically significant stenosis on Duplex ultrasound (>50%, systolic velocity ratio no greater than 2.0) and without target lesion revascularization (TLR) within 12 months. Between July 2009 and September 2010, 190 patients with TASC A or TASC B aortoiliac lesions and 135 patients with TASC C or TASC D aortoiliac lesions were included. The demographic data were comparable for the TASC A/B cohort and the TASC C/D cohort. The number of claudicants was significantly higher in the TASC A/B cohort, The TASC C/D cohort contains more CLI patients. The primary patency rate for the total patient population was 93.1%. The primary patency rates at 12 months for the TASC A, B, C and D lesions were 94.0%, 96.5%, 91.3% and 90.2% respectively. No statistical significant difference was shown when comparing these groups. Our findings confirm that endovascular therapy, and more specifically primary stenting, is the preferred treatment for patients with TASC A, B, C and D aortoiliac lesions. We notice similar endovascular results compared to surgery, however without the invasive character of surgery. PMID:23558659

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-Traumatic Growth: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study following an Earthquake Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieling; Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Min; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current longitudinal study aims to examine the bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Method One hundred twenty-two adults in the most severely affected area were investigated by self-report questionnaires at 12 months and 18 months after the Wenchuan Earthquake occurred in China. Results The autoregressive cross-lagged structure equation analysis revealed that PTG at 12 months post-earthquake could negatively predict PTSS at 18 months post-earthquake above and beyond PTSS stability, whereas PTSS at 12 months post-earthquake could not significantly predict subsequent PTG. Moreover, PTG at 12 months post-earthquake could predict fewer subsequent intrusions, numbing and hyper-arousal symptoms but not avoidance symptoms. Conclusion Growth can play a role in reducing long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the implication of a positive perspective in post-trauma circumstance is discussed. PMID:26046912

  17. Community participation of patients 12 months post-stroke in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Aimee; Musenge, Eustasius

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQL) is the main goal of rehabilitation. The ability of the stroke-patient to participate in various situations signifies successful rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to establish the extent of community participation and the barriers and facilitators to the participation for stroke patients after their discharge. Method This study formed part of a larger study focusing on the impact of caregiver education on stroke survivors and their careers. This was a longitudinal study comprising 200 patients with first-time ischaemic stroke. Although the patients were followed up at home at 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-stroke, this paper focuses on the 12-months follow-up participation results. Patient functional ability was measured by using the Barthel Index (BI) and the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), whereas participation was measured by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) checklist. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results Patients experienced severe to complete difficulty when undertaking single and multiple tasks without help 12-months post-discharge. They struggled with the preparation of meals, household work and interpersonal interactions, and they had difficulties with community life and partaking in recreation and leisure activities. Immediate family and societal attitudes were viewed as facilitators to community participation whereas friends, transportation services and social security services were viewed as barriers to community participation. Conclusion The patient-ability to socialise and participate in community issues is currently poor. The identified barriers to community participation need to be addressed in order to improve patient-participation in the community post-stroke.

  18. LONGITUDINAL COHORT METHODS STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. Recent NHEXAS (Maryland) study articl...

  19. The 'Walking for Wellbeing in the West' randomised controlled trial of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation with 12 month follow-up: rationale and study design

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Claire F; Baker, Graham; Wright, Annemarie; Nimmo, Myra A; Ward Thompson, Catharine; Lowry, Ruth; Millington, Catherine; Shaw, Rebecca; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Ogilvie, David; Inchley, Joanna; Foster, Charlie E; Mutrie, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    Background Scotland has a policy aimed at increasing physical activity levels in the population, but evidence on how to achieve this is still developing. Studies that focus on encouraging real world participants to start physical activity in their settings are needed. The Walking for Well-being in the West study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation. The study was multi-disciplinary and based in the community. Walking for Well-being in the West investigated whether Scottish men and women, who were not achieving the current physical activity recommendation, increased and maintained walking behaviour over a 12 month period. This paper outlines the rationale and design of this innovative and pragmatic study. Methods Participants were randomised into two groups: Group 1: Intervention (pedometer-based walking programme combined with a series of physical activity consultations); Group 2: Waiting list control for 12 weeks (followed by minimal pedometer-based intervention). Physical activity (primary outcome) was measured using pedometer step counts (7 day) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). Psychological processes were measured using questionnaires relating to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change, mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and quality of life (Euroqol EQ-5D instrument). Physiological measures included anthropometric and metabolic outcomes. Environmental influences were assessed subjectively (Neighbourhood Quality of Life Survey) and objectively (neighbourhood audit tool and GIS mapping). The qualitative evaluation employed observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. A supplementary study undertook an economic evaluation. Discussion Data analysis is on-going. Walking for Well-being in the West will demonstrate if a pedometer based walking programme, in combination with physical activity consultation

  20. Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... baby visits during this period, once at 9 months and again at 12 months . If you have ...

  1. Course and Determinants of Anosognosia in Alzheimer's Disease: A 12-Month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Reñé-Ramírez, Ramón; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi; Conde-Sala, Josep Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with greater cognitive impairment and more behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study examines the incidence, persistence, and remission rates of anosognosia over a 12-month period, as well as the related risk factors. This was an observational 12-month prospective study. The longitudinal sample comprised 177 patients with mild or moderate AD, and their respective caregivers. Anosognosia was assessed using the Anosognosia Questionnaire in Dementia, and we also evaluated cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), functional disability (Disability Assessment in Dementia), and the presence of BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the variables associated with the incidence, persistence and remission of anosognosia. The prevalence of anosognosia was 39.5% (95% CI = 32.1-47.1) at baseline. At 12 months, incidence was 38.3% (95% CI = 28.6-48.0), persistence was 80.0% (95% CI = 69.9-90.1) and remission was 20.0% (95% CI = 9.9-30.1). The regression model identified lower age, more education, and the presence of delusions as variables associated with incidence, and more education, lower instrumental DAD score, and disinhibition as variables associated with persistence. No variables were associated with remission (n = 14). The presence of anosognosia in AD patients is high. Education and certain neuropsychiatric symptoms may explain a greater and earlier incidence of anosognosia. However, anosognosia also increases with greater cognitive impairment and disease severity. PMID:26890611

  2. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

  3. Longitudinal Study of Sleep Behavior in Normal Infants during the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Ancona, Mario; Caso, Gianni; Di Cosimo, Maria Elisabetta; Mannini, Andrea; Ometto, Mariangela; Pasquini, Anna; Ulliana, Antonella; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To longitudinally examine sleep patterns, habits, and parent-reported sleep problems during the first year of life. Methods: Seven hundred four parent/child pairs participated in a longitudinal cohort study. Structured interview recording general demographic data, feeding habits, intercurrent diseases, family history, sleep habits, and parental evaluation of the infant's sleep carried out at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Results: Nocturnal, daytime, and total sleep duration showed a high inter-individual variability in the first year of life associated with changes in the first 6 months and stability from 6 to 12 months. Bedtime was at around 22:00 and remained stable at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Approximately 20% of the infants had more than 2 awakenings and slept more often in the parent bed. Nearly 10% of the infants were considered as having a problematic sleep by parents and this significantly correlated with nocturnal awakenings and difficulties falling asleep. Conclusions: Sleep patterns change during the first year of life but most sleep variables (i.e., sleep latency and duration) show little variation from 6 to 12 months. Our data provide a context for clinicians to discuss sleep issues with parents and suggest that prevention efforts should focus to the first 3-6 months, since sleep patterns show stability from that time point to 12 months. Citation: Bruni O, Baumgartner E, Sette S, Ancona M, Caso G, Di Cosimo ME, Mannini A, Ometto M, Pasquini A, Ulliana A, Ferri R. Longitudinal study of sleep behavior in normal infants during the first year of life. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1119-1127. PMID:25317093

  4. SIAST Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Gerlinde

    In 1991, the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) initiated a study of factors affecting student persistence, finding that high employment rates in particular sectors were related to higher rates of student attrition. In 1994, a follow-up study was conducted of the career/educational paths of 1,498 respondents from the…

  5. The Majority of the Pre-Antiretroviral Population Who Were Lost to Follow-Up Stopped Their Care in Freetown, Sierra Leone: A 12-Month Prospective Cohort Study Starting with HIV Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J. Daniel; Schlough, Gabriel Warren; Conteh, Sulaiman; Barrie, M. Bailor; Kargbo, Brima; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of the pre-antiretroviral (pre-ART) population calls for more granular depictions of the cascade of HIV care. Methods We studied a prospective cohort of persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection from a single center in Freetown, Sierra Leone, over a 12-month period and then traced those persons who were lost to follow-up (LTFU) during pre-ART care (before ART initiation). ART eligibility was based on a CD4 cell count result of ≤ 350 mm/cells and/or WHO clinical stage 3 or 4. Persons who attended an appointment in the final three months were considered to be retained in care. Adherence to ART was measured using pharmacy refill dates. “Effective HIV care” was defined as completion of the cascade of care at 12-months regardless of whether patients are on ART. Tracing outcomes were obtained for those who were LTFU during pre-ART care. Results 408 persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection were screened, 338 were enrolled, and 255 persons were staged for ART. ART-ineligible persons had higher retention rates than ART-eligible persons (59.6% vs 41.8%, p = 0.03). 77 (22.8%) of 338 persons received effective HIV care. Most attrition (61.9%) occurred with persons during pre-ART care. 123 of 138 persons (89.1%) who were LTFU prior to ART initiation were found, and 91 of those 123 (74.0%) were alive. Of the 74 persons who were alive and described their engagement in care, 40 (54.1%) stopped care. Nearly half (42.5%) of those 40 stopped after assessment of ART-eligibility but before ART initiation. The main limitation of this study was the lack of tracing outcomes for those lost during ART care. Conclusions The majority of the pre-ART LTFU population stopped their care, particularly after ART-eligibility but before ART initiation. Interventions to hasten ART initiation and retain this at-risk group may have significant downstream impact on effective HIV care. PMID:26901765

  6. Acoustic changes in student actors' voices after 12 months of training.

    PubMed

    Walzak, Peta; McCabe, Patricia; Madill, Cate; Sheard, Christine

    2008-05-01

    This study was to evaluate acoustic changes in student actors' voices after 12 months of actor training. The design used was a longitudinal study. Eighteen students enrolled in an Australian tertiary 3-year acting program (nine male and nine female) were assessed at the beginning of their acting course and again 12 months later using a questionnaire, interview, maximum phonation time (MPT), reading, spontaneous speaking, sustained phonation tasks, and a pitch range task. Samples were analyzed for MPT, fundamental frequency across tasks, pitch range for speaking and reading, singing pitch range, noise-to-harmonic ratio, shimmer, and jitter. After training, measures of shimmer significantly increased for both male and female participants. Female participants' pitch range significantly increased after training, with a significantly lower mean frequency for their lowest pitch. The finding of limited or negative changes for some measures indicate that further investigation is required into the long-term effects of actor voice training and which parameters of voicing are most targeted and valued in training. Particular investigation into the relationship between training targets and outcomes could more reliably inform acting programs about changes in teaching methodologies. Further research into the relationship between specific training techniques, physiological changes, and vocal changes may also provide information on implementing more evidence-based training methods. PMID:17512170

  7. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  8. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS): Rationale and design of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with 12 month follow up of self- versus clinician-administered CBT for moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Keefer, Laurie; Jaccard, James; Firth, Rebecca; Brenner, Darren; Bratten, Jason; Dunlap, Laura J.; Byroads, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, oftentimes disabling, gastrointestinal disorder whose full range of symptoms has no satisfactory medical or dietary treatment. One of the few empirically validated treatments includes a specific psychological therapy called cognitive behavior therapy which, if available, is typically administered over several months by trained practitioners in tertiary care settings. There is an urgent need to develop more efficient versions of CBT that require minimal professional assistance but retain the efficacy profile of clinic based CBT. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether a self-administered version of CBT is, at least as efficacious as standard CBT and more efficacious than an attention control in reducing core GI symptoms of IBS and its burden (e.g. distress, quality of life impairment, etc) in moderately to severely affected IBS patients. Additional goals are to assess, at quarterly intervals, the durability of treatment response over a 12 month period; to identify clinically useful patient characteristics associated with outcome as a way of gaining an understanding of subgroups of participants for whom CBT is most beneficial; to identify theory-based change mechanisms (active ingredients) that explain how and why CBT works; and evaluate the economic costs and benefits of CBT. Between August 2010 when IBSOS began recruiting subjects and February 2012, the IBSOS randomized 171 of 480 patients. Findings have the potential to improve the health of IBS patients, reduce its social and economic costs, conserve scarce health care resources, and inform evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:22846389

  9. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS): rationale and design of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with 12 month follow up of self- versus clinician-administered CBT for moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Jeffrey M; Keefer, Laurie; Jaccard, James; Firth, Rebecca; Brenner, Darren; Bratten, Jason; Dunlap, Laura J; Ma, Changxing; Byroads, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, oftentimes disabling, gastrointestinal disorder whose full range of symptoms has no satisfactory medical or dietary treatment. One of the few empirically validated treatments includes a specific psychological therapy called cognitive behavior therapy which, if available, is typically administered over several months by trained practitioners in tertiary care settings. There is an urgent need to develop more efficient versions of CBT that require minimal professional assistance but retain the efficacy profile of clinic based CBT. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether a self-administered version of CBT is, at least as efficacious as standard CBT and more efficacious than an attention control in reducing core GI symptoms of IBS and its burden (e.g. distress, quality of life impairment, etc.) in moderately to severely affected IBS patients. Additional goals are to assess, at quarterly intervals, the durability of treatment response over a 12 month period; to identify clinically useful patient characteristics associated with outcome as a way of gaining an understanding of subgroups of participants for whom CBT is most beneficial; to identify theory-based change mechanisms (active ingredients) that explain how and why CBT works; and evaluate the economic costs and benefits of CBT. Between August 2010 when IBSOS began recruiting subjects and February 2012, the IBSOS randomized 171 of 480 patients. Findings have the potential to improve the health of IBS patients, reduce its social and economic costs, conserve scarce health care resources, and inform evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:22846389

  10. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at 3 months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at 3 months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing. PMID:23216358

  11. Maternal prenatal felt security and infant health at birth interact to predict infant fussing and crying at 12 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Natsumi; Gagné, Faby M; Séguin, Louise; Kramer, Michael S; McNamara, Helen; Platt, Robert W; Goulet, Lise; Meaney, Michael J; Lydon, John E

    2015-08-01

    Infants born with medical problems are at risk for less optimal developmental outcomes. This may be, in part, because neonatal medical problems are associated with maternal distress, which may adversely impact infants. However, the reserve capacity model suggests that an individual's bank of psychosocial resources buffers the adverse effects of later-encountered stressors. This prospective longitudinal study examined whether preexisting maternal psychosocial resources, conceptualized as felt security in close relationships, moderate the association between neonatal medical problems and infant fussing and crying 12 months postpartum. Maternal felt security was measured by assessing its indicators in 5,092 pregnant women. At birth, infants were classified as healthy or having a medical problem. At 12 months, experience sampling was used to assess daily maternal reports of fussing and crying in 135 mothers of infants who were healthy or had medical problems at birth. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that attachment, relationship quality, self-esteem, and social support can be conceptualized as indicators of a single felt security factor. Multiple regression analyses revealed that prenatal maternal felt security interacts with infant health at birth to predict fussing and crying at 12 months. Among infants born with medical problems, higher felt security predicted decreased fussing and crying. Maternal felt security assessed before birth dampens the association between neonatal medical problems and subsequent infant behavior. This supports the hypothesis that psychosocial resources in reserve can be called upon in the face of a stressor to reduce its adverse effects on the self or others. PMID:25528180

  12. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kanellakis, Spyridon; Moschonis, George; Tenta, Roxane; Schaafsma, Anne; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Lyritis, George; Manios, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 μg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 μg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups. PMID:22392526

  13. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... Much Should My Baby Eat? By about 8 months old, most babies are pros at handling the ...

  14. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  15. Feasibility, acceptability and outcomes at a 12-month follow-up of a novel community-based intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk: mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Ryan, Vicky; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and design Lifestyle interventions can prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In a mixed methods pilot study, we aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and outcomes at a 12-month follow-up of a behavioural intervention for adults at risk of T2D. Participants Adults aged 45–65 years with a Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) ≥11. Setting The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority that ranks in the 10 most socioeconomically deprived in England. Intervention A 10-week supported programme to promote increased physical activity (PA), healthy eating and weight loss was delivered by fitness trainers as twice-weekly group PA or cookery sessions, each followed by behavioural counselling with support to 12 months. Outcome measures We assessed feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, and change in behavioural and health-related outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Results From 367 registers of interest, 218 participants were recruited to the programme with baseline mean (SD): age 53.6 (6) years, FINDRISC 13.9 (3.1), body mass index 33.5 (5.9) kg/m2, waist circumference 108.1 (13.7) cm, PA levels (self-report): daily total 49.1 (5.9) metabolic-equivalent (MET) h/day. Follow-up at 12 months was completed by 134 (61%) participants, with an estimated mean (95% CI) change from baseline in weight −5.7 (−7.8 to −2.8); −2.8 (−3.8 to −1.9) kg, waist circumference −7.2 (−9.2 to −5.2); −6.0 (−7.1 to −5.0) cm, and PA level 7.9 (5.8 to 10.1); 6.7 (5.2 to 8.2) MET h/day equivalent, for men and women, respectively (from covariance pattern mixed models). Participants reported an enjoyable, sociable and supportive intervention experience. Conclusions Participants’ views indicated a high level of intervention acceptability. High retention and positive outcomes at 12 months provide encouraging indications of the feasibility and potential effectiveness

  16. In utero programming alters adult response to chronic mild stress: part 3 of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stephanie L; Mileva, Guergana; Huta, Veronika; Bielajew, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to stress before birth may lay the foundation for the development of sensitivities or protection from psychiatric disorders while later stress exposure may trigger either their expression or suppression. This report, part three of a longitudinal study conducted in our laboratory, aimed to examine the interaction between early and adult stress and their effects on measures of anxiety and depression. In parts one and two, we reported the effects of gestational stress (GS) in Long Evans rat dams and their juvenile and young adult offspring. In this third and final installment, we evaluated the effects of GS and chronic mild stress (CMS) in the adult female offspring at 6 month and 12 month time-points. The two by two design included a combination of GS and CMS and the appropriate control groups. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, main effects of GS on corticosterone level at the 12 month time-point was found while main effects of CMS were seen in body weight, sucrose preference, and corticosterone, and significant interactions between group at the 6 and 12 month time-points. The GS group had the lowest sucrose preference during CMS at 6 months supporting a cumulative effect of early and later life stress. The GS/CMS group showed lower corticosterone at 12 months than the GS/noCMS group indicating a possible mismatch between prenatal programming and later life stress. These results highlight the importance of early life factors in exerting potentially protective effects in models involving later life stress. PMID:25261693

  17. Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Zizzari, Philippe; Hage, Mirella; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Adam, Clovis; Viengchareun, Say; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Geoffroy, Valérie; Lombès, Marc; Tolle, Virginie; Guillou, Anne; Karhu, Auli; Kappeler, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model. PMID:27621108

  18. Safety for Your Child: 6 to 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Safety for Your Child: 6 to 12 Months Page Content Article Body ​ Did you know that ... may climb before walking, or walk with support months before you expect. Your child will grasp at ...

  19. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  20. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; P<0.0001) throughout the year. Correlation with demographic variables (age, sex) were found. The total incidence of burnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  1. The Tasmanian Insulin-treated Diabetes Register. Inception and progress in the first 12 months.

    PubMed

    King, H; Senator, G; Zimmet, P; Harris, A

    1986-04-14

    A Statewide register of insulin-treated diabetic patients has been established in Tasmania. The register is the first of its kind in Australasia. Insulin treatment was chosen as the criterion for admission to the register because it was a suitably "hard" end-point, and because the completeness of the register could be validated easily by insulin prescription statistics. Both subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (who happened to be treated with insulin as of the prevalence date, May l, 1984) are eligible for registration in the prevalent population. Furthermore, no age restrictions have been placed upon entry. It is to be hoped that this all-inclusive policy will assist in the development of an epidemiological definition of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Access to cases has been by hospital records, general practitioners, lay bodies and general publicity. Of over 600 diabetic subjects who were contacted during the first 12 months of the study (approximately one-half of the estimated prevalent population), only three declined to join the register. Once fully established and validated, the register will be used to test aetiological hypotheses in addition to providing descriptive cross-sectional information about diabetes in Tasmania. It is intended that a longitudinal study of insulin-treated diabetes will follow once the cross-sectional information is complete. PMID:3959970

  2. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  3. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses from a 4-month intradose escalation and its subsequent 12-month dose titration studies for a human monoclonal anti-FGF23 antibody (KRN23) in adults with X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Peyret, Thomas; Gosselin, Nathalie H; Marier, J F; Imel, Erik A; Carpenter, Thomas O

    2016-04-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is an inherited metabolic bone disease with abnormally elevated serum FGF23 resulting in low renal maximum threshold for phosphate reabsorption, low serum phosphate (Pi) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with subsequent development of short stature and skeletal deformities. KRN23 is a novel human anti-FGF23 antibody for the treatment of XLH. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) models of KRN23 were assessed following subcutaneous dosing every 28 days over an initial 4-month dose escalation (0.05-0.6 mg/kg) and a subsequent 12-month titration period (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) in XLH adults. The PK of KRN23 was described by a 1-compartmental model with first-order absorption and elimination at doses ≥0.1 mg/kg. The elimination half-life was 17.8 days. Covariates did not affect KRN23 PK. Mean peak serum Pi was attained 7-10 days after dosing and progressively increased following each of the initial 4 doses with comparable peak values attained following the sixth through tenth doses with a slight decrease thereafter. A PK-PD model with a maximum effect (Emax ) and a time-varying effective concentration to reach 50% of Emax (EC50,t ) described data adequately. Typical Emax was 1.5 mg/dL. Typical EC50,t was 1780 ng/mL and 5999 ng/mL after first and last dose, respectively. PMID:26247790

  4. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  5. Walking and Eating Behavior of Toddlers at 12 Months Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Naoko; Akimoto, Yuko; Hirose, Toshiya; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko; Minami, Tetsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Locomotive and eating behavior of 52 toddlers was observed at 12 months old in a nursery school and investigated in relation to the acquisition of independent walking. The toddlers who acquired walking ate more by themselves using the hands than the toddlers who did not start walking. This suggested that acquisition of walking was associated with…

  6. Effect of 12-month rehabilitation with low loading program on chronic respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Dobashi, Kunio; Uga, Daisuke; Kato, Daigo; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Fueki, Makoto; Makino, Sohei

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 12-month rehabilitation with low loading program on chronic respiratory disease. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients with chronic respiratory disease participated in this study, in which the effect of long-term rehabilitation for 12 months was assessed. Nine patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, two had asthma, and one had interstitial pneumonia. In all patients, symptoms, lower-extremity strength, walking distance, activities of daily living, and quality of life were investigated to examine the effect of respiratory rehabilitation. [Results] After 12 months, the isometric knee extension strength and weight-bearing index both showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggested that improvement in lower-limb muscle strength can be achieved through long-term intervention, and indicated the validity of repetitive standing and walking exercises. PMID:27134407

  7. Changes over 12 months in eye glances during secondary task engagement among novice drivers.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G; Ehsani, Johnathon; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    During their first year of driving, crash rates among novice drivers are very high but decline rapidly. However, it is not clear what skills or knowledge they are acquiring in this period. Secondary task engagement while driving is a contributing factor to many traffic collisions and some of the elevated crash risk among novices could be explained by greater prevalence or longer periods of eyes off the road while engaging in these non-driving tasks. The current study looked at the eye glances of novice teen drivers engaging in secondary tasks on a test track at 0 and 12 months of licensure and compared their performance with their parents. Novices improved from 0 to 12 months on their longest single glance off the forward roadway and total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, but parents remained stable. Compared with their parents, the longest single glance off the forward roadway was longer for novices at 0 months, but by 12 months there was no difference between the groups. However, for total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, novices performed the same as their parents at 0 months and actually had shorter times at 12 months. These findings could reflect the combined development of driving skills over 12 months and the relative experience that modern teenagers have with portable electronic devices. The results suggest that novice drivers are particularly poor at engaging with secondary tasks while driving. PMID:27177392

  8. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  9. The evolution of pure alexia: a longitudinal study of recovery.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, M; Black, S E; Bub, D

    1990-10-01

    This case report documents the partial recovery, over a 12-month period, of pure alexia in an adult female following a left occipital infarction. Measures of speed and accuracy were obtained on an oral reading and a lexical decision task immediately postonset and then on 10 subsequent occasions. Explicit letter-by-letter reading was observed only during the first week poststroke but a significant effect of word length was seen in all testing sessions. Reading accuracy was relatively good at all stages and reading latency showed a remarkable decrease over time but did not reach normal reading rates. The inability to use higher-order orthographic knowledge, as manifest in the absence of a word superiority effect, was still noted at one year postonset. We therefore concluded that the change in behavior was attributable to increased proficiency in the use of the adaptive letter-by-letter procedure rather than to the resolution of the underlying deficit. It is suggested that longitudinal neurobehavioral studies add to our understanding of the alexic deficit and provide insight into the recovery process. PMID:2285860

  10. Postnatal Care Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Women Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months prior to the Study in Debre Markos Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Limenih, Miteku Andualem; Endale, Zerfu Mulaw; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health through proper postnatal care services under the care of skilled health personnel is the key strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, there were limited evidences on utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 588 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with postnatal care utilization. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be 33.5%. Awareness about maternal complication (AOR: 2.72, 95% CI (1.71, 4.34)), place of delivery of last child (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: (1.01, 2.79)), outcome of birth (AOR: 2.71, 95% CI (1.19, 6.19)), delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI (1.86, 12.54)), and delivery complication that occurred during birth (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI (1.56, 4.28)) were factors associated with postnatal care service utilization. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be low. Increasing awareness about postnatal care, preventing maternal and neonatal complication, and scheduling mothers based on the national postnatal care follow-up protocol would increase postnatal care service utilization. PMID:27433481

  11. Postnatal Care Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Women Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months prior to the Study in Debre Markos Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Limenih, Miteku Andualem; Endale, Zerfu Mulaw; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health through proper postnatal care services under the care of skilled health personnel is the key strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, there were limited evidences on utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 588 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with postnatal care utilization. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be 33.5%. Awareness about maternal complication (AOR: 2.72, 95% CI (1.71, 4.34)), place of delivery of last child (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: (1.01, 2.79)), outcome of birth (AOR: 2.71, 95% CI (1.19, 6.19)), delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI (1.86, 12.54)), and delivery complication that occurred during birth (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI (1.56, 4.28)) were factors associated with postnatal care service utilization. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be low. Increasing awareness about postnatal care, preventing maternal and neonatal complication, and scheduling mothers based on the national postnatal care follow-up protocol would increase postnatal care service utilization. PMID:27433481

  12. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. PMID:24004246

  13. Reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction after 12-month follow-up in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Ali; Khaledi, Arsalan; Hasanzadeh, Katayoun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect echocardiographic abnormality in the beginning and after 12-month follow-up in the hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 60 hemodialysis patients older than 18 years and the dialysis duration longer than three months were enrolled. At the beginning of the study, echocardiography was done and after 12 months was repeated in all of the patients by the same cardiologist. At the end of the study, data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19). Results: From the total of cases 37 were male and 23 female. At the beginning of the study, mitral regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation and aortic insufficiency were found in 54, 47 and 11 patients respectively. After 12 months left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased significantly, however there was no significant difference between other echocardiographic findings at the beginning and after 12 months. Conclusion: Decrease in LVEF over time in hemodialysis patients may be due to negative effect of uremia on cardiac function, so it seems that periodical cardiac evaluation of these patients is essential and beneficial. PMID:27069961

  14. Speech Production in 12-Month-Old Children with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare speech production at 12 months of age for children with hearing loss (HL) who were identified and received intervention before 6 months of age with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: The speech production of 10 children with NH was compared with that of 10 children with HL whose…

  15. Infants Show a Facilitation Effect for Native Language Phonetic Perception between 6 and 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Stevens, Erica; Hayashi, Akiko; Deguchi, Toshisada; Kiritani, Shigeru; Iverson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of developmental change in phonetic perception are critical to theory development. Many previous studies document a decline in nonnative phonetic perception between 6 and 12 months of age. However, much less experimental attention has been paid to developmental change in native-language phonetic perception over the same time period. We…

  16. Atypical Object Exploration at 12 Months of Age Is Associated with Autism in a Prospective Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Macari, Suzanne; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Thompson, Meagan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined object exploration behavior in 66 12-month-old infants, of whom nine were subsequently diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Previous investigations differ on when the repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism are first present in early development. A task was developed that afforded specific opportunities…

  17. 12-Month-Olds' Phonotactic Knowledge Guides Their Word-Object Mappings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether 12-month-olds will accept words that differ phonologically and phonetically from their native language as object labels in an associative learning task. Sixty infants were presented with sets of English word-object (N = 30), Japanese word-object (N = 15), or Czech word-object (N = 15) pairings until they habituated.…

  18. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of cranial growth from 6 to 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Marcotty, P; Böhm, H; Linz, C; Kochel, J; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, A; Schweitzer, T

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to generate three-dimensional data of the physiological growth of the infant's cranium in the significant growth phase from 6 to 12 months of age. In a longitudinal observational study non-invasive 3D data using an optical surface scanner were generated of the entire head of 52 Caucasian infants (27 females and 25 males) between the ages of 6 (T1) and 12 (T2) months. The circumference of the head increased by 6.51 per cent (from 43.50 to 46.33cm). Analysis of width and length showed that the head grows 2.84 per cent more in length, resulting in a decrease in the cranial index of 2.52 per cent (from 83.87 to 81.76 per cent). The highest increment observed was in the total volume of the cranium, with an increase of 18.76 per cent (from 1229.01 to 1459.57cm(3)). Comparison of the left and right sides of the head by measuring the diagonal symmetry difference showed a difference of only 0.37cm. Overall, the symmetry-related parameters showed an almost symmetric development of the cranium in infants. The findings should provide valuable information on physiological growth and development of the infant's cranium. Therefore the high growth rate of the cranium in the first year of life suggests that this period is a critical period in which the disruption of developmental processes may have long-lasting effects on the morphology of the cranium with a prognostically unfavourable effect of the further growth of the viscerocranium. PMID:25257925

  20. Metacognitive functioning predicts positive and negative symptoms over 12 months in first episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew I; Macbeth, Angus; Schwannauer, Matthias; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are a major source of impairment and distress but both pharmacological and psychological treatment options provide only modest benefit. Developing more effective psychological treatments for negative symptoms will require a more sophisticated understanding of the psychological processes that are implicated in their development and maintenance. We extended previous work by demonstrating that metacognitive functioning is related to negative symptom expression across the first 12 months of first episode psychosis (FEP). Previous studies in this area have either been cross-sectional or have used much older participants with long-standing symptoms. In this study, forty-five FEP participants were assessed three times over 12 months and provided data on PANSS rated symptoms, premorbid adjustment, metacognitive functioning, and DUP. Step-wise linear regression showed that adding metacognition scores to known predictors of negative symptoms (baseline symptom severity, gender, DUP, and premorbid academic and social adjustment) accounted for 62% of the variance in PANSS negative symptom scores at six months and 38% at 12 months. The same predictors also explained 47% of the variance in positive symptoms at both six and 12 months. However, exploration of the simple correlations between PANSS symptom scores and metacognition suggests a stronger univariate relationship between metacognition and negative symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that problems with mental state processing may be important determinants of negative symptom expression from the very early stages of psychosis. These results provide further evidence that metacognitive functioning is a potentially relevant target for psychological interventions. PMID:24725651

  1. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. PMID:27429050

  2. A prospective longitudinal study of voice characteristics and health-related quality of life outcomes following laryngeal cancer treatment with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Therese; Bergström, Liza; Ward, Elizabeth; Finizia, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Background To investigate potential changes in perceptual, acoustic and patient-reported outcomes over 12 months for laryngeal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Material and methods A total of 40 patients with Tis-T3 laryngeal cancer treated with curative intent by radiotherapy were included in this prospective longitudinal descriptive study. Patients were followed pre-radiotherapy, one month, six months and 12 months post-radiotherapy, where voice recordings and patient-reported outcome instruments (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core30, Head and Neck35, Swedish Self-Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer) were completed at each appointment. Perceptual analysis, using the Grade-Roughness-Breathiness-Asthenia-Strain scale and vocal fry parameters, and acoustic measures including harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), jitter, shimmer and mean spoken fundamental frequency (MSFF) were produced from voice recordings. Results All patients presented with dysphonic voices pre-radiotherapy, where 95% demonstrated some degree of vocal roughness. This variable improved significantly immediately post-radiotherapy, however, then deteriorated again between six and 12 months. Vocal fry also increased significantly at 12 months. Acoustic measures were abnormal pre- and post-treatment with no significant change noted except for MSFF, which lowered significantly by 12 months. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) deteriorated post-radiotherapy but returned to pretreatment levels by 12 months. Conclusion By 12 months, most perceptual, acoustic, patient-reported voice and HRQL outcomes for laryngeal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy had showed no significant improvements compared to pretreatment function. Further studies are required to investigate potential benefits of voice rehabilitation following radiotherapy. PMID:27056401

  3. Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses for amputees: Limb compensation in a 12-month ovine model.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Trevor J; Beck, J Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2011-10-13

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials, the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous osseointegrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There was no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, the data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  4. Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses for Amputees: Limb Compensation in a 12-Month Ovine model

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Trevor J.; Beck, J. Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D.; Bachus, Kent N.

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials; the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous integrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There were no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, there data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  5. ECEAP 1991 Longitudinal Study and Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Community Development, Olympia.

    Washington State's Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP) provides a comprehensive, family-focused preschool program designed to help low-income children succeed in the public school system and help families support and participate in their children's success. Findings from an ongoing longitudinal study of the ECEAP program…

  6. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  7. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  8. A longitudinal study of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2009-07-01

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was used to amplify a fragment of the internal transcriber spacer region of the rRNA gene. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence was 24% (239/990) with a lower prevalence in pre-weaned calves (less than 8 weeks of age; 11.7%) and heifers (13-24 months of age) than post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age; 44.4%). Over the course of 24 months, the cumulative prevalence of E. bieneusi was 100% since all 30 calves shed spores at some time during the study. One or more of three genotypes of E. bieneusi, J, I, and BEB4, were detected in all 30 animals. Genotype I was detected in all 30 cattle between 1 week and 22 months of age with some cattle remaining infected as long as 17 months. At 4 months of age, 28 cattle were infected with genotype I. Genotype BEB4 was detected briefly in seven cattle, most between 15 and 20 months of age. Genotype J was detected in eight cattle, all between 16 and 24 months of age. This longitudinal study strongly supports the findings of point prevalence, multiple farm studies in which genotypes J, I, and BEB 4 were found. These genotypes appear to be cattle specific and have not been found in humans or other animals. PMID:19259701

  9. A comparative study of diode laser and plasmakinetic in transurethral enucleation of the prostate for treating large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized clinical trial with 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Hong, Zhe; Li, Chao; Bian, Cuidong; Huang, Shengsong; Wu, Denglong

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of diode laser enucleation of the prostate (DiLEP) with plasmakinetic enucleation of the prostate (PKEP) for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with large prostate (volume > 80 ml). From January 2013 to June 2014, 80 consecutive patients were randomized treated with DiLEP (n = 40) or PKEP (n = 40). Perioperative and postoperative outcome data were assessed during a 1-year follow-up. There were no significant preoperative differences between the two surgical groups. The mean prostate volumes in the DiLEP and PKEP groups were 98.6 and 93.3 ml, respectively. DiLEP was equivalent to PKEP in improvement in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life scores, and maximum flow rate. Compared with PKEP, patients treated with DiLEP showed a lower risk of blood loss (P < 0.01), shorter bladder irrigation and catheterization times (P < 0.01), as well as shorter hospital stays (P < 0.01). Moreover, the DiLEP group was significantly superior to bipolar plasmakinetic group in the irritative symptoms. However, the operation time of the DiLEP group was longer than that of PKEP group (P = 0.02). Both DiLEP and PKEP are safe and effective methods for the treatment of BPH in large prostates (volume > 80 ml). Compared with PKEP, DiLEP provides a decreased risk of hemorrhage, reduced bladder irrigation, and catheterization times, as well as shorter hospital stays. PMID:26822403

  10. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  11. Reactivity in Rapidly Collected Hygiene and Toilet Spot Check Measurements: A Cautionary Note for Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Benjamin F.; Khush, Ranjiv S.; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford Jr., John M.

    2015-01-01

    Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. PMID:25385856

  12. The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA).

    PubMed

    Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan A; Griffith, Lauren E; Oremus, Mark; Patterson, Christopher; Tuokko, Holly; Penning, Margaret; Balion, Cynthia M; Hogan, David; Wister, Andrew; Payette, Hélène; Shannon, Harry; Brazil, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTCanadians are living longer, and older persons are making up a larger share of the population (14% in 2006, projected to rise to 20% by 2021). The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a national longitudinal study of adult development and aging that will recruit 50,000 Canadians aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. All participants will provide a common set of information concerning many aspects of health and aging, and 30,000 will undergo an additional in-depth examination coupled with the donation of biological specimens (blood and urine). The CLSA will become a rich data source for the study of the complex interrelationship among the biological, physical, psychosocial, and societal factors that affect healthy aging. PMID:19860977

  13. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Kirk, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG) studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2). 35 (38%) patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8%) patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 22.5 (11.3–37.0). Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician's recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD) percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32). Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low. PMID:27445563

  14. Aging in Rett syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Halbach, N S J; Smeets, E E J; Steinbusch, C; Maaskant, M A; van Waardenburg, D; Curfs, L M G

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the aging process of people with specific syndromes, like Rett syndrome (RTT). Recognition of the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the adult RTT is needed in order to improve future management of the RTT girl and counseling of parents. In association with the Dutch RTT parent association, a 5-year longitudinal study was carried out. The study population consisted of 53 adult women with a clinical diagnosis of RTT. Postal questionnaires were sent, including demographic features, skills, physical and psychiatric morbidity. At the time of the second measurement seven women had died. In 2012, 80% of the questionnaires (37/46) were returned. Mean age of the women was 31.4 years. Molecular confirmation was possible for 83% of the women for whom analyses were carried out. The adult RTT woman has a more or less stable condition. The general disorder profile is that of a slow on-going deterioration of gross motor functioning in contrast to a better preserved cognitive functioning, less autonomic and epileptic features and good general health. This is the first longitudinal cohort study about aging in RTT. Continuing longitudinal studies are needed to gain more insight into the aging process in RTT. PMID:23167724

  15. Infant neurological examination from 3 to 12 months: predictive value of the single items.

    PubMed

    Pizzardi, A; Romeo, D M M; Cioni, M; Romeo, M G; Guzzetta, A

    2008-12-01

    The prognostic value of the single items of a standardised neurological examination, the Hammersmith Infant Neurologic Examination (HINE), was explored longitudinally in 658 infants at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-term age. ROC curves were built based on the presence/absence of cerebral palsy at 2 years of age. Global HINE scores showed very high prediction (ROC curve areas above 0.9) at all ages. The items with the highest predictive value were always movement quality and quantity. In the first semester, among the most predictive items were those assessing tone, while beyond that time they were reflexes and reactions. Our results show that the high predictive value of the HINE across the first year of life is granted by the successful combination of different groups of items for each age-period. This should be recognised in clinical practice when assessing the significance of individual neurological profiles. PMID:19568999

  16. Predictors of post-partum weight retention in a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julia Elizabeth; Hure, Alexis Jayne; Macdonald-Wicks, Lesley; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Post-partum weight retention (WR) occurs in 60-80% of women with some retaining ≥10 kg with contributing factors reported as pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding. A longitudinal study of pregnancy, with 12-month post-partum follow-up was conducted to determine factors associated with WR. Pregnant women (n = 152) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Pre-pregnancy weight was self-reported; weight was measured four times during pregnancy (for GWG) and in the first 12 months post-partum. Infant feeding data were obtained via questionnaires. Breastfeeding was categorised as exclusive, predominant, complementary or not breastfeeding. Linear mixed models tested the predictors of WR, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with pre-pregnancy weight, 68% of women retained weight at 12 months, median (interquartile range) [4.5 kg (2.1-8.9)]. After adjustment, GWG was positively associated with WR (P < 0.01), but pre-pregnancy weight did not predict WR. For each additional week of any breastfeeding, 0.04 kg less weight was retained. Compared with women who retained weight, those women who did retain had higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding at three months (P < 0.05), but the number of weeks of exclusive breastfeeding failed to predict WR for all women. WR following childbirth is common and associated with GWG, while the number of weeks of 'any' breastfeeding contributed to post-partum weight loss. Whether these factors are modifiable strategies to optimise the weight status of women at this life stage requires further research. PMID:22974518

  17. Impact of natalizumab on patient-reported outcomes in multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec and Elan Pharmaceuticals) significantly reduces the relapse rate and disability progression, and improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We investigated the impact of natalizumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a real-world setting. Methods PRO data were collected from patients enrolled in a longitudinal real-world study using validated measures administered as surveys before the patients initiated natalizumab treatment and after the 3rd, 6th, and 12th monthly infusion. HRQoL, ability to carry out daily activities, disability level, and impact on cognitive functioning and fatigue were assessed. Results A total of 333 patients completed 12 months of assessments. After 12 months of natalizumab treatment, 69% to 88% of patients reported a positive outcome (either an improvement or no further decline) in all PRO measures assessed. Significant improvements in general and disease-specific HRQoL were observed after three infusions, both with physical (p < .01) and psychological (p < .001) measures, and were sustained after 12 infusions (all p < .001). The impact of multiple sclerosis on cognitive functioning and fatigue was significantly reduced (both p < .001 after 3 and 12 infusions). Conclusions PRO measures were improved with natalizumab in a real-world setting. The improvements were observed as early as after 3 months and sustained over a 12-month period. The improvements in PROs show that, in clinical practice, the clinical benefits of natalizumab are translated into patient-reported benefits. PMID:23270428

  18. Randomized clinical trial of four adhesion strategies in cervical lesions: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Eloisa Andrade; Tay, Lidia Yileng; Kose, Carlos; Mena-Serrano, Alexandra; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6- and 12-month clinical performance of four adhesion strategies from the same manufacturer (Kerr) in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) using two evaluation criteria. Thirty-five patients, with at least four NCCLs each, participated in this study. After samplesize calculation, 180 restorations were assigned to one of the following groups: OFL (Optibond FL), OSP (Optibond Solo Plus), XTR (Optibond XTR), and AIO (Optibond All-In-One). The composite resin Filtek Supreme Ultra (3M ESPE) was placed incrementally. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months, and after 12 months, using both the FDI and the USPHS-modified criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with Friedman repeated measures, ANOVA by rank, and the McNemar test for significance in each pair (α=0.05). Six restorations (2 for OFL, 1 for OSP, 2 for XTR, and 1 for AIO) were lost at 12 months (P>0.05 for both evaluation criteria). Marginal staining was observed in seven restorations using the FDI criteria (P>0.05) and three restorations using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). Eight restorations (2 for OSP, 3 for XTR, and 3 for AIO) were classified as Bravo for marginal adaptation using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). However, 62 restorations (14 for OFL, 12 for OSP, 15 for XTR, and 21 for AIO) were classified as Bravo using the FDI criteria (P>0.05). The four adhesion strategies showed similar clinical retention at 6 and 12 months. The FDI evaluation criteria tend to be more sensitive than the USPHS-modified criteria. PMID:25625130

  19. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Cibella, Fabio; Le-Houezec, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy) that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old) making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours) were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice) to more advanced devices (MODs) was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month) as well as a trend in decreasing the e-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month). Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates. PMID:25811767

  20. Case Study: Longitudinal Treatment of Adolescents with Depression and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szigethy, Eva; Carpenter, Johanna; Baum, Emily; Kenney, Elyse; Baptista-Neto, Lourival; Beardslee, William R.; DeMaso, David Ray

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess longitudinal maintenance of improvements in depression, anxiety, global functioning, and physical health perception in 11 adolescents at 6 and 12 months following completion of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy. Method: Standardized instruments assessed follow-up changes in depression, anxiety, physical health, and…

  1. Clinical performance of Class II adhesive restorations in pulpectomized primary molars: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    Zulfikaroglu, Burcu Togay; Atac, Atila Stephan; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to present the 12-month results of a prospective, randomized study evaluating the clinical and radiographic success rates of Class II adhesive restorations in pulpectomized primary molars. A total of 75 restorations were placed over root canal-treated primary molars, filled with a calcium hydroxide paste. The restorative systems tested were: (1) group 1: amalgam (negative control); (2) group 2: a hybrid resin composite (TPH, Dentsply) with prior acid conditioning and bonding with an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Prime&Bond NT, Dentsply); (3) group 3: a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract, Dentsply) bonded with Prime&Bond NT; (4) group 4: Dyract with prior nonrinse conditioner (NRC) treatment and bonding with Prime&Bond NT; and (5) group 5: a polyacid-modified resin composite (F2000) in conjunction with a self-etch adhesive (Prompt-L-Pop, 3M/ESPE). The restorations were evaluated clinically using the modified USPHS/Ryge criteria at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months. Radiographic evaluations were made in accordance with predetermined criteria. During the evaluation period, 12 teeth (group1=4, group2=1, group3=4, group4=3, and group5=2) were extracted due to radiographic evidence of failure. There was no difference between groups regarding the clinical evaluation criteria (P>.05) except marginal discoloration at 9 and 12 months (P<.05). The overall success rate at 12 months was 81% (group 1=73%, group 2=93%, group 3=73%, group 4=80%, and group 5=87%). Teeth restored with the resin composite+total-etch/bonding (group 2), followed by those with F2000+self-etch adhesive (group 5) exhibited the highest clinical and radiographic success rates. Radiographic failures observed beneath failed restorations were strongly suggestive of coronal microleakage. PMID:18505646

  2. 6 Minute Walk Test in Duchenne MD Patients with Different Mutations: 12 Month Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S.; Sormani, Maria Pia; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Fanelli, Lavinia; Berardinelli, Angela; Torrente, Yvan; D'Amico, Adele; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; D'Ambrosio, Paola; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Bonfiglio, Serena; Scalise, Roberta; De Sanctis, Roberto; Rolle, Enrica; Bianco, Flaviana; Van der Haawue, Marlene; Magri, Francesca; Palermo, Concetta; Rossi, Francesca; Donati, Maria Alice; Alfonsi, Chiara; Sacchini, Michele; Arnoldi, Maria Teresa; Baranello, Giovanni; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Previtali, Stefano C.; Napolitano, Sara; Bruno, Claudio; Politano, Luisa; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bertini, Enrico; Morandi, Lucia; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Goemans, Nathalie; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) over a 12 month period. Methods The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations) and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons. Results At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13). The 12 month changes ranged between −325 and 175 (mean −10.8 meters, SD 69.2). Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients. PMID:24421885

  3. Depression 12-months after coronary artery bypass graft is predicted by cortisol slope over the day.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lydia; Kidd, Tara; Ronaldson, Amy; Leigh, Elizabeth; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Alterations in the diurnal profile of cortisol have been associated with depressed mood in patients with coronary heart disease. The relationship between cortisol output and depressed mood has not been investigated prospectively in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients before. We aimed to study the relationship between cortisol measured pre- and post-operatively and depression symptoms measured 12 months after CABG surgery. We analysed data from 171 patients awaiting first-time, elective CABG surgery from the pre-assessment clinic at St. George's Hospital, London. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression symptoms and saliva samples were collected to measure diurnal cortisol. Baseline assessments of depression and cortisol were obtained an average 29days before surgery, short-term follow-up of cortisol occurred 60days after surgery and long-term follow-up of depression was assessed 378days after surgery. Baseline cortisol slope was not associated with depression at 12-month follow-up. However, a steeper cortisol slope measured 60days after surgery predicted reduced odds of depression (BDI≥10) 12 months after surgery (odds ratio 0.661, 95% confidence interval 0.437-0.998, p=0.049) after controlling for covariates. These findings suggest interventions aimed at improving adaptation in the early recovery period may have long-term benefits in this patient group. PMID:27281345

  4. Digital subtraction radiography evaluation of longitudinal bone density changes around immediate loading implants: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, LS; da Cunha, HA; Leles, CR; Mendonça, EF

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal quantitative changes in bone density around different implant loading protocols and implant surfaces measured by digital subtraction radiography (DSR). Methods 12 patients received bilateral homologous standard and TiUnite® (Nobel Biocare, Kloten, Switzerland) single-tooth implants under 2 implant—loading protocols: immediate loading (8 patients, 16 implants, 12 maxillary) and conventional loading (4 patients, 8 implants, 4 maxillary). Standardized periapical radiographs were taken immediately after implant placement (baseline image) and at the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow ups. Radiographic images were digitized and submitted to digital subtraction using the DSR system® (Electro Medical System, Nyon, Switzerland), resulting in three subtracted images. Quantitative analysis of bone density was performed using Image Tool® software (University of Texas Health Science Centre, San Antonio, TX) to assess pixel value changes in five areas around the implants (crestal, subcrestal, medial third, apical–lateral and apical). Results Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that grey levels were significantly influenced by follow-up time and implant-loading protocol. A linear increase in grey levels was found for immediate loading (IML) implants and a significant decrease in grey levels was observed in the 12-month follow up for conventional loading implants. No effect of implant surface treatment was observed. Conclusion In conclusion, IML protocol induced mineral bone gain around single-tooth implants after the first year under function for cases with favourable bone conditions. PMID:22074866

  5. Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

  6. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Fiona E; Harris, Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted longitudinal growth in reading achievement. The relations between reading and the predictor variables showed developmental change. Earlier reading ability was related to later phonological awareness skills, suggesting that deaf children might develop their phonological awareness through reading. Deaf children who had the most age-appropriate reading skills tended to have less severe hearing losses and earlier diagnoses and also preferred to communicate through speech. The theoretical implications of the role for speechreading, vocabulary and phonological awareness in deaf children's literacy are discussed. PMID:20570282

  7. Cohort Profile: Wisconsin longitudinal study (WLS)

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. PMID:24585852

  8. Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Willcutt, Erik G

    2007-12-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary examination of the test scores of 124 twins with a history of reading difficulties and 154 twins with no history of reading difficulties indicates that over the 5- to 6-year interval between assessments, cognitive and reading performance are highly stable. As a group, those subjects with a history of reading difficulties had substantial deficits relative to control subjects on all measures at initial assessment, and significant deficits remained at follow-up. The stability noted for all cognitive and achievement measures was highest for a composite measure of reading, whose average stability correlation across groups was 0.80. Results of preliminary behavior genetic analyses for this measure indicated that shared genetic influences accounted for 86% and 49% of the phenotypic correlations between the two assessments for twin pairs with and without reading difficulties, respectively. In addition, genetic correlations reached unity for both groups, suggesting that the same genetic influences are manifested at both time points. PMID:18060583

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of BASICS for Heavy Drinking Mandated and Volunteer Undergraduates: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy drinking volunteers up to one year post-intervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; Mage = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. At 4 weeks post-intervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer) BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months post-intervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared to controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to one year post-intervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. PMID:25844834

  10. Accurate age classification of 6 and 12 month-old infants based on resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, John R.; Kandala, Sridhar; Hoertel, Sarah; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Elison, Jed T.; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Feczko, Eric; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Nardos, Binyam; Power, Jonathan D.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Botteron, Kelly N.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Evans, Alan C.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Dager, Stephen R.; Paterson, Sarah; Schultz, Robert T.; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Das, Samir; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Constantino, John N.; Estes, Annette M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Piven, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Human large-scale functional brain networks are hypothesized to undergo significant changes over development. Little is known about these functional architectural changes, particularly during the second half of the first year of life. We used multivariate pattern classification of resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) data obtained in an on-going, multi-site, longitudinal study of brain and behavioral development to explore whether fcMRI data contained information sufficient to classify infant age. Analyses carefully account for the effects of fcMRI motion artifact. Support vector machines (SVMs) classified 6 versus 12 month-old infants (128 datasets) above chance based on fcMRI data alone. Results demonstrate significant changes in measures of brain functional organization that coincide with a special period of dramatic change in infant motor, cognitive, and social development. Explorations of the most different correlations used for SVM lead to two different interpretations about functional connections that support 6 versus 12-month age categorization. PMID:25704288

  11. Validity of 12-Month Falls Recall in Community-Dwelling Older Women Participating in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kerrie M.; Stuart, Amanda L.; Scott, David; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Nicholson, Geoff C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare 12-month falls recall with falls reported prospectively on daily falls calendars in a clinical trial of women aged ≥70 years. Methods. 2,096 community-dwelling women at high risk of falls and/or fracture completed a daily falls calendar and standardised interviews when falls were recorded, for 12 months. Data were compared to a 12-month falls recall question that categorised falls status as “no falls,” “a few times,” “several,” and “regular” falls. Results. 898 (43%) participants reported a fall on daily falls calendars of whom 692 (77%) recalled fall(s) at 12 months. Participants who did not recall a fall were older (median 79.3 years versus 77.8 years, P = 0.028). Smaller proportions of fallers who sustained an injury or accessed health care failed to recall a fall (all P < 0.04). Among participants who recalled “no fall,” 85% reported zero falls on daily calendars. Few women selected falls categories of “several times” or “regular” (4.1% and 0.4%, resp.) and the sensitivity of these categories was low (30% to 33%). Simply categorising participants into fallers or nonfallers had 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusion. For studies where intensive ascertainment of falls is not feasible, 12-month falls recall questions with fewer responses may be an acceptable alternative. PMID:26273292

  12. Integrating a Career Planning and Development Program into the Baccalaureate Nursing Curriculum. Part II. Outcomes for New Graduate Nurses 12 Months Post-Graduation.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Janice; Spalding, Karen; Navarro, Justine; Jancar, Sonya; Canizares, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    New graduate nurses' (NGNs) transition into the nursing workforce is characterized as stressful and challenging. Consequently, a high percentage of them leave their first place of employment or the profession entirely within one year of graduation. Nursing literature describes this complicated shift from student to registered nurse, however, limited attention has focused on strategies that could be implemented during students' academic programs to prepare them for this difficult transition period. Therefore, a longitudinal intervention study was conducted to examine the influence of a career planning and development (CPD) program on the development of career resilience in baccalaureate nursing students and at 12 months post-graduation (NGN). The findings support including structured and progressive curriculum-based CPD opportunities in academic programs, not only for the positive outcomes that accrue to students, but also because of the benefits they extend to NGNs as they make the transition to their first professional nursing role. PMID:26618574

  13. Adapting an evidence-based model to retain adolescent study participants in longitudinal research.

    PubMed

    Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. PMID:26539953

  14. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  15. Memory network plasticity after temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Meneka K; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S

    2016-02-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection can control seizures in up to 80% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Memory decrements are the main neurocognitive complication. Preoperative functional reorganization has been described in memory networks, but less is known of postoperative reorganization. We investigated reorganization of memory-encoding networks preoperatively and 3 and 12 months after surgery. We studied 36 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (19 right) before and 3 and 12 months after anterior temporal lobe resection. Fifteen healthy control subjects were studied at three equivalent time points. All subjects had neuropsychological testing at each of the three time points. A functional magnetic resonance imaging memory-encoding paradigm of words and faces was performed with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. Changes in activations across the time points in each patient group were compared to changes in the control group in a single flexible factorial analysis. Postoperative change in memory across the time points was correlated with postoperative activations to investigate the efficiency of reorganized networks. Left temporal lobe epilepsy patients showed increased right anterior hippocampal and frontal activation at both 3 and 12 months after surgery relative to preoperatively, for word and face encoding, with a concomitant reduction in left frontal activation 12 months postoperatively. Right anterior hippocampal activation 12 months postoperatively correlated significantly with improved verbal learning in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy from preoperatively to 12 months postoperatively. Preoperatively, there was significant left posterior hippocampal activation that was sustained 3 months postoperatively at word encoding, and increased at face encoding. For both word and face encoding this was significantly reduced from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy showed increased

  16. Memory network plasticity after temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Meneka K.; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection can control seizures in up to 80% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Memory decrements are the main neurocognitive complication. Preoperative functional reorganization has been described in memory networks, but less is known of postoperative reorganization. We investigated reorganization of memory-encoding networks preoperatively and 3 and 12 months after surgery. We studied 36 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (19 right) before and 3 and 12 months after anterior temporal lobe resection. Fifteen healthy control subjects were studied at three equivalent time points. All subjects had neuropsychological testing at each of the three time points. A functional magnetic resonance imaging memory-encoding paradigm of words and faces was performed with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. Changes in activations across the time points in each patient group were compared to changes in the control group in a single flexible factorial analysis. Postoperative change in memory across the time points was correlated with postoperative activations to investigate the efficiency of reorganized networks. Left temporal lobe epilepsy patients showed increased right anterior hippocampal and frontal activation at both 3 and 12 months after surgery relative to preoperatively, for word and face encoding, with a concomitant reduction in left frontal activation 12 months postoperatively. Right anterior hippocampal activation 12 months postoperatively correlated significantly with improved verbal learning in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy from preoperatively to 12 months postoperatively. Preoperatively, there was significant left posterior hippocampal activation that was sustained 3 months postoperatively at word encoding, and increased at face encoding. For both word and face encoding this was significantly reduced from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy showed increased

  17. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  18. Services for adolescent psychiatric disorders: 12-month data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. Jane; He, Jian-ping; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C.; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2014-01-01

    Objective This report examined data on 12-month rates of service use for adolescent mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) is a national survey of DSM-IV mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and service use among U.S. adolescents. Results In the 12 months up to the interview, 45% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders received some form of professional help. Youth with mood disorders were most likely to receive services (60.1%), and those with anxiety disorders least likely (41.4%). Services were more likely to be provided in a school setting (23.6% of those with disorders) or by specialty mental health providers (22.8%) than by general medical practitioners (10.1%). Juvenile justice (4.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (5.3%), and human services (7.9%) also provided mental health care. Although pediatricians treated a higher proportion of youth with mood disorders than of those with behavior disorders, they were more likely to treat youth with behavior disorders because of the larger number of the latter (11.5% of 1,465 vs. 13.9% of 820). Black youth were significantly less likely than white youth to receive specialty mental health or pediatric services for mental disorders. Conclusions The 12-month findings from the NCS-A confirm those of earlier, smaller studies, that only a minority of youth with psychiatric disorders received recent treatment of any sort. Much of this treatment was provided in service settings in which few of the providers were likely to have specialist mental health training. PMID:24233052

  19. Risks and Benefits of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Beyond 12 Months After Coronary Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Dadjou, Yahya; Safavi, Salar; Kojuri, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) after coronary stenting remains poorly define. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of longer than 24 months DAT in patients who received drug-eluting and bare-metal stents. A total of 1010 individuals who underwent elective, urgent or emergency coronary angioplasty with intended stent implantation at reference or specialized cardiac hospitals were randomized to receive long-term and short-term DAT to determine the benefits and adverse effects of long-term DAT. Total of 508 patients were randomized to long-term and 502 patients to <1 year DAT, and all of them were followed for more than 36 months for major adverse cardiac and cerebvascular events and bleeding major adverse cardiac and cerebvascular events (MACCE) Mean age of the 1010 patients (364 women and 646 men) was 60 years. Stent reocclusion occurred in 15 patients. Mean Syntax score was 23.00 ± 5.08 for whole samples, 25.00 ± 5.27 in 28 patients with MACCE and 23 ± 5.00 in 982 patients without MACCE (P = 0.057). According to all specified bleeding definitions, clopidogrel therapy for >12 months was not associated with a greater risk of hemorrhage. A regimen of >12 months of clopidogrel therapy in patients who had received drug-eluting or bare-metal stents did not differ significantly from a regimen of <12 months on clopidogrel with regard to MACCE. Long-term DAT might not significantly affect the reduction in the risk of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and not associated with minor or major bleeding events. PMID:27258494

  20. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is

  1. Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Longitudinal Clinical Studies with Low-Income Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Lisa; Schwirian, Patricia M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Skybo, Theresa; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Bethany; French, Gina; Groner, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Conducting longitudinal research studies with low-income and/or minority participants present a unique set of challenges and opportunities. Purpose To outline the specific strategies employed to successfully recruit and retain participants in a longitudinal study of nutritional anticipatory guidance during early childhood, conducted with a low-income, ethnically diverse, urban population of mothers. Methods We describe recruitment and retention efforts made by the research team for the ‘MOMS’ Study (Making Our Mealtimes Special). The ‘multilayered’ approach for recruitment and retention included commitment of research leadership, piloting procedures, frequent team reporting, emphasis on participant convenience, incentives, frequent contact with participants, expanded budget, clinical staff buy-in, a dedicated phone line, and the use of research project branding and logos. Results Barriers to enrollment were not encountered in this project, despite recruiting from a low-income population with a large proportion of African-American families. Process evaluation with clinic staff demonstrated the perception of the MOMS staff was very positive Participant retention rate was 75% and 64% at 6 months and 12 months post-recruitment, respectively. We attribute retention success largely to a coordinated effort between the research team and the infrastructure support at the clinical sites, as well as project branding and a dedicated phone line. Conclusions Successful participant recruitment and retention approaches need to be specific and consistent with clinical staff buy in throughout the project. PMID:21276876

  2. Immediate loading of zygomatic implants using the intraoral welding technique: a 12-month case series.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Piattelli, Adriano; Malevez, Chantal

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the concept of intraoral welding as a suitable technique for fabricating a fixed restoration for the edentulous maxilla the day of surgery using standard and zygomatic implants. Ten consecutive patients (four men, six women; mean age, 62.3 ± 11.6 years) were involved in this study, each of whom had an edentulous atrophic maxilla and received two standard and two zygomatic implants. All implants were loaded immediately with a fixed prosthesis supported by an intraorally welded titanium framework. Definitive abutments were connected to the implants, and a titanium bar was welded to them using an intraoral welding unit. This framework was used to support the definitive prosthesis, which was fitted the day of implant placement. Patients were checked for swelling, pain, and framework stability at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. A total of 20 immediately loaded standard and 20 zygomatic implants were used. The cases included in this study achieved a 100% prosthetic success rate at the 12-month follow-up. No fracture or radiographically detectable alteration of the welded frameworks was noticed. It is possible to successfully rehabilitate the edentulous atrophic maxilla with a permanently fixed prosthesis supported by an intraorally welded titanium framework attached to standard and zygomatic implants the day of surgery. PMID:22754908

  3. A 12-month controlled trial of methadone medical maintenance integrated into an adaptive treatment model.

    PubMed

    King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S; Stoller, Kenneth B; Schwartz, Robert; Kolodner, Kenneth; Brooner, Robert K

    2006-12-01

    Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) reduces the reporting schedule for stable and well-functioning methadone maintenance patients to once a month, with counseling provided by medical staff. We report on the 12-month outcomes of 92 highly stable methadone maintenance patients randomly assigned to one of three study conditions: routine care, MMM at the methadone maintenance program, and MMM at a physician's office. Methadone medical maintenance patients received a 28-day supply of methadone, whereas routine care patients received five or six take-home methadone doses each week. All patients performed a medication recall once a month and submitted two urine samples each month. An adaptive stepped-care system of treatment intensification was used for patients who failed recall or who had drug-positive urine specimens. Seventy-seven patients completed the 12-month study period. Dropout was caused primarily by problems with handling methadone and disliking the recall frequency. There were low rates of drug use or failed medication recall. Treatment satisfaction was high in all groups, but the MMM patients initiated more new employment or family/social activities than did routine care patients over the study period. The stepped-care approach was well tolerated and matched patients to an appropriate step of service within a continuum of treatment intensity. PMID:17084792

  4. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  5. Spoken Language Benefits of Extending Cochlear Implant Candidacy Below 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that cochlear implantation surgery before 12 months of age yields better spoken language results than surgery between 12–18 months of age. Study Design Language testing administered to children at 4.5 years of age (± 2 months). Setting Schools, speech-language therapy offices, and cochlear implant (CI) centers in the US and Canada. Participants 69 children who received a cochlear implant between ages 6–18 months of age. All children were learning to communicate via listening and spoken language in English-speaking families. Main Outcome Measure Standard scores on receptive vocabulary, expressive and receptive language (includes grammar). Results Children with CI surgery at 6–11 months (N=27) achieved higher scores on all measures as compared to those with surgery at 12–18 months (N=42). Regression analysis revealed a linear relationship between age of implantation and language outcomes throughout the 6–18 month surgery-age range. Conclusion For children in intervention programs emphasizing listening and spoken language, cochlear implantation before 12 months of age appears to provide a significant advantage for spoken language achievement observed at 4.5 years of age. PMID:23478647

  6. Infants' Vocal Engagement Oriented towards Mother versus Stranger at 3 Months and Avoidant Attachment Behavior at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that mother avoidance in infants at the age of 12 months can be predicted by the infants' differential vocal engagement to mother versus a female stranger at the age of 3 months. Differential engagement in favor of the mother was supposed to relate to low future avoidance. The vocal behavior of 26…

  7. Child-Centered Behaviors of Caregivers with 12-Month-Old Infants: Associations with Passive Joint Engagement and Later Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Carol Hamer; Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates three aspects of social communication in 12-month-old infants and their caregivers: (a) caregiver conversational style, (b) caregiver gesture, and (c) infant engagement. Differences in caregiver behavior during passive joint engagement were associated with language outcomes. Although total mean duration of infant time in…

  8. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  9. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  10. Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.

    This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months. PMID:24625341

  12. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  13. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  14. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  15. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.443-1 Returns for periods of less than 12 months. (a) Returns for...

  16. Impact of Trichiasis Surgery on Quality of Life: A Longitudinal Study in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Mohammed, Aderajew; Zewudie, Zebideru; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M.; Bailey, Robin L.; Mabey, David C. W.; Rajak, Saul N.; Kuper, Hannah; Polack, Sarah; Weiss, Helen A.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachomatous trichiasis significantly reduces vision and health related quality of life (QoL). Although trichiasis surgery is widely performed to treat trichiasis, there is little data on the effect of surgery on QoL. We measured the impact of trichiasis surgery on vision and health related QoL in a longitudinal study from Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 1000 adult participants with trichiasis (cases) and 200 comparison participants, matched to every fifth trichiasis case on age (+/- two years), sex and location. Vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were measured using the WHO/PBD-VF20 and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires respectively, at enrolment and 12 months after enrolment. All trichiasis cases received free standard trichiasis surgery immediately after enrolment. The mean difference in QoL scores between enrolment and follow-up for cases and comparison participants, and the difference-in-differences by baseline trichiasis status was analysed using random effects linear regression, the later adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status. At 12-months follow-up, data was collected from 980 (98%) and 198 (98%) trichiasis cases and comparison participants respectively. At this follow-up visit, VRQoL and HRQoL scores of trichiasis cases improved substantially in all subscales and domains by 19.1–42.0 points (p<0.0001) and 4.7–17.2 points (p<0.0001), respectively. In contrast, among the comparison participants, there was no evidence of improvement in VRQoL and HRQoL domain scores during follow-up. The improvement in VRQoL and HRQoL in cases was independent of the presence of visual acuity improvement at 12 months. Conclusions/Significance Trichiasis surgery substantially improves both VRQoL and HRQoL regardless of visual acuity change. Unprecedented effort is needed to scale-up trichiasis surgical programmes not only to prevent the risk of sight loss but also to improve

  17. Longitudinal Links between Early Coparenting and Infant Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.; DeMaris, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    This study of 164 married couples examined longitudinal links between parents' perceptions of coparenting support and undermining by spouse at 6 months postpartum and infant behaviour problems at the age of 12 months after controlling for marital quality, individual parenting, and infant temperament. Multiple methods (i.e. parent reports and…

  18. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  19. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    PubMed

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest. PMID:25879476

  20. Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assessment of 12-month safety of ospemifene 60 mg/day for treatment of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Methods In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, women 40–80 years with VVA and an intact uterus were randomized 6 : 1 to ospemifene 60 mg/day or placebo. The primary objective was 12-month safety, particularly endometrial; 12-week efficacy was assessed. Safety assessments included endometrial histology and thickness, and breast and gynecological examinations. Efficacy evaluations included changes from baseline to week 12 in percentage of superficial and parabasal cells and vaginal pH. Results Of 426 randomized subjects, 81.9% (n = 349) completed the study with adverse events the most common reason for discontinuation (ospemifene 9.5%; placebo 3.9%). Most (88%) treatment-emergent adverse events with ospemifene were considered mild or moderate. Three cases (1.0%) of active proliferation were observed in the ospemifene group. For one, active proliferation was seen at end of study week 52, and diagnosed as simple hyperplasia without atypia on follow-up biopsy 3 months after the last dose. This subsequently resolved with progestogen treatment and dilatation and curettage. In six subjects (five ospemifene (1.4%), one placebo (1.6%)) endometrial polyps were found (histopathology); however, only one (ospemifene) was confirmed as a true polyp during additional expert review. Endometrial histology showed no evidence of carcinoma. Statistically significant improvements were seen for all primary and secondary efficacy measures and were sustained through week 52 with ospemifene vs. placebo. Conclusions The findings of this 52-week study confirm the tolerance and efficacy of oral ospemifene previously reported in short- and long-term studies. PMID:23984673

  1. Environmental and genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Suaini, Noor H A; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ellis, Justine A; Peters, Rachel L; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Matheson, Melanie C; Wake, Melissa; Panjari, Mary; Tan, Hern-Tze Tina; Martin, Pamela E; Pezic, Angela; Lowe, Adrian J; Martino, David; Gurrin, Lyle C; Vuillermin, Peter J; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between genetic and environmental exposure and vitamin D status at age one, stratified by ethnicity. This study included 563 12-month-old infants in the HealthNuts population-based study. DNA from participants' blood samples was genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY MALDI-TOF system on 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes. Using logistic regression, we examined associations between environmental exposure and SNPs in vitamin D pathway and filaggrin genes and vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). VDI, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3(25(OH)D3) level ≤50nmol/L, was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Infants were stratified by ethnicity determined by parent's country of birth. Infants formula fed at 12 months were associated with reduced odds of VDI compared to infants with no current formula use at 12 months. This association differed by ethnicity (Pinteraction=0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of VDI was 0.29 for Caucasian infants (95% CI, 0.18-0.47) and 0.04 for Asian infants (95% CI, 0.006-0.23). Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding were associated with increased odds of infants being VDI (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.11-5.18 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.20-5.24 respectively). Presence of a minor allele for any GC SNP (rs17467825, rs1155563, rs2282679, rs3755967, rs4588, rs7041) was associated with increased odds of VDI. Caucasian infants homozygous (AA) for rs4588 had an OR of 2.49 of being associated with VDI (95% CI, 1.19-5.18). In a country without routine infant vitamin D supplementation or food chain fortification, formula use is strongly associated with a reduced risk of VDI regardless of ethnicity. There was borderline significance for an association between filaggrin mutations and VDI. However, polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway related genes were associated with increased likelihood of being VDI in infancy. PMID:25174667

  2. A new tetravalent canine leptospirosis vaccine provides at least 12 months immunity against infection.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, H L B M; van der Veen, M; Sutton, D; Molkenboer, M J C H

    2014-03-15

    A key success factor in the vaccination of dogs against leptospirosis is long term protection against establishment of the renal carrier state, in order to protect other dogs, as well as humans, against this re-emerging zoonotic disease. In this paper, we describe the ability of a new European tetravalent vaccine containing antigen from Leptospira interrogans (sensu lato) serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa and Australis to control infection and renal excretion in dogs at 12 months after vaccination. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of all four vaccine components, four separate challenge studies were performed. For each study two groups of dogs were used (a group receiving the leptospirosis vaccine and a control group). Twelve months after the second vaccination all dogs in the vaccine and control groups were challenged, both intraperitoneally and conjunctivally, using a pathogenic challenge strain from one of four serogroups. Parameters recorded post-challenge were: clinical signs of disease, change in body temperature, total leucocyte count, thrombocyte count, presence of challenge organisms in blood, urine and kidney tissue, and evidence of interstitial nephritis at necropsy four weeks after challenge. The vaccine was able to either prevent or significantly reduce infection following challenge with the strains of all four serogroups. The vaccine was also able to prevent or significantly reduce renal infection following Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae challenge, and there was a trend of reduction of renal infection with Australis (serovar Bratislava). In the case of the Grippotyphosa study, challenge led to no detectable renal infection in any dog of the control group. In conclusion, in this study significant protective immunity was achieved in dogs 12 months after a basic vaccination schedule of two doses against strains of serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa and Australis. PMID:24054091

  3. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. PMID:25459795

  4. The effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Sławomir; Szkodziak, Piotr; Czuczwar, Piotr; Woźniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Maciej; Milart, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study The purpose of the study was to monitor the effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up. Material and methods Fifty six patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids qualified for surgical treatment were included in the prospective observational study. All patients received preoperative oral UPA treatment for 3 months (1 × 5 mg). Patients that refused surgical treatment after UPA therapy were followed-up for the next 9 months. The volume of the intramural fibroid was estimated by TV-US using and integrated VOCAL 3D imaging program at baseline, after 3 months of UPA treatment and further at 3-months intervals. Results Before UPA mean dominant fibroid volume was estimated to be 216.0 cm3 (38.4-768.2 cm3) and decreased to 117.6 cm3 (12.6-668.0 cm3) after 3 months of UPA therapy. Mean percentage volume reduction was 45.6%. Mean hemoglobin level increased from an initial 10.1 g/dL (6.8-12.9 g/dL) to 12.6 g/dL (10.1-14.8) after 3 months of UPA therapy. At 12 months after initiating UPA treatment mean dominant fibroid volume decreased by 43.9%. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. Conclusions Three month UPA therapy decreases fibroid volume and improves hemoglobin level before planned surgical treatment. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. PMID:26327823

  5. Pointing as Epistemic Request: 12-month-olds Point to Receive New Information

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Ágnes M.; Tauzin, Tibor; Téglás, Ernő; Gergely, György; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Infants start pointing systematically to objects or events around their first birthday. It has been proposed that infants point to an event in order to share their appreciation of it with others. In the current study, we tested another hypothesis, according to which infants' pointing could also serve as an epistemic request directed to the adult. Thus, infants' motivation for pointing could include the expectation that adults would provide new information about the referent. In two experiments, an adult reacted to 12-month-olds’ pointing gestures by exhibiting 'informing' or 'sharing' behavior. In response, infants pointed more frequently across trials in the informing than in the sharing condition. This suggests that the feedback that contained new information matched infants' expectations more than mere attention sharing. Such a result is consistent with the idea that not just the comprehension but also the production of early communicative signals is tuned to assist infants' learning from others. PMID:26568703

  6. Slow rates of habituation predict greater zBMI gains over 12 months in lean children

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Slow rates of habituation are related to greater energy intake, and cross-sectionally to body weight. The present study is designed to assess whether slow rates of habituation are prospectively related to zBMI change over a 12 month period in 66 lean 8–12 year-old children, and whether the rate of habituation is a stable behavioral phenotype. Results showed slower rates of habituation predicted greater zBMI change, controlling for child sex, age, initial zBMI, dietary awareness and minority status. In addition, the rate of habituation was stable over the year of observation. These data suggest that slow rates of habituation may be a risk factor for weight gain and the development of obesity. Future research is needed to understand the mechanism for this effect, and assess whether the habituation phenotype interacts with other behavioral phenotypes, such as food reinforcement, to influence increases in zBMI. PMID:21741020

  7. Sexual Stigma, Coping Styles, and Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Steward, Wayne T.; Miège, Pierre; Hudes, Esther; Gregorich, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The direct link between stigma against sexual minorities and psychological distress is well established. However, few studies have examined the potential mediating roles of avoidant and social support coping in the relationships between internalized and anticipated stigma associated with homosexuality and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We recruited a longitudinal sample of 493 MSM in Beijing, China from 2011 to 2012. Participants completed computer-based questionnaires at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. We found significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on symptoms of both depression and anxiety via avoidant coping: anticipated MSM stigma at baseline was significantly associated with avoidant coping (B = 0.523, p < 0.001) at 6 months and, conditional on anticipated MSM stigma, avoidant coping had a significant positive effect on depressive symptoms and anxiety at 12 months (B = 0.069, p = 0.001 and B=0.071, p=0.014). In contrast, no significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on either psychological distress outcome via social support coping were found. No significant indirect effects of internalized MSM stigma via either avoidant or social support coping were found. These results underscore the need for interventions that address anticipations of stigma and the use of avoidant coping techniques to manage such anticipations. PMID:26679303

  8. Effects of Miniscalpel-Needle Release on Chronic Neck Pain: A Retrospective Analysis with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic neck pain is a highly prevalent condition, and is often treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Limited clinical studies with short-term follow-up have shown promising efficacy of acupuncture as well as miniscalpel-needle (MSN) release. In this retrospective study, we examined whether MSN release could produce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic neck pain. Methods We retrieved the medical records of all patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain at this institution during a period from May 2012 to December 2013. Only cases with the following information at prior to, and 1, 6, and 12 months after the treatment, were included in the analysis: neck disability index (NDI), numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), and active cervical range of motion (CROM). The primary analysis of interest is comparison of the 12-month measures with the baseline. Patients who took analgesic drugs or massage within 2 weeks prior to assessment were excluded from the analysis. For MSN release, tender points were identified manually by an experienced physician, and did not necessarily follow the traditional acupuncture system. MSN was inserted vertically (parallel to the spine) until breaking through resistance and patient reporting of distention, soreness or heaviness. The depth of the needling ranged from 10 to 50 mm. The release was carried out by moving the MSN up and down 3–5 times without rotation. Results A total of 559 cases (patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain) were screened. The number of cases with complete information (NDI, NPRS, and CROM at baseline, 1, 6 and 12 months after last treatment) was 180. After excluding the cases with analgesic treatment or massage within 2 weeks of assessment (n = 53), a total of 127 cases were included in data analysis. The number of MSN release session was 7 (range: 4–11). At 12 months after the treatment, both NPRS and NDI were significantly lower

  9. Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044

  10. Plasticity after perceptual narrowing for voice perception: reinstating the ability to discriminate monkeys by their voices at 12 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, Rayna H.; Rendall, Drew; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating individuals by their voice is an important social skill for infants to acquire. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the ability to discriminate individuals by voice follows a pattern of perceptual narrowing (Friendly et al., 2013). Specifically, we found that the ability to discriminate between two foreign-species (rhesus monkey) voices decreased significantly between 6 and 12 months of age. Also during this period, there was a trend for the ability to discriminate human voices to increase. Here we investigate the extent to which plasticity remains at 12 months, after perceptual narrowing has occurred. We found that 12-month-olds who received 2 weeks of monkey-voice training were significantly better at discriminating between rhesus monkey voices than untrained 12-month-olds. Furthermore, discrimination was reinstated to a level slightly better than that of untrained 6-month-olds, suggesting that voice-processing abilities remain considerably plastic at the end of the first year. PMID:24130540

  11. Percentage of People Who Used the Oral Care System in the Last 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Months Percentage of People who Used the Oral Care System in the Last 12 Months Oral diseases, ... Group Percentage of People Who Use the Oral Care System by Age Group uv9w-t62r Download these ...

  12. Early response to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids as a predictor of 12-month treatment responder status and COPD exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Calverley, Peter M; Postma, Dirkje S; Anzueto, Antonio R; Make, Barry J; Eriksson, Göran; Peterson, Stefan; Jenkins, Christine R

    2016-01-01

    Background Early treatment response markers, for example, improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, may help clinicians to better manage patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the prevalence of clinically important improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ scores after 2-month budesonide/formoterol or formoterol treatment and whether such improvements predict subsequent improvements and exacerbation rates. Methods This post hoc analysis is based on data from three double-blind, randomized studies in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD receiving twice-daily budesonide/formoterol or formoterol alone for 6 or 12 months. Prebronchodilator FEV1 and SGRQ total score were measured before treatment and at 2 and 12 months; COPD exacerbation rates were measured during months 2–12. Responders were defined by ≥100 mL improvement in prebronchodilator FEV1 and ≥4-point decrease in SGRQ total score. Results Overall, 2,331 and 1,799 patients were included in the 0–2- and 0–12-month responder analyses, respectively, and 2,360 patients in the 2–12-month exacerbation rate analysis. At 2 months, 35.1% of patients were FEV1 responders and 44.3% were SGRQ responders. The probability of response was significantly greater with budesonide/formoterol than with formoterol or placebo for both parameters. Two-month responders had a greater chance of 12-month response than 2-month nonresponders for both FEV1 (odds ratio, 5.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.14–7.50) and SGRQ (odds ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.83–5.31). Two-month response in FEV1 (P<0.001), but not SGRQ (P=0.11), was associated with greater reductions in exacerbation risk. Conclusion Early FEV1 and SGRQ treatment responses relate to their changes at 12 months. FEV1 response, but not SGRQ response, at 2 months predicts the risk of a future COPD exacerbation in some, but not all patients. This is

  13. Functional and Gait Assessment in Children and Adolescents Affected by Friedreich's Ataxia: A One-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Gessica; Gazzellini, Simone; Petrarca, Maurizio; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Pisano, Alessandra; Zazza, Marco; Della Bella, Gessica; Castelli, Enrico; Bertini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich's ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich's ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects. Eight patients completed a 12-month follow-up under the same protocol. By comparing the gait parameters of Friedreich's ataxia with the control group, we found significant differences for some relevant indexes. In particular, the increased knee and ankle extension in stance revealed a peculiar biomechanical pattern, which correlated reliably with SARA Total, Gait and Sitting scores. The knee pattern showed its consistency also at the follow-up: Knee extension increased from 6.8±3.5° to -0.5±3.7° and was significantly correlated with the SARA total score. This feature anticipated the loss of the locomotor function in two patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the selective and segmental analysis of kinetic/kinematic features of ataxic gait, in particular the behavior of the knee, provides sensitive measures to detect specific longitudinal and functional alterations, more than the SARA scale, which however has proved to be a reliable and practical assessment tool. Functional outcomes measures integrated by instrumental evaluation increase their sensitivity, reliability and suitability for the follow-up of the disease progression and for the application in clinical trials and in rehabilitative programs. PMID:27598307

  14. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years.

    PubMed

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children's early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children's responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children's awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children's DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children's early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  15. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  16. Percutaneous Stabilization System Osseofix® for Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures - Clinical and Radiological Results after 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Ender, Stephan Albrecht; Wetterau, Elmar; Ender, Michaela; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Merk, Harry Rudolf; Kayser, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Study Design A prospective consecutive cohort study (follow-up study). Objective Our study investigated whether implantation of an expandable titanium mesh cage (Osseofix®) is a successful and safe minimally invasive therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). Our experiences, clinical and radiological findings after 12 months follow-up are presented. Kypho- and vertebroplasty are well-established minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. The main complications associated with both procedures are uncontrolled bone cement leakage. Therefore a suitable alternative has been investigated. Methods During June 2010 to May 2011 24 patients were included with 32 osteoporotic VCF (T6 to L4). All of them were stabilized with the Osseofix® system. Preinterventionally we performed X-ray, MRI, and bone density measurements (DXA). Clinical and radiological results were evaluated preop., postop. and after 12 months postop. based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), X-ray (Beck Index, Cobb-angle) and CT. Results There was a significant improvement in the mean ODI (70,6% to 30,1%) as well as a significant reduction in pain intensity (VAS) (7,7 to 1,4) after 12 month. The mean kyphotic angle according to Cobb showed significant improvements (11,7° to 10,4°) after 12 months. Postinterventional imaging showed only one case of loss of height in a stabilized vertebral body (3.1%). We saw no changes in posterior vertebral wall or adjacent fractures. Except for one pronounced postoperative hematoma we saw no surgical complications including no cement leakage. Conclusions Stabilization of symptomatic osteoporotic VCF with Osseofix® system is a safe and effective procedure, even in fractures with posterior wall involvement. The clinical mid-term results are good at a very low complication rate. The Osseofix® system is an interesting alternative to the established procedures of cement augmentation

  17. Parent-Infant Vocalisations at 12 Months Predict Psychopathology at 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…

  18. The developing cognitive substrate of sequential action control in 9- to 12-month-olds: evidence for concurrent activation models.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, S A; Paulus, M; Spapé, M; Biro, S; Hommel, B

    2015-05-01

    Nine-month-olds start to perform sequential actions. Yet, it remains largely unknown how they acquire and control such actions. We studied infants' sequential-action control by employing a novel gaze-contingent eye tracking paradigm. Infants experienced occulo-motor action sequences comprising two elementary actions. To contrast chaining, concurrent and integrated models of sequential-action control, we then selectively activated secondary actions to assess interactions with the primary actions. Behavioral and pupillometric results suggest 12-month-olds acquire sequential action without elaborate strategy through exploration. Furthermore, the inhibitory mechanisms ensuring ordered performance develop between 9 and 12 months of age, and are best captured by concurrent models. PMID:25704583

  19. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders in 12-Month-Old High-Risk Siblings by Parental Report

    PubMed Central

    Macari, Suzanne; Chen, Grace; Campbell, Daniel; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether parental report of social-communicative and repetitive behaviors at 12 months can be helpful in identifying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in younger siblings of children with ASD [high-risk (HR)-siblings]. Parents of HR-siblings and infants without a family history of ASD completed the First Year Inventory at 12 months. Developmental outcomes were based on 24- or 36-month assessments. HR-siblings later diagnosed with ASD showed greater impairments in social communication than those with other developmental outcomes based on parental and clinician ratings. Parental report of decline in play and communication and impaired vocal imitation correctly classified a majority of ASD cases with high specificity. These preliminary findings have important implications for the development of early screening instruments for ASD in HR-siblings. PMID:25149178

  20. Screening for autism spectrum disorders in 12-month-old high-risk siblings by parental report.

    PubMed

    Rowberry, Justin; Macari, Suzanne; Chen, Grace; Campbell, Daniel; Leventhal, John M; Weitzman, Carol; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether parental report of social-communicative and repetitive behaviors at 12 months can be helpful in identifying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in younger siblings of children with ASD [high-risk (HR)-siblings]. Parents of HR-siblings and infants without a family history of ASD completed the First Year Inventory at 12 months. Developmental outcomes were based on 24- or 36-month assessments. HR-siblings later diagnosed with ASD showed greater impairments in social communication than those with other developmental outcomes based on parental and clinician ratings. Parental report of decline in play and communication and impaired vocal imitation correctly classified a majority of ASD cases with high specificity. These preliminary findings have important implications for the development of early screening instruments for ASD in HR-siblings. PMID:25149178

  1. The emergence of use of a rake-like tool: a longitudinal study in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Fagard, Jacqueline; Rat-Fischer, Lauriane; O'Regan, J. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We describe the results of a longitudinal study on five infants from age 12 to 20 months, presented with an out of reach toy and a rake-like tool within reach. Five conditions of spatial relationship between toy and rake were tested. Outcomes and types of behavior were analyzed. There were successes observed around 12 months in the condition of spatial contiguity between rake and toy, but these could not be interpreted as corresponding to full understanding of the use of the rake. At this age and for the following months, in the conditions involving spatial separation between rake and toy, infants' strategies fluctuated between paying attention to the toy only, exploring the rake for its own sake, and connecting rake and toy but with no apparent attempt to bring the toy closer. Only between 16 and 20 months did infants fairly suddenly start to intentionally try to bring the toy closer with the tool: at this stage the infants also became able to learn from their failures and to correct their actions, as well as to benefit from demonstration from an adult. We examine the individual differences in the pattern of change in behaviors leading to tool use in the five infants, and find no increase in any one type of behavior that systematically precedes success. We conclude that sudden success at 18 months probably corresponds to the coming together of a variety of capacities. PMID:24904504

  2. Controlled Prospective Longitudinal Study of Women With Cancer: I. Sexual Functioning Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Anderson, Barrie; deProsse, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and etiology of sexual difficulties for women with survivable cancer were studied. Women with early stage gynecologic cancer (n = 47) were assessed after their diagnosis but prior to treatment and then reassessed at 4, 8, and 12 months posttreatment. Sexual and medical outcomes were compared with data from members of two matched comparison groups who were also assessed longitudinally: women diagnosed and treated for benign gynecologic disease (n = 18) and gynecologically healthy women (n = 57). Global sexual behavior disruption did not occur but the frequency of intercourse declined for women treated for disease, whether malignant or benign. In relation to the sexual response cycle, diminution of sexual excitement is pronounced for women with disease; however, this difficulty is more severe and distressing for women with cancer, possibly due to significant coital and postcoital pain, premature menopause, treatment side effects, or a combination. Changes in desire, orgasm, and resolution phases of the sexual response cycle may also occm; but they are of lesser magnitude or duration or both. Approximately 30% of the women treated for cancer were diagnosed with a sexual dysfunction. The nature, early timing, and maintenance of sexual functioning morbidity suggest the instrumental role that cancer and cancer treatments play in these deficits (particularly arousal problems) and suggest that preventive therapies are necessary. PMID:2600238

  3. Miniscalpel-Needle versus Steroid Injection for Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial with a 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain in adults. A novel alternative medical instrument, the miniscalpel-needle (MSN), which is based on an acupuncture needle, has been recently developed in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the MSN release treatment versus that of traditional steroid injection for plantar fasciitis. Patients with plantar fasciitis were randomly assigned to 2 groups and followed up for 12 months, with 29 receiving MSN treatment and 25 receiving steroid injection treatment. The results showed that visual analog scale scores for morning pain, active pain, and overall heel pain all were decreased significantly in the MSN group from 1 to 12 months after treatment. In contrast, treatment with steroid injection showed a significant effect only at the 1-month follow-up but not at 6 or 12 months after treatment. Moreover, the MSN group achieved more rapid and sustained improvements than the steroid group throughout the duration of this study. No severe side effects were observed with MSN treatment. Our data suggest that the MSN release treatment is safe and has a significant benefit for plantar fasciitis compared to steroid injection. PMID:25114704

  4. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. PMID:22937749

  5. Effects of 12 Months Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sympathetic Activity Related Brainstem Function and Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Luke A; Fatouleh, Rania H; Lundblad, Linda C; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2016-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 OSA subjects before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We found that following 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment, resting MSNA levels were significantly reduced in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related brainstem activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons, and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MSNA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function. PMID:27013952

  6. Effects of 12 Months Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sympathetic Activity Related Brainstem Function and Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Luke A.; Fatouleh, Rania H.; Lundblad, Linda C.; McKenzie, David K.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 OSA subjects before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We found that following 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment, resting MSNA levels were significantly reduced in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related brainstem activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons, and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MSNA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function. PMID:27013952

  7. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  8. Baseline Report for the Korean-English Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; Hong, Nam Sook

    The goals and methods of a longitudinal study of language development of eight Korean-English bilingual children are reported. The children were ages 4-8 at the beginning of the study. The goals of the study were (1) to document and analyze the development of English in natural communicative contexts, (2) to study the pattern of language shift…

  9. [Effect of breast feeding and psychosocial variables upon psychomotor development of 12-month-old infants].

    PubMed

    De Andraca, I; Salas, M I; López, C; Cayazzo, M S; Icaza, G

    1999-09-01

    This study evaluates the participation of psychosocial variables in the relation between breast feeding (BF) and psychomotor development (PMD) in dyads with different BF duration. We assessed 138 mother-infant dyads, divided in two groups: 86 received BF as unique source of milk feeding for at least 6 months (prolonged BF group) and 52 were weaned before 45 days of age (early weaning group). General information about pregnancy, delivery and feeding was collected in a non experimental prospective design. At 6-7 months of age a milk feeding situation was observed at home, and mother-infant interactional patterns were recorded through a specially designed scale. At 12 months of age the PMD was assessed (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Infant temperament, home stimulation, mother depression and family stress were also measured. Similar family characteristics were observed in both study groups. Early bonding and first feeding experiences were different, both reported as better in the prolonged BF group. Moreover, dyads of this group showed a higher variety and quality of mother-infant interactional patterns during feeding, with a higher synchrony and reciprocity in the relationship. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were similar in both groups. Explicatory variables for MDI and PDI are different in both study groups. Dyads who attained prolonged BF conform from a psychosocial perspective--a different group than the early weaned. PMID:10667261

  10. Determinants of return to work 12 months after total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Leichtenberg, C S; Tilbury, C; Kuijer, Ppfm; Verdegaal, Shm; Wolterbeek, R; Nelissen, Rghh; Frings-Dresen, Mhw; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2016-07-01

    Introduction A substantial number of patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) do not or only partially return to work. This study aimed to identify differences in determinants of return to work in THA and TKA. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of working patients aged <65 years undergoing THA or TKA for osteoarthritis. The primary outcome was full versus partial or no return to work 12 months postoperatively. Factors analysed included preoperative sociodemographic and work characteristics, alongside the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Oxford Hip and Knee Scores. Results Of 67 THA and 56 TKA patients, 9 (13%) and 10 (19%), respectively, returned partially and 5 (7%) and 6 (11%), respectively, did not return to work 1 year postoperatively. Preoperative factors associated with partial or no return to work in THA patients were self-employment, absence from work and a better HOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscale score, whereas only work absence was relevant in TKA patients. Type of surgery modified the impact of ADL scores on return to work. Conclusions In both THA and TKA, absence from work affected return to work, whereas self-employment and better preoperative ADL subscale scores were also associated in THA patients. The impact of ADL scores on return to work was modified by type of surgery. These results suggest that strategies aiming to influence modifiable factors should consider THA and TKA separately. PMID:27138849

  11. Kinematic Measurement of 12-week Head Control Correlates with 12-month Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Jessica P; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Moreau, Noelle; Hope, Kathryn; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Brown, Truman; Mulvihill, Denise; Jenkins, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background Although new interventions treating neonatal brain injury show great promise, our current ability to predict clinical functional outcomes is poor. Quantitative biomarkers of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome are critically needed to gauge treatment efficacy. Kinematic measures derived from commonly used developmental tasks may serve as early objective markers of future motor outcomes. Aim To develop reliable kinematic markers of head control at 12 weeks corrected gestational age (CGA) from two motor tasks: head lifting in prone and pull-to-sit Study design and subjects Prospective observational study of 22 preterm infants born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation Outcome measures Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley) motor scores Results Intrarater and interrater reliability of prone head lift angles and pull-to-sit head angles were excellent. Prone head lift angles at 12 weeks CGA correlated with white matter NAA/Cho, concurrent Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) scores, and 12-month Bayley motor scores. Head angles during pull-to-sit at 12-weeks CGA correlated with TIMP scores. Conclusions Poor ability to lift the head in prone and an inability to align the head with the trunk during the pull-to-sit task were associated with poorer future motor outcome scores. Kinematic measurements of head control in early infancy may serve as reliable objective quantitative markers of future motor impairment and neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25621433

  12. Social looking, social referencing and humor perception in 6- and-12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Pettinato, Christine A; Woodard, Kelly C; Malzac, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤8-months) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does not require mobility, we found that when parents provided unsolicited affective cues during an ambiguous-absurd (i.e., humorous) event, 6-month-olds employ one component of social referencing, social looking Additionally, 6-month-olds who did not laugh at the event were significantly more likely to look toward parents than their counterparts who found the event funny. Sequential analyses revealed that, following a reference to a smiling parent, 6-month olds were more likely to smile at the parent, but by 12 months were more likely to smile at the event suggesting that older infants are influenced by parental affect in humorous situations. The developmental implications of these findings are discussed, as well as the usefulness of studying humor for understanding important developmental phenomena. PMID:25061893

  13. Surviving social assistance: 12-month prevalence of depression in sole-support parents receiving social assistance

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, C; Browne, G; Roberts, J; Ewart, B; Schuster, M; Underwood, J; Flynn-Kingston, S; Rennick, K; Bell, B; Gafni, A; Watt, S; Ashford, Y; Jamieson, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally recognized that poverty and depression can coexist among single parents receiving social assistance, there is insufficient research on this topic. The goals of this study therefore were to investigate the prevalence, correlates and health care expenditures associated with depression among sole-support parents receiving social assistance. METHODS: Sole-support parents who had applied for social assistance in 2 regions of southwestern Ontario were included in the study. Depression was diagnosed with the 1994 University of Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview short forms. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence rate of depressive disorder among the parents interviewed was 45.4% (345/760). A total of 247 (32.5%) had major depressive disorder alone, 19 (2.5%) had dysthymia, and 79 (10.4%) had both major depressive disorder and dysthymia ("double depression"). Those with major depressive disorder, particularly double depression, had significantly higher rates of coexisting psychiatric disorder than those without depressive disorders. Parents with depression reported higher rates of developmental delay and behaviour problems in their children than parents without depression. Expenditures for health care services were higher for parents with depression and for their children than for parents without depressive disorder and their children. INTERPRETATION: Single parents receiving social assistance have high rates of depression. Such parents with depression also have higher rates of other psychiatric disorders and higher expenditures for health care services, and their children have higher rates of developmental delay and behaviour problems. PMID:9559013

  14. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

  15. Unexpected Arrest-Related Deaths in America: 12 Months of Open Source Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jeffrey D.; Heegaard, William G.; Dawes, Donald M.; Natarajan, Sridhar; Reardon, Robert F.; Miner, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD) has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology. Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied. Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%); empty-hand techniques (69%); intermediate weapons such as TASER® device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%); and deadly force (12%). Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%), within the first hour (53%) and 1–48 hours (35%). Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons. Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings. PMID:19561821

  16. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  17. Career Trajectories of Dutch Pop Musicians: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten

    2010-01-01

    Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…

  18. Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

  19. Findings from longitudinal cohort studies: Gothenburg and Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Stessman, J; Hammerman-Rozenberg, R; Svanborg, A

    1996-08-01

    The longitudinal study of age-homogeneous cohorts is a powerful tool to elucidate age-related changes and to attempt to distinguish normal aging from the effects of disease. Many influences, such as the effect of changing lifestyle, medical practices and environmental factors with time must be considered when designing and interpreting such studies. Cross-cultural differences manifest in comparing different studies must also be accounted for, but alternately provide a tool to distinguish between endogenous and exogenous factors influencing human aging. The first stage of the longitudinal study of 70 year olds in Gothenburg, Sweden, a cross-sectional survey performed in 1971, is compared to a similar cross-sectional survey performed in Jerusalem in 1991 as part of a projected longitudinal study. The similarities between the two cohorts with regard to living conditions, functional independence and disease prevalence are striking. There are also significant contrasts that reflect the 20 years that elapsed between the execution of the two studies, as well as the cultural and social differences. In particular, the ethnic diversity of the Jerusalem population, hailing from 40 separate countries, is emphasized. The comparison of these two studies highlights many of the principles critical to the role of longitudinal cohort studies in gerontology. PMID:8816868

  20. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  1. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  2. The Longitudinal Study (LAS): Thirteen Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    This study is the fifth assessment in an 18-year longitudinal study begun in 1986 to follow a group of Montessori students who attended the Franciscan Montessori Earth School in Portland, Oregon. Participating were 45 students with an average age of 18 years, about half of whom were in high school and half in college. Students completed an online…

  3. A Longitudinal Case Study of Curriculum Genres, K-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    I have presented the findings from a longitudinal case study of one child's writing from kindergarten to grade 3, across different curriculum contexts, with a focus on writing in mathematics, social studies, science, and music. I describe changes in textual features of the child's writing over time, which support Newkirk's (1987) developmental…

  4. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  5. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Judge Leniency and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.

    This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…

  7. Predictors of Educational Attainment in the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…

  8. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26783077

  9. A Comparison of the Batterer Intervention and Prevention Program With Alternative Court Dispositions on 12-Month Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Wareham, Jennifer; Bartula, Aaron; Canas, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Studies of batterer intervention and prevention programs (BIPPs) offer mixed results regarding their effect on recidivism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of BIPP for cases assigned to a misdemeanor family court. This study focused on determining whether BIPP cases, compared with alternative sanctions, had significantly lower recidivism rates 12 months after program involvement. Findings indicated that BIPP was more effective than jail or regular dismissal in reducing the likelihood of future arrests, but not plea deferred adjudication and conditional dismissal. Results argue toward the efficacy of some form of treatment versus simply receiving jail time. PMID:26683096

  10. 78 FR 40104 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Northeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...We, NMFS, announce a 12-month finding on two petitions to list the northeastern Pacific (NEP) population of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We have completed a status review of the NEP white shark population in response to these petitions using the best available scientific and commercial data. Based on this review, we......

  11. Will Any Doll Do? 12-Month-Olds' Reasoning about Goal Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaepen, Elizabet; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Infants as young as 5 months of age view familiar actions such as reaching as goal-directed (Woodward, 1998), but how do they construe the goal of an actor's reach? Six experiments investigated whether 12-month-old infants represent reaching actions as directed to a particular individual object, to a narrowly defined object category (e.g., an…

  12. Biological Motion Displays Elicit Social Behavior in 12-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jennifer M. D.; Johnson, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that biological motion perception is developmentally integrated with important social cognitive abilities, 12-month-olds (N = 36) were shown a display of a human point-light figure turning to observe a target. Infants spontaneously and reliably followed the figure's "gaze" despite the absence of familiar and socially…

  13. The Flexibility of 12-Month-Olds' Preferences for Phonologically Appropriate Object Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather K.; Graham, Susan A.; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound--object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to…

  14. 5 CFR 550.705 - Criteria for meeting the requirement for 12 months of continuous employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of continuous employment is met if, on the date of separation, an employee has held one or more... 12 months of continuous employment. 550.705 Section 550.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.705...

  15. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  16. Intention to Leave, Anticipated Reasons for Leaving, and 12-Month Turnover of Child Care Center Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Elizabeth E.; Guzell, Jacqueline R.

    1997-01-01

    Job turnover among a sample of child care workers was examined in relation to demographic, work-related, and nonwork-related factors. Findings indicated that the perceived choice of other jobs and job tenure both have an impact on intention to leave, as well as on actual 12-month turnover. (Author)

  17. Understanding the Abstract Role of Speech in Communication at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Adult humans recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, demonstrating an ability to separate communicative function from linguistic content. We examined whether 12-month-old infants understand that speech can communicate before they understand the meanings of specific words. Specifically, we test the…

  18. Evidence for a Unitary Goal Concept in 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coenen, Lot

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether infants can transfer their goal attribution between situations that contain different types of information about the goal. We found that 12-month-olds who had attributed a goal based on the causal efficacy of a means-end action generated expectations about the actor's action in another scenario in which the actor could…

  19. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of Short Fiber-Reinforced Composite Resin in Posterior Teeth: 12-Months Report

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, S; Tanner, J; Vallittu, PK; Lassila, L

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary clinical trial evaluated 12 month clinical performance of novel filling composite resin system which combines short fiber-reinforced composite resin and conventional particulate filler composite resin in high stress bearing applications. A total of 37 class I and II restorations (compound and complex type) were placed in 6 premolars and 31 molars. The restorations were reviewed clinically at 6 months (baseline) and 12 months using modified USPHS codes change criteria for marginal adaptation, post-operative sensitivity, pulpal pain and secondary caries criteria. Photographs and x-rays were obtained for restorative analysis. Results of 12 months evaluation showed 5 restorations having little marginal leakage (B score) and 1 patient had minor pulpal symptom and post-operative sensitivity (B score). No secondary caries or bulk fracture was detected. The majority of restorations exhibited A scores of the evaluated criteria. After 12 months, restorations combining base of short fiber reinforced composite resin as substructure and surface layer of hybrid composite resin displayed promising performance in high load bearing areas. PMID:22408696

  20. Class Matters: 12-Month-Olds' Word-Object Associations Privilege Content over Function Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental step in learning words is the development of an association between a sound pattern and an element in the environment. Here we explore the nature of this associative ability in 12-month-olds, examining whether it is constrained to privilege particular word forms over others. Forty-eight infants were presented with sets of novel…

  1. Longitudinal Invariance of the Satisfaction with Life Scale for Individuals with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Brekke, John S.; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the longitudinal structural stability of a subjective quality of life measure in an ethnically diverse sample of 331 adults with schizophrenia. Methods: Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life (SWL) scale at entry to community-based mental health services and again at 6 and 12 months. Five types of…

  2. Morbid obese adults increased their sense of coherence 1 year after a patient education course: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Fagermoen, May Solveig; Hamilton, Glenys; Lerdal, Anners

    2015-01-01

    Background Personal factors are key elements to understand peoples’ health behavior. Studies of such factors are important to develop targeted interventions to improve health. The main purpose of this study is to explore sense of coherence (SOC) in a sample of persons with morbid obesity before and after attending a patient education course and to explore the association between SOC and sociodemographic and other personal factors. Methods In this longitudinal purposely sampled study, the participants completed questionnaires on the first day of the course and 12 months after course completion. Sixty-eight participants had valid scores on the selected variables at follow-up: SOC, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Relationships were assessed with correlation analyses and paired and independent samples t-tests and predictors with linear regression analyses. Results From baseline to follow-up, the total SOC score and the subdimension scores comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness all increased significantly. At both time points, the SOC scores were low compared to the general population but similar to scores in other chronically ill. At baseline, a multivariate analysis showed that older age, having paid work, and higher self-esteem were directly related to higher total SOC score after controlling for other sociodemographic factors and the participants’ level of self-efficacy. Multivariate analyses of the relationship between baseline predictors of SOC at 12-month follow-up, controlling for baseline SOC scores or sociodemographic or personal factors, revealed that none of these variables independently predicted SOC scores at follow-up. Conclusion The total SOC score and its subdimensions increased significantly at follow-up. SOC may be a useful outcome measure for lifestyle interventions in people with morbid obesity and possibly other health care problems. Subdimension scores may give an indication of what is poorly developed and needs strengthening

  3. Skeletal findings in the first 12 months following initiation of glucocorticoid therapy for pediatric nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Phan, V; Blydt-Hansen, T; Feber, J; Alos, N; Arora, S; Atkinson, S; Bell, L; Clarson, C; Couch, R; Cummings, EA; Filler, G; Grant, RM; Grimmer, J; Hebert, D; Lentle, B; Ma, J; Matzinger, M; Midgley, J; Pinsk, M; Rodd, C; Shenouda, N; Stein, R; Stephure, D; Taback, S; Williams, K; Rauch, F; Siminoski, K; Ward, LM

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vertebral fracture (VF) incidence following glucocorticoid (GC) initiation has not been previously reported in pediatric nephrotic syndrome. Methods VF were assessed on radiographs (Genant method); lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Sixty-five children were followed to 12 months post-GC initiation (median age: 5.4 years, range 2.3 to 17.9). Three of 54 children with radiographs (6%, 95% CI 2 to 15%) had incident VF at 1 year. The mean LS BMD Z-score was below the healthy average at baseline (mean ± SD −0.5 ± 1.1 p=0.001) and at 3 months (−0.6 ± 1.1 p<0.001), but not at 6 months (−0.3 ± 1.3, p=0.066) or 12 months (−0.3 ± 1.2, p=0.066). Mixed effect modeling showed a significant increase in LS BMD Z-scores between 3 and 12 months (0.22 SD, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.36, p=0.003). A sub-group (N=16; 25%) had LS BMD Z-scores that were ≤ −1.0 at 12 months. In these children, each additional 1000 mg/m2 of GC received in the first 3 months was associated with a decrease in LS BMD Z-score by 0.39 at 12 months (95% CI, −0.71 to −0.07; p=0.017). Conclusions The incidence of VF at 1 year was low and LS BMD Z-scores improved by 12 months in the majority. Twenty-five percent of children had LS BMD Z-scores ≤ −1.0 at 12 months. In these children, LS BMD Z-scores were inversely associated with early GC exposure, despite similar GC exposure compared to the rest of the cohort. PMID:23948876

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Principals' Activities and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Goldring, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of…

  5. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  6. NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL MORTALITY STUDY- NATIONAL DEATH INDEX RECORD LINKAGE (NLMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...

  7. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  9. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

  10. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  11. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  12. Assessing CLIL at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents aspects of a longitudinal study assessing integrative bilingual learning based on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), implemented in three Swiss primary schools. From Grades 1 to 6, three classes of German-speaking pupils were taught 50% of the curriculum, notably mathematics, in Italian or in Romansh as a second…

  13. Document Use during a Research Project: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; White, Marilyn Domas

    1995-01-01

    Provides preliminary results of a longitudinal, qualitative research study of document use by academic agricultural economists in actual situations. Topics include users' changing information needs, use patterns, decision making regarding relevant items, and criteria and decision rules used to read or cite documents across stages of research.…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  15. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  17. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  19. Connecticut Participation in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Department of Education Research Bulletin, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Statewide information concerning the Connecticut eight-grade public school students who particpated in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) in the spring of 1988 is presented. Over 900 students in 46 schools in 35 school districts, almost evenly divided between males and females, completed cognitive tests and student surveys about…

  20. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  1. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  2. Pain Perceptions of the Oldest Old: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  4. Planning Papers for the National Longitudinal Study of Chapter 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-297) require the U.S. Department of Education to conduct a national longitudinal study of Chapter 1 of the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The department commissioned the selection of experts qualified to provide design suggestions and advice for the national…

  5. The Influence of Back Pain and Urinary Incontinence on Daily Tasks of Mothers at 12 Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined back pain (BP) and/or urinary incontinence (UI) impact on the ability to perform daily tasks at 12 months after childbirth in healthy reproductive women who sought maternity care in community based family practice clinics. Methods This study is a secondary analysis from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported information on demographics, lifestyle, experiences with pregnancy and childbirth, occurrence of BP, UI and consequent impairment of daily tasks were collected by questionnaires administered before 25 weeks, at 34-36 weeks gestation and at 4 and 12 months postpartum. The occurrence and severity of BP and UI at one year after childbirth was assessed using descriptive and bivariate analyses. Logistic regression models examined the association between demographic and obstetrical variables and the severity of functional impairment due to UI and BP. Results From 1574 women with singleton pregnancies included in the study, 1212 (77%) experienced BP, 773 (49%) UI, and 620 (40%) both BP and UI. From the 821 women reporting impairment of daily tasks due to BP, 199 (24 %) were moderately and 90 (11%) severely affected with the remainder, 532 (64%) being mildly affected. From 267 women with functional impairment due to UI, 52 (19%) reported moderately to severe impairment in their ability to perform daily tasks. Obesity and parity were risk factors for impairment of daily functioning due to BP, whereas obesity and vaginal delivery increased the risk of moderate to severe impairment due to UI. Conclusions BP and UI are common occurrences 1 year after childbirth. Maternal performance of daily tasks and women’s health and quality of life are more often impaired due to BP than UI. Our study brings new evidence of the risk factors that predict severity and impact of these conditions on women functioning at 12 months postpartum. PMID:26083252

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  7. Urolastic—A New Bulking Agent for the Treatment of Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: Outcome of 12 Months Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Zajda, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33–71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events. PMID:24454351

  8. Urolastic-a new bulking agent for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: outcome of 12 months follow up.

    PubMed

    Zajda, Janusz; Farag, Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33-71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events. PMID:24454351

  9. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  10. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  11. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  12. Posttraumatic Distress and Physical Functioning: A Longitudinal Study of Injured Survivors of Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Jaycox, Lisa H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the cross-lagged relationships between posttraumatic distress symptoms and physical functioning, using a sample of 413 persons who were hospitalized for injuries resulting from community violence. Posttraumatic distress was assessed at 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months postinjury, and posttraumatic physical functioning was…

  13. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  14. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  15. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  16. Disease Relapses among Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis: A Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Tanaz A.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Kathleen; McAlear, Carol A.; Monach, Paul A.; Seo, Philip; Merkel, Peter A.; Ytterberg, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency, timing, and clinical features of relapses in giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods Patients with GCA enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal study were included in the analysis. Relapse was defined as either new disease activity after a period of remission or worsening disease activity. Results The study included 128 subjects: 102 women (80%) and 26 men (20%). Mean ± SD age at diagnosis of GCA was 69.9 ± 8.6 years. Mean followup for the cohort was 21.4 ± 13.9 months. Median (interquartile range) duration of disease at study enrollment was 4.6 months (1.2, 16.8). During followup, 59 relapses were observed in 44 patients (34%). Ten patients (8%) experienced 2 or more relapses. The most common symptoms at relapse were headache (42%) and polymyalgia rheumatica (51%), but ischemic (some transient) manifestations (visual symptoms, tongue or jaw claudication, and/or limb claudication) occurred in 29% of relapses (12% cohort). Forty-three relapses (73%) occurred while patients were taking glucocorticoid therapy at a median (range) prednisone dose of 7.5 (0–35) mg. In 21% of relapses, both erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were normal. Among 69 patients enrolled in the cohort with newly diagnosed disease, 24% experienced a first relapse within 12 months after diagnosis. Conclusion Among patients with GCA, relapses are common, often occurring during treatment. ESR and CRP are frequently normal at times of clinical relapse, highlighting the need for better biomarkers to assess disease activity in GCA. There remains a need for effective therapeutic alternatives to glucocorticoids in GCA. PMID:25877501

  17. Longitudinal cohort study describing persistent frequent attenders in Australian primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Pymont, Carly; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe patterns of frequent attendance in Australian primary care, and identify the prospective risk factors for persistent frequent attendance. Design, setting and participants This study draws on data from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Project, a representative community cohort study of residents from the Canberra region of Australia. Participants were assessed on 3 occasions over 8 years. The survey assessed respondents’ experience of chronic physical conditions, self-reported health, symptoms of common mental disorders, personality, life events, sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported medication use. A balanced sample was used in analysis, comprising 1734 respondents with 3 waves of data. The survey data for each respondent were individually linked to their administrative health service use data which were used to generate an objective measure of general practitioner (GP) consultations in the 12 months surrounding their interview date. Main outcome measures Respondents in the (approximate) highest decile of attenders on number of GP consultations over a 12-month period at each time point were defined as frequent attenders (FAs). Results Baseline FAs (8.4%) were responsible for 33.4% of baseline consultations, while persistent FAs (3.6%) for 15.5% of all consultations over the 3 occasions. While there was considerable movement between FA status over time, consistency was greater than expected by chance alone. While there were many factors that differentiated non-FAs from FAs in general, persistent frequent attendance was specifically associated with gender, baseline reports of depression, self-reported physical conditions and disability, and medication use. Conclusions The degree of persistence in GP consultations was limited. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the risk factors that predict subsequent persistent frequent attendance in primary care. However, further detailed

  18. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  19. A longitudinal study on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in dogs during their first year of life

    PubMed Central

    Hamnes, Inger S; Gjerde, Bjørn K; Robertson, Lucy J

    2007-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to obtain more knowledge about the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in young dogs in Norway. The occurrence of these parasites was investigated in a longitudinal study by repeated faecal sampling of dogs between 1 and 12 months of age (litter samples and individual samples). The dogs were privately owned and from four large breeds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 290 dogs from 57 litters when the dogs were approximately 3, 4, 6, and 12 months old. In addition, pooled samples were collected from 43 of the litters, and from 42 of the mother bitches, when the puppies were approximately 1 and/or 2 months old. Methods The samples were purified by sucrose gradient flotation concentration and examined by immunofluorescent staining. Results 128 (44.1%) of the young dogs had one or more Cryptosporidium positive samples, whilst 60 (20.7%) dogs had one or more Giardia positive samples. The prevalence of the parasites varied with age. For Cryptosporidium, the individual prevalence was between 5.1% and 22.5%, with the highest level in dogs < 6 months old, and declining with age. For Giardia, the individual prevalence was between 6.0% and 11.4%, with the highest level in dogs > 6 months old, but the differences between age groups were not statistically significant. Significant differences in prevalences were found in relation to geographic location of the dogs. Both parasites occurred at low prevalences in Northern Norway. Conclusion Both Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common in Norwegian dogs, with Cryptosporidium more prevalent than Giardia. Prevalences of the parasites were found to be influenced by age, geographical location, and infection status before weaning. PMID:17848186

  20. Root Coverage in Smokers with Acellular Dermal Matrix Graft and Enamel Matrix Derivative: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Priscila Paganini; Alves, Luciana Bastos; Souza, Sérgio Luís; Grisi, Márcio Fernando; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Taba, Mario; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether enamel matrix derivative (EMD) contributes to root coverage of gingival recessions performed with acellular dermal matrix graft (ADMG) in smokers during a 12-month follow-up. A sample of 19 smokers presenting bilateral Miller Class I or II gingival recessions were included. Selected sites randomly received both ADMG and EMD (test) or ADMG alone (control). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession height, keratinized tissue, and root coverage were evaluated. Mean gain in recession height (P < .05), sites with complete root coverage (P < .05), and percentage of root coverage (59.7% and 52.8%, respectively) favored the test group compared with the control group. PMID:27333010

  1. Correlation of EEG, CT, and MRI Brain with Neurological Outcome at 12 Months in Term Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Annu; Matthai, John; Paul, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To correlate electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with neurological outcome at 12 months in term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between June 2010 and November 2011. Consecutive term neonates with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were the subjects. All babies were managed as per standard protocol. EEG was done as soon as the baby was stable and CT brain within 7 days. MRI was done at 3 months. Neurodevelpmental assessment was done at 12 months. Results: Of the 31 babies, four died and one was lost to follow-up. Neurodevelopmental at 12 months of age was normal in 15 babies. EEG was normal in six babies and all of them had a normal neurodevelopment. Thirteen of the 14 babies with burst suppression pattern were abnormal (P<0.001). CT brain was normal in 14 and all of them had normal neurodevelopment (P<0.001), while 11 of the 12 with cerebral edema had abnormal outcome (P<0.001). Of the 16 babies with normal MRI, 14 were normal, while all six babies with abnormal signals in the cortex and thalamus had abnormal outcome (P=0.002). Conclusions: A normal EEG and CT brain in a term newborn with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with good neurological outcome. Burst suppression pattern in EEG, bleeds, or hypodensities in the CT and involvement of basal ganglia/thalamus in the MRI are predictors of abnormal outcome. PMID:24251256

  2. Neuropsychological Performance of Youth with Secondary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 6- and 12-Months after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ornstein, Tisha J.; Sagar, Sanya; Schachar, Russell J.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Dennis, Maureen; Saunders, Ann E.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.; Max, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6–16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n = 177) and evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview scheduled on three occasions (within 2 weeks of TBI, i.e., baseline assessment for pre-injury status; 6-months and 12-months post-TBI). This permitted the determination of 6- and 12-month post-injury classifications of membership in three mutually exclusive groups (S-ADHD; pre-injury ADHD; TBI-only). Several executive control measures were administered. Unremitted S-ADHD was present in 17/141 (12%) children at the 6-month assessment, and in 14/125 (11%) children at 12-months post-injury. The study found that children with S-ADHD exhibited deficient working memory, attention, and psychomotor speed as compared to children with pre-injury ADHD. Furthermore, the children with S-ADHD and the children with TBI-only were impaired compared to the children with pre-injury ADHD with regard to planning. No group differences related to response inhibition emerged. Age, but not injury severity, gender, or adaptive functioning was related to executive function outcome. Neuropsychological sequelae distinguish among children who develop S-ADHD following TBI and those with TBI only. Moreover, there appears to be a different pattern of executive control performance in those who develop S-ADHD than in children with pre-injury ADHD suggesting that differences exist in the underlying neural mechanisms that define each disorder, underscoring the need to identify targeted treatment interventions. PMID:25489810

  3. Temporal dynamics of arousal and attention in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wass, S V; Clackson, K; de Barbaro, K

    2016-07-01

    Research from the animal literature suggests that dynamic, ongoing changes in arousal lead to dynamic changes in an individual's state of anticipatory readiness, influencing how individuals distribute their attention to the environment. However, multiple peripheral indices exist for studying arousal in humans, each showing change on different temporal scales, challenging whether arousal is best characterized as a unitary or a heterogeneous construct. Here, in 53 typical 12-month-olds, we recorded heart rate (HR), head movement patterns, electrodermal activity (EDA), and attention (indexed via look duration) during the presentation of 20 min of mixed animations and TV clips. We also examined triggers for high arousal episodes. Using cross-correlations and auto-correlations, we found that HR and head movement show strong covariance on a sub-minute scale, with changes in head movement consistently preceding changes in HR. EDA showed significant covariance with both, but on much larger time-scales. HR and head movement showed consistent relationships with look duration, but the relationship is temporally specific: relations are observed between head movement, HR and look duration at 30 s time-lag, but not at larger time intervals. No comparable relationships were found for EDA. Changes in head movement and HR occurred before changes in look duration, but not for EDA. Our results suggest that consistent patterns of covariation between heart rate, head movement and EDA can be identified, albeit on different time-scales, and that associations with look duration are present for head movement and heart rate, but not for EDA. Our results suggests that there is a single construct of arousal that can identified across multiple measures, and that phasic changes in arousal precede phasic changes in look duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 623-639, 2016. PMID:26999073

  4. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dias E Dias de Macedo, Liliane; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly. PMID:26316730

  5. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176

  6. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  7. The Experience of Being a Guide Dog Puppy Raiser Volunteer: A Longitudinal Qualitative Collective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Chur-Hansen, Anna; Werner, Lucy-Kate; McGuiness, Clare E.; Hazel, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Guide dogs are important service animals. They cannot be trained without the input of volunteer puppy raisers, who serve as custodians for the animals for around 12 months. To date very little research has considered the experience of being a guide dog puppy raiser, including the costs and benefits to psychological, physical and social health. In this study one litter of puppies and their raisers were followed from before the animal arrived until one year had passed. Overall, less positive experiences were reported than more negative ones. This has implications for the organisations that seek volunteers to raise service animals. Abstract There are no published studies that consider the experiences of guide dog puppy raisers. As these people are volunteers, their continued willingness to participate in the training of dogs for assisting the vision impaired and blind is essential for the viability of guide dog schools around the world. Using a qualitative, longitudinal methodology, data were collected from nine guide dog puppy raisers at four time points: before receiving the puppy, one week, then three months after the puppy arrived, and 13 months after the puppy arrived (at which time all puppies had left the raisers). Participants reported more challenges than benefits in raising the puppies. Volunteering to be a guide dog puppy raiser may not be the pleasant experience that is anticipated when community members first offer their services. Understanding what it is like to be a puppy raiser and working towards ways in which to address problems is essential, given that, without volunteers to train and care for puppies, vision impaired and blind people would not have access to guide dogs. PMID:26479133

  8. Peak Oxygen Uptake after Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 12-Month Maintenance Program versus Usual Care

    PubMed Central

    Madssen, Erik; Arbo, Ingerid; Granøien, Ingrid; Walderhaug, Liv; Moholdt, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise capacity improves after cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, but previous studies have demonstrated a decline in peak oxygen uptake after ending a formal rehabilitation program. There is a lack of knowledge on how long-term exercise adherence can be achieved in CAD patients. We therefore assessed if a 12-month maintenance program following cardiac rehabilitation would lead to increased adherence to exercise and increased exercise capacity compared to usual care. Materials and Methods Two-centre, open, parallel randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up comparing usual care to a maintenance program. The maintenance program consisted of one monthly supervised high intensity interval training session, a written exercise program and exercise diary, and a maximum exercise test every third month during follow-up. Forty-nine patients (15 women) on optimal medical treatment were included following discharge from cardiac rehabilitation. The primary endpoint was change in peak oxygen uptake at follow-up; secondary endpoints were physical activity level, quality of life and blood markers of cardiovascular risk. Results There was no change in peak oxygen uptake from baseline to follow-up in either group (intervention group 27.9 (±4.7) to 28.8 (±5.6) mL·kg (-1) min (−1), control group 32.0 (±6.2) to 32.8 (±5.8) mL·kg (−1) min (−1), with no between-group difference, p = 0.22). Quality of life and blood biomarkers remained essentially unchanged, and both self-reported and measured physical activity levels were similar between groups after 12 months. Conclusions A maintenance exercise program for 12 months did not improve adherence to exercise or peak oxygen uptake in CAD patients after discharge from cardiac rehabilitation compared to usual care. This suggests that infrequent supervised high intensity interval training sessions are

  9. Language Differences at 12 Months in Infants Who Develop Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lazenby, DeWayne C; Sideridis, Georgios D; Huntington, Noelle; Prante, Matthew; Dale, Philip S; Curtin, Suzanne; Henkel, Lisa; Iverson, Jana M; Carver, Leslie; Dobkins, Karen; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Tagavi, Daina; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about early language development in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed prospective data from 346 infants, some of whom were at high risk for developing ASD, to determine if language differences could be detected at 12 months of age in the infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Analyses revealed lower receptive and expressive language scores in infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Controlling for overall ability to understand and produce single words, a Rasch analysis indicated that infants who later developed ASD had a higher degree of statistically unexpected word understanding and production. At 12 months of age, quantitative and qualitative language patterns distinguished infants who later developed ASD from those who did not. PMID:26476738

  10. The flexibility of 12-month-olds' preferences for phonologically appropriate object labels.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Heather K; Graham, Susan A; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound-object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to sets of Czech words with onsets that are illegal in English (e.g., ptak), consonantal sounds (e.g., /l/), or novel functionlike words (e.g., iv). When infants were provided with a training phase that highlighted the purpose of the task, they associated the phonotactically illegal Czech words, but not the consonantal sounds or novel functionlike words, with objects. Thus, English-learning 12-month-old infants' flexibility in associating various sound forms with novel objects is limited to labels that share the structural shape of well-formed nounlike words. PMID:23815699

  11. Modifiable determinants of youth violence in Australia and the United States: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Smith, Rachel; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F; McMorris, Barbara J; Romaniuk, Helena

    2009-12-01

    Youth violence is a global problem. The major research into youth violence has been conducted in the United States (U.S.) and there has been little research to investigate whether the prevalence or predictors are similar in comparable Western countries like Australia. In the current paper, analyses are conducted using two waves of data collected as part of a cross-national longitudinal study of adolescent development in approximately 4000 students aged 12 to 16 years in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, U.S.. Students completed a self-report survey of problem behaviours including violent behaviour, as well as risk and protective factors across five domains (individual, family, peer, school, community).Compared to Washington State, rates of attacking or beating another over the past 12-months were lower in Victoria for females in the first survey and higher for Victorian males in the follow-up survey. Preliminary analyses did not show state-specific predictors of violent behaviour. Therefore, the final multivariate model included the combined Washington State and Victorian samples. In the multivariate model, protective factors were being female and student emotion control. Risk factors were prior violent behaviour, family conflict, association with violent peers, community disorganisation, community norms favourable to drug use, school suspensions, and arrests. A major implication of these findings is that the range of factors that influence violent behaviour in North America may also apply in Australia. Hence, the application of U.S. early intervention and prevention programs may be warranted, with some tailoring to the Australian context. PMID:20204170

  12. Spatial Habitat Features Derived from Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Are Associated with Molecular Subtype and 12-Month Survival Status in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonsang; Narang, Shivali; Martinez, Juan; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumors is Glioblastoma multiforme. Despite the multimodality treatment such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide: TMZ), the median survival rate of glioblastoma patient is less than 15 months. In this study, we investigated the association between measures of spatial diversity derived from spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data with molecular status as well as 12-month survival in glioblastoma. We obtained 27 measures of spatial proximity (diversity) via spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI data. These measures were used to predict 12-month survival status (≤12 or >12 months) in 74 glioblastoma patients. Kaplan-Meier with receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to assess the relationship between derived spatial features and 12-month survival status as well as molecular subtype status in patients with glioblastoma. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that 14 spatial features were capable of stratifying overall survival in a statistically significant manner. For prediction of 12-month survival status based on these diversity indices, sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 and 0.64, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the accuracy were 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. For prediction of molecular subtype status, proneural subtype shows highest accuracy of 0.93 among all molecular subtypes based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. We find that measures of spatial diversity from point pattern analysis of intensity habitats from T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images are associated with both tumor subtype status and 12-month survival status and may therefore be useful indicators of patient prognosis, in addition to providing potential guidance for molecularly-targeted therapies in

  13. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  14. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  15. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  16. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  17. 77 FR 60509 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding for the Lemmon Fleabane...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list as an endangered or threatened species Erigeron lemmonii (Lemmon fleabane). After a review of the best available scientific information we find that listing the Lemmon fleabane as an endangered or threatened species is no longer warranted, and therefore we are removing this species from the......

  18. The association between self-reported racial discrimination and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders among Asian Americans nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael; Chen, Juan; Yip, Tiffany; Takeuchi, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Growing research finds that reports of discrimination are associated with mental health. However, many US studies are focused on regional samples and do not control for important confounders such as other stressors and health conditions. The present study examines the association between self-reported racial discrimination and DSM-IV defined mental disorders among Asian respondents to the 2002–2003 US National Latino and Asian American Study (n=2,047). Logistic regression analyses indicated that self-reported racial discrimination was associated with greater odds of having any DSM-IV disorder, depressive disorder, or anxiety disorder within the past 12 months -- controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, acculturative stress, family cohesion, poverty, self-rated health, chronic physical conditions, and social desirability. Further, multinomial logistic regression found that individuals who reported discrimination were at a twofold greater risk of having one disorder within the past 12 months, and a threefold greater risk of having two or more disorders. Thus, self-reported discrimination was associated with increased risk of mental disorders among Asian Americans across the United States and this relationship was not explained by social desirability, physical health, other stressors, and sociodemographic factors. Should these associations ultimately be shown enduring and causal, they suggest that policies designed to reduce discrimination may help improve mental health. PMID:17374553

  19. Positive aspects of caregiving as a moderator of treatment outcome over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Hilgeman, Michelle M; Allen, Rebecca S; DeCoster, Jamie; Burgio, Louis D

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the influence of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) as a moderator of treatment outcome across 12 months in 1 of the original sites of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health I project. They used multilevel random coefficients regression analysis to predict time-varying PAC, depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden in Alzheimer's caregivers (N = 243; mean age = 60.89, SD = 14.19). They found that time-varying PAC was predicted by time-varying daily care burden. They also found significant effects of time-varying PAC for depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden. Notably, a PAC x Phase x Treatment effect was found for daily care burden, such that individuals who endorsed less PAC benefited most from the intervention across 12 months. The tendency to positively appraise the caregiving experience (i.e., PAC) in response to chronic stressors such as Alzheimer's caregiving may affect individuals' responsiveness to, and benefit from, interventions, whereas only daily care burden affected the tendency to find enjoyment in caregiving across 12 months. Future intervention research should assess individual PAC in order to better tailor interventions to caregiving needs. PMID:17563191

  20. Coping Skills Training for Parents of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah S.; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lindemann, Evie

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is recognized that caring for a child with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is stressful for parents, few interventions have been developed and tested for this population. Objectives To compare a group educational intervention for parents of children with T1D to a coping skills training intervention. Method Parents of children with T1D were randomized to the group educational (n = 106) or coping skills training (n = 75) conditions. Parents completed measures of family conflict, responsibility for treatment, coping, and quality of life at baseline and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Clinical data (i.e., HbA1c) were collected from children’s medical records pre- and postintervention. Results There were no significant treatment effects 12 months postintervention, but parents in both groups reported improved coping (p < .001), less responsibility for treatment management (p < .001), and improved quality of life (p = .005). While children’s metabolic control worsened over time, mean values at 12 months were still within the recommended levels in this well-controlled sample (HbA1c < 8%). Discussion Group-based interventions for parents of children with T1D may lessen the impact of treatment management, improving coping and quality of life. PMID:21522034

  1. A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-02-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour across three domains in children tested at 24 and 36 months (N = 56). Although both knowledge and sex-typed behaviour increased significantly between 2 and 3 years, there was no systematic pattern of cross-lagged correlations between the two, although some concurrent relationships were present at 24 months. Future longitudinal work might profitably focus on younger children using reliable preverbal measures of gender knowledge and employing a shorter lag between measurement times. PMID:15323112

  2. Managing Endings in a Longitudinal Study: Respect for Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.

  3. Cohort profile: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Wijnstok, Nienke J; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G; Twisk, Jos W R

    2013-04-01

    The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGHLS) is a unique, multidisciplinary cohort study that was initially set up to examine growth and health among teenagers. Throughout the years, the AGHLS has aimed to answer research questions dealing with the relationships between the (natural) development of anthropometry, lifestyle and health from adolescence into adulthood. The AGHLS specifically focuses on anthropometrics, physical activity and fitness, cardiovascular disease risk, lifestyle, musculoskeletal health, psychological health and well-being. Besides this, many methodological issues related to the analysis of longitudinal data were also explored within the framework of the AGHLS. In 1976, students from two secondary schools from the greater Amsterdam area were included in the study. Between 1976 and 2006, 10 rounds of measurement were performed covering an age range between 13 and 43 years. The huge database collected so far has been primarily used to answer relevant research questions regarding the longitudinal relationship between lifestyle and health. Further information about the study can be obtained from the principal investigator Jos Twisk (jwr.twisk@vumc.nl), and up-to-date information on AGHLS can be found by visiting the website www.aggo.nl. PMID:22434862

  4. Longitudinal relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic factors in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jina; Elci, Okan U; Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie W; Styn, Mindi A; Sereika, Susan M; Music, Edvin; Burke, Lora E

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have reported longitudinal relationships between physical activity (PA) and cardiometabolic risk factors over time using repeated assessments in overweight or obese adults. We conducted a longitudinal study in 127 participants (81% with body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)) who completed a 12-month behavioral intervention for weight loss between 2003 and 2005 in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Using absolute change scores from baseline to each time point (i.e., 6 and 12 months) for all studied variables (Delta = time point - baseline), we performed mixed effects modeling to examine relationships between PA and cardiometabolic risk factors, after adjusting for body weight, energy intake and other covariates (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity). PA was assessed as energy expenditure (kcal/week) using the Paffenbarger activity questionnaire. Over the 12-month period, energy expenditure increased (Delta1,370 kcal/week at 6 months vs. Delta886 kcal/week at 12 months); body weight decreased (Delta8.9 kg at 6 months vs. Delta8.4 kg at 12 months). The average increase in energy expenditure over 12 months was significantly and independently related to reductions in total cholesterol (F = 6.25, p = 0.013), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (F = 5.08, p = 0.025) and fasting blood glucose (F = 5.10, p = 0.025), but not to other risk factors (i.e., fasting insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and waist circumference). In conclusion, among overweight and obese adults undergoing a weight loss intervention, increased energy expenditure over 12 months may improve total cholesterol and LDL-C, important coronary risk factors, and fasting blood glucose, a metabolic risk factor. PMID:19806358

  5. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users: 12-month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly; DeFulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Oral naltrexone could be a promising relapse-prevention pharmacotherapy for recently detoxified opioid-dependent patients; however, interventions are often needed to promote adherence with this treatment approach. We recently conducted a study to evaluate a 26-week employment-based reinforcement intervention of oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users (Dunn et al., 2013). Participants were randomly assigned into a contingency (n = 35) group required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain entry into a therapeutic workplace or a prescription (n = 32) group given a take-home supply of oral naltrexone and access to the workplace without observed ingestion. Monthly urine samples were collected and analyzed for evidence for naltrexone adherence, opioid use, and cocaine use. As previously reported, contingency participants provided significantly more naltrexone-positive urine samples than prescription participants during the 26-week intervention period. The goal of this current study is to report the 12-month outcomes, which occurred 6 months after the intervention ended. Results at the 12-month visit showed no between-groups differences in naltrexone-positive, opioid-negative, or cocaine-negative urine samples and no participant self-reported using naltrexone at the follow-up visit. These results show that even after a period of successfully reinforced oral naltrexone adherence, longer-term naltrexone use is unlikely to be maintained after reinforcement contingencies are discontinued. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134047

  6. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  7. Gastrointestinal tract development in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves from 1 to 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K J; Hoskin, S O; Jopson, N B; Mackintosh, C G; Hofstra, G; Thompson, B R; Stevens, D R

    2013-11-01

    This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same

  8. Increased periosteal circumference remains present 12 months after an exercise intervention in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    We previously reported that calcium intake enhanced the leg bone response to physical activity of preschool children in a 12-month randomized trial of calcium supplementation and physical activity. To determine whether the intervention-induced changes in leg bone mineral content and size were maintained through the subsequent 12-month follow-up period, total body bone measurements by DXA and 20% distal tibia pQCT bone measurements were obtained at 24 months (12 months post-intervention). Children also were measured for height and weight, and accelerometer readings were obtained in a subset of children at 18 and 24 months (6 and 12 months post-intervention). Regression analyses were performed controlling for covariates and indicated that increases from 12 to 24 months were greater in the gross motor (GM) activity group (bone loading, large muscle exercises) vs. fine motor (FM) activity group (arts and crafts program) for arm bone area (BA) (P <0.01), total body (P=0.04) and arm (P <0.01) bone mineral content (BMC). There were no differences in BA or BMC changes from 12 to 24 months by calcium supplementation. Differences in tibia periosteal circumference by pQCT persisted at 24 months (GM 51.4 +/- 0.4 mm vs. FM 50.2 +/- 0.4 mm, P=0.03) with a trend for greater endosteal circumferences in the children in the GM vs. FM groups at both 12 and 24 months (both, P=0.08). There were no significant differences in cortical area or thickness by activity or supplement group at 24 months. Children in the GM group had greater accelerometer counts/day (P=0.04) and more time in vigorous activity (P=0.05) at 18 months compared to FM group. No differences in accelerometer readings were noted at 24 months. In conclusion, we found higher activity levels in children randomized to gross motor vs. fine motor activities 6 months after the intervention program ceased. Whether the greater periosteal circumference that was observed 12 months post-intervention was a persistent biological bone

  9. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078

  10. Comparison of measures of comorbidity for predicting disability 12-months post-injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that impact on disability is necessary to inform trauma care and enable adequate risk adjustment for benchmarking and monitoring. A key consideration is how to adjust for pre-existing conditions when assessing injury outcomes, and whether the inclusion of comorbidity is needed in addition to adjustment for age. This study compared different approaches to modelling the impact of comorbidity, collected as part of the routine hospital episode data, on disability outcomes following orthopaedic injury. Methods 12-month Glasgow Outcome Scale – Extended (GOS-E) outcomes for 13,519 survivors to discharge were drawn from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry, a prospective cohort study of admitted orthopaedic injury patients. ICD-10-AM comorbidity codes were mapped to four comorbidity indices. Cases with a GOS-E score of 7–8 were considered “recovered”. A split dataset approach was used with cases randomly assigned to development or test datasets. Logistic regression models were fitted with “recovery” as the outcome and the performance of the models based on each comorbidity index (adjusted for injury and age) measured using calibration (Hosmer-Lemshow (H-L) statistics and calibration curves) and discrimination (Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC)) statistics. Results All comorbidity indices improved model fit over models with age and injuries sustained alone. None of the models demonstrated acceptable model calibration (H-L statistic p < 0.05 for all models). There was little difference between the discrimination of the indices for predicting recovery: Charlson Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71); number of ICD-10 chapters represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.72); number of six frequent chronic conditions represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.71); and the Functional Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.69, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71). Conclusions The presence of ICD-10 recorded comorbid

  11. Prevalence, incidence and course of lower extremity injuries in runners during a 12-month follow-up period.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, D; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; van Middelkoop, M; Verhagen, A P

    2014-12-01

    To describe the incidence, 12-month prevalence, and course of lower extremity injuries that occurred during and after the Amgen Singelloop Breda in 2009. The design was based on a prospective cohort study with a population-based setting. In total, 3605 registered runners received a web-based baseline questionnaire of which 713 participants completed and returned it. Information about previous injuries, training programs, and demographic data were gathered at baseline. Site and intensity of running injuries and occurrence of new injuries were obtained from five post-race questionnaires. The main outcome measurement was lower extremity injury. The incidence of running injuries during the Amgen Singelloop Breda itself was 7.8%; most of these injuries occurred in the calf muscle, thigh, and knee joint. Three-month incidence of injuries during follow-up varied between 13.5% and 16.3%. During the 12-month follow-up period, 277 new running injuries were reported. Runners who ran more than 10 km are more susceptible to injury in comparison with runners who ran short distances (10 km or less). In total, 69.1% of running injuries resolves within 10 days. Running injuries are very common among recreational runners. Injuries mostly occur in the knee, thigh, and calf muscle. PMID:23957385

  12. Neuropsychological impact of Cg25 deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: preliminary results over 12 months.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Heather E; Mayberg, Helen S; Lozano, Andres M; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate preservation of cognitive function after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate (Cg25) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We have previously reported on the treatment methods, safety, and 6-month clinical outcome (Mayberg et al., Neuron. 2005;45:651-660). Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments tapping 4 domains of frontal lobe function, and general cognitive abilities, were completed before implantation and at 3, 6, and 12 months postonset of continuous DBS in 6 TRD patients. No adverse neuropsychological effects were noted following surgery, onset and maintenance of DBS with the exception of transient motor slowing noted at 3 and 6 months that improved to normative levels by 12 months. Several areas of cognition that were below average or impaired at baseline improved over follow-up, and these changes were not correlated with improvements in mood. Though the sample size is small, these results support cognitive safety of Cg25 DBS for TRD. PMID:18477883

  13. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents’ perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. Method A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Results Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident’s role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents’ understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. Conclusions This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice. PMID:27004074

  14. Intergenerational transmission of parenting: findings from a UK longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Vaishnavee; Domoney, Jill; Aumayer, Katie; Sethna, Vaheshta; Iles, Jane; Hubbard, Isabelle; Giannakakis, Andreas; Psychogiou, Lamprini

    2015-01-01

    Background: The quality of parenting is associated with a wide range of child and adult outcomes, and there is evidence to suggest that some aspects of parenting show patterns of intergenerational transmission. This study aimed to determine whether such intergenerational transmission occurs in mothers and fathers in a UK birth cohort. Methods: The study sample consisted of 146 mothers and 146 fathers who were recruited from maternity wards in England and followed up for 24 months [‘Generation 2’ (G2)]. Perceptions of their own parenting [by ‘Generation1’ (G1)] were assessed from G2 parents at 12 months using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). G2 parents were filmed interacting with their ‘Generation 3’ (G3) children at 24 months. Results: We found that G1 mothers’ ‘affection’ was associated with positive parenting behaviour in the G2 fathers (‘positive responsiveness’ β = 0.19, P = 0.04 and ‘cognitive stimulation’ β = 0.26, P < 0.01). G1 mothers’ ‘control’ was associated with negative parenting behaviour in G2 mothers (decreased ‘engagement’ β = −0.19, P = 0.04), and negative parenting behaviour in G2 fathers (increased ‘control’ β = 0.18, P = 0.05). None of the G1 fathers’ parenting variables were significantly associated with G2 parenting. Conclusions: There is evidence of intergenerational transmission of parenting behaviour in this highly educated UK cohort, with reported parenting of grandmothers associated with observed parenting in both mothers and fathers. No association was seen with reported parenting of grandfathers. This raises the possibility that parenting interventions may have benefits that are realised across generations. PMID:26037954

  15. Face-Scanning Behavior to Silently-Talking Faces in 12-Month-Old Infants: The Impact of Pre-Exposed Auditory Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Claudia; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Dupierrix, Eve; Loevenbruck, Helene; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    The present eye-tracking study aimed to investigate the impact of auditory speech information on 12-month-olds' gaze behavior to silently-talking faces. We examined German infants' face-scanning behavior to side-by-side presentation of a bilingual speaker's face silently speaking German utterances on one side and French on the other…

  16. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  17. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  18. Mycobacterium ulcerans Ecological Dynamics and Its Association with Freshwater Ecosystems and Aquatic Communities: Results from a 12-Month Environmental Survey in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Roche, Benjamin; Kamgang, Roger; Ossomba, Joachim; Babonneau, Jérémie; Landier, Jordi; Fontanet, Arnaud; Flahault, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) is the agent responsible for Buruli Ulcer (BU), an emerging skin disease with dramatic socioeconomic and health outcomes, especially in rural settings. BU emergence and distribution is linked to aquatic ecosystems in tropical and subtropical countries, especially to swampy and flooded areas. Aquatic animal organisms are likely to play a role either as host reservoirs or vectors of the bacilli. However, information on MU ecological dynamics, both in space and time, is dramatically lacking. As a result, the ecology of the disease agent, and consequently its mode of transmission, remains largely unknown, which jeopardizes public health attempts for its control. The objective of this study was to gain insight on MU environmental distribution and colonization of aquatic organisms through time. Methodology/Principal Findings Longitudinal sampling of 32 communities of aquatic macro-invertebrates and vertebrates was conducted from different environments in two BU endemic regions in Cameroon during 12 months. As a result, 238,496 individuals were classified and MU presence was assessed by qPCR in 3,084 sample-pools containing these aquatic organisms. Our study showed a broad distribution of MU in all ecosystems and taxonomic groups, with important regional differences in its occurrence. Colonization dynamics fluctuated along the year, with the highest peaks in August and October. The large variations observed in the colonization dynamics of different taxonomic groups and aquatic ecosystems suggest that the trends shown here are the result of complex ecological processes that need further investigation. Conclusion/Perspectives This is the largest field study on MU ecology to date, providing the first detailed description of its spatio-temporal dynamics in different aquatic ecosystems within BU endemic regions. We argue that coupling this data with fine-scale epidemiological data through statistical and mathematical models will provide a

  19. Predictors of Change in Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Population in Hawaii at 6 and 12 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Joy C.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Liu, Min; Banna, Jinan C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting behaviors have been shown to co-exist, but it is unknown if decisional balance with regards to one health behavior may predict change in another behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between benefits (pros) and costs (cons) of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) and behavior over time, both within behaviors and transbehaviorally. This longitudinal study was conducted in multiethnic adults in Hawaii (n = 700; 63% female; mean age = 47 years; mean BMI = 25.9; mean education = 14.5 years, average household income = $45,000/year). Questionnaires assessed PA and FV pros/cons on a 5-point Likert Scale, PA (MET-min/wk), and FV intake (servings/day). Multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between pros/cons for PA and FV intake and behavior at 6- and 12-month follow-up. At baseline, average FV pros were 4.08 (.91), and average FV cons were 1.88 (.90). Average baseline PA pros were 4.07 (.89), and average PA cons were 1.71 (.77). Multiple regressions revealed that baseline FV pros and cons predicted FV intake, FV cons also predicted PA, and PA pros and cons were not predictive of PA or of FV intake. Study findings provide some support for decisional balance as a useful core construct used in leading theories of behavior change. Improving decisional balance for FV intake may have a beneficial effect on FV intake and potentially PA, indicating a potential gateway effect of decisional balance for FV intake on other behaviors.

  20. 77 FR 20885 - Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    .... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....mclamb@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey... Control Number: 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey). Type of Review: New data collection....

  1. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  2. Possible Biomarkers of Chronic Stress Induced Exhaustion - A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wallensten, Johanna; Åsberg, Marie; Nygren, Åke; Szulkin, Robert; Wallén, Håkan; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Nager, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) have previously been suggested to be potential biomarkers for chronic stress induced exhaustion. The knowledge about VEGF has increased during the last decades and supports the contention that VEGF plays an important role in stress and depression. There is scarce knowledge on the possible relationship of EGF and MCP-1 in chronic stress and depression. This study further examines the role of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and healthy women during a follow-up period of two years. Methods and Findings Blood samples were collected from 105 women with chronic stress induced exhaustion on at least 50% sick leave for at least three months, at inclusion (T0), after 12 months (T12) and after 24 months (T24). Blood samples were collected at inclusion (T0) in 116 physically and psychiatrically healthy women. The plasma levels of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 were analyzed using Biochip Array Technology. Women with chronic stress induced exhaustion had significantly higher plasma levels of VEGF and EGF compared to healthy women at baseline, T12 and at T24. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MCP-1. Plasma levels of VEGF and EGF decreased significantly in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion during the two years follow-up. Conclusions The replicated findings of elevated levels of VEGF and EGF in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and decreasing plasma levels of VEGF and EGF during the two years follow-up add important knowledge to the pathophysiology of chronic stress induced exhaustion. PMID:27145079

  3. TRialing individualized interventions to prevent functional decline in at-risk older adults (TRIIFL): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial nested in a longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional decline (FD) is a largely preventable feature of aging, characterized as gradual erosion of functional autonomy. This reduces an older person’s capacity for safe, independent community living. The healthcare needs of an unprecedented aging population places pressure on health systems to develop innovative approaches to ensuring older people live healthy and independent lives for as long as possible. TRIIFL aims to demonstrate that: 1. Incipient FD in older people can be identified using a simple telephone-screening process within four weeks of discharge from an emergency department presentation for a minor health event; and 2. Early engagement into a person-centered individualized intervention arrests or reduces the rate of FD over the next 12 months. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (RCT) nested within a 13-month longitudinal cohort study. The RCT (conducted over 12 months) tests the effectiveness of a novel, early, home-based, personalized program (compared with no intervention) in arresting or slowing FD. TRIIFL focuses on older adults living independently in the community, who have not yet had a serious health event, yet are potentially on the cusp of FD. Participants in the longitudinal cohort study will be recruited as they present to one large tertiary hospital Emergency Department, providing they are not subsequently admitted to a ward. Sample size calculations indicate that 570 participants need to be recruited into the longitudinal study, with 100 participants randomized into the trial arms. Measures from all subjects will be taken face-to-face at baseline (recruitment), then subsequently by telephone at one, four, seven and thirteen months later. Measures include functional abilities, quality of life, recent falls, mobility dependence, community supports and health service usage. Specific to the nested RCT, the quality of life tool (SF12) applied at one month, will identify individuals with low mental component quality

  4. [Longitudinal change in independence in the elderly--Kahoku Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS)].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, K; Okumiya, K; Kawamoto, A; Kimura, S; Wada, T; Fujisawa, M; Doi, Y; Shimada, K; Ozawa, T

    1994-10-01

    A community based study named Kahoku Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS) was conducted since 1990 for the purpose of evaluating the comprehensive geriatric functional assessment (CGA) and preventing a decline in CGA in the community-dwelling elderly population. It was carried out in a Japanese rural town, in which 32% of the population was over 65 years of age. This study included a questionnaire about activity of daily living (ADL), information-related physical function, mental (cognitive and affective) and social functional domains. In addition to subjective informative instruments, various types of objective assessment such as quantitative neuro-behavioral function tests and medical examinations were performed. Subjects were all the eligible elderly aged over 65 years in the community. Although the ratio of subjects who were independent in ADL decreased with advancing age in both 1991 and 1993, the ratio of the independent elderly in ADL became significant higher (74%) in 1993 than in 1991 (71%). Scores on 2 kinds of neurobehavioral function tests in the 159 subjects aged over 75 years who attended the examination every year showed a significant and slight decrease during two years. However, some test indices significantly improved during the 2 years. These results suggested that age-related dependency in ADL and some kind of neurobehavioral functions might be prevented, in part, by health promoting education and improvement of life style. PMID:7853739

  5. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  6. Learning Shade Differentiation Using Toothguide Trainer and Toothguide Training Box: A Longitudinal Study with Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Olms, Constanze; Jakstat, H

    2016-02-01

    The positive training effect achieved with the Toothguide Training Box (TTB) has been demonstrated in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the training effect with the TTB at six and 12 months using standardized color tests. The study involved 101 dental students. The participants were divided into two study groups and one control group. Ten standard color samples were determined under uniform environmental conditions with VITA 3D-Master. The control group (N=30) took the color test after one week. Study group 1 (N=49) took the color test after six months and study group 2 (N=22) at 12 months for the first time by following the TTB curriculum. The control group achieved an average ΔEt1=0.85. In study group 1, the ΔEt2 was 2.29, and in study group 2, ΔEt3=2.25. The results after six and 12 months were highly significant compared to the control group (α=0.001). Dependence was determined only with regard to gender. In this study, the TTB quickly led to an improvement in tooth color differentiation among students. After six months, there was a decrease in the training effect. These results suggest that the TTB curriculum should be provided at the end of preclinical training. PMID:26834136

  7. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  8. Gender and relational differences in sensitivity to internal and external cues at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Watson, John S; Futo, Judit; Fonagy, Peter; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences favoring women in relation to awareness of the subjective (internal) world are well demonstrated but their origins are poorly understood. We trained 173 12-month-olds to visually fixate a video image in response to an internal cue (opening own mouth), external cue (seeing a face open its mouth), or both cues. Female infants showed significantly greater sensitivity than males to the internal cues suggesting that prioritization of internally accessible experience is already evident at one year of age. PMID:21500960

  9. Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and…

  10. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  11. Effectiveness of a 12-month randomized clinical trial to increase physical activity in multiethnic postpartum women: Results from Hawaii’s Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; White, Kami K.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Saiki, Kara; Brown, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few postpartum ethnic minority women perform leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The study tested the effectiveness of a 12-month tailored intervention to increase MVPA in women with infants 2–12 months old. Methods From 2008–2011, women (n=311) with infants (average age = 5.7 months) from Honolulu, Hawaii were randomly assigned to receive tailored telephone calls and access to a mom-centric website (n=154) or access to a standard PA website (n=157). MVPA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months using self-report and acclerometers. Results Controlling for covariates, the tailored condition significantly increased self-reported MVPA from an average of 44 to 246 minutes/week compared with 46 to 156 minutes/week for the standard condition (p=0.027). Mothers with ≥ 2 children had significantly greater increases in MVPA in response to the tailored intervention than those with one child (p=0.016). Accelerometer-measured MVPA significantly increased over time (p=0.0001), with no condition differences. There was evidence of reactivity to initially wearing accelerometers; the tailored intervention significantly increased MVPA among women with low baseline accelerometer MVPA minutes, but not among those with high minutes (pinteraction=0.053). Conclusion A tailored intervention effectively increased MVPA over 12 months in multiethnic women with infants, particularly those with more than one child. PMID:25285751

  12. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  13. Cohort profile: the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-02-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  14. Cohort Profile: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  15. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  16. Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders at 12 and 24 months of age: a prospective, longitudinal comparative study.

    PubMed

    Veness, Carly; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Eadie, Patricia; Cini, Eileen; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-03-01

    Prospective questionnaire data from a longitudinal population sample on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), developmental delay, specific language impairment, or typical development (TD), were collected at ages eight, 12 and 24 months, via the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale Developmental Profile (CSBS) - Infant Toddler Checklist, and the Actions and Gesture section of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI):Words and Gestures. The four groups were compared at four years of age to identify whether any early behaviours differentiated the groups. While children with ASD differed from TD children on most social communicative measures by 12 months of age, the only social communication characteristic which could differentiate the children with ASD from the other groups were gesture scores on the CDI at 12 months and the CSBS at 24 months. Significant markers of ASD were identifiable in this community sample at an early age, although discrimination between clinical groups was rarely evident. PMID:21733958

  17. Sleep and the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.; Shahar, Golan; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the links between sleep and pubertal development using a longitudinal design. Design: Three consecutive annual assessments of sleep and pubertal development. Sleep was assessed using a week of home actigraphy. Setting: Naturalistic sleep in the home setting of school children, Tel Aviv Area, Israel. Participants: A sample of 94 (41 boys) typically developing healthy school-age children (age range at first assessment: 9.9–11.2 years). Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: The Petersen's Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) were used to assess pubertal development, and a week of actigraphy served to assess naturalistic sleep patterns. The results reflect expected developmental trends: an increase in signs of pubertal maturation, delayed sleep onset, and shorter sleep time. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between sleep onset time, true sleep time, and number of night wakings at Time 1 and pubertal ratings at Time 2, and pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. Delayed and disrupted sleep at Time 1 predicted faster pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. These results were supported by structural equation modeling. These findings were similar in boys and girls. Conclusions: Based on these longitudinal data, it appears that pubertal changes in sleep (delayed sleep phase and disrupted sleep patterns) antedate bodily changes associated with puberty. The underlying mechanisms explaining these predictive links should be further explored. Citation: Sadeh A; Dahl RE; Shahar G; Rosenblat-Stein S. Sleep and the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1602-1609. PMID:20041596

  18. Histo-topographic study of the longitudinal anal muscle.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Vigato, Enrico; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2008-07-01

    The longitudinal anal muscle (LAM) has been described as a vertical layer of muscular tissue interposed between the circular layers of the internal (IAS) and external (EAS) anal sphincters. There is, however, no general agreement in the literature on its composition and attachments. The aim of this study was to investigate the histological structure, attachments, and topography of the LAM in order to evaluate its role in continence and defecation, thus enhancing knowledge of the surgical anatomy of this region. After in situ formalin fixation, the pelvic viscera were removed from eight male and eight female cadavers (age range: 52-72 years). Serial macrosections of the bladder base, lower rectum and anal canal, cervix and pelvic floor complex, cut in the transverse (six specimens) and coronal (six specimens) planes, underwent histological and immunohistochemical studies. Four specimens were studied using the E12 sheet plastination technique. The LAM was identified in 10/12 specimens (83%). Transverse and coronal sections made clear that it is a longitudinal layer of muscular tissue, marking the boundary between the internal and external anal sphincters. From the anorectal junction it extends along the anal canal, receives fibers from the innermost part of the puborectalis and the puboanalis muscles, and terminates with seven to nine fibro-elastic septa, which traverse the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter, reaching the perianal dermis. In the transverse plane, the mean thickness of the LAM was 1.68 +/- 0.27 mm. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the LAM consists of predominantly outer striated muscle fibers and smaller numbers of inner smooth muscle fibers, respectively coming from the levator ani muscle and from the longitudinal muscular layer of the rectum. The oblique fibers suggest that the LAM may represent the intermediate longitudinal course of small bridging muscle bundles going reciprocally from the striated EAS to the smooth IAS and

  19. Effect of Improving Dietary Quality on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A 12 Months Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kristina S.; Clifton, Peter M.; Lister, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    People with diabetes have accelerated arterial stiffening. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing fruit, vegetable and dairy intake for 12 months on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), and central blood pressure (cBP), compared to a usual diet control, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In a 12 months randomised controlled trial, cfPWV, AIx and cBP were measured every 3 months. The intervention group received dietary counselling to increase consumption of fruit (+1 serving/day; 150 g/day), vegetables (+2 servings/day; 150 g/day) and dairy (+1 serving/day; 200–250 g/day) at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. The control group continued on their usual diet. One hundred and nine participants were randomised and 92 (intervention n = 45; control n = 47) completed. At 3 months, fruit (184 g/day; p = 0.001) and dairy (83 g/day; p = 0.037) intake increased in the intervention group compared with the control group but this increase was not maintained at 12 months. After adjustment for baseline measurements there was no time by treatment effect for central systolic or diastolic BP, AIx or cfPWV. A time effect existed for AIx which modestly increased over time. Peripheral diastolic BP and central pulse pressure were improved in the intervention group compared with the control group at 12 months. In the cohort with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, improving dietary quality by increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy did not improve cBP, AIx or cfPWV, compared with a control group continuing on their usual diet, after 12 months. PMID:27338467

  20. Mother’s Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. Methods 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). Results We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. Conclusions This study suggests that mothers’ psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants’ follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected. PMID:27022953

  1. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554

  2. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  3. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative in the past 12 months: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Lowford, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Eight years ago Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects launched in EU, Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Throughout its duration, NEESPI served and is serving as an umbrella for more than 155 individual international research projects. Currently, the total number of the ongoing NEESPI projects (as on January 2013) is 48 and has changed but slightly compared to its peak (87 in 2008). The past 12 months (from the previous EGU Assembly) were extremely productive in the NEESPI outreach. We organized three Open Science Sessions at the three major Geoscience Unions/Assembly Meetings (JpGU, AGU, and this EGU Session) and three International NEESPI Workshops. The programs of two of these Workshops (in Yoshkar Ola and Irkutsk, Russia) included Summer Schools for early career scientists. More than 150 peer-reviewed papers, books, and/or book chapters were published in 2012 or are in press (this list was still incomplete at the time of preparation of this abstract). In particular, a suite of 25 peer-reviewed NEESPI articles was published in the Forth Special NEESPI Issue of "Environmental Research Letters" (ERL) http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI3 (this is the third ERL Issue). In December 2012, the next Special ERL NEESPI Issue was launched http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI4. Northern Eurasia is a large study domain. Therefore, it was decided to describe the latest findings related to its environmental changes in several regional monographs in English. Three books on Environmental Changes in the NEESPI domain were published by the University of Helsinki (Groisman et al. 2012), "Akademperiodyka" (Groisman and Lyalko 2012), and Springer Publishing House (Groisman and Gutman 2013) being devoted to the high latitudes of Eurasia, to Eastern Europe, and to Siberia

  4. "Old Age and Loneliness: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in the Tampere Longitudinal Study on Aging"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jylha, Marja

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether older age is associated with increasing loneliness in people aged 60 and over. Data came from TamELSA, a population-based prospective longitudinal study in Tampere, Finland. The followup time was 20 years. Loneliness was measured by a single question--"Do you feel lonely?"--with the possible answers…

  5. Remaining or becoming secure: parental sensitive support predicts attachment continuity from infancy to adolescence in a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-09-01

    In a longitudinal study with 125 early adopted adolescents, we examined continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence and the role of parental sensitive support in explaining continuity or discontinuity of attachment. Assessments of maternal sensitive support and infant attachment (Strange Situation Procedure) were completed when infants were 12 months old. When the children were 14 years old, we observed mothers' sensitive support during a conflict discussion. The adolescents' attachment representations were assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. Mothers of secure adolescents showed significantly more sensitive support during conflicts than did mothers of insecure adolescents. Overall, no continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence was found. However, maternal sensitive support in early childhood and adolescence predicted continuity of secure attachment from 1 to 14 years, whereas less maternal sensitive support in early childhood but more maternal sensitive support in adolescence predicted children's change from insecurity in infancy to security in adolescence. We conclude that both early and later parental sensitive support are important for continuity of attachment across the first 14 years of life. PMID:22369333

  6. Clinicians’ Perceptions of Implementation Extensiveness of 100% Tobacco Free Practices: A Longitudinal Study of New York State1

    PubMed Central

    de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner; Laschober, Tanja C.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, New York State required substance use disorder treatment organizations to be 100% tobacco-free. This longitudinal study examined clinicians’ perceptions of the implementation extensiveness of the tobacco-free practices approximately 10–12 months (Time 1) and 20–24 months (Time 2) post regulation and investigated whether clinicians’ commitment to change and use of provided resources at Time 1 predicts perceptions of implementation extensiveness at Time 2. Clinicians (N = 287) noted a mean implementation of 5.60 patient practices (0–10 scale), 2.33 visitor practices (0–8 scale), and 6.66 employee practices (0–12 scale) at Time 1. At Time 2, clinicians perceived a mean implementation of 5.95 patient practices (no increase from Time 1), 2.89 visitor practices (increase from Time 1), and 7.12 employee practices (no increase from Time 1). Commitment to change and use of resources positively predicted perceived implementation extensiveness of visitor and employee practices. The use of resources positively predicted implementation for patient practices. PMID:23430285

  7. A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mill, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown. In this study, we quantitatively measured DNA methylation across the promoter regions of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4), the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/SERT) and the X-linked monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) using DNA sampled at both ages 5 and 10 years in 46 MZ twinpairs and 45 DZ twin-pairs (total n = 182). Our data suggest that DNA methylation differences are apparent already in early childhood, even between genetically identical individuals, and that individual differences in methylation are not stable over time. Our longitudinal-developmental study suggests that environmental influences are important factors accounting for interindividual DNA methylation differences, and that these influences differ across the genome. The observation of dynamic changes in DNA methylation over time highlights the importance of longitudinal research designs for epigenetic research. PMID:20505345

  8. Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739

  9. Gaze-cueing effect depends on facial expression of emotion in 9- to 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiecka, Alicja; Tomalski, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    Efficient processing of gaze direction and facial expression of emotion is crucial for early social and emotional development. Toward the end of the first year of life infants begin to pay more attention to negative expressions, but it remains unclear to what extent emotion expression is processed jointly with gaze direction at this age. This study sought to establish the interactions of gaze direction and emotion expression in visual orienting in 9- to 12-month-olds. In particular, we tested whether these interactions can be explained by the negativity bias hypothesis and the shared signal hypothesis. We measured saccadic latencies in response to peripheral targets in a gaze-cueing paradigm with happy, angry, and fearful female faces. In the Pilot Experiment three gaze directions were used (direct, congruent with target location, incongruent with target location). In the Main Experiment we sought to replicate the results of the Pilot experiment using a simpler design without the direct gaze condition. In both experiments we found a robust gaze-cueing effect for happy faces, i.e., facilitation of orienting toward the target in the gaze-cued location, compared with the gaze-incongruent location. We found more rapid orienting to targets cued by happy relative to angry and fearful faces. We did not find any gaze-cueing effect for angry or fearful faces. These results are not consistent with the shared signal hypothesis. While our results show differential processing of positive and negative emotions, they do not support a general negativity bias. On the contrary, they indicate that toward the age of 12 months infants show a positivity bias in gaze-cueing tasks. PMID:25713555

  10. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  11. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  13. Repetitive Behavior in 12-Month-Olds Later Classified With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Reznick, J. Steven; Botteron, Kelly N.; Estes, Annette M.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Meadows, Adriane J.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective As compared to the utility of early emerging social communicative risk markers for predicting a later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), less is known about the relevance of early patterns of restricted and repetitive behaviors. We examined patterns of stereotyped motor mannerisms and repetitive manipulation of objects in 12-month-olds at high and low risk for developing ASD, all of whom were assessed for ASD at 24 months. Method Observational coding of repetitive object manipulation and stereotyped motor behaviors in digital recordings of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales was conducted using the Repetitive and Stereotyped Movement Scales for three groups of 12-month-olds: 1) low-risk infants (LR, n = 53); 2) high-familial-risk infants who did not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24-months (HR-negative, n = 75); and 3) high-familial-risk infants who met diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24 months (HR-ASD, n = 30). Results The HR-ASD group showed significantly more stereotyped motor mannerisms than both the HR-negative group (p = .025) and the LR group (p = .001). The HR-ASD and HR-negative groups demonstrated statistically equivalent repetitive object manipulation scores (p = .431), and both groups showed significantly more repetitive object manipulation than the LR group (p’s < 0.040). Combining the motor and object stereotypy scores into an RSMS composite yielded a disorder-continuum effect such that each group was significantly different from one another (LR < HR-negative < HR-ASD). Conclusion These results suggest that targeted assessment of repetitive behavior during infancy may augment early identification efforts. PMID:25440311

  14. Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies. Methods Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection. Results An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal

  15. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother

  16. The origins of 12-month attachment: a microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1 s time base; mother and infant facial-visual "engagement" variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual's own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual's behavior that were correlated with the partner's previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers

  17. Parent-infant vocalisations at 12 months predict psychopathology at 7 years.

    PubMed

    Allely, C S; Purves, D; McConnachie, A; Marwick, H; Johnson, P; Doolin, O; Puckering, C; Golding, J; Gillberg, C; Wilson, P

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant interactions when infants were one year old. Cases were infants who had been subsequently diagnosed aged seven years, with at least one psychiatric diagnostic categorisation using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, pervasive development disorder, and emotional disorders. Associations between infant and parent vocalisations and later psychiatric diagnoses were investigated. Low frequencies of maternal vocalisation predicted later development of infant psychopathology. A reduction of five vocalisations per minute predicted a 44% (95%CI: 11-94%; p-value=0.006) increase in the odds of an infant being a case. No association was observed between infant vocalisations and overall case status. In sum, altered vocalisation frequency in mother-infant interactions at one year is a potential risk marker for later diagnosis of a range of child psychopathologies. PMID:23291516

  18. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  19. A longitudinal study of early intellectual development in hemiplegic children.

    PubMed

    Muter, V; Taylor, S; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-03-01

    Thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-old children with unilateral lesions sustained pre- or peri-natally were studied longitudinally over a 2-year period, and their IQ scores compared with those of 20 "medical' controls. The failure to discover laterality effects following early unilateral injury supports the hypothesis of at least broad functional equipotentiality. There were few decrements in intellectual functioning provided the injury was not accompanied by seizures. The presence of seizures in contrast had a deleterious effect on both verbal and nonverbal aspects of cognitive functioning. While the IQs of the hemiplegic groups showed considerable stability over the 2-year span of the study, there was evidence that performance IQ, even in seizure-free patients, might be selectively impaired because of competition within the intact neural space for the sparing of verbal IQ. PMID:9051677

  20. Semiparametric Stochastic Modeling of the Rate Function in Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.

    2011-01-01

    In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170

  1. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): The Prodromal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Jean; Liu, Lu; Buchy, Lisa; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    In studies describing the long-term follow-up up of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, little attention has been given to details of specific prodromal symptoms. In this paper we describe the prodromal symptoms of 764 CHR participants recruited in the multi-site North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Symptoms were rated on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) at baseline and 6, 12, 18 and 24 month follow-ups. Clinical outcome at the 2-year assessment was categorized as psychotic, prodromal progression, symptomatic or in remission. The majority of the CHR sample (93%) met criteria for the attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS). Significant improvements in SOPS symptoms were observed overtime. Unusual thought content, disorganized communication and overall ratings on disorganized symptoms differentiated those who transitioned to psychosis from the other clinical outcome groups. Suspiciousness and total positive symptoms differentiated those in remission from the other clinical outcome groups. PMID:25919383

  2. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  3. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  4. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Uremic Pruritus in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vandana S.; Lindberg, Jill; Germain, Michael; Block, Geoffrey; Tumlin, James; Smith, Mark; Grewal, Mandeep

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Although uremic pruritus (UP) is a highly prevalent complication of chronic kidney disease, it remains poorly characterized. There have been no longitudinal studies of natural history, and no health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) instruments have been developed for UP. The objectives of this study were to describe the natural history of UP, to compare rating scales of itching intensity, and to assess usefulness and validity of HR-QOL instruments for UP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The intensity, severity, and effects of pathologic itching on HR-QOL were assessed prospectively in 103 patients with UP on chronic hemodialysis. Outcome measures were obtained at scheduled intervals over 3.5 months. Results: Itching daily or nearly daily was reported by 84% of patients and had been ongoing for >1 year in 59%. In 83%, pruritus involved large, nondermatomal areas with striking bilateral symmetry. Two thirds of the patients were using medications such as antihistamines, steroids, and various emollients without satisfactory relief of itching. Statistically significant associations were found among itching intensity, severity, and HR-QOL measures in domains such as mood, social relations, and sleep. Among patients with moderate-to-severe UP, changes in itching intensity of 20% or greater were associated with significant reductions in HR-QOL measures. Conclusions: This first longitudinal study of UP describes key features of UP and its effect on HR-QOL. The assessment instruments we have developed are easily used, are responsive to changes in UP intensity, and should facilitate clinical evaluation and research to meet the needs of afflicted patients. PMID:20558560

  6. Attachment orientations and depression: a longitudinal study of new parents.

    PubMed

    Rholes, W Steven; Simpson, Jeffry A; Kohn, Jamie L; Wilson, Carol L; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, Sisi; Kashy, Deborah A

    2011-04-01

    In this longitudinal study, we followed a large sample of first-time parents (both partners) across the first 2 years of the transition to parenthood. Guided by attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), we tested several predictions about how attachment anxiety and avoidance are related to the incidence, maintenance, increase, and decline of depressive symptoms in both sexes across the first 2 years of the transition. We found that (a) the association between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to the marital and/or romantic relationship; (b) the association between avoidance and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to family responsibilities; (c) styles of caregiving provided by romantic partners affected depressive symptoms differently among anxious and avoidant persons; and (d) in certain predictable situations, depressive symptoms persisted at higher levels or increased to higher levels in anxious or avoidant persons across the 2-year transition period. Important implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21443372

  7. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, η = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194

  8. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia. PMID:26017202

  9. Nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: a longitudinal study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed. PMID:22619238

  10. Motion sickness susceptibility and aerobic fitness: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B S; Money, K E; Jacobs, I

    1990-03-01

    A longitudinal study evaluated the susceptibility to motion sickness in initially unfit subjects before and after an endurance training program. Motion stimulation was provided by the Precision Angular Mover, in which the subject was tumbled head over heels about an Earth-horizontal axis at 20 cycles per minute in darkness. Maximal aerobic power and the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise were evaluated with cycle ergometry. The training program caused significant improvements in VO2max and endurance capacity, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. There was a significant (p less than 0.0125) increase in motion sickness susceptibility after the physical training, suggesting that increased physical fitness caused increased susceptibility to motion sickness in some individuals. PMID:2156490

  11. Early cognitive profiles of emergent readers: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brunswick, Nicola; Neil Martin, G; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching letter-like forms tasks and later reading ability. Rhyme awareness correlated with later reading ability during the earliest stages, but onset awareness did not emerge as important until after the children had started reading. Digit span correlated significantly with future reading ability at every stage. These findings indicate that although phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability are all necessary for emergent reading, their relative importance varies across the first 2 years of reading development. PMID:21962459

  12. A Longitudinal Twin Study of Skewed X Chromosome-Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chloe Chung Yi; Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; Craig, Ian W.; Mill, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a pivotal epigenetic mechanism involved in the dosage compensation of X-linked genes between males and females. In any given cell, the process of XCI in early female development is thought to be random across alleles and clonally maintained once established. Recent studies, however, suggest that XCI might not always be random and that skewed inactivation may become more prevalent with age. The factors influencing such XCI skewing and its changes over time are largely unknown. To elucidate the influence of stochastic, heritable and environmental factors in longitudinal changes in XCI, we examined X inactivation profiles in a sample of monozygotic (MZ) (n = 23) and dizygotic (DZ) (n = 22) female twin-pairs at ages 5 and 10 years. Compared to MZ twins who were highly concordant for allelic XCI ratios, DZ twins showed much lower levels of concordance. Whilst XCI patterns were moderately stable between ages 5 and 10 years, there was some drift over time with an increased prevalence of more extreme XCI skewing at age 10. To our knowledge, this study represents the earliest longitudinal assessment of skewed XCI patterns, and suggests that skewed XCI may already be established in early childhood. Our data also suggest a link between MZ twinning and the establishment of allelic XCI ratios, and demonstrate that acquired skewing in XCI after establishment is primarily mediated by stochastic mechanisms. These data have implications for our understanding about sex differences in complex disease, and the potential causes of phenotypic discordance between MZ female twins. PMID:21445353

  13. Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka K; Winston, Gavin P; Bartlett, Philippa; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark R; Koepp, Matthias J; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S

    2014-05-01

    Working memory is a crucial cognitive function that is disrupted in temporal lobe epilepsy. It is unclear whether this impairment is a consequence of temporal lobe involvement in working memory processes or due to seizure spread to extratemporal eloquent cortex. Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50-80% of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of surgery on working memory are poorly understood both at a behavioural and neural level. We investigated the impact of temporal lobe resection on the efficiency and functional anatomy of working memory networks. We studied 33 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (16 left) before, 3 and 12 months after anterior temporal lobe resection. Fifteen healthy control subjects were also assessed in parallel. All subjects had neuropsychological testing and performed a visuospatial working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm on these three separate occasions. Changes in activation and deactivation patterns were modelled individually and compared between groups. Changes in task performance were included as regressors of interest to assess the efficiency of changes in the networks. Left and right temporal lobe epilepsy patients were impaired on preoperative measures of working memory compared to controls. Working memory performance did not decline following left or right temporal lobe resection, but improved at 3 and 12 months following left and, to a lesser extent, following right anterior temporal lobe resection. After left anterior temporal lobe resection, improved performance correlated with greater deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant and the contralateral right hippocampus. There was a failure of increased deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant at 3 months after left temporal lobe resection compared to control subjects, which had normalized 12 months after surgery. Following right anterior temporal lobe resection there was a

  14. Assessing candidate serum biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Matthew; Schrag, Matthew; Mueller, Claudius; Zhou, Weidong; Crofton, Andrew; Petersen, Floyd; Dickson, April; Kirsch, Wolff M

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing impact of late onset cognitive loss, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of improved diagnostic techniques for Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may pave the way for earlier (and more effective) therapeutic efforts. Serum-based biomarkers are the least expensive and invasive modality for screening and routine monitoring. We systematically reviewed the literature to assemble a list of serum biomarkers relevant to AD. In parallel, we conducted a proteomic LC-MS/MS analysis of serum collected from neurologically normal subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD (n = 6 in all). Complement C3 and alpha-2-macroglobulin were identified from both the literature review and our proteomic screen for further validation. For these two candidates, ELISA was performed on serum collected from a small independent cohort of subjects for longitudinal analysis. Serum was serially collected from neurologically normal subjects (n = 5) and subjects with MCI who were subsequently followed for a period of two years (n = 5) and regrouped into stable MCI and progressive MCI or AD (n = 6). The ability of each marker to predict which subjects with MCI would progress to dementia and which would remain cognitively stable was assessed. Patients with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy were also identified (n = 3). This preliminary analysis tested the most-promising serum protein biomarkers for AD and we concluded that none are yet ready for use in the clinical diagnosis and management of dementia. However, a more thorough assessment in longitudinal studies with higher statistical power is warranted. PMID:22426016

  15. Effect of denosumab on Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a dose–response study of AMG 162 (Denosumab) in patients with RheumatoId arthritis on methotrexate to Validate inhibitory effect on bone Erosion (DRIVE)—a 12-month, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Ishiguro, Naoki; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Ohira, Takeshi; Okubo, Naoki; Genant, Harry K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of three different regimens of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand (RANKL), for Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In this multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase II study, 350 Japanese patients with RA between 6 months and <5 years, stratified by glucocorticoid use and rheumatoid factor status, were randomly assigned to subcutaneous injections of placebo or denosumab 60 mg every 6 months (Q6M), every 3 months (Q3M) or every 2 months (Q2M). All patients basically continued methotrexate treatment and had a supplement of calcium and vitamin D throughout the study. The primary endpoint was change in the modified Sharp erosion score from baseline to 12 months. Results Denosumab significantly inhibited the progression of bone erosion at 12 months compared with the placebo, and the mean changes of the modified Sharp erosion score at 12 months from baseline were 0.99, 0.27 (compared with placebo, p=0.0082), 0.14 (p=0.0036) and 0.09 (p<0.0001) in the placebo, Q6M, Q3M and Q2M, respectively. Secondary endpoint analysis revealed that denosumab also significantly inhibited the increase of the modified total Sharp score compared with the placebo, with no obvious evidence of an effect on joint space narrowing for denosumab. As shown in previous studies, denosumab increased bone mineral density. No apparent difference was observed in the safety profiles of denosumab and placebo. Conclusions Addition of denosumab to methotrexate has potential as a new therapeutic option for patients with RA with risk factors of joint destruction. Trial registration number JapicCTI-101263. PMID:26585988

  16. An observational, longitudinal study on the home environment of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the research protocol of the Home Sweet Home study

    PubMed Central

    Nakken, Nienke; Janssen, Daisy J A; van den Bogaart, Esther H A; Vercoulen, Jan H; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents an important public health challenge. Patients are confronted with limitations during activities of daily living (ADLs). Resident loved ones of patients with COPD may be uniquely positioned to witness these limitations. COPD may have an impact on not only the patients’ life, but also on the lives of the resident loved ones. Furthermore, COPD exacerbation-related hospital admissions often occur in patients with COPD. However, whether and to what extent these admissions influence resident loved ones’ burden and health status remains currently unknown. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study are to investigate the differences between patients with COPD and resident loved ones’ perceptions of patients’ health status and problematic ADLs and to study prospectively the effects of a COPD exacerbation on resident loved ones’ perceptions of patients’ health status and problematic ADLs. Methods and analysis An observational, longitudinal study will be performed in 192 patients with COPD and their 192 resident loved ones. Primary outcomes are daily functioning, ADL, disease-specific health status, generic health status and dyspnoea. These will be assessed during home visits at baseline and after 12 months. Additional home visits will be performed when a COPD exacerbation-related hospital admission occurs during the 12-month follow-up period. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, the Netherlands (NL42721.060.12/M12-1280) and is registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR3941). PMID:25384686

  17. Infant feeding in the first year. 2: feeding practices from 6-12 months of life.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rosan

    2009-01-01

    The mainstay of nutrition in infants below six months of age is breast and/or formula milk. Infants aged between six and 12 months require additional sources of nutrition and numerous oral and developmental milestones have to be achieved to support normal development of feeding skills. Requirements increase during this period for protein, vitamin D, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, zinc, iron and magnesium. This increased demand is met through weaning foods and breast-feeding, and, if breast milk is not available, through a suitable milk formula. The choice of milk formula above the age of six months is very much dependent on the individual infant and the stage of weaning. One of the principal factors in choosing a suitable formula at this age is the depleting iron stores. Infant formulae suitable from birth along with age-appropriate weaning foods will provide adequate iron for the majority of infants. However, iron-fortified formula may be useful to reduce iron deficiency in some vulnerable infants. Weaning should be commenced by six months of age, but not earlier than 17 weeks. Delaying wheat, egg, soy, fish and dairy beyond six months of age does not prevent the development of allergies and these foods contribute significantly to nutrients required for growth and development. It is important that parents receive evidence-based guidance on what constitutes optimal nutrition during this period of increased requirements and rapid development. PMID:19517945

  18. Longitudinal Study on Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Salmonella spp. and E. coli obtained from Dairy Cattle in Colorado, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective of study: The objective of this study was to describe antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. and non-type specific Escherichia coli isolated from the same animals and same environmental areas over time. Materials and Methods: Sampling occurred at a local dairy over a 12 month...

  19. Return of functional mobility after an open tibial fracture: a sensor-based longitudinal cohort study using the Hamlyn Mobility Score.

    PubMed

    Kwasnicki, R M; Hettiaratchy, S; Okogbaa, J; Lo, B; Yang, G-Z; Darzi, A

    2015-08-01

    In this study we quantified and characterised the return of functional mobility following open tibial fracture using the Hamlyn Mobility Score. A total of 20 patients who had undergone reconstruction following this fracture were reviewed at three-month intervals for one year. An ear-worn movement sensor was used to assess their mobility and gait. The Hamlyn Mobility Score and its constituent kinematic features were calculated longitudinally, allowing analysis of mobility during recovery and between patients with varying grades of fracture. The mean score improved throughout the study period. Patients with more severe fractures recovered at a slower rate; those with a grade I Gustilo-Anderson fracture completing most of their recovery within three months, those with a grade II fracture within six months and those with a grade III fracture within nine months. Analysis of gait showed that the quality of walking continued to improve up to 12 months post-operatively, whereas the capacity to walk, as measured by the six-minute walking test, plateaued after six months. Late complications occurred in two patients, in whom the trajectory of recovery deviated by > 0.5 standard deviations below that of the remaining patients. This is the first objective, longitudinal assessment of functional recovery in patients with an open tibial fracture, providing some clarification of the differences in prognosis and recovery associated with different grades of fracture. PMID:26224831

  20. Optimal designs for epidemiologic longitudinal studies with binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mehtälä, Juha; Auranen, Kari; Kulathinal, Sangita

    2015-12-01

    Alternating presence and absence of a medical condition in human subjects is often modelled as an outcome of underlying process dynamics. Longitudinal studies provide important insights into research questions involving such dynamics. This article concerns optimal designs for studies in which the dynamics are modelled as a binary continuous-time Markov process. Either one or both the transition rate parameters in the model are to be estimated with maximum precision from a sequence of observations made at discrete times on a number of subjects. The design questions concern the choice of time interval between observations, the initial state of each subject and the choice between number of subjects versus repeated observations per subject. Sequential designs are considered due to dependence of the designs on the model parameters. The optimal time spacing can be approximated by the reciprocal of the sum of the two rates. The initial distribution of the study subjects should be taken into account when relatively few repeated samples per subject are to be collected. A study with a reasonably large size should be designed in more than one phase because there are then enough observations to be spent in the first phase to revise the time spacing for the subsequent phases. PMID:22170892

  1. Low-dose budesonide for maintenance of clinical remission in collagenous colitis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, 12-month trial

    PubMed Central

    Münch, Andreas; Bohr, Johan; Miehlke, Stephan; Benoni, Cecilia; Olesen, Martin; Öst, Åke; Strandberg, Lars; Hellström, Per M; Hertervig, Erik; Armerding, Peter; Stehlik, Jiri; Lindberg, Greger; Björk, Jan; Lapidus, Annika; Löfberg, Robert; Bonderup, Ole; Avnström, Sören; Rössle, Martin; Dilger, Karin; Mueller, Ralph; Greinwald, Roland; Tysk, Curt; Ström, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective This 1-year study aimed to assess low-dose budesonide therapy for maintenance of clinical remission in patients with collagenous colitis. Design A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study beginning with an 8-week open-label induction phase in which patients with histologically confirmed active collagenous colitis received budesonide (Budenofalk, 9 mg/day initially, tapered to 4.5 mg/day), after which 92 patients in clinical remission were randomised to budesonide (mean dose 4.5 mg/day; Budenofalk 3 mg capsules, two or one capsule on alternate days) or placebo in a 12-month double-blind phase with 6 months treatment-free follow-up. Primary endpoint was clinical remission throughout the double-blind phase. Results Clinical remission during open-label treatment was achieved by 84.5% (93/110 patients). The median time to remission was 10.5 days (95% CI (9.0 to 14.0 days)). The maintenance of clinical remission at 1 year was achieved by 61.4% (27/44 patients) in the budesonide group versus 16.7% (8/48 patients) receiving placebo (treatment difference 44.5% in favour of budesonide; 95% CI (26.9% to 62.7%), p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was maintained during the 12-month double-blind phase in budesonide-treated patients. During treatment-free follow-up, 82.1% (23/28 patients) formerly receiving budesonide relapsed after study drug discontinuation. Low-dose budesonide over 1 year resulted in few suspected adverse drug reactions (7/44 patients), all non-serious. Conclusions Budesonide at a mean dose of 4.5 mg/day maintained clinical remission for at least 1 year in the majority of patients with collagenous colitis and preserved health-related quality of life without safety concerns. Treatment extension with low-dose budesonide beyond 1 year may be beneficial given the high relapse rate after budesonide discontinuation. Trial registration numbers http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01278082) and http

  2. Natural history of alpha mannosidosis a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpha-Mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, caused by the deficiency of the enzyme alpha-Mannosidase. Clinically it is characterized by hearing impairment, skeletal and neurological abnormalities and mental retardation. In order to characterize the clinical features and disease progression of patients affected by alpha-Mannosidosis, a survey study was conducted. 43 patients from 4 European countries participated in this longitudinal study. Age range of the participants was 3 to 42 years. For each patient a medical history, complete physical and neurological examination, joint range of motion and assessment of physical endurance and of lung function were completed. In addition, serum and urinary oligosaccharide levels were analysed. Methods In this multicenter longitudinal study clinical data of 43 alpha-Mannosidosis patients were collected. In addition to objective clinical measurements biochemical assays were performed. Results Data analysis revealed a wide spectrum of clinical presentation regarding the severity and disease progression. Most clinical abnormalities were observed in the musculoskeletal and neurological system. All patients showed mental retardation and hearing loss from early childhood. An impairment in physical endurance was revealed by the 6-minute walk and 3-minute stair stair climb tests. There was only slight progression of a few clinical findings: Psychiatric troubles in both groups essentially, and respiratory dysfunction under 18 years. The serum and urinary oligosaccharide levels were increased in all affected individuals and correlated well with the 6-minute walk and 3-minute stair climb test results. Conclusions This study confirms that alpha-Mannosidosis is a very heterogeneous disorder regarding both, disease severity and progression. As it has been shown that Mannosidosis patients are able to perform lung function tests and the 6MWT and stair-climb test, these clinical parameters apparently can be used as

  3. Connections between Learning Experience, Study Behaviour and Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, H. K.; Downing, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework. Purpose: This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and…

  4. Predictors of Diagnosis of Child Psychiatric Disorder in Adult-Infant Social-Communicative Interaction at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marwick, H.; Doolin, O.; Allely, C. S.; McConnachie, A.; Johnson, P.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    To establish which social interactive behaviours predict later psychiatric diagnosis, we examined 180 videos of a parent-infant interaction when children were aged one year, from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Sixty of the videos involved infants who were later diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder at…

  5. Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Mother's Anxious Parenting as a Predictor of Anxiety Symptoms 12 Months Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapee, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental overprotection and modeling of fearful behaviors have been proposed to play a central role in the development of anxiety. Yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of these relationships and virtually none focusing on the adolescent period. The current study measured adolescent perceptions of maternal anxious parenting (a…

  6. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  7. U.S. Armed Forces air crew: incident illness and injury diagnosis during the 12 months prior to retirement, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Smallman, Darlene P; Hu, Zheng; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    U.S. Armed Services retirees are eligible for disability compensation for medical illness/injury incurred during their service. This analysis of recently retired U.S. active component air crew/aviation service members from all Services evaluated incident diagnoses among aviation retirees during the 12 months prior to retirement and assessed trends in first-time diagnoses by major diagnostic category and aviation component stratification. Most aviation retirees were in their 40s, Air Force, male, white, and senior officers and warrant officers. Among the study population, 14,191 (88%) of aviation retirees had at least one first-time diagnosis recorded during the 12 months prior to retirement. During 2003-2012, 63.8% of all diagnoses in aviation retirees during the 12 months prior to retirement were new. The highest proportions of new diagnoses were for "other disorders of the ear," "organic sleep disorders," and "general symptoms." Among the four subtypes of aviators, general air crew/air craft crew had the lowest proportion of new diagnoses (60.2%). PMID:24885877

  8. A Randomized Trial of Computerized vs. In-person Brief Intervention for Illicit Drug Use in Primary Care: Outcomes through 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Gonzales, Arturo; Moseley, Ana; Peterson, Thomas R.; Ondersma, Steven J.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined outcomes through 12 months from a randomized trial comparing computerized brief intervention (CBI) vs. in-person brief intervention (IBI) delivered by behavioral health counselors for adult community health center patients with moderate-level drug misuse (N= 360). Data were collected at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, and included the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and laboratory analysis of hair samples. Repeated measures analyses examined differential change over time. There were no significant differences in drug-positive hair tests over time or by condition. Global ASSIST scores decreased in both conditions (p< .001), but there were no significant differences between conditions in overall change across 12 months of follow-up (p= .13). CBI produced greater overall reductions in alcohol (p= .04) and cocaine (p= .02) ASSIST scores than IBI, with initial differences dissipating over time. Computerized brief interventions present a viable alternative to traditional in-person brief interventions. PMID:25282578

  9. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingjie; Naidu, Rajeev K.; Chu, Renyuan; Dai, Jinhui; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, resp.). SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms) following SMILE at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 3 months (p = 0.003) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms) than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months. PMID:26649190

  10. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingjie; Naidu, Rajeev K; Chu, Renyuan; Dai, Jinhui; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, resp.). SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms) following SMILE at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 3 months (p = 0.003) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms) than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months. PMID:26649190

  11. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively); however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]). For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family

  12. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. PMID:20863600

  13. A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.

  14. Assessing Early Communication Skills at 12 Months: A Retrospective Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in…

  15. Engaging rural preceptors in new longitudinal community clerkships during workforce shortage: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In keeping with its mission to produce doctors for rural and regional Australia, the University of Wollongong, Graduate School of Medicine has established an innovative model of clinical education. This includes a 12-month integrated community-based clerkship in a regional or rural setting, offering senior students longitudinal participation in a 'community of practice' with access to continuity of patient care experiences, continuity of supervision and curriculum, and individualised personal and professional development. This required developing new teaching sites, based on attracting preceptors and providing them with educational and physical infrastructure. A major challenge was severe health workforce shortages. Methods Before the new clerkship started, we interviewed 28 general practitioners to determine why they engaged as clerkship preceptors. Independent researchers conducted semi-structured interviews. Responses were transcribed for inductive qualitative content analysis. Results The new model motivated preceptors to engage because it enhanced their opportunities to contribute to authentic learning when compared with the perceived limitations of short-term attachments. Preceptors appreciated the significant recognition of the value of general practice teaching and the honour of major involvement in the university. They predicted that the initiative would have positive effects on general practitioner morale and improve the quality of their practice. Other themes included the doctors' commitment to their profession, 'handing on' to the next generation and helping their community to attract doctors in the future. Conclusions Supervisors perceive that new models of clinical education offer alternative solutions to health care education, delivery and workforce. The longitudinal relationship between preceptor, student and community was seen as offering reciprocal benefits. General practitioners are committed to refining practice and ensuring

  16. Longitudinal study of circulating protein biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Viennois, Emilie; Baker, Mark T.; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Lixin; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic and progressive inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In IBD, protein serological biomarkers could be relevant tools for assessing disease activity, performing early-stage diagnosis and managing the treatment. Using the interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10−/−) mouse, a model that develops a time-dependent IBD-like disorder that predominates in the colon; we performed longitudinal studies of circulating protein biomarkers in IBD. Circulating protein profiles in serum samples collected from 30-, 93-, and 135-day-old IL-10−/− mice were investigated using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and MALDI TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 15 different proteins were identified and confirmed by ELISA and Western blot to be differentially accumulated in serum samples from mid- to late-stage IL-10−/− mice compared to early non-inflamed IL-10−/− mice. The use of another model of colitis and an extra-intestinal inflammation model validated this biomarker panel and demonstrated that comprised some global inflammatory markers, some intestinal inflammation-specific markers and some chronic intestinal inflammation markers. Statistical analyses using misclassification error rate charts validated the use of these identified proteins as powerful biomarkers of colitis. Unlike standard biomarker screening studies, our analyses identified a panel of proteins that allowed the definition of protein signatures that reflect colitis status. PMID:25230104

  17. A longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides.

    PubMed

    Dodge, R; Solomon, P; Moyers, J; Hayes, C

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate (SO4=). The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO2 levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO4= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO2 concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO4= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected. PMID:4014164

  18. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  19. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  20. A longitudinal study of very young children's vowel production

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Rebecca W.; McGowan, Richard S.; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ecologically realistic, spontaneous adult-directed longitudinal speech data of young children was described by acoustic analyses. Method The first two formant frequencies of vowels produced by six children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Results Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied here. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first two formant frequencies between the ages of 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. Conclusions The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present paper adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech. PMID:24687464

  1. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Maras, Janice E.; Newby, P.K.; Bakun, Peter J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 ± 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research. PMID:20126297

  2. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  3. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Gross, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers’ attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95% CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95% CI [.96-.99], p = .03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  4. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Social Capital and Acculturation-Related Stress among Recent Latino Immigrants in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concha, Maritza; Sanchez, Mariana; de la Rosa, Mario; Villar, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study uses social capital to assess the effects of social support on acculturation-related stress among recently immigrated Hispanics in South Florida before and after immigration. At baseline ("N" = 527), first 12 months in the United States, acculturative stress was negatively related to support from friends ("p" <…

  6. The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System: A 12 months Test of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ``Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System'' (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three month is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological ``mechanical'' filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A simple data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  7. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Measurement in Renal Transplantation: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study With Protocol Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhan; Oh, Young Taik; Joo, Dong Jin; Ma, Bo Gyoung; Lee, A-lan; Lee, Jae Geun; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Seung Up; Jung, Dae Chul; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Yu Seun

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is a common cause of kidney allograft loss. Several noninvasive techniques developed to assess tissue fibrosis are widely used to examine the liver. However, relatively few studies have investigated the use of elastographic methods to assess transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical implications of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique in renal transplant patients. A total of 91 patients who underwent living donor renal transplantation between September 2010 and January 2013 were included in this prospective study. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI at baseline and predetermined time points (1 week and 6 and 12 months after transplantation). Protocol biopsies were performed at 12 months. Instead of reflecting IF/TA, SWVs were found to be related to time elapsed after transplantation. Mean SWV increased continuously during the first postoperative year (P < 0.001). In addition, mixed model analysis showed no correlation existed between SWV and serum creatinine (r = -0.2426, P = 0.0771). There was also no evidence of a relationship between IF/TA and serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.220, P = 0.7648). Furthermore, SWV temporal patterns were dependent on the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW). In patients with a KW/BW < 3.5 g/kg, mean SWV continuously increased for 12 months, whereas it decreased after 6 months in those with a KW/BW ≥ 3.5 g/kg.No significant correlation was observed between SWV and IF/TA or renal dysfunction. However, SWV was found to be related to the time after transplantation. Renal hemodynamics influenced by KW/BW might impact SWV values. PMID:26426636

  8. Quantitative Muscle MRI as an Assessment Tool for Monitoring Disease Progression in LGMD2I: A Multicentre Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Anna; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Søren; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eagle, Michelle; Mayhew, Anna; de Sousa, Paulo L.; Dewar, Liz; Morrow, Jasper M.; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Thornton, John S.; Bushby, Kate; Lochmüller, Hanns; Hanna, Michael G.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Carlier, Pierre G.; Vissing, John; Straub, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Background Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypothesised that quantitative fat imaging by MRI (Dixon technique) could provide more discriminating quantitative, patient-independent measurements of the progress of muscle fat replacement within individual muscle groups. Objective To determine whether quantitative fat imaging could measure disease progression in a cohort of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I) patients over a 12 month period. Methods 32 adult patients (17 male;15 female) from 4 European tertiary referral centres with the homozygous c.826C>A mutation in the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP) completed baseline and follow up measurements 12 months later. Quantitative fat imaging was performed and muscle fat fraction change was compared with (i) muscle strength and function assessed using standardized physical tests and (ii) standard T1-weighted MRI graded on a 6 point scale. Results There was a significant increase in muscle fat fraction in 9 of the 14 muscles analyzed using the quantitative MRI technique from baseline to 12 months follow up. Changes were not seen in the conventional longitudinal physical assessments or in qualitative scoring of the T1w images. Conclusions Quantitative muscle MRI, using the Dixon technique, could be used as an important longitudinal outcome measure to assess muscle pathology and monitor therapeutic efficacy in patients with LGMD2I. PMID:23967145

  9. The use of telehealth to assist remote hospital resuscitation and aeromedical retrieval tasking: a 12-month case review.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Kate; Elcock, Mark; Aitken, Peter; Furyk, Jeremy

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the use of telehealth for patients who had suffered a cardiac or respiratory arrest, and were medically coordinated from the Queensland coordination hub at Townsville. We conducted a review of all cardiac or respiratory arrest cases where teleheath had been used prior to aeromedical retrieval. The doctors involved in the cases completed an evaluation form about the use of telehealth during the resuscitation. During the 12-month study period 6460 patients were medically coordinated from Townsville. Telehealth was used 51 times, i.e. for 0.8% of all transfers. Of the 51 uses of telehealth, nine were for patients having a cardiac/respiratory arrest, i.e. 18% of telehealth use at Townsville was for patients undergoing resuscitation following cardiac or respiratory arrest. All eight medical coordinators and three of eight referring doctors responded to the survey. Most medical coordinators stated that telehealth assisted communication and aided assessment. Most medical coordinators and some referring doctors felt that it improved the quality of patient care. The free text comments on telehealth use for remote area resuscitation were generally very supportive. While the telehealth equipment was easy to use, minor audio problems reinforce the need for systems to be wholly reliable. A set of guidelines to aid future telehealth assisted resuscitation was produced. The present study suggests that telehealth use is beneficial during active resuscitation efforts. PMID:22302764

  10. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  11. A Longitudinal Study on the Stability over Time of School and Teacher Effects on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews educational effectiveness theory, concentrating on the time stability of the teacher and school effect. The contribution of longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effect of schools and teachers to modelling educational effectiveness is discussed. Findings of a longitudinal study on the progress of students (N=1681) in…

  12. Reducing Bias Due to Systematic Attrition in Longitudinal Studies: The Benefits of Multiple Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos

    2014-01-01

    Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is possible and nowadays technically easy. This is…

  13. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  14. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... VBA's Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E) Program. DATES: Written comments and... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900--New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence...: Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900--New...

  15. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  16. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. PMID:23586943

  17. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  18. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  19. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  20. Variable selection for semiparametric mixed models in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Daowen; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2010-03-01

    We propose a double-penalized likelihood approach for simultaneous model selection and estimation in semiparametric mixed models for longitudinal data. Two types of penalties are jointly imposed on the ordinary log-likelihood: the roughness penalty on the nonparametric baseline function and a nonconcave shrinkage penalty on linear coefficients to achieve model sparsity. Compared to existing estimation equation based approaches, our procedure provides valid inference for data with missing at random, and will be more efficient if the specified model is correct. Another advantage of the new procedure is its easy computation for both regression components and variance parameters. We show that the double-penalized problem can be conveniently reformulated into a linear mixed model framework, so that existing software can be directly used to implement our method. For the purpose of model inference, we derive both frequentist and Bayesian variance estimation for estimated parametric and nonparametric components. Simulation is used to evaluate and compare the performance of our method to the existing ones. We then apply the new method to a real data set from a lactation study. PMID:19397585

  1. Validation of Maturity Offset in the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Chumlea, Wm Cameron

    2016-08-01

    Sex-specific equations for predicting maturity offset, time before or after peak height velocity (PHV), were evaluated in 63 girls and 74 boys from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Serially measured heights (0.1 cm), sitting heights (0.1 cm), weights (0.1 kg), and estimated leg lengths (0.1 cm) from 8 to 18 years were used. Predicted age at PHV (years) was calculated as the difference between chronological age (CA) and maturity offset. Actual age at PHV for each child was derived with a triple logistic model (Bock-Thissen-du Toit). Mean predicted maturity offset was negative and lowest at 8 years and increased linearly with increasing CA. Predicted ages at PHV increased linearly with CA from 8 to 18 years in girls and from 8 to 13 years in boys; predictions varied within relatively narrow limits from 12 to 15 years and then increased to 18 years in boys. Differences between predicted and actual ages at PHV among youth of contrasting maturity status were significant across the age range in both sexes. Dependence of predicted age at PHV upon CA at prediction and on actual age at PHV limits its utility as an indicator of maturity timing and in sport talent programs. PMID:26757350

  2. Effects of 12-month valsartan therapy on glycation and oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Naoko; Hirose, Hiroshi; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Saito, Ikuo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Although it has been reported that angiotensin II receptor blockers inhibited the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in vitro and in vivo, whether they can do so clinically is not clear. We investigated the effects of 12-month valsartan therapy on various markers of inflammation, glycation, and oxidation in type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension. We started 40 mg/day valsartan treatment in 15 type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. In 6 patients, the dose of valsartan was increased to 80 mg/day after 6 months and maintained until 12 months. Metabolic parameters including BMI and serum high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as an inflammation marker, AGEs, paraoxonase activity, platelet-activating factor (PAF)- acetylhydrolase activity, and urine 8-isoprostane levels were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Urine microalbumin level and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) were also measured. Even after valsartan therapy, the blood pressure levels of the patients were not decreased significantly. Serum AGEs and urine 8-isoprostane levels decreased at both 6 and 12 months (P < 0.05 for both), although other metabolic and oxidative markers were unchanged. Though urine microalbumin levels tended to be decreased after 6 and 12 months of valsartan treatment, the changes were not significant. Mean IMT at 12 months was not changed from the baseline value. In conclusion, the findings suggest that treatment with valsartan, even at a low dose, may ameliorate some glycation and oxidative stress markers independently of an effect on blood pressure in hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:19075484

  3. The Primary Prevention of PTSD in Firefighters: Preliminary Results of an RCT with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Clare S.; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Kane, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To develop and evaluate an evidence-based and theory driven program for the primary prevention of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Design A pre-intervention / post-intervention / follow up control group design with clustered random allocation of participants to groups was used. The “control” group received “Training as Usual” (TAU). Method Participants were 45 career recruits within the recruit school at the Department of Fire and Emergency Services (DFES) in Western Australia. The intervention group received a four-hour resilience training intervention (Mental Agility and Psychological Strength training) as part of their recruit training school curriculum. Data was collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-months post intervention. Results We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in the primary prevention of mental health issues, nor did we find any significant impact of MAPS training on social support or coping strategies. A significant difference across conditions in trauma knowledge is indicative of some impact of the MAPS program. Conclusion While the key hypotheses were not supported, this study is the first randomised control trial investigating the primary prevention of PTSD. Practical barriers around the implementation of this program, including constraints within the recruit school, may inform the design and implementation of similar programs in the future. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12615001362583 PMID:27382968

  4. Longitudinal neuropsychological test performance among HIV seropositive individuals in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Skolasky, Richard L; Robertson, Kevin; Musisi, Seggane; Katabira, Elly

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate longitudinal neuropsychological testing performance over a 12-month period among HIV+individuals, and to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on neuropsychological test changes in Uganda. The study examined 77 HIV+individuals recruited from the Infectious Diseases Clinic at Makerere University, Uganda. They underwent detailed sociodemographic, medical history, immune status, functional, neurologic, and neuropsychological evaluations at baseline and 12 months later. Thirty-one individuals initiated ART (ART group) after their baseline visit, whereas 46 individuals were not placed on ART (no-ART group) during those 12 months. Paired samples t-tests were used to evaluate longitudinal changes in neuropsychological test performance for the entire sample, as well as for groups defined by ART initiation and baseline neurocognitive status. The study evaluated 77 HIV individuals (62 % women, mean age=37 years, mean education=8 years, mean CD4 count=235 cells/μl). Both the ART and no-ART groups showed significant improvements in tests of verbal memory, executive functioning, motor, and psychomotor speed performance, as well as depression symptoms. The ART group had significant improvements in CD4 count over the 12-month period (p<0.001), whereas the no-ART group had no CD4 count improvement. ART use is associated with improvements in cognitive functioning among HIV+individuals in Uganda. However, these improvements did not appear to be higher than those seen among HIV+individuals who did not initiate ART. Possible reasons for this include practice effects among the no-ART group as well as improvements in their mood and overall quality of life. PMID:23315423

  5. Progression of striatal and extrastriatal degeneration in multiple system atrophy: a longitudinal diffusion-weighted MR study.

    PubMed

    Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Barone, Paolo; Vicidomini, Caterina; Mollica, Carmine; Salvatore, Elena; Ianniciello, Marta; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Longo, Katia; Picillo, Marina; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Salvatore, Marco; Pappatà, Sabina

    2011-06-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging has been largely used to detect and quantify early degenerative changes in patients with multiple system atrophy, but progression of neurodegeneration has been poorly investigated. We performed a serial diffusion-weighted imaging study in a population of multiple system atrophy patients and analyzed the evolution of diffusion properties in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. Diffusion-weighted imaging was obtained in 11 multiple system atrophy patients at baseline and after a follow-up of 11.7 ± 1.2 months, and Trace (D) changes in different brain regions were correlated with disease duration and severity. A significant increase in Trace (D) was observed at follow-up in the putamen (P < .001), pons (P = .003), cerebellar white matter (P = .03), thalamus (P = .013), and frontal white matter (P = .021). Both Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale Part II and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III scores significantly increased at follow-up (P = .003), but percent changes of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III and Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale Part II did not correlate with percent changes of Trace (D) values in any brain region. This longitudinal study provides new insights into the progression of neurodegeneration in different brain regions in multiple system atrophy. Our results confirm that abnormal diffusivity in the putamen is sensitive to change over time in multiple system atrophy patients and show for the first time a progression of Trace (D) alterations in specific extrastriatal regions. Diffusivity changes in these regions may be useful for monitoring disease progression even after a short follow-up period. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:21469200

  6. Early developmental changes in the timing of turn-taking: a longitudinal study of mother–infant interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish a smooth transition in conversation from one speaker to the next, a tight coordination of interaction between speakers is required. Recent studies of adult conversation suggest that this close timing of interaction may well be a universal feature of conversation. In the present paper, we set out to assess the development of this close timing of turns in infancy in vocal exchanges between mothers and infants. Previous research has demonstrated an early sensitivity to timing in interactions (e.g., Murray and Trevarthen, 1985). In contrast, less is known about infants’ abilities to produce turns in a timely manner and existing findings are rather patchy. We conducted a longitudinal study of 12 mother–infant dyads in free-play interactions at the ages of 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, and 18 months. Based on existing work and the predictions made by the Interaction Engine Hypothesis (Levinson, 2006), we expected that infants would begin to develop the temporal properties of turn-taking early in infancy but that their timing of turns would slow down at 12 months, which is around the time when infants start to produce their first words. Findings were consistent with our predictions: infants were relatively fast at timing their turn early in infancy but slowed down toward the end of the first year. Furthermore, the changes observed in infants’ turn-timing skills were not caused by changes in maternal timing, which remained stable across the 3–18 months period. However, the slowing down of turn-timing started somewhat earlier than predicted: at 9 months. PMID:26483741

  7. Early developmental changes in the timing of turn-taking: a longitudinal study of mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Hilbrink, Elma E; Gattis, Merideth; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish a smooth transition in conversation from one speaker to the next, a tight coordination of interaction between speakers is required. Recent studies of adult conversation suggest that this close timing of interaction may well be a universal feature of conversation. In the present paper, we set out to assess the development of this close timing of turns in infancy in vocal exchanges between mothers and infants. Previous research has demonstrated an early sensitivity to timing in interactions (e.g., Murray and Trevarthen, 1985). In contrast, less is known about infants' abilities to produce turns in a timely manner and existing findings are rather patchy. We conducted a longitudinal study of 12 mother-infant dyads in free-play interactions at the ages of 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, and 18 months. Based on existing work and the predictions made by the Interaction Engine Hypothesis (Levinson, 2006), we expected that infants would begin to develop the temporal properties of turn-taking early in infancy but that their timing of turns would slow down at 12 months, which is around the time when infants start to produce their first words. Findings were consistent with our predictions: infants were relatively fast at timing their turn early in infancy but slowed down toward the end of the first year. Furthermore, the changes observed in infants' turn-timing skills were not caused by changes in maternal timing, which remained stable across the 3-18 months period. However, the slowing down of turn-timing started somewhat earlier than predicted: at 9 months. PMID:26483741

  8. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  9. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].

    PubMed

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality. PMID:10605247

  10. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  11. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Laura M; de Heus, Phebe; van Luijn, Jeanine; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present) of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former) MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of colonization of

  12. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain. PMID:26588694

  13. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  14. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  15. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  16. High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

  17. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  18. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  20. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  1. The Study of Adolescent Identity Formation 2000-2010: A Review of Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research into personal and ethnic identity has expanded considerably in the first decade of the present century. The longitudinal studies have shown that personal identity develops progressively during adolescence, but also that many individuals do not change identity, especially ethnic identity. Researchers have found rank-order…

  2. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  3. Children's Perceptions of Live Arts Performances: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    "Children?s Voices" is a longitudinal research project to document and understand children's perceptions of live arts performance and the impact on their teachers and school communities. The research conducted in South Australia with 135 5?12-year-olds in four schools involves collaboration between the South Australian Department of Education and…

  4. A STUDY OF A LONGITUDINAL FIRST GRADE READING READINESS PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPACHE, GEORGE D.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PROJECT ANALYZED A LONGITUDINAL READING PROGRAM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF GROWTH IN ABILITIES, AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TESTS. APPROXIMATELY 60 PUPILS FROM CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL CLASSES RECEIVED INTENSIVE READINESS TRAINING IN VISUAL PERCEPTION, AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION, AND LANGUAGE SKILLS. ALL WERE TESTED AT 25-MONTH INTERVALS. ANALYSES…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Welfare Exit among American Indian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong

    2007-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…

  6. 1982 Maths Investigation: Technical Report. Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Karen; Low, Brian

    Aims of this phase of a longitudinal mathematics achievement investigation were to (1) detect individual and group differences in math achievement among a sample of fourth-year children, (2) monitor changes in math skills since a 1981 math investigation, and (3) identify limits of children's understanding of mathematical concepts. (The math test…

  7. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

  9. Longitudinal study of aspergillosis in sea fan corals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew

    2006-03-23

    Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals. PMID:16703771

  10. Social-psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, N A; Matson, R R

    1982-01-01

    This study employs a longitudinal design to analyze the adjustment process of 103 people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and in the middle and later stages of their illness careers. The mean age of the sample at Time 2 is 52 years, and mean duration since diagnosis is 17 years. A highly reliable self concept measure is the indicator of adjustment and changes in adjustment from T1 (1974) to T2 (1981). Four sets of variables are analyzed in their relationship to adjustment: (1) socio-demographic; (2) disease-related; (3) medical; and (4) social-psychological. Females are more likely than males to show positive adjustment (improving self concepts). Hours of employment and living arrangement are also related to the adjustment process. The vast majority of respondents show only slight decline in mobility, but among the disease related variables, number of episodes (exacerbations) in past seven years is the strongest predictor of changes in adjustment. Nearly half the respondents seek medical attention for their M.S. once a year or less, and the choice of health care professional is related to changes in the course of the disease. Subjects with an internal locus of control have more positive adjustment scores. Those who say they cope through acceptance of the disease show improvements in self concept while those reporting religion or family as major coping strategies have decreasing self concepts. Results indicate that the majority make satisfactory adjustment as indicated by maintenance of positive self concepts over the 7 year period, although the disease is chronic and progressive. For patients in the middle and later stages of illness careers, the data suggest comprehensive rehabilitation efforts that enhance autonomy and develop the social-psychological resources of the lifestyle. PMID:7157043

  11. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  12. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  13. IQ Change and Occupational Level: A Longitudinal Study with Third Harvard Growth Study Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinais, Sarah M.; Bradley, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    Participants in a longitudinal study, selected according to Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test scores administered in the 1930s, and their occupations, took the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Data suggest persons increase in mental abilities over time while maintaining IQ positions relative to peers. Changes in IQ are not related to occupational…

  14. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The petitioners provided three listing options for consideration by the Service: Listing the black- footed albatross throughout its range; listing the......

  15. The Role of Intersensory Redundancy in the Emergence of Social Referencing in 5 1/2-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant-Molina, Mariana; Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    2012-01-01

    Early evidence of social referencing was examined in 5 1/2-month-old infants. Infants were habituated to 2 films of moving toys, one toy eliciting a woman's positive emotional expression and the other eliciting a negative expression under conditions of bimodal (audiovisual) or unimodal visual (silent) speech. It was predicted that intersensory…

  16. 76 FR 9991 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Hermes copper butterflies in the Federal Register (71 FR 44980 and 71 FR 44966, respectively). The... FR 44980). On March 17, 2009, Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) and David Hogan filed a complaint... butterfly as endangered may be warranted (75 FR 17062). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on...

  17. 76 FR 37706 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... publish these 12-month findings in the Federal Register. Previous Federal Actions On July 1, 1975 (40 FR... Service for listing as an endangered species under the Act in 1976 (June 16, 1976, 41 FR 24524). However... Wildlife Service 1988). Ozark chinquapin became a category 2 candidate on December 15, 1980 (45 FR...

  18. 75 FR 13909 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings for Petitions to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... finding in the Federal Register (69 FR 21484) that these petitions taken collectively, as well as... finding, until July 30, 2004 (69 FR 41445). In accordance with section 4(b)(3)(A) of the Act, we completed... January 12, 2005, we announced our not-warranted 12-month finding in the Federal Register (70 FR 2243)....

  19. 78 FR 68659 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., 2008, we published a 12-month finding on the petition to list the Gunnison's prairie dog (73 FR 6660... published a 90-day finding in the Federal Register (71 FR 6241) determining that the petition did not... notice of review process (73 FR 75175, December 20, 2008; 74 FR 57804, November 9, 2009; 75 FR...

  20. 75 FR 30338 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition to List the White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... may be warranted. On November 9, 2004, we announced our 90-day finding (69 FR 64889) that the petition... Finding on a Petition to List the White-tailed Prairie Dog as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and... Wildlife Service announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the white-tailed prairie dog...

  1. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to total breastfeeding durations of 12 months or less by parous women

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Susan J; Wilson, Louise F; Nagle, Christina M; Green, Adele C; Olsen, Catherine M; Bain, Christopher J; Pandeya, Nirmala; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and number of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to parous women having breastfed for total durations of ≤12 months. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of breast cancers (the only cancer site with convincing evidence of causal association) associated with women breastfeeding for ≤12 months in total, using standard formulae incorporating breastfeeding prevalence data, relative risks associated with breastfeeding and cancer incidence. We also estimated the proportion change in disease incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that might have occurred under two hypothetical scenarios of women breastfeeding for longer durations. Results An estimated 235 (1.7%) breast cancer cases that occurred in Australian in 2010 could be attributed to women breastfeeding for total durations of ≤12 months. Assuming a hypothetical increase in breastfeeding, we estimated that the number of breast cancers prevented would range from 36 to 51 (prevented fraction = 0.3% to 0.4%). Conclusions More than 200 breast cancers were attributable to women breastfeeding for total durations of ≤12 months. Implications Policies to increase breastfeeding duration may help prevent breast cancers in the future. PMID:26437725

  2. 76 FR 46251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Redrock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Register on December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66866). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on the June 18... levels, on their own, do not affect aquatic invertebrates (Spindler 2010b, p. 1), and we do not expect... an important food source and foraging area for stream invertebrates (Wallace and Webster 1996, p....

  3. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). On December 9, 2008, we received a petition dated December 8, 2008, from... published in the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 42033). In that finding we determined that the... Pinus albicaulis (75 FR 42033), and received 20 letters from the public. This 12-month finding is...

  4. 77 FR 59357 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Spring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Spring Mountains acastus checkerspot butterfly (Chlosyne acastus robusta) as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Spring Mountains acastus......

  5. Is Visual Reference Necessary? Contributions of Facial versus Vocal Cues in 12-Month-Olds' Social Referencing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Amrisha; Striano, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    To examine the influences of facial versus vocal cues on infants' behavior in a potentially threatening situation, 12-month-olds on a visual cliff received positive facial-only, vocal-only, or both facial and vocal cues from mothers. Infants' crossing times and looks to mother were assessed. Infants crossed the cliff faster with multimodal and…

  6. 75 FR 78029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ..., 1995, we published a finding (60 FR 19567) that a previous petition, submitted by the Predator Project... scientific and commercial information indicating that listing may be warranted (68 FR 60112). On September 29... published a 12-month finding of ``not warranted'' for the wolverine in the contiguous United States (73...

  7. 75 FR 19592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Wyoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Wyoming pocket gopher (Thomomys clusius) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Wyoming pocket gopher as either......

  8. 75 FR 53615 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... warranted, and initiated a status review (74 FR 36152). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on the... species under the Act in the 1982 Candidate Notice of Review (47 FR 58454, December 30, 1982). Category 2... for possible addition to the ] Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (61 FR...

  9. IMPACT OF A 12-MONTH EXPOSURE TO A DIURNAL PATTERN OF OZONE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION, ANTIOXIDANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats were exposed for 12 months, 13 hr/day, 7 days/week to 0.06 ppm O3; Monday through Friday, the animals received a 9 hr spike reaching a maximum concentration of 0.25 ppm. An increase in the rate of lung nitrogen washout was observed in the O3-exposed rats. Residual volume and...

  10. 76 FR 9722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Solanum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... FR 63659) our finding that the petition to list A. eggersiana and S. conocarpum presented substantial... February 28, 2006. On March 7, 2006, we published our 12-month finding (71 FR 11367) that listing of A... Number The Service adopted guidelines on September 21, 1983 (48 FR 43098), to establish a rational...

  11. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  12. High Incidence of Vertebral Fractures in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 12 Months After the Initiation of Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alos, Nathalie; Grant, Ronald; Ramsay, Timothy; Halton, Jacqueline; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Abish, Sharon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Barr, Ronald; Cabral, David A.; Cairney, Elizabeth; Couch, Robert; Dix, David B.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Hay, John; Israels, Sara; Laverdière, Caroline; Lentle, Brian; Lewis, Victor; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Rodd, Celia; Shenouda, Nazih; Stein, Robert; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Wilson, Beverly; Williams, Kathryn; Rauch, Frank; Siminoski, Kerry; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis are a potential complication of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To date, the incidence of vertebral fractures during ALL treatment has not been reported. Patient and Methods We prospectively evaluated 155 children with ALL during the first 12 months of leukemia therapy. Lateral thoracolumbar spine radiographs were obtained at baseline and 12 months. Vertebral bodies were assessed for incident vertebral fractures using the Genant semi-quantitative method, and relevant clinical indices such as spine bone mineral density (BMD), back pain and the presence of vertebral fractures at baseline were analyzed for association with incident vertebral fractures. Results Of the 155 children, 25 (16%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 11% to 23%) had a total of 61 incident vertebral fractures, of which 32 (52%) were moderate or severe. Thirteen of the 25 children with incident vertebral fractures (52%) also had fractures at baseline. Vertebral fractures at baseline increased the odds of an incident fracture at 12 months by an odds ratio of 7.3 (95% CI 2.3 to 23.1, p = 0.001). In addition, for every one standard deviation reduction in spine BMD Z-score at baseline, there was 1.8-fold increased odds of incident vertebral fracture at 12 months (95% CI 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.006). Conclusion Children with ALL have a high incidence of vertebral fractures after 12 months of chemotherapy, and the presence of vertebral fractures and reductions in spine BMD Z-scores at baseline are highly associated clinical features. PMID:22734031

  13. Study on the Langevin piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer of longitudinal-flexural composite vibrational mode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuyu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Langevin longitudinal-flexural composite mode piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is studied. This type of transducers consists of slender metal rods and longitudinally polarized piezoelectric ceramic rings. The resonance frequency equations for the longitudinal and flexural vibrations in the transducer are derived. By correcting the length of the metal slender rods, the simultaneous resonance of the longitudinal and flexural vibrations in the transducer is acquired. The experimental results show that the measured resonance frequencies of the transducers are in good agreement with the computed ones, and the measured resonance frequencies of the longitudinal and the flexural vibrations in the composite transducers are also in good agreement with each other. PMID:16289195

  14. The influence of urban design on neighbourhood walking following residential relocation: longitudinal results from the RESIDE study.

    PubMed

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Knuiman, Matthew; McCormack, Gavin; Van Niel, Kimberly; Timperio, Anna; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Divitini, Mark; Middleton, Nick; Boruff, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    The design of urban environments has the potential to enhance the health and well-being of residents by impacting social determinants of health including access to public transport, green space and local amenities. Commencing in 2003, RESIDE is a longitudinal natural experiment examining the impact of urban planning on active living in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Participants building homes in new housing developments were surveyed before relocation (n = 1813; 34·6% recruitment rate); and approximately 12 months later (n = 1437). Changes in perceived and objective neighbourhood characteristics associated with walking following relocation were examined, adjusted for changes in demographic, intrapersonal, interpersonal and baseline reasons for residential location choice. Self-reported walking was measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire. Following relocation, transport-related walking declined overall (p < 0.001) and recreational walking increased (p < 0.001): access to transport- and recreational destinations changed in similar directions. However, in those with increased access to destinations, transport-related walking increased by 5.8 min/week for each type of transport-related destination that increased (p = 0.045); and recreational walking by 17.6 min/week for each type of recreational destination that increased (p = 0.070). The association between the built environment and recreational walking was partially mediated by changes in perceived neighbourhood attractiveness: when changes in 'enjoyment' and 'attitude' towards local walking were removed from the multivariate model, recreational walking returned to 20.1 min/week (p = 0.040) for each type of recreational destination that increased. This study provides longitudinal evidence that both transport and recreational-walking behaviours respond to changes in the availability and diversity of local transport- and recreational destinations, and demonstrates the potential of

  15. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  16. Exploring the acceptability and feasibility of conducting a large longitudinal population-based study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Susan A; Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Strople, Geoff; Kits, Olga; Dukeshire, Steven; Angus, Camille L; Szala-Meneok, Karen; Uniat, Jennifer; Keshavarz, Homa; Furlini, Linda; Pelletier, Amélie

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTSuccessful recruitment and retention for population-based longitudinal studies requires understanding facilitators and barriers to participation. This study explored Canadians' views regarding one such study, the proposed Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Focus groups of participants > or =40 years of age were held in six proposed CLSA data collection sites (Halifax, Montreal, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver) to discuss participating in a long-term study of healthy aging. There was fundamental support for longitudinal research on health and aging. Altruism was a key motivation to participation, and universities were viewed as credible parties to conduct such studies. Participants had few worries about providing biological samples but expressed concern about potential misuse of genetic materials, commercialization of participant data, and privacy issues. These findings have already informed current, and will inform future, work on the CLSA, and will also provide useful information to researchers who undertake other population-based longitudinal studies. PMID:19860978

  17. Functional disability as an explanation of the associations between chronic physical conditions and 12-month major depressive episode

    PubMed Central

    Stegmann, Mariken E.; Ormel, Johan; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep-Maria; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Vilagut, Gemma; Alonso, Jordi; Burger, Huibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between physical conditions and mental health is poorly understood. Functional disability could explain the association of physical conditions with major depressive episode (MDE) as an intermediary factor. Methods Data was analyzed from a subsample (N=8,796) of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD), a cross-sectional general population survey. MDE during the last 12 months was assessed using a revision of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Lifetime chronic physical conditions were assessed by self-report. Functional disability was measured using a version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). The associations of physical conditions with MDE and explanation by functional disability were quantified using logistic regression. Results All physical conditions were significantly associated with MDE. The increases in risk of MDE ranged from 30% for allergy to amply 100% for arthritis and heart disease. When adjusted for physical comorbidity, associations decreased and were no longer statistically significant for allergy and diabetes. Functional disability explained between 17 and 64% of these associations, most substantially for stomach or duodenum ulcer, arthritis and heart disease. Limitations Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study the temporal relationship of the variables could not be assessed and the amount of explanation can not simply be interpreted as the amount of mediation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the association of chronic physical conditions with MDE is partly explained by functional disability. Such explanation is more pronounced for pain causing conditions and heart disease. Health professionals should be particularly aware of the increased risk of depressive disorder when patients experience disability from these conditions. PMID:19939461

  18. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in...

  19. Progression of atherosclerosis in the Apo E-/- model: 12-month exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke combined with high-cholesterol/fat diet.

    PubMed

    von Holt, K; Lebrun, S; Stinn, W; Conroy, L; Wallerath, T; Schleef, R

    2009-07-01

    This study was performed to gain information about the influence of two cardiovascular risk factors, cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) and high-cholesterol/fat diet, on the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apo E-/-) mice. Eight to 12-week-old mice were whole-body exposed for up to 12 months (6h/day, 5 days/week) to diluted cigarette mainstream smoke at total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations of 100 or 200mg/m(3), or to filtered fresh air (sham) in combination with a normal chow diet or a high-cholesterol/fat diet. Cholesterol in the aortic arch was elevated in the high-cholesterol/fat diet groups exposed to 200 mg TPM/m(3) compared to sham at all time points. In the brachiocephalic artery (BA), absolute plaque size and fraction area of plaques was elevated over the 12-month time course in mice exposed to 200 mg TPM/m(3) compared to sham (both diets). Exposure to 100 and 200 mg TPM/m(3) altered the number of elastin-rich layers in the BA in mice fed a high-cholesterol/fat diet, indicating changes in plaque morphology at 6 and 9 months. This study shows for the first time the influence of two different risk factors, MS and high-cholesterol/fat diet, both alone and in combination over a period of 12 months, on the progression of atherosclerosis in Apo E-/- mice. Data suggest that long-term exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke accelerates the development of atherosclerosis in Apo E-/- mice, particularly in combination with a high-cholesterol/fat diet. PMID:19144336

  20. Prediction model for outcome after low-back surgery: individualized likelihood of complication, hospital readmission, return to work, and 12-month improvement in functional disability.

    PubMed

    McGirt, Matthew J; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Asher, Anthony L; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    .6%), 108 (5.9%) were readmitted within 30 days of surgery, 188 (10.3%) required discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, 1630 (88.9%) returned to work, and 449 (24.5%) experienced an unplanned outcome (no improvement in ODI, a complication, or readmission). There were 45 unique baseline variable inputs, derived from 39 clinical variables and 38 questionnaire items (ODI, SF-12, MSPQ, VAS-BP, VAS-LP, VAS-NP), included in each model. For prediction of 12-month ODI, R(2) was 0.51 for development and 0.47 for the validation study. For prediction of a complication, readmission, inpatient rehabilitation, and return to work, AUC values ranged 0.72-0.84 for development and 0.79-0.84 for validation study. CONCLUSIONS A novel prediction model utilizing both clinical data and patient interview inputs explained the majority of variation in outcome observed after lumbar spine surgery and reliably predicted 12-month improvement in physical disability, return to work, major complications, readmission, and need for inpatient rehabilitation for individual patients. Application of these models may allow clinicians to offer spine surgery specifically to those who are most likely to benefit and least likely to incur complications and excess costs. PMID:26621411

  1. Histological Predictors of Maximum Failure Loads Differ Between the Healing ACL and ACL Grafts After 6 and 12 Months In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Fleming, Braden C.; Murray, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bioenhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair, where the suture repair is supplemented with a biological scaffold, is a promising novel technique to stimulate healing after ACL rupture. However, the histological properties of a successfully healing ACL and how they relate to the mechanical properties have not been fully described. Purpose: To determine which histological features best correlate with the mechanical properties of the healing ACL repairs and ACL grafts in a porcine model at 6 and 12 months after injury. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 48 Yucatan mini-pigs underwent ACL transection followed by: (1) conventional ACL reconstruction with bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) allograft, (2) bioenhanced ACL reconstruction with BPTB allograft using a bioactive scaffold, or (3) bioenhanced ACL repair using the same bioactive scaffold. After 6 and 12 months of healing, structural properties of the ACL or graft (yield and failure load, linear stiffness) were measured. Following mechanical testing, ACL specimens were histologically analyzed for cell and vascular density and qualitatively assessed using the advanced Ligament Maturity Index. Results: After 6 months of healing, the cellular organization subscore was most predictive of yield load (r 2 = 0.98), maximum load (r 2 = 0.89), and linear stiffness (r 2 = 0.95) of the healing ACL, while at 12 months, the collagen subscore (r 2 = 0.68) became the best predictor of maximum load. For ACL grafts, the reverse was true, with the collagen subscore predictive of yield and maximum loads at 6 months (r 2 = 0.55) and graft cellularity predictive of maximum load of the graft at 12 months (r 2 = 0.50). Conclusion: These findings suggest there may be key biological differences in development and maintenance of ACL tissue after repair or reconstruction, with early ligament function dependent on cellular population of the repair but early graft function dependent on the

  2. Uteroplacental insufficiency leads to hypertension, but not glucose intolerance or impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, in 12-month-old rats

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Melanie; Young, Margaret E; Jefferies, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Ward, Michelle M; Fletcher, Erica L; Wlodek, Mary E; Wadley, Glenn D

    2015-01-01

    Growth restriction impacts on offspring development and increases their risk of disease in adulthood which is exacerbated with “second hits.” The aim of this study was to investigate if blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis were altered in 12-month-old male and female offspring with prenatal or postnatal growth restriction. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation induced uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction in offspring (Restricted). A sham surgery was also performed during pregnancy (Control) and some litters from sham mothers had their litter size reduced (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Growth-restricted females only developed hypertension at 12 months, which was not observed in males. In Restricted females only homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was decreased, indicating enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in males. Plasma leptin was increased only in the Reduced males at 12 months compared to Control and Restricted males, which was not observed in females. Compared to Controls, leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin were unaltered in the Restricted males and females, suggesting that at 12 months of age the reduction in body weight in the Restricted offspring is not a consequence of circulating adipokines. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels were unaltered in 12-month-old male and female rats, which indicate improvements in lean muscle mass by 12 months of age. In summary, sex strongly impacts the cardiometabolic effects of growth restriction in 12-month-old rats and it is females who are at particular risk of developing long-term hypertension following growth restriction. PMID:26416974

  3. Uteroplacental insufficiency leads to hypertension, but not glucose intolerance or impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, in 12-month-old rats.

    PubMed

    Tran, Melanie; Young, Margaret E; Jefferies, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Ward, Michelle M; Fletcher, Erica L; Wlodek, Mary E; Wadley, Glenn D

    2015-09-01

    Growth restriction impacts on offspring development and increases their risk of disease in adulthood which is exacerbated with "second hits." The aim of this study was to investigate if blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis were altered in 12-month-old male and female offspring with prenatal or postnatal growth restriction. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation induced uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction in offspring (Restricted). A sham surgery was also performed during pregnancy (Control) and some litters from sham mothers had their litter size reduced (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Growth-restricted females only developed hypertension at 12 months, which was not observed in males. In Restricted females only homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was decreased, indicating enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in males. Plasma leptin was increased only in the Reduced males at 12 months compared to Control and Restricted males, which was not observed in females. Compared to Controls, leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin were unaltered in the Restricted males and females, suggesting that at 12 months of age the reduction in body weight in the Restricted offspring is not a consequence of circulating adipokines. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels were unaltered in 12-month-old male and female rats, which indicate improvements in lean muscle mass by 12 months of age. In summary, sex strongly impacts the cardiometabolic effects of growth restriction in 12-month-old rats and it is females who are at particular risk of developing long-term hypertension following growth restriction. PMID:26416974

  4. Association between Substance Use Disorder Status and Pain-Related Function Following 12 Months of Treatment in Primary Care Patients with Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Corson, Kathryn; Turk, Dennis C.; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine relationships between substance use disorder (SUD) history and 12-month outcomes among primary care patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Patients were enrolled in a randomized trial of collaborative care intervention (CCI) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) to improve pain-related physical and emotional function. At baseline, 72 of 362 patients (20.0%) had a history of SUD. Compared to CNCP patients without SUD, those with comorbid SUD had poorer pain-related function and were more likely to meet criteria for current major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (all p-values<0.05). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether SUD status was associated with clinically significant change over 12 months in pain-related function (30% reduction in Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire Score). The overall model was not significant in the CCI group. However, within the TAU group, participants with a SUD history were significantly less likely to show improvements in pain-related function (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.11–0.82). CNCP patients with comorbid SUD reported greater functional impairment at baseline. Patients with SUD who received usual care were 70% less likely to have clinically significant improvements in pain-related function 12 months post-baseline, and SUD status did not impede improvement for the CCI group. Perspective Chronic non-cancer pain patients with a history of a substance use disorder (SUD) report poorer pain-related functioning and are less likely to experience clinically significant improvements from usual pain treatment. Providers should assess for SUD status and provide more intensive interventions for these patients. PMID:20851057

  5. The Longitudinal Case Study: From Schon's Model to Self-Directed Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borduas, Francine; Gagnon, Robert; Laprise, Rejean; Lacoursiere, Yves

    2001-01-01

    An interactive workshop based on longitudinal case studies and using Schon's reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action was presented to 37 physicians. Pre/postworkshop data from eight participants showed significant improvements in their knowledge. (SK)

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  7. Early Violent Death Among Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mileusnic, Darinka

    2005-01-01

    Objective Youth processed in the juvenile justice system are at great risk for early violent death. Groups at greatest risk, ie, racial/ethnic minorities, male youth, and urban youth, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. We compared mortality rates for delinquent youth with those for the general population, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Methods This prospective longitudinal study examined mortality rates among 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female) enrolled in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. Participants, 10 to 18 years of age, were sampled randomly from intake at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, Illinois, between 1995 and 1998. The sample was stratified according to gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or other), age (10–13 or ≥14 years), and legal status (processed as a juvenile or as an adult), to obtain enough participants for examination of key subgroups. The sample included 1005 African American (54.9%), 296 non-Hispanic white (16.2%), 524 Hispanic (28.17%), and 4 other-race/ethnicity (0.2%) subjects. The mean age at enrollment was 14.9 years (median age: 15 years). The refusal rate was 4.2%. As of March 31, 2004, we had monitored participants for 0.5 to 8.4 years (mean: 7.1 years; median: 7.2 years; interquartile range: 6.5–7.8 years); the aggregate exposure for all participants was 12 944 person-years. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from family reports or records and were then verified by the local medical examiner or the National Death Index. For comparisons of mortality rates for delinquents and the general population, all data were weighted according to the racial/ethnic, gender, and age characteristics of the detention center; these weighted standardized populations were used to calculate reported percentages and mortality ratios. We calculated mortality

  8. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  9. Kindergarten Predictors of Mathematical Growth in the Primary Grades: An Investigation Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Pui-Wa; Reid, Erin E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal predictive relationships between young children's classroom behaviors and their growth in mathematics skills during the primary grades. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort, the authors tested a longitudinal model featuring positive (interpersonal skills and approaches to learning) and…

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  11. Longitudinal Trajectories in Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey Data: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental trends in personality traits over 42 years were examined using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (N = 2,359, aged 17 to 98), collected from 1958 to 2002. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed cumulative mean-level changes averaging about 0.5 SD across adulthood. Scales related to Extraversion showed distinct developmental patterns: General Activity declined from age 60 to 90; Restraint increased; Ascendance peaked around age 60; and Sociability declined slightly. Scales related to Neuroticism showed curvilinear declines up to age 70 and then increased. Scales related to Agreeableness and Openness changed little; Masculinity declined linearly. Significant individual variability in change was found. Although intercepts differed, trajectories were similar for men and women. Attrition and death had no effect on slopes. This study highlights the use of lower-order traits in providing a more nuanced picture of developmental change. PMID:16497954

  12. 76 FR 38503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list a distinct population segment (DPS) of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in its U.S. Northern Rocky Mountain range, including portions of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, as endangered or threatened and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of......

  13. 78 FR 33790 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (``Service''), announce 12-month findings on two petitions to remove the U.S. captive-bred and U.S. captive ``populations'' of three antelope species, the scimitar- horned oryx (Oryx dammah), dama gazelle (Gazella dama), and addax (Addax nasomaculatus), from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife as determined under the Endangered Species Act of......

  14. 75 FR 42040 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Amargosa toad (Anaxyrus nelsoni) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Amargosa toad is not warranted at this time.......

  15. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N

    PubMed Central

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OH)D < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9–12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3–165.5). Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OH)D (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L) than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L), 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L) and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L). Five of six infants with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding. PMID:24662162

  16. 75 FR 22012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Susan's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Susan's purse-making caddisfly (Ochrotrichia susanae) as endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing Susan's purse-making caddisfly is not warranted at......

  17. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively. PMID:26950508

  18. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  19. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  20. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout. PMID:20432598