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Sample records for 12-month physical activity

  1. Correlates of Self-Reported Physical Activity at 3- and 12-Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Jukic, Anne Marie; Herring, Amy H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum women are encouraged to participate in ≥150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, but few women achieve this recommendation. This study sought to identify factors associated with participation in physical activity following pregnancy. Methods We examined correlates of any self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (≥10 minutes/week across all modes) and any recreational MVPA (≥10 minutes/week) among women enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum study at 3-months (n=667) and 12-months (n=530) postpartum. Potential correlates were identified according to the socio-ecological framework. Results At 3- and 12-months postpartum, lower odds of participation in any MVPA were associated with lower education, breastfeeding, and minimal emotional support. Low exercise self-efficacy, receipt of advice about physical activity, and warmer seasons were associated with higher odds of any MVPA. For recreational MVPA, lower odds of participation were associated with unmarried status, lower education, employment, low income, preeclampsia, and minimal emotional support. Involvement in child/adult care activities, transportation MVPA, and warmer seasons were associated with higher odds of recreational MVPA. Conclusion These findings suggest there are several modifiable intrapersonal and interpersonal factors associated with postpartum MVPA that should be considered when developing interventions to help women maintain or increase MVPA after pregnancy. PMID:25157810

  2. Covariation of Adolescent Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors over 12-Months

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori; Norman, Gregory J.; Sallis, James F.; Calfas, Karen J.; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study examined covariation among changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors over 12 months among adolescents participating in a health behavior intervention. Evidence of covariation among behaviors would suggest multi-behavior interventions could have synergistic effects. Methods Prospective analyses were conducted with baseline and 12 month assessments from a randomized controlled trial to promote improved diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (experimental condition) or SUN protection behaviors (comparison condition). Participants were adolescent girls and boys (N = 878) aged 11 to 15 years on entry. The main outcomes were: diet, based on multiple 24-hour recalls (total fat, grams of fiber, servings of fruit and vegetables, total calories); average daily energy expenditure (kcals/kg) based on 7-Day physical activity recall interviews; daily minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes from accelerometery; and self-reported daily hours of sedentary behavior. Results Covariation was found between fat and calories (r = .16), fiber and calories (r = .53), fiber and fruit/vegetables (r = .53), calories and fruit/vegetables (r = .34), and fruit and vegetables and sedentary behavior (r = -.12) for the total sample (all p < .01). The pattern of findings was similar for most subgroups defined by sex and study condition. Conclusions The strongest covariation was observed for diet variables that are inherently related (calories and fat, fiber, and fruit/vegetables). Little covariation was detected within or between other diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior domains suggesting that interventions to improve these behaviors in adolescents need to include specific program components for each target behavior of interest. PMID:17950167

  3. Objectively measured physical activity and 12-month trajectories of neck-shoulder pain in workers: A prospective study in DPHACTO.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity at work and leisure and the intensity (mean level and time course) of neck-shoulder pain (NSP) over 12 months among male and female blue collar workers. Data were obtained from 625 blue collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity was measured objectively at baseline using accelerometers. The percentage of time spent in physical activity (walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was calculated for both work and leisure time. Longitudinal data on the intensity of NSP (numerical rating scale 0-10) were collected using text messages every fourth week over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the trajectories of the intensity of NSP, adjusted for individual, biomechanical and psychosocial factors, and baseline pain. OPA was not associated with the mean intensity of NSP over 12 months. LTPA was negatively associated with the mean intensity of NSP both among men ( B=-0.71, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.11) and women ( B=-0.85, 95% CI -1.57 to -0.13). Sex interactions on the 12-month trajectories of NSP showed that higher physical activity was associated with a slower reduction in NSP among men for OPA only ( B=0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.05) and women for LTPA only ( B=0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.09). We found that more time in LTPA was associated with a lower overall intensity of NSP over 12 months among blue collar workers. However, depending on sex and domain, high physical activity had an unfavourable effect on the course of NSP over 12 months.

  4. Predictors of physical activity at 12 month follow-up after a supervised exercise intervention in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Ting, Fabiola E; Farris, Megan; Courneya, Kerry S; Schiller, Ashley; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2015-05-05

    Few studies have examined recreational physical activity (RPA) after participating in a structured exercise intervention. More specifically, little is known about the long-term effects of exercise interventions in post-menopausal women. This study had two objectives: 1) To compare RPA in postmenopausal women in the exercise group and the control group 12 months after the end of the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial; and 2) To apply the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify predictors of RPA 12 months post-intervention among women in the exercise group. Self-reported RPA 12-months post-intervention from a validated questionnaire was used to estimate RPA levels for control group (118/160, 74% response) and exercise group participants (126/160, 79% response). Bivariate analysis was used to compare RPA between exercise and control group participants and to identify TPB variables for multivariate analysis. Logistic regression was applied to TPB data collected from self- administered questionnaires at end of trial by exercise group participants (126/160, 79% response) to identify predictors of long-term RPA. At 12 months post-intervention, 62% of women in the exercise group were active compared to 58% of controls (p = 0.52). Of the TPB constructs examined, self-efficacy (OR =2.98 (1.08-8.20)) and behavioural beliefs (OR = 1.46 (1.03-2.06)) were identified as predictors of RPA for exercise group participants. Levels of RPA in the exercise and control groups were comparable 12 months post intervention, indicating that participation in the ALPHA trial was associated with increased physical activity in previously inactive women, regardless of randomization into either the exercise group or in the control group. Exercise interventions that promote self-efficacy and positive behavioural beliefs have the potential to have long-term impacts on physical activity behaviour, although further research is needed to examine additional

  5. 'Physical Activity 4 Everyone' school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: 12 month (mid-intervention) report on a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Elizabeth; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiese, Jarrod; Gillham, Karen; Hollis, Jenna; Wiggers, John

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools. A cluster randomised trial was undertaken in 10 secondary schools located in disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Students in Grade 7 were recruited, with follow-up in Grade 8. The intervention was guided by socioecological theory and included seven physical activity strategies, and six implementation adoption strategies. The primary outcome was mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day assessed using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Outcome data were analysed using repeated measures linear mixed models. At baseline, 1150 (93%) students participated in the data collection (mean age 12 years, 48% boys) and 1050 (79%) students participated at 12-month follow-up. By the 12-month follow-up, the six implementation adoption strategies had been used to support schools to deliver four of the seven physical activity elements. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for mean minutes of MVPA per day in favour of the intervention group (adjusted difference between groups at follow-up=3.85 min, 95% CI (0.79 to 6.91), p ≤ 0.01), including significantly more vigorous physical activity (2.45 min, p ≤ 0.01), equating to 27 min more MVPA per week. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention had reduced the decline in physical activity among adolescents from disadvantaged schools. The intervention may assist students to meet physical activity guidelines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Effectiveness of a 12-month randomized clinical trial to increase physical activity in multiethnic postpartum women: Results from Hawaii’s Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; White, Kami K.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Saiki, Kara; Brown, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few postpartum ethnic minority women perform leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The study tested the effectiveness of a 12-month tailored intervention to increase MVPA in women with infants 2–12 months old. Methods From 2008–2011, women (n=311) with infants (average age = 5.7 months) from Honolulu, Hawaii were randomly assigned to receive tailored telephone calls and access to a mom-centric website (n=154) or access to a standard PA website (n=157). MVPA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months using self-report and acclerometers. Results Controlling for covariates, the tailored condition significantly increased self-reported MVPA from an average of 44 to 246 minutes/week compared with 46 to 156 minutes/week for the standard condition (p=0.027). Mothers with ≥ 2 children had significantly greater increases in MVPA in response to the tailored intervention than those with one child (p=0.016). Accelerometer-measured MVPA significantly increased over time (p=0.0001), with no condition differences. There was evidence of reactivity to initially wearing accelerometers; the tailored intervention significantly increased MVPA among women with low baseline accelerometer MVPA minutes, but not among those with high minutes (pinteraction=0.053). Conclusion A tailored intervention effectively increased MVPA over 12 months in multiethnic women with infants, particularly those with more than one child. PMID:25285751

  7. Transient physical and psychosocial activities increase the risk of nonpersistent and persistent low back pain: a case-crossover study with 12 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gustavo C; Ferreira, Paulo H; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Steffens, Daniel; Koes, Bart W; Li, Qiang; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2016-12-01

    A previous study has shown that transient physical and psychosocial activities increased the risk of developing low back pain. However, the link between these factors in triggering nonpersistent or persistent episodes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of transient exposures to physical and psychosocial activities with the development of nonpersistent or persistent low back pain. This was a case-crossover study with 12 months follow-up. We included 999 consecutive participants seeking care for a sudden onset of low back pain. Development of low back pain was the outcome measure. At baseline, participants reported transient exposures to 12 predefined activities over the 4 days preceding pain onset. After 12 months, participants were asked whether they had recovered and the date of recovery. Exposures in the 2-hour period preceding pain onset (case window) were compared with the 2-hour period, 24 hours before pain onset (control window) in a case-crossover design for all participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and interaction analyses were used to compare estimates of nonpersistent (i.e., <6 weeks duration) and persistent cases. This study received funding from Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1003608). There were 832 participants (83%) who completed the 12 months follow-up successfully. Of these, 430 participants had nonpersistent low back pain (<6 weeks duration), whereas 352 reported persistent symptoms (≥6 weeks duration). Exposure to several transient activities, such as manual tasks involving heavy loads, awkward postures, live people or animals, moderate or vigorous physical activity, and being fatigued or tired during a task or activity, significantly increased the risk of both nonpersistent and persistent low back pain, with ORs ranging from 2.9 to 11.7. Overall, the risk of developing a persistent or a nonpersistent episode of

  8. What barriers thwart postpartum women's physical activity goals during a 12-month intervention? A process evaluation of the Nā Mikimiki Project.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Saiki, Kara; Steffen, Alana D; Woekel, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 70% of new mothers do not meet national guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project (2008-2011) was designed to increase MVPA among women with infants 2-12 months old. Participants' barriers to exercising and achievement of specific MVPA goals were discussed during telephone counseling calls over 12 months. Healthy, inactive women (n = 115, mean age = 31 ± 5 years, infants' mean age = 5.5 ± 3 months; 80% racial/ethnic minorities) received a total of 17 calls over 12 months in three phases. During Phase 1 weekly calls were made for a month, in Phase 2 biweekly calls were made for 2 months, and in Phase 3 monthly calls were made for 9 months. Across all phases, the most frequent barriers to achieving MVPA goals were: time/too busy (25%), sick child (11%), and illness (10%). Goals for MVPA minutes per week were achieved or surpassed 40.6% of the time during weekly calls, 39.9% during biweekly calls, and 42.0% during monthly calls. The least likely MVPA goals to be achieved (p < 0.04) were those which the woman encountered and for which she failed to overcome the barriers she had previously anticipated would impair her improvement of MVPA. This process evaluation demonstrated that telephone counseling somewhat facilitated the resolution of barriers and achievement of MVPA goals; thus, if clinical settings adopted such methods, chronic disease risks could be reduced in this vulnerable population of new mothers.

  9. What barriers thwart postpartum women's Physical Activity goals during a 12-month intervention? A process evaluation of the Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Saiki, Kara; Steffen, Alana D.; Woekel, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 70% of new mothers do not meet national guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project (2008-2011) was designed to increase MVPA among women with infants 2-12 months old. Participants’ barriers to exercising and achievement of specific MVPA goals were discussed during telephone counseling calls over 12-months. Healthy, inactive women (n=115, mean age=31 ±5 years, infants’ mean age = 5.5 ± 3 months; 80% racial/ethnic minorities) received a total of 17 calls over 12 months, in three phases. During Phase 1 weekly calls were made for a month; in Phase 2 biweekly calls were made for two months, and in Phase 3 monthly calls were made for nine months. Across all Phases, the most frequent barriers to achieving MVPA goals were: time/too busy (25%), sick child (11%), and illness (10%). Goals for MVPA minutes per week were achieved or surpassed 40.6% of the time during weekly calls, 39.9% during biweekly calls and 42.0% during monthly calls. The least likely MVPA goals to be achieved (p < 0.04) were those which the woman encountered and for which she failed to overcome the barriers she had previously anticipated would impair her improvement of MVPA. This process evaluation demonstrated that telephone counseling somewhat facilitated the resolution of barriers and achievement of MVPA goals; thus, if clinical settings adopted such methods, chronic disease risks could be reduced in this vulnerable population of new mothers. PMID:25402618

  10. Changes in physical activity after total hip or knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 6 and 12 month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Thomas; Simonian, Aram; Austin, Monica; Butler, Robert; Allen, Kelli D; Ledbetter, Leila; Goode, Adam P

    2017-09-12

    Little is known about the extent to which physical activity (PA) changes following total knee or hip joint replacement relative to pain, physical function and quality of life. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on changes in PA relative to pain, quality of life and physical function after total knee or hip joint replacement. We searched PubMed (Medline), Embase and Cinahl, for peer-reviewed, English-language cohort studies measuring PA with an accelerometer from pre-surgery to post-surgery. Random-effects models were used to produce standardized mean differences (SMDs) for PA, quality of life, pain, and physical function outcomes. Heterogeneity was measured with I(2) . Seven studies (336 participants) met eligibility criteria. No significant increase in PA was found at 6-months (SMD 0.14; 95% CI -0.05 to 0.34; I(2) =0%) and a small-moderate significant effect was found for increasing PA at 12-months (SMD 0.43; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.64; I(2) =0%). Large improvements at 6-months in physical function (SMD 0.97; 95% CI 0.12 to 1.82; I(2) =92.3%), pain (SMD -1.47; 95% CI -2.28 to -0.65; I(2) =91.6%), and quality of life (SMD 1.02; 95% CI 0.30 to 1.74; I(2) =83.2%) were found. Physical activity did not change at 6-months and a small-moderate improvement was found at 12-months post-surgery, despite large improvements in quality of life, pain, and physical function. Reasons for the lack of increased PA are unknown but may be behavioral in nature as sedentary lifestyle is difficult to change. Changing sedentary behavior should be a future focus among this subgroup. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of Change in Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Population in Hawaii at 6 and 12 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Joy C.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Liu, Min; Banna, Jinan C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting behaviors have been shown to co-exist, but it is unknown if decisional balance with regards to one health behavior may predict change in another behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between benefits (pros) and costs (cons) of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) and behavior over time, both within behaviors and transbehaviorally. This longitudinal study was conducted in multiethnic adults in Hawaii (n = 700; 63% female; mean age = 47 years; mean BMI = 25.9; mean education = 14.5 years, average household income = $45,000/year). Questionnaires assessed PA and FV pros/cons on a 5-point Likert Scale, PA (MET-min/wk), and FV intake (servings/day). Multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between pros/cons for PA and FV intake and behavior at 6- and 12-month follow-up. At baseline, average FV pros were 4.08 (.91), and average FV cons were 1.88 (.90). Average baseline PA pros were 4.07 (.89), and average PA cons were 1.71 (.77). Multiple regressions revealed that baseline FV pros and cons predicted FV intake, FV cons also predicted PA, and PA pros and cons were not predictive of PA or of FV intake. Study findings provide some support for decisional balance as a useful core construct used in leading theories of behavior change. Improving decisional balance for FV intake may have a beneficial effect on FV intake and potentially PA, indicating a potential gateway effect of decisional balance for FV intake on other behaviors. PMID:27525198

  12. Physical inactivity at leisure and work: a 12-month study of cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Michelle C; Murphy, Barbara M; Le Grande, Michael R; Worcester, Marian U C

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as a distinct health risk. However, little is known about how this can vary at leisure and work in cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of inactivity during leisure and work in the 12 months following a cardiac event in Australian cardiac patients. A total of 346 patients consecutively admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome or to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery were interviewed in hospital, and 4 and 12 months later. Leisure and occupational physical activity was measured using the Stanford Brief Activity Survey. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical data were also collected. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity declined over time, with 52% inactive preevent and 29% inactive at 12 months. Approximately 50% of participants were physically inactive in their work, regardless of whether this was measured before or after the cardiac event. Logistic regression revealed that the significant predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity at 12 months were non-home ownership (OR = 2.19; P = .007) and physical inactivity in leisure-time prior to the event (OR = 2.44; P = .001). The significant predictors of occupational physical inactivity at 12 months were white-collar occupation (OR = 3.10; P < .001) and physical inactivity at work prior to the event (OR = 12.99; P < .001). Preevent physical inactivity, socioeconomic, and clinical factors predicted both leisure and work inactivity after an acute cardiac event. Effective interventions could be designed and implemented to target those most at risk of being physically inactive at work or leisure.

  13. Effectiveness of a motivational interviewing intervention on weight loss, physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a randomised controlled trial with a 12-month post-intervention follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intensive diet and physical activity interventions have been found to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but are resource intensive. The American Heart Association recently recommended motivational interviewing (MI) as an effective approach for low-intensity interventions to promote health-related outcomes such as weight loss. However, there is limited research evaluating the long-term effectiveness of MI-based interventions on health-related outcomes associated with CVD risk. The current research evaluated the effectiveness of a six-month low-intensity MI intervention in a UK primary-care setting in maintaining reductions in CVD risk factors at12 months post-intervention. Methods Primary-care patients were randomised to an intervention group that received standard exercise and nutrition information plus up to five face-to-face MI sessions, delivered by a physical activity specialist and registered dietician over a 6-month period, or to a minimal intervention comparison group that received the standard information only. Follow-up measures of behavioural (vigorous and moderate physical activity, walking, physical activity stage-of-change, fruit and vegetable intake, and dietary fat intake) and biomedical (weight, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, cholesterol) outcomes were taken immediately post-intervention and at a 12-month follow-up occasion. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant differences between groups for walking and cholesterol. Obese and hypercholesterolemic patients at baseline exhibited significant improvements in BMI and cholesterol respectively among those allocated to the intervention group compared to the comparison group. Post-intervention improvements in other health-related outcomes including blood pressure, weight, and BMI were not maintained. Conclusions The present study suggests that a low-intensity MI counselling intervention is effective in bringing about long-term changes in some, but not all, health

  14. The physical, functional, and developmental outcome of pediatric burn survivors from 1 to 12 months postinjury.

    PubMed

    Gorga, D; Johnson, J; Bentley, A; Silverberg, R; Glassman, M; Madden, M; Yurt, R; Nagler, W

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-one children with an average age of 27 months and who had sustained a burn injury were tested at 1, 6, and 12 months postinjury to determine their physical, functional, and developmental outcomes. Most parents were either African-American or Hispanic, lived on public assistance, and had a high school education or less. Most children had normal range of motion and were appropriate for their age in self-care skills. On the basis of the Home Screening Questionnaire, 48% of the children came from suspect home environments. Developmental delays were noted in language acquisition that persisted over the first year postburn. Although the outcomes of these burn injuries were good in physical and functional areas, the developmental findings raised concerns. The results alert clinicians to screen for potential developmental problems during the burned child's recovery phase and to include appropriate developmental activities and parental guidance in the treatment plan.

  15. Infants born to narcotic dependent mothers: physical growth patterns in the first 12 months of life.

    PubMed

    Vance, J C; Chant, D C; Tudehope, D I; Gray, P H; Hayes, A J

    1997-12-01

    To describe the physical growth patterns of infants born to narcotic dependent mothers (INDM) over a 12 months period and, if possible, to relate the growth to drug taking patterns during pregnancy. The growth of a cohort of 43 INDM was measured during the first 12 months of life. Weight and length measurements were compared with percentile charts and converted to Z scores. Questionnaire data about drug taking practices, demographic variables and the neonatal period (including withdrawal scores) were obtained. Twenty-four (55.8%) of INDM had evidence of neonatal drug withdrawal requiring treatment with phenobarbitone. At birth, Z scores for weight and length indicated relative intrauterine growth retardation. By 12 months, there had been some catch up growth, but Z scores for weight and length were still below zero. Persistent weight retardation at 12 months was correlated with methadone dosage during pregnancy, but not the need for phenobarbitone therapy. The growth patterns of INDM in the first 12 months of life indicated that at birth there was evidence of intrauterine growth retardation, but by 12 months the growth was little different from the rest of the community. There appears to be some influence of narcotic agents taken while pregnant on subsequent growth of INDM.

  16. Impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions 6 and 12 months after breast cancer operation.

    PubMed

    Kärki, Anne; Simonen, Riitta; Mälkiä, Esko; Selfe, James

    2005-05-01

    To describe the impairments of upper body and limbs, activity limitations and participation restrictions 6 and 12 months after operation for breast cancer and to examine the impact of impairments on activity limitations. A prospective survey 6 and 12 months after operation. Ninety-six breast cancer patients. A questionnaire for assessing the impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions was developed. The most common impairments 6 months after operation were breast and axilla scar tightness, axilla oedema and neck-shoulder pain. At 12-month follow-up the breast scar tightness (p=0.008) and axilla oedema (p=0.023) decreased, and limb ache (p=0.005) increased significantly. The most limiting impairments were axilla oedema and limb numbness 6 months after operation, and at 12-month follow-up axilla oedema. Lifting, carrying and reaching out caused worsening of impairments to more than half of the respondents at 6-month follow-up. Regression analysis showed that many impairments together were determinants of activity limitations and sleep impairment. Participation restrictions were constant. Respondents had not given up participation in activities in the home, but some had abandoned leisure activities and felt that their work ability had decreased. Impairments and their impact on activities were frequent and constant. There is an urgent need for developing rehabilitation protocols for breast cancer patients.

  17. Change in Sexual Activity 12 Months After ART Initiation Among HIV-Positive Mozambicans

    PubMed Central

    Cassels, Susan; Kurth, Ann E.; Montoya, Pablo; Micek, Mark A.; Gloyd, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed sexual behaviors before and 12-months after ART initiation among 277 Mozambicans attending an HIV clinic. Measured behaviors included the number of sexual partners, condom use, concurrent relationships, disclosure of HIV status, alcohol use, and partners’ serostatus. Compared to before ART initiation, increases were seen 12 months after ART in the proportion of participants who were sexually active (48% vs. 64% respondents, P < 0.001) and the proportion of participants with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus partners (45% vs. 80%, P < 0.001). Almost all (96%) concurrent partnerships reported at 12 months formed after ART initiation. Although reported correct and consist condom use increased, the number of unprotected sexual relationships remained the same (n = 45). Non-disclosure of HIV-serostatus to sexual partners was the only significant predictor of practicing unprotected sex with partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus. Sexual activity among HIV-positive persons on ART increased 12 months after ART initiation. Ongoing secondary transmission prevention programs addressing sexual activity with multiple partners, disclosure to partners and consistent condom use with serodisconcordant partners must be incorporated throughout HIV care programs. PMID:21082338

  18. Change in sexual activity 12 months after ART initiation among HIV-positive Mozambicans.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Cassels, Susan; Kurth, Ann E; Montoya, Pablo; Micek, Mark A; Gloyd, Stephen S

    2011-05-01

    We assessed sexual behaviors before and 12-months after ART initiation among 277 Mozambicans attending an HIV clinic. Measured behaviors included the number of sexual partners, condom use, concurrent relationships, disclosure of HIV status, alcohol use, and partners' serostatus. Compared to before ART initiation, increases were seen 12 months after ART in the proportion of participants who were sexually active (48% vs. 64% respondents, P < 0.001) and the proportion of participants with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus partners (45% vs. 80%, P < 0.001). Almost all (96%) concurrent partnerships reported at 12 months formed after ART initiation. Although reported correct and consist condom use increased, the number of unprotected sexual relationships remained the same (n = 45). Non-disclosure of HIV-serostatus to sexual partners was the only significant predictor of practicing unprotected sex with partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus. Sexual activity among HIV-positive persons on ART increased 12 months after ART initiation. Ongoing secondary transmission prevention programs addressing sexual activity with multiple partners, disclosure to partners and consistent condom use with serodisconcordant partners must be incorporated throughout HIV care programs.

  19. Improving Physical Health in Patients with Chronic Mental Disorders: 12-Month Results from a Randomized Controlled Collaborative Care Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Amy M.; Barbaresso, Michelle M.; Lai, Zongshan; Nord, Kristina M.; Bramlet, Margretta; Goodrich, David E.; Post, Edward P.; Almirall, Daniel; Bauer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Persons with chronic mental disorders are disproportionately burdened with physical health conditions. We determined whether Life Goals Collaborative Care compared to usual care improves physical health in patients with mental disorders within 12 months. Method This single-blind randomized controlled effectiveness study of a collaborative care model was conducted at a mid-western Veterans Affairs urban outpatient mental health clinic. Patients (N=293 out of 474 eligible approached) with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder and at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor were consented and randomized (02/24/10 to 04/29/15) to Life Goals (N=146) or usual care (N=147). A total of 287 completed baseline assessments and 245 completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Life Goals included five weekly sessions that provided semi-structured guidance on managing physical and mental health symptoms through healthy behavior changes, augmented by ongoing care coordination. The primary outcome was change in physical health-related quality of life score (VR-12 physical health component score). Secondary outcomes included control of cardiovascular risk factors from baseline to 12 months (blood pressure, lipids, weight), mental health-related quality of life, and mental health symptoms. Results Among patients completing baseline and 12-month outcomes assessments (N=245), the mean age was 55.3 (SD=10.8; range 28-75 years) and 15.4% were female. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that compared to those in usual care, patients randomized to Life Goals had slightly increased VR-12 physical health scores (coefficient=3.21;p=0.01). Conclusion Patients with chronic mental disorders and cardiovascular disease risk who received Life Goals had improved physical health-related quality of life. PMID:27780336

  20. Effects of 12 Months Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sympathetic Activity Related Brainstem Function and Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Luke A.; Fatouleh, Rania H.; Lundblad, Linda C.; McKenzie, David K.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 OSA subjects before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We found that following 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment, resting MSNA levels were significantly reduced in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related brainstem activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons, and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MSNA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function. PMID:27013952

  1. [The clinical outcome and immune reconstitution in 45 advanced AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy for 12 months].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Gui-ren; Qiu, Zhi-feng; Li, Tai-sheng; Han, Yang; Xie, Jing; Zuo, Ling-yan; Ma, Xiao-jun; Liu, Zheng-yin; Wang, Ai-xia

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy and side effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Chinese AIDS patients. 45 antiretroviral drug-naive AIDS patients were enrolled and divided into two groups by their baseline CD(4) count < 100/microl or > or = 100/microl. Clinical, virological and immunological outcomes as well as side effects were followed at baseline and at the end of month 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 after receiving HAART. Among the 45 HIV/AIDS patients included, by the end of 12 months of HAART, the plasma viral load (VL) got a mean reduction by 2.8 lg copies/ml, CD(4) count had a mean gain of 187/microl, among which the naive phenotype increased by 68/microl and the memory phenotype by 119/microl. The CD(4)(+)CD(28)(+) T cell percentage went up from (62.5 +/- 25.8)% to (82.6 +/- 15.6)% (P < 0.001); and there was a significant reduction of CD(8)(+) T-cell activation. In the 31 patients with their baseline CD(4) count < 100/microl, 11 had a VL < 50 copies/ml, and 14 had fluctuations in their VL; while in 14 patients with their baseline CD(4) count > or = 100/microl, 10 had a VL < 50 copies/ml and 2 had fluctuations in their VL, respectively, with statistic significance between the two groups. CD(4) count showed a bi-phase increase during HAART and there was significant positive correlation between the change of CD(4) count and plasma VL. Throughout the 12 months of HAART, 39 patients had gastrointestinal side effects, 15 peripheral neuritis, 3 hepatic lesions, 4 hematological side effects and 1 renal calculus. 9 patients had adjustment of their initial therapy because of side effects. Immune reconstitution as well as significant therapeutic effect was observed in advanced Chinese AIDS patients after HAART. Side effects were common during HAART, so close clinical attention is needed.

  2. Clinical outcomes and immune reconstitution in 103 advanced AIDS patients undergoing 12-month highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yi; Qiu, Zhi-feng; Li, Tai-sheng; Han, Yang; Zuo, Ling-yan; Xie, Jing; Ma, Xiao-jun; Liu, Zheng-yin; Wang, Ai-xia

    2006-10-20

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) produces profound suppression of HIV replication, substantial increase in CD4(+) T cells, and partial reconstitution of the immune system. However, the numbers of subjects were small in previous Chinese studies. This study evaluated the efficacy and side effects of HAART in Chinese advanced AIDS patients. One hundred and three antiretroviral drug naive AIDS patients were enrolled in this study and were divided into two groups by their baseline CD4(+) count: < 100 cells/microl or > or = 100 cells/microl. Clinical, virological and immunological outcomes were monitored at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months during the course of treatment with HAART. One patient died and another was lost from the follow-up. For the remaining 101 HIV/AIDS patients at the 12th month during the HAART, the plasma viral load (VL) was reduced to (3.2 +/- 0.7) lg copies/ml, the CD4(+) count increased to (168 +/- 51) cells/microl [among which the naive phenotype (CD45RA(+)CD62L(+)) increased to (49 +/- 27) cells/microl and the memory phenotype (CD45RA(-)) increased to (119 +/- 55) cells/microl], and the percentage of CD4(+)CD28(+) cells increased. At the same time, there was a significant reduction of CD8(+) T cell activation. In the 69 patients with the baseline CD4(+) count < 100 cells/microl, 37 had a VL < 50 copies/ml; while in the 34 patients with the baseline CD4(+) count > or = 100 cells/microl, 25 had a VL < 50 copies/ml, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The CD4(+) T cell count showed a two-phase increase during HAART and a significant positive correlation was shown between the change of CD4(+) count and plasma VL. Over 12 months of HAART, 10 patients had gastrointestinal side effects, 13 peripheral neuritis, 7 hepatic lesions, 8 hematological side effects, 8 skin rashes, 10 lipodystrophy and 1 renal calculus. Immune reconstitution as well as the significantly improved clinical outcomes is observed in

  3. Predictors of changes in physical, psychosocial, sexual quality of life, and comfort with food after obesity surgery: a 12-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Brunault, Paul; Frammery, Julie; Couet, Charles; Delbachian, Irène; Bourbao-Tournois, Céline; Objois, Martine; Cosson, Patricia; Réveillère, Christian; Ballon, Nicolas

    2015-02-01

    Although obesity surgery provides significant postoperative improvement in quality of life (QoL), it is still unclear which factors might predict improvement in QoL after surgery. We aimed to determine which factors might predict changes in physical, psychosocial, sexual QoL, and comfort with food 12 months after surgery, by putting to the test a QoL model based on Wilson and Cleary's model. We included 126 obese patients (48.4% had gastric banding, 34.1% had sleeve gastrectomy, and 17.5% had gastric bypass). At baseline, we assessed QoL (Quality of Life, Obesity and Dietetics rating scale), BMI, depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and binge eating (Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh). At 12 months, we assessed QoL and BMI. To determine the predictors for changes in each QoL dimension after surgery, we used linear mixed models adjusted for preoperative age, BMI, time, type of surgery, preoperative binge eating severity, and preoperative depression severity. After 12 months, we found significant improvement in physical, psychosocial, sexual QoL, but not in comfort with food. Increased weight loss was associated with better improvement in physical and psychosocial QoL. Higher preoperative depression severity predicted poorer improvement in physical, psychosocial, and sexual QoL. Higher preoperative binge eating severity predicted poorer improvement in psychosocial, sexual QoL, and comfort with food. In addition to weight loss, preoperative levels of binge eating and depression should be considered as important predictors for QoL changes after bariatric surgery. Screening and treatment for preoperative depression and binge eating might improve QoL after bariatric surgery.

  4. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games, and the Internet Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Print A A A What's in this article? ... Child's Growth Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month- ...

  5. Physical therapy plus general practitioners' care versus general practitioners' care alone for sciatica: a randomised clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; van den Hoogen, Hans J M M; Peul, Wilco C; Avezaat, Cees J J; Koes, Bart W

    2008-04-01

    A randomised clinical trial in primary care with a 12-months follow-up period. About 135 patients with acute sciatica (recruited from May 2003 to November 2004) were randomised in two groups: (1) the intervention group received physical therapy (PT) added to the general practitioners' care, and (2) the control group with general practitioners' care only. To assess the effectiveness of PT additional to general practitioners' care compared to general practitioners' care alone, in patients with acute sciatica. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the effectiveness of PT in patients with sciatica. The primary outcome was patients' global perceived effect (GPE). Secondary outcomes were severity of leg and back pain, severity of disability, general health and absence from work. The outcomes were measured at 3, 6, 12 and 52 weeks after randomisation. At 3 months follow-up, 70% of the intervention group and 62% of the control group reported improvement (RR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.5). At 12 months follow-up, 79% of the intervention group and 56% of the control group reported improvement (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1; 1.8). No significant differences regarding leg pain, functional status, fear of movement and health status were found at short-term or long-term follow-up. At 12 months follow-up, evidence was found that PT added to general practitioners' care is only more effective regarding GPE, and not more cost-effective in the treatment of patients with acute sciatica than general practitioners' care alone. There are indications that PT is especially effective regarding GPE in patients reporting severe disability at presentation.

  6. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sing songs. Have a play date with a child of a similar age. Avoid television and other screen time until age 2. Try using a transitional object to help with separation anxiety. Alternative ... milestones - 12 months; Growth milestones for children - 12 months; Childhood growth milestones - 12 months; Well ...

  7. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  8. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-06-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  9. Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeffrey L; Wilk, Joshua E; Riviere, Lyndon A; McGurk, Dennis; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W

    2010-06-01

    A growing body of literature has demonstrated the association of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan with postdeployment mental health problems, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, studies have shown varying prevalence rates of these disorders based on different case definitions and have not assessed functional impairment, alcohol misuse, or aggressive behavior as comorbid factors occurring with PTSD and depression. To (1) examine the prevalence rates of depression and PTSD using several case definitions including functional impairment, (2) determine the comorbidity of alcohol misuse or aggressive behaviors with depression or PTSD, and (3) compare rates between Active Component and National Guard soldiers at the 3- and 12-month time points following their deployment to Iraq. Population-based, cross-sectional study. United States Army posts and National Guard armories. A total of 18 305 US Army soldiers from 4 Active Component and 2 National Guard infantry brigade combat teams. Between 2004 and 2007, anonymous mental health surveys were collected at 3 and 12 months following deployment. Current PTSD, depression, functional impairment, alcohol misuse, and aggressive behavior. Prevalence rates for PTSD or depression with serious functional impairment ranged between 8.5% and 14.0%, with some impairment between 23.2% and 31.1%. Alcohol misuse or aggressive behavior comorbidity was present in approximately half of the cases. Rates remained stable for the Active Component soldiers but increased across all case definitions from the 3- to 12-month time point for National Guard soldiers. The prevalence rates of PTSD and depression after returning from combat ranged from 9% to 31% depending on the level of functional impairment reported. The high comorbidity with alcohol misuse and aggression highlights the need for comprehensive postdeployment screening. Persistent or increased prevalence rates at 12 months compared with 3 months

  10. [RATE OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN BOYS AGED 10-11 YEARS AND THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING LOADS DURING A 12-MONTH SOCCER PROGRAM].

    PubMed

    Boraczyński, Michał; Sozański, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of physical development in prepubertal boys in response to training at different loads. The study involved two groups of soccer players, experimental groups E1 (n = 26, age 10.4 ± 0.6 years) and E2 (n = 27, age 10.3 ± 0.8 years) who were involved in a 12-month soccer training program, and a control group (C) of age-matched untrained boys (n = 22). The training protocol of E1 involved a greater share of coordination-based exercises, in E2 more focus was placed on conditioning fitness and strength. Body height, mass, fat percentage, and body mass index were measured pre-, peri-, and post-training. Chronological and developmental age were used to calculate a Biological State Maturity Index (BSMI). Between-group differences were observed in body fat percentage, which was higher in the control group by 6.8% at post-training compared with E1 (p < 0.05). E1 showed the most congruence between chronological and developmental age. Developmental age was most retarded in E2 by an average of 4.3 months. Greatest between-group differences were observed in E1 and the control group for the BSMI of body height (49.9%) at pre-training. BSMI of height and mass in the control group were different (p < 0.01) from both experimental groups at pre-, peri-, and post-training. 1. The experimental soccer training programs were conducive to the physical development of boys aged 10-11 years as evidenced by the absence of disturbances in the range of observed variables characterizing the body built and biological development. 2. Body mass index did not accurately reflect changes in body composition. A more detailed analysis of body composition is required in the recruitment and selection of young soccer players in order to better control the effects of training and diet. 3. The adopted BSMI measure indicated a delay in growth according to developmental age norms in the entire sample. However, the accelerated physical development in E1 during the

  11. Randomized study on the effect of single-implant versus two-implant retained overdentures on implant loss and muscle activity: a 12-month follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Alqutaibi, A Y; Kaddah, A F; Farouk, M

    2017-02-22

    The objective was to evaluate and compare single- and two-implant retained overdentures for the rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible. Fifty-six edentulous subjects were eligible for inclusion. Using a random sampling system, a single implant or two implants were placed in the mandible. After 3 months, locator attachments were connected to the implants and the denture delivered with the retentive components incorporated in the denture base. Implant failure and muscle activity were evaluated at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The study sample comprised 56 patients (32 male, 24 female), with a mean age of 58.2 years. A total of 84 implants were placed (28 in the single-implant group and 56 in the two-implant group). All patients completed the 12 months of follow-up. No significant differences were found between subjects in the two groups with respect to implant failure. With regard to improvements in muscle activity, the two-implant group showed statistically significant but perhaps not clinically important differences. Single-implant mandibular overdentures may be suggested as an alternative treatment modality for the rehabilitation of edentulous patients who cannot afford the cost of a two-implant overdenture.

  12. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group trial of the long-term (6-12 months) safety of acetaminophen in adult patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Temple, Anthony R; Benson, Gordon D; Zinsenheim, Joyce R; Schweinle, Jo Ellen

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the safety of acetaminophen 4 g/d administered for up to 12 months to adult patients with osteoarthritis pain, using naproxen 750 mg/d as an active comparator. This multicenter, multidose, single-dummy, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis pain of the hip or knee. Patients received acetaminophen 4 g/d or naproxen 750 mg/d for 12 months (group 1) or 6 months (group 2). Patients in both groups had follow-up visits at months 1, 3, and 6 of treatment (or at the time of study withdrawal). Patients in group 1 also had follow-up visits at months 9 and 12 (or at the time of study withdrawal). Tolerability evaluations consisted of determinations of hepatic (aminotransferase activities) and renal (serum creatinine) function, adverse events, and physical examinations. Adverse events reported by the patient or observed by the investigator during clinical evaluation were recorded. In addition, patients were questioned at each visit regarding the occurrence of adverse events using a nonspecific question. Investigators rated the intensity of adverse events and their subjective assessment of the relationship to study medication while blinded to the treatment group. At all visits, patients completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), in visual analog scale format, to assess pain, stiffness, and physical function over the previous 2 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from baseline in the WOMAC pain subscale score at 6 months. Data from the 6- and 12-month groups were combined for analysis. Of 581 randomized patients, the safety population included 571 patients who received > or = 1 dose of study medication. The 571 patients had a mean (SD) age of 59.3 (8.6) years, 395 (69.2%) were female, and 480 (84.1%) were white. Of 290 patients randomized to receive acetaminophen, 134 completed 3 months of treatment, 96 completed

  13. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 1 Year (12 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 1 Year (12 Months) A A A Your little one is now ... THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, ...

  14. Recovery 3 and 12 months after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Maurice; Peters, Madelon L.; Schepers, Jan; Maas, Jacques W.M.; Tournois, Fleur; van Suijlekom, Hans A.; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is 1 important aspect of surgical recovery. To improve perioperative care and postoperative recovery knowledge on predictors of impaired recovery is essential. The aim of this study is to assess predictors and epidemiological data of CPSP, physical functioning (SF-36PF, 0–100), and global surgical recovery (global surgical recovery index, 0–100%) 3 and 12 months after hysterectomy for benign indication. A prospective multicenter cohort study was performed. Sociodemographic, somatic, and psychosocial data were assessed in the week before surgery, postoperatively up to day 4, and at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Generalized linear model (CPSP) and linear-mixed model analyses (SF-36PF and global surgical recovery index) were used. Baseline data of 468 patients were collected, 412 (88%) patients provided data for 3-month evaluation and 376 (80%) patients for 12-month evaluation. After 3 and 12 months, prevalence of CPSP (numeric rating scale ≥ 4, scale 0–10) was 10.2% and 9.0%, respectively, SF-36PF means (SD) were 83.5 (20.0) and 85.9 (20.2), global surgical recovery index 88.1% (15.6) and 93.3% (13.4). Neuropathic pain was reported by 20 (5.0%) patients at 3 months and 14 (3.9%) patients at 12 months. Preoperative pain, surgery-related worries, acute postsurgical pain on day 4, and surgery-related infection were significant predictors of CPSP. Baseline level, participating center, general psychological robustness, indication, acute postsurgical pain, and surgery-related infection were significant predictors of SF-36PF. Predictors of global surgical recovery were baseline expectations, surgery-related worries, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, type of anesthesia, acute postsurgical pain, and surgery-related infection. Several predictors were identified for CPSP, physical functioning, and global surgical recovery. Some of the identified factors are modifiable and optimization of patients’ preoperative

  15. Assessment of risks of pulmonary infection during 12 months following immunosuppressive treatment for active connective tissue diseases: a large-scale prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hayato; Sakai, Ryoko; Koike, Ryuji; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Tanaka, Michi; Nanki, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Kaori; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Kurita, Takashi; Kaneko, Yuko; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Nagasaka, Kenji; Nagasawa, Hayato; Tohma, Shigeto; Dohi, Makoto; Sugihara, Takahiko; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Inase, Naohiko; Ochi, Sae; Hagiyama, Hiroyuki; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Harigai, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary infections (PI) are leading causes of death in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD). The PREVENT study (Pulmonary infections in patients REceiving immunosuppressiVE treatmeNT for CTD) assessed risk of PI in patients with active CTD in the contemporary era of advanced immunosuppressive therapy. In patients who started corticosteroids (n = 763), conventional immunosuppressants or biologics for active CTD were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory data, usage of drugs, and occurrence of PI were collected for 12 months. Baseline risk factors were investigated using Cox regression analysis. A nested case-control (NCC) study was performed with 1:2 matched case-control pairs to assess the risk for each drug category. During the observation period, 32 patients died (4.2%) and 66 patients were lost to followup (8.6%). Patients with PI (n = 61, 8%) had a significantly worse accumulated survival rate than patients without (p < 0.01). Cox hazard regression analysis using baseline data showed that these factors were significantly associated with PI: age ≥ 65 years (HR 3.87, 95% CI 2.22-6.74), ≥ 20 pack-years of smoking (2.63, 1.37-5.04), higher serum creatinine level (1.21, 1.05-1.41 per 1.0 mg/dl increase), and maximum prednisolone (PSL) dose during the first 2 weeks of treatment (2.81, 1.35-5.86 per 1.0 mg/kg/day increase). Logistic regression analysis by an NCC study revealed that maximum PSL dose within 14 days before PI (OR 4.82, 95% CI 1.36-17.01 per 1.0 mg/dl increase; 2.57, 1.28-5.16 if ≥ 0.5 mg/kg/day) was significantly associated with the events, while other immunosuppressants were not. Physicians should be aware of the higher risks for corticosteroids of PI than other immunosuppressants and assess these risk factors before immunosuppressive treatment, to prevent PI.

  16. [12-Month Prevalence and Consequences of Current Experiences of Physical and Psychological Violence in a Sample of Patients who Entered First Time a Psychotherapeutic Outpatient Clinic].

    PubMed

    Karger, André; Fetz, Katharina; Schäfer, Ralf; Schlack, Robert; Franz, Matthias; Joksimovic, Ljiljana

    2017-09-01

    Objective To examine current experiences of violence and its relationship with psychological burden in a psychotherapeutic outpatient sample. Methods 1074 patients of a psychotherapeutic outpatient-clinic of a university hospital completed a written violence screening questionnaire. Results Current experienced physical and psychological violence was two times higher compared to general population. Patients who experienced current violence reported significantly more psychological burden. Conclusion Use of violence screening in daily routine of a psychotherapeutic outpatient-clinic seems to be a promising approach to detect violence experiences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. [Prevalence of experience of physical and psychological violence in the general population in the past 12 months. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Lange, Cornelia; Starker, Anne; von der Lippe, Elena; Hölling, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of violence may have considerable psychosocial and health implications. A violence screening tool was implemented in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) to depict the perpetrators' and victims' point of view. The study participants were between 18 and 64 years old (n = 5939). The aim of this article is to assess the percentage of people who experienced physical and psychological violence in the last 12 months or who suffered negative effects on their quality of life as a consequence or who were perpetrators of multiple acts of violence. The characteristics of victims, offenders, and their conflict partners are described. Furthermore, specific constellations of violence experience with regard to health-related quality of life are described. Finally, the association between being a victim of violence and different factors is estimated. In total, 2.7% of women and 4.3% of men reported multiple experiences of physical violence in the last 12 months or having their lives negatively impacted as a consequence of violence. Experience of psychological violence was reported by 18.9% of women and 15.4% of men. Women are more likely than men to be both perpetrator and victim within the family. Men are more likely than women to be both the perpetrator and victim outside of the family environment. Regardless of whether they are the victim or perpetrator of violence, the psychological well-being is significantly worse than those of people who did not experience violence. Experience of violence in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of becoming victim or perpetrator of violence later on in life. The findings presented here describe the psychological and physical experience of violence as one part of violence committed in the whole population. Some prevention advice is also presented.

  18. Sustained effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Healthy Activity Programme, a brief psychological treatment for depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care: 12-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weobong, Benedict; Weiss, Helen A; McDaid, David; Singla, Daisy R; Hollon, Steven D; Nadkarni, Abhijit; Park, A-La; Bhat, Bhargav; Katti, Basavraj; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; Araya, Ricardo; King, Michael; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Wilson, G Terence; Velleman, Richard; Kirkwood, Betty R; Fairburn, Christopher G; Patel, Vikram

    2017-09-01

    The Healthy Activity Programme (HAP), a brief behavioural intervention delivered by lay counsellors, enhanced remission over 3 months among primary care attendees with depression in peri-urban and rural settings in India. We evaluated the sustainability of the effects after treatment termination, the cost-effectiveness of HAP over 12 months, and the effects of the hypothesized mediator of activation on clinical outcomes. Primary care attendees aged 18-65 years screened with moderately severe to severe depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) were randomised to either HAP plus enhanced usual care (EUC) (n = 247) or EUC alone (n = 248), of whom 95% completed assessments at 3 months, and 91% at 12 months. Primary outcomes were severity on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and remission on the PHQ-9. HAP participants maintained the gains they showed at the end of treatment through the 12-month follow-up (difference in mean BDI-II score between 3 and 12 months = -0.34; 95% CI -2.37, 1.69; p = 0.74), with lower symptom severity scores than participants who received EUC alone (adjusted mean difference in BDI-II score = -4.45; 95% CI -7.26, -1.63; p = 0.002) and higher rates of remission (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.36; 95% CI 1.15, 1.61; p < 0.009). They also fared better on most secondary outcomes, including recovery (aPR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.29, 3.03; p = 0.002), any response over time (aPR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.27, 1.66; p < 0.001), higher likelihood of reporting a minimal clinically important difference (aPR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.17, 1.71; p < 0.001), and lower likelihood of reporting suicidal behaviour (aPR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.51, 1.01; p = 0.06). HAP plus EUC also had a marginal effect on WHO Disability Assessment Schedule score at 12 months (aPR = -1.58; 95% CI -3.33, 0.17; p = 0.08); other outcomes (days unable to work, intimate partner violence toward females) did not statistically significantly differ between the two arms. Economic analyses

  19. Sustained effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Healthy Activity Programme, a brief psychological treatment for depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care: 12-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Weobong, Benedict; Singla, Daisy R.; Hollon, Steven D.; Nadkarni, Abhijit; Park, A-La; Bhat, Bhargav; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; King, Michael; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Wilson, G. Terence; Velleman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background The Healthy Activity Programme (HAP), a brief behavioural intervention delivered by lay counsellors, enhanced remission over 3 months among primary care attendees with depression in peri-urban and rural settings in India. We evaluated the sustainability of the effects after treatment termination, the cost-effectiveness of HAP over 12 months, and the effects of the hypothesized mediator of activation on clinical outcomes. Methods and findings Primary care attendees aged 18–65 years screened with moderately severe to severe depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) were randomised to either HAP plus enhanced usual care (EUC) (n = 247) or EUC alone (n = 248), of whom 95% completed assessments at 3 months, and 91% at 12 months. Primary outcomes were severity on the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II) and remission on the PHQ-9. HAP participants maintained the gains they showed at the end of treatment through the 12-month follow-up (difference in mean BDI-II score between 3 and 12 months = −0.34; 95% CI −2.37, 1.69; p = 0.74), with lower symptom severity scores than participants who received EUC alone (adjusted mean difference in BDI-II score = −4.45; 95% CI −7.26, −1.63; p = 0.002) and higher rates of remission (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.36; 95% CI 1.15, 1.61; p < 0.009). They also fared better on most secondary outcomes, including recovery (aPR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.29, 3.03; p = 0.002), any response over time (aPR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.27, 1.66; p < 0.001), higher likelihood of reporting a minimal clinically important difference (aPR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.17, 1.71; p < 0.001), and lower likelihood of reporting suicidal behaviour (aPR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.51, 1.01; p = 0.06). HAP plus EUC also had a marginal effect on WHO Disability Assessment Schedule score at 12 months (aPR = −1.58; 95% CI −3.33, 0.17; p = 0.08); other outcomes (days unable to work, intimate partner violence toward females) did not statistically significantly

  20. Prospective 12-month functional and vocational outcomes of hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement as part of an evidence-based hip pain rehabilitation pathway in an active military population

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, A N; Nixon, J; Roberts, A; Barker-Davies, R; Villar, R; Houghton, J M

    2016-01-01

    Background Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is common with an estimated prevalence of 10–15% among young active individuals. The natural history of the disorder is progression to early osteoarthritis. Hip arthroscopy is recommended if conservative treatments fail; however, outcomes are unclear, particularly in highly active populations. Aim To evaluate the functional and vocational outcome of hip arthroscopy, as part of an evidence-based rehabilitation hip pain pathway, for the treatment of FAI in an active military population. Methods All patients in the defence rehabilitation hip pain pathway, with a confirmed diagnosis of FAI who failed conservative treatment, were assessed prior to surgery and at 2, 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Outcome measures included the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for hip pain, Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS) for function, and vocational assessments including functional activity assessment (FAA) and Joint Medical Employment Standard for military employability and deployability. Results 101 patients completed the study (mean age=33 years) (male:female:75:26) (Royal Navy/British Army/Royal Air Force: 13%/48%/39%). Outcomes demonstrated significant improvements with large effect size. Preoperative NAHS mean=62.9 (SD 16.4), 12-month postoperative NAHS mean=78.8 (18.3), mean improvement in NAHS=15.9 (95% CI 12.3 to 19.5, p<0.001). Preoperative VAS pain mean=51.3 (20.9), 12-month postoperative VAS pain=25.6 (24.5). Mean improvement 25.7 (95% CI 19.4 to 31.99, p<0.001). 73% of patients had a deployable medical category at 12 months postoperative. Conclusions These data confirm that hip arthroscopy as part of a structured evidence-based multidisciplinary care pathway produces significant and continued symptomatic, functional and vocational improvements over a 12-month period in a military population exposed to high intensity, weight-bearing exercise in uncontrolled and unforgiving environments. PMID:27900190

  1. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 1 Year (12 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your ...

  2. Breastfeeding beyond 12 months. An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Piovanetti, Y

    2001-02-01

    A decade ago, child psychiatrist Coello-Novello, in her term as Surgeon General of the United States, said, "It's the lucky baby, I feel, who continues to nurse until he's two." The accumulated evidence supports her statement. The understanding of the benefits of breastfeeding beyond 12 months should support the cultural change in which eventually prolonged breastfeeding becomes normal.

  3. Cochlear implantation in children under 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Samantha

    2017-10-01

    Children with congenital hearing loss are being identified earlier, leading to earlier intervention. Current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria states a child must be 12 months or older for cochlear implantation. The purpose of this article is to review recent publications regarding the benefits of implanting infants under 12 months of age. Topics include: safety and efficacy of surgery, speech and language acquisition outcomes, audiologic components, and limitations. Since the early 1990s, the candidacy criteria evolved drastically. However, the FDA criteria for cochlear implantation in children has remained at 12 months of age or older since 2000. Recent research indicates implanting below 12 months of age a safe and effective procedure. Speech and language outcomes showed better speech and language advantages. In addition, infants implanted earlier showed normal auditory skills as early as 3 months post cochlear implant activation. This article will also address recent findings on the limitations of earlier implantation. Recent research demonstrates positive outcomes in children implanted under 12 months of age. Developing research on earlier implantation could lead to a change in the current FDA criteria allowing infants to reach their speech and hearing potential faster.

  4. Senses and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... TOPIC Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Your Child's Vision Communication and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Movement, Coordination, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Your Baby's Growth: 8 Months Your Child's Growth Learning, Play, and ...

  5. Retirement community residents' physical activity, depressive symptoms, and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the types of physical activity (PA) retirement community residents report and the effects of PA and depressive symptoms on functional limitations. Elders (N=38) enrolled in a 2-year sensor technology study in senior housing completed regular assessments of functional limitations and depressive symptoms with the Short Physical Performance Battery and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Evaluation of reported PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly coincided with 12-month functional limitation testing. Subjects were 69% female with mean age of 85 years. Individuals reporting greater PA had significantly fewer functional limitations at 12 months. In multiple regression analysis, baseline functional limitations explained 66% of the variance in 12-month functional limitations, while current PA explained an additional 5%. Although PA explained a small amount of variance in 12-month functional limitations, as a modifiable behavior, PA should be championed and supported to help ameliorate functional limitations in older adults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Evaluating drug-free remission with abatacept in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the phase 3b, multicentre, randomised, active-controlled AVERT study of 24 months, with a 12-month, double-blind treatment period.

    PubMed

    Emery, Paul; Burmester, Gerd R; Bykerk, Vivian P; Combe, Bernard G; Furst, Daniel E; Barré, Emilie; Karyekar, Chetan S; Wong, Dennis A; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate clinical remission with subcutaneous abatacept plus methotrexate (MTX) and abatacept monotherapy at 12 months in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and maintenance of remission following the rapid withdrawal of all RA treatment. In the Assessing Very Early Rheumatoid arthritis Treatment phase 3b trial, patients with early active RA were randomised to double-blind, weekly, subcutaneous abatacept 125 mg plus MTX, abatacept 125 mg monotherapy, or MTX for 12 months. Patients with low disease activity (Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 (C reactive protein (CRP)) <3.2) at month 12 entered a 12-month period of withdrawal of all RA therapy. The coprimary endpoints were the proportion of patients with DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 at month 12 and both months 12 and 18, for abatacept plus MTX versus MTX. Patients had <2 years of RA symptoms, DAS28 (CRP) ≥3.2, anticitrullinated peptide-2 antibody positivity and 95.2% were rheumatoid factor positive. For abatacept plus MTX versus MTX, DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 was achieved in 60.9% versus 45.2% (p=0.010) at 12 months, and following treatment withdrawal, in 14.8% versus 7.8% (p=0.045) at both 12 and 18 months. DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 was achieved for abatacept monotherapy in 42.5% (month 12) and 12.4% (both months 12 and 18). Both abatacept arms had a safety profile comparable with MTX alone. Abatacept plus MTX demonstrated robust efficacy compared with MTX alone in early RA, with a good safety profile. The achievement of sustained remission following withdrawal of all RA therapy suggests an effect of abatacept's mechanism on autoimmune processes. NCT01142726. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  8. Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old A A A What's in this article? ... baby visits during this period, once at 9 months and again at 12 months . If you have ...

  9. Effect of exercise on serum estrogens in postmenopausal women: a 12-month randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    McTiernan, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Yasui, Yutaka; Irwin, Melinda L; Rajan, Kumar B; Sorensen, Bess; Rudolph, Rebecca E; Bowen, Deborah; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Potter, John D; Schwartz, Robert S

    2004-04-15

    Elevated circulating estrogens and a sedentary lifestyle increase risk for breast cancer. The effect of exercise on circulating estrogens in sedentary postmenopausal women is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention on serum estrogens. We randomly assigned 173 sedentary, overweight (body mass index > 24.0 kg/m(2), body fat > 33%), postmenopausal women, ages 50-75 years, not using hormone therapy, living in the Seattle, Washington, area for the next year, and willing to be randomly assigned to an exercise intervention or stretching control group. The exercise intervention included facility and home-based exercise (45 min, 5 days/week moderate intensity sports/recreational exercise). A total of 170 (98.3%) women completed the study with exercisers averaging 171 min/week of exercise. After 3 months, exercisers experienced declines in estrone, estradiol, and free estradiol of 3.8, 7.7, and 8.2%, respectively, versus no change or increased concentrations in controls (P = 0.03, 0.07, and 0.02, respectively). At 12 months, the direction of effect remained the same, although the differences were no longer statistically significant. The effect was limited to women who lost body fat: women whose percentage of body fat [by dual energy x-ray absortiometry (DEXA)] decreased by >/==" BORDER="0">2% had statistically significant (comparing exercisers versus controls) decreases at 12 months of 11.9, 13.7, and 16.7% for serum estrone, estradiol, and free estradiol, respectively. We concluded that a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention in postmenopausal women resulted in significant decreases in serum estrogens. The association between increased physical activity and reduced risk for postmenopausal breast cancer may be partly explained by effects on serum estrogens.

  10. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  11. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  12. Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  13. Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation Improves Obstructive Sleep Apnea: 12 Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kezirian, Eric J.; Goding, George S.; Malhotra, Atul; O'Donoghue, Fergal J.; Zammit, Gary; Wheatley, John R.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Smith, Philip L.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Walsh, Jennifer H.; Maddison, Kathleen J.; Claman, David M.; Huntley, Tod; Park, Steven Y.; Campbell, Matthew C.; Palme, Carsten E.; Iber, Conrad; Eastwood, Peter R.; Hillman, David R.; Barnes, Maree

    2013-01-01

    Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is a key contributor to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) activates upper airway dilator muscles, including the genioglossus, and has the potential to reduce OSA severity. The objective of this study was to examine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of a novel HGNS system (HGNS®, Apnex Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN) in treating OSA at 12 months following implantation. Thirty-one subjects (35% female, age 52·4±9·4 years) with moderate to severe OSA and unable to tolerate positive airway pressure underwent surgical implantation and activation of the HGNS system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. Primary outcomes were changes in OSA severity (apnoea-hypopnoea index, AHI, from in-laboratory polysomnogram) and sleep-related quality of life (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, FOSQ). HGNS was used on 86±16% of nights for 5·4±1·4 hours per night. There was a significant improvement (p < 0·001) from baseline to 12 months in AHI (45.4±17·5 to 25·3±20·6 events/h) and FOSQ score (14·2±2·0 to 17·0±2·4) as well as other polysomnogram and symptom measures. Outcomes were stable compared to 6 months following implantation. Three serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal and two stimulation lead cuff dislodgements requiring replacement. There were no significant adverse events with onset later than 6 months following implantation. HGNS demonstrated favourable safety, feasibility, and efficacy. PMID:24033656

  14. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation improves obstructive sleep apnea: 12-month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kezirian, Eric J; Goding, George S; Malhotra, Atul; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Zammit, Gary; Wheatley, John R; Catcheside, Peter G; Smith, Philip L; Schwartz, Alan R; Walsh, Jennifer H; Maddison, Kathleen J; Claman, David M; Huntley, Tod; Park, Steven Y; Campbell, Matthew C; Palme, Carsten E; Iber, Conrad; Eastwood, Peter R; Hillman, David R; Barnes, Maree

    2014-02-01

    Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is a key contributor to obstructive sleep apnea pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation activates upper airway dilator muscles, including the genioglossus, and has the potential to reduce obstructive sleep apnea severity. The objective of this study was to examine the safety, feasibility and efficacy of a novel hypoglossal nerve stimulation system (HGNS; Apnex Medical, St Paul, MN, USA) in treating obstructive sleep apnea at 12 months following implantation. Thirty-one subjects (35% female, age 52.4 ± 9.4 years) with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and unable to tolerate positive airway pressure underwent surgical implantation and activation of the hypoglossal nerve stimulation system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. Primary outcomes were changes in obstructive sleep apnea severity (apnea-hypopnea index, from in-laboratory polysomnogram) and sleep-related quality of life [Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ)]. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation was used on 86 ± 16% of nights for 5.4 ± 1.4 h per night. There was a significant improvement (P < 0.001) from baseline to 12 months in apnea-hypopnea index (45.4 ± 17.5 to 25.3 ± 20.6 events h(-1) ) and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire score (14.2 ± 2.0 to 17.0 ± 2.4), as well as other polysomnogram and symptom measures. Outcomes were stable compared with 6 months following implantation. Three serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal; and two stimulation lead cuff dislodgements requiring replacement. There were no significant adverse events with onset later than 6 months following implantation. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation demonstrated favourable safety, feasibility and efficacy.

  15. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Print A A A What's in this ... a 12 meses de edad By about 8 months old, most babies are pros at handling the ...

  16. Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old A A A What's in this article? ... baby becomes more mobile during these next few months. What Is My Child Learning? Your little one ...

  17. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old A A A What's in this article? ... a 12 meses de edad By about 8 months old, most babies are pros at handling the ...

  18. Patient powered prophylaxis: A 12-month study of individualized prophylaxis in adults with severe haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haowei Linda; McIntosh, Kam A; Squire, Sandra J; Yang, Ming; Bartholomew, Claude; Gue, Deb S; Camp, Pat G; Jackson, Shannon C

    2017-08-29

    Adults with severe haemophilia A (SHA) may experience breakthrough bleeds despite standard weight-based FVIII prophylaxis three times weekly. Individualized prophylaxis has evolved to optimize patient outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a standardized approach to individualized prophylaxis on annualized bleeding rates (ABR), factor utilization, physical activity and quality of life in adults with SHA. In this prospective cohort study, patients with baseline FVIII:C <2% and ABR >3 on weight-based prophylaxis received a standardized approach to individualized prophylaxis. Changes in ABR, annualized FVIII consumption and adherence from the 12-month prestudy and 12-month intervention period were compared. Changes in Haemo-QoL-A total score, Physical Functioning (PF) subscale and physical activity level measured by accelerometry were also examined. Eighteen patients participated (median age 26 years). Individualized prophylaxis decreased total bleeds in the population by 69% and traumatic bleeds by 73%. The median ABR decreased from 7.5 to 2 (P<.001). Annualized factor consumption increased by 7.3%, as a result of 66% reduction in factor utilization for treatment of bleeds and 25% increase in factor utilization for prophylaxis. Adherence scores for frequency and dosing did not change. There was a significant increase in the Haemo-QoL-A total score (P=.02) and PF score (P=.01) from baseline to 4 months but no change in physical activity. Patients with SHA who switched from standard to individualized prophylaxis show reduced ABR and increased FVIII consumption, and also improved their health-related quality of life. The mechanism is independent of adherence to prescribed prophylactic regimen. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  20. Physical Activity Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Guidelines The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG or the Guidelines) are an essential resource for health professional and policymakers. Based on the latest science, they provide guidance on how children and adults ...

  1. Emotional and Social Development: 8 to 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool ... and Social Development: 8 to 12 Months Page Content Article Body During these months, your child sometimes may seem like two separate babies. First ...

  2. Perceptual learning: 12-month-olds' discrimination of monkey faces.

    PubMed

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-11-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following 20 s of familiarization, and two 5-s visual-paired comparison test trials, 12-month-olds failed to show discrimination. However, following 40 s of familiarization and two 10-s test trials, 12-month-olds showed reliable discrimination of novel monkey faces. A final experiment was performed demonstrating 12-month-olds' discrimination of the monkey face was due to the increased familiarization rather than increased time of visual comparison. Results are discussed in the context of perceptual narrowing, in particular the flexible nature of perceptual narrowing.

  3. Family, Friends, and 12-month PTSD among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ann W.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite a growing literature on the influence of social support on mental health, little is known about the relationship between social support and specific psychiatric disorders for African Americans, such as PTSD. This study investigated the relationship between social support, negative interaction with family and 12-month PTSD among African Americans. Methods Analyses were based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (n=3,315). Social support variables included emotional support from family, frequency of contact with family and friends, subjective closeness with family and friends, and negative interactions with family. Results Results indicated that emotional support from family is negatively associated with 12-month PTSD while negative interaction with family is predictive of 12-month PTSD. Additionally, a significant interaction indicated that high levels of subjective closeness to friends could offset the impact of negative family interactions on 12-month PTSD. Conclusions Overall, study results converged with previously established findings indicating that emotional support from family is associated with 12-month PTSD, while, negative interaction with family is associated with increased risk of 12-month PTSD. The findings are discussed in relation to prior research on the unique association between social support and mental health among African Americans. PMID:27189209

  4. The effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development in adolescent male athletes. The PRO-BONE study.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Ubago-Guisado, Esther; Ortega, Francisco B; Krustrup, Peter; Metcalf, Brad; Castro Pinero, Jose; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Knapp, Karen M; Williams, Craig A; Moreno, Luis A; Gracia-Marco, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Research investigating the longitudinal effects of the most popular sports on bone development in adolescent males is scarce. The aim is to investigate the effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development. A 12-month study was conducted in adolescent males involved in football, swimming and cycling and compared with an active control group. 116 adolescent males (13.1±0.1years at baseline): 37 footballers, 37 swimmers, 28 cyclists and 14 active controls were followed for 12 months. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone stiffness was measured by quantitative ultrasound. Bone outcomes at 12 months were adjusted for baseline bone status, age, height, lean mass and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Footballers had higher improvement in adjusted BMC at the total body, total hip, shaft, Ward's triangle, legs and bone stiffness compared to cyclists (6.3-8.0%). Footballers had significantly higher adjusted BMC at total body, shaft and legs compared to swimmers (5.4-5.6%). There was no significant difference between swimmers and cyclists for any bone outcomes. Swimming and cycling participation resulted in non-significant lower bone development at most sites of the skeleton compared to controls (-4.3 to -0.6%). Football participation induces significantly greater improvements in BMC and bone stiffness over 12 months compared to cycling and swimming. ISRCTN17982776. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P < 0.001 and P = 0.044, respectively). Furthermore, greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher scores for cardiorespiratory fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P < 0.001 to P = 0.046). Higher VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were significantly associated with higher FFMI and better physical fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  6. Delayed Graft Function Phenotypes and 12-Month Kidney Transplant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hall, Isaac E; Reese, Peter P; Doshi, Mona D; Weng, Francis L; Schröppel, Bernd; Asch, William S; Ficek, Joseph; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Parikh, Chirag R

    2017-08-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) leading to delayed graft function (DGF), defined by the United Network for Organ Sharing as dialysis in the first week (UNOS-DGF), associates with poor kidney transplant outcomes. Controversies remain, however, about dialysis initiation thresholds and the utility for other criteria to denote less severe IRI, or slow graft function (SGF). Multicenter, prospective study of deceased-donor kidney recipients to compare UNOS-DGF to a definition that combines impaired creatinine reduction in the first 48 hours or greater than 1 dialysis session for predicting 12-month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We also assessed 10 creatinine and urine output-based SGF definitions relative to 12-month eGFR. In 560 recipients, 215 (38%) had UNOS-DGF, 330 (59%) met the combined definition, 14 (3%) died, and 23 (4%) had death-censored graft failure by 12 months. Both DGF definitions were associated with lower adjusted 12-month eGFR (95% confidence interval)-by 7.3 (3.6-10.9) and 7.4 (3.8-11.0) mL/min per 1.73 m, respectively. Adjusted relative risks for 12-month eGFR less than 30 mL/min per 1.73 m were 1.9 (1.2-3.1) and 2.1 (1.1-3.7), with unadjusted areas under the curve of 0.618 and 0.627, respectively. For SGF definitions, postoperative day (POD) 7 creatinine had the strongest association with 12-month eGFR, and POD5 creatinine and creatinine reduction between POD1 and POD2 demonstrated modest separations in 12-month eGFR. Although UNOS-DGF does not adequately predict 12-month function on its own, our findings do not support changing the definition. Postoperative day 7 creatinine is correlated with 12-month eGFR, but large translational studies are needed to understand the biological link between IRI severity at transplant and longer-term outcomes.

  7. Obesity and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, John M; Davis, Kelliann K

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity seems to be an important component of lifestyle interventions for weight loss and maintenance. Although the effects of physical activity on weight loss may seem to be modest, there seems to be a dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight loss. Physical activity also seems to be a critically important behavior to promote long-term weight loss and the prevention of weight regain. The benefits of physical activity on weight loss are also observed in patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. Moreover, independent of the effect of physical activity on body weight, engagement in physical activity that results in improved cardiorespiratory fitness can contribute to reductions in health risk in overweight and obese adults. Thus, progression of overweight and obese patients to an adequate dose of physical activity needs to be incorporated into clinical interventions for weight control.

  8. A Clinician Referral and 12-Week Exercise Training Program for Men With Prostate Cancer: Outcomes to 12 Months of the ENGAGE Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Craike, Melinda; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Courneya, Kerry S; Livingston, Patricia M

    2017-05-01

    The ENGAGE (efficacy of a referral and physical activity program for survivors of prostate cancer) study established that a clinician referral and 12-week exercise training program increased vigorous physical activity at 12 weeks among men with prostate cancer. Here, we report the 6- and 12-month outcomes. In this multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial, we compared a clinician referral and exercise training program to usual care. Discounted gym membership was offered to men in the intervention condition on completion of the 12-week exercise program. Self-reported physical activity at 6 and 12 months was the primary outcome. Quality of life, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were secondary outcomes. A total of 147 men meeting eligibility criteria agreed to participate (54 intervention, 93 control). A positive interaction effect for vigorous physical activity was observed at 6 months, but not 12 months. No significant effects for the secondary outcomes were found. A clinician referral and community-based supervised and unsupervised exercise training program, along with discounted gym membership, had a positive short-term effect on vigorous physical activity levels, but did not improve quality of life, in men with prostate cancer.

  9. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  10. Rational Imitation in 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Christiane; van Maanen, Catharine; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Gergely, Bekkering, and Kiraly (2002) demonstrated that 14-month-old infants engage in "rational imitation." To investigate the development and flexibility of this skill, we tested 12-month-olds on a different but analogous task. Infants watched as an adult made a toy animal use a particular action to get to an endpoint. In 1 condition there was a…

  11. 12-Month-Olds Produce Others' Intended but Unfulfilled Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Following Meltzoff's (1995) behavioral reenactment paradigm, this study investigated the ability of 12-month-olds (N = 44) to reproduce a model's attempted-but-failed actions on objects. Testing was conducted using a novel set of objects designed to enable young infants to readily identify the potential outcome of the model's actions. Infants who…

  12. Walking and Eating Behavior of Toddlers at 12 Months Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Naoko; Akimoto, Yuko; Hirose, Toshiya; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko; Minami, Tetsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Locomotive and eating behavior of 52 toddlers was observed at 12 months old in a nursery school and investigated in relation to the acquisition of independent walking. The toddlers who acquired walking ate more by themselves using the hands than the toddlers who did not start walking. This suggested that acquisition of walking was associated with…

  13. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  14. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  15. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... can include working, exercising, performing household chores, and leisure-time activities such as walking, tennis, hiking, bicycling, ... active ( 4 ). A pooled analysis of data on leisure-time physical activity (activities done at an individual’s ...

  16. Circadian feeding patterns of 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wee, Poh Hui; Loy, See Ling; Toh, Jia Ying; Tham, Elaine Kwang Hsia; Cheung, Yin Bun; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lek, Ngee; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Goh, Daniel Yam Thiam; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Yap, Fabian

    2017-06-01

    Early life nutrition and feeding practices are important modifiable determinants of subsequent obesity, yet little is known about the circadian feeding pattern of 12-month-old infants. We aimed to describe the 24-h feeding patterns of 12-month-old infants and examine their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Mothers from a prospective birth cohort study (n 431) reported dietary intakes of their 12-month-old infants and respective feeding times using 24-h dietary recall. Based on their feeding times, infants were classified into post-midnight (00.00-05.59 hours) and pre-midnight (06.00-23.59 hours) feeders. Mean daily energy intake was 3234 (sd 950) kJ (773 (sd 227) kcal), comprising 51·8 (sd 7·8) % carbohydrate, 33·9 (sd 7·2) % fat and 14·4 (sd 3·2) % protein. Mean hourly energy intake and proportion of infants fed were lower during post-midnight than pre-midnight hours. There were 251 (58·2 %) pre-midnight and 180 (41·8 %) post-midnight feeders. Post-midnight feeders consumed higher daily energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes than pre-midnight feeders (all P<0·001). The difference in energy intake originated from energy content consumed during the post-midnight period. Majority (n 173) of post-midnight feeders consumed formula milk during the post-midnight period. Using multivariate logistic regression with confounder adjustment, exclusively breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life was negatively associated with post-midnight feeding at 12 months (adjusted OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·82). This study provides new insights into the circadian pattern of energy intake during infancy. Our findings indicated that the timing of feeding at 12 months was associated with daily energy and macronutrient intakes, and feeding mode during early infancy.

  17. Office-based cryoablation of breast fibroadenomas: 12-month followup.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Cary S; Littrup, Peter J; Freman-Gibb, Laurie A; Francescatti, Darius; Stocks, Lewis H; Smith, J Stanley; Henry, C Alan; Bailey, Lisa; Harness, Jay K; Simmons, Rache

    2004-06-01

    Fibroadenomas comprise between 30% and 50% of all breast biopsies. Despite their benign nature, many women have their fibroadenomas surgically removed. We previously reported on a minimally invasive therapy using cryoablation to treat fibroadenomas. We now report on 12-month followup using this technique. A prospective, nonrandomized trial was initiated in June 2000 with IRB approval. The Visica Treatment System was used to cryoablate 70 biopsy-proved fibroadenomas in 57 patients using a freeze-thaw-freeze cycle lasting 6 to 30 minutes. Each patient was serially evaluated for safety, efficacy, and satisfaction. Fifty-seven fibroadenomas (mean 2.1 cm, range 0.8 to 4.2 cm) in 47 patients were followed for 12 months. At 1 year, with 89% median tumor volume reduction measured by ultrasonography, 75% of fibroadenomas were nonpalpable. There were no adverse events and only minor complications. Two patients (4%) had their lesions excised after 12 months; pathology revealed no viable fibroadenoma. Serial mammograms showed resorption of the fibroadenoma leaving minimal residual density without calcifications. Cosmesis was excellent with no volume deficit, as no tissue is removed. Ninety-one percent of patients were satisfied at 12 months. Cryoablation is safe and effective in treating breast fibroadenomas. It offers a nonsurgical, office-based treatment that is well tolerated by patients and accurately monitored with ultrasonographic guidance. At 12 months we found progressive tumor volume reduction and reduced palpability, with no volume deficit, excellent cosmesis, and satisfied patients. Ultrasonography-guided cryoablation is a preferred option for treatment of breast fibroadenomas without open surgery.

  18. A 12-month exercise intervention decreased stress symptoms and increased mental resources among working adults - Results perceived after a 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kettunen, Oili; Vuorimaa, Timo; Vasankari, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a 12-month physical exercise intervention accompanied by a 12-month followup evaluating stress symptoms (SS), mental resources (MR) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in healthy, working adults. We hypothesized that the stress symptoms would decrease and mental resources would increase during the intervention and that these results are associated with changes in CRF. The study group included healthy adults (N = 371). Three hundred thirty eight participants (212 women, 126 men) were allocated in the exercise group and 33 in the control group (17 women and 16 men). For the analysis, the exercise group was divided into subgroups according to the baseline SS and MR. Stress symptoms and MR were measured using the Occupational Stress Questionnaire. During the 12-month exercise intervention, SS decreased by 16% (p < 0.0001), MR increased by 8% (p < 0.0001) and CRF increased by 7% (p < 0.0001) in the exercise group, while no changes occurred in the control group (ANCOVA, p < 0.01). In the exercise group, the results (SS, MR, and CRF) remained improved during the follow-up. There was a positive correlation between the change in SS and the change in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). In the subgroup having the highest SS at baseline, SS during the intervention decreased most (26%) (ANCOVA, p < 0.0001). One year physical exercise intervention improved mental well-being among working adults and this was associated with an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. The positive changes remained after the 12-month follow-up. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Incident Vertebral Fractures among Children with Rheumatic Disorders 12 Months Post-Glucocorticoid Initiation: a National Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Celia; Lang, Bianca; Ramsay, Timothy; Alos, Nathalie; Huber, Adam M.; Cabral, David A.; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Roth, Johannes; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Dent, Peter B.; Ellsworth, Janet; Hay, John; Houghton, Kristin; Jurencak, Roman; Larché, Maggie; LeBlanc, Claire; Oen, Kiem; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Stein, Robert; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Shenouda, Nazih; Moher, David; Rauch, Frank; Siminoski, Kerry; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency of incident vertebral fractures (IVF) 12 months after glucocorticoid (GC) initiation in children with rheumatic diseases and to identify children at higher risk. Methods Children with rheumatic diseases initiating GC were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Annual spine radiographs were evaluated using the Genant semi-quantitative method. Spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured every 6 months. Clinical features, including cumulative GC dose, back pain, disease and physical activity, calcium and vitamin D intake, and spine aBMD Z-scores were analyzed for association with IVF. Results Seven (6%) of 118 children (95% Confidence Interval 2.9 to 11.7) had IVF. Their diagnoses were: juvenile dermatomyositis (n = 2), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 3), systemic vasculitis (n = 1) and mixed connective tissue disease (n = 1). One child was omitted from the analyses after 4 months because of osteoporosis treatment for symptomatic IVF. Children with IVF received on average 50% more GC than those without (p=0.030), had a greater increase in body mass index (BMI) at 6 months (p=0.010), and had greater decrements in spine aBMD Z-scores in the first 6 months (p=0.048). Four (67%) of 6 children with IVF and data to 12 months had spine aBMD Z-scores less than −2.0 at 12 months compared to 16% of children without IVF (p=0.011). Conclusions The incidence of VF 12 months following GC initiation was 6%; most children were asymptomatic. Children with IVF received more GC, had greater increases in BMI and greater declines in spine aBMD Z-scores in the first 6 months. PMID:22213727

  20. Cure of Helicobacter pylori-positive active duodenal ulcer patients: a double-blind, multicentre, 12-month study comparing a two-week dual vs a one-week triple therapy. GISU (Interdisciplinary Group for Ulcer Study).

    PubMed

    Di Mario, F; Battaglia, F; Dal Bò, N; Leandro, G; Benedetti, E; Bottona, E; Caroli, A; Costan-Biedo, F; De Bastiani, R; Germanà, B; Andrea Grassi, S; Madia, D; Marcon, V; Marin, R; Monica, F; Olivieri, P; Orzes, N; Pilotto, A; Ronzani, G; Saggioro, A; Tafner, G

    2000-03-01

    To compare a two-week dual therapy to a one-week triple therapy for the healing of duodenal ulcer and the eradication of the Helicobacter pylori infection. A total of 165 patients with active duodenal ulcer were enrolled in the study. At entry, endoscopy, clinical examination and laboratory tests were performed. Histology and the rapid urease test were used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients received either lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxycillin 1 g bid for two weeks (two-week, dual therapy) or lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxycillin 1 g plus tinidazole 500 mg bid for one week plus lansoprazole qd for an additional week (one-week, triple therapy). Two and twelve months after cessation of therapy, endoscopy and clinical assessments were repeated. Duodenal ulcer healing and Helicobacter pylori eradication were both significantly greater (p<0.0001) in the triple therapy group (healing: 98.6%; Helicobacter pylori cure rate: 72.6%) than in the dual therapy group (healing: 77.3%; Helicobacter pylori cure rate: 33.3%). Ulcers healed more frequently in Helicobacter pyloricured than in Helicobacter pylori-not cured patients (94.9% vs. 77.2%; p<0.0022). After one year, Helicobacter pylori eradication was re-confirmed in 46/58 patients previously treated with the triple therapy and in 10/40 patients treated with the dual therapy [p<0.0001]. Only three duodenal ulcer relapses were observed throughout follow-up: all were in Helicobacter pylori-not cured patients. Triple therapy was more effective than dual both in curing Helicobacter pylori infection and healing active duodenal ulcers. The speed of ulcer healing obtained after only 7 days of antibiotics and 14 days of proton pump inhibitors confirmed that longer periods of anti ulcer therapy were not necessary. Helicobacter pylori -not cured patients had more slowly healing ulcers which were more apt to relapse when left untreated.

  1. Health promotion in older Chinese: a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial of pedometry and "peer support".

    PubMed

    Thomas, G Neil; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Guo, Boliang; Cheung, Bernard M Y; McGhee, Sarah M; Chou, Kee-Lee; Deeks, Jonathan J; Lam, Tai Hing; Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Aging, in conjunction with decreasing physical activity, is associated with a range of health problems. Simple, low-maintenance, population-based means of promoting activity to counteract the age-associated decline are required. We therefore assessed the effect of pedometry and buddy support to increase physical activity. We undertook a clustered randomized trial (HKCTR-346) of 24 community centers involving 399 older Chinese participants (≥ 60 yr). Centers were randomly allocated to 1) pedometry and buddy, 2) pedometry and no buddy, 3) no pedometry and buddy, and 4) no pedometry and no buddy with a 2 × 2 factorial design. The trial simultaneously tested the individual and combined effects of the interventions. The intervention groups also received monthly organized group activities to provide encouragement and support. Outcome measures were assessed at 6 and 12 months, including physical fitness and activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors (anthropometry and blood pressure). From the 24 centers, 356 volunteers (89.2%) completed the study. Those receiving the interventions had higher mean physical activity levels at 12 months of 1820 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1360-2290) and 1260 (95% CI = 780-1740) MET·min·wk(-1), respectively relative to the decrease in the control groups. The buddy peer support intervention significantly improved mean aerobic fitness (12% [95% CI = 4%-21%]) and reduced both body fat (-0.6% [95% CI = -1.1% to 0.0%]) and time to complete the 2.5-m get-up-and-go test (-0.27 [95% CI = -0.53 to -0.01] s). No other improvements in the cardiovascular disease risk factors were observed. The combination of motivational tools was no better than the individual interventions. Both motivational interventions increased physical activity levels, and the buddy style improved fitness. These tools could be useful adjuncts in the prevention of obesity and age-related complications.

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  3. Variability of bacterial vaginosis over 6- to 12-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Kip, Kevin E; Soper, David E; Stamm, Carol A; Rice, Peter; Richter, Holly E

    2006-06-01

    To examine variability in bacterial vaginosis (BV) over 6- to 12-month intervals. One thousand one hundred ninety-three women were followed for a median of 3 years with serial vaginal swab Gram stains for BV. Discrete time hazard models were fit to identify independent risk factors for BV. Women with BV at study entry were categorized as having normal flora at the next visit 20% of the time, and women with normal flora at study entry were categorized as having BV at the next visit 20% of the time. Among women with initially normal flora, factors associated with BV were black race, lower education, a history of BV, a history of chlamydial/gonococcal cervicitis, and lack of monogamy. About one fifth of women with normal flora develop BV over a given 6- to 12-month interval, and the modifiable risk factors of cervicitis and lack of monogamy contribute to the development of BV.

  4. Wideband acoustic immittance measures: developmental characteristics (0 to 12 months).

    PubMed

    Kei, Joseph; Sanford, Chris A; Prieve, Beth A; Hunter, Lisa L

    2013-07-01

    Rapid developmental changes of the peripheral auditory system in normal infants occur in the first year of life. Specifically, the postnatal development of the external and middle ear affects all measures of external and middle ear function including wideband acoustic immittance(WAI). This article provides an overview of WAI studies in newborns and infants from a developmental perspective. Normative WAI data in newborns are fairly consistent across studies. However, there are discrepancies in some WAI measures between studies, possibly due to differences in sampling, methodology, and instrumentation. Accuracy of WAI measurements is compromised when a good probe seal cannot be maintained during testing or an inaccurate estimate of the cross-sectional area of the ear canal of newborns occurs. Comparison of WAI data between age groups from 0 to 12 months reveals maturation effects. Additional age-specific longitudinal and cross-sectional normative WAI data for infants from birth to 12 months are required to validate and consolidate existing data.

  5. BRAVISSIMO: 12-month results from a large scale prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Callaert, J; Maene, L; Beelen, R; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Schroë, H; Lauwers, G; Lansink, W; Vanslembroeck, K; D'archambeau, O; Hendriks, J; Lauwers, P; Vermassen, F; Randon, C; Van Herzeele, I; De Ryck, F; De Letter, J; Lanckneus, M; Van Betsbrugge, M; Thomas, B; Deleersnijder, R; Vandekerkhof, J; Baeyens, I; Berghmans, T; Buttiens, J; Van Den Brande, P; Debing, E; Rabbia, C; Ruffino, A; Tealdi, D; Nano, G; Stegher, S; Gasparini, D; Piccoli, G; Coppi, G; Silingardi, R; Cataldi, V; Paroni, G; Palazzo, V; Stella, A; Gargiulo, M; Muccini, N; Nessi, F; Ferrero, E; Pratesi, C; Fargion, A; Chiesa, R; Marone, E; Bertoglio, L; Cremonesi, A; Dozza, L; Galzerano, G; De Donato, G; Setacci, C

    2013-04-01

    The BRAVISSIMO study is a prospective, non-randomized, multi-center, multi-national, monitored trial, conducted at 12 hospitals in Belgium and 11 hospitals in Italy. This manuscript reports the findings up to the 12-month follow-up time point for both the TASC A&B cohort and the TASC C&D cohort. The primary endpoint of the study is primary patency at 12 months, defined as a target lesion without a hemodynamically significant stenosis on Duplex ultrasound (>50%, systolic velocity ratio no greater than 2.0) and without target lesion revascularization (TLR) within 12 months. Between July 2009 and September 2010, 190 patients with TASC A or TASC B aortoiliac lesions and 135 patients with TASC C or TASC D aortoiliac lesions were included. The demographic data were comparable for the TASC A/B cohort and the TASC C/D cohort. The number of claudicants was significantly higher in the TASC A/B cohort, The TASC C/D cohort contains more CLI patients. The primary patency rate for the total patient population was 93.1%. The primary patency rates at 12 months for the TASC A, B, C and D lesions were 94.0%, 96.5%, 91.3% and 90.2% respectively. No statistical significant difference was shown when comparing these groups. Our findings confirm that endovascular therapy, and more specifically primary stenting, is the preferred treatment for patients with TASC A, B, C and D aortoiliac lesions. We notice similar endovascular results compared to surgery, however without the invasive character of surgery.

  6. Public service stress and burnout over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Ravalier, J M; McVicar, A; Munn-Giddings, C

    2014-10-01

    Research indicates that workplace stress has the potential to harm employee health with stress and stress-related absence increasing significantly during economic recession and times of organizational change. To explore whether psychosocial hazards and burnout changed over a 12 month period in a public sector organization during a period of severely reduced organizational finances. The Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Scale (MBI-GS) were administered to employees of one local government department in July 2011 and July 2012. A total of 128 employees completed the questionnaires in July 2011 (response rate 67%) and 57 in July 2012 (response rate 54%). MSIT factor scores of demands, peer support and role worsened significantly over the period of study. Furthermore, all psychosocial hazards scored worse than the recommended level set by Health and Safety Executive. Two burnout dimensions, 'demands' and 'cynicism', significantly worsened over the 12 month period but professional efficacy increased. The MSIT and MBI-GS appeared to have utility in this comparison. Psychosocial hazards appeared to worsen over the 12 months of the study, as 'demands' and 'cynicism' increased. However, an increase in professional efficacy was also seen, which requires further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Religious Involvement and DSM IV 12 Month and Lifetime Major Depressive Disorder among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Abelson, Jamie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12 month DSM-IV major depressive disorder and religious involvement within a nationally representative sample of African American adults (n=3,570). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Multivariate findings indicate that reading religious materials was positively associated with 12 month (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.001 - 1.29) and lifetime MDD (OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.03 - 1.21), religious service attendance was inversely associated with 12 month and lifetime MDD, and religious coping was inversely associated with 12 month MDD (OR=0.75, 95% CI=.57 - 0.99). Findings are discussed in relation to the role of religion for African American mental health, prior research on the effects of religious involvement on physical and mental health, and theoretical and conceptual models of religion-health connections that specify multiple and often divergent pathways (e.g., prevention, resource mobilization) by which diverse forms of religious involvement impact mental health. PMID:22986280

  8. Neural predictors of 12-month weight loss outcomes following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Holsen, L M; Davidson, P; Cerit, H; Hye, T; Moondra, P; Haimovici, F; Sogg, S; Shikora, S; Goldstein, J M; Evins, A E; Stoeckel, L E

    2017-08-14

    Despite the effectiveness of bariatric surgery, there is still substantial variability in long-term weight outcomes and few factors with predictive power to explain this variability. Neuroimaging may provide a novel biomarker with utility beyond other commonly used variables in bariatric surgery trials to improve prediction of long-term weight-loss outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on reward and cognitive control circuitry postsurgery and determine the extent to which baseline brain activity predicts weight loss at 12-month postsurgery. Using a longitudinal design, behavioral, hormone and neuroimaging data (during a desire for palatable food regulation paradigm) were collected from 18 patients undergoing SG at baseline (<1 month prior) and 12-month post-SG. SG patients lost an average of 29.0% of their weight (percentage of total weight loss (%TWL)) at 12-month post-SG, with significant variability (range: 16.0-43.5%). Maladaptive eating behaviors (uncontrolled, emotional and externally cued eating) improved (P<0.01), in parallel with reductions in fasting hormones (acyl ghrelin, leptin, glucose, insulin; P<0.05). Brain activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate, pallidum and amygdala during desire for palatable food enhancement vs regulation decreased from baseline to 12 months (P (family-wise error (FWE))<0.05). Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity during desire for palatable food regulation (vs enhancement) increased from baseline to 12 months (P(FWE)<0.05). Baseline activity in the NAcc and hypothalamus during desire for palatable food enhancement was significantly predictive of %TWL at 12 months (P (FWE)<0.05), superior to behavioral and hormone predictors, which did not significantly predict %TWL (P>0.10). Using stepwise linear regression, left NAcc activity accounted for 54% of the explained variance in %TWL at 12 months. Consistent with previous obesity studies, reward

  9. Physical activity and physical activity adherence in the elderly based on smoking status.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Theodore V; Resor, Michelle R; Stoever, Colby J; Dubbert, Patricia M

    2007-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of current smoking status and lifetime smoking status on physical fitness and physical activity regimen adherence as part of a larger study on walking for exercise in elderly primary care patients at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. At baseline, 218 participants self-reported smoking status which was verified by carbon monoxide expiration. Former and current smokers responded to questions about length of time quit, average daily cigarette intake, and years a smoker. Smoking measures were re-collected at 6- and 12-month follow-ups if the participants indicated a change in smoking status. Veterans completed multiple measures of physical activity (e.g., 6-min walk, 7-day Physical Activity Recall), and adherence to a physical activity goal was assessed. The Physical Component Summary (PCS) subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Hierarchical regression models indicated smoking status was a predictor of the baseline 6-min walk such that smokers walked significantly shorter distances than nonsmokers. In addition, smoking status was found to be a significant predictor of adherence; however, the overall model that included smoking status as a predictor did not demonstrate a significant effect on adherence. Neither smoking status nor pack years were predictors of baseline self-reported physical activity or changes in physical activity post intervention. Results are consistent with recommendations to use physical exercise as an aid to tobacco cessation, even in aging men with extensive smoking histories.

  10. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  11. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at 3 months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at 3 months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing. PMID:23216358

  12. Stability of cocaine impurity profiles during 12 months of storage.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Louise Stride; Villesen, Palle; Lindholst, Christian

    2016-07-01

    During the lifetime of a cocaine batch from production end to consumption, several alterations may occur, leading to possible changes in the original impurity profile. Such profile changes may eventually result in erroneous forensic evaluations. In the present study, the stability of both the alkaloid and the residual solvent impurity profiles of cocaine were evaluated over a period of 12 months under different storage conditions (temperature, purity and weight) using GC-MS and HS-GC-MS, respectively. The sample purity (p<0.001), time of storage (p<0.001) and storage temperature at 37°C (p<0.01) significantly influenced the alkaloid impurity profile. The most significant change was observed in low purity samples stored at 37°C. In contrast, no changes were observed in the residual solvent profile at all storage conditions for the entire 12-month study period. This finding indicates that the residual solvent profile may be more applicable than the corresponding alkaloid profile when cocaine seizures subjected to different storage conditions are compared. Our results clearly demonstrate that cocaine alkaloid profiles change over time and are most susceptible to sample purity and storage temperature. As a consequence, storage conditions and purity should be taken into account when cocaine comparison is conducted in criminal cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Peak Oxygen Uptake after Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 12-Month Maintenance Program versus Usual Care

    PubMed Central

    Madssen, Erik; Arbo, Ingerid; Granøien, Ingrid; Walderhaug, Liv; Moholdt, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise capacity improves after cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, but previous studies have demonstrated a decline in peak oxygen uptake after ending a formal rehabilitation program. There is a lack of knowledge on how long-term exercise adherence can be achieved in CAD patients. We therefore assessed if a 12-month maintenance program following cardiac rehabilitation would lead to increased adherence to exercise and increased exercise capacity compared to usual care. Materials and Methods Two-centre, open, parallel randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up comparing usual care to a maintenance program. The maintenance program consisted of one monthly supervised high intensity interval training session, a written exercise program and exercise diary, and a maximum exercise test every third month during follow-up. Forty-nine patients (15 women) on optimal medical treatment were included following discharge from cardiac rehabilitation. The primary endpoint was change in peak oxygen uptake at follow-up; secondary endpoints were physical activity level, quality of life and blood markers of cardiovascular risk. Results There was no change in peak oxygen uptake from baseline to follow-up in either group (intervention group 27.9 (±4.7) to 28.8 (±5.6) mL·kg (-1) min (−1), control group 32.0 (±6.2) to 32.8 (±5.8) mL·kg (−1) min (−1), with no between-group difference, p = 0.22). Quality of life and blood biomarkers remained essentially unchanged, and both self-reported and measured physical activity levels were similar between groups after 12 months. Conclusions A maintenance exercise program for 12 months did not improve adherence to exercise or peak oxygen uptake in CAD patients after discharge from cardiac rehabilitation compared to usual care. This suggests that infrequent supervised high intensity interval training sessions are

  14. Upper limb module in non-ambulant patients with spinal muscular atrophy: 12 month changes.

    PubMed

    Sivo, Serena; Mazzone, Elena; Antonaci, Laura; De Sanctis, Roberto; Fanelli, Lavinia; Palermo, Concetta; Montes, Jacqueline; Pane, Marika; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that in non-ambulant patients affected by spinal muscular atrophy the Upper Limb Module can increase the range of activities assessed by the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded. The aim of this study was to establish 12-month changes in the Upper Limb Module in a cohort of non-ambulant spinal muscular atrophy patients and their correlation with changes on the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded. The Upper Limb Module scores ranged between 0 and 17 (mean 10.23, SD 4.81) at baseline and between 1 and 17 at 12 months (mean 10.27, SD 4.74). The Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded scores ranged between 0 and 34 (mean 12.43, SD 9.13) at baseline and between 0 and 34 at 12 months (mean 12.08, SD 9.21). The correlation betweeen the two scales was 0.65 at baseline and 0.72 on the 12 month changes. Our results confirm that the Upper Limb Module can capture functional changes in non-ambulant spinal muscular atrophy patients not otherwise captured by the other scale and that the combination of the two measures allows to capture changes in different subgroups of patients in whom baseline scores and functional changes may be influenced by several variables such as age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Activity Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Videos Glossary of Terms Success Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329- ...

  16. Pre- and Postnatal Women's Leisure Time Physical Activity Patterns: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Anita G.; Bray, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine women's leisure time physical activity (LTPA) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and through the first 7 months postnatal. Pre- and postnatal women (n = 309) completed the 12-month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and demographic information. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate a growth curve…

  17. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  18. Active gel physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Jülicher, F.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical behaviour of cells is largely controlled by a structure that is fundamentally out of thermodynamic equilibrium: a network of crosslinked filaments subjected to the action of energy-transducing molecular motors. The study of this kind of active system was absent from conventional physics and there was a need for both new theories and new experiments. The field that has emerged in recent years to fill this gap is underpinned by a theory that takes into account the transduction of chemical energy on the molecular scale. This formalism has advanced our understanding of living systems, but it has also had an impact on research in physics per se. Here, we describe this developing field, its relevance to biology, the novelty it conveys to other areas of physics and some of the challenges in store for the future of active gel physics.

  19. Gist extraction and sleep in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Carolin; Herbert, Jane S; Schneider, Silvia; Seehagen, Sabine

    2016-10-01

    Gist extraction is the process of excerpting shared features from a pool of new items. The present study examined sleep and the consolidation of gist in 12-month-old infants using a deferred imitation paradigm. Sixty infants were randomly assigned to a nap, a no-nap or a baseline control condition. In the nap and no-nap conditions, infants watched demonstrations of the same target actions on three different hand puppets that shared some features. During a 4-h delay, infants in the nap condition took a naturally scheduled nap while infants in the no-nap condition naturally stayed awake. Afterwards, infants were exposed to a novel forth hand puppet that combined some of the features from the previously encountered puppets. Only those infants who took a nap after learning produced a significantly higher number of target actions than infants in the baseline control condition who had not seen any demonstrations of target actions. Infants in the nap condition also produced significantly more target actions than infants in the no-nap condition. Sleep appears to support the storage of gist, which aids infants in applying recently acquired knowledge to novel circumstances.

  20. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 22, 2016 Physical Activity and Your Heart in the News April 6, ...

  1. Decreased physical activity predicts cognitive dysfunction and reduced cerebral blood flow in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Raz, Naftali; Sweet, Lawrence H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2014-04-15

    Cognitive impairment in heart failure (HF) is believed to result from brain hypoperfusion subsequent to cardiac dysfunction. Physical inactivity is prevalent in HF and correlated with reduced cardiac and cognitive function. Yet, no longitudinal studies have examined the neurocognitive effects of physical inactivity in HF. The current study examined whether reduced physical activity increases risk for cognitive impairment and brain hypoperfusion over time in HF. At baseline and 12 months later, 65 HF patients underwent neuropsychological testing, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, and were asked to wear an accelerometer for seven days. Lower baseline step count and less time spent in moderate free-living activity best predicted worse attention/executive function and decreased cerebral perfusion at the 12-month follow-up. Decreased baseline cerebral perfusion also emerged as a strong predictor of poorer 12-month attention/executive function. Lower physical activity predicted worse cognition and cerebral perfusion 12 months later in HF. Physical inactivity in HF may contribute to cognitive impairment and exacerbate risk for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Larger studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which physical inactivity leads to cognitive dysfunction in HF, including clarification of the role of cerebral hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Referral for Expert Physical Activity Counseling: A Pragmatic RCT.

    PubMed

    James, Erica L; Ewald, Ben D; Johnson, Natalie A; Stacey, Fiona G; Brown, Wendy J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Jones, Mark; Yang, Fan; Hespe, Charlotte; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2017-08-14

    Primary care physicians are well placed to offer physical activity counseling, but insufficient time is a barrier. Referral to an exercise specialist is an alternative. In Australia, exercise specialists are publicly funded to provide face-to-face counseling to patients who have an existing chronic illness. This trial aimed to (1) determine the efficacy of primary care physicians' referral of insufficiently active patients for counseling to increase physical activity, compared with usual care, and (2) compare the efficacy of face-to-face counseling with counseling predominantly via telephone. Three-arm pragmatic RCT. Two hundred three insufficiently active (<7,000 steps/day) primary care practice patients (mean age 57 years; 70% female) recruited in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011-2014. (1) Five face-to-face counseling sessions by an exercise specialist, (2) one face-to-face counseling session followed by four telephone calls by an exercise specialist, or (3) a generic mailed physical activity brochure (usual care). The counseling sessions operationalized social cognitive theory via a behavior change counseling framework. Change in average daily step counts between baseline and 12 months. Data were analyzed in 2016. Forty (20%) participants formally withdrew; completion rates at 3 and 6 months were 64% and 58%, respectively. Intervention attendance was high (75% received five sessions). The estimated mean difference between usual care and the combined intervention groups at 12 months was 1,002 steps/day (95% CI=244, 1,759, p=0.01). When comparing face-to-face with predominantly telephone counseling, the telephone group had a non-significant higher mean daily step count (by 619 steps) at 12 months. Provision of expert physical activity counseling to insufficiently active primary care patients resulted in a significant increase in physical activity (approximately 70 minutes of walking per week) at 12 months. Face-to-face only and counseling conducted

  3. Physical Activity Program Delivery by Professionals versus Volunteers: the TEAM Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Cynthia M.; Pruitt, Leslie A.; Buman, Matthew P.; King, Abby C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Older adults have low rates of physical activity participation but respond positively to telephone-mediated support programs. Programs are often limited by reliance on professional staff. This study tested telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by professional staff versus trained volunteer peer mentors. Design A 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical trial was executed from 2003–2008. Setting/participants: Twelve volunteer peer mentors and 181 initially inactive adults ages 50 years and older were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Intervention Participants were randomized to: (1) telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by professional staff, (2) telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by trained volunteer peers, or (3) an attention-control arm of staff-delivered telephone support for nutrition. Main Outcome Measures: Moderate-intensity or more vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months with the CHAMPS Questionnaire, with accelerometry validation (Actigraph) in a randomly selected subsample. Treatment fidelity was examined through analysis of quantity and quality of intervention delivery. Results At 6 and 12 months, both physical activity arms significantly increased MVPA relative to the control arm. Both physical activity arms were comparable in quantity of intervention delivery, but peers demonstrated more versatility and comprehensiveness in quality of intervention content. Conclusions This study demonstrates that trained peer volunteers can effectively promote physical activity increases through telephone-based advice. The results support a program delivery model with good dissemination potential for a variety of community settings. PMID:21553972

  4. Physical activity levels after treatment for breast cancer: one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Devoogdt, Nele; Van Kampen, Marijke; Geraerts, Inge; Coremans, Tina; Fieuws, Steffen; Lefevre, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat; Truijen, Steven; Neven, Patrick; Christiaens, Marie-Rose

    2010-09-01

    Among patients with breast cancer, few studies have examined the pattern of change of physical activity levels over time or the predictive factors for this change. Particularly sparse are studies comparing pre-surgical physical activity levels with those 12 months post-surgery. Patients with a primary operable breast cancer (N = 267) filled in the Physical Activity Computerised Questionnaire before breast surgery and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Patient-, disease- and treatment-related factors were prospectively collected. Total physical activity level and occupational, sport and household activity levels were significantly decreased the first month post-operatively and did not recover during the first year after surgery. 'Being employed' was a predictive factor for a larger decrease of the total activity level, comparing the pre-operative and 12 months post-surgery stages. Having a spouse, a pN2-3 lesion and over 20 lymph nodes dissected predicted a decrease in occupational activity. Advanced age and smoking behaviour predicted a decrease in sport activities, and not having a spouse predicted a decrease in household activities. This study showed that 1 year after breast cancer surgery, pre-operative physical activity levels were not recovered. Breast cancer patients, and in particular those at risk for a decreased physical activity level, should be identified, encouraged and guided to increase their activities.

  5. Energy assessment: physical activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  6. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  7. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Cibella, Fabio; Le-Houezec, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy) that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old) making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours) were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice) to more advanced devices (MODs) was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month) as well as a trend in decreasing the e-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month). Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates. PMID:25811767

  8. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  9. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  10. Cumulative traumas and risk thresholds: 12-month PTSD in the World Mental Health (WMH) surveys.

    PubMed

    Karam, Elie G; Friedman, Matthew J; Hill, Eric D; Kessler, Ronald C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A; Shalev, Arieh Y; Stein, Dan J; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-02-01

    Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n = 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyperarousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more "complex" clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  12. Supervised training and home-based rehabilitation in patients with stabilized ankylosing spondylitis on TNF inhibitor treatment: a controlled clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Stefano; Poli, Patrizia; Bonaldo, Lara; Pigatto, Maurizia; Ramonda, Roberta; Lubrano, Ennio; Punzi, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    To assess the 12-month's follow-up effects on pain, mobility, and physical function outcomes of a supervised training and home-based rehabilitation for ankylosing spondylitis patients stabilized with TNF-inhibitor therapy. Controlled clinical trial (sequentially determined allocation) with 12-months' follow-up. Patients' homes. A total of 69 subjects were allocated to either a rehabilitation programme (rehabilitation group, n = 22), an educational-behavioural programme (educational group, n = 24), and to neither programme (control group, n = 23). Rehabilitation programme included supervised training and home exercises (stretching, strengthening, aerobic, chest, and spine/hip joint flexibility exercises); educational-behavioural programme included information on ankylosing spondylitis, pain and stress mechanisms, and control. Spinal pain intensity, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, chest expansion, and cervical and lumbar spine active range of motion measured by a pocket goniometer. At baseline, the three groups exhibited comparable demographic characteristics and basal evaluations. Intra-group changes in the rehabilitation group from baseline to 12 months yielded statistically significant gains (p < 0.05) for all outcomes. At 12-months follow-up, compared with the control and educational-behavioural, the rehabilitation group exhibited significant differences in chest expansion (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (p = 0.012 and p = 0.050), and in some goniometric measurements as cervical rotation (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014), toraco-lumbar rotation (p = 0.009 and p = 0.050), and total cervical movements (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001). In comparison with the educational-behavioural programme or no intervention, supervised training and home exercises improved long-term outcome in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. © The

  13. Behavior change and the freshman 15: tracking physical activity and dietary patterns in 1st-year university women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Martin Ginis, Kathleen Anne

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained physical activity and dietary logs 4 times throughout the year. Caloric intake decreased over 12 months in all participants (p = .01). There was little change in physical activity in participants who lost weight (p = .73, d = .18). Those who gained weight experienced a trend toward decreased physical activity (p = .13, d = .38). A significant Time X Group interaction on physical activity (p = .04) suggests that physical activity patterns differed substantially between individuals who gained weight and those who lost weight. Reduction in physical activity appears to be the defining characteristic in freshman weight gain.

  14. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  15. Histamine-dependent behavioral response to methamphetamine in 12-month-old male mice

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Summer F.; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use is a growing problem across the United States. Effects of MA include hyperactivity and increased anxiety. Using a mouse model system, we examined behavioral performance in the open field and elevated zero maze and shock-startle response of 12-month-old wild-type mice injected with MA once (1mg/kg) 30 min prior to behavioral testing. MA treatment resulted in behavioral sensitization in the open field, consistent with studies in younger mice. There was an increased activity in the elevated zero maze and an increased shock-startle response 30 and 60 min post-injection. Since histamine mediates some effects of MA in the brain, we assessed whether 12-month-old mice lacking histidine decarboxylase (Hdc−/−), the enzyme required to synthesize histamine, respond differently to MA than wild-type (Hdc+/+) mice. Compared to saline treatment, acute and repeated MA administration increased activity in the open field and measures of anxiety, though more so in Hdc−/− than Hdc+/+ mice. In the elevated zero maze, opposite effects of MA on activity and measures of anxiety were seen in Hdc+/+ mice. In contrast, MA similarly increased the shock-startle response in Hdc−/− and Hdc+/+ mice, compared to saline-treated genotype-matched mice. These results are similar to those in younger mice suggesting that the effects are not age-dependent. Overall, single or repeated MA treatment causes histamine-dependent changes in 12-month-old mice in the open field and elevated zero-maze, but not in the shock-startle response. PMID:21466792

  16. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration.

  17. A longitudinal examination of the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Henretty, Joan M

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N=150; mean age=12.79+/-0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Pubertal Development Scale on two occasions 12 months apart. The results demonstrated a decrease in overall physical activity levels over 12 months which was not influenced by maturational status or physical characteristics. Additional analysis indicated that physical self-perceptions partially accounted for the explained variance in physical activity change, with physical condition being an important individual predictor of physical activity. Further analysis indicated that body mass was an important individual predictor of changes in perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth. At this age maturation has a limited influence on the physical activity behaviours of early adolescent girls and although the variance in physical activity was partly accounted for by physical self-perceptions, this was a relatively small contribution and other factors related to this drop in physical activity need to be considered longitudinally.

  18. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  19. The effectiveness of an improved multidisciplinary pain management programme: a 6- and 12-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dysvik, Elin; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-05-01

      This article is a report of a Norwegian-revised study on the effectiveness of a follow-up multidisciplinary management programme for chronic pain to investigate the change processes associated with treatment.   Substantial evidence supports the use of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy approaches to chronic pain. As relapse is often reported, follow-up sessions should be included.   A follow-up quasi-experimental design was performed, and a previous control group was used. The study initially included 117 participants, and 104 of the sample completed the 6- and 12-month follow-up programme. The 6-month follow-up consisted of therapeutic dialogue and education combined with physical activity. At the 12-month follow-up, a telephonic consultation was conducted. The data collection period was between September 2006 and January 2008. The statistical and clinical significance were considered.   Findings suggest that this follow-up programme can potentially maintain the positive results of the basic programme in terms of reduced pain perception, improved health-related quality of life, and movement towards self-management.   These results are consistent with the ultimate goal of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy approaches, which is to help patients with chronic pain to cope more effectively and to improve their health-related quality of life and functioning. To maintain treatment improvements and advance nursing, there is a clear need for research that tests the efficacy of follow-up interventions that are designed to prevent drop out and relapse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  1. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  2. Motor training at 3 months affects object exploration 12 months later.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Klaus; Joh, Amy S; Needham, Amy Work

    2016-11-01

    The development of new motor skills alters how infants interact with objects and people. Consequently, it has been suggested that motor skills may initiate a cascade of events influencing subsequent development. However, only correlational evidence for this assumption has been obtained thus far. The current study addressed this question experimentally by systematically varying reaching experiences in 40 three-month-old infants who were not reaching on their own yet and examining their object engagement in a longitudinal follow-up assessment 12 months later. Results revealed increased object exploration and attention focusing skills in 15-month-old infants who experienced active reaching at 3 months of age compared to untrained infants or infants who only passively experienced reaching. Further, grasping activity after - but not before - reaching training predicted infants' object exploration 12 months later. These findings provide evidence for the long-term effects of reaching experiences and illustrate the cascading effects initiated by early motor skills. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Incorporating prosocial behavior to promote physical activity in older adults: rationale and design of the Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE).

    PubMed

    Foy, Capri G; Vitolins, Mara Z; Case, L Douglas; Harris, Susan J; Massa-Fanale, Carol; Hopley, Richard J; Gardner, Leah; Rudiger, Nicole; Yamamoto, Kathryn; Swain, Brittany; Goff, David C; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Booth, Deborah; Gaspari, Jamie

    2013-09-01

    Despite the benefits of regular physical activity among older adults, physical activity rates are low in this population. The Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two interventions on physical activity at 12 months among older adults. A total of 300 men and women aged 55 years or older will be randomized into either a healthy aging (HA) control intervention (n = 150), which is largely based upon educational sessions, or a prosocial behavior physical activity (PBPA) intervention (n = 150), which incorporates structured physical activity sessions, cognitive-behavioral counseling, and opportunities to earn food for donation to a regional food bank based on weekly physical activity and volunteering. The PBPA intervention is delivered at a local YMCA, and a regional grocery store chain donates the food to the food bank. Data will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is physical activity as assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include physical function and health-related quality of life. If successful, the PACE study will demonstrate that prosocial behavior and volunteerism may be efficaciously incorporated into interventions and will provide evidence for a novel motivating factor for physical activity. © 2013.

  4. Incorporating prosocial behavior to promote physical activity in older adults: Rationale and design of the Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE)☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Capri G.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Case, L. Douglas; Harris, Susan J.; Massa-Fanale, Carol; Hopley, Richard J.; Gardner, Leah; Rudiger, Nicole; Yamamoto, Kathryn; Swain, Brittany; Goff, David C.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Booth, Deborah; Gaspari, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of regular physical activity among older adults, physical activity rates are low in this population. The Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two interventions on physical activity at 12 months among older adults. A total of 300 men and women aged 55 years or older will be randomized into either a healthy aging (HA) control intervention (n = 150), which is largely based upon educational sessions, or a prosocial behavior physical activity (PBPA) intervention (n = 150), which incorporates structured physical activity sessions, cognitive-behavioral counseling, and opportunities to earn food for donation to a regional food bank based on weekly physical activity and volunteering. The PBPA intervention is delivered at a local YMCA, and a regional grocery store chain donates the food to the food bank. Data will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is physical activity as assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include physical function and health-related quality of life. If successful, the PACE study will demonstrate that prosocial behavior and volunteerism may be efficaciously incorporated into interventions and will provide evidence for a novel motivating factor for physical activity. PMID:23876672

  5. Assessing physical activity using wearable monitors: measures of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Ekelund, Ulf; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity may be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The quantitative assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors is grounded in the measurement of energy expenditure. Six main categories of wearable monitors are currently available to investigators: pedometers, load transducers/foot-contact monitors, accelerometers, HR monitors, combined accelerometer and HR monitors, and multiple sensor systems. Currently available monitors are capable of measuring total physical activity as well as components of physical activity that play important roles in human health. The selection of wearable monitors for measuring physical activity will depend on the physical activity component of interest, study objectives, characteristics of the target population, and study feasibility in terms of cost and logistics. Future development of sensors and analytical techniques for assessing physical activity should focus on the dynamic ranges of sensors, comparability for sensor output across manufacturers, and the application of advanced modeling techniques to predict energy expenditure and classify physical activities. New approaches for qualitatively classifying physical activity should be validated using direct observation or recording. New sensors and methods for quantitatively assessing physical activity should be validated in laboratory and free-living populations using criterion methods of calorimetry or doubly labeled water.

  6. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  7. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  8. Motivating Kids in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2000-01-01

    This article adopts a motivational stance in identifying factors that strongly predict physical activity in children. One model for understanding physical activity motivation in children portrays the sources and consequences of self-esteem for physical activity behavior (perceived competency/adequacy, social support, enjoyment, and physical…

  9. Syngnathus louisianae or floridae: The 12 Month Mystery, and Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, K.; Sandoz, M.; Garrad, B.

    2016-12-01

    An unknown species of pipefish collected in Bay St. Louis, MS, is investigated to discover if it is a new species. After being collected in a seine net, the specimen was observed in captivity. Subtle experimentation with diet, color preference and habitat were performed to help in the identification process. Next, a dichotomous key was used to attempt to identify the specimen, followed by picture comparison and further research through internet and print sources. The two closest species were the Chain Pipefish (Syngnathus louisianae) and the Dusky Pipefish (Syngnathus floridae), but both were then ruled out for differences in behavior and physical structure, such as dermal plate counts. Contact was made with marine research facilities including the Audubon Aquarium of the Americas, the University of Southern Mississippi's Gulf Coast Research Lab and Marine Science Department, as well as presenting our findings at the 2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting in New Orleans, in an effort to collect more data and possibly find an expert to help us identify the pipefish. While a determination has not been reached about the true species, the common Gulf of Mexico species have been ruled out with dichotomous identification and other documentation of pipefish from around the world. The current conclusion is that it is a hybrid of known Gulf species. The goal of this presentation is to search for more information or expertise regarding this subject, as information about pipefish research is hard to come by.

  10. Effect of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Intervention on Improving Dementia Family Caregiver Physical Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farran, Carol J; Etkin, Caryn D; Eisenstein, Amy; Paun, Olimpia; Rajan, Kumar B; Sweet, Cynthia M Castro; McCann, Judith J; Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Evans, Denis A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) affect more than five million Americans and their family caregivers. Caregiving creates challenges, may contribute to decreased caregiver health and is associated with $9.7 billion of caregiver health care costs. The purpose of this 12 month randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to examine if the Enhancing Physical Activity Intervention (EPAI), a moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) treatment group, versus the Caregiver Skill Building Intervention (CSBI) control, would have greater: (1) MVPA adherence; and (2) physical function. Methods Caregivers were randomly assigned to EPAI or CSBI (N=211). MVPA was assessed using a self-report measure; and physical function was objectively assessed using two measures. Intention-to-treat analyses used descriptive, categorical and generalized estimating equations (GEE), with an exchangeable working correlation matrix and a log link, to examine main effects and interactions in change of MVPA and physical function over time. Results At 12 months, EPAI significantly increased MVPA (p=<0.001) and number of steps (p=< .01); maintained stable caregiving hours and use of formal services; while CSBI increased hours of caregiving (p=<0.001) and used more formal services (p=<0.02). Qualitative physical function data indicated that approximately 50% of caregivers had difficulties completing physical function tests. Conclusion The EPAI had a stronger 12 month effect on caregiver MVPA and physical function, as well as maintaining stability of caregiving hours and formal service use; while CSBI increased caregiving hours and use of formal services. A study limitation included greater EPAI versus CSBI attrition. Future directions are proposed for dementia family caregiver physical activity research. PMID:28752016

  11. Rethinking maternal sensitivity: mothers' comments on infants' mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Meins, E; Fernyhough, C; Fradley, E; Tuckey, M

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated predictors of attachment security in a play context using a sample of 71 mothers and their 6-month-old infants. We sought to rethink the concept of maternal sensitivity by focusing on mothers' ability accurately to read the mental states governing infant behaviour. Five categories were devised to assess this ability, four of which were dependent on maternal responses to infant behaviours, such as object-directed activity. The fifth, mothers' Appropriate minded-related comments, assessed individual differences in mothers' proclivity to comment appropriately on their infants' mental states and processes. Higher scores in this fifth category related to a secure attachment relationship at 12 months. Maternal sensitivity and Appropriate mind-related comments were independent predictors of attachment security at 12 months, respectively accounting for 6.5% and 12.7% of its variance. We suggest that these findings are in line with current theorising on internal working models of attachment, and may help to explain security-related differences in mentalising abilities.

  12. Assessment of the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Evelyn Helena Corgosinho; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles; Costa, Evelyn Fabiana; Andrade, Douglas Roque; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of interventions on the levels of physical activity of healthy adults, users of the Brazilian Unified Health System and attended by the Family Health Strategy. METHODS Non-randomized experimental study with 157 adults allocated in three groups: 1) physical exercise classes (n = 54), 2) health education (n = 54), 3) control (n = 49). The study lasted for18 months, with 12 months of interventions and six months of follow-up after intervention. Assessments took place at the beginning, in the 12 months, and in the 18 months of study. Physical activity has been assessed by questionnaires and accelerometry. For the analyses, we have used the intention-to-treat principle and generalized estimating equations. RESULTS After 12 months, both intervention groups have increased the minutes of weekly leisure time physical activity and annual scores of physical exercise, leisure and transport-related physical activity. The exercise class group has obtained the highest average annual physical exercises score when compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). In the follow-up period, the exercise class group reduced its annual score (average: -0.3; 95%CI -0.5–-0.1), while the health education group increased this score (average: 0.2; 95%CI 0.1–0.4). There have been no differences in the levels of physical activity measured by accelerometry. CONCLUSIONS The interventions have been effective in increasing the practice of physical activity. However, we have observed that the health education intervention was more effective for maintaining the practice of physical activity in the period after intervention. We recommend the use of both interventions to promote physical activity in the Brazilian Unified Health System, according to the local reality of professionals, facilities, and team objectives. PMID:28678906

  13. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  14. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: A 12-month prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R.; Chiu, Bryan K.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W.; Handy, Todd C.; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12 months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants’ physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12 months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  15. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part.

  16. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  17. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  18. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Vladutiu, Catherine J; Evenson, Kelly R; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a 1 h/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.27) and a 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.99). A 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.00-1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and 1 h/week increases in indoor household (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.18) and overall MVPA (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.12-5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.05-3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep.

  19. Predicting the Onset of Anxiety Syndromes at 12 Months in Primary Care Attendees. The PredictA-Spain Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Luna, Juan de Dios; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Motrico, Emma; GildeGómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Torres-González, Francisco; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Bellón, Juan Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no risk algorithms for the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months in primary care. We aimed to develop and validate internally a risk algorithm to predict the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Methods A prospective cohort study with evaluations at baseline, 6 and 12 months. We measured 39 known risk factors and used multilevel logistic regression and inverse probability weighting to build the risk algorithm. Our main outcome was generalized anxiety, panic and other non-specific anxiety syndromes as measured by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, Patient Health Questionnaire (PRIME-MD-PHQ). We recruited 3,564 adult primary care attendees without anxiety syndromes from 174 family physicians and 32 health centers in 6 Spanish provinces. Results The cumulative 12-month incidence of anxiety syndromes was 12.2%. The predictA-Spain risk algorithm included the following predictors of anxiety syndromes: province; sex (female); younger age; taking medicines for anxiety, depression or stress; worse physical and mental quality of life (SF-12); dissatisfaction with paid and unpaid work; perception of financial strain; and the interactions sex*age, sex*perception of financial strain, and age*dissatisfaction with paid work. The C-index was 0.80 (95% confidence interval = 0.78–0.83) and the Hedges' g = 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.04–1.29). The Copas shrinkage factor was 0.98 and calibration plots showed an accurate goodness of fit. Conclusions The predictA-Spain risk algorithm is valid to predict anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Although external validation is required, the predictA-Spain is available for use as a predictive tool in the prevention of anxiety syndromes in primary care. PMID:25184313

  20. Increase in the heart rate variability with deep breathing in diabetic patients after 12-month exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Bhagyalakshmi; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Bhat, Ramesh; Kulur, Anupama Bangra; Avabratha, Sridhar; Adhikary, Prabha

    2010-02-01

    Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes leads to impaired regulation of blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV), which is due to a shift in cardiac autonomic balance towards sympathetic dominance. Lower HRV has been considered a predictor of cardiac mortality and morbidity. Deep breathing test is a simple method to measure HRV and it provides a sensitive measure of cardiac autonomic function. The effect of long-term physical activity on HRV in type-2 diabetes mellitus is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the effects of regular physical exercise on HRV with deep breathing in type 2 diabetes (n = 105). Thirty normotensive diabetic patients and 25 hypertensive diabetic patients underwent physical exercise program for 12 months, and the other 50 patients (22 normotensive and 28 hypertensive diabetic patients) were considered the non-exercised group. Electrocardiogram was recorded during deep breathing and HRV was measured. Regular exercise significantly increased HRV in diabetic patients with and without hypertension. The degree of the increase in HRV was greater in hypertensive diabetic patients (p < 0.01) than in normotensive diabetic patients (p < 0.05). After exercise, glycosylated hemoglobin levels were decreased in both groups of diabetic patients. Moreover, the hypertensive diabetic patients showed a decrease (p < 0.05) in blood pressure after regular exercise. Thus, regular exercise training increases HRV, suggesting that there is a shift in the cardiac sympathovagal balance in favor of parasympathetic dominance in diabetic patients. Long-term physical training may be an effective means to reverse the autonomic dysregulation seen in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the

  2. Postpartum Physical Activity: Measuring Theory of Planned Behavior Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Derek; Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Wilcox, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective top develop and examine evidence for factor validity and longitudinal invariance of scales used to measure theory of planned behavior constructs applied to physical activity. Methods Self-report questionnaires were administered at 3- (n=267) and 12-months (n=333) postpartum. Longitudinal data were available for 185 of these women. Results A single factor model fit data from the normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral beliefs scales. Attitude and control beliefs were found to be multidimensional. Longitudinal invariance of all scales was supported. Conclusions Each scale had strong validity evidence. Future research using these measures will help identify areas for intervention and reveal how changes in constructs influence physical activity over time. PMID:20218751

  3. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  4. The Development of Rational Imitation in 9- and 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmyj, Norbert; Daum, Moritz M.; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2009-01-01

    Studies on rational imitation have provided evidence for the fact that infants as young as 12 months of age engage in rational imitation. However, the developmental onset of this ability is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether 9- and 12-month-olds detect voluntary and implicit as well as nonvoluntary and explicit constraints in the head…

  5. The Development of Rational Imitation in 9- and 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmyj, Norbert; Daum, Moritz M.; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2009-01-01

    Studies on rational imitation have provided evidence for the fact that infants as young as 12 months of age engage in rational imitation. However, the developmental onset of this ability is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether 9- and 12-month-olds detect voluntary and implicit as well as nonvoluntary and explicit constraints in the head…

  6. Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assessment of 12-month safety of ospemifene 60 mg/day for treatment of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Methods In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, women 40–80 years with VVA and an intact uterus were randomized 6 : 1 to ospemifene 60 mg/day or placebo. The primary objective was 12-month safety, particularly endometrial; 12-week efficacy was assessed. Safety assessments included endometrial histology and thickness, and breast and gynecological examinations. Efficacy evaluations included changes from baseline to week 12 in percentage of superficial and parabasal cells and vaginal pH. Results Of 426 randomized subjects, 81.9% (n = 349) completed the study with adverse events the most common reason for discontinuation (ospemifene 9.5%; placebo 3.9%). Most (88%) treatment-emergent adverse events with ospemifene were considered mild or moderate. Three cases (1.0%) of active proliferation were observed in the ospemifene group. For one, active proliferation was seen at end of study week 52, and diagnosed as simple hyperplasia without atypia on follow-up biopsy 3 months after the last dose. This subsequently resolved with progestogen treatment and dilatation and curettage. In six subjects (five ospemifene (1.4%), one placebo (1.6%)) endometrial polyps were found (histopathology); however, only one (ospemifene) was confirmed as a true polyp during additional expert review. Endometrial histology showed no evidence of carcinoma. Statistically significant improvements were seen for all primary and secondary efficacy measures and were sustained through week 52 with ospemifene vs. placebo. Conclusions The findings of this 52-week study confirm the tolerance and efficacy of oral ospemifene previously reported in short- and long-term studies. PMID:23984673

  7. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  8. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  9. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  10. Toxicological Emergencies in the Resuscitation Area of a Pediatric Emergency Department: A 12-Month Review.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; Kerrey, Benjamin T; Mittiga, Matthew R; Rinderknecht, Andrea S; Yin, Shan

    2017-10-01

    Few studies of children with toxicological emergencies describe those undergoing acute resuscitation, and most describe exposures to single agents. We describe a 12-month sample of patients evaluated in the resuscitation area of a pediatric emergency department (ED) for a toxicological emergency. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in a high-volume, academic pediatric ED. We identified patients evaluated in the ED resuscitation area for toxicological exposure and conducted structured chart reviews to collect relevant data. For all variables of interest, we calculated standard descriptive statistics. Of 2999 patients evaluated in the resuscitation area through 12 months (March 2009 to April 2010), we identified 80 (2.7%) whose primary ED diagnosis was toxicological. The mean age was 11.4 years. Eighty-six percent of patients were triaged to the resuscitation area for significantly altered mental status. The most frequent single exposures were ethanol (25%), clonidine (10%), and acetaminophen (5%). At least 1 laboratory test was performed for almost all patients (97%). Interventions performed in the resuscitation area included intravenous access placement (97%), activated charcoal (20%), naloxone (19%), and endotracheal intubation (12%). Eighty-two percent of patients were admitted to the hospital; 37% to the intensive care unit. No patients studied in this sample died and most received only supportive care. In a high-volume pediatric ED, toxicological emergencies requiring acute resuscitation were rare. Ethanol and clonidine were the most frequent single exposures. Most patients received diagnostic testing and were admitted. Further studies are needed to describe regional differences in pediatric toxicological emergencies.

  11. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  12. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  13. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  14. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  15. Possible clinical effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) delivery during hemodialysis in chronic dialysis patients: Interim analysis in a 12 month observation

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Itami, Noritomo; Suzuki, Hodaka; Hamada, Hiromi; Osaka, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Ryo; Tsunoda, Kazumasa; Nakano, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Kimio; Zhu, Wan-Jun; Maruyama, Yukio; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Kabayama, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Ryoichi; Miyazaki, Mariko; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim It is supposed that enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation are involved with the poor clinical outcomes in patients on chronic dialysis treatment. Recent studies have shown that molecular hydrogen (H2) is biologically active as an anti-inflammatory agent. Thus, we developed a novel hemodialysis (E-HD) system which delivers H2 (30 to 80 ppb)-enriched dialysis solution, to conduct a prospective observational study (UMIN000004857) in order to compare the long-term outcomes between E-HD and conventional-HD (C-HD) in Japan. The present interim analysis aimed to look at potential clinical effects of E-HD during the first 12 months observation. Subjects and method 262 patients (140, E-HD; 122, C-HD) were subjected for analysis for comprehensive clinical profiles. They were all participating in the above mentioned study, and they had been under the respective HD treatment for 12 consecutive months without hospitalization. Collected data, such as, physical and laboratory examinations, medications, and self-assessment questionnaires on subjective symptoms (i.e., fatigue and pruritus) were compared between the two groups. Results In a 12-month period, no clinical relevant differences were found in dialysis-related parameters between the two groups. However, there were differences in the defined daily dose of anti-hypertensive agents, and subjective symptoms, such as severe fatigue, and pruritus, which were all less in the E-HD group. Multivariate analysis revealed E-HD was an independent significant factor for the reduced use of anti-hypertensive agents as well as the absence of severe fatigue and pruritus at 12 months after adjusting for confounding factors. Conclusion The data indicates E-HD could have substantial clinical benefits beyond conventional HD therapy, and support the rationale to conduct clinical trials of H2 application to HD treatment. PMID:28902900

  16. Possible clinical effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) delivery during hemodialysis in chronic dialysis patients: Interim analysis in a 12 month observation.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Itami, Noritomo; Suzuki, Hodaka; Hamada, Hiromi; Osaka, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Ryo; Tsunoda, Kazumasa; Nakano, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Kimio; Zhu, Wan-Jun; Maruyama, Yukio; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Kabayama, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Ryoichi; Miyazaki, Mariko; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    It is supposed that enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation are involved with the poor clinical outcomes in patients on chronic dialysis treatment. Recent studies have shown that molecular hydrogen (H2) is biologically active as an anti-inflammatory agent. Thus, we developed a novel hemodialysis (E-HD) system which delivers H2 (30 to 80 ppb)-enriched dialysis solution, to conduct a prospective observational study (UMIN000004857) in order to compare the long-term outcomes between E-HD and conventional-HD (C-HD) in Japan. The present interim analysis aimed to look at potential clinical effects of E-HD during the first 12 months observation. 262 patients (140, E-HD; 122, C-HD) were subjected for analysis for comprehensive clinical profiles. They were all participating in the above mentioned study, and they had been under the respective HD treatment for 12 consecutive months without hospitalization. Collected data, such as, physical and laboratory examinations, medications, and self-assessment questionnaires on subjective symptoms (i.e., fatigue and pruritus) were compared between the two groups. In a 12-month period, no clinical relevant differences were found in dialysis-related parameters between the two groups. However, there were differences in the defined daily dose of anti-hypertensive agents, and subjective symptoms, such as severe fatigue, and pruritus, which were all less in the E-HD group. Multivariate analysis revealed E-HD was an independent significant factor for the reduced use of anti-hypertensive agents as well as the absence of severe fatigue and pruritus at 12 months after adjusting for confounding factors. The data indicates E-HD could have substantial clinical benefits beyond conventional HD therapy, and support the rationale to conduct clinical trials of H2 application to HD treatment.

  17. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  18. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  19. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  20. Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: 12 month (mid-intervention) report on a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Elizabeth; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiese, Jarrod; Gillham, Karen; Hollis, Jenna; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods A cluster randomised trial was undertaken in 10 secondary schools located in disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Students in Grade 7 were recruited, with follow-up in Grade 8. The intervention was guided by socioecological theory and included seven physical activity strategies, and six implementation adoption strategies. The primary outcome was mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day assessed using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Outcome data were analysed using repeated measures linear mixed models. Results At baseline, 1150 (93%) students participated in the data collection (mean age 12 years, 48% boys) and 1050 (79%) students participated at 12-month follow-up. By the 12-month follow-up, the six implementation adoption strategies had been used to support schools to deliver four of the seven physical activity elements. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for mean minutes of MVPA per day in favour of the intervention group (adjusted difference between groups at follow-up=3.85 min, 95% CI (0.79 to 6.91), p≤0.01), including significantly more vigorous physical activity (2.45 min, p≤0.01), equating to 27 min more MVPA per week. Summary At 12-month follow-up, the intervention had reduced the decline in physical activity among adolescents from disadvantaged schools. The intervention may assist students to meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:26359346

  1. Tracking of physical activity and fitness during the early years.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Hilary A T; Proudfoot, Nicole A; King-Dowling, Sara; Di Cristofaro, Natascja A; Cairney, John; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-05-01

    The early years are characterized by rapid physical growth and the development of behaviours such as physical activity. The objectives of this study were to assess the 12-month changes in and the tracking of physical activity and fitness in 400 preschoolers (201 boys, 4.5 ± 0.9 years of age). Physical activity data, expressed as minutes per day and as the percentage of time spent at various intensities while wearing an accelerometer, were collected in 3-s epochs for 7 days. Short-term muscle power, assessed with a 10-s modified Wingate Anaerobic Test, was expressed as absolute (W) and relative (W/kg) peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). Aerobic fitness, assessed with the Bruce Protocol progressive treadmill test, was expressed as maximal treadmill time and heart rate recovery (HRR). Light physical activity decreased by 3.2 min/day (p < 0.05), whereas vigorous physical activity increased by 3.7 min/day (p < 0.001), from year 1 to year 2. Physical activity exhibited moderate tracking on the basis of Spearman correlations (r = 0.45-0.59, p < 0.001) and fair tracking on the basis of κ statistics (κ = 0.26-0.38). PP and MP increased from year 1 (PP, 94.1 ± 37.3 W; MP, 84.1 ± 30.9 W) to year 2 (PP, 125.6 ± 36.2 W; MP, 112.3 ± 32.2 W) (p < 0.001) and tracked moderately to substantially (PP, r = 0.89, κ = 0.61; MP, r = 0.86, κ = 0.56). Time to exhaustion on the treadmill increased from 9.4 ± 2.3 min to 11.8 ± 2.3 min (p < 0.001) and tracked strongly (r = 0.82, κ = 0.56). HRR was unchanged at 65 ± 14 beats/min (p = 0.297) and tracked fairly (r = 0.52, κ = 0.23). The findings indicate that fitness tracks better than physical activity over a 12-month period during the early years.

  2. Is informed consent related to success in exercise and diet intervention as evaluated at 12 months? DR's EXTRA study.

    PubMed

    Länsimies-Antikainen, Helena; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Laitinen, Tomi; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2010-06-08

    There is a permanent need to evaluate and develop the ethical quality of scientific research and to widen knowledge about the effects of ethical issues. Therefore we evaluated whether informed consent is related to implementation and success in a lifestyle intervention study with older research participants. There is little empirical research into this topic. The subjects (n = 597) are a subgroup of a random population sample of 1410 men and women aged 57-78 years who are participating in a 4-year randomized controlled intervention trial on the effects of physical exercise and diet on atherosclerosis, endothelial function and cognition. Data were collected in two steps: A questionnaire about informed consent was given to all willing participants (n = 1324) three months after the randomization. Data on implementation and success in the exercise and diet interventions were evaluated at 12 months by intervention-group personnel. The main purpose of the analysis procedure performed in this study was to identify and examine potential correlates for the chosen dependent variables and to generate future hypotheses for testing and confirming the independent determinants for implementation and success. The nature of the analysis protocol is exploratory at this stage. About half of the participants (54%) had achieved good results in the intervention. Nearly half of the participants (47%) had added to or improved their own activity in some sector of exercise or diet. Significant associations were found between performance in the interventions and participants' knowledge of the purpose of the study (p < 0.001), and between success in interventions and working status (p = 0.02), and the participants' knowledge of the purpose of the study (p = 0.04). The main finding of this study was that those participants who were most aware or had understood the purpose of the study at an early stage had also attained better results at their 12-month intervention evaluation. Therefore

  3. Comparing Psychosocial Predictors of Physical Activity Adoption and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David M.; Lewis, Beth A.; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Papandonatos, George D.; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Bock, Beth C.; Ciccolo, Joseph T.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most health behavior models do not distinguish between determinants of behavior adoption and maintenance. Purpose This study compared psychosocial predictors of physical activity (PA) adoption and predictors of PA maintenance among 205 initially sedentary adults enrolled in a home-based PA promotion trial. Methods Psychosocial variables were measured at 6 months (at which point 107 participants remained inactive and 98 participants adopted regular PA) and used to predict 12-month PA status (an indicator of PA adoption among those inactive at 6 months and an indicator of PA maintenance among those active at 6 months). Results 6-month PA status moderated the relationships between 6-month measures of home access to PA equipment (p = .049), self-efficacy (p = .086), and perceived satisfaction (p = .062) and 12-month PA status. Simple effects analyses revealed that home access to PA equipment was predictive of PA adoption (OR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.85), but not PA maintenance (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.35), whereas self-efficacy and perceived satisfaction were predictive of PA maintenance (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.55, 4.52; OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 0.93, 4.06), but not PA adoption (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.57; OR = 0.82, CI: 0.44, 1.52). Conclusion Results suggest that these psychosocial variables may operate differently in predicting PA adoption versus maintenance. PMID:18777124

  4. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  5. 12-month generic health status and psychological distress outcomes following an Australian natural disaster experience: 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires.

    PubMed

    Wasiak, J; Mahar, P; Lee, S; Paul, E; Spinks, A; Pfitzer, B; Cleland, H; Gabbe, B

    2013-11-01

    To describe the generic health status, health-related quality of life and psychological distress over a 12-month period of burns patients affected by the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires. Cohort study with retrospective assessment of pre-injury status and prospective assessment of physical and psychosocial functioning in the Black Saturday Wildfires burns patients across time. Generic health status and burn specific quality of life using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS) were collected at three, six and twelve months post-burn injury. In addition, similar time points were used to measure level of psychological distress and the presence of pain using the Kessler-10 questionnaire (K-10) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. At 12 months post-injury, patients reported a mean 16.4 (standard error, SE: 3.2) reduction in physical health and a 5.3 (SE 2.5) reduction in mental health scores of the SF-36 as compared to their pre-injury scores, with significant decreases observed in the "bodily pain", "physical functioning", "role physical" and "vitality" subscales. High levels of psychological distress and persistent pain were experienced, with no significant changes during the study period to the overall burns specific quality of life. Even 12 months post-burn injury, patients affected by the 2009 Victorian Wildfires still experienced a significant reduction in generic health, increased psychological distress and persistent pain. The need for early and ongoing identification of physical and psychosocial impairments during hospital admission and upon discharge could be helpful to establish systematic interdisciplinary goals for long-term rehabilitation after severe burn injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  7. Vital signs: disability and physical activity--United States, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Stevens, Alissa C; Sloan, Michelle L; Lullo, Carolyn; Visser, Susanna N; Fox, Michael H; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A; Brown, David R; Dorn, Joan M

    2014-05-09

    Adults with disabilities are less active and have higher rates of chronic disease than the general population. Given the health benefits of physical activity, understanding physical activity, its relationship with chronic disease, and health professional recommendations for physical activity among young to middle-age adults with disabilities could help increase the effectiveness of health promotion efforts. Data from the 2009-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the prevalence of, and association between, aerobic physical activity (inactive, insufficiently active, or active) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer) among adults aged 18-64 years by disability status and type (hearing, vision, cognitive, and mobility). The prevalence of, and association between, receiving a health professional recommendation for physical activity and level of aerobic physical activity was assessed using 2010 data. Overall, 11.6% of U.S. adults aged 18-64 years reported a disability, with estimates for disability type ranging from 1.7% (vision) to 5.8% (mobility). Compared with adults without disabilities, inactivity was more prevalent among adults with any disability (47.1% versus 26.1%) and for adults with each type of disability. Inactive adults with disabilities were 50% more likely to report one or more chronic diseases than those who were physically active. Approximately 44% of adults with disabilities received a recommendation from a health professional for physical activity in the past 12 months. Almost half of adults with disabilities are physically inactive and are more likely to have a chronic disease. Among adults with disabilities who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, the majority (56%) did not receive a recommendation for physical activity. These data highlight the need for increased physical activity among persons with disabilities, which might require support across societal sectors, including

  8. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076.

  9. Impact of thrombolysis on stroke outcome at 12 months in a population: the Bern stroke project.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Urs; Mono, Marie-Luise; Zwahlen, Marcel; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel; Galimanis, Aekatarini; Bucher, Sabine; Findling, Oliver; Meier, Niklaus; Brekenfeld, Caspar; Gralla, Jan; Heller, Regula; Tschannen, Beatrice; Schaad, Heinz; Waldegg, Gabriel; Zehnder, Thomas; Ronsdorf, Anke; Oswald, Phillip; Brunner, Georg; Schroth, Gerhard; Mattle, Heinrich P

    2012-04-01

    Thrombolysis improves outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke, but it is unknown whether thrombolysis has a measurable effect on long-term outcome in a defined population. We prospectively assessed demographic data, management, and outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients admitted within 48 hours to 18 primary care hospitals of the canton of Bern (969 299 inhabitants) during 12 months. Blinded follow-up was obtained at 3 and 12 months. Predictors of mortality and favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) at 3 and 12 months using logistic regression were analyzed. From December 2007 to December 2008, 807 patients (mean age, 72 years) were included. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission was 5; 107 patients (13%) received intravenous, intra-arterial, or mechanical thrombolysis. Estimated cumulative mortality at 3 months was 20.6% and at 12 months 27.4%. Age 75 years or older, higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, and higher Charlson comorbidity index were independent predictors of mortality at 3 and 12 months. Estimated favorable outcome at 3 months was 48.2% and at 12 months was 44.6%. Thrombolysis was the only modifiable independent predictor of favorable outcome at 3 (relative risk, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.18-1.89) and 12 months (relative risk, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24-2.04), whereas age younger than 75 years, male gender, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score <4, and lower Charlson comorbidity index were nonmodifiable predictors. Thirteen percent of acute ischemic stroke patients admitted within 48 hours to Bernese hospitals underwent thrombolysis, which exerted a measurable effect on 3-month outcome in this population. This effect was sustained at 12 months. Age, stroke severity, Charlson comorbidity index, and male gender were independent nonmodifiable predictors of outcome.

  10. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  11. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  12. Effects of Miniscalpel-Needle Release on Chronic Neck Pain: A Retrospective Analysis with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic neck pain is a highly prevalent condition, and is often treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Limited clinical studies with short-term follow-up have shown promising efficacy of acupuncture as well as miniscalpel-needle (MSN) release. In this retrospective study, we examined whether MSN release could produce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic neck pain. Methods We retrieved the medical records of all patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain at this institution during a period from May 2012 to December 2013. Only cases with the following information at prior to, and 1, 6, and 12 months after the treatment, were included in the analysis: neck disability index (NDI), numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), and active cervical range of motion (CROM). The primary analysis of interest is comparison of the 12-month measures with the baseline. Patients who took analgesic drugs or massage within 2 weeks prior to assessment were excluded from the analysis. For MSN release, tender points were identified manually by an experienced physician, and did not necessarily follow the traditional acupuncture system. MSN was inserted vertically (parallel to the spine) until breaking through resistance and patient reporting of distention, soreness or heaviness. The depth of the needling ranged from 10 to 50 mm. The release was carried out by moving the MSN up and down 3–5 times without rotation. Results A total of 559 cases (patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain) were screened. The number of cases with complete information (NDI, NPRS, and CROM at baseline, 1, 6 and 12 months after last treatment) was 180. After excluding the cases with analgesic treatment or massage within 2 weeks of assessment (n = 53), a total of 127 cases were included in data analysis. The number of MSN release session was 7 (range: 4–11). At 12 months after the treatment, both NPRS and NDI were significantly lower

  13. Associations with legal representation in a compensation setting 12 months after injury.

    PubMed

    Casey, Petrina P; Feyer, Anne Marie; Cameron, Ian D

    2015-05-01

    Many people with Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) seek treatment though a compensation system where factors such as legal involvement have been reported as having a negative impact on recovery outcomes. To compare those with and without legal involvement in their compensation claim, and identify associations with legal involvement at 12 months post injury; and longer term disability. Inception cohort study. 246 people with WAD compensation claim. Legal involvement and Functional Rating Index at 12 months post injury. Participants were recruited from an insurance database. Baseline health (Functional Rating Index, Pain Catastrophising Scale and SF-36), socio-economic, work capacity, and claims data were collected within three months of injury and 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations with legal involvement at 12 months; and disability (FRI) at 12 months. At baseline 246 participants were enrolled into the study in a median 72 days post injury. At 12 months post injury 52 (25%) had engaged a lawyer. The significant independent associations with legal involvement at 12 months were higher levels of initial disability, work disability, speaking a language other than English at home and lower levels of mental health. Specifically, the odds of lawyer involvement at 12 months post injury was 4.9 times greater for those with work disability; 2.3 times greater for those who spoke a language other than English at home. In terms of health, they had poorer mental health and for every 10 unit increase in the baseline FRI score the odds of having lawyer involvement increased by 38%. DISABILITY: at 12 months (FRI) was significantly independently associated with, PCS-helplessness (p<0.001), age (p<0.001) and prior claim (p=0.001). This study suggests the people with lawyer involvement in their claim 12 months after injury have socio-economic disadvantage, have had a prior claim and a worse baseline health profile compared to those without a

  14. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on

  15. Physical activity on prescription (PAP): self-reported physical activity and quality of life in a Swedish primary care population, 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rödjer, Lars; H Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-12-01

    To study the self-reported level of physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving physical activity on prescription (PAP) for up to 24 months. Observational study conducted in a regular healthcare setting. A primary care population in Sweden receiving physical activity on prescription as part of regular care was studied alongside a reference group. The group comprised 146 patients receiving PAP at two different primary care locations (n = 96 and 50, respectively). The reference group comprised 58 patients recruited from two different primary care centres in the same region. We used two self-report questionnaires - the four-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) to assess physical activity, and SF-36 to assess QOL. A significant increase in the PA level was found at six and 12 months following PAP, with an ongoing non-significant trend at 24 months (p = .09). A clear improvement in QOL was seen during the period. At 24 months, significant and clinically relevant improvements in QOL persisted in four out of eight sub-scale scores (Physical Role Limitation, Bodily Pain, General Health,Vitality) and in one out of two summary scores (Physical Component Summary). Patients receiving PAP showed an increased level of self-reported PA at six and 12 months and improved QOL for up to 24 months in several domains. The Swedish PAP method seems to be a feasible method for bringing about changes in physical activity in different patient populations in regular primary healthcare. While increased physical activity (PA) is shown to improve health, the implementation of methods designed to increase activity is still being developed. Key points The present study confirms that the Swedish physical activity on prescription (PAP) method increases the self-reported level of PA in the primary care setting at six and 12 months. Furthermore, this study shows that PAP recipients report a clinically relevant long-term improvement in quality

  16. Physical activity on prescription (PAP): self-reported physical activity and quality of life in a Swedish primary care population, 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rödjer, Lars; H. Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the self-reported level of physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving physical activity on prescription (PAP) for up to 24 months. Design Observational study conducted in a regular healthcare setting. Setting A primary care population in Sweden receiving physical activity on prescription as part of regular care was studied alongside a reference group. Subjects The group comprised 146 patients receiving PAP at two different primary care locations (n = 96 and 50, respectively). The reference group comprised 58 patients recruited from two different primary care centres in the same region. Main outcome measurements We used two self-report questionnaires – the four-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) to assess physical activity, and SF-36 to assess QOL. Results A significant increase in the PA level was found at six and 12 months following PAP, with an ongoing non-significant trend at 24 months (p = .09). A clear improvement in QOL was seen during the period. At 24 months, significant and clinically relevant improvements in QOL persisted in four out of eight sub-scale scores (Physical Role Limitation, Bodily Pain, General Health,Vitality) and in one out of two summary scores (Physical Component Summary). Conclusion Patients receiving PAP showed an increased level of self-reported PA at six and 12 months and improved QOL for up to 24 months in several domains. The Swedish PAP method seems to be a feasible method for bringing about changes in physical activity in different patient populations in regular primary healthcare. While increased physical activity (PA) is shown to improve health, the implementation of methods designed to increase activity is still being developed. Key points The present study confirms that the Swedish physical activity on prescription (PAP) method increases the self-reported level of PA in the primary care setting at six and 12 months. Furthermore, this study shows

  17. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  18. [Early prediction of the neurological result at 12 months in newborns at neurological risk].

    PubMed

    Herbón, F; Garibotti, G; Moguilevsky, J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Amiel-Tison neurological examination (AT) and cranial ultrasound at term for predicting the neurological result at 12 months in newborns with neurological risk. The study included 89 newborns with high risk of neurological damage, who were discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care of the Hospital Zonal Bariloche, Argentina. The assessment consisted of a neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term, and neurological examination and evaluation of development at 12 months. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictor value was calculated. The relationship between perinatal factors and neurodevelopment at 12 month of age was also calculated using logistic regression models. Seventy children completed the follow-up. At 12 months of age, 14% had an abnormal neurological examination, and 17% abnormal development. The neurological examination and the cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity to predict abnormal neurodevelopment. At 12 months, 93% of newborns with normal AT showed normal neurological results, and 86% normal development. Among newborns with normal cranial ultrasound the percentages were 90 and 81%, respectively. Among children with three or more perinatal risk factors, the frequency of abnormalities in the neurological response was 5.4 times higher than among those with fewer risk factors, and abnormal development was 3.5 times more frequent. The neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity but high negative predictive value for the neurodevelopment at 12 months. Three or more perinatal risk factors were associated with neurodevelopment abnormalities at 12 months of age. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery of left ventricular and left atrial mechanics in various entities of aortic stenosis 12 months after TAVI.

    PubMed

    Spethmann, Sebastian; Baldenhofer, Gerd; Dreger, Henryk; Stüer, Katharina; Sanad, Wasiem; Saghabalyan, Davit; Müller, Eda; Stangl, Verena; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Karl; Laule, Michael; Knebel, Fabian

    2014-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been shown to improve prognosis of high-risk patients. Data, however, concerning the impact of TAVI on regional and global left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) mechanics in varying entities of severe aortic stenosis (AS) are sparse, particularly in patients with paradoxical low-flow (PLF) AS or with reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF). This study evaluated the effects of TAVI on LA and LV mechanics in varying entities of AS 12 months after implantation. A total of 54 consecutive patients with severe AS (24 with a normal LVEF and normal flow, 16 with PLF, and 14 with a reduced LVEF) were included. Speckle tracking echocardiography was performed before and 12 months after TAVI to determine LV global and regional longitudinal deformation as well as LA function (reservoir function, conduit phase, and active contraction). In all the three entities of AS, there was a significant improvement in global and regional LV longitudinal function (average global longitudinal strain: -14.1 ± 3.9% at baseline vs. -16.5 ± 4.0% after TAVI, P < 0.001). Interestingly, the beneficial effects were most pronounced in patients with PLF (-14.0 ± 2.9 vs. -17.0 ± 4.4%, P < 0.031). Moreover, the atrial reservoir and conduit function recovered significantly after TAVI in all patients. In conclusion, regardless of the underlying AS entity, TAVI improves global and regional LV and LA mechanics within 12 months.

  20. Reinforcement-based therapy: 12-month evaluation of an outpatient drug-free treatment for heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendree E; Wong, Conrad J; Tuten, Michelle; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2005-08-01

    This controlled study examined the efficacy of reinforcement-based therapy (RBT) for producing enhanced abstinence outcomes over 12 months in opioid-dependent patients exiting a brief residential detoxification. Patients were randomly assigned upon completing their medically managed taper (i.e., detoxification) to RBT (N=66) or usual care (N=64) referral to community treatment programs. The 6-month RBT program offered an array of abstinence-based incentives including rent payment for recovery housing, program-led recreational activities and skills training for procuring employment. RBT produced significantly higher self-report and urinalysis-confirmed rates of abstinence from opioids and cocaine relative to usual care at 1 (42% versus 15%) and 3 (38% versus 17%) months during treatment but not at 6 or 12 months after enrollment. The RBT but not the usual care group showed significant increases in the number of days worked and the amount of legal income earned at 3, 6 and 12 months. The results of this randomized study suggest that an intensive reinforcement-based therapy that includes abstinence-based recovery housing is a promising approach; however, further research is needed to determine the role of treatment intensity and the specific efficacy of RBT's component parts.

  1. Miniscalpel-Needle versus Steroid Injection for Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial with a 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain in adults. A novel alternative medical instrument, the miniscalpel-needle (MSN), which is based on an acupuncture needle, has been recently developed in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the MSN release treatment versus that of traditional steroid injection for plantar fasciitis. Patients with plantar fasciitis were randomly assigned to 2 groups and followed up for 12 months, with 29 receiving MSN treatment and 25 receiving steroid injection treatment. The results showed that visual analog scale scores for morning pain, active pain, and overall heel pain all were decreased significantly in the MSN group from 1 to 12 months after treatment. In contrast, treatment with steroid injection showed a significant effect only at the 1-month follow-up but not at 6 or 12 months after treatment. Moreover, the MSN group achieved more rapid and sustained improvements than the steroid group throughout the duration of this study. No severe side effects were observed with MSN treatment. Our data suggest that the MSN release treatment is safe and has a significant benefit for plantar fasciitis compared to steroid injection. PMID:25114704

  2. Determinants of return to work 12 months after total hip and knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tilbury, C; Kuijer, PPFM; Verdegaal, SHM; Wolterbeek, R; Nelissen, RGHH; Frings-Dresen, MHW; Vliet Vlieland, TPM

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A substantial number of patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) do not or only partially return to work. This study aimed to identify differences in determinants of return to work in THA and TKA. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of working patients aged <65 years undergoing THA or TKA for osteoarthritis. The primary outcome was full versus partial or no return to work 12 months postoperatively. Factors analysed included preoperative sociodemographic and work characteristics, alongside the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Oxford Hip and Knee Scores. Results Of 67 THA and 56 TKA patients, 9 (13%) and 10 (19%), respectively, returned partially and 5 (7%) and 6 (11%), respectively, did not return to work 1 year postoperatively. Preoperative factors associated with partial or no return to work in THA patients were self-employment, absence from work and a better HOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscale score, whereas only work absence was relevant in TKA patients. Type of surgery modified the impact of ADL scores on return to work. Conclusions In both THA and TKA, absence from work affected return to work, whereas self-employment and better preoperative ADL subscale scores were also associated in THA patients. The impact of ADL scores on return to work was modified by type of surgery. These results suggest that strategies aiming to influence modifiable factors should consider THA and TKA separately. PMID:27138849

  3. Determinants of return to work 12 months after total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Leichtenberg, C S; Tilbury, C; Kuijer, Ppfm; Verdegaal, Shm; Wolterbeek, R; Nelissen, Rghh; Frings-Dresen, Mhw; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2016-07-01

    Introduction A substantial number of patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) do not or only partially return to work. This study aimed to identify differences in determinants of return to work in THA and TKA. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of working patients aged <65 years undergoing THA or TKA for osteoarthritis. The primary outcome was full versus partial or no return to work 12 months postoperatively. Factors analysed included preoperative sociodemographic and work characteristics, alongside the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Oxford Hip and Knee Scores. Results Of 67 THA and 56 TKA patients, 9 (13%) and 10 (19%), respectively, returned partially and 5 (7%) and 6 (11%), respectively, did not return to work 1 year postoperatively. Preoperative factors associated with partial or no return to work in THA patients were self-employment, absence from work and a better HOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscale score, whereas only work absence was relevant in TKA patients. Type of surgery modified the impact of ADL scores on return to work. Conclusions In both THA and TKA, absence from work affected return to work, whereas self-employment and better preoperative ADL subscale scores were also associated in THA patients. The impact of ADL scores on return to work was modified by type of surgery. These results suggest that strategies aiming to influence modifiable factors should consider THA and TKA separately.

  4. Resistance training and functional plasticity of the aging brain: a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W; Khan, Karim M; Handy, Todd C

    2012-08-01

    Maintaining functional plasticity of the cortex is essential for healthy aging and aerobic exercise may be an effective behavioral intervention to promote functional plasticity among seniors. Whether resistance training has similar benefits on functional plasticity in seniors has received little investigation. Here we show that 12 months of twice-weekly resistance training led to functional changes in 2 regions of cortex previously associated with response inhibition processes-the anterior portion of the left middle temporal gyrus and the left anterior insula extending into lateral orbital frontal cortex-in community-dwelling senior women. These hemodynamic effects co-occurred with improved task performance. Our data suggest that resistance training improved flanker task performance in 2 ways: (1) an increased engagement of response inhibition processes when needed; and (2) a decreased tendency to prepare response inhibition as a default state. However, we highlight that this effect of resistance training was only observed among those who trained twice weekly; participants of the once-weekly resistance training did not demonstrate comparable response profiles, both in behavioral performance and hemodynamic activity in cortex. In sum, our findings suggest that twice-weekly resistance training in seniors can positively impact functional plasticity of response inhibition processes in cortex, and that it does so in a manner that complements the effects on selective attention that have previously been ascribed to aerobic exercise in seniors.

  5. Increasing opportunities for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sue

    2007-07-01

    Being physically active can have a number of benefits - having fun, meeting with friends, keeping healthy and experiencing success. For children with Down syndrome the foundations need to be laid early if they are to keep active in school, teenage and adult years and parents ask for more help in this area from professionals.

  6. Physical activity decreases diverticular complications.

    PubMed

    Strate, Lisa L; Liu, Yan L; Aldoori, Walid H; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2009-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of physical activity on diverticular complications. This study prospectively examined the associations between physical activity and diverticular bleeding and diverticulitis. We studied 47,228 US males in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort who were aged 40-75 years and free of diverticular disease, gastrointestinal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline in 1986. Men reporting newly diagnosed diverticular disease on biennial follow-up questionnaires were sent supplemental questionnaires outlining details of diagnosis and treatment. Physical activity was assessed every 2 years. Men recorded the average time per week spent in eight recreational activities, and flights of stairs climbed per day. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs). During 18 years of follow-up, 800 cases of diverticulitis and 383 cases of diverticular bleeding were identified. Total cumulative physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. After adjustment for potential confounders, the RR for men in the highest quintile of total activity (> or = 57.4 metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-h/week) was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.58-0.95) for diverticulitis and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.38-0.77) for bleeding, as compared with men in the lowest quintile (< or = 8.2 MET-h/week). Vigorous activity was inversely related to diverticulitis in a high vs. low comparison (multivariable RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.86) and bleeding (multivariable RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.90), whereas nonvigorous activity was not. These results were similar for recent (simple updated) and baseline activity. Data from this large prospective cohort suggest that physical activity lowers the risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Vigorous activity appears to account for this association.

  7. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  8. Parents’ perceived treatment match and treatment retention over 12 months among youth in the LAMS study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Andrea S.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of these analyses was to describe the 12-month prevalence and identify predictors of mental health services retention for youth, ages 6–12 years, using data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Methods In a longitudinal cohort study, 416 children and their parents completed measures of mental health services use and parents’ perception of the services and semi-structured psychodiagnostic interviews at a baseline and 12-month assessment. Logistic regression analyses examined the effects of demographic and clinical variables and parents’ perception of how well their children’s treatment matched their needs on 12-month treatment retention. Results Sixty-nine percent of youth (n=289) continued to use services at 12 months. White race (p<.001) and greater functional impairment (p=.024) were associated with treatment retention; greater perceived treatment match at baseline significantly predicted retention above and beyond the effects of sociodemographic and clinical variables (p=.001). Conclusions White race and parents’ perceptions about appropriateness of treatment predict 12-month treatment retention. PMID:26522675

  9. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  10. Frequency of cardiovascular risk factors before and 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça da; Rivera, Ivan Romero; Barbosa, Emília Maria Wanderley de Gusmão; Crispim, Maria Angélica Correia; Farias, Guilherme Costa; Fontan, Alberto Jorge Albuquerque; Bezerra, Rodrigo Azavedo; Sá, Larissa Gabriella de Souza

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in obese patients of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) with indication of bariatric surgery during the preoperative period and after the sixth month and the first year of the procedure. An observational, longitudinal, prospective, and analytical study was performed, with consecutive selection of obese patients with indication for surgery referred to preoperative cardiac evaluation. The protocol consisted of: medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and biochemical analysis. This study analyzed the following variables: weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus type 2(DM), dyslipidemia (high LDL cholesterol; low HDL cholesterol; hypertriglyceridemia), and metabolic syndrome (MS). The chi-squared test and the Tukey-Kramer method were used for statistical analysis. The sample was composed of 96 obese people, among which 86 were women, aged between 18 and 58 years old (median 35 years old). At the end of six months, significant reductions of 88%, 95%, 71%, 89%, and 80% in the frequency of SAH, high LDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, DM, and MS could already be observed. A significant and small reduction in the frequency of low HDL cholesterol (24%) and abnormal WC (31%) was observed only at the end of 12 months. After six months and one year, weight and BMI experienced reductions of 33.4kg and 44.3kg, and 13.1kg/m(2) and 17.2kg/m(2), respectively. The positive impact on weight loss and the reduction in BMI, WC, and in the frequency of CVRFs are already extremely significant after six months and remain so one year after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System: A 12 months Test of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ``Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System'' (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three month is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological ``mechanical'' filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A simple data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  12. The closed equilibrated biological aquatic system: a 12 months test of an artificial aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Ludwig, C h; Paassen, U; Voeste, D

    1999-01-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three months is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological "mechanical" filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalana glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A sample data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  13. Outcome of anthroposophic medication therapy in chronic disease: A 12-month prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Kienle, Gunver S; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are prescribed in 56 countries. Objective To study clinical outcomes in patients prescribed AMED for chronic disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 110 medical practices in Germany. Participants 665 consecutive outpatients aged 1–71 years, prescribed AMED for mental, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, genitourinary, and other chronic diseases. Main outcomes Disease and Symptom Scores (physicians’ and patients’ assessment, 0–10) and SF-36. Results During the first six months, an average of 1.5 AMED per patient was used, in total 652 different AMED. Origin of AMED was mineral (8.0% of 652 AMED), botanical (39.0%), zoological (7.2%), chemically defined (13.0%), and mixed (33.0%). From baseline to six-month-follow-up, all outcomes improved significantly: Disease Score improved by mean 3.15 points (95% confidence interval 2.97–3.34, p < 0.001), Symptom Score by 2.43 points (2.23–2.63, p < 0.001), SF-36 Physical Component Summary by 3.04 points (2.16–3.91, p < 0.001), and SF-36 Mental Component Summary by 5.75 points (4.59–6.92, p < 0.001). All improvements were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Improvements were similar in adult men and women, in children, and in patients not using adjunctive therapies. Conclusion Outpatients using AMED for chronic disease had long-term reduction of disease severity and improvement of quality of life. PMID:19920891

  14. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  15. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  16. Does physical activity change following hip and knee replacement? Matched case-control study evaluating Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Smith, T O; Mansfield, M; Dainty, J; Hilton, G; Mann, C J V; Sackley, C M

    2017-09-13

    To determine whether physical activity measured using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), changes during the initial 24 months post-total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR), and how this compares to a matched non-arthroplasty cohort. Case-controlled study analysis of a prospectively collected dataset. USA community-based. 116 people post-THR, 105 people post-TKR compared to 663 people who had not undergone THR or TKR, or had hip or knee osteoarthritis. Cohorts were age-, gender- and BMI-matched. Physical activity assessed using the 12-item PASE at 12 and 24 months post operatively. There was no significant difference in total PASE score between pre-operative to 12 months (mean: 136 vs 135 points; p=0.860) or 24 months following THR (mean: 136 vs 132 points; p=0.950). Whilst there was no significant difference in total PASE score from pre-operative to 12 months post-TKR (126 vs 121 points; p=0.930), by 24 months people following TKR reported significantly greater physical activity (126 vs 142 points; p=0.040). There was no statistically significant difference in physical activity between the normative matched and THR (p≥0.140) or TKR (p≥0.060) cohorts at 12 or 24 months post joint replacement. Physical activity is not appreciably different to pre-operative levels at 12 or 24 months post-THR, but was greater at 24 months following TKR. Health promotion strategies are needed to encourage greater physical activity participation following joint replacement, and particularly targeting those who undergo THR. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Depression after stroke at 12-month follow-up: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Limampai, Patchara; Wongsrithep, Wanpen; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai

    2017-10-01

    To study the prevalence of depression at 12 months after stroke and to analyze factors associated with depression. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among nine tertiary hospitals in Thailand. Stroke patients from the Thai Stroke Rehabilitation Registry who were admitted in inpatient rehabilitation wards were recruited for evaluation at the 12-month follow-up time point. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate depression in stroke. A score of ≥11 was considered as having depression. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to investigate factors related with depression in stroke. Two hundred stroke patients with a mean age of 62.1±12.5 years were recruited. Approximately 60% were male. The number of stroke patients with depression at the 12-month follow-up was 42 (21.0%, 95%CI 15.9%-27.2%). Mean HADS score at 12-month follow-up was not significantly different from those at discharge. However, 28 (16.5%) stroke patients who did not have depression at discharge developed depression during the 12-month period. From multivariate analysis, complications and urinary incontinence were found to be significantly associated with depression after stroke with adjusted odds ratio of 3.65 (95%CI 1.11-12.06) and 4.82 (95%CI 1.74-13.38), respectively. Depression is a common complication after stroke. This study found one-fifth of stroke survivors developed depression at the 12-month follow-up. Complications at discharge and urinary incontinence were significantly correlated with depression in multivariate analysis. Further study concerning interventions in decreasing depression should be performed in order to improve the quality of life of those stroke patients.

  18. The NOνA experiment, the first 12 months of commissioning, operations and physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.

    2015-07-15

    The NOνA experiment is a long baseline neutrino experiment designed to make precision measurements of the oscillation probabilities for ν{sub µ} → ν{sub e} and ν{sub µ} → ν{sub µ} for both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. These measurements will provide new information on the neutrino mass hierarchy, improve our knowledge of whether θ{sub 23} is non-maximal and possibility provide information on the CP violating phase δ{sub CP} of the PMNS neutrino mixing matrix. We present the observations of the first neutrino event in the NOνA far and near detectors along with data obtained during the first year of detector commissioning and operations. We use the data to demonstrate the detector’s ability to identify electron and muon neutrino events and to reject cosmic ray induced backgrounds at a level of 4 × 10{sup 7}:1. New estimates for the signal and background sensitivities of the NOνA experiment during the first year of full detector running are presented.

  19. The association between self-reported racial discrimination and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders among Asian Americans nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael; Chen, Juan; Yip, Tiffany; Takeuchi, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Growing research finds that reports of discrimination are associated with mental health. However, many US studies are focused on regional samples and do not control for important confounders such as other stressors and health conditions. The present study examines the association between self-reported racial discrimination and DSM-IV defined mental disorders among Asian respondents to the 2002–2003 US National Latino and Asian American Study (n=2,047). Logistic regression analyses indicated that self-reported racial discrimination was associated with greater odds of having any DSM-IV disorder, depressive disorder, or anxiety disorder within the past 12 months -- controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, acculturative stress, family cohesion, poverty, self-rated health, chronic physical conditions, and social desirability. Further, multinomial logistic regression found that individuals who reported discrimination were at a twofold greater risk of having one disorder within the past 12 months, and a threefold greater risk of having two or more disorders. Thus, self-reported discrimination was associated with increased risk of mental disorders among Asian Americans across the United States and this relationship was not explained by social desirability, physical health, other stressors, and sociodemographic factors. Should these associations ultimately be shown enduring and causal, they suggest that policies designed to reduce discrimination may help improve mental health. PMID:17374553

  20. Non-pharmacological, multicomponent group therapy in patients with degenerative dementia: a 12-month randomzied, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have shown only modest effects in slowing the progression of dementia. Our objective was to assess the impact of a long-term non-pharmacological group intervention on cognitive function in dementia patients and on their ability to carry out activities of daily living compared to a control group receiving the usual care. Methods A randomized, controlled, single-blind longitudinal trial was conducted with 98 patients (follow-up: n = 61) with primary degenerative dementia in five nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany. The highly standardized intervention consisted of motor stimulation, practice in activities of daily living, and cognitive stimulation (acronym MAKS). It was conducted in groups of ten patients led by two therapists for 2 hours, 6 days a week for 12 months. Control patients received treatment as usual. Cognitive function was assessed using the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), and the ability to carry out activities of daily living using the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living (E-ADL test) at baseline and after 12 months. Results Of the 553 individuals screened, 119 (21.5%) were eligible and 98 (17.7%) were ultimately included in the study. At 12 months, the results of the per protocol analysis (n = 61) showed that cognitive function and the ability to carry out activities of daily living had remained stable in the intervention group but had decreased in the control patients (ADAS-Cog: adjusted mean difference: -7.7, 95% CI -14.0 to -1.4, P = 0.018, Cohen's d = 0.45; E-ADL test: adjusted mean difference: 3.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 6.4, P = 0.015, Cohen's d = 0.50). The effect sizes for the intervention were greater in the subgroup of patients (n = 50) with mild to moderate disease (ADAS-Cog: Cohen's d = 0.67; E-ADL test: Cohen's d = 0.69). Conclusions A highly standardized, non-pharmacological, multicomponent group intervention conducted

  1. Asthmatic symptoms, physical activity, and overweight in young children: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eijkemans, Marianne; Mommers, Monique; de Vries, Sanne I; van Buuren, Stef; Stafleu, Annette; Bakker, Ingrid; Thijs, Carel

    2008-03-01

    Prevalence of asthma and overweight has increased simultaneously during the past decades. Several studies have reported an association between these two health problems, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. We hypothesize that children with asthmatic symptoms are less physically active, which may contribute to the development of overweight. The study included children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study who were invited at 4 to 5 years of age to wear an Actigraph accelerometer for 5 days (n = 305; 152 boys). Information on wheezing was gathered by repeated questionnaires completed by parents at child ages 7 months and 1, 2, and 4 to 5 years. Questionnaires on physical activity were completed at child age 4 to 5 years, and height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Accelerometer data were expressed as mean counts per minute, minutes per day performing vigorous activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during > or = 1 minute. Children who had wheezed in the last 12 months showed very similar activity levels compared with children who had never wheezed. By contrast, boys who had wheezed at least once but not in the last 12 months were more physically active than boys who had never wheezed (geometric mean: 694 vs 625 cpm; adjusted geometric mean ratio: 1.11). This was not found for girls. Similar results were found in parent-reported physical activity data. No association was found between wheezing at any age and overweight at the age of 4 to 5 years. These results do not support our hypothesis and previous studies that showed that wheezing children are less physically active. Our data provide no evidence that asthmatic symptoms induce a lower physical activity level and more overweight. Additional research could concentrate on the effect of physical activity and overweight on the development of asthmatic symptoms.

  2. [Experiences in promoting physical activity].

    PubMed

    Mena-Bejarano, Beatriz

    2006-12-01

    Evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of some experiences emphasising physical activity in promoting health in Bogotá. A documentary review of theoretical models of intervention was first undertaken, followed by examining guidelines proposed in international declarations and in Bogotá related to physical activity. Three-phase analysis was carried. 1) The exploratory phase involved collecting general information regarding programmes pertaining to physical activity aimed at preventing non-transmittable chronic diseases (NTCD) and promoting health. 2) The descriptive phase involved characterising programmes for promoting physical activity according to their objectives, scope and the strategies and methodologies used in such processes. 3) The analytical phase involved a critical analysis of current programmes in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. The programmes analysed here promoted self-management and autonomy by producing support networks and training leaders for guaranteeing their sustainability. The programmes involved people and the community by holding practical and theoretical workshops which did not cover the whole vital human process, but concentrated on specific population groups. They were deficient in broadcasting in the mass-media.

  3. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  4. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  5. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  6. Impact of the Supporting Physical Activity in the Childcare Environment (SPACE) intervention on preschoolers' physical activity levels and sedentary time: a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patricia; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Johnson, Andrew M; Burke, Shauna M; Irwin, Jennifer D; Gaston, Anca; Driediger, Molly; Timmons, Brian W

    2017-09-07

    Physical activity levels among preschoolers in childcare are low and sedentary time high. The Supporting Physical Activity in the Childcare Environment (SPACE) intervention had three components: 1. portable play equipment; 2. staff training; and, 3. modified outdoor playtime (i.e., shorter, more frequent periods). This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the SPACE intervention on preschoolers' physical activity levels and sedentary time during childcare hours (compared to standard care). Via a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial, 338 preschoolers (39.86 ± 7.33 months; 52% boys) from 22 centre-based childcare facilities (11 experimental, 11 control) were enrolled. Preschoolers wore an Actical™ accelerometer for 5 days during childcare hours at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-up, and were included in the analyses if they had a minimum of two valid days (5 h each day) at baseline and one additional time point. Intervention effectiveness was tested using a linear mixed effects model for each of the four outcome variables (i.e., sedentary time, light physical activity [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], and total physical activity [TPA]). Fixed effects were further evaluated with t-tests, for which degrees of freedom were estimated using a Satterthwaite approximation. One hundred and ninety-five preschoolers were retained for analyses. The intervention did not significantly impact LPA. MVPA was significantly greater among children in the experimental group when comparing post-intervention to pre-intervention, t(318) = 3.50, p = .0005, but no intervention effects were evident at 6- or 12-month follow-up. TPA was significantly greater for children in the intervention group at post-intervention when compared to pre-intervention, t(321) = 2.70, p = .007, with no intervention effects evident at later time periods. Finally, sedentary time was significantly lower among preschoolers in the

  7. Vowel Production in 7- to 12-Month-Old Infants with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Rebecca; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Rothpletz, Ann; Sedey, Allison

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine vowel production in 7- to 12-month-old infants with hearing loss. Fifty-four infants were divided into three groups according to degree of hearing loss (mild-to-moderate, moderately severe-to-severe, profound), and their vocalizations were phonetically transcribed from 30-minute videotaped samples. These…

  8. Case Study Analyses of Play Behaviors of 12-Month-Old Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Case study research methodology was used to describe the play behaviors of three infants at 12 months of age, who were later diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Data included standardized test scores, and analyses of video footage of semi-structured play sessions from infants identified as high risk for autism, because of having a sibling…

  9. The Flexibility of 12-Month-Olds' Preferences for Phonologically Appropriate Object Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather K.; Graham, Susan A.; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound--object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to sets…

  10. 12-Month-Old Infants Represent Probable Endings of Motion Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Carey, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This experiment investigated 12-month-old infants' ability to link an event's beginning to its probable ending. Following Csibra, Biro, Koos, and Gergely (2003), infants were habituated to a simple chasing event involving animated balls, and at test saw 2 possible endings: either 1 ball caught the other or failed to do so. Two controls were added…

  11. Biological Motion Displays Elicit Social Behavior in 12-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jennifer M. D.; Johnson, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that biological motion perception is developmentally integrated with important social cognitive abilities, 12-month-olds (N = 36) were shown a display of a human point-light figure turning to observe a target. Infants spontaneously and reliably followed the figure's "gaze" despite the absence of familiar and socially…

  12. Class Matters: 12-Month-Olds' Word-Object Associations Privilege Content over Function Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental step in learning words is the development of an association between a sound pattern and an element in the environment. Here we explore the nature of this associative ability in 12-month-olds, examining whether it is constrained to privilege particular word forms over others. Forty-eight infants were presented with sets of novel…

  13. Metacognitive functioning predicts positive and negative symptoms over 12 months in first episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew I; Macbeth, Angus; Schwannauer, Matthias; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are a major source of impairment and distress but both pharmacological and psychological treatment options provide only modest benefit. Developing more effective psychological treatments for negative symptoms will require a more sophisticated understanding of the psychological processes that are implicated in their development and maintenance. We extended previous work by demonstrating that metacognitive functioning is related to negative symptom expression across the first 12 months of first episode psychosis (FEP). Previous studies in this area have either been cross-sectional or have used much older participants with long-standing symptoms. In this study, forty-five FEP participants were assessed three times over 12 months and provided data on PANSS rated symptoms, premorbid adjustment, metacognitive functioning, and DUP. Step-wise linear regression showed that adding metacognition scores to known predictors of negative symptoms (baseline symptom severity, gender, DUP, and premorbid academic and social adjustment) accounted for 62% of the variance in PANSS negative symptom scores at six months and 38% at 12 months. The same predictors also explained 47% of the variance in positive symptoms at both six and 12 months. However, exploration of the simple correlations between PANSS symptom scores and metacognition suggests a stronger univariate relationship between metacognition and negative symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that problems with mental state processing may be important determinants of negative symptom expression from the very early stages of psychosis. These results provide further evidence that metacognitive functioning is a potentially relevant target for psychological interventions.

  14. 12-Month-Olds' Phonotactic Knowledge Guides Their Word-Object Mappings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether 12-month-olds will accept words that differ phonologically and phonetically from their native language as object labels in an associative learning task. Sixty infants were presented with sets of English word-object (N = 30), Japanese word-object (N = 15), or Czech word-object (N = 15) pairings until they habituated.…

  15. Work status and disability trajectories over 12 months after injury among workers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Langley, John; Lilley, Rebbecca; Samaranayaka, Ari; Derrett, Sarah

    2014-03-07

    To describe work and disability trajectories over 12 months following injury among workers. Workers injured at work or elsewhere (n=2626) were sourced from the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study, a longitudinal cohort study in New Zealand, with the primary objective of identifying factors associated with disability following injury. Work and disability status was assessed at 3- and 12-months post injury. The measure of disability was the brief WHODAS II 12-item instrument. Participants were dichotomised into 'disability' or 'no disability' groups based on whether their WHODAS score was greater than, or equal to, 10. In terms of 12-month work status, there are 16 different scenarios. These were grouped into 4 categories: sustained work (SW), delayed return to work (RTW), non-sustained RTW, and sustained off-work. We had complete information for 1975 workers. The largest group (68%) was SW, 32% of which had disability at either time point. The second largest group consisted of 17% of workers who were classified as delayed RTW, 76% of whom were disabled at either time point. Among the non-sustained RTW group (7%), 52% had disability at either time point. Of the sustained off-work group (8%), 80% were disabled at either 3- or 12-months. Although return to work is a useful provider performance indicator of injury compensation and rehabilitation it is inadequate from a wider societal perspective and needs to be complemented by other important outcome measures such as disability status.

  16. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  17. Atypical Object Exploration at 12 Months of Age Is Associated with Autism in a Prospective Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Macari, Suzanne; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Thompson, Meagan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined object exploration behavior in 66 12-month-old infants, of whom nine were subsequently diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Previous investigations differ on when the repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism are first present in early development. A task was developed that afforded specific opportunities…

  18. Speech Production in 12-Month-Old Children with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare speech production at 12 months of age for children with hearing loss (HL) who were identified and received intervention before 6 months of age with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: The speech production of 10 children with NH was compared with that of 10 children with HL whose…

  19. Maternal cortisol slope at 6 months predicts infant cortisol slope and EEG power at 12 months.

    PubMed

    St John, Ashley M; Kao, Katie; Liederman, Jacqueline; Grieve, Philip G; Tarullo, Amanda R

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress systems and the brain rapidly develop through infancy. While the roles of caregiving and environmental factors have been studied, implications of maternal physiological stress are unclear. We assessed maternal and infant diurnal cortisol when infants were 6 and 12 months. We measured 12-month infant electroencephalography (EEG) 6-9 Hz power during a social interaction. Steeper 6-month maternal slope predicted steeper 12-month infant slope controlling for 6-month infant slope and breastfeeding. Steeper 6-month maternal slope predicted lower 6-9 Hz power. Six-month maternal area under the cuve (AUCg) was unrelated to 12-month infant AUCg and 6-9 Hz power. Psychosocial, caregiving, and breastfeeding variables did not explain results. At 6 months, maternal and infant slopes correlated, as did maternal and infant AUCg. Twelve-month maternal and infant cortisol were unrelated. Results indicate maternal slope is an informative predictor of infant physiology and suggest the importance of maternal physiological stress in this developmental period. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  1. Will Any Doll Do? 12-Month-Olds' Reasoning about Goal Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaepen, Elizabet; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Infants as young as 5 months of age view familiar actions such as reaching as goal-directed (Woodward, 1998), but how do they construe the goal of an actor's reach? Six experiments investigated whether 12-month-old infants represent reaching actions as directed to a particular individual object, to a narrowly defined object category (e.g., an…

  2. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  3. Assessing the Utility of Urine Testing in Febrile Infants Aged 2 to 12 Months With Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Elkhunovich, Marsha A; Wang, Vincent J

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate whether the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in febrile infants aged 2 to 12 months with bronchiolitis is higher than the presumed prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (1%) in similarly aged patients and thus to determine whether UTI testing is necessary for these patients. This was a prospective cohort study in which we enrolled a convenience sample of febrile infants aged 2 to 12 months with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. All patients were seen in the emergency department at a large children's hospital between November 1, 2011 and April 15, 2012, had reported or documented fever higher than 38°C, and had urine collected for determination of the presence of UTI. After the conclusion of enrollment, a chart review was conducted to assess missed cases. Positive urine cultures were found in 6/90 (6.7%) patients (confidence interval, 2.5%-13.9%). The positive urine cultures and urinalysis results were found in 4/90 (4.5%) patients (confidence interval, 1.2%-11%). In our patient population, a significant proportion of infants aged 2 to 12 months who present with bronchiolitis and fever have a concurrent UTI. Obtaining a urine specimen for UTI testing should be considered in infants aged 2 to 12 months with bronchiolitis and fever. A larger multicenter study is needed to further assess the risk factors for UTIs in this patient population.

  4. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  5. The Flexibility of 12-Month-Olds' Preferences for Phonologically Appropriate Object Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather K.; Graham, Susan A.; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound--object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to sets…

  6. Vowel Production in 7- to 12-Month-Old Infants with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Rebecca; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Rothpletz, Ann; Sedey, Allison

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine vowel production in 7- to 12-month-old infants with hearing loss. Fifty-four infants were divided into three groups according to degree of hearing loss (mild-to-moderate, moderately severe-to-severe, profound), and their vocalizations were phonetically transcribed from 30-minute videotaped samples. These…

  7. Case Study Analyses of Play Behaviors of 12-Month-Old Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Case study research methodology was used to describe the play behaviors of three infants at 12 months of age, who were later diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Data included standardized test scores, and analyses of video footage of semi-structured play sessions from infants identified as high risk for autism, because of having a sibling…

  8. Speech Production in 12-Month-Old Children with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare speech production at 12 months of age for children with hearing loss (HL) who were identified and received intervention before 6 months of age with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: The speech production of 10 children with NH was compared with that of 10 children with HL whose…

  9. Adherence to Glaucoma Medications Over 12 Months in Two US Community Pharmacy Chains

    PubMed Central

    Feehan, Michael; Munger, Mark A.; Cooper, Daniel K.; Hess, Kyle T.; Durante, Richard; Jones, Gregory J.; Montuoro, Jaime; Morrison, Margaux A.; Clegg, Daniel; Crandall, Alan S.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the degree of adherence to medications for glaucoma among patients refilling prescriptions in community pharmacies. Methods: Data abstracted from the dispensing records for 3615 adult patients (18 years or older, predominantly over 45) receiving glaucoma medications from two retail pharmacy chains (64 stores in total) were analyzed. From a 24-month historic data capture period, the 12-month levels of adherence were determined using standard metrics, the proportion of days covered (PDC) and the medication possession ratio (MPR). The overall 12-month mean PDC was only 57%, and the mean MPR was 71%. Using a criterion by which 80% coverage was considered satisfactory adherence, only 30% had satisfactory overall 12-month PDC coverage, and only 37% had satisfactory overall 12-month MPR coverage. Refill adherence increased with age and was highest in the 65-and-older age group (p < 0.001). Differential adherence was found across medication classes, with the highest satisfactory coverage seen for those taking alpha2-adrenergic agonists (PDC = 36.0%; MPR = 47.6%) down to those taking direct cholinergic agonists (PDC = 25.0%; MPR = 31.2%) and combination products (PDC = 22.7%; MPR = 31.0%). Adherence to glaucoma medications in the community setting, as measured by pharmacy refill data, is very poor and represents a critical target for intervention. Community pharmacists are well positioned to monitor and reinforce adherence in this population. PMID:27618115

  10. Auditory Temporal Pattern Perception in 6- and 12-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    A go/no-go conditioned head-turn paradigm was used to examine the abilities of 6- and 12-month-olds to discriminate changes in temporal grouping and their perception of absolute and relative timing information when listening to patterns of white-noise bursts. (Author/RH)

  11. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  12. Evidence for a Unitary Goal Concept in 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coenen, Lot

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether infants can transfer their goal attribution between situations that contain different types of information about the goal. We found that 12-month-olds who had attributed a goal based on the causal efficacy of a means-end action generated expectations about the actor's action in another scenario in which the actor could…

  13. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  14. Skeletal findings in the first 12 months following initiation of glucocorticoid therapy for pediatric nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Phan, V; Blydt-Hansen, T; Feber, J; Alos, N; Arora, S; Atkinson, S; Bell, L; Clarson, C; Couch, R; Cummings, EA; Filler, G; Grant, RM; Grimmer, J; Hebert, D; Lentle, B; Ma, J; Matzinger, M; Midgley, J; Pinsk, M; Rodd, C; Shenouda, N; Stein, R; Stephure, D; Taback, S; Williams, K; Rauch, F; Siminoski, K; Ward, LM

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vertebral fracture (VF) incidence following glucocorticoid (GC) initiation has not been previously reported in pediatric nephrotic syndrome. Methods VF were assessed on radiographs (Genant method); lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Sixty-five children were followed to 12 months post-GC initiation (median age: 5.4 years, range 2.3 to 17.9). Three of 54 children with radiographs (6%, 95% CI 2 to 15%) had incident VF at 1 year. The mean LS BMD Z-score was below the healthy average at baseline (mean ± SD −0.5 ± 1.1 p=0.001) and at 3 months (−0.6 ± 1.1 p<0.001), but not at 6 months (−0.3 ± 1.3, p=0.066) or 12 months (−0.3 ± 1.2, p=0.066). Mixed effect modeling showed a significant increase in LS BMD Z-scores between 3 and 12 months (0.22 SD, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.36, p=0.003). A sub-group (N=16; 25%) had LS BMD Z-scores that were ≤ −1.0 at 12 months. In these children, each additional 1000 mg/m2 of GC received in the first 3 months was associated with a decrease in LS BMD Z-score by 0.39 at 12 months (95% CI, −0.71 to −0.07; p=0.017). Conclusions The incidence of VF at 1 year was low and LS BMD Z-scores improved by 12 months in the majority. Twenty-five percent of children had LS BMD Z-scores ≤ −1.0 at 12 months. In these children, LS BMD Z-scores were inversely associated with early GC exposure, despite similar GC exposure compared to the rest of the cohort. PMID:23948876

  15. Intravitreal bevacizumab treatment for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    Gharbiya, Magda; Allievi, Francesca; Mazzeo, Luigi; Gabrieli, Corrado Balacco

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series. Twenty eyes from 20 patients with CNV secondary to pathologic myopia participated in this prospective nonrandomized interventional case series. All patients were scheduled for three monthly intravitreal bevacizumab 1.25 mg injections. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), foveal center thickness (FCT) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiographic findings were examined before and after treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 months. The mean BCVA (+/- standard deviation [SD]) at baseline was 24.8 (+/- 11.86) letters (Snellen equivalent: 20/80). At 12 months after treatment, the mean BCVA (+/- SD) improved significantly (P = .000001) to 43 (+/- 12.38) letters (Snellen equivalent: 20/35). At 12 month follow-up, BCVA improved 10 letters or more in 18 (90%) out of 20 treated eyes and improved 15 letters or more in 14 (70%) out of 20 treated eyes. No treated eyes experienced a worsening of BCVA from baseline. The mean FCT (+/- SD) at baseline was 223 (+/- 47.43) microns. At 12 months after treatment, the mean FCT (+/- SD) reduced to 206 (+/- 50.87) microns. This reduction in FCT after treatment was not statistically significant (P = .11). At 12 months follow-up, absence of fluorescein leakage from the CNV was demonstrated in 19 (95%) out of 20 treated eyes and persistent leakage in one eye (5%). None of the 19 eyes that had CNV closure experienced recurrence at 12-month follow-up. No ocular or systemic adverse effects from treatment were encountered. These results of intravitreal bevacizumab in myopic CNV are very promising with no apparent short-term safety concerns. At 12 months, treated eyes had a significant improvement in visual acuity (VA). OCT findings, as well, showed a trend consistent with the

  16. Post-renal transplantation anemia at 12 months: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongli; Song, Turun; Fu, Lei; Rao, Zhengsheng; Zeng, Dongyang; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Xianding; Xie, Libo; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Li; Lin, Tao

    2015-09-01

    To investigate any association between post-transplantation anemia (PTA) and clinical outcomes following living donor kidney transplantation. We retrospectively evaluated 887 patients who received living donor kidney transplantations at our medical center between January 2006 and December 2012 to evaluate whether PTA, defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels of <130 g/l in men and <120 g/l in women, at 12 months is associated with post-transplant outcomes, including graft function, death-censored graft survival, or patient survival. The prevalence of PTA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months was 84.3, 39.5, 26.2, and 21.6 %, respectively. Donor age [hazard ratio (HR), 1.03; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.05] and acute rejection (HR 2.13; 95 % CI 1.28-3.54) were found to be independent risk factors for PTA at 12 months. Recipient age (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.95-1.00), pre-transplantation Hb levels (HR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.98-1.00), and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) at 12 months (HR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.94-0.97) were found to confer slight protection against PTA at 12 months. PTA at 12 months was associated with increased graft loss (HR 1.046; 95 % CI 1.045-1.046). For each increase in anemia degree, there was a 2.77-fold greater risk of graft loss (HR 2.77; 95 % CI 1.50-5.13). When stratified according to eGFR, PTA was found to be a predictor of graft loss in patients with an eGFR of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (HR 4.57; 95 % CI 1.98-10.56) but not in patients with an eGFR of >60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (HR 1.89; 95 % CI 0.13-27.78). PTA was not found to be a predictor of patient survival. Anemia is common after kidney transplantation, and its prevalence declines with time after transplantation. Presence of anemia at 12 months post-transplant was an independent predictor of graft loss, with higher risk of graft loss in patients with anemia and poorer kidney functions.

  17. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  18. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  19. Antibody persistence 12 months after a booster dose of meningococcal-C conjugated vaccine in the second year of life.

    PubMed

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; Planelles-Cantarino, M Victoria; Baldo-Torrenti, Jose M; Ubeda-Sansano, Isabel; Jubert-Rosich, Angels; Puig-Barbera, Joan; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M Victoria

    2010-08-01

    We report on the results of the 12-month follow-up of children aged 14 to 18 months who received primary and booster vaccinations with either a meningococcal-C vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid or CRM197. Seroprotection (92.8%) and geometric mean titers/serum bactericidal activity (410.5; 95% CI: 273.4-616.3) were higher in children receiving the meningococcal serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugate, compared with 61.5% and serum bactericidal antibody geometric mean titer of 45.1 (95% CI: 28.5-71.3) when MenC-CRM197 conjugate was used.

  20. Mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a naturalistic 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason C; Shapiro, Shauna L; Manber, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A unique intervention combining mindfulness meditation with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to have acute benefits at posttreatment in an open label study. The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effects of this integrated intervention on measures of sleep and sleep-related distress in an attempt to characterize the natural course of insomnia following this treatment and to identify predictors of poor long-term outcome. Analyses were conducted on 21 participants, who provided follow-up data at six and 12 months posttreatment. At each time point, participants completed one week of sleep and meditation diaries and questionnaires related to mindfulness, sleep, and sleep-related distress, including the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale, the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale, the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and the Insomnia Episode Questionnaire. Analyses examining the pattern of change across time (baseline, end of treatment, six months, and 12 months) revealed that several sleep-related benefits were maintained during the 12-month follow-up period. Participants who reported at least one insomnia episode (>or=1 month) during the follow-up period had higher scores on the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (P < .05) and the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale (P < .05) at end of treatment compared with those with no insomnia episodes. Correlations between mindfulness skills and insomnia symptoms revealed significant negative correlations (P < .05) between mindfulness skills and daytime sleepiness at each of the three time points but not with nocturnal symptoms of insomnia. These results suggest that most sleep-related benefits of an intervention combining CBT-I and mindfulness meditation were maintained during the 12-month follow-up period, with indications that higher presleep arousal and sleep effort at end of treatment constitute a risk for occurrence of insomnia during the 12 months following treatment.

  1. Mindfulness Meditation and CBT for Insomnia: A Naturalistic 12-Month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason C.; Shapiro, Shauna L.; Manber, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A unique intervention combining mindfulness meditation with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to have acute benefits at post-treatment in an open label study. The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effects of this integrated intervention on measures of sleep and sleep-related distress in an attempt to characterize the natural course of insomnia following this treatment and to identify predictors of poor long-term outcome. Analyses were conducted on 21 participants who provided follow-up data at 6 and 12 months post treatment. At each time point, participants completed one week of sleep and meditation diaries and questionnaires related to mindfulness, sleep, and sleep-related distress, including the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale (GSES), Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS), and the Insomnia Episode Questionnaire. Analyses examining the pattern of change across time (baseline, end-of-treatment, 6 month, and 12 month) revealed that several sleep-related benefits were maintained during the 12-month follow-up period. Participants who reported at least one insomnia episode (≥ 1 month) during the follow-up period had higher scores on the PSAS (p < .05) and GSES (p < .05) at end-of-treatment compared to those with no insomnia episodes. Correlations between mindfulness skills and insomnia symptoms revealed significant negative correlations (p < .05) between mindfulness skills and daytime sleepiness at each of the three time points but not with nocturnal symptoms of insomnia. These results suggest that most sleep-related benefits of an intervention combining CBT-I and mindfulness meditation were maintained during the 12-month follow-up period with indications that higher pre-sleep arousal and sleep effort at end-of-treatment constitute a risk for occurrence of insomnia during the 12 months following treatment. PMID:19114261

  2. Efficacy of transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus: 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Heikal, Mohamed A; Soliman, Tarek Tawfik; Fayed, Ayser; Hamed, Abdelmonem M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking (TE-CXL) in patients with progressive keratoconus. Patients and methods This is a prospective interventional consecutive study carried out on 30 eyes of 18 patients with progressive keratoconus who underwent TE-CLX using both ParaCel™ (riboflavin 0.25%, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, NaCl, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA], Tris, and benzalkonium chloride) and vibeX-Xtra (riboflavin 0.22%, phosphate-buffered saline solution). The procedure was carried out at Ebsar Eye Center in Egypt in the period from 2012 to 2014. The follow-up visits were scheduled on days 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Results There were statistically significant improvements (P<0.001) in the mean best-corrected visual acuity (0.54±0.22 preoperatively vs 0.61±0.19 at 12 months postoperatively), the mean manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE; −6.16±3.90 diopters [D] preoperatively and −5.91±3.72 D at 12 months postoperatively), and the mean preoperative corneal astigmatism (−3.39±2.11 D preoperatively and −2.46±2.60 D at 12 months postoperatively). Conclusion TE-CXL could halt the progression of keratoconus in adult patients. TE-CXL resulted in a statistically significant improvement in best-corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction, refractive and corneal astigmatism and K values in keratoconus patients at the 12-month follow-up. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups are required in order to make meaningful conclusions. PMID:28461739

  3. BRAVISSIMO study: 12-month results from the TASC A/B subgroup.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Callaert, J; Verbist, J; Keirse, K; Peeters, P

    2012-02-01

    The BRAVISSIMO study is a prospective, non-randomized, multicenter, multinational, monitored trial, conducted at 12 hospitals in Belgium and 11 hospitals in Italy. This manuscript reports on the BRAVISSIMO TASC A&B iliac lesion cohort, based on data collected up to the 13-month time point. The primary endpoint of the study is primary patency at 12 months, defined as a target lesion without a hemodynamically significant stenosis on duplex ultrasound (>50%, systolic velocity ratio no greater than 2.0) and without Target Lesion Revascularization (TLR) within 12 months. Between July 2009 and February 2010, a total of 190 patients who presented with TASC A or TASC B aorto-iliac lesions were included, of which 140 patients were enrolled in Belgium and 50 in Italy. The demographic data were comparable for the TASC A and TASC B patients groups. The number of occlusions, the average degree of stenosis, the average lesion length was significantly higher in the group of TASC B lesions, which is congruent with the TASC lesions definitions. Similarly, there were significantly more unilateral lesions in the TASC A group, compared to the TASC B group. The 12-month primary patency rate was 94.0% for TASC A lesions and 96.5% for TASC B lesions, which is not statistically significant. The 12-month primary patency rate was 92.9% in lesions treated with the Omnilink Elite stent, 97.1% in lesions treated with the Absolute Pro stent groups, and 100% in lesions treated with both stents. Our findings confirm that endovascular therapy, and more specifically primary stenting, is the preferred treatment for patients with TASC A/B aortoiliac lesions. Currently, we are collecting the 12-month data for the TASC C/D subgroup in the BRAVISSIMO study. Upon release of the results from this subgroup, we will be able to compare the results from both arms of this large-scale international study.

  4. Impact of malnutrition on 12-month mortality following acute hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jack J; Pulle, Ranjeev C; Crouch, Alisa M; Kuys, Suzanne S; Ferrier, Rebecca L; Whitehouse, Sarah L

    2016-03-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between malnutrition and post-discharge mortality following acute hip fracture yield conflicting results. This study aimed to determine whether malnutrition independently predicted 12-month post-fracture mortality after adjusting for clinically relevant covariates. An ethics approved, prospective, consecutive audit was undertaken for all surgically treated hip fracture inpatients admitted to a dedicated orthogeriatric unit (November 2010-October 2011). The 12-month mortality data were obtained by a dual search of the mortality registry and Queensland Health database. Malnutrition was evaluated using the Subjective Global Assessment. Demographic (age, gender, admission residence) and clinical covariates included fracture type, time to surgery, anaesthesia type, type of surgery, post-surgery time to mobilize and post-operative complications (delirium, pulmonary and deep vein thrombosis, cardiac complications, infections). The Charlson Comorbidity Index was retrospectively applied. All diagnoses were confirmed by the treating orthogeriatrician. A total of 322 of 346 patients were available for audit. Increased age (P = 0.004), admission from residential care (P < 0.001), Charlson Comorbidity Index (P = 0.007), malnutrition (P < 0.001), time to mobilize >48 h (P < 0.001), delirium (P = 0.003), pulmonary embolism (P = 0.029) and cardiovascular complication (P = 0.04) were associated with 12-month mortality. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that malnutrition (odds ratio (OR) 2.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-4.7, P = 0.007)), in addition to admission from residential care (OR 2.6 (95% CI 1.3-5.3, P = 0.005)) and pulmonary embolism (OR 11.0 (95% CI 1.5-78.7, P = 0.017)), independently predicted 12-month mortality. Findings substantiate malnutrition as an independent predictor of 12-month mortality in a representative sample of hip fracture inpatients. Effective strategies to identify and treat malnutrition in hip

  5. Oxidative stress is associated with weight gain in recipients at 12-months following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Lai, Chen; Stanfill, Ansley; Cashion, Ann

    2016-02-01

    Weight gain after kidney transplantation (Tx) is considered a risk factor for poor outcomes. Increased oxidative stress is associated with not only chronic renal disease and Tx, but also obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether oxidative stress is related to weight gain at 12-months after kidney Tx and to obtain preliminary insight into potential mechanisms involved. Recipients (n=33) were classified into two groups; weight loss and weight gain, based on their weight changes at 12-months post-transplant. Total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were measured to evaluate oxidative stress from plasma at baseline and 12-months. A secondary data analysis was conducted to identify potential gene regulation. Seventeen recipients lost (-6.63±5.52kg), and sixteen recipients gained weight (8.94±6.18kg). TAOC was significantly decreased at 12-months compared to baseline for the total group, however, there was no significant difference between groups at either time point. TBARS was higher in weight gain group, at both time points, and it was significantly higher at 12-months (p=0.012). Gene expression profiling analysis showed that 7 transcripts annotated to reactive oxygen species related genes in adipose tissue were expressed significantly lower in weight gain group at baseline, which might be a negative feedback mechanism to reduce oxidative stress. These results may indicate that elevated oxidative stress (TBARS) is associated with weight gain after kidney Tx and that incorporating early clinical prevention strategies known to decrease oxidative stress could be recommended. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Motivational counselling for physical activity in patients with coronary artery disease not participating in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert D; Morrin, Louise I; Higginson, Lyall A J; Wielgosz, Andreas; Blanchard, Chris; Beaton, Louise J; Nelson, Chantal; McDonnell, Lisa; Oldridge, Neil; Wells, George A; Pipe, Andrew L

    2012-04-01

    Many patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) fail to attend cardiac rehabilitation following acute coronary events because they lack motivation to exercise. Theory-based approaches to promote physical activity among non-participants in cardiac rehabilitation are required. A randomized trial comparing physical activity levels at baseline, 6, and 12 months between a motivational counselling (MC) intervention group and a usual care (UC) control group. One hundred and forty-one participants hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes not planning to attend cardiac rehabilitation were recruited at a single centre and randomized to either MC (n = 69) or UC (n = 72). The MC intervention, designed from an ecological perspective, included one face-to-face contact and eight telephone contacts with a trained physiotherapist over a 52-week period. The UC group received written information about starting a walking programme and brief physical activity advice from their attending cardiologist. Physical activity was measured by: 7-day physical activity recall interview; self-report questionnaire; and pedometer at baseline, 6, and 12 months after randomization. Latent growth curve analyses, which combined all three outcome measures into a single latent construct, showed that physical activity increased more over time in the MC versus the UC group (µ(add) = 0.69, p < 0.05). Patients with CAD not participating in cardiac rehabilitation receiving a theory-based motivational counselling intervention were more physically active at follow-up than those receiving usual care. This intervention may extend the reach of cardiac rehabilitation by increasing physical activity in those disinclined to participate in structured programmes.

  7. Predicting change in physical activity, dietary restraint, and physique anxiety in adolescent girls: examining covariance in physical self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Peter; Sabiston, Catherine; Forrestor, Shannon; Kowalski, Nanette; Kowalski, Kent; McDonough, Meghan

    2003-01-01

    To examine: i) the mean changes in adolescent females' body mass index (BMI), global self-esteem, physical self-perceptions, social physique anxiety, physical activity, and dietary restraint; ii) the stability of measuring self-perceptions, BMI, self-esteem, physique anxiety, activity, and dietary restraint; and iii) the relationships among changes in these variables over 12 months. 631 female adolescents (15-16 years old) involved in a two-year study of self-report measures completed validated questionnaires in high school classroom settings. There were small but significant group increases in BMI and social physique anxiety and significant decreases in sport, conditioning, and strength physical self-perceptions and physical activity. Stability analysis indicates moderate to strong stability for all variables. Change analyses indicated that BMI, due to its high stability, is a poor predictor of change in all variables. Stronger significant correlations were noted between change in body appearance self-perceptions and change in social physique anxiety (r=-0.54) and dietary restraint (r=-0.27). There was also a significant relationship between change in physical activity and the physical self-perceptions, although conditioning was the only significant (p<0.05) predictor of change in physical activity (beta=0.340). Physical self-perceptions are a stronger predictor of change in physical activity, dietary restraint, and social physique anxiety compared to BMI. This demonstrates the importance of physical self-perceptions when investigating health-related behaviours associated with dieting and physical activity. The decline in physical activity and increase in BMI is an ongoing concern, as is the link between body appearance self-perceptions and dietary restraint and social physique anxiety.

  8. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity through Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…

  9. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  10. Physical Education: A Cornerstone for Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappe, Marlene K.; Burgeson, Charlene R.

    2004-01-01

    "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" ("Physical Activity and Health"; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996) documented for the first time the cumulative body of evidence related to physical activity and health. This report completed the set of Surgeon General's reports…

  11. Quality of life in persons living with HIV in Burkina Faso: a follow-up over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Bakiono, Fidèle; Guiguimdé, Patrice Wendpouiré Laurent; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Robert, Annie

    2015-11-13

    In Burkina Faso, very little is known about the quality of life of persons living with HIV through their routine follow- up. This study aimed to assess the quality of life of persons living with HIV, and its change over a 1-year period. Four hundred and twenty four (424) persons living with HIV were monitored during twelve (12) months from September 2012 to September 2013 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Three interviews were conducted in order to assess the quality of life of patients and its change over time, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment brief scale in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (WHOQOL HIV-BREF). The Friedman test was used to assess significant differences in quantitative variables at each of the three follow-up interviews. Groups at baseline, at 6 months and at 12 months were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test for quantitative data and McNemar test for qualitative variables. Pearson Chi(2) was used when needed. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Trends in global quality of life score and subgroups (status related to Highly Active Anti Retroviral Treatment (HAART) using univariate repeated measures analysis of variance were assessed. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. At baseline, quality of life scores were highest in the domain of spirituality, religion and personal beliefs (SRPB) and lowest in the environmental domain. This trend was maintained during the 12-month follow-up. The global score increased significantly from the beginning up to the twelfth month of follow-up. Over the 12 months, the baseline factors that were likely to predict an increase in the global quality of life score were: not having support from relatives for medical care (P = 0.04), being under HAART (P = 0.001), being self-perceived as healthy (P = 0.03), and having a global quality of life score

  12. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  13. Eccentric decline squat protocol offers superior results at 12 months compared with traditional eccentric protocol for patellar tendinopathy in volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    Young, M; Cook, J; Purdam, C; Kiss, Z; Alfredson, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Conservative treatment of patellar tendinopathy has been minimally investigated. Effective validated treatment protocols are required. Methods: This was a prospective randomised controlled trial of 17 elite volleyball players with clinically diagnosed and imaging confirmed patellar tendinopathy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a decline group and a step group. The decline group were required to perform single leg squats on a 25° decline board, exercising into tendon pain and progressing their exercises with load. The step group performed single leg squats on a 10 cm step, exercising without tendon pain and progressing their exercises with speed then load. All participants completed a 12 week intervention programme during their preseason. Outcome measures used were the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) score for knee function and 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) for tendon pain with activity. Measures were taken throughout the intervention period and at 12 months. Results: Both groups had improved significantly from baseline at 12 weeks and 12 months. Analysis of the likelihood of a 20 point improvement in VISA score at 12 months revealed a greater likelihood of clinical improvements in the decline group than the step group. VAS scores at 12 months did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Both exercise protocols improved pain and sporting function in volleyball players over 12 months. This study indicates that the decline squat protocol offers greater clinical gains during a rehabilitation programme for patellar tendinopathy in athletes who continue to train and play with pain. PMID:15665207

  14. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  15. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. Methods We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. Results MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a one hour/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR=1.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03–1.27) and a one hour/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR=0.93; 95% CI=0.88–0.99). A one hour/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.00–1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and one hour/week increases in indoor household (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01–1.18) and overall MVPA (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01–1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.12–5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.05–3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Conclusions Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep. PMID:24577601

  16. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  17. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  18. Factors Associated with Suicide Outcomes 12-months After Screening Positive for Suicide Risk in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sarah A.; Miller, Ivan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Goldstein, Amy B.; Allen, Michael H.; Manton, Anne P.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective is to identify which patient characteristics have the strongest association with suicide outcomes during the 12-months after the index emergency department (ED) visit. Methods Data were analyzed from the first two phases of the Emergency Department Safety Assessment and Follow-up Evaluation (ED-SAFE). The ED-SAFE study, a quasi-experimental, interrupted time series design, involved participation from eight general medical EDs across the United States. Participants included adults presenting to the ED with active suicidal ideation or an attempt in the last week. Data collection included baseline interview; 6- and 12-month chart reviews; and 6-, 12-, 24-, 36-, and 52-week telephone follow-up assessments. Regression analyses were conducted. Results Among 874 participants, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range 27–47) with 56% female (n=488), 74% white (n=649), and 13% Hispanic (n=113). At baseline, 577 (66%) had suicidal ideation only while 297 (34%) had a suicide attempt in the past week. Data sufficient to determine outcomes were available for 782 (90%). In the 12-months after the index ED visit, 195 (25%) had documentation of at least one suicide attempt or suicide. High school education or less, an ED visit in the preceding 6 months, prior non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), current alcohol misuse, and intent or plan were predictive of future suicidal behavior. Conclusions and Relevance Continuing to build an understanding of the factors associated with future suicide behaviors for this population will help guide design and implementation of improved suicide screening and interventions in the ED and allocation of scarce resources. PMID:26620285

  19. Effect of 12-month resistance and endurance training on quality, quantity, and function of skeletal muscle in older adults requiring long-term care.

    PubMed

    Yoshiko, Akito; Kaji, Takashi; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Koike, Teruhiko; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Akima, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Older adults requiring long-term care will experience age-associated deterioration of the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle if no interventions are performed. Long-term training is considered a typical intervention method and is effective for improvement of both muscle quantity and physical function. However, how such training affects muscle quality [i.e., fat-to-muscle ratio as determined by echo intensity (EI)] in older adults requiring long-term care remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-month physical training intervention on the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle, physical function, and blood chemistry in older adults requiring long-term care. Seventeen older adults requiring long-term care (Tr-group) and 15 healthy older adults (Cont-group) participated in this study. Patients in the Tr-group performed exercises consisting of resistance and endurance training once or twice a week for 12months. The EI and muscle thickness of the thigh were calculated from the rectus femoris and biceps femoris using B-mode transverse ultrasound images. Physical functions (isometric knee extension peak torque, sit-to-stand test, 5-m normal/maximal speed walking, handgrip strength, and timed up and go test) and blood lipid components including adipocytokines were measured at three points, i.e. baseline and 6 and 12months after. The thigh EI was significantly lower after 6months of training than baseline, and it returned to the initial level after 12months of training (baseline, 70.2±8.3a.u.; 6months, 64.1±11.2a.u.; 12months, 72.3±7.2a.u.). The thigh muscle thickness, 5-m maximal speed walking, and knee extension torque were significantly improved after 12months of training (P<0.05). The blood chemistry parameters did not significantly change. These results demonstrate that a 12-month training intervention contributes to improvement of muscle quantity and function with tentative changes in muscle quality but has no effect

  20. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  1. Sports injury, occupational physical activity, joint laxity, and meniscal damage.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul; Coggon, David; Reading, Isabel; Barrett, David; McLaren, Magnus; Cooper, Cyrus

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors for meniscal damage, an important determinant of knee osteoarthritis. We studied 243 men and women aged 20-59 years in whom the diagnosis of a meniscal tear was confirmed for the first time at arthroscopy, over a 25 month period, in 2 British hospitals. Each case was compared with one or 2 community controls, matched by age and sex, who were registered with the same general practitioner. Information on exposure to risk factors was obtained by a structured questionnaire and physical examination. Meniscal tear was strongly associated with participation in sports during the 12 months preceding the onset of symptoms; the risk was particularly high for soccer (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.1-6.6). Higher body mass index and occupational kneeling (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.0) and squatting (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.0-8.0) were associated with an increased risk of degenerative meniscal lesions, after adjustment for social class, joint laxity, and sports participation. Joint laxity was associated with degenerative meniscal lesions independently of occupational physical activity, sports, and obesity. Our results confirm the importance of sporting activities entailing knee torsion in acute meniscal tear. They also point to a role for occupational activity, adiposity, and joint laxity in the pathogenesis of degenerative meniscal lesions. Modifying these mechanical risk factors may serve to reduce the risk of meniscal injury and may also help to prevent later knee osteoarthritis.

  2. Atypical object exploration at 12 months of age is associated with autism in a prospective sample.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, Sally; Macari, Suzanne; Young, Gregory S; Goldring, Stacy; Thompson, Meagan; Rogers, Sally J

    2008-09-01

    This prospective study examined object exploration behavior in 66 12-month-old infants, of whom nine were subsequently diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Previous investigations differ on when the repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism are first present in early development. A task was developed that afforded specific opportunities for a range of repetitive uses of objects and was coded blind to outcome status. The autism/ASD outcome group displayed significantly more spinning, rotating, and unusual visual exploration of objects than two comparison groups. The average unusual visual exploration score of the autism/ASD group was over four standard deviations above the mean of the group with no concerns at outcome. Repetitive behaviors at 12 months were significantly related to cognitive and symptomatic status at 36 month outcome. These results suggest that repetitive or stereotyped behaviors may be present earlier than initially thought in very young children developing the autism phenotype.

  3. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION AT 12 MONTHS IN PRENATALLY COCAINE-EXPOSED CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Ukeje, Ikechukwu; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined mother-infant interactions of 12-month-old African-American prenatally cocaine-exposed infants and their mothers. Videotaped observations were made during a free-play dyadic interaction, a brief separation, and a reunion period. Videotapes were coded for maternal and child behaviors during each phase of the procedure. Although there were few differences in interactive behaviors between prenatally cocaine-exposed and nonexposed children and their mothers, children who were prenatally exposed to cocaine ignored their mother’s departure (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, p < .05) during separation significantly more often than nonexposed subjects. In addition, mothers who abused cocaine engaged in significantly more verbal behavior (F(2,104) = 7.00, p < .001) with their children than mothers of nonexposed children. These findings indicate that women who used cocaine during pregnancy may not differ from nonusers in their interactions with their 12-month-old infants. PMID:11417936

  4. Language Differences at 12 Months in Infants Who Develop Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lazenby, DeWayne C; Sideridis, Georgios D; Huntington, Noelle; Prante, Matthew; Dale, Philip S; Curtin, Suzanne; Henkel, Lisa; Iverson, Jana M; Carver, Leslie; Dobkins, Karen; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Tagavi, Daina; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about early language development in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed prospective data from 346 infants, some of whom were at high risk for developing ASD, to determine if language differences could be detected at 12 months of age in the infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Analyses revealed lower receptive and expressive language scores in infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Controlling for overall ability to understand and produce single words, a Rasch analysis indicated that infants who later developed ASD had a higher degree of statistically unexpected word understanding and production. At 12 months of age, quantitative and qualitative language patterns distinguished infants who later developed ASD from those who did not.

  5. Mortality of Kauai residents in the 12-month period following Hurricane Iniki.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, L A; Vogt, R L

    1996-07-15

    On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki struck Kauai leaving all residents without electricity and telephone services and damaging 70% of the homes. This study examined the hypothesis that Hurricane Iniki increased the mortality of Kauai residents by comparing mortality data for the 5 years preceding Hurricane Iniki with mortality data for the 12 months immediately following. Although the overall mortality rate was increased in the post-Iniki period, the only significant increase was in the rate of diabetes mellitus-related deaths (relative risk = 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.44-4.74). Hurricane Iniki did not appear to significantly increase the risk of dying of Kauai residents in the 12 months immediately following the disaster.

  6. Lifetime and 12-Month Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Academic Performance in College Freshmen.

    PubMed

    Kiekens, Glenn; Claes, Laurence; Demyttenaere, Koen; Auerbach, Randy P; Green, Jennifer G; Kessler, Ronald C; Mortier, Philippe; Nock, Matthew K; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with academic performance in college freshmen, using census-based web surveys (N = 7,527; response = 65.4%). NSSI was assessed with items from the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview and subsequently linked with the administratively recorded academic year percentage (AYP). Freshmen with lifetime and 12-month NSSI showed a reduction in AYP of 3.4% and 5.9%, respectively. The college environment was found to moderate the effect of 12-month NSSI, with more strongly reduced AYPs in departments with higher-than-average mean departmental AYPs. The findings suggest that overall stress and test anxiety are underlying processes between NSSI membership and academic performance.

  7. The relationship between attention and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Zmyj, Norbert; Schölmerich, Axel; Daum, Moritz M

    2017-03-01

    Imitation is a frequent behavior in the first years of life, and serves both a social function (e.g., to interact with others) and a cognitive function (e.g., to learn a new skill). Infants differ in their temperament, and temperament might be related to the dominance of one function of imitation. In this study, we investigated whether temperament and deferred imitation are related in 12-month-old infants. Temperament was measured via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised (IBQ-R) and parts of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB). Deferred imitation was measured via the Frankfurt Imitation Test for 12-month-olds (FIT-12). Regression analyses revealed that the duration of orienting (IBQ-R) and the latency of the first look away in the Task Orientation task (Lab-TAB) predicted the infants' imitation score. These results suggest that attention-related processes may play a major role when infants start to imitate.

  8. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  9. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  10. A 12-Month Prospective Cohort Study of Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders Among European Professional Footballers.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J

    2017-09-01

    To determine the 12-month incidence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) among European professional footballers and to explore the association of potential stressors with the health conditions under study among those European professional footballers. Observational prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 12 months. Male professional footballers from 5 European countries (n = 384 at baseline). Adverse life events, conflicts with trainer/coach, and career dissatisfaction were explored by using validated questionnaires. Symptoms of distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, and adverse alcohol use were assessed using validated questionnaires. A total of 384 players (mean age of 27 years old; mean career duration of 8 years) were enrolled, of which 262 completed the follow-up period. The incidence of symptoms of CMD were 12% for distress, 37% for anxiety/depression, 19% for sleep disturbance, and 14% for adverse alcohol use. Over the follow-up period of 12 months, approximately 13% of the participants reported 2 symptoms, 5% three symptoms, and 3% four symptoms. Professional footballers reporting recent adverse life events, a conflict with trainer/coach, or career dissatisfaction were more likely to report symptoms of CMD, but statistically significant associations were not found. The 12-month incidence of symptoms of CMD among European professional footballers ranged from 12% for symptoms of distress to 37% for symptoms of anxiety/depression. A professional football team typically drawn from a squad of 25 players can expect symptoms of CMD to occur among at least 3 players in one season.

  11. Clinical features and outcomes of infants with Ewing sarcoma under 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wong, Thalia; Goldsby, Robert E; Wustrack, Rosanna; Cash, Thomas; Isakoff, Michael S; DuBois, Steven G

    2015-11-01

    Ewing sarcoma peaks in incidence in adolescence. Infants <12 months old have rarely been reported. We aimed to compare clinical features, treatment, and survival of infants <12 months to those of older pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma. We utilized the SEER database to identify patients <12 months of age diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma between 1973 and 2011. We used Fisher exact tests to compare clinical features and treatment modalities between these patients and patients aged 1-19 years. We used Kaplan-Meier methods to describe overall survival in these two groups. Of 1,957 patients in the cohort, 39 (2.0%) were diagnosed at <12 months of age. Infants had a different distribution of primary tumor sites, with lower extremity tumors under represented. Compared to older patients, infants were more likely to have soft tissue tumors (81.6% vs. 27.1%; P < 0.001); have primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Askin tumor (61.5% vs. 19.9%; P < 0.001); and have tumors <8 cm (81.0% vs. 53.2%; P < 0.014). Infants were less likely to receive radiation therapy (13.2% vs. 53.3%; P < 0.001). Infants were at increased risk for early death (P < 0.013 by Wilcoxon), though long-term overall survival was not different between age groups (P < 0.25 by log rank). Ewing sarcoma is rare in infants, with different clinical presentations and treatment approaches. These patients appear to be at higher risk for early death, but long-term survival is similar to older pediatric patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Factors that can predict pain with walking, 12 months after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Maren Falch; Miaskowski, Christine; RustøEn, Tone; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Cooper, Bruce A; Lerdal, Anners

    2016-12-01

    Background and purpose - Functional limitations after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common. In this longitudinal study, we wanted to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of pain-related interference with walking during the first year after TKA and to determine which demographic, clinical, symptom-related, and psychological characteristics were associated with being part of this subgroup. Patients and methods - Patients scheduled for primary TKA for osteoarthritis (n = 202) completed questionnaires that evaluated perception of pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and illness on the day before surgery. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the medical records. Interference of pain with walking was assessed preoperatively, on postoperative day 4, and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after TKA. Results - Using growth mixture modeling, 2 subgroups of patients were identified with distinct trajectories of pain-related interference with walking over time. Patients in the Continuous Improvement class (n = 157, 78%) had lower preoperative interference scores and reported a gradual decline in pain-related interference with walking over the first 12 months after TKA. Patients in the Recurrent Interference class (n = 45, 22%) reported a high degree of preoperative pain-related interference with walking, initial improvement during the first 3 months after TKA, and then a gradual increase-returning to preoperative levels at 12 months. Patients in the Recurrent Interference class had higher preoperative pain, fatigue, and depression scores, and poorer perception of illness than the Continuous Improvement class. Interpretation - 1 in 5 patients did not improve in pain-related interference with walking at 12 months after TKA. Future studies should test the efficacy of interventions designed to modify preoperative characteristics.

  13. 6 Minute Walk Test in Duchenne MD Patients with Different Mutations: 12 Month Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S.; Sormani, Maria Pia; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Fanelli, Lavinia; Berardinelli, Angela; Torrente, Yvan; D'Amico, Adele; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; D'Ambrosio, Paola; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Bonfiglio, Serena; Scalise, Roberta; De Sanctis, Roberto; Rolle, Enrica; Bianco, Flaviana; Van der Haawue, Marlene; Magri, Francesca; Palermo, Concetta; Rossi, Francesca; Donati, Maria Alice; Alfonsi, Chiara; Sacchini, Michele; Arnoldi, Maria Teresa; Baranello, Giovanni; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Previtali, Stefano C.; Napolitano, Sara; Bruno, Claudio; Politano, Luisa; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bertini, Enrico; Morandi, Lucia; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Goemans, Nathalie; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) over a 12 month period. Methods The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations) and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons. Results At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13). The 12 month changes ranged between −325 and 175 (mean −10.8 meters, SD 69.2). Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients. PMID:24421885

  14. 12-month efficacy of a single radiofrequency ablation on autonomously functioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Stella; Stacul, Fulvio; Michelli, Andrea; Giudici, Fabiola; Zuolo, Giulia; de Manzini, Nicolò; Dobrinja, Chiara; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Fabris, Bruno

    2016-11-15

    Radiofrequency ablation has been advocated as an alternative to radioiodine and/or surgery for the treatment of autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. However, only a few studies have measured radiofrequency ablation efficacy on autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. The aim of this work was to evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a single session of radiofrequency ablation (performed with the moving shot technique) on solitary autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Thirty patients with a single, benign autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules, who were either unwilling or ineligible to undergo surgery and radioiodine, were treated with radiofrequency ablation between April 2012 and May 2015. All the patients underwent a single radiofrequency ablation, performed with the 18-gauge needle and the moving shot technique. Clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound evaluations were scheduled at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months from the procedure. A single radiofrequency ablation reduced thyroid nodule volume by 51, 63, 69, and 75 % after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. This was associated with a significant improvement of local cervical discomfort and cosmetic score. As for thyroid function, 33 % of the patients went into remission after 3 months, 43 % after 6 months, and 50 % after 12 months from the procedure. This study demonstrates that a single radiofrequency ablation allowed us to withdraw anti-thyroid medication in 50 % of the patients, who remained euthyroid afterwards. This study shows that a single radiofrequency ablation was effective in 50 % of patients with autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Patients responded gradually to the treatment. It is possible that longer follow-up studies might show greater response rates.

  15. Meralgia paraesthetica: Ultrasound-guided injection at multiple levels with 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Andrea S; Abd Ellah, Mohamed M H; Halpern, Ethan J; Sporer, Isabella; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto; Sojer, Martin; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Jaschke, Werner R

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injections around the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) at different levels in meralgia paraesthetica (MP) patients. The study was approved by the university ethics committee and informed oral and written consent were obtained from all patients. Between June 2008 and August 2013, 20 patients with symptoms of MP, including nine men (mean age, 61.33 years) and 11 women (mean age 61.18 years), were treated with US-guided injection of steroids along the LFCN at three different levels in a mean of 2.25 sessions. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure symptoms before, immediately after and 12 months after treatment. Complete resolution of symptoms was documented in 15/20 patients (mean VAS decreased from 82 to 0), and partial resolution in the remaining five (mean VAS decreased from 92 to 42), which was confirmed at 12-month follow-up. By using the different levels of injection approach overall significantly better symptom relief was obtained (p < 0.05). The outcome of US-guided injection along the LFCN can be further improved by injections at different levels (p < 0.05), which was confirmed at 12-month long-term follow-up. Meralgia paraesthetica is an entrapment neuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Ultrasound proved effective in diagnosis and in guiding injection therapy. Injection at the anterior superior iliac spine has been used previously. Multiple injections along the nerve course were used in this study. Long-term follow-up (12 months) confirmed the results.

  16. Factors that can predict pain with walking, 12 months after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Maren Falch; Miaskowski, Christine; RustøEn, Tone; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Cooper, Bruce A; Lerdal, Anners

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Functional limitations after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common. In this longitudinal study, we wanted to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of pain-related interference with walking during the first year after TKA and to determine which demographic, clinical, symptom-related, and psychological characteristics were associated with being part of this subgroup. Patients and methods — Patients scheduled for primary TKA for osteoarthritis (n = 202) completed questionnaires that evaluated perception of pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and illness on the day before surgery. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the medical records. Interference of pain with walking was assessed preoperatively, on postoperative day 4, and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after TKA. Results — Using growth mixture modeling, 2 subgroups of patients were identified with distinct trajectories of pain-related interference with walking over time. Patients in the Continuous Improvement class (n = 157, 78%) had lower preoperative interference scores and reported a gradual decline in pain-related interference with walking over the first 12 months after TKA. Patients in the Recurrent Interference class (n = 45, 22%) reported a high degree of preoperative pain-related interference with walking, initial improvement during the first 3 months after TKA, and then a gradual increase—returning to preoperative levels at 12 months. Patients in the Recurrent Interference class had higher preoperative pain, fatigue, and depression scores, and poorer perception of illness than the Continuous Improvement class. Interpretation — 1 in 5 patients did not improve in pain-related interference with walking at 12 months after TKA. Future studies should test the efficacy of interventions designed to modify preoperative characteristics. PMID:27658970

  17. Gender and relational differences in sensitivity to internal and external cues at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Watson, John S; Futo, Judit; Fonagy, Peter; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences favoring women in relation to awareness of the subjective (internal) world are well demonstrated but their origins are poorly understood. We trained 173 12-month-olds to visually fixate a video image in response to an internal cue (opening own mouth), external cue (seeing a face open its mouth), or both cues. Female infants showed significantly greater sensitivity than males to the internal cues suggesting that prioritization of internally accessible experience is already evident at one year of age.

  18. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  19. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  20. [Prevalence of iron deficiency in healthy 12-month-old infants].

    PubMed

    Durá Travé, T; Díaz Vélaz, L

    2002-09-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency among infants in industrialized countries. There is ample documentation of both short- and long-term adverse effects of iron deficiency. To study the prevalence of iron deficiency in 12-month-old infants and to investigate the influence of several factors (dietary, growth, etc.) on iron status. A random sample of 94 healthy infants from a basic health district was studied. Maternal and perinatal variables, dietary intake and anthropometry were assessed at regular intervals from birth to the age of 12 months. Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation and serum ferritin were also evaluated. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 9.6 % and that of iron deficiency anemia was 4.3 %. Of the nine infants with iron deficiency, four had been breast-fed for more than 6 months with late introduction of complementary foods and another had not been fed an iron-fortified formula while the 85 children without iron deficiency had received an appropriate diet (p < 0.05). Weight increase in the first year of life was significantly and positively correlated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin. Iron deficiency is relatively common in 12-month-old-infants but is limited to groups with inadequate feeding practices. Iron deficiency screening should be performed only in children with risk factors and/or inadequate diets.

  1. Efficacy of healing process of bone defects after apicectomy: results after 6 and 12 months.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, M; Lysiak-Drwal, K; Gedrange, T; Zietek, M; Gerber, H

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of selected surgical treatment techniques of bone defects after apectomy. A total of 106 postresection bone defects, located in maxilla and mandible were included in the study: the defects were treated with resorbable collagen membrane (BG I- 26 defects), xenogenic bovine material (BOC II- 30 defects) and xenogenic bovine material with platelet rich plasma (BOC/PRP III- 20 defects). In the control group the defects were left to heal spontaneously. Clinical and radiological assessment was performed at 6 and 12 months after the procedures. The analysis among groups revealed higher efficiency of the method of treatment that uses guide bone regeneration in comparison to the group in both post-operative control periods. After 6 months, the differences were statistically significant for each group using the regeneration methods, but after 12 months only for the BOC/PRP group. Treatment using selected guided bone regeneration techniques proved superior to the control group in both observation periods, but after 6 as well 12 months the best results in the BOC/PRP group were observed.

  2. Suicide attempts within 12 months of treatment for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Britton, Peter C; Conner, Kenneth R

    2010-02-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment were examined. Participants included 2,966 patients with one or more SUDs. By 12 months, 77 (2.6%) subjects had attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables associated with SA. Variables collected at baseline that were associated with SA included lifetime histories of SA, suicidal ideation (SI), depression, cocaine as primary substance of use, outpatient methadone treatment, and short-term inpatient treatment. Male sex, older age, and minority race or ethnicity were associated with lower likelihood of SA. After controlling for baseline predictors, variables assessed at 12 months associated with SA included SI during follow-up and daily or more use of cocaine. The data contribute to a small but growing literature of prospective studies of SA among treated SUDs, and suggest that SUDs with cocaine use disorders in particular should be a focus of prevention efforts.

  3. Depression 12-months after coronary artery bypass graft is predicted by cortisol slope over the day.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lydia; Kidd, Tara; Ronaldson, Amy; Leigh, Elizabeth; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Alterations in the diurnal profile of cortisol have been associated with depressed mood in patients with coronary heart disease. The relationship between cortisol output and depressed mood has not been investigated prospectively in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients before. We aimed to study the relationship between cortisol measured pre- and post-operatively and depression symptoms measured 12 months after CABG surgery. We analysed data from 171 patients awaiting first-time, elective CABG surgery from the pre-assessment clinic at St. George's Hospital, London. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression symptoms and saliva samples were collected to measure diurnal cortisol. Baseline assessments of depression and cortisol were obtained an average 29days before surgery, short-term follow-up of cortisol occurred 60days after surgery and long-term follow-up of depression was assessed 378days after surgery. Baseline cortisol slope was not associated with depression at 12-month follow-up. However, a steeper cortisol slope measured 60days after surgery predicted reduced odds of depression (BDI≥10) 12 months after surgery (odds ratio 0.661, 95% confidence interval 0.437-0.998, p=0.049) after controlling for covariates. These findings suggest interventions aimed at improving adaptation in the early recovery period may have long-term benefits in this patient group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-fatal overdose in the 12 months following treatment for substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Peter C.; Wines, James D.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Overdose (OD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity for individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), and there are limited prospective data on OD during the months following treatment for SUDs. Methods Variables associated with an OD in the 12 months after leaving an initial treatment episode were examined in an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS), a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study. Participants included 2,966 patients with one or more SUDs. Non-fatal OD was ascertained by a positive response to “In the past 12 months, have you overdosed on drugs?” Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables associated with OD. Results By 12 months, 93 (3.1%) participants reported one or more ODs. Variables associated with OD were lifetime history of OD, injection drug use (IDU), male sex, greater pain, and history of sexual abuse. Conclusions OD-risk appears to be increased by IDU, lifetime OD, sexual abuse history, and pain. The latter finding is novel for a prospective report and requires further study. PMID:19828263

  5. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  6. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  7. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  8. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  9. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  10. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  11. Depression, coronary artery disease, and physical activity: how much exercise is enough?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Wells, Martin T.; Altemus, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The mechanisms by which depressive symptoms negatively impacts clinical outcomes in patients with CAD remains poorly understood. Previous interventions that have attempted to treat depressive symptoms in CAD patients in order to improve clinical outcomes have been disappointing. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of depressive symptoms over time, controlling for comorbidity, in determining both successful long-term lifestyle change (i.e., increased physical activity), and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality outcomes. In addition, we examined the impact of physical activity changes over time on two known mediators of cardiovascular morbidity: parasympathetic tone and inflammation. Methods Clinical data were previously collected (2004-2006) from 242 elective/urgent coronary angioplasty patients who participated in a prospective randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a behavioral intervention vs. an educational control to motivate physical activity over 12 months. Exclusion criteria included: 1) inability to walk; 2) enrollment in other risk-reduction trials; 3) non-English speaking; and 4) lack of cardiologist's permission to increase physical activity. Participants were assessed every 2 months for interval clinical events and physical activity. In addition, biomarkers were collected at baseline and 12 months in a subset of 54 participants, including low and high frequency heart rate variability (lfHRV and hfHRV), serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and salivary cortisol. Findings The mean age of participants was 63 years and 30% were female. Overall, 37% had high depressive symptoms at baseline. Patients with high depressive symptoms who achieved an increase in physical activity of ≥336 kilocalories(kcal)/week by 12 months had significantly lower rates of cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (5.1% vs. 21.3%; odds ratio [OR], 0.20, [95% CI, 0.04–0.98]; P = 0.03). In a multivariate model examining

  12. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  13. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  14. Assessing early communication skills at 12 months: a retrospective study of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-07-01

    Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in differentiating children later diagnosed with ASD from their typically developing (TD) peers, but researchers have not yet investigated whether these differences can be detected using community-ascertained systematic observation data as early as 12 months. To investigate whether differences in early social communication skills can be detected at 12 months of age, comparing children later diagnosed with ASD, and TD peers; and to determine whether differences remain when groupings are based on age of subsequent ASD diagnosis. From a prospective community-ascertained sample, we collected data on children in early life, then conducted retrospective analyses for those children who were later diagnosed with ASD by the age of 7 years, compared with matched TD peers. We analysed standardized observational data of early communication skills, collected using the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Behavior Sample, when participants were 12 months of age. Children in the ASD group exhibited significantly lower social communication skills than the TD group, including on the Total score and Social and Symbolic Composite scores of the CSBS-DP Behavior Sample. Differences on the Total score and Social Composite were also detected for both early and late ASD diagnosis groups when compared with the TD group. These findings give further support for the importance of social communication in assessing children at risk of ASD as early as 12 months of age. Future research could evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of direct observation of these early communication skills as diagnostic indicators for ASD at 12 months

  15. [Habitual physical activity during growth].

    PubMed

    Gavarry, Olivier; Falgairette, Guy

    2004-04-01

    The three objectives of the present review of the literature were to: characterize the evolution of habitual physical activity (HPA) during growth; evaluate the tracking of HPA from childhood to adulthood; and analyse the level of HPA in children and adolescents according to public health recommendations. Data indicates that HPA decreases from childhood to adulthood about 7% per year, with a great reduction during puberty and adolescence concurrent to changes in the type of physical activity. It appears that HPA is not quite steady (0.09 < r < 0.66) during growth, which means that behavioural changes occur. Being very active during childhood or adolescence does not necessarily translate into a high level of HPA in adulthood. The mean values of HPA of children and adolescents vary from 15 to 90 min.day(-1) between studies, and for most of them HPA has been higher or close to public health recommendations. However, these results mask a great number of children and adolescents who are inactive or becoming inactive (40 to 45% of the population).

  16. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  17. Gait and balance deterioration over a 12-month period in multiple sclerosis patients with EDSS scores ≤ 3.0.

    PubMed

    Galea, Mary P; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J

    2017-01-01

    It is not currently known whether gait and balance measures are responsive to deterioration of motor function in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with low EDSS scores (≤3.0). The aim of this study was to quantify MS-related gait and balance deterioration over a 12-month period. Thirty-eight participants with MS (33 female, mean age: 41.1 ± 8.3 years), mean time since diagnosis 2.2 ± 4.1 years, EDSS score ≤3.0 and without clinical evidence of gait deterioration, were recruited. Participants performed walking trials and Functional and Lateral Reach Tests. Kinematics of the ankle and knee, and electromyography of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were also measured. Three participants reported relapses with worsening EDSS scores and 4 non-relapsing participants had worse EDSS scores at 12 months. There were significant decreases in mean gait speed, stride length and balance scores, and a significant increase in double support. Marked changes in ankle kinematics, with decreased medial gastrocnemius activity were observed. Gait and balance performance of non-disabled RRMS participants may progressively decline, even in the absence of both acute clinical relapse and change in clinical status measured by the EDSS.

  18. Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Louis A; Trainor, Laurel J; Santesso, Diane L

    2003-06-01

    We examined the development of infants' regional electrocortical (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life. Separate groups of infants were seen at 3 (n=33), 6 (n=42), 9 (n=52), and 12 (n=40) months of age at which time regional EEG and ECG responses were continuously recorded during a baseline condition and during the presentation of three orchestral pieces that were known to vary in affective valence and intensity (happy, sad, fear). Overall, there were two important findings. First, we found that although the overall amount of EEG 4-8 Hz power increased between 3 and 12 months, the distribution of EEG power changed across age, with the younger infants (3- and 6-month-olds) showing no difference between frontal and parietal regions, but the older infants (9- and 12-month-olds) showing relatively more activation at frontal than at parietal sites. This development likely reflects the maturation of frontal lobe function. Second, we found that the presentation of affective music significantly increased brain activity at 3 months of age, had seemingly little effect at 6 and 9 months, and significantly attenuated brain activity at 12 months. Findings suggest that there is a clear developmental change in the effect of music on brain activity in the first year, with music having a "calming" influence on infants by the end of the first year of life.

  19. [Physical activity for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo

    Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.

  20. Adherence to physical activity in an unsupervised setting: Explanatory variables for high attrition rates among fitness center members.

    PubMed

    Sperandei, Sandro; Vieira, Marcelo C; Reis, Arianne C

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the attrition rate of members of a fitness center in the city of Rio de Janeiro and the potential explanatory variables for the phenomenon. An exploratory, observational study using a retrospective longitudinal frame. The records of 5240 individuals, members of the fitness center between January-2005 and June-2014, were monitored for 12 months or until cancellation of membership, whichever occurred first. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was adjusted to identify variables associated to higher risk of 'abandonment' of activities. This study was approved by Southern Cross University's Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: ECN-15-176). The general survival curve shows that 63% of new members will abandon activities before the third month, and less than 4% will remain for more than 12 months of continuous activity. The regression model showed that age, previous level of physical activity, initial body mass index and motivations related to weight loss, hypertrophy, health, and aesthetics are related to risk of abandonment. Combined, those variables represent an important difference in the probability to abandon the gym between individuals with the best and worse combination of variables. Even individuals presenting the best combination of variables still present a high risk of abandonment before completion of 12 months of fitness center membership. Findings can assist in the identification of high risk individuals and therefore help in the development of strategies to prevent abandonment of physical activity practice. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  2. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  3. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  4. Movement skills and physical activity in obese children: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Steele, Julie R; Jones, Rachel A; Colyvas, Kim; Baur, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support physical activity program in overweight children. A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with three intervention arms: 1) child-centered physical activity skill development program (Activity), 2) parent-centered dietary modification program (DIET), or 3) both programs combined (PA+DIET). Movement skill proficiency, perceived athletic competence, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and parent-reported time spent in screen behaviors were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months in 165 prepubertal children aged 5.5-9 yr (59% girls, 78% obese). Differences in changes in outcomes between groups were assessed using linear mixed models. Compared with the diet group, the activity group (mean (95% confidence interval): +7.7 units (3.8-11.6 units)) and the activity + diet group (+6.7 units (2.9-10.5 units)) displayed 11%-13% greater improvement in overall movement skill proficiency (gross motor quotient) at 6 months. Perceived athletic competence increased across groups at follow-up (across groups: 6 months = +0.21 units (0.11-0.31 units), 12 months = +0.21 units (0.07-0.35 units)). Groups did not differ statistically for change in physical activity outcomes. Total screen time (min·wk(-1)) decreased in all groups at 6 months (across groups: -385.4 (-501.0 to -269.8)) and in the activity group (-261.8 (-470.5 to -53.1)) and activity + diet group (-340.5 (-534.6 to -146.4)) at 12 months. The diet group reported greater reductions in TV or DVD viewing time at 6 months compared with the activity group (248.6 (24.0-473.3)). The activity and the activity + diet programs were efficacious in improving overweight children's movement skill proficiency. All programs were efficacious in reducing time spent in screen behaviors. Other correlates may need to be targeted in addition to movement skills to increase physical activity among overweight children.

  5. Impact of an outdoor gym on park users' physical activity: A natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Cranney, Leonie; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Kariuki, Maina; Stride, Vicki; Scott, Ashleigh; Hua, Myna; Bauman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of an outdoor gym installation on park users' physical activity levels and examined the characteristics of outdoor gym users. A before-after time series design was employed, consisting of nine data collection periods: three each at baseline, post outdoor gym installation, and at 12-month follow-up. Repeated observational surveys and park intercept interviews were conducted. There was a small but significant increase in senior park users engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity at follow-up (1.6 to 5.1%; p<0.001). There were significant increases from baseline to follow-up in the outdoor gym area for: MVPA (6 to 40%; p<0.001); and seniors' use (1.4 to 6%; p<0.001). The study contributes to the limited evidence on the impact of outdoor gyms on physical activity outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  7. [Physical activity and reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this article is to review the present knowledge about physical activity and reproductive health. Medline and manual search for articles related to exercise and menstrual function, and exercise and pregnancy were performed. Repetitive intensive exercise with increased stress hormone utilisation seems to partly explain the disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The prevalence of menstrual irregularities is higher among athletes who participate in sports in which leanness is considered important for performance. Most of the studies concerning exercise-induced amenorrhoea have focused on low body weight and low fat ratio of body weight. However, energy drain and nutrient deficiency have been found to be important variables explaining menstrual irregularity in athletes. Loss of bone mass is related to menstrual irregularities hence it is important that menstrual irregularity not is considered a "normal" aspect of being an athlete. There are a number of positive effects and a few hypothetical risks related to exercise during pregnancy. There are no clinically controlled studies allowing us to draw conclusions about the effect of intensive training during pregnancy. Physically active women should be aware of the importance of sufficient energy intake to keep their regular menstrual cycle. Moderate exercise during pregnancy is recommended.

  8. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  9. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  10. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  11. Can we modulate physical activity in children?

    PubMed

    Reilly, J J

    2011-10-01

    There is concern that interventions that use physical activity to prevent obesity in children might be undermined by an 'Activitystat', which exerts an effect to maintain a low set point for physical activity. The present critique summarises evidence from systematic reviews of interventions, from empirical tests of the Activitystat hypothesis, from studies on the heritability of physical activity in childhood and the physical activity of children of and adolescents across a wide range of physical and cultural environments. This body of evidence is inconsistent with the Activitystat hypothesis in its current form, and suggests that the emphasis on physical activity in obesity prevention interventions in children should be increased, not reduced.

  12. Outcome expectations and physical activity participation in two samples of older women.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Castro, Cynthia M; King, Abby C

    2006-01-01

    Outcome expectations have received little study in physical activity (PA) research. This study examined whether initial outcome expectations and their achievement at 6 months (i.e. outcome realizations) predicted subsequent PA participation (7-12 months) in 118 older women. Initial outcome expectations were not associated with PA participation. Outcome realizations at 6 months, however, predicted subsequent PA participation (p < .05). Women with high expectations but low attainment had the lowest subsequent participation rates. Women with high attainment, regardless of expectations, had the highest rates. Findings replicate and extend an earlier study and argue for a more dynamic conceptualization of outcome expectations.

  13. Effect of progressive high-impact exercise on femoral neck structural strength in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis: a 12-month RCT.

    PubMed

    Multanen, J; Rantalainen, T; Kautiainen, H; Ahola, R; Jämsä, T; Nieminen, M T; Lammentausta, E; Häkkinen, A; Kiviranta, I; Heinonen, A

    2017-04-01

    It is uncertain whether subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis, and who may be at risk of osteoporosis, can exercise safely with the aim of improving hip bone strength. This RCT showed that participating in a high-impact exercise program improved femoral neck strength without any detrimental effects on knee cartilage composition. No previous studies have examined whether high-impact exercise can improve bone strength and articular cartilage quality in subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis. In this 12-month RCT, we assessed the effects of progressive high-impact exercise on femoral neck structural strength and biochemical composition of knee cartilage in postmenopausal women. Eighty postmenopausal women with mild knee radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into the exercise (n = 40) or control (n = 40) group. Femoral neck structural strength was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The knee cartilage region exposed to exercise loading was measured by the quantitative MRI techniques of T2 mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). Also, an accelerometer-based body movement monitor was used to evaluate the total physical activity loading on the changes of femoral neck strength in all participants. Training effects on the outcome variables were estimated by the bootstrap analysis of covariance. A significant between-group difference in femoral neck bending strength in favor of the trainees was observed after the 12-month intervention (4.4%, p < 0.01). The change in femoral neck bending strength remained significant after adjusting for baseline value, age, height, and body mass (4.0%, p = 0.020). In all participants, the change in bending strength was associated with the total physical activity loading (r = 0.29, p = 0.012). The exercise participation had no effect on knee cartilage composition. The high-impact training increased femoral neck strength without having any harmful effect on knee cartilage in

  14. Randomized controlled trial of a computer-tailored multiple health behaviour intervention in general practice: 12-month follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Sanjoti; King, David; Boyle, Frances M; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-03-19

    Effective strategies to address risk factors of non-communicable diseases are required to curtail the expanding costs of health care. This trial tested the effectiveness over one year of a minimal intervention targeting multiple health behaviours (diet, physical activity, alcohol and smoking) in a general practice setting, through the provision of personalised, computer-tailored feedback. Patients who had attended a general practice in the previous 6 months were recruited from 21 general practitioners in Brisbane, Australia. Baseline data were collected using self-reports on adherence to ten health behaviours and summarised into a health score from 0 to 10. This randomised controlled trial used a 2×2 factorial design, with one arm randomising subjects to the intervention or control group. The other arm was either feedback at baseline (single contact) or an additional assessment with feedback at 3 months (dual contact). As such, 4 study groups created were, to which participants were randomised blindly: A. Intervention with single contact; B. Intervention with dual contact; C. Control with single contact and D. Control with dual contact. All participants were assessed again at 12 months. Of the 4676 participants randomised, 3065 completed questionnaires at 12 months. Both single and dual contact groups improved their 10 item health scores (+0.31 and +0.49 respectively) relative to control group outcomes (+0.02; p<0.01). Improvement in adherence to guidelines for fish intake, type of milk consumed, vegetable and fruit intake, and alcohol intake were observed in single and dual contact intervention groups (p<0.01). Both intervention groups showed greater improvement than controls for individual health behaviours, apart from red meat intake, smoking behaviour, physical activity and body weight. Interestingly, there was an improvement in reported non-smoking rates in both intervention and control groups (3% single contact; 4.5% dual contact). Small but meaningful long

  15. Ethosuximide, Valproic Acid and Lamotrigine in Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Initial Monotherapy Outcomes at 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Tracy A.; Cnaan, Avital; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hirtz, Deborah G.; Dlugos, Dennis; Masur, David; Clark, Peggy O.; Adamson, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Determine the optimal initial monotherapy for children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy based on 12 months of double blind therapy. Methods A double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial compared the efficacy, tolerability and neuropsychological effects of ethosuximide, valproic acid and lamotrigine in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy. Study medications were titrated to clinical response and subjects remained in the trial unless they reached a treatment failure criterion. Maximal target doses were ethosuximide 60 mg/kg/day or 2000 mg/day, valproic acid 60 mg/kg/day or 3000 mg/day and lamotrigine 12 mg/kg/day or 600 mg/day. Original primary outcome was at 16–20 weeks and included a video EEG assessment. For this report, the main effectiveness outcome was the freedom from failure rate 12 months after randomization and included a video EEG assessment; differential drug effects were determined by pairwise comparisons. The main cognitive outcome was the percentage of subjects experiencing attentional dysfunction at the Month 12 visit. Key Findings A total of 453 children were enrolled and randomized; seven were deemed ineligible and 446 subjects comprised the overall efficacy cohort. There were no demographic differences between the three cohorts. By 12 months after starting therapy, only 37% of all enrolled subjects were free from treatment failure on their first medication. At the Month 12 visit, the freedom-from-failure rates for ethosuximide and valproic acid were similar (45% and 44%, respectively; odds ratio with valproic acid vs. ethosuximide, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 1.48; P = 0.82) and were higher than the rate for lamotrigine (21%; odds ratio with ethosuximide vs. lamotrigine, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.86 to 5.13; odds ratio with valproic acid vs. lamotrigine, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.74 to 4.83; P<0.001 for both comparisons). The frequency of treatment failures due to lack of seizure control (p < 0

  16. Locomotor Performance During Rehabilitation of People With Lower Limb Amputation and Prosthetic Nonuse 12 Months After Discharge.

    PubMed

    Roffman, Caroline E; Buchanan, John; Allison, Garry T

    2016-07-01

    It is recognized that multifactorial assessments are needed to evaluate balance and locomotor function in people with lower limb amputation. There is no consensus on whether a single screening tool could be used to identify future issues with locomotion or prosthetic use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different tests of locomotor performance during rehabilitation were associated with significantly greater risk of prosthetic abandonment at 12 months postdischarge. This was a retrospective cohort study. Data for descriptive variables and locomotor tests (ie, 10-Meter Walk Test [10MWT], Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUGT], Six-Minute Walk Test [6MWT], and Four Square Step Test [FSST]) were abstracted from the medical records of 201 consecutive participants with lower limb amputation. Participants were interviewed and classified as prosthetic users or nonusers at 12 months postdischarge. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze whether there were differences in locomotor performance. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to determine performance thresholds, and relative risk (RR) was calculated for nonuse. At 12 months postdischarge, 18% (n=36) of the participants had become prosthetic nonusers. Performance thresholds, area under the curve (AUC), and RR of nonuse (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were: for the 10MWT, if walking speed was ≤0.44 ms(-1) (AUC=0.743), RR of nonuse=2.76 (95% CI=1.83, 3.79; P<.0001); for the TUGT, if time was ≥21.4 seconds (AUC=0.796), RR of nonuse=3.17 (95% CI=2.17, 4.14; P<.0001); for the 6MWT, if distance was ≤191 m (AUC=0.788), RR of nonuse=2.84, (95% CI=2.05, 3.48; P<.0001); and for the FSST, if time was ≥36.6 seconds (AUC=0.762), RR of nonuse=2.76 (95% CI=1.99, 3.39; P<.0001). Missing data, potential recall bias, and assessment times that varied were limitations of the study. Locomotor performance during rehabilitation may predict future risk of prosthetic nonuse. It may be implied that the 10MWT

  17. Communication development in children who receive a cochlear implant by 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jaime; Dettman, Shani; Dowell, Richard; Briggs, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Describe the long-term benefits of early cochlear implantation. Provide a comprehensive description of outcomes, including: language, speech production, and speech perception. Compare the communication outcomes for the early implanted children to those of normally hearing children and children who received a cochlear implant at a comparatively older age. Retrospective review of the communication development of 35 children implanted between 6 and 12 months of age and 85 children implanted between 13 and 24 months of age. Audiologic assessments included unaided and aided audiograms, auditory brainstem response (ABR), auditory steady state response (ASSR), and otoacoustic emissons (OAEs). Formal language, speech production, and speech perception measures were administered, preimplant and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years postimplant. The children who received their cochlear implant by 12 months of age demonstrated language growth rates equivalent to their normally hearing peers and achieved age appropriate receptive language scores 3 years postimplant. The children who received their cochlear implant between 13 and 24 months demonstrated a significant language delay at 3 years postimplant. Speech production development followed a similar pattern to that of normal-hearing children, although was delayed, for both groups of children. Mean open-set speech perception scores were comparable with previous reports for children and adults who use cochlear implants. Children implanted by 12 months of age demonstrate better language development compared with children who receive their cochlear implant between 13 and 24 months. This supports the provision of a cochlear implant within the first year of life to enhance the likelihood that a child with severe-to-profound hearing impairment will commence elementary school with age-appropriate language skills.

  18. Sociodemographic, Perinatal, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Retention at 3 and 12 months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Carrier, Kathryn; Evenson, Kelly R.; Dole, Nancy; Deierlein, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention plays an important role in the pathway leading to obesity among women of childbearing age. The objective of this study was to examine predictors of moderate (1–10 pounds) and high (>10 pounds) postpartum weight retention using data from a prospective pregnancy cohort that followed women into the postpartum period; n=688 and 550 women at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Analysis included descriptive statistics and predictive modeling using log-binomial techniques. The average weight retained at 3 and 12 months postpartum in this population was 9.4 lbs (SD=11.4) and 5.7 lbs (SD=13.2) respectively. At 3- months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and hours slept during the night were associated with moderate or high weight retention while having an infant hospitalized after going home and scoring in the upper 75th percentile of the eating attitudes test were associated only with high weight retention. At 12- months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and maternal education were associated with moderate weight retention and gestational weight gain, maternal age, race, employment status, and having an infant hospitalized at birth were associated with high weight retention. The results of this study illustrate the importance of prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain in predicting postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, given the lack of successful intervention studies that exist to date to help women lose weight in the postpartum period, the results of this study may help to inform future interventions that focus on such aspects as hours of sleep, dealing with stress associated with a hospitalized infant, and non-clinical eating disorder symptomatology. PMID:20035283

  19. Language development at 18 months is related to multimodal communicative strategies at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Igualada, Alfonso; Bosch, Laura; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the degree to which an infants' use of simultaneous gesture-speech combinations during controlled social interactions predicts later language development. Nineteen infants participated in a declarative pointing task involving three different social conditions: two experimental conditions (a) available, when the adult was visually attending to the infant but did not attend to the object of reference jointly with the child, and (b) unavailable, when the adult was not visually attending to neither the infant nor the object; and (c) a baseline condition, when the adult jointly engaged with the infant's object of reference. At 12 months of age measures related to infants' speech-only productions, pointing-only gestures, and simultaneous pointing-speech combinations were obtained in each of the three social conditions. Each child's lexical and grammatical output was assessed at 18 months of age through parental report. Results revealed a significant interaction between social condition and type of communicative production. Specifically, only simultaneous pointing-speech combinations increased in frequency during the available condition compared to baseline, while no differences were found for speech-only and pointing-only productions. Moreover, simultaneous pointing-speech combinations in the available condition at 12 months positively correlated with lexical and grammatical development at 18 months of age. The ability to selectively use this multimodal communicative strategy to engage the adult in joint attention by drawing his attention toward an unseen event or object reveals 12-month-olds' clear understanding of referential cues that are relevant for language development. This strategy to successfully initiate and maintain joint attention is related to language development as it increases learning opportunities from social interactions.

  20. South Texas Residency Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training: 12-Month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Malone, Glenn P; Vale Arismendez, Shruthi; Schneegans Warzinski, Suyen; Amodei, Nancy; Burge, Sandra K; Wathen, Patricia I; Conde, Michelle V; Palmer, Raymond; Williams, Janet F

    2015-01-01

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is an efficacious and cost-effective skill set when implemented in primary care settings regarding hazardous alcohol use. This study assesses the impact of medical resident SBIRT training across 3 specialties and identifies predictors of change in trainee behavior, attitudes, and knowledge over 12 months. This program's substance use SBIRT training was developed and tailored to fit diverse curricular objectives and settings across an array of medical residency programs in South Texas. The 329 residents training in pediatrics, family medicine, and internal medicine during 2009-2012 constituted the trainee group reported in this analysis. Surveys assessing SBIRT-related knowledge, current practice, confidence, role responsibility, attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change were completed by 234 (71%) trainees at 3 time points: pre-training, then 30 days and 12 months post-initial training. SBIRT-related knowledge, confidence, and practice increased from pre-training to 12-month follow-up. Residents who reported the least amount of pre-training clinical and/or prior academic exposure to substance use reported the greatest SBIRT practice increases. When controlling for demographic and prior exposure variables, the largest contributor to variance in SBIRT practice was attributed to residents' confidence in their SBIRT skills. SBIRT training that employs diverse educational methodologies as part of customizing the training to residency specialties can similarly enhance SBIRT-related knowledge, confidence, and practice. Trainee report of limited prior clinical or academic exposure to substance use and/or low confidence regarding SBIRT skills and their professional role responsibilities related to substance use predicted trainee success and sustained SBIRT strategy application. When customizing SBIRT training, curriculum developers should consider leveraging and capacity building related to those factors

  1. Safety testing of epimacular brachytherapy with microperimetry and indocyanine green angiography: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Robert; Richardson, Matthew; Douiri, Abdel; Nau, Jeffrey; McHugh, Dominic; Stangos, Alexandros N; Jackson, Timothy L

    2013-06-01

    To determine if epimacular brachytherapy is associated with reduced retinal sensitivity or choroidal nonperfusion. A prospective intervention case series of 12 participants with neovascular age-related macular degeneration requiring frequent ranibizumab underwent vitrectomy and epimacular brachytherapy. The Strontium 90/Yttrium 90 source delivered a single 24-Gy dose at the center of the treatment zone. The dose attenuated with increasing distance from the source. Microperimetry and indocyanine green angiography were performed at baseline and 12 months. The main outcome measures were mean sensitivity and choroidal nonperfusion. A linear mixed model was used to assess the association between the dose of radiation and the change in mean sensitivity. Mean visual acuity remained within 1 letter of baseline at 12 months (-0.33 ± 13.2 letters). There was no statistically significant change in mean sensitivity within the neovascular age-related macular degeneration lesion area (gain of 0.94 ± 3.25 dB; P = 0.339) or in neighboring unaffected retina (0.66 ± 4.14 dB; P = 0.594), defined using fluorescein angiography. Within the lesion area, mean sensitivity improved by an average of 0.23 ± 0.16 dB (P = 0.006) for every additional gray of radiation received. Indocyanine green angiography failed to demonstrate any choroidal nonperfusion or radiation damage at 12 months after the treatment. Stable retinal sensitivity in areas not manifestly affected by neovascular age-related macular degeneration suggests that epimacular brachytherapy does not damage retinal function. The presence of a dose response suggests that the positive effect of epimacular brachytherapy relates more to beta irradiation than vitrectomy.

  2. Self-Reported Hedonism Predicts 12-Month Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, Sven; Weineland-Strandskov, Sandra; Sundbom, Magnus

    2017-08-01

    Research regarding psychological risk factors for reduced weight loss after bariatric surgery has yielded mixed results, especially for variables measured prior to surgery. More profound personality factors have shown better promise and one such factor that may be relevant in this context is time perspective, i.e., the tendency to focus on present or future consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of time perspective for 12-month weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. A total of 158 patients were included and completed self-report instruments prior to surgery. Weight loss was measured after 12 months by medical staff. Background variables as well as self-reported disordered eating, psychological distress, and time perspective were analyzed with regression analysis to identify significant predictors for 12-month weight loss. The mean BMI loss at 12 months was 14 units, from 45 to 30 kg/m(2). Age, sex, and time perspective could significantly predict weight loss but only male sex and self-reported hedonism were independent risk factors for reduced weight loss in the final regression model. In this study, self-reported hedonistic time perspective proved to be a better predictor for 12-month weight loss than symptoms of disordered eating and psychological distress. It is possible that a hedonistic tendency of focusing on immediate consequences and rewards is analogous to the impaired delay discounting seen in previous studies of bariatric surgery candidates. Further studies are needed to identify whether these patients may benefit from extended care and support after surgery.

  3. Socio-demographic inequalities and teeth extraction in the last 12 months in Italy

    PubMed Central

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Romeo, Umberto; Iarocci, Gianluca; Brugnoletti, Orlando; Semyonov, Leda; Galanakis, Alexandros; Barbato, Ersilia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aims Teeth loss represents a major concern for the global oral health status of a population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of teeth extraction among the Italian adult population, analyzing the association between teeth extraction in the last 12 months and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods This cross-sectional study is based on the national survey ‘Health Conditions and Healthcare Services Use’, carried out by the Italian National Centre of Statistics (ISTAT) in 2005. A univariate analysis was performed to investigate the association between the dependent and the independent variables (teeth extraction Vs socio-demographic characteristics). Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence on the outcome (teeth extraction Yes/No). Results The present study highlights the relationship between teeth extraction and socio-demographic factors. Out of 128,040 individuals, the sampled population consisted of 124,677 subjects, representing 56,400,323 individuals in the Italian population. The prevalence of teeth extraction in the last 12 months was 8.2%. Subjects who underwent teeth extraction in the last 12 months were prevalent female (8.6%), smokers (10.4%), with a primary education (9.2%), married (9.2%), in poor health conditions (9.3%), age category of 55–64 years (11.1%), from Northeast of Italy (8.5%), with scarce household income (8.4%). The multivariate analysis confirmed most of the results of the univariate analysis. Conclusions Inequalities in health among groups of various socioeconomic status constitute one of the main challenges for public health; these inequalities might be reduced by improving educational opportunities, income distribution, health-related behaviour, or accessibility to health care. PMID:25774248

  4. Effect of omega-3 supplementation on neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A 12-month pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Evan J H; Perkins, Bruce A; Lovblom, Leif E; Bazinet, Richard P; Wolever, Thomas M S; Bril, Vera

    2017-06-13

    To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Individuals with T1DM and evidence of DSP as determined by a Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ≥1 were recruited to participate in a single-arm, open-label trial of seal oil ω-3 PUFA supplementation (10 mL·d(-1); 750 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 560 mg docosapentaenoic acid, and 1,020 mg docosahexaenoic acid) for 1 year. The primary outcome was the 1-year change in corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) measured by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy, with sensory and nerve conduction measures as secondary outcomes. Forty participants (53% female), aged 48 ± 14 years, body mass index 28.1 ± 5.8 with diabetes duration of 27 ± 18 years, were enrolled. At baseline, 23 participants had clinical DSP and 17 did not. Baseline CNFL was 8.3 ± 2.9 mm/mm(2) and increased 29% to 10.1 ± 3.7 mm/mm(2) (p = 0.002) after 12 months of supplementation. There was no change in nerve conduction or sensory function. Twelve months of ω-3 supplementation was associated with increase in CNFL in T1DM. NCT02034266. This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with T1DM and evidence of DSP, 12 months of seal oil omega-3 supplementation increases CNFL. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Performance and Safety of a New Ab Interno Gelatin Stent in Refractory Glaucoma at 12 Months.

    PubMed

    Grover, Davinder S; Flynn, William J; Bashford, Kent P; Lewis, Richard A; Duh, Yi-Jing; Nangia, Rupali S; Niksch, Barbara

    2017-08-04

    To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering performance and safety of an ab interno gelatin stent (XEN® 45 Gel Stent, Allergan plc), a minimally invasive glaucoma surgery device, in refractory glaucoma. Single-arm, open-label, multicenter clinical study. Following mitomycin pretreatment, the stent was placed ab interno in patients who failed prior filtering/cilioablative procedure or had uncontrolled IOP on maximum-tolerated medical therapy, with medicated IOP ≥20 and ≤35 mmHg and visual field mean deviation ≤-3 dB. Primary performance outcomes: patients (%) achieving ≥20% IOP reduction from baseline on the same or fewer medications and mean IOP change from baseline at month 12. Procedure-related complications and ocular adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Sixty-five patients were implanted (intent-to-treat/safety population). At 12 months, 75.4% (46/61; observed data) reported ≥20% IOP lowering from baseline on the same or fewer medications. Mean IOP change from baseline was -9.1 mmHg (95% CI: -10.7, -7.5) (n=52; observed data) at 12 months, excluding patients with missing data (n=4) and those requiring a glaucoma-related secondary surgical intervention (n=9). Mean medication count decreased from 3.5 (baseline) to 1.7 (12 months). No intraoperative complications or unexpected postoperative AEs were reported. Most AEs were mild/moderate; common AEs included needling (without sight-threatening complications), non-persistent loss of best-corrected visual acuity, and transient hypotony (requiring no surgical intervention). The gelatin stent reduced IOP and medication use without raising unexpected safety concerns, offering a minimally invasive surgical option for refractory glaucoma patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Risks and Benefits of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Beyond 12 Months After Coronary Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Dadjou, Yahya; Safavi, Salar; Kojuri, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) after coronary stenting remains poorly define. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of longer than 24 months DAT in patients who received drug-eluting and bare-metal stents. A total of 1010 individuals who underwent elective, urgent or emergency coronary angioplasty with intended stent implantation at reference or specialized cardiac hospitals were randomized to receive long-term and short-term DAT to determine the benefits and adverse effects of long-term DAT. Total of 508 patients were randomized to long-term and 502 patients to <1 year DAT, and all of them were followed for more than 36 months for major adverse cardiac and cerebvascular events and bleeding major adverse cardiac and cerebvascular events (MACCE) Mean age of the 1010 patients (364 women and 646 men) was 60 years. Stent reocclusion occurred in 15 patients. Mean Syntax score was 23.00 ± 5.08 for whole samples, 25.00 ± 5.27 in 28 patients with MACCE and 23 ± 5.00 in 982 patients without MACCE (P = 0.057). According to all specified bleeding definitions, clopidogrel therapy for >12 months was not associated with a greater risk of hemorrhage. A regimen of >12 months of clopidogrel therapy in patients who had received drug-eluting or bare-metal stents did not differ significantly from a regimen of <12 months on clopidogrel with regard to MACCE. Long-term DAT might not significantly affect the reduction in the risk of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and not associated with minor or major bleeding events. PMID:27258494

  7. A 12-month multicenter, randomized study comparing the levonorgestrel intrauterine system with the etonogestrel subdermal implant.

    PubMed

    Apter, Dan; Briggs, Paula; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Grunert, Julia; Lukkari-Lax, Eeva; Rybowski, Sarah; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2016-07-01

    To compare the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS 8), which has an average levonorgestrel release rate of ∼8 μg/24 hours during the first year (total levonorgestrel content 13.5 mg; Jaydess/Skyla), with the etonogestrel (ENG) subdermal implant (total content, 68 mg) with regard to the 12-month discontinuation rate (primary outcome). Randomized, open-label, phase III study. Thirty-eight centers in six European countries. Study population of 766 healthy nulliparous and parous women aged 18-35 years. The LNG-IUS 8 or the ENG implant. Discontinuation rate, by treatment group, at Month 12. The 12-month discontinuation rates were 19.6% and 26.8% in the LNG-IUS 8 and ENG implant groups, respectively. The -7.2% difference was statistically significant (95% confidence interval -13.2%, -1.2%). Fewer women in the LNG-IUS 8 group than in the ENG implant group discontinued because of increased bleeding (3.2% vs. 11.3%) or adverse events (14.3% vs. 21.8%). At 12 months, more women in the LNG-IUS 8 group than in the ENG implant group were "very/somewhat satisfied" with their bleeding pattern (60.9% vs. 33.6%) and reported a preference to use their study treatment after study completion (70.1% vs. 58.5%). The LNG-IUS 8 was associated with a significantly lower 12-month discontinuation rate compared with the ENG implant; mainly because ENG implant users frequently discontinued due to increased bleeding. More LNG-IUS 8 users than ENG implant users reported being "very/somewhat satisfied" with their bleeding pattern, and reported a preference to continue using their study treatment after the study. NCT01397097. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure of surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for ferric sulfate (FS), electrosurgery (ES) and laser pulpotomy in human primary molars. Materials and methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 30 primary molars indicated for pulpotomy in children aged 4 to 10 years were treated using either a FS (10 teeth), ES technique (10 teeth) and laser (10 teeth). Following the pulpotomy, the teeth were evaluated for clinical and radiographic success at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on the basis of the presence of pain, sinus, mobility, internal and external resorption, periapical radiolucency, calcification in the canal and bone loss. Statistical analysis: The data were assessed with Chi-square test. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, both clinical and radiographic success rates were 100% in the laser group but only 80% in both ES and FS groups. There was statistically significant difference between the success rates of three groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Laser pulpotomy showed better clinical as well as radiographical results than ES and FS pulpotomy. Laser pulpotomy was also found superior in terms of operating time, patient cooperation, ease of use and pain. Although results of the study showed the failure rates for electrosurgical pulpotomy to be equal to those for FS pulpotomy, electrosurgical pulpotomy being a nonpharmacological technique considered more favorable. Further studies using larger sample size and longer evaluation periods are suggested. How to cite this article: Gupta G, Rana V, Srivastava N, Chandna P. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):18-21. PMID:26124576

  9. Sociodemographic, perinatal, behavioral, and psychosocial predictors of weight retention at 3 and 12 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H; Carrier, Kathryn; Evenson, Kelly R; Dole, Nancy; Deierlein, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Postpartum weight retention plays an important role in the pathway leading to obesity among women of childbearing age. The objective of this study was to examine predictors of moderate (1-10 pounds) and high (>10 pounds) postpartum weight retention using data from a prospective pregnancy cohort that followed women into the postpartum period; n = 688 and 550 women at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Analysis included descriptive statistics and predictive modeling using log-binomial techniques. The average weight retained at 3 and 12 months postpartum in this population was 9.4 lb (s.d. = 11.4) and 5.7 lb (s.d. = 13.2), respectively. At 3 months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and hours slept during the night were associated with moderate or high weight retention, whereas having an infant hospitalized after going home and scoring in the upper 75th percentile of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) were associated only with high weight retention. At 12 months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and maternal education were associated with moderate weight retention; and gestational weight gain, maternal age, race, employment status, and having an infant hospitalized at birth were associated with high weight retention. The results of this study illustrate the importance of prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain in predicting postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, given the lack of successful intervention studies that exist to date to help women lose weight in the postpartum period, the results of this study may help to inform future interventions that focus on such aspects as hours of sleep, dealing with stress associated with a hospitalized infant, and nonclinical eating disorder symptomatology.

  10. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  11. Micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT): A phase II clinical study with 12 months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Bosone, Alex; Rolle, Teresa; Brogliatti, Beatrice; Grignolo, Federico Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective This pilot study evaluates the pressure lowering potential of subthreshold micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT) for a clinically meaningful duration in patients with medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma (OAG). Design prospective interventional case series. Participants Thirty-two eyes of 20 consecutive patients with uncontrolled OAG (12 bilateral and 8 unilateral). Methods Confluent subthreshold laser applications over the inferior 180° of the anterior TM using an 810 nm diode laser in a micropulse operating mode. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at baseline and at 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-treatment. Flare was measured with a Kowa FM 500 flare-meter at baseline and at 3 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 12 months post-treatment. After treatment, the patients were maintained on their pre-treatment drug regimen. Main outcome measures Criteria for treatment response were IOP reduction ≥3 mm Hg and IOP ≤21 mm Hg within the first week after MDLT. Eyes not complying to the above criteria during the follow-up were considered treatment failure. Mean IOP change and percentage of IOP reduction during the follow-up were calculated. Results One eye was analyzed for bilateral patients. A total of 20 eyes were thus included. Four eyes (20%) did not respond to treatment during the first week. One additional eye failed at the 6 month visit. The treatment was successful in 15 eyes (75%) at 12 months. The IOP was significantly lower throughout follow-up (p < 0.01). At 12 months, the mean percentage of IOP reduction in the 15 respondent eyes was 22.1% and 12 eyes (60%) had IOP reduction higher than 20%. During the first two postoperative days, one eye with pigmentary glaucoma experienced a significant increase of flare associated with an IOP spike (34 mm Hg) that was controlled with systemic drugs; afterwards it qualified as a respondent and completed the study. No increase of flare was found in any other patient. No

  12. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  13. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  14. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  15. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  16. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Français Русский Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on ...

  17. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  18. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  19. Association between the Number of Injuries Sustained and 12-Month Disability Outcomes: Evidence from the Injury-VIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Gabbe, Belinda J.; Simpson, Pam M.; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Harrison, James E.; Derrett, Sarah; Polinder, Suzanne; Davie, Gabrielle; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine associations between the number of injuries sustained and three measures of disability 12-months post-injury for hospitalised patients. Methods Data from 27,840 adult (18+ years) participants, hospitalised for injury, were extracted for analysis from the Validating and Improving injury Burden Estimates (Injury-VIBES) Study. Modified Poisson and linear regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks and mean differences, respectively, for a range of outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, GOS-E; EQ-5D and 12-item Short Form health survey physical and mental component summary scores, PCS-12 and MCS-12) according to the number of injuries sustained, adjusted for age, sex and contributing study. Findings More than half (54%) of patients had an injury to more than one ICD-10 body region and 62% had sustained more than one Global Burden of Disease injury type. The adjusted relative risk of a poor functional recovery (GOS-E<7) and of reporting problems on each of the items of the EQ-5D increased by 5–10% for each additional injury type, or body region, injured. Adjusted mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores worsened with each additional injury type, or body region, injured by 1.3–1.5 points and 0.5 points, respectively. Conclusions Consistent and strong relationships exist between the number of injury types and body regions injured and 12-month functional and health status outcomes. Existing composite measures of anatomical injury severity such as the NISS or ISS, which use up to three diagnoses only, may be insufficient for characterising or accounting for multiple injuries in disability studies. Future studies should consider the impact of multiple injuries to avoid under-estimation of injury burden. PMID:25501651

  20. "Cancer Put My Life on Hold": Work-Related Challenges Among Middle-aged Adults 12 Months After a Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Catherine; Mihala, Gabor; Beesley, Vanessa L; Lynch, Brigid M; Graves, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa G

    Colorectal cancer affects a wide range of working-age people. Little is known about the consequent work limitations. The aim of this study was to understand the extent and changing nature of work-related limitations of middle-aged (45-64 years) people over the first 12 months of colorectal cancer. Surveys were administered to participants recruited via the Queensland Cancer Registry, at 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Among those who returned to work, the Work Limitations Questionnaire measured 4 job performance domains (time management, physical, mental-interpersonal, and output demands) and an overall productivity score. Open-ended questions supplemented the Work Limitations Questionnaire, and responses were thematically analyzed. Of 239 participants, 8% did not continue in the study, and 20% left employment by 12 months, leaving 171 participants eligible for this analysis. Open-ended responses for why participants stopped work included bowel problems and stoma, loss of strength, and medication adverse effects. At 12 months, 22% to 39% of participants reported work limitations, but there was no overall significant change in work limitations between 6 and 12 months. Qualitative data highlighted the key work-related issues were changes in work functioning, attitudes of employers and colleagues, financial pressures, and emotional responses. While a significant proportion left work because of treatment-related problems, and the majority of participants did not experience workplace limitations, some reported considerable work-related challenges. Discussions with health professionals about the possible impact of treatment adverse effects on employment, good communication with employers, and workplace flexibility may facilitate return to work for this population.

  1. [Physical activity and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Karol; Acevedo, Francisco; Herrera, María Elisa; Ibáñez, Carolina; Sánchez, César

    2017-01-01

    In Chile breast cancer (BC) is the first cause of death in women. While the most important risk factor for its development is estrogenic stimulation, environmental factors and lifestyles also contribute to its pathogenesis. Epidemiological studies show a direct relationship between physical activity (PA), incidence and recurrence of BC. Supervised PA practice is recommended in most cancer patients to improve their quality of life, to reduce adverse effects from treatment and eventually to improve the prognosis of the disease. We review the epidemiological evidence linking PA and BC and the biological basis of this relationship. We also review the relevant interventional studies and we explore some practical indications of PA in patients with BC, as a model for other tumors of epidemiological importance.

  2. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-03

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  3. Increasing Recreational Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Pragmatic Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, Noa; Chodick, Gabriel; Mirovsky, Yigal; Pincus, Tamar; Shapiro, Yair

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Prospective, pragmatic, nonrandomized controlled clinical trial. Background Clinical guidelines recommend physical activity for the treatment of chronic low back pain. But engaging patients in physical activity has proven difficult. Known obstacles to physical activity include low self-efficacy and fear avoidance. Objectives This study tested the effectiveness of an enhanced transtheoretical model intervention (ETMI) aimed at increasing recreational physical activity in patients with chronic low back pain, in comparison to usual physical therapy. Methods Patients (n = 220) referred to physical therapy for chronic low back pain were allocated to ETMI or to a control group. The ETMI was delivered by physical therapists and based on behavior-change principles, combined with increased reassurance, therapeutic alliance, and exposure to reduce fear avoidance. The primary outcome was back pain-related disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes included pain intensity, mental and physical health, and levels of physical activity. Results Intention-to-treat analysis in 189 patients at 12 months indicated that patients in the ETMI group had significantly lower disability compared to usual physical therapy. The difference in mean change from baseline between the interventions was 2.7 points (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 4.5) on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. At 12 months, worst pain, physical activity, and physical health were all significantly better in patients receiving ETMI. The average number of sessions was 3.5 for the ETMI group and 5.1 for controls. Conclusion Targeting obstacles to physical activity with an intervention that includes components to address self-efficacy and fear avoidance appears to be more effective than usual physical therapy care in reducing long-term disability. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms that impact outcomes in this intervention package. Level of Evidence Therapy

  4. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  5. Physical Activity and Differential Methylation of Breast Cancer Genes Assayed from Saliva: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Angela D.; Magnan, Renee E.; Hooper, Ann E. Caldwell; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Individuals who exercise are at lower risk for breast cancer and have better post-diagnosis outcomes. The biological mechanisms behind this association are unclear, but DNA methylation has been suggested. Methods We developed a composite measure of DNA methylation across 45 CpG sites on genes selected a priori. We examined the association of this measure to self-reported physical activity and objectively measured cardiovascular fitness in a sample of healthy nonsmoking adults (n = 64) in an exercise promotion intervention. Results Individuals who were more physically fit and who exercised more minutes per week had lower levels of DNA methylation. Those who increased their minutes of physical activity over 12 months experienced decreases in DNA methylation. Conclusions DNA methylation may be a mechanism linking exercise and cancer incidence, and could serve as a biomarker for behavioral intervention trials. Studies with larger samples, objectively measured exercise, and more cancer-related markers are needed. PMID:23054940

  6. Estimation of transient increases in bleeding risk associated with physical activity in children with haemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Carolyn R; Herbert, Robert D; Latimer, Jane; Barnes, Chris; Curtin, Julie A; Monagle, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Although it is widely appreciated that vigorous physical activity can increase the risk of bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia, the magnitude of the increase in risk is not known. Accurate risk estimates could inform decisions made by children with haemophilia and their parents about participation in physical activity and aid the development of optimal prophylactic schedules. The aim of this study is to provide an accurate estimate of the risks of bleeding associated with vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia. Methods/Design The study will be a case-crossover study nested within a prospective cohort study. Children with moderate or severe haemophilia A or B, recruited from two paediatric haematology departments in Australia, will participate in the study. The child, or the child's parent or guardian, will report bleeding episodes experienced over a 12-month period. Following a bleeding episode, the participant will be interviewed by telephone about exposures to physical activity in the case period (8 hours before the bleed) and 2 control periods (an 8 hour period at the same time on the day preceding the bleed and an 8 hour period two days preceding the bleed). Conditional logistic regression will be used to estimate the risk of participating in vigorous physical activity from measures of exposure to physical activity in the case and control periods. Discussion This case-control study will provide estimates of the risk of participation in vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia. PMID:18582359

  7. Potential of a Sports Club-Based Exercise Program for Improving Physical Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lackinger, Christian; Haider, Sandra; Kosi, Lana; Harreiter, Juergen; Winhofer, Yvonne; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2015-09-01

    Although the infrastructure of Austrians' sports clubs is well developed, exercise classes for people suffering from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not exist. This feasibility study evaluates factors for participating in target group specific exercise courses (TGSEC) and changes in physical activity. This intervention study was performed in 22 communities of Austria. Initial TGSEC were offered to T2DM patients over 2 months. Participants were surveyed at 4 time points with a questionnaire: before the program, 2, 6 and 12 months after the initial questionnaire. 881 patients aged 59.0 (SD: 9.6) years took part in TGSEC. At baseline a lack of suitable exercise groups prevented 51% from being active. 58% were encouraged by the medical sector. After 12 months the weekly time spent on exercise training was increased from 1.40 (SD: 2.55) hours to 2.15 (SD: 3.00) hours (P < .001). The dropout rate during the first 2 months was 12.9%. The rate of return for the 12 months questionnaire was 42%. TGSEC provided by sports clubs attract people suffering from T2DM and effectively enhance physical activity.

  8. Replicating Reducing the Risk: 12-Month Impacts of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blocklin, Michelle; Layzer, Jean; Price, Cristofer; Juras, Randall; Freiman, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the effectiveness of Reducing the Risk, an evidence-based sexual health curriculum designed to help prevent adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, on youth sexual behavior and intermediate outcomes thought to lead to these behaviors. Methods. Classes within schools in St. Louis, Missouri; Austin, Texas; and San Diego, California; were randomly assigned to receive Reducing the Risk or “business as usual.” Youths completed Web-based surveys at baseline (preintervention, August 2012–January 2014) and 12 months later (August 2013–January 2015). Intent-to-treat analyses were conducted across sites; we tested for differences in impacts between sites and other subgroups. Results. The program had no overall impact on sexual behaviors. However, at 1 site, program participants were significantly less likely to have engaged in recent sexual intercourse than were control group members. There were positive overall impacts on intermediate outcomes (e.g., knowledge, attitudes). Conclusions. After 12 months, Reducing the Risk was unsuccessful at changing sexual behaviors. Other results were mixed, but promising evidence (e.g., behavioral impacts at 1 site, impacts on intermediate outcomes) suggests potential for more widespread behavioral impacts over a longer term. PMID:27689492

  9. Psychological adjustment in children after traumatic disfiguring injuries: a 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rusch, M D; Grunert, B K; Sanger, J R; Dzwierzynski, W W; Matloub, H S

    2000-12-01

    The psychological adjustment of 57 children (age range, 3 to 12 years) who sustained mutilating traumatic injuries to the face or upper or lower extremities was assessed over a 12-month interval. The injuries had occurred as a result of boating, lawn mower, or home accidents or dog bites. Within 5 days of the traumatic event, 98 percent of the children were symptomatic for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or anxiety. One month after the injury, 82 percent were symptomatic. Symptom frequency had declined by the time of the 3-month and 6-month evaluations, but 44 percent of the children continued to report symptoms at 12-month follow-up visits, and 21 percent met the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Typical symptoms included flashbacks, fear of re-injury, mood disorders, body-image changes secondary to disfigurement, sleep disturbances, and anxiety. These findings support the importance of psychological evaluation and treatment of children who suffer mutilating injuries that require the attention of plastic surgeons.

  10. Cost of Living with Parkinson's Disease over 12 Months in Australia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bohingamu Mudiyanselage, Shalika; Watts, Jennifer J; Abimanyi-Ochom, Julie; Lane, Lisa; Murphy, Anna T; Morris, Meg E; Iansek, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background. Parkinson disease (PD) is a costly chronic condition in terms of managing both motor and nonmotor symptoms. The burden of disease is high for individuals, caregivers, and the health system. The aim of this study is to estimate the annual cost of PD from the household, health system, and societal perspectives. Methods. A prospective cohort study of newly referred people with PD to a specialist PD clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Participants completed baseline and monthly health resource use questionnaires and Medicare data were collected over 12 months. Results. 87 patients completed the 12-month follow-up assessments. The mean annual cost per person to the health care system was $32,556 AUD. The burden to society was an additional $45,000 per annum per person with PD. The largest component of health system costs were for hospitalisation (69% of total costs). The costs for people with moderate to severe disease were almost 4 times those with mild PD ($63,569 versus $17,537 p < 0.001). Conclusion. PD is associated with significant costs to individuals and to society. Costs escalated with disease severity suggesting that the burden to society is likely to grow with the increasing disease prevalence that is associated with population ageing.

  11. Psychosocial and neurocognitive functioning in unipolar and bipolar depression: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Godard, Julie; Baruch, Philippe; Grondin, Simon; Lafleur, Martin F

    2012-03-30

    Previous studies have revealed psychosocial and cognitive impairments in patients during unipolar and bipolar depression, which persist even in subsyndromal and euthymic states. Currently, little is known about the nature and the extent of psychosocial and cognitive deficits during depression. The aim of the present study was to characterize psychosocial and cognitive profiles among unipolar (MDD) and bipolar (BD) patients during a major depressive episode and to compare the profiles of the patient groups. Depressed patients with MDD (n=13) and BD (n=11) were followed over a period of 12 months. Clinical, psychosocial and neuropsychological assessments were conducted at baseline and at 6-week, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-ups. In the case of severe mood disorders, psychosocial and neurocognitive functioning seem similar among MDD and BD patients during a depressive episode. All MDD and BD patients had global psychosocial dysfunction, characterized by occupational and relational impairments. Furthermore, the neurocognitive profile was heterogeneous with regard to the nature and extent of cognitive deficits but attentional processes were frequently compromised. After 1 year of treatment, occupational and relational impairments, as well as neurocognitive dysfunction, persisted sufficiently to alter daily functioning.

  12. Spoken Language Benefits of Extending Cochlear Implant Candidacy Below 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that cochlear implantation surgery before 12 months of age yields better spoken language results than surgery between 12–18 months of age. Study Design Language testing administered to children at 4.5 years of age (± 2 months). Setting Schools, speech-language therapy offices, and cochlear implant (CI) centers in the US and Canada. Participants 69 children who received a cochlear implant between ages 6–18 months of age. All children were learning to communicate via listening and spoken language in English-speaking families. Main Outcome Measure Standard scores on receptive vocabulary, expressive and receptive language (includes grammar). Results Children with CI surgery at 6–11 months (N=27) achieved higher scores on all measures as compared to those with surgery at 12–18 months (N=42). Regression analysis revealed a linear relationship between age of implantation and language outcomes throughout the 6–18 month surgery-age range. Conclusion For children in intervention programs emphasizing listening and spoken language, cochlear implantation before 12 months of age appears to provide a significant advantage for spoken language achievement observed at 4.5 years of age. PMID:23478647

  13. Cost of Living with Parkinson's Disease over 12 Months in Australia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abimanyi-Ochom, Julie; Lane, Lisa; Murphy, Anna T.; Morris, Meg E.; Iansek, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background. Parkinson disease (PD) is a costly chronic condition in terms of managing both motor and nonmotor symptoms. The burden of disease is high for individuals, caregivers, and the health system. The aim of this study is to estimate the annual cost of PD from the household, health system, and societal perspectives. Methods. A prospective cohort study of newly referred people with PD to a specialist PD clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Participants completed baseline and monthly health resource use questionnaires and Medicare data were collected over 12 months. Results. 87 patients completed the 12-month follow-up assessments. The mean annual cost per person to the health care system was $32,556 AUD. The burden to society was an additional $45,000 per annum per person with PD. The largest component of health system costs were for hospitalisation (69% of total costs). The costs for people with moderate to severe disease were almost 4 times those with mild PD ($63,569 versus $17,537 p < 0.001). Conclusion. PD is associated with significant costs to individuals and to society. Costs escalated with disease severity suggesting that the burden to society is likely to grow with the increasing disease prevalence that is associated with population ageing. PMID:28352490

  14. Long-term memory, forgetting, and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pamela J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term recall memory, as indexed by deferred imitation, was assessed in 12-month-old infants. Independent groups of infants were tested after retention intervals of 3 min, 1 week and 4 weeks. Deferred imitation was assessed using the ‘observation-only’ procedure in which infants were not allowed motor practice on the tasks before the delay was imposed. Thus, the memory could not have been based on re-accessing a motor habit, because none was formed in the first place. After the delay, memory was assessed either in the same or a different environmental context from the one in which the adult had originally demonstrated the acts. In Experiments 1 and 3, infants observed the target acts while in an unusual environment (an orange and white polka-dot tent), and recall memory was tested in an ordinary room. In Experiment 2, infants observed the target acts in their homes and were tested for memory in a university room. The results showed recall memory after all retention intervals, including the 4 week delay, with no effect of context change. Interestingly, the forgetting function showed that the bulk of the forgetting occurred during the first week. The findings of recall memory without motor practice support the view that infants as young as 12 months old use a declarative (nonprocedural) memory system to span delay intervals as long as 4 weeks. PMID:25147475

  15. Self-assessment of drinking on the Internet--3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Koski-Jännes, Anja; Cunningham, John; Tolonen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to report on the results of a pilot study of a web-based self-assessment service (DHT) for Finnish drinkers (www.paihdelinkki.fi/testaa/juomatapatesti). During the 7-month recruitment period in 2004 altogether 22,536 anonymous self-assessments were recorded in the database of this service. The study sample was recruited from the 1598 service users who also participated to a survey evaluating the DHT. Those who consented by providing required baseline data and their e-mail address (n = 343) were sent a message asking them to fill in the follow-up questions 3, 6 and 12 months later. Their self-reported use of alcohol and drinking-related problems served as the main outcome variables in this single-group follow-up study. At 3, 6 and 12 months, 78%, 69% and 61% of the study participants, respectively, responded to the follow-up. The intention-to-treat (ITT) results revealed significant reductions (P < 0.001) in all the outcome measures. The reductions occurred during the first 3 months, after which the changes were non-significant. The results are in line with previous studies with mostly shorter follow-up periods suggesting that Internet-based self-assessment services can be useful tools in reducing excessive drinking. A randomized controlled trial would, however, increase our certainty about the causes of the observed changes.

  16. Predictors of self-rated health: a 12-month prospective study of IT and media workers.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Dan; Arnetz, Bengt B; Theorell, Töres; Anderberg, Ulla Maria

    2006-07-31

    The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH), i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0-12 months). A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings) at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23-64) from four information technology and two media companies. There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho) between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression), and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression). The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.

  17. Does contingency in adults' responding influence 12-month-old infants' social referencing?

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Gunilla

    2016-12-07

    In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant's looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information. EXPERIMENT 2: Forty-eight 12-month-old infants participated in Experiment 2. In this experiment it was examined whether the familiarity of the adult influences infants' reactions to contingency in responding. In one condition a parent who previously had responded contingently to the infant's looks provided positive information about the ambiguous toy, and in the other condition a parent who previously had not responded contingently provided the positive information. The infants looked more at the contingent experimenter in Experimenter 1, and also played more with the toy after receiving positive information from the contingent experimenter. No differences in looking at the parent and in playing with the toy were found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that contingency in responding, as well as the familiarity of the adult, influence infants' social referencing behavior.

  18. Does the Organization of Emotional Expression Change Over Time? Facial Expressivity From 4 to 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation models contend that the organization of facial expressivity increases during infancy. Accordingly, infants are believed to exhibit increasingly specific facial expressions in response to stimuli as a function of development. This study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 151 infants (83 boys and 68 girls) observed in 4 situations (tickle, sour taste, arm restraint, and masked stranger) at 4 and 12 months of age. Three of the 4 situations showed evidence of increasing specificity over time. In response to tickle, the number of infants exhibiting joy expressions increased and the number exhibiting interest, surprise, and surprise blends decreased from 4 to 12 months. In tasting a sour substance, more infants exhibited disgust and fewer exhibited joy and interest expressions, and fear and surprise blends over time. For arm restraint, more infants exhibited anger expressions and anger blends and fewer exhibited interest and surprise expressions and surprise blends over time. In response to a masked stranger, however, no evidence of increased specificity was found. Overall, these findings suggest that infants increasingly exhibit particular expressions in response to specific stimuli during the 1st year of life. These data provide partial support for the hypothesis that facial expressivity becomes increasingly organized over time. PMID:16906232

  19. Effects of a 12-Month Pedometer-Based Walking Intervention in Women of Low Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M.; Kingsley, J. Derek; Kushnick, Michael R.; Moffatt, Robert J.; Haymes, Emily M.; Miles, Rebecca; Toole, Tonya; Panton, Lynn B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-month walking intervention in overweight/obese, low socioeconomic women. Forty-six women (48.2 ± 8.0 years) entered the study. Outcomes included weight, waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood lipids, fibrinogen, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Both intention-to-treat analyses in all participants and group analyses in study completers only (3K group = increased steps/day by ≥3,000; No Δ group = did not increase steps/day by ≥3,000) were conducted. Group × time ANOVA was used. In study completers, 3K significantly increased steps/day (6,903 ± 3,328 to 12,323 ± 5,736) compared to No Δ (4,926 ± 3,374 to 5,174 ± 3,095) from baseline to 12 months. There was a significant time effect for weight (P = 0.030), BMI (P = 0.029), and hsCRP (P = 0.044). Low socioeconomic women who adhere to a long-term, pedometer-based walking intervention significantly increased steps/day and may improve body weight, BMI, and hsCRP. This could help reduce health disparities in this population over time. PMID:27746679

  20. Mediators of 12-Month Outcomes of Two Internet Interventions for Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Jeon, Sangchoon; Faulkner, Melissa S.; Grey, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine mediators of 12-month outcomes of Internet interventions for youth with type 1 diabetes transitioning to adolescence. Methods In this multisite clinical trial, 320 youth were randomized to one of two Internet-based interventions: Coping skills (TEENCOPE™) or diabetes education (Managing Diabetes). Mediators of the interventions’ effects on glycosylated hemoglobin and quality of life were examined. Data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Self-efficacy mediated treatment effects on quality of life in both interventions. For TEENCOPE™, stress reactivity, primary control coping, and secondary control coping mediated treatment effects, whereas for Managing Diabetes, social acceptance mediated treatment effects. There were no significant effects of either intervention on glycosylated hemoglobin. Conclusions 2 Internet interventions for youth with type 1 diabetes resulted in improved quality of life by different mechanisms, suggesting components of both diabetes education and coping skills may help to achieve better outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24163439

  1. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  2. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  3. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  4. Impact of a 12-month exposure to a diurnal pattern of ozone on pulmonary function, antioxidant biochemistry and immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Stevens, M.A.; Hatch, G.E.; Jaskot, R.H.; Selgrade, M.J.K.

    1988-05-01

    Rats were exposed for 12 months, 13 hr/day, 7 days/week to 0.06 ppm O/sub 3/; Monday through Friday, the animals received a 9-hr spike reaching a maximum concentration of 0.25 ppm. An increase in the rate of lung nitrogen washout was observed in the O/sub 3/-exposed rats. Residual volume and total lung capacity were reduced. Glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities were increased but pulmonary superoxide dismutase was unchanged. Alpha tocopherol levels were decreased in lung lavage supernatant and unchanged in lavaged cells, however, ascorbic acid and lavage fluid protein was increased. Immunological changes were not observed. Thus, chronic exposure to O/sub 3/ caused (1) functional lung changes indicative of a stiffer lung; (2) biochemical changes suggestive of increased antioxidant metabolism; and (3) no observable immunological changes.

  5. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sirard, J R; Pate, R R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disease risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, may be present even in young children, suggesting that early prevention programmes may be critical to reducing the rates of chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity in children is necessary to identify current levels of activity and to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to increase physical activity. This article summarises the strengths and limitations of the methods used to evaluate physical activity in children and adolescents. MEDLINE searches and journal article citations were used to locate 59 articles that validated physical activity measurement methods in children and adolescents. Only those methods that were validated against a more stringent measure were included in the review. Based on the definition of physical activity as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure (EE), direct observation of the individual's movement should be used as the gold standard for physical activity research. The doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry can also be considered criterion measures for physical activity research, because they measure EE, a physiologic consequence closely associated with physical activity. Devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and accelerometers have become increasingly popular as measurement tools for physical activity. These devices reduce the subjectivity inherent in survey methods and can be used with large groups of individuals. Heart rate monitoring is sufficiently valid to use in creating broad physical activity categories (e.g. highly active, somewhat active, sedentary) but lacks the specificity needed to estimate physical activity in individuals. Laboratory and field validations of pedometers and accelerometers yield relatively high correlations using oxygen consumption (r = 0.62 to 0.93) or direct observation (r = 0.80 to 0.97) as criterion measures, although, they may not be able to capture all

  6. 76 FR 63719 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct Population Segment of the Red Tree Vole as... Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct Population Segment of the Red Tree Vole as... petition to list a distinct population segment of the red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) as...

  7. 76 FR 6383 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist Coho Salmon South of San Francisco Bay AGENCY: National... Service (NMFS), are issuing a 12-month finding on a petition to delist coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch.... Coho salmon populations in this region are currently listed under the ESA as part of the...

  8. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  9. Fatigue Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: A Longitudinal Follow-Up 6 to 12 Months After Injury.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Alison; Anderson, Vicki; Oakley, Ed; Greenham, Mardee; Hearps, Stephen; Delzoppo, Carmel; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Hutchison, James S; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Boutis, Kathy; Babl, Franz E

    2017-09-18

    Longitudinal fatigue data in children suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) are lacking. To examine the effects of time postinjury (6-12 months) and injury severity on fatigue after childhood TBI. Secondarily, we compared fatigue 12 months postinjury against published control data. Three tertiary children's hospitals across Australia (n = 1) and Canada (n = 2). Parents (n = 109) of children (mean [M] = 9.9 years at injury; range, 1.0-16.9 years) admitted to one of 3 participating hospitals with mild (n = 69) or moderate/severe (n = 37) TBI. Longitudinal prospective study. Primary: Pediatric Quality of Life Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (total, general, sleep/rest, and cognitive), rated by parents 6 and 12 months postinjury. Secondary: Pediatric Injury Functional Outcome Scale (fatigue and sleep items, rated on recruitment and 6 and 12 months postinjury). Demographic and children data were collected at recruitment. Mixed-models analysis demonstrated nonsignificant effects of time (6 vs 12 months postinjury) on multidimensional fatigue scores. Cognitive fatigue worsened over time. Moderate/severe TBI was associated with worse fatigue 12 months postinjury (general, P = .03; cognitive, P = .02). Across all severities, fatigue 12 months postinjury was significantly worse compared with control data (total fatigue, P < .001; all domains, all Ps < .025). Fatigue remains significant at 12 months since injury, particularly for those with moderate/severe TBI.

  10. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  11. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  12. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  13. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black-footed Albatross as... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black-footed Albatross as... petition to list the black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) as endangered or threatened under the...

  14. Perceived environment and physical activity in youth.

    PubMed

    Fein, Allan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wild, T Cameron; Spence, John C

    2004-01-01

    The examination of physical environments to explain and promote physical activity is an important yet under-investigated area of research inquiry. This study explored relationships between the perceived availability of physical environmental resources and the perceived importance of these resources in relation to physical activity levels amongst youth. A self-report questionnaire was completed by 610 students (mean age = 15.5 years old; 62% female participants) from four high schools (grades 9-12) in rural Alberta, Canada. Perceived physical environment constructs explained 5% of the variance in physical activity, with home, neighborhood, and school as significant domains. Perceived importance constructs explained 8% of the variance in physical activity with school context showing the only significant relationship with physical activity. A hierarchical regression analysis entered sex, grade, self-efficacy, peer, family and physical education teacher relationships, as the first block and eight environmental constructs as the second block. The first block variables accounted for 22% of the variance and environmental constructs accounted for an added 4% of the variance in physical activity. Perceived importance of the school environment was the only environment variable significantly associated with physical activity (beta = .14; p < .05) after taking into account the impact of these traditional predictors. These findings reinforce the need to provide and support school physical environments related to physical activity.

  15. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers, 12 Months Ending December 31, 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    influence a Convenience and Necessity issued by the Department of community’s ability to generate air carrier or general aviation Transportation (DOT...the hub . c ft GENERAL NOTES CwrDATA MINNG t - ’rd This publication don not include complete yearly data for the Horzon A r Dec. 164 following list of...in a certificated point, and a point may be served as a single community. through more than one airport.) Interlcopoerl operatios. In general

  16. Managing hypertension in athletes and physically active patients.

    PubMed

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2002-08-01

    Athletes and other physically active patients should be screened for hypertension and given appropriate therapy if needed. Mild hypertension should be treated with non-pharmacologic measures for six months. If blood pressure control is adequate, lifestyle modifications are continued. If control is inadequate, low-dose therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or a calcium channel blocker may be started. A thiazide diuretic may be used as first-line treatment for hypertension in casually active patients; however, diuretic therapy is less desirable in high-intensity or endurance athletes because of the risk of hypovolemia or hypokalemia. If beta blockade is needed, a combined alpha-beta blocker may be the best choice. When the target blood pressure is achieved, long-term follow-up care and management should be emphasized. If excellent control is maintained for six to 12 months, medication may be reduced or withdrawn in a small number of patients. If the target blood pressure is not achieved, the medication dosage may be adjusted, or a second medication, usually a diuretic, may be added. Physicians need to be aware of the effects of various medications on exercise tolerance and the rules for participation established by sports regulatory bodies (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:457-8).

  17. Correlates of Physical Activity among Young Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, Charles W; Cichon, Bernardette; Fabiansen, Christian; Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie; Shepherd, Susan; Filteau, Suzanne; Traoré, Alfred S; Christensen, Vibeke B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Brage, Soren; Friis, Henrik; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    To assess the levels of physical activity among young children with moderate acute malnutrition and to identify clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and sociodemographic correlates of physical activity. In a cross-sectional study, 1609 children aged 6-23 months wore a triaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3x+; ActiGraph, Pensacola, Florida) for 6 consecutive days, from which total physical activity were determined. Data on morbidity were collected based by history and physical examination, and serum C-reactive protein and α1-acid glycoprotein were measured. A total of 1544 (96%) children had physical activity measured, of whom 1498 (97%) completed 6 consecutive days of physical activity recording with a daily median wear time of 24 hours. The mean (±SD) total physical activity was 707 (±180) vector magnitude counts per minute (cpm). Age was negatively correlated with physical activity; compared with children below 12 months of age, those 12-17 months of age, and 18-23 months of age had 51 (95% CI, 26; 75) and 106 (95% CI, 71; 141) cpm lower physical activity, respectively. Fever and malaria were associated with 49 (95% CI, 27; 70) and 44 (95% CI, 27; 61) cpm lower activity, respectively. Elevated serum C-reactive protein and α1-acid glycoprotein were both negative correlates of physical activity, and hemoglobin was a positive correlate. Physical activity declines with age in children with moderate acute malnutrition and is also inversely related to infection and inflammatory status. Future studies are needed to ascertain cause and effect of these associations. Controlled-Trials.com: ISRCTN42569496. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Theory of planned behaviour cognitions do not predict self-reported or objective physical activity levels or change in the ProActive trial.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, Wendy; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Michie, Susan; Sutton, Stephen

    2011-02-01

    The objective was to test, in a trial cohort of sedentary adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes, whether theory of planned behaviour (TPB) cognitions about becoming more physically active predicted objective and self-reported activity levels and change. Participants of a randomized controlled trial underwent measurement at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Participants (N= 365, 30-50 years) were recruited via their parent or family history registers at 20 general practices in the UK. Energy expenditure was measured objectively at baseline and 1 year. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity and beliefs about becoming more physically active over the next year at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Between baseline and 12 months, objective energy expenditure in the cohort increased by an average of 20 minutes of brisk walking per day. Based on the 252 participants who provided complete data, affective attitude and perceived behavioural control consistently predicted intention, but intention and perceived behavioural control failed to predict physical activity levels or change (p-values > .05). Failure of the theory to predict behaviour and behaviour change may be due to inapplicability of the theory to this at-risk population or to trial participation and intensive measurement facilitating behaviour change without affecting measured cognitions, or lack of correspondence between cognitive and behavioural measures. A wide range of potential personal and environmental mediators should be considered when designing physical activity interventions among at-risk groups. High-quality experimental tests of the theory are needed in clinical populations. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  1. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h(2), fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.

  2. Feasibility of Using Computer-Tailored and Internet-Based Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in Underserved Populations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David M.; Dunsiger, Shira; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Lewis, Beth A.; Jakicic, John M.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Computer-tailored and Internet-based interventions to promote physical activity behavior have shown some promise, but only few have been tested among African Americans. We examined the feasibility and efficacy of three 1-year, multiple contact physical activity interventions (Tailored Internet, Tailored Print, Standard Internet) in a subsample of African American participants (n = 38) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Participants randomly assigned to Tailored Internet and Print programs received individually tailored computer expert system feedback delivered via Internet or print. Participants in the Standard Internet program received access to six currently available physical activity Web sites. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and 6 and 12 months with the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall. Results: Across all participants, physical activity changed from 17.24 min/week (standard deviation [SD] = 20.72) at baseline to 139.44 min/week (SD = 99.20) at 6 months, to 104.26 min/week (SD = 129.14) at 12 months. According to available consumer satisfaction data (n  = 30), 70% reported reading most or all of the physical activity information received by Internet or mail. Most participants described the Internet- and print-based physical activity programs as “somewhat” or “very” helpful (80%) and enjoyable (87%). Conclusions: These findings suggest that computer-tailored and Internet-based interventions are able to produce long-term increases in physical activity and associated process variables among African American participants. Future studies with larger numbers of African American participants are needed to determine which of the programs (Tailored Print, Tailored Internet, Standard Internet) are more effective and what program modifications might be helpful in assisting this population in becoming more active. PMID:20507203

  3. Predicting Outcome 12 Months after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Patients Admitted to a Neurosurgery Service.

    PubMed

    Hellstrøm, Torgeir; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andelic, Nada; Soberg, Helene L; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Helseth, Eirik; Andreassen, Ole A; Westlye, Lars T

    2017-01-01

    Accurate outcome prediction models for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are key for prognostic assessment and clinical decision-making. Using multivariate machine learning, we tested the unique and added predictive value of (1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain morphometric and volumetric characterization at 4-week postinjury and (2) demographic, preinjury, injury-related, and postinjury variables on 12-month outcomes, including global functioning level, postconcussion symptoms, and mental health in patients with MTBI. A prospective, cohort study of patients (n = 147) aged 16-65 years with a 12-month follow-up. T1-weighted 3 T MRI data were processed in FreeSurfer, yielding accurate cortical reconstructions for surface-based analyses of cortical thickness, area, and volume, and brain segmentation for subcortical and global brain volumes. The 12-month outcome was defined as a composite score using a principal component analysis including the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended, Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Using leave-one-out cross-validation and permutation testing, we tested and compared three prediction models: (1) MRI model, (2) clinical model, and (3) MRI and clinical combined. We found a strong correlation between observed and predicted outcomes for the clinical model (r = 0.55, p < 0.001). The MRI model performed at the chance level (r = 0.03, p = 0.80) and the combined model (r = 0.45, p < 0.002) were slightly weaker than the clinical model. Univariate correlation analyses revealed the strongest association with outcome for postinjury factors of posttraumatic stress (Posttraumatic Symptom Scale-10, r = 0.61), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, r = 0.52), and widespread pain (r = 0.43) assessed at 8 weeks. We found no added predictive value of MRI-based measures of brain cortical morphometry and subcortical volumes

  4. Severity of 12-Month DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, Jane; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2012-01-01

    Context Estimates of DSM-IV disorder prevalence are high; stringent criteria to define need for services are desired. Objective To present US national data on the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of 12-month serious emotional disturbance (SED), defined by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Design The National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement is a national survey of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders among US adolescents. Setting Dual-frame household and school samples of US adolescents. Participants Total of 6483 pairs of adolescents aged 13 to 17 (interviews) and parents (questionnaires). Main Outcome Measures The DSM-IV disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview and validated with blinded clinical interviews based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. Serious emotional disturbance was operationalized as a DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorder with a score of 50 or less on the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (ie, moderate impairment in most areas of functioning or severe impairment in at least 1 area). Concordance of Composite International Diagnostic Interview SED diagnoses with blinded Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children diagnoses was good. Results The estimated prevalence of SED was 8.0%. Most SEDs were due to behavior (54.5%) or mood (31.4%) disorders. Although respondents with 3 or more disorders made up only 29.0% of those with 12-month DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorders, they constituted 63.5% of SEDs. Predictive effects of high comorbidity were significantly greater than the product of their disorder-specific odds ratios and consistent across disorder types. Associations of sociodemographic variables with SED

  5. The influence of physical activity on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers participating in an alcohol treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Dubbert, Patricia M; Olivier, Jake; Businelle, Michael S; Grothe, Karen B

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that physical activity may be beneficial for individuals attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption, although few studies have actually tested this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to describe the physical activity of 620 male veterans enrolled in a treatment intervention study for heavy drinkers, and to determine whether greater involvement in physical activity was associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Participants endorsed moderate physical activity at the baseline visit (median=1.65 kcal/kg/day expended from physical activity), although physical activity declined during over time, p=.011. The most frequently endorsed activities included walking, gardening/yardwork, calisthenics, biking, swimming, weight lifting, golfing, and dancing. Regression analyses revealed no significant relationships between energy expenditure from physical activity and reductions in alcohol consumption at the six- and 12-month visits. Findings suggest that engaging in physical activity does not enhance treatment outcomes within interventions that do not specifically aim to increase physical activity. However, commonly endorsed activities may be easily incorporated into interventions in which physical activity is a desired component.

  6. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  7. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  8. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  9. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  10. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  11. Physical activity and resting pulse rate in older adults: findings from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Pahor, Marco; Buford, Thomas W.; Dodson, John A.; Forman, Daniel E.; Gill, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated resting pulse rate (RPR) is a well-recognized risk factor for adverse outcomes. Epidemiological evidence supports the beneficial effects of regular exercise for lowering RPR, but studies are mainly confined to persons younger than 65 years. We set out to evaluate the utility of a physical activity (PA) intervention for slowing RPR among older adults. Methods A total of 424 seniors (ages 70-89 years) were randomized to a moderate intensity PA intervention or an education-based “successful aging” (SA) health program. RPR was assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Longitudinal differences in RPR were evaluated between treatment groups using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, reporting unstandardized beta coefficients (β) with robust standard errors (SE). Results Increased frequency and duration of aerobic training was observed for the PA group at 6 and 12 months as compared with the SA group (P <0.001). In both groups, RPR remained unchanged over the course of the 12-month study period (P =0.67). No significant improvement was observed (β [SE] = 0.58 [0.88], P =0.51) for RPR when treatment groups were compared using the GEE method. Comparable results were found after omitting participants with a pacemaker, cardiac arrhythmia, or who were receiving beta-blockers. Conclusions Twelve months of moderate intensity aerobic training did not improve RPR among older adults. Additional studies are needed to determine whether physical activity of longer duration and/or greater intensity can slow RPR in older persons. PMID:25262271

  12. Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal disorders were given to graduated dentists attending Indian dental conference in Mumbai, to know the musculoskeletal pain experienced in the last 12 months and feedback was obtained from 220 dentists. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentists was 34.5%. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 10.5%, 21.7%, and 45.6% in dentists with regular yoga practice, other physical activity, and no physical activity, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists who were practicing yoga when compared with those in no regular activity group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, there was significant role of physical activity on the quality and quantity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders experienced by dentists. Yoga was found to be more effective than other modes of physical activities. More research is needed on musculoskeletal problems in dentists, with an emphasis on larger sample sizes and correlating other factors like age and sex of the dentists, duration of practice, years of practicing yoga, and working hours per week. PMID:26236679

  13. Effects of a 12-month educational intervention on outpatient clinicians’ attitudes and behaviors concerning spiritual practices with patients

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Harold G; Perno, Kathleen; Hamilton, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Objective We report here the impact of an educational training program on attitudes and practices of physicians (MDs) and mid-level practitioners (MLPs) toward controversial spiritual practices, such as practitioner-led prayer, sharing personal religious beliefs, and encouraging patients’ religious beliefs. Methods In this single-group experimental study, 427 physicians and 93 MLPs affiliated with the Adventist Health System agreed to complete a questionnaire assessing demographics, practice characteristics, religiosity, and attitudes and behaviors at baseline, 1 month, and 12 months. Changes in attitudes and practices over time were examined and baseline predictors were identified using mixed-effects regression models. Results For the most part, attitudes regarding praying with patients, sharing faith with patients, and encouraging patients’ own religious faith did not change much during the 12-month educational training program. However, significant increases were found in frequency of praying with patients (MDs and MLPs), willingness to pray with patients (MDs), sharing their faith with patients (MDs), and encouraging patient’s own religious faith (MDs and MLPs). Among physicians, predictors of praying with patients across time were older age, Christian affiliation, and importance of religion, and among MLPs, they were older age, non-White race, and importance of religion. No interaction between time and religiosity was found. Conclusion Although attitudes toward these mostly controversial practices were largely unaffected, the frequency of praying with patients, sharing faith, and supporting patient’s own religious faith increased over time in both religious and nonreligious clinicians. Educational programs of this type may be important in changing clinicians’ behaviors regarding appropriate and sensitive engagement in such activities with patients. PMID:28210172

  14. [Angioplasty of the renal arteries. Our experience with a 12-month follow-up].

    PubMed

    Simonetti, G; Rossi, P; Passariello, R; Pesce, B; Rovasio, S S; Urigo, F; Canalis, G C; Tomiselli, A

    1983-09-01

    We have treated 56 stenoses of renal arteries in 50 patients in which a renin assay indicated renovascular hypertension. In this paper we refer only to 40 cases of renal arteries angioplasty in 37 patients (3 cases of bilateral stenoses) with a clinical follow-up of 12 months. 25 lesions were of arteriosclerotic nature, while 15 were due to fibromuscular displasia. Results demonstrated that angioplasty resolved hypertensive conditions (either with or without medical therapy) in 82% of the cases of arteriosclerotic lesions and in 86% of the stenoses due to fibromuscular displasia. Although extremely rare, the complications that may occur with this procedure are very serious (arterial rupture, acute thrombosis, peripheral embolization). Out of utmost importance is a close collaboration with a vascular surgeon. Without doubt angioplasty will bring about radical changes in the preparation of therapeutical protocol and in some selected cases to improve renal function.

  15. Proteomic characterization of human milk fat globule membrane proteins during a 12 month lactation period.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-08-05

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) contains proteins which have been implicated in a variety of health benefits. Milk fat globule membrane proteins were isolated from human milk during a 12 month lactation period and subjected to in-solution digestion and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Data were pooled, and our results showed that 191 proteins were identified. Relative quantification of the identified MFGM proteins during the course of lactation was performed by label free spectral counting and differentiation expression analysis, which showed some proteins decreasing during the course of lactation whereas some increased or remained at a relatively constant level. The human MFGM proteins are distributed between intracellular, extracellular, and membrane-associated proteins, and they are mainly involved in cell communication and signal transduction, immune function, metabolism and energy production. This study provides more insights into the dynamic composition of human MFGM proteins, which in turn will enhance our understanding of the physiological significance of MFGM proteins.

  16. 77 FR 60509 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding for the Lemmon Fleabane...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list as an endangered or threatened species Erigeron lemmonii (Lemmon fleabane). After a review of the best available scientific information we find that listing the Lemmon fleabane as an endangered or threatened species is no longer warranted, and therefore we are removing this species from the candidate list. We propose to list Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis (acu[ntilde]a cactus) and Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae (Fickeisen plains cactus) as an endangered species, and we propose to designate critical habitat for both cactus species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If finalized, the effect of these regulations would be to add acu[ntilde]a cactus and Fickeisen plains cactus to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants and to designate critical habitat for these species.

  17. Gender and discipline in 5-12-month-old infants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ahl, Richard Evan; Fausto-Sterling, Anne; García-Coll, Cynthia; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    We examined the effects of infant age and gender on the behaviors of infants and mothers during discipline interactions using longitudinal, naturalistic, home-based, taped observations of 16 mother-infant dyads (eight males and eight females). These observations were conducted between the child ages of 5 and 12 months and used a devised Maternal Discipline Coding System to code for the occurrence of discipline events. During discipline interactions, mothers vocalized longer, used harsher tones, and used more explanations with older compared to younger infants. Male infants were more likely than female infants to cry or whine during discipline events. Mothers of male infants used longer vocalizations, more words, and more affectionate terms than mothers of female infants. Male infants were more difficult during discipline interactions than female infants, but it appeared that mothers of males responded to this difficulty by using milder discipline techniques.

  18. Early childhood caries (ECC): a preventive-conservative treatment mode during a 12-month period.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Benjamin; Gluck, George

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate a preventive treatment mode for early childhood caries (ECC). The population to be studied included 30 children who, over a 12-month period, presented with ECC to a private dental clinic. Parents preferred non-invasive, preventive treatment over restorations. Parents were given hygiene and proper feeding instructions. Mesial slicing was performed where proximal caries was observed. Children were examined once every two months. They received supervised professional topical fluoride treatment. Plaque level, brushing, stopping the bottle, eating sweets, appearance of new lesions or exacerbation of existing condition were observed and recorded. In the vast majority of patients, the progression of ECC was arrested after the preventive regimen. Three children required restorations. They had failed to limit sugar consumption and to comply with brushing instruction. General improvement was observed in plaque control, brushing habits and sweets consumption. Preventive measures may successfully arrest ECC and thereby avoid invasive procedures as well as the need of anesthesia.

  19. Factors associated with parental perception of child vulnerability 12 months after abnormal newborn screening results.

    PubMed

    Tluczek, Audrey; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L

    2011-10-01

    We identified factors associated with elevated parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) 12 months after newborn screening (NBS) of 136 children: healthy, normal results (H, n = 37), cystic fibrosis carriers (CF-C, n = 40), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n = 36), and cystic fibrosis (CF, n = 23). Controlling for infant and parent characteristics, mixed logit structural equation modeling showed direct paths to elevated PPCV included parent female sex, CF diagnosis, and high documented illness frequency. PPCV was positively associated with maternal parenting stress. Infants with CF and CF carriers had significantly more documented illness frequency than H group infants. The CH group did not differ significantly from the H group and had no paths to PPCV. Unexpectedly high documented illness frequency among infants who are CF carriers warrants further investigation.

  20. Pointing as Epistemic Request: 12-month-olds Point to Receive New Information.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Ágnes M; Tauzin, Tibor; Téglás, Ernő; Gergely, György; Csibra, Gergely

    2014-11-01

    Infants start pointing systematically to objects or events around their first birthday. It has been proposed that infants point to an event in order to share their appreciation of it with others. In the current study, we tested another hypothesis, according to which infants' pointing could also serve as an epistemic request directed to the adult. Thus, infants' motivation for pointing could include the expectation that adults would provide new information about the referent. In two experiments, an adult reacted to 12-month-olds' pointing gestures by exhibiting 'informing' or 'sharing' behavior. In response, infants pointed more frequently across trials in the informing than in the sharing condition. This suggests that the feedback that contained new information matched infants' expectations more than mere attention sharing. Such a result is consistent with the idea that not just the comprehension but also the production of early communicative signals is tuned to assist infants' learning from others.

  1. The role of verbal labels on flexible memory retrieval at 12-months of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gemma; Liu, Hao; Herbert, Jane S

    2016-11-01

    The provision of verbal labels enhances 12-month-old infants' memory flexibility across a form change in a puppet imitation task (Herbert, 2011), although the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Here we investigate whether verbal labels can scaffold flexible memory retrieval when task difficulty increases and consider the mechanism responsible for the effect of language cues on early memory flexibility. Twelve-month-old infants were provided with English, Chinese, or empty language cues during a difficult imitation task, a combined change in the puppet's colour and form at the test (Hayne et al., 1997). Imitation performance by infants in the English language condition only exceeded baseline performance after the 10-min delay. Thus, verbal labels facilitated flexible memory retrieval on this task. There were no correlations between infants' language comprehension and imitation performance. Thus, it is likely that verbal labels facilitate both attention and categorisation during encoding and retrieval.

  2. Cognitive status is a determinant of health resource utilization among individuals with a history of falls: a 12-month prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Davis, J C; Dian, L; Khan, K M; Bryan, S; Marra, C A; Hsu, C L; Jacova, P; Chiu, B K; Liu-Ambrose, T

    2016-03-01

    Falls are a costly public health problem worldwide. The literature is devoid of prospective data that identifies factors among fallers that significantly drive health care resource utilization. We found that cognitive function--specifically, executive functions--and cognitive status are significant determinants of health resource utilization among older fallers. Although falls are costly, there are no prospective data examining factors among fallers that drive health care resource utilization. We identified key determinants of health resource utilization (HRU) at 6 and 12 months among older adults with a history of falls. Specifically, with the increasing recognition that cognitive impairment is associated with increased falls risk, we investigated cognition as a potential driver of health resource utilization. This 12-month prospective cohort study at the Vancouver Falls Prevention Clinic (n = 319) included participants with a history of at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Based on their cognitive status, participants were divided into two groups: (1) no mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (2) MCI. We constructed two linear regression models with HRU at 6 and 12 months as the dependent variables for each model, respectively. Predictors relating to mobility, global cognition, executive functions, and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI) were examined. Age, sex, comorbidities, depression status, and activities of daily living were included regardless of statistical significance. Global cognition, comorbidities, working memory, and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI ascertained using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)) were significant determinants of total HRU at 6 months. The number of medical comorbidities and global cognition were significant determinants of total HRU at 12 months. MCI status was a determinant of HRU at 6 months among older adults with a history of falls. As such, efforts to minimize health care resource use related to falls

  3. Cognitive status is a determinant of health resource utilization among individuals with a history of falls: a 12-month prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer C.; Dian, Larry; Khan, Karim M.; Bryan, Stirling; Marra, Carlo A.; Hsu, Chun Liang; Jacova, Patrizio; Chiu, Bryan K; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although falls are costly there are no prospective data examining factors among fallers that drive health care resource utilization. We identified key determinants of health resource utilization (HRU) at 6 and 12 months among older adults with a history of falls. Specifically, with the increasing recognition that cognitive impairment is associated with increased falls risk, we investigated cognition as a potential driver of health resource utilisation. Methods This 12-month prospective cohort study at the Vancouver Falls Prevention Clinic (n=319) included participants with a history of at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Based on their cognitive status, participants were divided into two groups: 1) No Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 2) MCI. We constructed two linear regression models with HRU at 6 and 12 months as the dependent variables for each model, respectively. Predictors relating to mobility, global cognition, executive functions and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI) were examined. Age, sex, comorbidities, depression status and activities of daily living were included regardless of statistical significance. Results Global cognition, comorbidities, working memory and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI ascertained using the MoCA) were significant determinants of total HRU at 6 months. The number of medical comorbidities and global cognition were significant determinants of total HRU at 12 months. Conclusion MCI status was a determinant of HRU at 6 months among older adults with a history of falls. As such, efforts to minimize health care resource use related to falls, it is important to tailor future interventions to be effective for people with MCI who fall. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01022866 PMID:26449355

  4. Changes in health-related quality of life in people with morbid obesity attending a learning and mastery course. A longitudinal study with 12-months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Andenæs, Randi; Fagermoen, May S; Eide, Hilde; Lerdal, Anners

    2012-08-18

    Severe obesity is a complex condition that is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In addition to physiological factors, activity and participation, environmental factors, and personal factors are related to an individual's overall quality of life HRQoL. In Norway, a course based on cognitive behavioral principles is offered to people seeking medical treatment for weight management. The aim is to assist participants to achieve a healthier lifestyle and thereby improve their HRQoL. We therefore investigated changes in HRQoL in participants after they attended this learning and mastery course, and explored how well sociodemographic variables, paid work, social support, personal factors, and surgery predicted HRQoL at 12-month follow-up. A single-group longitudinal study was conducted. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaires. This article reports on those who had completed the questionnaire at the 12-month (n = 69) follow-up. HRQoL was assessed with the EQ-5D. Other standardized instruments measured employment, social support, self-efficacy, and surgery. At the 12-month follow-up, participants scored higher on all dimensions of the EQ-5D and on the EQ-VAS. Generalized linear model showed that having paid work, and social support were statistically significant predictors of HRQoL at the 12-month follow-up. Sex, self-efficacy, and surgery were not statistically significant associated with HRQoL. Participation in paid work, and receiving social support from persons with whom they had a close relationship were strongly related to HRQoL in obese people 12 months after participating in a learning and mastery course. The study is registered in Clinical Trials: NCT01336725.

  5. Centile reference charts for total energy expenditure in infants from 1 to 12 months.

    PubMed

    Reichman, C A; Davies, P S W; Wells, J C K; Atkin, L-M; Cleghorn, G; Shepherd, R W

    2003-09-01

    A knowledge of energy expenditure in infancy is required for the estimation of recommended daily amounts of food energy, for designing artificial infant feeds, and as a reference standard for studies of energy metabolism in disease states. The objectives of this study were to construct centile reference charts for total energy expenditure (TEE) in infants across the first year of life. Repeated measures of TEE using the doubly labeled water technique were made in 162 infants at 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. In total, 322 TEE measurements were obtained. The LMS method with maximum penalized likelihood was used to construct the centile reference charts. Centiles were constructed for TEE expressed as MJ/day and also expressed relative to body weight (BW) and fat-free mass (FFM). TEE increased with age and was 1.40,1.86, 2.64, 3.07 and 3.65 MJ/day at 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. The standard deviations were 0.43, 0.47, 0.52,0.66 and 0.88, respectively. TEE in MJ/kg increased from 0.29 to 0.36 and in MJ/day/kg FFM from 0.36 to 0.48. We have presented centile reference charts for TEE expressed as MJ/day and expressed relative to BW and FFM in infants across the first year of life. There was a wide variation or biological scatter in TEE values seen at all ages. We suggest that these centile charts may be used to assess and possibly quantify abnormal energy metabolism in disease states in infants.

  6. Lateral wedge insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis: 12 month randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Payne, Craig; Cicuttini, Flavia; Williamson, Elizabeth; Forbes, Andrew; Hanna, Fahad; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Harris, Anthony; Hinman, Rana S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of lateral wedge insoles compared with flat control insoles on improving symptoms and slowing structural disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 200 people aged 50 or more with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of mild to moderately severe medial knee osteoarthritis. Interventions Full length 5 degree lateral wedged insoles or flat control insoles worn inside the shoes daily for 12 months. Main outcome measures Primary symptomatic outcome was change in overall knee pain (past week) measured on an 11 point numerical rating scale. Primary structural outcome was change in volume of medial tibial cartilage from magnetic resonance imaging scans. Secondary clinical outcomes included changes in measures of pain, function, stiffness, and health related quality of life. Secondary structural outcomes included progression of medial cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions. Results Between group differences did not differ significantly for the primary outcomes of change in overall pain (−0.3 points, 95% confidence intervals −1.0 to 0.3) and change in medial tibial cartilage volume (−0.4 mm3, 95% confidence interval −15.4 to 14.6), and confidence intervals did not include minimal clinically important differences. None of the changes in secondary outcomes showed differences between groups. Conclusion Lateral wedge insoles worn for 12 months provided no symptomatic or structural benefits compared with flat control insoles. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTR12605000503628 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415259. PMID:21593096

  7. Neurocognitive outcome 12 months following cerebellar mutism syndrome in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Shawna L.; Hassall, Tim; Evankovich, Karen; Mabbott, Donald J.; Bonner, Melanie; Deluca, Cinzia; Cohn, Richard; Fisher, Michael J.; Morris, E. Brannon; Broniscer, Alberto; Gajjar, Amar

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to prospectively assess early neurocognitive outcome of children who developed cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) following surgical resection of a posterior fossa embryonal tumor, compared with carefully matched control patients. Children who were enrolled on an ongoing IRB-approved protocol for treatment of embryonal tumors, were diagnosed with postoperative CMS, and had completed prospectively planned neuropsychological evaluation at 12 months postdiagnosis were considered eligible. The cognitive outcomes of these patients were examined in comparison to patients without CMS from the same treatment protocol and matched with regard to primary diagnosis, age at diagnosis, and risk/corresponding treatment (n = 22 pairs). Seventeen were also matched according to gender, and 14 were also matched according to race. High-risk patients received 36–39.6 Gy CSI and 3D conformal boost to the primary site to 55.8–59.4 Gy. Average-risk patients received 23.4 Gy CSI and 3D conformal boost to the primary site to 55.8 Gy. Significant group differences were found on multiple cognitive outcomes. While the matched control patients exhibited performance in the average range, patients who developed CMS postsurgery were found to have significantly lower performance in processing speed, attention, working memory, executive processes, cognitive efficiency, reading, spelling, and math. Patients treated for medulloblastoma who experience postoperative CMS show an increased risk for neurocognitive impairment, evident as early as 12 months following diagnosis. This study highlights the need for careful follow-up with neuropsychological evaluation and for obtaining critical support for patients and their families. PMID:20713408

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of BASICS for Heavy Drinking Mandated and Volunteer Undergraduates: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy drinking volunteers up to one year post-intervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; Mage = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. At 4 weeks post-intervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer) BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months post-intervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared to controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to one year post-intervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. PMID:25844834

  9. Poor histological healing of a femoral fracture following 12 months of oestrogen deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Oliver, R A; Yu, Y; Yee, G; Low, A K; Diwan, A D; Walsh, W R

    2013-10-01

    Fractures in post-menopausal osteoporosis cause significant morbidity; however, animal models for post-menopausal fracture healing lack the effect of ageing. Therefore, we developed a model using aged animals with chronic oestrogen deficiency, which demonstrates inferior fracture repair (decreased healing histologically, bone mineral density and content and strength). This novel model may help develop molecular strategies for osteoporotic fracture repair. The femur is susceptible to damage by both systemic conditions such as osteoporosis and locally by traumatic injury. The capacity for fracture repair decreases with age, while the risk of fracture increases. As studies of osteoporotic fracture healing in rats traditionally use a period of 3 months or less of oestrogen deficiency prior to fracturing, we aimed to establish a osteoporosis model in rats with chronic oestrogen deficiency by 12 months to better mimic human female osteoporosis. Seventy female Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were ovariectomised or sham operated and housed for 12 months. The right femur was fractured by way of an open osteotomy and fixed with an intramedullary Kirschner wire. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 weeks for radiography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, tensile testing and histology. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were lower by 60 and 63 %, respectively, (p < 0.05) in the bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) groups than those in the sham groups at 6 weeks in the right fractured femurs. Maximum breaking force of the OVX group was lower than that of the sham group, with the greatest difference seen at 6 weeks following osteotomy. Histologically, the OVX groups demonstrated a delay in cellular differentiation within the fracture callus and the presence of bone resorption. The sham animals had a superior histological healing pattern with an Allen score of 4 at 6 weeks compared to a score of 1 for the OVX groups (p < 0.01). Long-term ovariectomy has a

  10. Weight loss effects from vegetable intake: a 12-month randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tapsell, L C; Batterham, M J; Thorne, R L; O'Shea, J E; Grafenauer, S J; Probst, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Direct evidence for the effects of vegetable intake on weight loss is qualified. The study aimed to assess the effect of higher vegetable consumption on weight loss. Subjects/Methods: A single blind parallel controlled trial was conducted with 120 overweight adults (mean body mass index=29.98 kg/m2) randomised to two energy deficit healthy diet advice groups differing only by doubling the serving (portion) sizes of vegetables in the comparator group. Data were analysed as intention-to-treat using a linear mixed model. Spearmans rho bivariate was used to explore relationships between percentage energy from vegetables and weight loss. Results: After 12 months, the study sample lost 6.5±5.2 kg (P<0.001 time) with no difference between groups (P>0.05 interaction). Both groups increased vegetable intake and lost weight in the first 3 months, and the change in weight was significantly correlated with higher proportions of energy consumed as vegetables (rho=–0.217, P=0.024). Fasting glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels decreased (P<0.001 time) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased (P<0.001 time), with no difference between groups. Weight loss was sustained for 12 months by both groups, but the comparator group reported greater hunger satisfaction (P=0.005). Conclusions: Advice to consume a healthy low-energy diet leads to sustained weight loss, with reductions in cardiovascular disease risk factors regardless of an emphasis on more vegetables. In the short term, consuming a higher proportion of the dietary energy as vegetables may support a greater weight loss and the dietary pattern appears sustainable. PMID:24667750

  11. Association Between Blood Transfusions and 12-Month Mortality After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Kleczynski, Pawel; Dziewierz, Artur; Bagienski, Maciej; Rzeszutko, Lukasz; Sorysz, Danuta; Trebacz, Jaroslaw; Sobczynski, Robert; Tomala, Marek; Stapor, Maciej; Dudek, Dariusz

    2017-02-07

    Blood transfusions are considered as an important predictor of adverse outcome in patients with severe aortic (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We sought to investigate the association between blood transfusions and mortality after TAVI. We enrolled 101 consecutive patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. Patients who required transfusion were defined as patients in whom at least one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) was transfused in the perioperative period. Twelve-month outcomes were assessed based on Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. A total of 28 (27.7%) patients required blood transfusion after TAVI. Baseline characteristics of the patients with and without a transfusion were similar. Median amount of PRBCs was 2 (interquartile range, 2-4). Twelvemonth all-cause mortality was higher in patients with than without a blood transfusion (39.3% versus 9.6%; P = 0.001). Importantly, the need for a blood transfusion after TAVI was an independent predictor of higher mortality rates after 12 months (hazard ratio (HR) 2.84 95%CI (1.06-7.63); P = 0.039; (HR for incomplete coronary revascularization 10.86, 95%CI 3.72-31.73; P < 0.001; HR for a history of stroke/TIA 3.93, 95%CI 1.39-11.07; P < 0.001). The duration of inhospital stay was longer in patients requiring transfusion (16.0 (14.0-22.0) versus 7.0 (7.0-11.5) days; P = 0.014). In conclusion, blood transfusions after TAVI were associated with higher mortality rates after 12 months, longer in-hospital stay, and were identified as an independent predictor of impaired clinical outcome.

  12. Factors associated with recurrent tuberculosis more than 12 months after treatment completion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lindsay; Moonan, Patrick K.; Heilig, Charles M.; Yelk Woodruff, Rachel S.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Haddad, Maryam B.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Even in persons with complete treatment of their first tuberculosis (TB) episode, patients with a TB history are at higher risk for having TB. Objective Describe factors from the initial TB episode associated with recurrent TB among patients who completed treatment and remained free of TB for at least 12 months. Design US TB cases, stratified by birth origin, during 1993–2006 were examined. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to assess the association of factors during the initial episode with recurrence at least 12 months after treatment completion. Results Among 632 US-born patients, TB recurrence was associated with age 25–44 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.77, 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–3.09, attributable fraction [AF] 1%–34%), substance use (aHR 1.57, 99%CI 1.23–2.02, AF 8%–22%), and treatment supervised by health departments (aHR 1.42, 99%CI 1.03–1.97, AF 2%–28%). Among 211 foreign-born patients, recurrence was associated with HIV infection (aHR 2.24, 99%CI 1.27–3.98, AF 2%–9%) and smear-positive TB (aHR 1.56, 99%CI 1.06–2.30, AF 3%–33%). Conclusion Factors associated with recurrence differed by birth origin and might be useful for anticipating greater risk for recurrent TB among certain patients with a TB history. PMID:26688528

  13. Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Zizzari, Philippe; Hage, Mirella; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Adam, Clovis; Viengchareun, Say; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Geoffroy, Valérie; Lombès, Marc; Tolle, Virginie; Guillou, Anne; Karhu, Auli; Kappeler, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model.

  14. [Physical activity and management of obese patients].

    PubMed

    Oppert, J M; Balarac, N

    2001-09-01

    Physical activity is recognized as an integral part of obesity treatment, in association with other therapeutic means. A major benefit of physical activity is the association with better long-term maintenance of weight loss. Physical activity has also positive psychological effects and increases quality of life. An evaluation of the usual level of physical activity and inactivity is needed for each patient. Physical activity counselling should be individualized and graded, in a perspective of individual progression. In subjects with massive obesity, remobilization based on physiotherapy techniques is the first step. All patients should be given simple advice to decrease sedentary behavior: use the stairs instead of the escalators, limit the time spent seated, etc. In general, current physical activity recommendations for the general population fit well with a majority of obese patients, i.e. a minimum of 30 minutes/day of moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking or equivalent) on most, and preferably all, days of the week. Physical activities of higher intensities (endurance training programme) can be proposed on an individual basis. The type of physical activity required for long-term weight maintenance, and the question of adherence to physical activity recommendations in obese patients should be further investigated.

  15. How Much Physical Activity Do Adults Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  16. The origins of 12-month attachment: a microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1 s time base; mother and infant facial-visual "engagement" variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual's own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual's behavior that were correlated with the partner's previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers

  17. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother

  18. A comparison of two short-term intensive physical activity interventions: methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increases in chronic illness due to sedentary lifestyles and poor metabolic fitness have led to numerous intervention strategies to promote physical activity (PA). This paper describes the methodological strategies of two short-term PA interventions. Outcome measures reported are PA adherence and compliance rates during the intervention and at 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Methods The 40-day interventions were: a pedometer-based walking program (n = 251) and a group-based intensive program (n = 148). There was also an active control group (n = 135). Intervention subjects were prescribed PA each day and required to record all activity sessions (pedometer steps or energy expenditure from heart rate monitors). Results Compliance (≥ 150 min/wk PA) was highest post-intervention (81.1% and 64.5% for the group and pedometer subjects, respectively) and then progressively decreased across the 12-month follow-up period (final compliance rates were 53.5% and 46.6%, respectively) although they remained significantly higher than pre-intervention rates (zero %). There was significantly higher adherence to 6 months (75.0% and 64.9%), and compliance to 3 months (64.9% and 51.0%), for group versus pedometer subjects. The active control group maintained the highest adherence and compliance rates across the study. Conclusions The group-based program resulted in higher adherence and compliance rates post-intervention although both types of interventions showed long-term effectiveness to increase activity patterns. PMID:22136578

  19. Prescribing physical activity in primary care.

    PubMed

    Fuscaldo, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Physical activity is a powerful weapon for individuals interested in health maintenance. Many benefits of regular physical activity are well known to the medical community including improved weight control, healthier cardiovascular system, and tighter diabetic control. Less recognized benefits of physical activity may include stronger bones, better sleep, lower blood pressure, improved mood, opportunities for personal enjoyment, cancer prevention, and even a longer lifespan. Despite these numerous incentives, less than a quarter of the U.S. population is active enough to gain the rewards (13). West Virginians are among the least physically active; more than 40% of state residents engage in no leisure time physical activity at all (15), so it is critical that physicians in the state take a much more active role in prescribing physical activity for their patients. Although more research is needed, data exists to suggest counseling by physicians does result in increased physical activity (20-23). Attention to risk factors and specific red flags can help decide when formal pre-exercise stress testing is necessary. An organized approach includes development of the mode, frequency, duration, intensity and progression of exercise by a physician who knows the patient's interests and limitations (28). The most current consensus guidelines suggest 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily (12). Physicians need to encourage this goal during office visits and there appears to be benefit in putting specific physical activity advice in the form of a written prescription (21).

  20. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of 12-Month tobacco dependence among ever-smokers in South Korea, during 1984-2001.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Hae-Woo; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae-Nam; Park, Jong Ik; Kim, Jang-Kyu; Bae, Ahn; Park, Jong Han; Chung, Eun-Kee; Shin, Jong-Ho; Choi, Yong-Seoung; Chung, In-Won; Lee, Hyo Jung; Cho, Maeng Je

    2008-04-01

    The rate of dependence among ever-users of a drug indicates the risk of developing dependence once an individual has been exposed to the drug. This is the first study to investigate 12-month tobacco dependence (TD) among ever-smokers in a community-based population. Analyses were based on two national studies of representative samples aged 18-64 in 1984 (n=5,025) and in 2001 (n=6,275), conducted with household visits and face-to-face interviews. The rates of 12-month TD among ever-smokers in men showed no significant difference between 51.6% in 1984 and 50.6% in 2001. On the contrary, the rates in women significantly increased from 33.3% in 1984 to 52.8% in 2001. After adjusting for the sociodemographic variables, 'male gender' was significantly associated with 12-month TD among eversmokers in 1984, but not in 2001. 'Unmarried' was significantly associated in 2001 but not in 1984. 'Alcohol dependence' was the only psychiatric disorder associated with 12-month TD in both study years. In conclusion, 12-month TD was found in about 50% of ever-smokers, and gender differences between the rates of 12-month TD which was observed in 1984 disappeared in 2001. Individuals with 12-month TD showed higher comorbidity with alcohol dependence than ever-smokers without TD.

  1. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in Chinese adolescents aged 12-14 years: a 12-month, dose-response, randomised intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-ming; Huang, Zhen-wu; Yang, Xiao-guang; Su, Yi-xiang

    2014-11-14

    A 12-month, dose-response, randomised, intervention trial was conducted to determine adequate Ca intake levels for Chinese adolescents by investigating the effect of Ca supplementation on bone mineral accretion. A total of 220 Han adolescents (111 girls and 109 boys) aged 12-14 years were recruited. All subjects were randomly divided into three groups. The bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (L1-L4), left hip and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Girls in the high-Ca group (actual Ca intake: 1243 (sd 193) mg/d) exhibited greater increases in the femoral neck BMC compared with those in the low-Ca group (9·7 v. 6·4 %, P =0·04) over the 1-year intervention period. The increases in femoral neck BMC were greater in boys in the high-Ca and medium-Ca groups (actual Ca intake: 985 (sd 168) mg/d) than in those in the low-Ca group (15·7 v. 11·7 %, P =0·03; 15·8 v. 11·7 %, P =0·03). Ca supplementation had significant effects on the whole-body BMC and BMD in subjects with physical activity levels>34·86 metabolic equivalents and on the spine BMD and BMC and BMD of most sites in subjects with Tanner stage < 3. Increasing Ca intake levels with Ca supplementation enhanced femoral neck mineral acquisition in Chinese adolescents. Furthermore, high physical activity levels and low Tanner stage appeared to significantly contribute to the effect of Ca supplementation on bone mass. Whether this is a lasting beneficial effect leading to the optimisation of peak bone mass needs to be determined in other long-term prospective studies.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness and walking endurance improvements after 12 months of an individualised home and community-based exercise programme for people after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ashlee; Marsden, Dianne L; Barker, Daniel; Van Vliet, Paulette; Spratt, Neil J; Callister, Robin

    2017-09-05

    To evaluate the immediate and longer-term effects of an individually tailored, home- and community-based exercise programme with ongoing remote support in people with stroke on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), ambulation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Twenty people 5.3 ± 3.5 months post stroke completed the 12-week HowFITSS? exercise programme aimed at increasing CRF and daily physical activity. Support was provided by phone and email, which decreased in frequency over time. Participants were assessed at baseline, then at 3, 6 and 12 months after initiation of the intervention. CRF (VO2peak) was evaluated using a portable metabolic system during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Shuttle Walk Test (SWT) and the cycle graded exercise test (cGXT). Walking speed, balance, body composition, fatigue, depression and HRQoL were also measured. CRF improved significantly from pre-intervention to 12-month follow-up on the 6MWT (Effect Size, ES = 0.87; p = 0.002) and cGXT (ES = 0.60; p < 0.001), with more modest improvements on the SWT (ES = 0.52; p = 0.251). From baseline to 12 months, significant within-participant improvements were found for self-selected walking speed, balance and HRQoL. Performances on the remaining tests were maintained over the post-intervention period. There may be health benefits of providing people with stroke an exercise intervention with long-term support that encourages increased regular physical activity.

  3. Towards an Understanding of Change in Physical Activity from Pregnancy Through Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to describe the rationale, data collection, and proposed analyses for examination of mediators of change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum among a cohort of pregnant women. METHOD: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) Study enrolled 2006 pregnant women into the cohort from 2001 to 2005. All women lived in central North Carolina upon enrollment. Physical activity was assessed using a self-reported one week recall, measured twice during pregnancy and once each at 3- and 12-months postpartum. On a subset of women, one-week accelerometer measures were also collected during the two postpartum time periods. Potential mediators (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community) were collected during pregnancy and postpartum through interviews and take home questionnaires. RESULTS: To assess mediation of physical activity among our cohort, we will first describe change in physical activity and the mediators, as well as their associations, through pregnancy into the postpartum period. Following this, the product of coefficients approach will be applied to examine whether each measure had indirect effects on change in physical activity. Each individual level mediator will be examined one at a time and across the time points in which it was available. The Sobel standard error approximation formula will be used to test for significance of the mediation effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide evidence to develop appropriate interventions targeted at physical activity and will help focus efforts on the appropriate time periods between pregnancy and postpartum.

  4. Conceptual Physical Education Course and College Freshmen's Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shangguan, Rulan; Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Liu, Jingwen; Zhou, Ke; Clark, Langston; Leitner, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual physical education (CPE) courses play a critical role in promoting physical activity (PA) among students in American higher education settings. To date, however, very limited knowledge is available about the effectiveness of such courses. Aims: The primary purpose of the study was to examine effects of a CPE course on altering freshmen…

  5. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  6. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  7. Using Pedometers to Promote Physical Activity in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lori; Tannehill, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Some schools across the country have recently reduced the time and frequency that students spend participating in physical education. During the school day children spend considerably more time sitting and listening than they do moving and being physically active. Devoting more time to academics may be producing more knowledgeable and academically…

  8. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  9. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  10. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  11. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  12. Physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Frank; Tordi, Nicolas; Prati, Clément; Demougeot, Céline; Mougin, Fabienne; Wendling, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease and is associated with an excess risk of cardiovascular disease. For the general population, the World Health Organization has issued detailed recommendations on the type of physical activity appropriate for decreasing the cardiovascular risk. The objective of this work is to review available data on the effects of physical activity in patients with RA. RA is responsible for a marked decrease in physical activity. Physical activity significantly diminishes both the cardiovascular risk and the DAS 28. Vascular benefits from physical activity include improved endothelial function and slowing of the atherosclerotic process. Physical activity also has favorable effects on bone, slowing radiographic disease progression in small joints and increasing bone mineral density at the femoral neck, although these effects are not statistically significant. Finally, engaging in physical activity increases self-esteem, alleviates symptoms of depression, improves sleep quality, and decreases pain perception. Aerobic exercise is the most commonly advocated type of physical activity. Most interventions were of short duration (4 weeks) and involved aerobic activity (running or cycling) for 60minutes a day 5 days a week. Resistance training has been shown to decrease systemic inflammation and increase muscle strength. The main obstacles to physical activity in patients with RA are related to both the patients, who lack both motivation and knowledge, and the rheumatologists, who also lack knowledge and place insufficient emphasis on promoting physical activity. Physical activity provides many benefits in patients with RA and should be widely performed. Promoting physical activity should be among the objectives of therapeutic patient education for RA. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  14. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  15. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  16. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  17. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  18. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  19. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  20. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  1. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  2. Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazi, Robert P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A series of questions and answers helps teachers and leaders understand how much physical activity is enough for children and adolescents, discussing the guidelines used to make recommendations; childrens' and adolescents' unique physical activity needs; lifetime activity needs; and aerobic versus strength, endurance, and flexibility training. (SM)

  3. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Behavior of Physical Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    1995-01-01

    In this study researchers conducted exercise testing, collected data on demographics and physical activity, analyzed data by gender and major, and compared results with data on nonphysical education majors. The paper presents the results by category. (SM)

  5. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders in Japan: results from the final dataset of World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, H.; Kawakami, N.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006. Methods Face-to-face household interviews of 4,130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Results Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%), and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%), and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate, and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second

  6. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders in Japan: results from the final dataset of World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Kawakami, N; Kessler, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002-2006. Face-to-face household interviews of 4130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured, lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%) and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%) and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second most prevalent cause of

  7. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  8. Long-term effects of a single course of nicotine treatment in acute ulcerative colitis: remission maintenance in a 12-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Guslandi, M

    1999-11-01

    Patients with mild to moderate active colitis who are treated with mesalazine plus transdermal nicotine reportedly suffer fewer relapses than patients treated with mesalazine plus oral prednisone. A long-term follow-up period was carried out to confirm this. Thirty patients with remission of distal colitis after therapy with the above treatment schedules were monitored for 12 months (Rachmilewitz' activity index plus endoscopy). Relapsed patients were retreated in a cross-over fashion. After 12 months recurrences were observed in 14 of 15 patients initially treated with steroids and in 7 of 15 subjects who were had received transdermal nicotine (P = 0.007, Fisher's test). A higher proportion of relapsed patients from the prednisone group, after successful retreatment with nicotine patches, remained in remission after 6 months (20%) than relapsed patients who switched to steroid treatment (57%). Our present results confirm the concept that nicotine-induced remission of ulcerative colitis lasts longer than that obtained by oral corticosteroids.

  9. Treadmill Workstations: The Effects of Walking while Working on Physical Activity and Work Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J.; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U.; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees’ physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0–2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations. PMID:24586359

  10. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  11. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  12. Baseline Results from Hawaii's Nā Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  13. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    PubMed

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2017-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  15. Effects of physical activity on cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Na, Hye-Kyung; Oliynyk, Sergiy

    2011-07-01

    Results of most epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest an inverse relationship between regular exercise and the risk of certain malignancies, such as intestinal, colon, pancreatic, breast, lung, skin, mammary, endometrial, and prostate cancer. However, physical activity can have different influence on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply and the age of the subject as well as strength, frequency, and length of exercise. The biochemical and molecular basis of the interaction between aerobic physical activity and tumorigenic processes remains poorly understood. Physical activity may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a different extent. Mild oxidative stress caused by moderate physical activity can activate cellular stress response signaling and potentiate cellular antioxidant defense capacity. However, accumulation of relatively large amounts of ROS as a consequence of exhaustive exercise can either directly damage DNA, causing mutation, or promote tumorigenesis by activating proinflammatory signaling. This review highlights the effects of physical activity on various malignancies in the context of redox status modulated during exercise.

  16. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  17. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  18. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  19. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity.

  20. Psoriasis and physical activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P B; Bohjanen, K A; Ingraham, S J; Leon, A S

    2012-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease that can cause significant discomfort and impairment to quality of life. Recent research indicates that individuals with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are likely at greater risk for chronic cardiometabolic co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity can be an effective primary and adjunctive treatment for these maladies in other populations. Unfortunately, only a limited number of studies have examined physical activity in psoriasis, which are limited by poor design and lack of validated physical activity assessment methodologies. A variety of data suggest shared physiologic pathways between physical activity, psoriasis, and psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities. Increased adiposity, inflammation, oxidative stress, adhesion molecules and lipids are physiologically linked to psoriasis, the risk of psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities, and low levels of physical activity. In addition, epigenetic pathways are involved in psoriasis and could be influenced by physical activity. The physical and psychosocial impairments common in psoriasis may make it difficult to participate in regular physical activity, and future studies should aim to determine if physical activity interventions improve functioning and reduce co-morbidities in psoriasis.

  1. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  2. A 12-month follow-up study of people with dementia referred to general hospital liaison psychiatry services.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Bart; Lall, Ranjit; Gage, Heather; Holland, Caroline; Katz, Jeanne; Mitchell, Kate

    2013-11-01

    new services for patients with dementia in general hospitals are being widely developed. Little is known of outcomes after hospital for such patients. to establish outcomes for patients with dementia referred to general hospital psychiatric services. prospective cohort study. two UK general hospitals. referrals with dementia to liaison psychiatric services. eligible referrals (n = 112), and their carers, were assessed during admission, and at 6 and 12 months, using battery of health measurements. mortality at 6 months was 31% and at 12 months 40%. At baseline, 13% lived in a care home, rising to 84% by 6 months. Quality of life scores remained stable over 12 months, while carer stress fell significantly. Baseline clinical and demographic variables did not predict quality of life or carer stress at 6 and 12 months. dementia liaison services in general hospitals currently focus on poor outcome cases.

  3. Comparison of Bone Loss around Bone Platform Shift and Non-Bone Platform Shift Implants After 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Rokn, Amir Reza; Badri, Samareh; Rasouli Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Manasheof, Rebeca; Kharazi Fard, Mohamad Javad; Barikani, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present randomized clinical trial was to evaluate marginal bone loss around two types of implants modified at the neck area: Nobel Active and Nobel Replace Groovy, both manufactured by Nobel Biocare. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 Nobel Active and 21 Nobel Replace Groovy implants were included in the present study. The implants were placed based on the relevant protocol and patient inclusion and exclusion criteria. The amount of bone loss around implants was compared at 6 and 12-month intervals using digital periapical radiographs. Results: The mean bone loss values in the Nobel Active and Nobel Replace Groovy groups were 0.682 mm and 0.645 mm, respectively, with no statistically significant difference based on the results of independent t-test (P=0.802). Conclusion: Use of both implant types yielded favorable results, with high durability. The two implant types exhibited no superiority over each other in terms of bone loss. PMID:26622270

  4. Physical activity in youth dance classes.

    PubMed

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Peck, Emma; Bracy, Nicole L; Bonilla, Edith; Rincon, Patricia; Sallis, James F

    2015-06-01

    The majority of youth are not meeting the US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Dance is a popular activity, particularly for girls, and has the potential to increase physical activity for many youth. This study investigated physical activity of children and adolescents in 7 dance types: ballet, hip-hop, jazz, Latin-flamenco, Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico, partnered, and tap. Data were collected in 17 private studios and 4 community centers in San Diego, California. A total of 264 girls from 66 classes participated (n =154 children; n = 110 adolescents). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and activity levels during class were calculated. Participants recorded an average of 17.2 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (36% of class), but this varied by age and dance type. For children, dance type differences were observed with percent of class in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ranging from 13.6% (Latin-flamenco) to 57% (hip-hop). For adolescents, there were no differences across dance types. Children were more active than adolescents in all types except ballet. Children and adolescents were more active in private compared with community center classes. Overall, physical activity in youth dance classes was low; 8% of children and 6% of adolescents met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 30-minute guideline for after-school physical activity during dance. To increase physical activity in dance classes, teaching methods could be employed to increase activity in all types, or emphasis could be placed on greater participation in more active dance types. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Use of an open-loop system to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, James N; Lobarinas, Christina L; Barkley, Jacob E; White, Tressa M; Paluch, Rocco; Epstein, Leonard H

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an open-loop system that reinforces physical activity with TV watching to increase children's physical activity. Nonoverweight, sedentary boys and girls (8-12 y) were randomized to a group that received feedback of activity counts + reinforcement for physical activity by providing access to television (F+R, n = 20); or to feedback, no reinforcement (Feedback, n = 20) or no feedback, no reinforcement control (Control, n = 21) groups. Children wore an accelerometer with a count display for 4-months with a 1-year follow-up. F+R reduced TV by 68 min/day and TV time was lower than the Feedback (p < .005) and Control (p < .002) groups. TV time of F+R remained 31 min lower (p < .02) than baseline at 1-year. F+R had a 44% increase in physical activity, which was greater than the feedback (p < .04) and control (p < .01) groups. An open-loop system decreases TV viewing and increases physical activity of children for 4-months. TV of the F+R group remained lower at 12 months, suggesting a reduction in screen-time habits.

  6. Metronomic chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer to prolong time to treatment failure to 12 months or more

    PubMed Central

    KONTANI, KEIICHI; HASHIMOTO, SHIN-ICHIRO; MURAZAWA, CHISA; NORIMURA, SHOKO; TANAKA, HIROAKI; OHTANI, MASAHIRO; FUJIWARA-HONJO, NAOMI; DATE, MANABU; HOUCHI, HITOSHI; YOKOMISE, HIROYASU

    2013-01-01

    The objective of treatment for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is to control the disease or disease-related symptoms. Prolonged survival has also often been achieved by chemotherapeutic regimens in this setting. Long-term administration of one therapeutic regimen is essential for prolonging survival as well as for maintaining quality of life in these patients. In this study, we focused on time to treatment failure (TTF) as a parameter that predicts patient survival and we retrospectively compared clinical outcomes of patients with MBC who showed TTF of ≥12 months (26 patients) and <12 months (29 patients). The proportion of hormone receptor-positive tumors and the number of prior chemotherapy regimens for MBC were significantly higher and tumor grade was lower in patients with TTF ≥12 months compared to those with TTF <12 months. With regard to clinical outcomes, the objective response rate (ORR) in patients with TTF ≥12 months was significantly higher and median time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were longer compared to those with TTF <12 months. Of note, the proportion of patients who received metronomic regimens was significantly higher in patients with TTF ≥12 months compared to those with TTF <12 months (80.8 vs. 24.1%, P=0.00003). To assess the clinical benefit of metronomic regimens, the efficacy in patients receiving metronomic and those receiving non-metronomic regimens was compared. Although there was no difference in ORR between the two groups, median TTP and OS were significantly longer in the metronomic compared to the non-metronomic group (TTP: 30 vs. 4 months, P=0.0017; OS: 68 vs. 28 months, P=0.0005). The results suggested that metronomic chemotherapy is useful for palliative care and also improved clinical outcomes as a regimen for which long-term administration may be expected. PMID:24649151

  7. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Tara L; Tomayko, Emily J; Meinen, Amy M; Hoiting, Jill; Saxler, Courtney; Cullen, Bridget

    2016-07-20

    Training and Education (14.5 ± 6.5 at 12-months vs. 2.4 ± 3.8 at baseline, p < 0.01) and Physical Activity Policy (18.6 ± 4.6 at 12-months vs. 2.0 ± 4.1 at baseline, p < 0.01). Active Early promoted improvements in providing structured (i.e. teacher-led) physical activity beyond the recommended 60 daily minutes using low- to no-cost strategies along with training and environmental changes. Furthermore, it was observed that Active Early positively impacted child physical activity levels by the end of the intervention. However, resources, training, and technical assistance may be necessary for ECE programs to be successful beyond the use of the Active Early guide. Implementing local-level physical activity policies combined with support from local and statewide partners has the potential to influence higher standards for regulated ECE programs.

  8. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of physical activity counselling in primary care: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Abdallah, Flavia; Faulkner, Guy; Ciliska, Donna; Hicks, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) counselling in primary care increases PA but is not consistently practiced. This study examined factors that optimise the delivery and impact of PA counselling. A realist systematic review based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and RAMESES principles was conducted to identify essential components of PA counselling. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Physical Education Index were searched from 2000 to 2013 for studies that evaluated family practice PA counselling. Of 1546 articles identified, 10 were eligible for review (3 systematic reviews, 5 randomised controlled trials, 2 observational studies). Counselling provided by clinicians or counsellors alone that explored motivation increased self-reported PA at least 12 months following intervention. Multiple sessions may sustain increased PA beyond 12 months. Given the paucity of eligible studies and limited detail reported about interventions, further research is needed to establish the optimal design and delivery of PA counselling. Research and planning should consider predisposing, reinforcing and enabling design features identified in these studies. Since research shows that PA counselling promotes PA but is not widely practiced, primary care providers will require training and tools to operationalize PA counselling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender differences in physical activity patterns among older adults who fall☆

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Albert, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study describes gender differences in the level and pattern of physical activity in groups of older adults who were frequent fallers, intermittent fallers, or non-fallers. Methods Interviews were conducted with adults aged 50 years and older (N = 1834) at senior centers across Pennsylvania from 2010 to 2011. Self-reported falls and validated measures of physical activity were collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Results Complete follow-up data were available for 1487 participants. Men who fell frequently decreased in recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work compared to the intermittent fallers and non-fallers. This association remained even when controlling for baseline health status. All women—regardless of fall group—engaged in similar levels of recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work over time. For both men and women, frequent fallers also showed a greater decrease in walking activities compared to intermittent fallers and non-fallers. Discussion Frequent falling among older adults is associated with declines in common leisure, household, and walking activities. The effect of falling frequency on physical activity appears to affect men and women differently, generating the hypothesis that interventions to promote physical activity among fallers need to be gender specific. PMID:25535677

  10. Neural signatures of recognition memory in 10- to 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Linnert, Szilvia; Tóth, Brigitta; Nagy, Márton; Parise, Eugenio; Király, Ildikó

    2017-08-19

    Understanding memory mechanisms is crucial in the study of infant social and cognitive development. Here, we show that the Nc ERP component, known to reflect frequency-related attentional and/or memory processes, is a good candidate to investigate infant recognition memory. Previous paradigms have only investigated the effect of frequency during on-line stimulus presentation, but not during stimulus encoding. In this paper, we present a novel method for measuring the neural correlates of recognition memory and the 'degree' of familiarity in 10- to 12-month-old infants. During a familiarization phase, two images were presented frequently, while another two images were presented infrequently to the infants. In the test phase, the infrequent familiar, the frequent familiar, and the novel stimuli, were all presented with equal probability. We found larger Nc amplitudes following the familiar stimuli compared to the novel ones. The 'degree' of familiarity, on the other hand, did not modulate the Nc amplitude. These results can only be explained with memory-related processes, since in our paradigm the on-line presentation frequency did not vary. Furthermore, the lack of familiarization frequency effect suggests that the Nc might be a neural correlate of declarative memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinematic Measurement of 12-week Head Control Correlates with 12-month Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Jessica P; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Moreau, Noelle; Hope, Kathryn; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Brown, Truman; Mulvihill, Denise; Jenkins, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background Although new interventions treating neonatal brain injury show great promise, our current ability to predict clinical functional outcomes is poor. Quantitative biomarkers of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome are critically needed to gauge treatment efficacy. Kinematic measures derived from commonly used developmental tasks may serve as early objective markers of future motor outcomes. Aim To develop reliable kinematic markers of head control at 12 weeks corrected gestational age (CGA) from two motor tasks: head lifting in prone and pull-to-sit Study design and subjects Prospective observational study of 22 preterm infants born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation Outcome measures Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley) motor scores Results Intrarater and interrater reliability of prone head lift angles and pull-to-sit head angles were excellent. Prone head lift angles at 12 weeks CGA correlated with white matter NAA/Cho, concurrent Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) scores, and 12-month Bayley motor scores. Head angles during pull-to-sit at 12-weeks CGA correlated with TIMP scores. Conclusions Poor ability to lift the head in prone and an inability to align the head with the trunk during the pull-to-sit task were associated with poorer future motor outcome scores. Kinematic measurements of head control in early infancy may serve as reliable objective quantitative markers of future motor impairment and neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25621433

  12. Unexpected arrest-related deaths in america: 12 months of open source surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Heegaard, William G; Dawes, Donald M; Natarajan, Sridhar; Reardon, Robert F; Miner, James R

    2009-05-01

    Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD) has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology. We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied. There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%); empty-hand techniques (69%); intermediate weapons such as TASER((R)) device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%); and deadly force (12%). Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%), within the first hour (53%) and 1-48 hours (35%). Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons. This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings.

  13. Unexpected Arrest-Related Deaths in America: 12 Months of Open Source Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jeffrey D.; Heegaard, William G.; Dawes, Donald M.; Natarajan, Sridhar; Reardon, Robert F.; Miner, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD) has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology. Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied. Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%); empty-hand techniques (69%); intermediate weapons such as TASER® device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%); and deadly force (12%). Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%), within the first hour (53%) and 1–48 hours (35%). Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons. Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings. PMID:19561821

  14. Social looking, social referencing and humor perception in 6- and-12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Pettinato, Christine A; Woodard, Kelly C; Malzac, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤8-months) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does not require mobility, we found that when parents provided unsolicited affective cues during an ambiguous-absurd (i.e., humorous) event, 6-month-olds employ one component of social referencing, social looking Additionally, 6-month-olds who did not laugh at the event were significantly more likely to look toward parents than their counterparts who found the event funny. Sequential analyses revealed that, following a reference to a smiling parent, 6-month olds were more likely to smile at the parent, but by 12 months were more likely to smile at the event suggesting that older infants are influenced by parental affect in humorous situations. The developmental implications of these findings are discussed, as well as the usefulness of studying humor for understanding important developmental phenomena.

  15. Perievent panic attacks and panic disorder after mass trauma: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cristina M; Salguero, José M; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Galea, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    Panic attacks frequently lead to psychopathological disorders, including panic disorder. Even though panic disorder is a highly comorbid and disabling mental health problem associated with stressful life or traumatic events, perievent panic attacks and their association with panic disorder have hardly been investigated as a central topic after mass trauma. Using data from a longitudinal population-based assessment of Madrid residents after the March 11, 2004 train bombings (N = 1,589), with assessments conducted 1, 6, and 12 months after the attacks, the rate of perievent panic attacks was 10.9%. Level of exposure, previous life stressors, and negative emotionality were associated with perievent panic attacks (β = .12, .15, and .10, respectively), which in turn mediated the relationship between exposure to the terrorist event and panic disorder in the following year. Previous life stressors (β = .15) and low social support (β = -.14) were directly associated with panic disorder during the subsequent year. The most vulnerable individuals who experienced perievent panic attacks were 3.7 times, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.1, 6.4], more likely to suffer from panic disorder in the following year. Results suggest that early identification of perievent panic attacks following mass trauma may be helpful for reducing panic disorder. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Indexical and linguistic processing by 12-month-olds: Discrimination of speaker, accent and vowel differences

    PubMed Central

    Bonn, Cory D.; Chládková, Kateřina; Aslin, Richard N.; Escudero, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Infants preferentially discriminate between speech tokens that cross native category boundaries prior to acquiring a large receptive vocabulary, implying a major role for unsupervised distributional learning strategies in phoneme acquisition in the first year of life. Multiple sources of between-speaker variability contribute to children’s language input and thus complicate the problem of distributional learning. Adults resolve this type of indexical variability by adjusting their speech processing for individual speakers. For infants to handle indexical variation in the same way, they must be sensitive to both linguistic and indexical cues. To assess infants’ sensitivity to and relative weighting of indexical and linguistic cues, we familiarized 12-month-old infants to tokens of a vowel produced by one speaker, and tested their listening preference to trials containing a vowel category change produced by the same speaker (linguistic information), and the same vowel category produced by another speaker of the same or a different accent (indexical information). Infants noticed linguistic and indexical differences, suggesting that both are salient in infant speech processing. Future research should explore how infants weight these cues in a distributional learning context that contains both phonetic and indexical variation. PMID:28520762

  17. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    PubMed

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in infants less than 12-month old.

    PubMed

    Turna, Burak; Tekin, Ali; Yağmur, İsmail; Nazlı, Oktay

    2016-10-01

    There is a lack of literature on children compared to adults regarding the long-term effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), specifically in infants. The aim of the present study was to analyze the efficacy and safety of SWL in infants and also evaluate its potential adverse effects in the mid-term. Between May 1999 and December 2013, 36 infants with 39 renal units underwent SWL treatment for kidney stones with an electrohydraulic lithotripter (Dornier MPL 9000/ELMED Multimed Classic). All children were less than 12-month old. The mid-term effects of SWL were examined at the last follow-up by measuring arterial blood pressure, random blood glucose level and ipsilateral kidney size. Evaluation of treatment and its consequences was based on clinical examination, blood tests and conventional imaging (plain abdominal radiography and ultrasound). Overall stone-free rate was 84.6 % after 3-month follow-up without any major complications. Mid-term follow-up was available in 20 of 36 children with a mean follow-up of 3.2 ± 2.8 years (range 0.5-15.3). None of the infants were found to develop new onset of hypertension or diabetes. All treated infant kidneys' sizes were in the normal percentile range. SWL for management of infant kidney stones is effective and safe in the mid-term.

  19. A pandemic influenza vaccine in India: from strain to sale within 12 months.

    PubMed

    Dhere, Rajeev; Yeolekar, Leena; Kulkarni, Prasad; Menon, Ravi; Vaidya, Vivek; Ganguly, Milan; Tyagi, Parikshit; Barde, Prajakt; Jadhav, Suresh

    2011-07-01

    In the event of a highly pathogeni