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Sample records for 12-month post-index period

  1. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.443-1 Returns for periods of less than 12 months. (a) Returns for...

  2. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  3. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  4. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  5. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  6. Prevalence, incidence and course of lower extremity injuries in runners during a 12-month follow-up period.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, D; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; van Middelkoop, M; Verhagen, A P

    2014-12-01

    To describe the incidence, 12-month prevalence, and course of lower extremity injuries that occurred during and after the Amgen Singelloop Breda in 2009. The design was based on a prospective cohort study with a population-based setting. In total, 3605 registered runners received a web-based baseline questionnaire of which 713 participants completed and returned it. Information about previous injuries, training programs, and demographic data were gathered at baseline. Site and intensity of running injuries and occurrence of new injuries were obtained from five post-race questionnaires. The main outcome measurement was lower extremity injury. The incidence of running injuries during the Amgen Singelloop Breda itself was 7.8%; most of these injuries occurred in the calf muscle, thigh, and knee joint. Three-month incidence of injuries during follow-up varied between 13.5% and 16.3%. During the 12-month follow-up period, 277 new running injuries were reported. Runners who ran more than 10 km are more susceptible to injury in comparison with runners who ran short distances (10 km or less). In total, 69.1% of running injuries resolves within 10 days. Running injuries are very common among recreational runners. Injuries mostly occur in the knee, thigh, and calf muscle. PMID:23957385

  7. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 12 months; Growth milestones for children - 12 months; Childhood growth milestones - 12 months ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS A 12-month-old child is expected to: Be 3 times ...

  8. Nature and Determinants of the Course of Chronic Low Back Pain Over a 12-Month Period: A Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Christopher G.; Latimer, Jane; McAuley, James H.; Hodges, Paul W.; Rogers, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that low back pain (LBP) is a condition with an unpredictable pattern of exacerbation, remission, and recurrence. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the course of LBP and the determinants of the course. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to identify clusters of LBP patients with similar fluctuating pain patterns over time and (2) to investigate whether demographic and clinical characteristics can distinguish these clusters. Design This study was a secondary analysis of data extracted from a randomized controlled trial. Methods Pain scores were collected from 155 participants with chronic nonspecific LBP. Pain intensity was measured monthly over a 1-year period by mobile phone short message service. Cluster analysis was used to identify participants with similar fluctuating patterns of pain based on the pain measures collected over a year, and t tests were used to evaluate if the clusters differed in terms of baseline characteristics. Results The cluster analysis revealed the presence of 3 main clusters. Pain was of fluctuating nature within 2 of the clusters. Out of the 155 participants, 21 (13.5%) had fluctuating pain. Baseline disability (measured with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire) and treatment groups (from the initial randomized controlled trial) were significantly different in the clusters of patients with fluctuating pain when compared with the cluster of patients without fluctuating pain. Limitations A limitation of this study was the fact that participants were undergoing treatment that may have been responsible for the rather positive prognosis observed. Conclusions A small number of patients with fluctuating patterns of pain over time were identified. This number could increase if individuals with episodic pain are included in this fluctuating group. PMID:24072729

  9. Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... baby visits during this period, once at 9 months and again at 12 months . If you have ...

  10. Language Development: 8 to 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Print Share Language Development: 8 to 12 Months Page Content Article Body Toward the end of ... notice the coos, gurgles, and screeches of earlier months now giving way to recognizable syllables, such as “ ...

  11. Breastfeeding beyond 12 months. An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Piovanetti, Y

    2001-02-01

    A decade ago, child psychiatrist Coello-Novello, in her term as Surgeon General of the United States, said, "It's the lucky baby, I feel, who continues to nurse until he's two." The accumulated evidence supports her statement. The understanding of the benefits of breastfeeding beyond 12 months should support the cultural change in which eventually prolonged breastfeeding becomes normal. PMID:11236726

  12. Recovery 3 and 12 months after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Maurice; Peters, Madelon L.; Schepers, Jan; Maas, Jacques W.M.; Tournois, Fleur; van Suijlekom, Hans A.; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is 1 important aspect of surgical recovery. To improve perioperative care and postoperative recovery knowledge on predictors of impaired recovery is essential. The aim of this study is to assess predictors and epidemiological data of CPSP, physical functioning (SF-36PF, 0–100), and global surgical recovery (global surgical recovery index, 0–100%) 3 and 12 months after hysterectomy for benign indication. A prospective multicenter cohort study was performed. Sociodemographic, somatic, and psychosocial data were assessed in the week before surgery, postoperatively up to day 4, and at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Generalized linear model (CPSP) and linear-mixed model analyses (SF-36PF and global surgical recovery index) were used. Baseline data of 468 patients were collected, 412 (88%) patients provided data for 3-month evaluation and 376 (80%) patients for 12-month evaluation. After 3 and 12 months, prevalence of CPSP (numeric rating scale ≥ 4, scale 0–10) was 10.2% and 9.0%, respectively, SF-36PF means (SD) were 83.5 (20.0) and 85.9 (20.2), global surgical recovery index 88.1% (15.6) and 93.3% (13.4). Neuropathic pain was reported by 20 (5.0%) patients at 3 months and 14 (3.9%) patients at 12 months. Preoperative pain, surgery-related worries, acute postsurgical pain on day 4, and surgery-related infection were significant predictors of CPSP. Baseline level, participating center, general psychological robustness, indication, acute postsurgical pain, and surgery-related infection were significant predictors of SF-36PF. Predictors of global surgical recovery were baseline expectations, surgery-related worries, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, type of anesthesia, acute postsurgical pain, and surgery-related infection. Several predictors were identified for CPSP, physical functioning, and global surgical recovery. Some of the identified factors are modifiable and optimization of patients’ preoperative

  13. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kanellakis, Spyridon; Moschonis, George; Tenta, Roxane; Schaafsma, Anne; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Lyritis, George; Manios, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 μg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 μg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups. PMID:22392526

  14. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at 3 months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at 3 months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing. PMID:23216358

  15. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... Much Should My Baby Eat? By about 8 months old, most babies are pros at handling the ...

  16. Safety for Your Child: 6 to 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Safety for Your Child: 6 to 12 Months Page Content Article Body ​ Did you know that ... may climb before walking, or walk with support months before you expect. Your child will grasp at ...

  17. Changes over 12 months in eye glances during secondary task engagement among novice drivers.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G; Ehsani, Johnathon; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    During their first year of driving, crash rates among novice drivers are very high but decline rapidly. However, it is not clear what skills or knowledge they are acquiring in this period. Secondary task engagement while driving is a contributing factor to many traffic collisions and some of the elevated crash risk among novices could be explained by greater prevalence or longer periods of eyes off the road while engaging in these non-driving tasks. The current study looked at the eye glances of novice teen drivers engaging in secondary tasks on a test track at 0 and 12 months of licensure and compared their performance with their parents. Novices improved from 0 to 12 months on their longest single glance off the forward roadway and total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, but parents remained stable. Compared with their parents, the longest single glance off the forward roadway was longer for novices at 0 months, but by 12 months there was no difference between the groups. However, for total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, novices performed the same as their parents at 0 months and actually had shorter times at 12 months. These findings could reflect the combined development of driving skills over 12 months and the relative experience that modern teenagers have with portable electronic devices. The results suggest that novice drivers are particularly poor at engaging with secondary tasks while driving. PMID:27177392

  18. Infants Show a Facilitation Effect for Native Language Phonetic Perception between 6 and 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Stevens, Erica; Hayashi, Akiko; Deguchi, Toshisada; Kiritani, Shigeru; Iverson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of developmental change in phonetic perception are critical to theory development. Many previous studies document a decline in nonnative phonetic perception between 6 and 12 months of age. However, much less experimental attention has been paid to developmental change in native-language phonetic perception over the same time period. We…

  19. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  20. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  1. 12-Month-Olds Produce Others' Intended but Unfulfilled Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Following Meltzoff's (1995) behavioral reenactment paradigm, this study investigated the ability of 12-month-olds (N = 44) to reproduce a model's attempted-but-failed actions on objects. Testing was conducted using a novel set of objects designed to enable young infants to readily identify the potential outcome of the model's actions. Infants who…

  2. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  3. Walking and Eating Behavior of Toddlers at 12 Months Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Naoko; Akimoto, Yuko; Hirose, Toshiya; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko; Minami, Tetsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Locomotive and eating behavior of 52 toddlers was observed at 12 months old in a nursery school and investigated in relation to the acquisition of independent walking. The toddlers who acquired walking ate more by themselves using the hands than the toddlers who did not start walking. This suggested that acquisition of walking was associated with…

  4. Reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction after 12-month follow-up in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Ali; Khaledi, Arsalan; Hasanzadeh, Katayoun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect echocardiographic abnormality in the beginning and after 12-month follow-up in the hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 60 hemodialysis patients older than 18 years and the dialysis duration longer than three months were enrolled. At the beginning of the study, echocardiography was done and after 12 months was repeated in all of the patients by the same cardiologist. At the end of the study, data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19). Results: From the total of cases 37 were male and 23 female. At the beginning of the study, mitral regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation and aortic insufficiency were found in 54, 47 and 11 patients respectively. After 12 months left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased significantly, however there was no significant difference between other echocardiographic findings at the beginning and after 12 months. Conclusion: Decrease in LVEF over time in hemodialysis patients may be due to negative effect of uremia on cardiac function, so it seems that periodical cardiac evaluation of these patients is essential and beneficial. PMID:27069961

  5. BRAVISSIMO: 12-month results from a large scale prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Callaert, J; Maene, L; Beelen, R; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Schroë, H; Lauwers, G; Lansink, W; Vanslembroeck, K; D'archambeau, O; Hendriks, J; Lauwers, P; Vermassen, F; Randon, C; Van Herzeele, I; De Ryck, F; De Letter, J; Lanckneus, M; Van Betsbrugge, M; Thomas, B; Deleersnijder, R; Vandekerkhof, J; Baeyens, I; Berghmans, T; Buttiens, J; Van Den Brande, P; Debing, E; Rabbia, C; Ruffino, A; Tealdi, D; Nano, G; Stegher, S; Gasparini, D; Piccoli, G; Coppi, G; Silingardi, R; Cataldi, V; Paroni, G; Palazzo, V; Stella, A; Gargiulo, M; Muccini, N; Nessi, F; Ferrero, E; Pratesi, C; Fargion, A; Chiesa, R; Marone, E; Bertoglio, L; Cremonesi, A; Dozza, L; Galzerano, G; De Donato, G; Setacci, C

    2013-04-01

    The BRAVISSIMO study is a prospective, non-randomized, multi-center, multi-national, monitored trial, conducted at 12 hospitals in Belgium and 11 hospitals in Italy. This manuscript reports the findings up to the 12-month follow-up time point for both the TASC A&B cohort and the TASC C&D cohort. The primary endpoint of the study is primary patency at 12 months, defined as a target lesion without a hemodynamically significant stenosis on Duplex ultrasound (>50%, systolic velocity ratio no greater than 2.0) and without target lesion revascularization (TLR) within 12 months. Between July 2009 and September 2010, 190 patients with TASC A or TASC B aortoiliac lesions and 135 patients with TASC C or TASC D aortoiliac lesions were included. The demographic data were comparable for the TASC A/B cohort and the TASC C/D cohort. The number of claudicants was significantly higher in the TASC A/B cohort, The TASC C/D cohort contains more CLI patients. The primary patency rate for the total patient population was 93.1%. The primary patency rates at 12 months for the TASC A, B, C and D lesions were 94.0%, 96.5%, 91.3% and 90.2% respectively. No statistical significant difference was shown when comparing these groups. Our findings confirm that endovascular therapy, and more specifically primary stenting, is the preferred treatment for patients with TASC A, B, C and D aortoiliac lesions. We notice similar endovascular results compared to surgery, however without the invasive character of surgery. PMID:23558659

  6. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Maria; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Liguori, Giorgio; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Capasso, Lorenzo; D'Amario, Claudio; Boccia, Stefania; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. Design Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. Data Sources Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. Methods Adults (30–75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. Main Outcome Measures Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. Data Synthesis We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. Results Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35–8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). Conclusions Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate

  7. Depression 12-months after coronary artery bypass graft is predicted by cortisol slope over the day.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lydia; Kidd, Tara; Ronaldson, Amy; Leigh, Elizabeth; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Alterations in the diurnal profile of cortisol have been associated with depressed mood in patients with coronary heart disease. The relationship between cortisol output and depressed mood has not been investigated prospectively in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients before. We aimed to study the relationship between cortisol measured pre- and post-operatively and depression symptoms measured 12 months after CABG surgery. We analysed data from 171 patients awaiting first-time, elective CABG surgery from the pre-assessment clinic at St. George's Hospital, London. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression symptoms and saliva samples were collected to measure diurnal cortisol. Baseline assessments of depression and cortisol were obtained an average 29days before surgery, short-term follow-up of cortisol occurred 60days after surgery and long-term follow-up of depression was assessed 378days after surgery. Baseline cortisol slope was not associated with depression at 12-month follow-up. However, a steeper cortisol slope measured 60days after surgery predicted reduced odds of depression (BDI≥10) 12 months after surgery (odds ratio 0.661, 95% confidence interval 0.437-0.998, p=0.049) after controlling for covariates. These findings suggest interventions aimed at improving adaptation in the early recovery period may have long-term benefits in this patient group. PMID:27281345

  8. Clinical performance of Class II adhesive restorations in pulpectomized primary molars: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    Zulfikaroglu, Burcu Togay; Atac, Atila Stephan; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to present the 12-month results of a prospective, randomized study evaluating the clinical and radiographic success rates of Class II adhesive restorations in pulpectomized primary molars. A total of 75 restorations were placed over root canal-treated primary molars, filled with a calcium hydroxide paste. The restorative systems tested were: (1) group 1: amalgam (negative control); (2) group 2: a hybrid resin composite (TPH, Dentsply) with prior acid conditioning and bonding with an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Prime&Bond NT, Dentsply); (3) group 3: a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract, Dentsply) bonded with Prime&Bond NT; (4) group 4: Dyract with prior nonrinse conditioner (NRC) treatment and bonding with Prime&Bond NT; and (5) group 5: a polyacid-modified resin composite (F2000) in conjunction with a self-etch adhesive (Prompt-L-Pop, 3M/ESPE). The restorations were evaluated clinically using the modified USPHS/Ryge criteria at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months. Radiographic evaluations were made in accordance with predetermined criteria. During the evaluation period, 12 teeth (group1=4, group2=1, group3=4, group4=3, and group5=2) were extracted due to radiographic evidence of failure. There was no difference between groups regarding the clinical evaluation criteria (P>.05) except marginal discoloration at 9 and 12 months (P<.05). The overall success rate at 12 months was 81% (group 1=73%, group 2=93%, group 3=73%, group 4=80%, and group 5=87%). Teeth restored with the resin composite+total-etch/bonding (group 2), followed by those with F2000+self-etch adhesive (group 5) exhibited the highest clinical and radiographic success rates. Radiographic failures observed beneath failed restorations were strongly suggestive of coronal microleakage. PMID:18505646

  9. Reduced Cognitive Function Predicts Functional Decline in Patients with Heart Failure over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown. Aims This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population. Methods 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Activities of Daily Living Scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody, including total, instrumental, and basic ADLs. Results HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADLs, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADLs from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p < .05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (β = .15, p = .049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p < .05 for all). Conclusion The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

  10. 6 Minute Walk Test in Duchenne MD Patients with Different Mutations: 12 Month Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S.; Sormani, Maria Pia; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Fanelli, Lavinia; Berardinelli, Angela; Torrente, Yvan; D'Amico, Adele; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; D'Ambrosio, Paola; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Bonfiglio, Serena; Scalise, Roberta; De Sanctis, Roberto; Rolle, Enrica; Bianco, Flaviana; Van der Haawue, Marlene; Magri, Francesca; Palermo, Concetta; Rossi, Francesca; Donati, Maria Alice; Alfonsi, Chiara; Sacchini, Michele; Arnoldi, Maria Teresa; Baranello, Giovanni; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Previtali, Stefano C.; Napolitano, Sara; Bruno, Claudio; Politano, Luisa; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bertini, Enrico; Morandi, Lucia; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Goemans, Nathalie; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) over a 12 month period. Methods The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations) and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons. Results At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13). The 12 month changes ranged between −325 and 175 (mean −10.8 meters, SD 69.2). Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients. PMID:24421885

  11. Increased periosteal circumference remains present 12 months after an exercise intervention in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    We previously reported that calcium intake enhanced the leg bone response to physical activity of preschool children in a 12-month randomized trial of calcium supplementation and physical activity. To determine whether the intervention-induced changes in leg bone mineral content and size were maintained through the subsequent 12-month follow-up period, total body bone measurements by DXA and 20% distal tibia pQCT bone measurements were obtained at 24 months (12 months post-intervention). Children also were measured for height and weight, and accelerometer readings were obtained in a subset of children at 18 and 24 months (6 and 12 months post-intervention). Regression analyses were performed controlling for covariates and indicated that increases from 12 to 24 months were greater in the gross motor (GM) activity group (bone loading, large muscle exercises) vs. fine motor (FM) activity group (arts and crafts program) for arm bone area (BA) (P <0.01), total body (P=0.04) and arm (P <0.01) bone mineral content (BMC). There were no differences in BA or BMC changes from 12 to 24 months by calcium supplementation. Differences in tibia periosteal circumference by pQCT persisted at 24 months (GM 51.4 +/- 0.4 mm vs. FM 50.2 +/- 0.4 mm, P=0.03) with a trend for greater endosteal circumferences in the children in the GM vs. FM groups at both 12 and 24 months (both, P=0.08). There were no significant differences in cortical area or thickness by activity or supplement group at 24 months. Children in the GM group had greater accelerometer counts/day (P=0.04) and more time in vigorous activity (P=0.05) at 18 months compared to FM group. No differences in accelerometer readings were noted at 24 months. In conclusion, we found higher activity levels in children randomized to gross motor vs. fine motor activities 6 months after the intervention program ceased. Whether the greater periosteal circumference that was observed 12 months post-intervention was a persistent biological bone

  12. A 12-month controlled trial of methadone medical maintenance integrated into an adaptive treatment model.

    PubMed

    King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S; Stoller, Kenneth B; Schwartz, Robert; Kolodner, Kenneth; Brooner, Robert K

    2006-12-01

    Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) reduces the reporting schedule for stable and well-functioning methadone maintenance patients to once a month, with counseling provided by medical staff. We report on the 12-month outcomes of 92 highly stable methadone maintenance patients randomly assigned to one of three study conditions: routine care, MMM at the methadone maintenance program, and MMM at a physician's office. Methadone medical maintenance patients received a 28-day supply of methadone, whereas routine care patients received five or six take-home methadone doses each week. All patients performed a medication recall once a month and submitted two urine samples each month. An adaptive stepped-care system of treatment intensification was used for patients who failed recall or who had drug-positive urine specimens. Seventy-seven patients completed the 12-month study period. Dropout was caused primarily by problems with handling methadone and disliking the recall frequency. There were low rates of drug use or failed medication recall. Treatment satisfaction was high in all groups, but the MMM patients initiated more new employment or family/social activities than did routine care patients over the study period. The stepped-care approach was well tolerated and matched patients to an appropriate step of service within a continuum of treatment intensity. PMID:17084792

  13. Course and Determinants of Anosognosia in Alzheimer's Disease: A 12-Month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Reñé-Ramírez, Ramón; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi; Conde-Sala, Josep Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with greater cognitive impairment and more behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study examines the incidence, persistence, and remission rates of anosognosia over a 12-month period, as well as the related risk factors. This was an observational 12-month prospective study. The longitudinal sample comprised 177 patients with mild or moderate AD, and their respective caregivers. Anosognosia was assessed using the Anosognosia Questionnaire in Dementia, and we also evaluated cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), functional disability (Disability Assessment in Dementia), and the presence of BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the variables associated with the incidence, persistence and remission of anosognosia. The prevalence of anosognosia was 39.5% (95% CI = 32.1-47.1) at baseline. At 12 months, incidence was 38.3% (95% CI = 28.6-48.0), persistence was 80.0% (95% CI = 69.9-90.1) and remission was 20.0% (95% CI = 9.9-30.1). The regression model identified lower age, more education, and the presence of delusions as variables associated with incidence, and more education, lower instrumental DAD score, and disinhibition as variables associated with persistence. No variables were associated with remission (n = 14). The presence of anosognosia in AD patients is high. Education and certain neuropsychiatric symptoms may explain a greater and earlier incidence of anosognosia. However, anosognosia also increases with greater cognitive impairment and disease severity. PMID:26890611

  14. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure of surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for ferric sulfate (FS), electrosurgery (ES) and laser pulpotomy in human primary molars. Materials and methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 30 primary molars indicated for pulpotomy in children aged 4 to 10 years were treated using either a FS (10 teeth), ES technique (10 teeth) and laser (10 teeth). Following the pulpotomy, the teeth were evaluated for clinical and radiographic success at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on the basis of the presence of pain, sinus, mobility, internal and external resorption, periapical radiolucency, calcification in the canal and bone loss. Statistical analysis: The data were assessed with Chi-square test. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, both clinical and radiographic success rates were 100% in the laser group but only 80% in both ES and FS groups. There was statistically significant difference between the success rates of three groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Laser pulpotomy showed better clinical as well as radiographical results than ES and FS pulpotomy. Laser pulpotomy was also found superior in terms of operating time, patient cooperation, ease of use and pain. Although results of the study showed the failure rates for electrosurgical pulpotomy to be equal to those for FS pulpotomy, electrosurgical pulpotomy being a nonpharmacological technique considered more favorable. Further studies using larger sample size and longer evaluation periods are suggested. How to cite this article: Gupta G, Rana V, Srivastava N, Chandna P. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):18-21. PMID:26124576

  15. Paliperidone Palmitate and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Schizophrenia: A 12-Month Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gianluca; Pessina, Enrico; Martini, Azzurra; Di Salvo, Gabriele; Maina, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Oral and long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics are known to be associated with a high risk of metabolic adverse effects. Together with other drug treatments, poor lifestyle choices, and genetic liability, they contribute to development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which occurs in nearly one third of patients with schizophrenia.The primary objective of this multicenter prospective observational study was to explore the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 60 real-world patients treated with paliperidone palmitate (PP) over a period of 12 months. The secondary objectives were to assess other tolerability aspects and the efficacy of PP on schizophrenic symptoms.The proportion of patients with MetS at baseline (33%) did not significantly change neither at 6 (39.0%) nor at 12 months (29.5%) of PP treatment. The same applies to each individual component of MetS. We found a slight but statistically significant increase in body mass index (26.3 ± 6.0 vs 27.1 ± 4.6, P = 0.031) and of waist circumference (98.2 ± 17.9 vs 100.3 ± 15.9, P = 0.021) from baseline to end point. Weight gain was detected in approximately 15% of patients.At least 1 mild or moderate adverse event was found in 71.3%, 88.0%, and 52.1% of patients, respectively, at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A significant improvement in schizophrenic symptoms emerged by means of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and subscale scores.Together with previous literature findings, our results seem to indicate that PP could be a valid therapeutic option for patients with a severe disorder and with a high metabolic risk profile. PMID:27043122

  16. Infant neurological examination from 3 to 12 months: predictive value of the single items.

    PubMed

    Pizzardi, A; Romeo, D M M; Cioni, M; Romeo, M G; Guzzetta, A

    2008-12-01

    The prognostic value of the single items of a standardised neurological examination, the Hammersmith Infant Neurologic Examination (HINE), was explored longitudinally in 658 infants at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-term age. ROC curves were built based on the presence/absence of cerebral palsy at 2 years of age. Global HINE scores showed very high prediction (ROC curve areas above 0.9) at all ages. The items with the highest predictive value were always movement quality and quantity. In the first semester, among the most predictive items were those assessing tone, while beyond that time they were reflexes and reactions. Our results show that the high predictive value of the HINE across the first year of life is granted by the successful combination of different groups of items for each age-period. This should be recognised in clinical practice when assessing the significance of individual neurological profiles. PMID:19568999

  17. Slow rates of habituation predict greater zBMI gains over 12 months in lean children

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Slow rates of habituation are related to greater energy intake, and cross-sectionally to body weight. The present study is designed to assess whether slow rates of habituation are prospectively related to zBMI change over a 12 month period in 66 lean 8–12 year-old children, and whether the rate of habituation is a stable behavioral phenotype. Results showed slower rates of habituation predicted greater zBMI change, controlling for child sex, age, initial zBMI, dietary awareness and minority status. In addition, the rate of habituation was stable over the year of observation. These data suggest that slow rates of habituation may be a risk factor for weight gain and the development of obesity. Future research is needed to understand the mechanism for this effect, and assess whether the habituation phenotype interacts with other behavioral phenotypes, such as food reinforcement, to influence increases in zBMI. PMID:21741020

  18. Patient-reported outcomes 3 months after spine surgery: is it an accurate predictor of 12-month outcome in real-world registry platforms?

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Asher, Anthony L; Godil, Saniya S; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT The health care landscape is rapidly shifting to incentivize quality of care rather than quantity of care. Quality and outcomes registry platforms lie at the center of all emerging evidence-driven reform models and will be used to inform decision makers in health care delivery. Obtaining real-world registry outcomes data from patients 12 months after spine surgery remains a challenge. The authors set out to determine whether 3-month patient-reported outcomes accurately predict 12-month outcomes and, hence, whether 3-month measurement systems suffice to identify effective versus noneffective spine care. METHODS All patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery for degenerative disease at a single medical institution over a 2-year period were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal registry. Patient-reported outcome instruments (numeric rating scale [NRS], Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], EQ-5D, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) were recorded prospectively at baseline and at 3 months and 12 months after surgery. Linear regression was performed to determine the independent association of 3- and 12-month outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine whether improvement in general health state (EQ-5D) and disability (ODI) at 3 months accurately predicted improvement and achievement of minimum clinical important difference (MCID) at 12 months. RESULTS A total of 593 patients undergoing elective lumbar surgery were included in the study. There was a significant correlation between 3-month and 12-month EQ-5D (r = 0.71; p < 0.0001) and ODI (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001); however, the authors observed a sizable discrepancy in achievement of a clinically significant improvement (MCID) threshold at 3 versus 12 months on an individual patient level. For postoperative disability (ODI), 11.5% of patients who achieved an MCID threshold at 3 months dropped below this threshold at 12 months; 10

  19. Plasticity after perceptual narrowing for voice perception: reinstating the ability to discriminate monkeys by their voices at 12 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, Rayna H.; Rendall, Drew; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating individuals by their voice is an important social skill for infants to acquire. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the ability to discriminate individuals by voice follows a pattern of perceptual narrowing (Friendly et al., 2013). Specifically, we found that the ability to discriminate between two foreign-species (rhesus monkey) voices decreased significantly between 6 and 12 months of age. Also during this period, there was a trend for the ability to discriminate human voices to increase. Here we investigate the extent to which plasticity remains at 12 months, after perceptual narrowing has occurred. We found that 12-month-olds who received 2 weeks of monkey-voice training were significantly better at discriminating between rhesus monkey voices than untrained 12-month-olds. Furthermore, discrimination was reinstated to a level slightly better than that of untrained 6-month-olds, suggesting that voice-processing abilities remain considerably plastic at the end of the first year. PMID:24130540

  20. Effects of Miniscalpel-Needle Release on Chronic Neck Pain: A Retrospective Analysis with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic neck pain is a highly prevalent condition, and is often treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Limited clinical studies with short-term follow-up have shown promising efficacy of acupuncture as well as miniscalpel-needle (MSN) release. In this retrospective study, we examined whether MSN release could produce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic neck pain. Methods We retrieved the medical records of all patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain at this institution during a period from May 2012 to December 2013. Only cases with the following information at prior to, and 1, 6, and 12 months after the treatment, were included in the analysis: neck disability index (NDI), numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), and active cervical range of motion (CROM). The primary analysis of interest is comparison of the 12-month measures with the baseline. Patients who took analgesic drugs or massage within 2 weeks prior to assessment were excluded from the analysis. For MSN release, tender points were identified manually by an experienced physician, and did not necessarily follow the traditional acupuncture system. MSN was inserted vertically (parallel to the spine) until breaking through resistance and patient reporting of distention, soreness or heaviness. The depth of the needling ranged from 10 to 50 mm. The release was carried out by moving the MSN up and down 3–5 times without rotation. Results A total of 559 cases (patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain) were screened. The number of cases with complete information (NDI, NPRS, and CROM at baseline, 1, 6 and 12 months after last treatment) was 180. After excluding the cases with analgesic treatment or massage within 2 weeks of assessment (n = 53), a total of 127 cases were included in data analysis. The number of MSN release session was 7 (range: 4–11). At 12 months after the treatment, both NPRS and NDI were significantly lower

  1. Infant feeding in the first year. 2: feeding practices from 6-12 months of life.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rosan

    2009-01-01

    The mainstay of nutrition in infants below six months of age is breast and/or formula milk. Infants aged between six and 12 months require additional sources of nutrition and numerous oral and developmental milestones have to be achieved to support normal development of feeding skills. Requirements increase during this period for protein, vitamin D, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, zinc, iron and magnesium. This increased demand is met through weaning foods and breast-feeding, and, if breast milk is not available, through a suitable milk formula. The choice of milk formula above the age of six months is very much dependent on the individual infant and the stage of weaning. One of the principal factors in choosing a suitable formula at this age is the depleting iron stores. Infant formulae suitable from birth along with age-appropriate weaning foods will provide adequate iron for the majority of infants. However, iron-fortified formula may be useful to reduce iron deficiency in some vulnerable infants. Weaning should be commenced by six months of age, but not earlier than 17 weeks. Delaying wheat, egg, soy, fish and dairy beyond six months of age does not prevent the development of allergies and these foods contribute significantly to nutrients required for growth and development. It is important that parents receive evidence-based guidance on what constitutes optimal nutrition during this period of increased requirements and rapid development. PMID:19517945

  2. Percentage of People Who Used the Oral Care System in the Last 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Months Percentage of People who Used the Oral Care System in the Last 12 Months Oral diseases, ... Group Percentage of People Who Use the Oral Care System by Age Group uv9w-t62r Download these ...

  3. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    PubMed

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise. PMID:26298416

  4. Clinical and physiological study of anal sphincter and ileal J pouch before preileostomy closure and 6 and 12 months after closure of loop ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Chaussade, S; Michopoulos, S; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Guerre, J; Couturier, D

    1991-02-01

    Spontaneous evolution of pouch and anal function, and absorption features has been assessed in 15 patients who underwent proctocolectomy with J ileal pouch anastomosis without conservation of a rectal muscular cuff. All the patients were studied before preileostomy closure and six and 12 months after the closure of the protection loop ileostomy. Stool frequency was identical at six and 12 months (mean +/- SEM: 5.0 +/- 0.4 and 5.3 +/- 0.5/day, respectively). Sixty-six percent of patients at six months and 40% of patients at 12 months need to defecate at least one time during night. Stool weight as well as steatorrhea decreased significantly six months after the closure of loop ileostomy (P less than 0.05). Mean resting anal pressure remained unchanged six and 12 months after closure of the loop ileostomy (41 +/- 6 and 45 +/- 5 cm H2O, respectively). Maximum squeeze anal pressures increased significantly at six (P less than 0.05) and 12 months (P less than 0.05). The rectoanal inhibitory reflex was always absent at the same period. The maximum pouch capacity increased significantly during the first six months (P less than 0.01) from 142 +/- 17 to 279 +/- 27 ml. The maximum infused volume during a saline continence test was not significantly different at six and 12 months; the percentage of evacuation of the reservoir and the volume at which the first ileal contraction appeared in the reservoir increased significantly (P less than 0.05) at six and 12 months. In conclusion, in patients with ileoanal anastomosis and pouch reservoir, the closure of the loop ileostomy is associated with spontaneous modifications of the anal and pouch parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1988259

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of cranial growth from 6 to 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Marcotty, P; Böhm, H; Linz, C; Kochel, J; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, A; Schweitzer, T

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to generate three-dimensional data of the physiological growth of the infant's cranium in the significant growth phase from 6 to 12 months of age. In a longitudinal observational study non-invasive 3D data using an optical surface scanner were generated of the entire head of 52 Caucasian infants (27 females and 25 males) between the ages of 6 (T1) and 12 (T2) months. The circumference of the head increased by 6.51 per cent (from 43.50 to 46.33cm). Analysis of width and length showed that the head grows 2.84 per cent more in length, resulting in a decrease in the cranial index of 2.52 per cent (from 83.87 to 81.76 per cent). The highest increment observed was in the total volume of the cranium, with an increase of 18.76 per cent (from 1229.01 to 1459.57cm(3)). Comparison of the left and right sides of the head by measuring the diagonal symmetry difference showed a difference of only 0.37cm. Overall, the symmetry-related parameters showed an almost symmetric development of the cranium in infants. The findings should provide valuable information on physiological growth and development of the infant's cranium. Therefore the high growth rate of the cranium in the first year of life suggests that this period is a critical period in which the disruption of developmental processes may have long-lasting effects on the morphology of the cranium with a prognostically unfavourable effect of the further growth of the viscerocranium. PMID:25257925

  6. Effect of 12-month rehabilitation with low loading program on chronic respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Dobashi, Kunio; Uga, Daisuke; Kato, Daigo; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Fueki, Makoto; Makino, Sohei

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 12-month rehabilitation with low loading program on chronic respiratory disease. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients with chronic respiratory disease participated in this study, in which the effect of long-term rehabilitation for 12 months was assessed. Nine patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, two had asthma, and one had interstitial pneumonia. In all patients, symptoms, lower-extremity strength, walking distance, activities of daily living, and quality of life were investigated to examine the effect of respiratory rehabilitation. [Results] After 12 months, the isometric knee extension strength and weight-bearing index both showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggested that improvement in lower-limb muscle strength can be achieved through long-term intervention, and indicated the validity of repetitive standing and walking exercises. PMID:27134407

  7. Temporal dynamics of arousal and attention in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wass, S V; Clackson, K; de Barbaro, K

    2016-07-01

    Research from the animal literature suggests that dynamic, ongoing changes in arousal lead to dynamic changes in an individual's state of anticipatory readiness, influencing how individuals distribute their attention to the environment. However, multiple peripheral indices exist for studying arousal in humans, each showing change on different temporal scales, challenging whether arousal is best characterized as a unitary or a heterogeneous construct. Here, in 53 typical 12-month-olds, we recorded heart rate (HR), head movement patterns, electrodermal activity (EDA), and attention (indexed via look duration) during the presentation of 20 min of mixed animations and TV clips. We also examined triggers for high arousal episodes. Using cross-correlations and auto-correlations, we found that HR and head movement show strong covariance on a sub-minute scale, with changes in head movement consistently preceding changes in HR. EDA showed significant covariance with both, but on much larger time-scales. HR and head movement showed consistent relationships with look duration, but the relationship is temporally specific: relations are observed between head movement, HR and look duration at 30 s time-lag, but not at larger time intervals. No comparable relationships were found for EDA. Changes in head movement and HR occurred before changes in look duration, but not for EDA. Our results suggest that consistent patterns of covariation between heart rate, head movement and EDA can be identified, albeit on different time-scales, and that associations with look duration are present for head movement and heart rate, but not for EDA. Our results suggests that there is a single construct of arousal that can identified across multiple measures, and that phasic changes in arousal precede phasic changes in look duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 623-639, 2016. PMID:26999073

  8. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dias E Dias de Macedo, Liliane; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly. PMID:26316730

  9. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users: 12-month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly; DeFulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Oral naltrexone could be a promising relapse-prevention pharmacotherapy for recently detoxified opioid-dependent patients; however, interventions are often needed to promote adherence with this treatment approach. We recently conducted a study to evaluate a 26-week employment-based reinforcement intervention of oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users (Dunn et al., 2013). Participants were randomly assigned into a contingency (n = 35) group required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain entry into a therapeutic workplace or a prescription (n = 32) group given a take-home supply of oral naltrexone and access to the workplace without observed ingestion. Monthly urine samples were collected and analyzed for evidence for naltrexone adherence, opioid use, and cocaine use. As previously reported, contingency participants provided significantly more naltrexone-positive urine samples than prescription participants during the 26-week intervention period. The goal of this current study is to report the 12-month outcomes, which occurred 6 months after the intervention ended. Results at the 12-month visit showed no between-groups differences in naltrexone-positive, opioid-negative, or cocaine-negative urine samples and no participant self-reported using naltrexone at the follow-up visit. These results show that even after a period of successfully reinforced oral naltrexone adherence, longer-term naltrexone use is unlikely to be maintained after reinforcement contingencies are discontinued. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134047

  10. 78 FR 40104 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Northeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...We, NMFS, announce a 12-month finding on two petitions to list the northeastern Pacific (NEP) population of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We have completed a status review of the NEP white shark population in response to these petitions using the best available scientific and commercial data. Based on this review, we......

  11. Speech Production in 12-Month-Old Children with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare speech production at 12 months of age for children with hearing loss (HL) who were identified and received intervention before 6 months of age with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: The speech production of 10 children with NH was compared with that of 10 children with HL whose…

  12. Will Any Doll Do? 12-Month-Olds' Reasoning about Goal Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaepen, Elizabet; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Infants as young as 5 months of age view familiar actions such as reaching as goal-directed (Woodward, 1998), but how do they construe the goal of an actor's reach? Six experiments investigated whether 12-month-old infants represent reaching actions as directed to a particular individual object, to a narrowly defined object category (e.g., an…

  13. Metacognitive functioning predicts positive and negative symptoms over 12 months in first episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew I; Macbeth, Angus; Schwannauer, Matthias; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are a major source of impairment and distress but both pharmacological and psychological treatment options provide only modest benefit. Developing more effective psychological treatments for negative symptoms will require a more sophisticated understanding of the psychological processes that are implicated in their development and maintenance. We extended previous work by demonstrating that metacognitive functioning is related to negative symptom expression across the first 12 months of first episode psychosis (FEP). Previous studies in this area have either been cross-sectional or have used much older participants with long-standing symptoms. In this study, forty-five FEP participants were assessed three times over 12 months and provided data on PANSS rated symptoms, premorbid adjustment, metacognitive functioning, and DUP. Step-wise linear regression showed that adding metacognition scores to known predictors of negative symptoms (baseline symptom severity, gender, DUP, and premorbid academic and social adjustment) accounted for 62% of the variance in PANSS negative symptom scores at six months and 38% at 12 months. The same predictors also explained 47% of the variance in positive symptoms at both six and 12 months. However, exploration of the simple correlations between PANSS symptom scores and metacognition suggests a stronger univariate relationship between metacognition and negative symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that problems with mental state processing may be important determinants of negative symptom expression from the very early stages of psychosis. These results provide further evidence that metacognitive functioning is a potentially relevant target for psychological interventions. PMID:24725651

  14. PREVALENCE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN A 12-MONTH LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN DAIRY CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected regularly from 30 calves from birth until 12 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. Samples were collected weekly the first 8 weeks after calves were born, biweekly for calves 3 to 5 months of age, an...

  15. Biological Motion Displays Elicit Social Behavior in 12-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jennifer M. D.; Johnson, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that biological motion perception is developmentally integrated with important social cognitive abilities, 12-month-olds (N = 36) were shown a display of a human point-light figure turning to observe a target. Infants spontaneously and reliably followed the figure's "gaze" despite the absence of familiar and socially…

  16. Case Study Analyses of Play Behaviors of 12-Month-Old Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Case study research methodology was used to describe the play behaviors of three infants at 12 months of age, who were later diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Data included standardized test scores, and analyses of video footage of semi-structured play sessions from infants identified as high risk for autism, because of having a sibling…

  17. The Flexibility of 12-Month-Olds' Preferences for Phonologically Appropriate Object Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather K.; Graham, Susan A.; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound--object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to…

  18. 5 CFR 550.705 - Criteria for meeting the requirement for 12 months of continuous employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of continuous employment is met if, on the date of separation, an employee has held one or more... 12 months of continuous employment. 550.705 Section 550.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.705...

  19. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  20. Intention to Leave, Anticipated Reasons for Leaving, and 12-Month Turnover of Child Care Center Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Elizabeth E.; Guzell, Jacqueline R.

    1997-01-01

    Job turnover among a sample of child care workers was examined in relation to demographic, work-related, and nonwork-related factors. Findings indicated that the perceived choice of other jobs and job tenure both have an impact on intention to leave, as well as on actual 12-month turnover. (Author)

  1. Understanding the Abstract Role of Speech in Communication at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Adult humans recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, demonstrating an ability to separate communicative function from linguistic content. We examined whether 12-month-old infants understand that speech can communicate before they understand the meanings of specific words. Specifically, we test the…

  2. Evidence for a Unitary Goal Concept in 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coenen, Lot

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether infants can transfer their goal attribution between situations that contain different types of information about the goal. We found that 12-month-olds who had attributed a goal based on the causal efficacy of a means-end action generated expectations about the actor's action in another scenario in which the actor could…

  3. Atypical Object Exploration at 12 Months of Age Is Associated with Autism in a Prospective Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Macari, Suzanne; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Thompson, Meagan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined object exploration behavior in 66 12-month-old infants, of whom nine were subsequently diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Previous investigations differ on when the repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism are first present in early development. A task was developed that afforded specific opportunities…

  4. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of Short Fiber-Reinforced Composite Resin in Posterior Teeth: 12-Months Report

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, S; Tanner, J; Vallittu, PK; Lassila, L

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary clinical trial evaluated 12 month clinical performance of novel filling composite resin system which combines short fiber-reinforced composite resin and conventional particulate filler composite resin in high stress bearing applications. A total of 37 class I and II restorations (compound and complex type) were placed in 6 premolars and 31 molars. The restorations were reviewed clinically at 6 months (baseline) and 12 months using modified USPHS codes change criteria for marginal adaptation, post-operative sensitivity, pulpal pain and secondary caries criteria. Photographs and x-rays were obtained for restorative analysis. Results of 12 months evaluation showed 5 restorations having little marginal leakage (B score) and 1 patient had minor pulpal symptom and post-operative sensitivity (B score). No secondary caries or bulk fracture was detected. The majority of restorations exhibited A scores of the evaluated criteria. After 12 months, restorations combining base of short fiber reinforced composite resin as substructure and surface layer of hybrid composite resin displayed promising performance in high load bearing areas. PMID:22408696

  5. 12-Month-Olds' Phonotactic Knowledge Guides Their Word-Object Mappings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether 12-month-olds will accept words that differ phonologically and phonetically from their native language as object labels in an associative learning task. Sixty infants were presented with sets of English word-object (N = 30), Japanese word-object (N = 15), or Czech word-object (N = 15) pairings until they habituated.…

  6. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  7. Class Matters: 12-Month-Olds' Word-Object Associations Privilege Content over Function Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental step in learning words is the development of an association between a sound pattern and an element in the environment. Here we explore the nature of this associative ability in 12-month-olds, examining whether it is constrained to privilege particular word forms over others. Forty-eight infants were presented with sets of novel…

  8. Skeletal findings in the first 12 months following initiation of glucocorticoid therapy for pediatric nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Phan, V; Blydt-Hansen, T; Feber, J; Alos, N; Arora, S; Atkinson, S; Bell, L; Clarson, C; Couch, R; Cummings, EA; Filler, G; Grant, RM; Grimmer, J; Hebert, D; Lentle, B; Ma, J; Matzinger, M; Midgley, J; Pinsk, M; Rodd, C; Shenouda, N; Stein, R; Stephure, D; Taback, S; Williams, K; Rauch, F; Siminoski, K; Ward, LM

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vertebral fracture (VF) incidence following glucocorticoid (GC) initiation has not been previously reported in pediatric nephrotic syndrome. Methods VF were assessed on radiographs (Genant method); lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Sixty-five children were followed to 12 months post-GC initiation (median age: 5.4 years, range 2.3 to 17.9). Three of 54 children with radiographs (6%, 95% CI 2 to 15%) had incident VF at 1 year. The mean LS BMD Z-score was below the healthy average at baseline (mean ± SD −0.5 ± 1.1 p=0.001) and at 3 months (−0.6 ± 1.1 p<0.001), but not at 6 months (−0.3 ± 1.3, p=0.066) or 12 months (−0.3 ± 1.2, p=0.066). Mixed effect modeling showed a significant increase in LS BMD Z-scores between 3 and 12 months (0.22 SD, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.36, p=0.003). A sub-group (N=16; 25%) had LS BMD Z-scores that were ≤ −1.0 at 12 months. In these children, each additional 1000 mg/m2 of GC received in the first 3 months was associated with a decrease in LS BMD Z-score by 0.39 at 12 months (95% CI, −0.71 to −0.07; p=0.017). Conclusions The incidence of VF at 1 year was low and LS BMD Z-scores improved by 12 months in the majority. Twenty-five percent of children had LS BMD Z-scores ≤ −1.0 at 12 months. In these children, LS BMD Z-scores were inversely associated with early GC exposure, despite similar GC exposure compared to the rest of the cohort. PMID:23948876

  9. Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses for amputees: Limb compensation in a 12-month ovine model.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Trevor J; Beck, J Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2011-10-13

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials, the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous osseointegrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There was no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, the data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  10. Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses for Amputees: Limb Compensation in a 12-Month Ovine model

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Trevor J.; Beck, J. Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D.; Bachus, Kent N.

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials; the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous integrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There were no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, there data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  11. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  12. Language Differences at 12 Months in Infants Who Develop Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lazenby, DeWayne C; Sideridis, Georgios D; Huntington, Noelle; Prante, Matthew; Dale, Philip S; Curtin, Suzanne; Henkel, Lisa; Iverson, Jana M; Carver, Leslie; Dobkins, Karen; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Tagavi, Daina; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about early language development in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed prospective data from 346 infants, some of whom were at high risk for developing ASD, to determine if language differences could be detected at 12 months of age in the infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Analyses revealed lower receptive and expressive language scores in infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Controlling for overall ability to understand and produce single words, a Rasch analysis indicated that infants who later developed ASD had a higher degree of statistically unexpected word understanding and production. At 12 months of age, quantitative and qualitative language patterns distinguished infants who later developed ASD from those who did not. PMID:26476738

  13. The flexibility of 12-month-olds' preferences for phonologically appropriate object labels.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Heather K; Graham, Susan A; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound-object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to sets of Czech words with onsets that are illegal in English (e.g., ptak), consonantal sounds (e.g., /l/), or novel functionlike words (e.g., iv). When infants were provided with a training phase that highlighted the purpose of the task, they associated the phonotactically illegal Czech words, but not the consonantal sounds or novel functionlike words, with objects. Thus, English-learning 12-month-old infants' flexibility in associating various sound forms with novel objects is limited to labels that share the structural shape of well-formed nounlike words. PMID:23815699

  14. Randomized clinical trial of four adhesion strategies in cervical lesions: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Eloisa Andrade; Tay, Lidia Yileng; Kose, Carlos; Mena-Serrano, Alexandra; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6- and 12-month clinical performance of four adhesion strategies from the same manufacturer (Kerr) in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) using two evaluation criteria. Thirty-five patients, with at least four NCCLs each, participated in this study. After samplesize calculation, 180 restorations were assigned to one of the following groups: OFL (Optibond FL), OSP (Optibond Solo Plus), XTR (Optibond XTR), and AIO (Optibond All-In-One). The composite resin Filtek Supreme Ultra (3M ESPE) was placed incrementally. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months, and after 12 months, using both the FDI and the USPHS-modified criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with Friedman repeated measures, ANOVA by rank, and the McNemar test for significance in each pair (α=0.05). Six restorations (2 for OFL, 1 for OSP, 2 for XTR, and 1 for AIO) were lost at 12 months (P>0.05 for both evaluation criteria). Marginal staining was observed in seven restorations using the FDI criteria (P>0.05) and three restorations using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). Eight restorations (2 for OSP, 3 for XTR, and 3 for AIO) were classified as Bravo for marginal adaptation using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). However, 62 restorations (14 for OFL, 12 for OSP, 15 for XTR, and 21 for AIO) were classified as Bravo using the FDI criteria (P>0.05). The four adhesion strategies showed similar clinical retention at 6 and 12 months. The FDI evaluation criteria tend to be more sensitive than the USPHS-modified criteria. PMID:25625130

  15. 77 FR 60509 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding for the Lemmon Fleabane...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list as an endangered or threatened species Erigeron lemmonii (Lemmon fleabane). After a review of the best available scientific information we find that listing the Lemmon fleabane as an endangered or threatened species is no longer warranted, and therefore we are removing this species from the......

  16. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Cibella, Fabio; Le-Houezec, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy) that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old) making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours) were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice) to more advanced devices (MODs) was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month) as well as a trend in decreasing the e-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month). Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates. PMID:25811767

  17. Stress fracture injury in female endurance athletes in the United Kingdom: A 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, R L; Brooke-Wavell, K; Summers, G D; Cameron, N; Peirce, N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of stress fracture (SF) incidence are limited in number and geographical location; this study determined the incidence of SF injury in female endurance athletes based in the United Kingdom. A total of 70 athletes aged between 18 and 45 years were recruited and prospectively monitored for 12 months. Questionnaires at baseline and 12 months assessed SF, menstrual and training history, eating psychopathology, and compulsive exercise. Peak lower leg muscle strength was assessed in both legs using an isometric muscle rig. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, spine, hip, and radius was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Among the 61 athletes who completed the 12-month monitoring, two sustained a SF diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, giving an incidence rate (95% confidence intervals) of 3.3 (0.8, 13.1) % of the study population sustaining a SF over 12 months. The SF cases were 800 m runners aged 19 and 22 years, training on average 14.2 h a week, eumenorrheic with no history of menstrual dysfunction. Case 1 had a higher than average energy intake and low eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise scores, while the reverse was true in case 2. BMD in both cases was similar to mean values in the non-SF group. The incidence of SF in our female endurance athlete population based in the United Kingdom was 3.3%, which is lower than previously reported. Further work is needed to confirm the current incidence of SF and evaluate the associated risk factors. PMID:25892560

  18. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Kirk, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG) studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2). 35 (38%) patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8%) patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 22.5 (11.3–37.0). Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician's recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD) percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32). Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low. PMID:27445563

  19. Positive aspects of caregiving as a moderator of treatment outcome over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Hilgeman, Michelle M; Allen, Rebecca S; DeCoster, Jamie; Burgio, Louis D

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the influence of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) as a moderator of treatment outcome across 12 months in 1 of the original sites of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health I project. They used multilevel random coefficients regression analysis to predict time-varying PAC, depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden in Alzheimer's caregivers (N = 243; mean age = 60.89, SD = 14.19). They found that time-varying PAC was predicted by time-varying daily care burden. They also found significant effects of time-varying PAC for depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden. Notably, a PAC x Phase x Treatment effect was found for daily care burden, such that individuals who endorsed less PAC benefited most from the intervention across 12 months. The tendency to positively appraise the caregiving experience (i.e., PAC) in response to chronic stressors such as Alzheimer's caregiving may affect individuals' responsiveness to, and benefit from, interventions, whereas only daily care burden affected the tendency to find enjoyment in caregiving across 12 months. Future intervention research should assess individual PAC in order to better tailor interventions to caregiving needs. PMID:17563191

  20. Coping Skills Training for Parents of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah S.; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lindemann, Evie

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is recognized that caring for a child with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is stressful for parents, few interventions have been developed and tested for this population. Objectives To compare a group educational intervention for parents of children with T1D to a coping skills training intervention. Method Parents of children with T1D were randomized to the group educational (n = 106) or coping skills training (n = 75) conditions. Parents completed measures of family conflict, responsibility for treatment, coping, and quality of life at baseline and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Clinical data (i.e., HbA1c) were collected from children’s medical records pre- and postintervention. Results There were no significant treatment effects 12 months postintervention, but parents in both groups reported improved coping (p < .001), less responsibility for treatment management (p < .001), and improved quality of life (p = .005). While children’s metabolic control worsened over time, mean values at 12 months were still within the recommended levels in this well-controlled sample (HbA1c < 8%). Discussion Group-based interventions for parents of children with T1D may lessen the impact of treatment management, improving coping and quality of life. PMID:21522034

  1. Mother’s Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. Methods 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). Results We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. Conclusions This study suggests that mothers’ psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants’ follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected. PMID:27022953

  2. Community participation of patients 12 months post-stroke in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Aimee; Musenge, Eustasius

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQL) is the main goal of rehabilitation. The ability of the stroke-patient to participate in various situations signifies successful rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to establish the extent of community participation and the barriers and facilitators to the participation for stroke patients after their discharge. Method This study formed part of a larger study focusing on the impact of caregiver education on stroke survivors and their careers. This was a longitudinal study comprising 200 patients with first-time ischaemic stroke. Although the patients were followed up at home at 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-stroke, this paper focuses on the 12-months follow-up participation results. Patient functional ability was measured by using the Barthel Index (BI) and the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), whereas participation was measured by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) checklist. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results Patients experienced severe to complete difficulty when undertaking single and multiple tasks without help 12-months post-discharge. They struggled with the preparation of meals, household work and interpersonal interactions, and they had difficulties with community life and partaking in recreation and leisure activities. Immediate family and societal attitudes were viewed as facilitators to community participation whereas friends, transportation services and social security services were viewed as barriers to community participation. Conclusion The patient-ability to socialise and participate in community issues is currently poor. The identified barriers to community participation need to be addressed in order to improve patient-participation in the community post-stroke.

  3. Services for adolescent psychiatric disorders: 12-month data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. Jane; He, Jian-ping; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C.; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2014-01-01

    Objective This report examined data on 12-month rates of service use for adolescent mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) is a national survey of DSM-IV mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and service use among U.S. adolescents. Results In the 12 months up to the interview, 45% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders received some form of professional help. Youth with mood disorders were most likely to receive services (60.1%), and those with anxiety disorders least likely (41.4%). Services were more likely to be provided in a school setting (23.6% of those with disorders) or by specialty mental health providers (22.8%) than by general medical practitioners (10.1%). Juvenile justice (4.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (5.3%), and human services (7.9%) also provided mental health care. Although pediatricians treated a higher proportion of youth with mood disorders than of those with behavior disorders, they were more likely to treat youth with behavior disorders because of the larger number of the latter (11.5% of 1,465 vs. 13.9% of 820). Black youth were significantly less likely than white youth to receive specialty mental health or pediatric services for mental disorders. Conclusions The 12-month findings from the NCS-A confirm those of earlier, smaller studies, that only a minority of youth with psychiatric disorders received recent treatment of any sort. Much of this treatment was provided in service settings in which few of the providers were likely to have specialist mental health training. PMID:24233052

  4. Risks and Benefits of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Beyond 12 Months After Coronary Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Dadjou, Yahya; Safavi, Salar; Kojuri, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) after coronary stenting remains poorly define. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of longer than 24 months DAT in patients who received drug-eluting and bare-metal stents. A total of 1010 individuals who underwent elective, urgent or emergency coronary angioplasty with intended stent implantation at reference or specialized cardiac hospitals were randomized to receive long-term and short-term DAT to determine the benefits and adverse effects of long-term DAT. Total of 508 patients were randomized to long-term and 502 patients to <1 year DAT, and all of them were followed for more than 36 months for major adverse cardiac and cerebvascular events and bleeding major adverse cardiac and cerebvascular events (MACCE) Mean age of the 1010 patients (364 women and 646 men) was 60 years. Stent reocclusion occurred in 15 patients. Mean Syntax score was 23.00 ± 5.08 for whole samples, 25.00 ± 5.27 in 28 patients with MACCE and 23 ± 5.00 in 982 patients without MACCE (P = 0.057). According to all specified bleeding definitions, clopidogrel therapy for >12 months was not associated with a greater risk of hemorrhage. A regimen of >12 months of clopidogrel therapy in patients who had received drug-eluting or bare-metal stents did not differ significantly from a regimen of <12 months on clopidogrel with regard to MACCE. Long-term DAT might not significantly affect the reduction in the risk of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and not associated with minor or major bleeding events. PMID:27258494

  5. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  6. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  7. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  8. Gender and relational differences in sensitivity to internal and external cues at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Watson, John S; Futo, Judit; Fonagy, Peter; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences favoring women in relation to awareness of the subjective (internal) world are well demonstrated but their origins are poorly understood. We trained 173 12-month-olds to visually fixate a video image in response to an internal cue (opening own mouth), external cue (seeing a face open its mouth), or both cues. Female infants showed significantly greater sensitivity than males to the internal cues suggesting that prioritization of internally accessible experience is already evident at one year of age. PMID:21500960

  9. Subacute Pain as a Predictor of Long-Term Pain Following Orthopedic Surgery: An Australian Prospective 12 Month Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Veal, Felicity C; Bereznicki, Luke R E; Thompson, Angus J; Peterson, Gregory M; Orlikowski, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document the level of pain and functionality in the 12 months following orthopedic surgery and identify if high pain levels following discharge were associated with pain persisting at 12 months.An observational prospective cohort study was undertaken, following 87 patients (mean age 62.4 years [18-92]; 47.1% male) who required orthopedic surgery at the Royal Hobart Hospital, Australia. Following an initial survey, patients were telephoned at 10 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after discharge.Postdischarge pain levels were high with 97.4% of patients suffering pain at 10 days, 81.2% at 6 weeks and 79.5% at 3 months. Pain affected the ability to undertake activities of daily living (ADLs) for 32.7% and 20.0% of patients at 10 days and 6 weeks, respectively. Twelve months after discharge, 65.5% of patients reported pain persisting at the surgical site, with 29.9% of all patients suffering moderate-severe incidental pain; and nearly one quarter of patients reported pain affected their sleep or ADLs. Average pain levels rated as moderate-severe at 10 days (P = 0.01) and 6 weeks (P = 0.02) and pain of neuropathic origin at 3 months (30.2% vs 10.3% P = 0.03) and 12 months (30.4% vs 4.9% P = 0.01) were associated with persistent pain at 12 months.Pain in the period following discharge from hospital is significant and undermanaged. Previous studies has shown that that acute pain, particularly in the first 48 hours following surgery is a predictor for long-term pain after surgery. This study adds to the current literature by showing that pain in the subacute period, following discharge from hospital is also associated with the pain persisting at 12 months. These findings have important implications for improving quality of life as well as potentially preventing persistent pain with increased follow-up and more intensive management of post-discharge pain. PMID:26356717

  10. Immediate loading of zygomatic implants using the intraoral welding technique: a 12-month case series.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Piattelli, Adriano; Malevez, Chantal

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the concept of intraoral welding as a suitable technique for fabricating a fixed restoration for the edentulous maxilla the day of surgery using standard and zygomatic implants. Ten consecutive patients (four men, six women; mean age, 62.3 ± 11.6 years) were involved in this study, each of whom had an edentulous atrophic maxilla and received two standard and two zygomatic implants. All implants were loaded immediately with a fixed prosthesis supported by an intraorally welded titanium framework. Definitive abutments were connected to the implants, and a titanium bar was welded to them using an intraoral welding unit. This framework was used to support the definitive prosthesis, which was fitted the day of implant placement. Patients were checked for swelling, pain, and framework stability at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. A total of 20 immediately loaded standard and 20 zygomatic implants were used. The cases included in this study achieved a 100% prosthetic success rate at the 12-month follow-up. No fracture or radiographically detectable alteration of the welded frameworks was noticed. It is possible to successfully rehabilitate the edentulous atrophic maxilla with a permanently fixed prosthesis supported by an intraorally welded titanium framework attached to standard and zygomatic implants the day of surgery. PMID:22754908

  11. Spoken Language Benefits of Extending Cochlear Implant Candidacy Below 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that cochlear implantation surgery before 12 months of age yields better spoken language results than surgery between 12–18 months of age. Study Design Language testing administered to children at 4.5 years of age (± 2 months). Setting Schools, speech-language therapy offices, and cochlear implant (CI) centers in the US and Canada. Participants 69 children who received a cochlear implant between ages 6–18 months of age. All children were learning to communicate via listening and spoken language in English-speaking families. Main Outcome Measure Standard scores on receptive vocabulary, expressive and receptive language (includes grammar). Results Children with CI surgery at 6–11 months (N=27) achieved higher scores on all measures as compared to those with surgery at 12–18 months (N=42). Regression analysis revealed a linear relationship between age of implantation and language outcomes throughout the 6–18 month surgery-age range. Conclusion For children in intervention programs emphasizing listening and spoken language, cochlear implantation before 12 months of age appears to provide a significant advantage for spoken language achievement observed at 4.5 years of age. PMID:23478647

  12. Acoustic changes in student actors' voices after 12 months of training.

    PubMed

    Walzak, Peta; McCabe, Patricia; Madill, Cate; Sheard, Christine

    2008-05-01

    This study was to evaluate acoustic changes in student actors' voices after 12 months of actor training. The design used was a longitudinal study. Eighteen students enrolled in an Australian tertiary 3-year acting program (nine male and nine female) were assessed at the beginning of their acting course and again 12 months later using a questionnaire, interview, maximum phonation time (MPT), reading, spontaneous speaking, sustained phonation tasks, and a pitch range task. Samples were analyzed for MPT, fundamental frequency across tasks, pitch range for speaking and reading, singing pitch range, noise-to-harmonic ratio, shimmer, and jitter. After training, measures of shimmer significantly increased for both male and female participants. Female participants' pitch range significantly increased after training, with a significantly lower mean frequency for their lowest pitch. The finding of limited or negative changes for some measures indicate that further investigation is required into the long-term effects of actor voice training and which parameters of voicing are most targeted and valued in training. Particular investigation into the relationship between training targets and outcomes could more reliably inform acting programs about changes in teaching methodologies. Further research into the relationship between specific training techniques, physiological changes, and vocal changes may also provide information on implementing more evidence-based training methods. PMID:17512170

  13. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the

  14. Environmental and genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Suaini, Noor H A; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ellis, Justine A; Peters, Rachel L; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Matheson, Melanie C; Wake, Melissa; Panjari, Mary; Tan, Hern-Tze Tina; Martin, Pamela E; Pezic, Angela; Lowe, Adrian J; Martino, David; Gurrin, Lyle C; Vuillermin, Peter J; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between genetic and environmental exposure and vitamin D status at age one, stratified by ethnicity. This study included 563 12-month-old infants in the HealthNuts population-based study. DNA from participants' blood samples was genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY MALDI-TOF system on 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes. Using logistic regression, we examined associations between environmental exposure and SNPs in vitamin D pathway and filaggrin genes and vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). VDI, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3(25(OH)D3) level ≤50nmol/L, was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Infants were stratified by ethnicity determined by parent's country of birth. Infants formula fed at 12 months were associated with reduced odds of VDI compared to infants with no current formula use at 12 months. This association differed by ethnicity (Pinteraction=0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of VDI was 0.29 for Caucasian infants (95% CI, 0.18-0.47) and 0.04 for Asian infants (95% CI, 0.006-0.23). Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding were associated with increased odds of infants being VDI (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.11-5.18 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.20-5.24 respectively). Presence of a minor allele for any GC SNP (rs17467825, rs1155563, rs2282679, rs3755967, rs4588, rs7041) was associated with increased odds of VDI. Caucasian infants homozygous (AA) for rs4588 had an OR of 2.49 of being associated with VDI (95% CI, 1.19-5.18). In a country without routine infant vitamin D supplementation or food chain fortification, formula use is strongly associated with a reduced risk of VDI regardless of ethnicity. There was borderline significance for an association between filaggrin mutations and VDI. However, polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway related genes were associated with increased likelihood of being VDI in infancy. PMID:25174667

  15. Pointing as Epistemic Request: 12-month-olds Point to Receive New Information

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Ágnes M.; Tauzin, Tibor; Téglás, Ernő; Gergely, György; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Infants start pointing systematically to objects or events around their first birthday. It has been proposed that infants point to an event in order to share their appreciation of it with others. In the current study, we tested another hypothesis, according to which infants' pointing could also serve as an epistemic request directed to the adult. Thus, infants' motivation for pointing could include the expectation that adults would provide new information about the referent. In two experiments, an adult reacted to 12-month-olds’ pointing gestures by exhibiting 'informing' or 'sharing' behavior. In response, infants pointed more frequently across trials in the informing than in the sharing condition. This suggests that the feedback that contained new information matched infants' expectations more than mere attention sharing. Such a result is consistent with the idea that not just the comprehension but also the production of early communicative signals is tuned to assist infants' learning from others. PMID:26568703

  16. Agricultural accidents: A study of 132 patients seen at addenbrooke's hospital, Cambridge, in 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D. K. C.

    1969-01-01

    In a 12-month study 132 patients injured in agricultural accidents were treated at the Accident Service of Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Agricultural machinery and implements were concerned in 50% of the accidents and animals in 10%. The state of immunity against tetanus of these patients was found to be extremely low, only 9% being fully immunized, and 56% having never received a course of prophylactic adsorbed tetanus toxoid. While prevention is obviously the only real solution to accidents of any nature, legislation is not enough to achieve this, and the final responsibility lies with the farmworker to ensure that all safety precautions are followed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5388731

  17. Repetitive Behavior in 12-Month-Olds Later Classified With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Reznick, J. Steven; Botteron, Kelly N.; Estes, Annette M.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Meadows, Adriane J.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective As compared to the utility of early emerging social communicative risk markers for predicting a later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), less is known about the relevance of early patterns of restricted and repetitive behaviors. We examined patterns of stereotyped motor mannerisms and repetitive manipulation of objects in 12-month-olds at high and low risk for developing ASD, all of whom were assessed for ASD at 24 months. Method Observational coding of repetitive object manipulation and stereotyped motor behaviors in digital recordings of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales was conducted using the Repetitive and Stereotyped Movement Scales for three groups of 12-month-olds: 1) low-risk infants (LR, n = 53); 2) high-familial-risk infants who did not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24-months (HR-negative, n = 75); and 3) high-familial-risk infants who met diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24 months (HR-ASD, n = 30). Results The HR-ASD group showed significantly more stereotyped motor mannerisms than both the HR-negative group (p = .025) and the LR group (p = .001). The HR-ASD and HR-negative groups demonstrated statistically equivalent repetitive object manipulation scores (p = .431), and both groups showed significantly more repetitive object manipulation than the LR group (p’s < 0.040). Combining the motor and object stereotypy scores into an RSMS composite yielded a disorder-continuum effect such that each group was significantly different from one another (LR < HR-negative < HR-ASD). Conclusion These results suggest that targeted assessment of repetitive behavior during infancy may augment early identification efforts. PMID:25440311

  18. Plasma CRP Levels in Premenopausal Women with Major Depression: A 12-Month Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ∼30–50% and ∼70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression. PMID:19408214

  19. Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Zizzari, Philippe; Hage, Mirella; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Adam, Clovis; Viengchareun, Say; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Geoffroy, Valérie; Lombès, Marc; Tolle, Virginie; Guillou, Anne; Karhu, Auli; Kappeler, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model. PMID:27621108

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of BASICS for Heavy Drinking Mandated and Volunteer Undergraduates: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy drinking volunteers up to one year post-intervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; Mage = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. At 4 weeks post-intervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer) BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months post-intervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared to controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to one year post-intervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. PMID:25844834

  1. A new tetravalent canine leptospirosis vaccine provides at least 12 months immunity against infection.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, H L B M; van der Veen, M; Sutton, D; Molkenboer, M J C H

    2014-03-15

    A key success factor in the vaccination of dogs against leptospirosis is long term protection against establishment of the renal carrier state, in order to protect other dogs, as well as humans, against this re-emerging zoonotic disease. In this paper, we describe the ability of a new European tetravalent vaccine containing antigen from Leptospira interrogans (sensu lato) serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa and Australis to control infection and renal excretion in dogs at 12 months after vaccination. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of all four vaccine components, four separate challenge studies were performed. For each study two groups of dogs were used (a group receiving the leptospirosis vaccine and a control group). Twelve months after the second vaccination all dogs in the vaccine and control groups were challenged, both intraperitoneally and conjunctivally, using a pathogenic challenge strain from one of four serogroups. Parameters recorded post-challenge were: clinical signs of disease, change in body temperature, total leucocyte count, thrombocyte count, presence of challenge organisms in blood, urine and kidney tissue, and evidence of interstitial nephritis at necropsy four weeks after challenge. The vaccine was able to either prevent or significantly reduce infection following challenge with the strains of all four serogroups. The vaccine was also able to prevent or significantly reduce renal infection following Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae challenge, and there was a trend of reduction of renal infection with Australis (serovar Bratislava). In the case of the Grippotyphosa study, challenge led to no detectable renal infection in any dog of the control group. In conclusion, in this study significant protective immunity was achieved in dogs 12 months after a basic vaccination schedule of two doses against strains of serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa and Australis. PMID:24054091

  2. The effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Sławomir; Szkodziak, Piotr; Czuczwar, Piotr; Woźniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Maciej; Milart, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study The purpose of the study was to monitor the effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up. Material and methods Fifty six patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids qualified for surgical treatment were included in the prospective observational study. All patients received preoperative oral UPA treatment for 3 months (1 × 5 mg). Patients that refused surgical treatment after UPA therapy were followed-up for the next 9 months. The volume of the intramural fibroid was estimated by TV-US using and integrated VOCAL 3D imaging program at baseline, after 3 months of UPA treatment and further at 3-months intervals. Results Before UPA mean dominant fibroid volume was estimated to be 216.0 cm3 (38.4-768.2 cm3) and decreased to 117.6 cm3 (12.6-668.0 cm3) after 3 months of UPA therapy. Mean percentage volume reduction was 45.6%. Mean hemoglobin level increased from an initial 10.1 g/dL (6.8-12.9 g/dL) to 12.6 g/dL (10.1-14.8) after 3 months of UPA therapy. At 12 months after initiating UPA treatment mean dominant fibroid volume decreased by 43.9%. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. Conclusions Three month UPA therapy decreases fibroid volume and improves hemoglobin level before planned surgical treatment. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. PMID:26327823

  3. Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assessment of 12-month safety of ospemifene 60 mg/day for treatment of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Methods In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, women 40–80 years with VVA and an intact uterus were randomized 6 : 1 to ospemifene 60 mg/day or placebo. The primary objective was 12-month safety, particularly endometrial; 12-week efficacy was assessed. Safety assessments included endometrial histology and thickness, and breast and gynecological examinations. Efficacy evaluations included changes from baseline to week 12 in percentage of superficial and parabasal cells and vaginal pH. Results Of 426 randomized subjects, 81.9% (n = 349) completed the study with adverse events the most common reason for discontinuation (ospemifene 9.5%; placebo 3.9%). Most (88%) treatment-emergent adverse events with ospemifene were considered mild or moderate. Three cases (1.0%) of active proliferation were observed in the ospemifene group. For one, active proliferation was seen at end of study week 52, and diagnosed as simple hyperplasia without atypia on follow-up biopsy 3 months after the last dose. This subsequently resolved with progestogen treatment and dilatation and curettage. In six subjects (five ospemifene (1.4%), one placebo (1.6%)) endometrial polyps were found (histopathology); however, only one (ospemifene) was confirmed as a true polyp during additional expert review. Endometrial histology showed no evidence of carcinoma. Statistically significant improvements were seen for all primary and secondary efficacy measures and were sustained through week 52 with ospemifene vs. placebo. Conclusions The findings of this 52-week study confirm the tolerance and efficacy of oral ospemifene previously reported in short- and long-term studies. PMID:23984673

  4. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother

  5. The origins of 12-month attachment: a microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1 s time base; mother and infant facial-visual "engagement" variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual's own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual's behavior that were correlated with the partner's previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers

  6. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  7. The use of telehealth to assist remote hospital resuscitation and aeromedical retrieval tasking: a 12-month case review.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Kate; Elcock, Mark; Aitken, Peter; Furyk, Jeremy

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the use of telehealth for patients who had suffered a cardiac or respiratory arrest, and were medically coordinated from the Queensland coordination hub at Townsville. We conducted a review of all cardiac or respiratory arrest cases where teleheath had been used prior to aeromedical retrieval. The doctors involved in the cases completed an evaluation form about the use of telehealth during the resuscitation. During the 12-month study period 6460 patients were medically coordinated from Townsville. Telehealth was used 51 times, i.e. for 0.8% of all transfers. Of the 51 uses of telehealth, nine were for patients having a cardiac/respiratory arrest, i.e. 18% of telehealth use at Townsville was for patients undergoing resuscitation following cardiac or respiratory arrest. All eight medical coordinators and three of eight referring doctors responded to the survey. Most medical coordinators stated that telehealth assisted communication and aided assessment. Most medical coordinators and some referring doctors felt that it improved the quality of patient care. The free text comments on telehealth use for remote area resuscitation were generally very supportive. While the telehealth equipment was easy to use, minor audio problems reinforce the need for systems to be wholly reliable. A set of guidelines to aid future telehealth assisted resuscitation was produced. The present study suggests that telehealth use is beneficial during active resuscitation efforts. PMID:22302764

  8. The management of lichen sclerosus in a genitourinary medicine setting: a 12-month retrospective case-notes review.

    PubMed

    Challenor, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    A retrospective case-notes review was undertaken of all women with lichen sclerosus seen during a 12-month period to review their characteristics and care. A total of 273 case-notes were reviewed. The mean age was 61 years (range, 14-94), and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.4 years (range, 1-50). The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years (range, 7-92). Sixty-two (23%) had at least one other autoimmune condition. Autoimmune conditions were seven times more frequent overall compared with United Kingdom prevalences. On-going symptoms were reported as none/minimal in 196 (72%), moderate in 65 (24%) and severe in 12 (4%). A total of 233 women (85%) had on-going treatment with clobetasol propionate (Dermovate) ointment with a mode of eight applications per month (range, 0-30). Forty-three women (16%) reported sexual dysfunction and 13 (5%) had needed at least one surgical procedure to restore sexual function. Eighty-six (32%) had undergone at least one biopsy. Nine squamous cell cancers (3%) had been diagnosed in six women (2%). These patients were managed in line with all current guidance. It is surprising that there is still no evidence to direct long-term management. PMID:24902846

  9. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted. PMID:25974364

  10. Determinants of return to work 12 months after total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Leichtenberg, C S; Tilbury, C; Kuijer, Ppfm; Verdegaal, Shm; Wolterbeek, R; Nelissen, Rghh; Frings-Dresen, Mhw; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2016-07-01

    Introduction A substantial number of patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) do not or only partially return to work. This study aimed to identify differences in determinants of return to work in THA and TKA. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of working patients aged <65 years undergoing THA or TKA for osteoarthritis. The primary outcome was full versus partial or no return to work 12 months postoperatively. Factors analysed included preoperative sociodemographic and work characteristics, alongside the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Oxford Hip and Knee Scores. Results Of 67 THA and 56 TKA patients, 9 (13%) and 10 (19%), respectively, returned partially and 5 (7%) and 6 (11%), respectively, did not return to work 1 year postoperatively. Preoperative factors associated with partial or no return to work in THA patients were self-employment, absence from work and a better HOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscale score, whereas only work absence was relevant in TKA patients. Type of surgery modified the impact of ADL scores on return to work. Conclusions In both THA and TKA, absence from work affected return to work, whereas self-employment and better preoperative ADL subscale scores were also associated in THA patients. The impact of ADL scores on return to work was modified by type of surgery. These results suggest that strategies aiming to influence modifiable factors should consider THA and TKA separately. PMID:27138849

  11. Kinematic Measurement of 12-week Head Control Correlates with 12-month Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Jessica P; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Moreau, Noelle; Hope, Kathryn; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Brown, Truman; Mulvihill, Denise; Jenkins, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background Although new interventions treating neonatal brain injury show great promise, our current ability to predict clinical functional outcomes is poor. Quantitative biomarkers of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome are critically needed to gauge treatment efficacy. Kinematic measures derived from commonly used developmental tasks may serve as early objective markers of future motor outcomes. Aim To develop reliable kinematic markers of head control at 12 weeks corrected gestational age (CGA) from two motor tasks: head lifting in prone and pull-to-sit Study design and subjects Prospective observational study of 22 preterm infants born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation Outcome measures Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley) motor scores Results Intrarater and interrater reliability of prone head lift angles and pull-to-sit head angles were excellent. Prone head lift angles at 12 weeks CGA correlated with white matter NAA/Cho, concurrent Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) scores, and 12-month Bayley motor scores. Head angles during pull-to-sit at 12-weeks CGA correlated with TIMP scores. Conclusions Poor ability to lift the head in prone and an inability to align the head with the trunk during the pull-to-sit task were associated with poorer future motor outcome scores. Kinematic measurements of head control in early infancy may serve as reliable objective quantitative markers of future motor impairment and neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25621433

  12. The Tasmanian Insulin-treated Diabetes Register. Inception and progress in the first 12 months.

    PubMed

    King, H; Senator, G; Zimmet, P; Harris, A

    1986-04-14

    A Statewide register of insulin-treated diabetic patients has been established in Tasmania. The register is the first of its kind in Australasia. Insulin treatment was chosen as the criterion for admission to the register because it was a suitably "hard" end-point, and because the completeness of the register could be validated easily by insulin prescription statistics. Both subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (who happened to be treated with insulin as of the prevalence date, May l, 1984) are eligible for registration in the prevalent population. Furthermore, no age restrictions have been placed upon entry. It is to be hoped that this all-inclusive policy will assist in the development of an epidemiological definition of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Access to cases has been by hospital records, general practitioners, lay bodies and general publicity. Of over 600 diabetic subjects who were contacted during the first 12 months of the study (approximately one-half of the estimated prevalent population), only three declined to join the register. Once fully established and validated, the register will be used to test aetiological hypotheses in addition to providing descriptive cross-sectional information about diabetes in Tasmania. It is intended that a longitudinal study of insulin-treated diabetes will follow once the cross-sectional information is complete. PMID:3959970

  13. Unexpected Arrest-Related Deaths in America: 12 Months of Open Source Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jeffrey D.; Heegaard, William G.; Dawes, Donald M.; Natarajan, Sridhar; Reardon, Robert F.; Miner, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD) has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology. Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied. Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%); empty-hand techniques (69%); intermediate weapons such as TASER® device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%); and deadly force (12%). Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%), within the first hour (53%) and 1–48 hours (35%). Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons. Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings. PMID:19561821

  14. Social looking, social referencing and humor perception in 6- and-12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Pettinato, Christine A; Woodard, Kelly C; Malzac, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤8-months) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does not require mobility, we found that when parents provided unsolicited affective cues during an ambiguous-absurd (i.e., humorous) event, 6-month-olds employ one component of social referencing, social looking Additionally, 6-month-olds who did not laugh at the event were significantly more likely to look toward parents than their counterparts who found the event funny. Sequential analyses revealed that, following a reference to a smiling parent, 6-month olds were more likely to smile at the parent, but by 12 months were more likely to smile at the event suggesting that older infants are influenced by parental affect in humorous situations. The developmental implications of these findings are discussed, as well as the usefulness of studying humor for understanding important developmental phenomena. PMID:25061893

  15. Surviving social assistance: 12-month prevalence of depression in sole-support parents receiving social assistance

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, C; Browne, G; Roberts, J; Ewart, B; Schuster, M; Underwood, J; Flynn-Kingston, S; Rennick, K; Bell, B; Gafni, A; Watt, S; Ashford, Y; Jamieson, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally recognized that poverty and depression can coexist among single parents receiving social assistance, there is insufficient research on this topic. The goals of this study therefore were to investigate the prevalence, correlates and health care expenditures associated with depression among sole-support parents receiving social assistance. METHODS: Sole-support parents who had applied for social assistance in 2 regions of southwestern Ontario were included in the study. Depression was diagnosed with the 1994 University of Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview short forms. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence rate of depressive disorder among the parents interviewed was 45.4% (345/760). A total of 247 (32.5%) had major depressive disorder alone, 19 (2.5%) had dysthymia, and 79 (10.4%) had both major depressive disorder and dysthymia ("double depression"). Those with major depressive disorder, particularly double depression, had significantly higher rates of coexisting psychiatric disorder than those without depressive disorders. Parents with depression reported higher rates of developmental delay and behaviour problems in their children than parents without depression. Expenditures for health care services were higher for parents with depression and for their children than for parents without depressive disorder and their children. INTERPRETATION: Single parents receiving social assistance have high rates of depression. Such parents with depression also have higher rates of other psychiatric disorders and higher expenditures for health care services, and their children have higher rates of developmental delay and behaviour problems. PMID:9559013

  16. [Effect of breast feeding and psychosocial variables upon psychomotor development of 12-month-old infants].

    PubMed

    De Andraca, I; Salas, M I; López, C; Cayazzo, M S; Icaza, G

    1999-09-01

    This study evaluates the participation of psychosocial variables in the relation between breast feeding (BF) and psychomotor development (PMD) in dyads with different BF duration. We assessed 138 mother-infant dyads, divided in two groups: 86 received BF as unique source of milk feeding for at least 6 months (prolonged BF group) and 52 were weaned before 45 days of age (early weaning group). General information about pregnancy, delivery and feeding was collected in a non experimental prospective design. At 6-7 months of age a milk feeding situation was observed at home, and mother-infant interactional patterns were recorded through a specially designed scale. At 12 months of age the PMD was assessed (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Infant temperament, home stimulation, mother depression and family stress were also measured. Similar family characteristics were observed in both study groups. Early bonding and first feeding experiences were different, both reported as better in the prolonged BF group. Moreover, dyads of this group showed a higher variety and quality of mother-infant interactional patterns during feeding, with a higher synchrony and reciprocity in the relationship. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were similar in both groups. Explicatory variables for MDI and PDI are different in both study groups. Dyads who attained prolonged BF conform from a psychosocial perspective--a different group than the early weaned. PMID:10667261

  17. Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2007, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2006-07, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2008-159

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    This First Look report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2007 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2007-08 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2007, and 12-Month Enrollment covering academic year…

  18. Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in the United States: Fall 2009, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2008-09, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2009 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2009-10 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009, and 12-Month Enrollment covering academic year…

  19. Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in the United States: 2010-11, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2009-10, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2009-10. First Look. NCES 2011-250

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2010 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2010-11 academic year; Completions, covering the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010; and 12-Month Enrollment, covering 2009-10. This…

  20. Validity of 12-Month Falls Recall in Community-Dwelling Older Women Participating in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kerrie M.; Stuart, Amanda L.; Scott, David; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Nicholson, Geoff C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare 12-month falls recall with falls reported prospectively on daily falls calendars in a clinical trial of women aged ≥70 years. Methods. 2,096 community-dwelling women at high risk of falls and/or fracture completed a daily falls calendar and standardised interviews when falls were recorded, for 12 months. Data were compared to a 12-month falls recall question that categorised falls status as “no falls,” “a few times,” “several,” and “regular” falls. Results. 898 (43%) participants reported a fall on daily falls calendars of whom 692 (77%) recalled fall(s) at 12 months. Participants who did not recall a fall were older (median 79.3 years versus 77.8 years, P = 0.028). Smaller proportions of fallers who sustained an injury or accessed health care failed to recall a fall (all P < 0.04). Among participants who recalled “no fall,” 85% reported zero falls on daily calendars. Few women selected falls categories of “several times” or “regular” (4.1% and 0.4%, resp.) and the sensitivity of these categories was low (30% to 33%). Simply categorising participants into fallers or nonfallers had 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusion. For studies where intensive ascertainment of falls is not feasible, 12-month falls recall questions with fewer responses may be an acceptable alternative. PMID:26273292

  1. Long-Term Patterns of Online Evidence Retrieval Use in General Practice: A 12-Month Study

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Kidd, Michael R; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Provision of online evidence at the point of care is one strategy that could provide clinicians with easy access to up-to-date evidence in clinical settings in order to support evidence-based decision making. Objective The aim was to determine long-term use of an online evidence system in routine clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. 59 clinicians who had a computer with Internet access in their consulting room participated in a 12-month trial of Quick Clinical, an online evidence system specifically designed around the needs of general practitioners (GPs). Patterns of use were determined by examination of computer logs and survey analysis. Results On average, 9.9 searches were conducted by each GP in the first 2 months of the study. After this, usage dropped to 4.4 searches per GP in the third month and then levelled off to between 0.4 and 2.6 searches per GP per month. The majority of searches (79.2%, 2013/2543) were conducted during practice hours (between 9 am and 5 pm) and on weekdays (90.7%, 2315/2543). The most frequent searches related to diagnosis (33.6%, 821/2291) and treatment (34.5%, 844/2291). Conclusion GPs will use an online evidence retrieval system in routine practice; however, usage rates drop significantly after initial introduction of the system. Long-term studies are required to determine the extent to which GPs will integrate the use of such technologies into their everyday clinical practice and how this will affect the satisfaction and health outcomes of their patients. PMID:18353750

  2. The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System: A 12 months Test of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ``Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System'' (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three month is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological ``mechanical'' filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A simple data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  3. A 12-month prospective study of the relationship between stress fractures and bone turnover in athletes.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K L; Malcolm, S A; Brukner, P D; Green, R M; Hopper, J L; Wark, J D; Ebeling, P R

    1998-07-01

    Bone remodeling may be involved in the pathogenesis of stress fractures in athletes. We conducted a 12-month prospective study to evaluate bone turnover in 46 female and 49 male track and field athletes aged 17-26 years (mean age 20.3; SD 2.0) 20 of whom developed a stress fracture. Baseline levels of bone turnover were evaluated in all athletes and monthly bone turnover levels were evaluated in a subset consisting of the 20 athletes who sustained a stress fracture and a matched comparison group who did not sustain a stress fracture. Bone formation was assessed using serum osteocalcin (OC) measured by human immunoradiometric assay and bone resorption by urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links (Pyr and D-Pyr); high performance liquid chromatography and N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen (NTx) using ELISA assay. Athletes who developed stress fractures had similar baseline levels of bone turnover compared with their nonstress fracture counterparts (P > 0.10). Results of serial measurements showed no differences in average levels of Pyr, D-Pyr, or OC in those who developed stress fractures (P = 0.10) compared with the control group. In the athletes with stress fractures, there was also no difference in bone turnover levels prior to or following the onset of bony pain. Our results show that single and multiple measurements of bone turnover are not clinically useful in predicting the likelihood of stress fractures in athletes. Furthermore, there were no consistent temporal changes in bone turnover associated with stress fracture development. However, our results do not negate the possible pathogenetic role of local changes in bone remodeling at stress fracture sites, given the high biological variability of bone turnover markers and the fact that levels of bone turnover reflect the integration of all bone remodeling throughout the skeleton. PMID:9632851

  4. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  5. Effects of 12-month valsartan therapy on glycation and oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Naoko; Hirose, Hiroshi; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Saito, Ikuo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Although it has been reported that angiotensin II receptor blockers inhibited the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in vitro and in vivo, whether they can do so clinically is not clear. We investigated the effects of 12-month valsartan therapy on various markers of inflammation, glycation, and oxidation in type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension. We started 40 mg/day valsartan treatment in 15 type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. In 6 patients, the dose of valsartan was increased to 80 mg/day after 6 months and maintained until 12 months. Metabolic parameters including BMI and serum high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as an inflammation marker, AGEs, paraoxonase activity, platelet-activating factor (PAF)- acetylhydrolase activity, and urine 8-isoprostane levels were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Urine microalbumin level and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) were also measured. Even after valsartan therapy, the blood pressure levels of the patients were not decreased significantly. Serum AGEs and urine 8-isoprostane levels decreased at both 6 and 12 months (P < 0.05 for both), although other metabolic and oxidative markers were unchanged. Though urine microalbumin levels tended to be decreased after 6 and 12 months of valsartan treatment, the changes were not significant. Mean IMT at 12 months was not changed from the baseline value. In conclusion, the findings suggest that treatment with valsartan, even at a low dose, may ameliorate some glycation and oxidative stress markers independently of an effect on blood pressure in hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:19075484

  6. Progression of atherosclerosis in the Apo E-/- model: 12-month exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke combined with high-cholesterol/fat diet.

    PubMed

    von Holt, K; Lebrun, S; Stinn, W; Conroy, L; Wallerath, T; Schleef, R

    2009-07-01

    This study was performed to gain information about the influence of two cardiovascular risk factors, cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) and high-cholesterol/fat diet, on the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apo E-/-) mice. Eight to 12-week-old mice were whole-body exposed for up to 12 months (6h/day, 5 days/week) to diluted cigarette mainstream smoke at total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations of 100 or 200mg/m(3), or to filtered fresh air (sham) in combination with a normal chow diet or a high-cholesterol/fat diet. Cholesterol in the aortic arch was elevated in the high-cholesterol/fat diet groups exposed to 200 mg TPM/m(3) compared to sham at all time points. In the brachiocephalic artery (BA), absolute plaque size and fraction area of plaques was elevated over the 12-month time course in mice exposed to 200 mg TPM/m(3) compared to sham (both diets). Exposure to 100 and 200 mg TPM/m(3) altered the number of elastin-rich layers in the BA in mice fed a high-cholesterol/fat diet, indicating changes in plaque morphology at 6 and 9 months. This study shows for the first time the influence of two different risk factors, MS and high-cholesterol/fat diet, both alone and in combination over a period of 12 months, on the progression of atherosclerosis in Apo E-/- mice. Data suggest that long-term exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke accelerates the development of atherosclerosis in Apo E-/- mice, particularly in combination with a high-cholesterol/fat diet. PMID:19144336

  7. Vaccination of ferrets with a recombinant G glycoprotein subunit vaccine provides protection against Nipah virus disease for over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the henipavirus genus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Since NiV was first identified in 1999, outbreaks have continued to occur in humans in Bangladesh and India on an almost annual basis with case fatality rates reported between 40% and 100%. Methods Ferrets were vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with the human use approved adjuvant, CpG, in a prime-boost regime. One half of the ferrets were exposed to NiV at 20 days post boost vaccination and the other at 434 days post vaccination. The presence of virus or viral genome was assessed in ferret fluids and tissues using real-time PCR, virus isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry; serology was also carried out. Non-immunised ferrets were also exposed to virus to confirm the pathogenicity of the inoculum. Results Ferrets exposed to Nipah virus 20 days post vaccination remained clinically healthy. Virus or viral genome was not detected in any tissues or fluids of the vaccinated ferrets; lesions and antigen were not identified on immunohistological examination of tissues; and there was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with failure of virus replication. Of the ferrets challenged 434 days post vaccination, all five remained well throughout the study period; viral genome – but not virus - was recovered from nasal secretions of one ferret given 20 μg HeVsG and bronchial lymph nodes of the other. There was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with lack of stimulation of a humoral memory response. Conclusions We have previously shown that ferrets vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with CpG adjuvant, which is currently in several human clinical trials, were protected from HeV disease. Here we show, under similar conditions of use, that the vaccine also provides protection against NiV-induced disease. Such protection persists for at least 12 months

  8. Gastrointestinal tract development in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves from 1 to 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K J; Hoskin, S O; Jopson, N B; Mackintosh, C G; Hofstra, G; Thompson, B R; Stevens, D R

    2013-11-01

    This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same

  9. Comparison of measures of comorbidity for predicting disability 12-months post-injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that impact on disability is necessary to inform trauma care and enable adequate risk adjustment for benchmarking and monitoring. A key consideration is how to adjust for pre-existing conditions when assessing injury outcomes, and whether the inclusion of comorbidity is needed in addition to adjustment for age. This study compared different approaches to modelling the impact of comorbidity, collected as part of the routine hospital episode data, on disability outcomes following orthopaedic injury. Methods 12-month Glasgow Outcome Scale – Extended (GOS-E) outcomes for 13,519 survivors to discharge were drawn from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry, a prospective cohort study of admitted orthopaedic injury patients. ICD-10-AM comorbidity codes were mapped to four comorbidity indices. Cases with a GOS-E score of 7–8 were considered “recovered”. A split dataset approach was used with cases randomly assigned to development or test datasets. Logistic regression models were fitted with “recovery” as the outcome and the performance of the models based on each comorbidity index (adjusted for injury and age) measured using calibration (Hosmer-Lemshow (H-L) statistics and calibration curves) and discrimination (Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC)) statistics. Results All comorbidity indices improved model fit over models with age and injuries sustained alone. None of the models demonstrated acceptable model calibration (H-L statistic p < 0.05 for all models). There was little difference between the discrimination of the indices for predicting recovery: Charlson Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71); number of ICD-10 chapters represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.72); number of six frequent chronic conditions represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.71); and the Functional Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.69, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71). Conclusions The presence of ICD-10 recorded comorbid

  10. Silicon Matrix Calcium Phosphate as a Bone Substitute: Early Clinical and Radiological Results in a Prospective Study With 12-Month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pesántez, Carlos Fernando Arias; Oliveira, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Autograft has been the “gold standard” for orthopedic bone grafting applications, but with some clinical challenges. Here we present the rationale and clinical outcomes supporting the use of a bone substitute material that consists of a mixture of two calcium phosphates (HA and ß-TCP), which are integrated into a silicon xerogel matrix, promoting nanocrystalline apatite layers on the surface of the material following implantation into a physiological environment. Methods Twenty-four patients with a median age of 53.80 (36–81) years underwent lumbar spinal fusion for degenerative disease, selected by clinical presentation, X-rays, and MRI findings. Subjects were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The outcome assessment consisted of visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and radiological assessment analyzing the state of fusion on X-ray and CT evaluation by 3 independent radiologists. Results All patients completed 12-month follow-up. The mean VAS decreased from 9.3 (± 0.9) to 2.4 (± 1.6) and the mean ODI decreased from 55.0 (± 9.2) to 19.3 (± 11.4) at 12-month follow-up. Three months after surgery, 10 patients (41.67%) had solid fusion based on analysis of CT scans and dynamic radiographs. At 6 months postoperatively, the fusion rate had increased to 75% (18 patients). Twelve months after surgery, 95.83% of patients had solid fusion (23 patients). Conclusions The clinical results from this study of silicon matrix calcium phosphate are consistent with previous in vitro studies indicating that this material stimulates formation of a bioactive layer and provides an effective bone graft material for lumbar fusion applications. In comparison with previous studies involving rhBMP-2, silicon matrix calcium phosphate provided a lower fusion rate at 3- and 6-month follow-up points, but after 12 months, the fusion rate was similar, with no statistical differences and lower overall costs. No

  11. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The petitioners provided three listing options for consideration by the Service: Listing the black- footed albatross throughout its range; listing the......

  12. The Role of Intersensory Redundancy in the Emergence of Social Referencing in 5 1/2-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant-Molina, Mariana; Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    2012-01-01

    Early evidence of social referencing was examined in 5 1/2-month-old infants. Infants were habituated to 2 films of moving toys, one toy eliciting a woman's positive emotional expression and the other eliciting a negative expression under conditions of bimodal (audiovisual) or unimodal visual (silent) speech. It was predicted that intersensory…

  13. 76 FR 9991 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Hermes copper butterflies in the Federal Register (71 FR 44980 and 71 FR 44966, respectively). The... FR 44980). On March 17, 2009, Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) and David Hogan filed a complaint... butterfly as endangered may be warranted (75 FR 17062). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on...

  14. Effectiveness and Predictors of Continuation of Paliperidone Palmitate Long-Acting Injection Treatment: A 12-Month Naturalistic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Whale, Richard; Pereira, Marco; Cuthbert, Sharon; Fialho, Renata

    2015-10-01

    Antipsychotic long-acting injectable (LAI) medication has an important place as a treatment option in schizophrenia with evolving evidence to support clinical benefit over oral medication. Paliperidone palmitate is recently licensed as an LAI. We studied a naturalistic cohort of all identifiable patients who initiated paliperidone LAI in a specific United Kingdom region (Sussex) from first availability up to January 2013 (n = 179). Favorably, 60% of the cohort continued paliperidone LAI beyond 12 months from initiation. Schizophrenia diagnosis was significantly associated with 12-month continuation on univariate analysis (65% continuation rate at 12 months in this diagnostic subgroup). No baseline variables were identified as independently associated with 12-month continuation. However, fewer inpatient days after initiation (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.003-1.011; P = 0.002), dose adjustment up or down (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.26-9.51; P = 0.016), and a higher maintenance dose (OR, 8.31; 95% CI, 1.84-37.51; P = 0.006) during treatment course were all independently associated with continuation on multivariate analysis. Our findings support the importance of a collaborative approach with the LAI recipient in treatment decision making to enhance treatment effectiveness. PMID:26267419

  15. 76 FR 37706 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... publish these 12-month findings in the Federal Register. Previous Federal Actions On July 1, 1975 (40 FR... Service for listing as an endangered species under the Act in 1976 (June 16, 1976, 41 FR 24524). However... Wildlife Service 1988). Ozark chinquapin became a category 2 candidate on December 15, 1980 (45 FR...

  16. 75 FR 13909 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings for Petitions to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... finding in the Federal Register (69 FR 21484) that these petitions taken collectively, as well as... finding, until July 30, 2004 (69 FR 41445). In accordance with section 4(b)(3)(A) of the Act, we completed... January 12, 2005, we announced our not-warranted 12-month finding in the Federal Register (70 FR 2243)....

  17. 78 FR 68659 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., 2008, we published a 12-month finding on the petition to list the Gunnison's prairie dog (73 FR 6660... published a 90-day finding in the Federal Register (71 FR 6241) determining that the petition did not... notice of review process (73 FR 75175, December 20, 2008; 74 FR 57804, November 9, 2009; 75 FR...

  18. 75 FR 30338 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition to List the White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... may be warranted. On November 9, 2004, we announced our 90-day finding (69 FR 64889) that the petition... Finding on a Petition to List the White-tailed Prairie Dog as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and... Wildlife Service announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the white-tailed prairie dog...

  19. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to total breastfeeding durations of 12 months or less by parous women

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Susan J; Wilson, Louise F; Nagle, Christina M; Green, Adele C; Olsen, Catherine M; Bain, Christopher J; Pandeya, Nirmala; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and number of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to parous women having breastfed for total durations of ≤12 months. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of breast cancers (the only cancer site with convincing evidence of causal association) associated with women breastfeeding for ≤12 months in total, using standard formulae incorporating breastfeeding prevalence data, relative risks associated with breastfeeding and cancer incidence. We also estimated the proportion change in disease incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that might have occurred under two hypothetical scenarios of women breastfeeding for longer durations. Results An estimated 235 (1.7%) breast cancer cases that occurred in Australian in 2010 could be attributed to women breastfeeding for total durations of ≤12 months. Assuming a hypothetical increase in breastfeeding, we estimated that the number of breast cancers prevented would range from 36 to 51 (prevented fraction = 0.3% to 0.4%). Conclusions More than 200 breast cancers were attributable to women breastfeeding for total durations of ≤12 months. Implications Policies to increase breastfeeding duration may help prevent breast cancers in the future. PMID:26437725

  20. 76 FR 46251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Redrock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Register on December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66866). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on the June 18... levels, on their own, do not affect aquatic invertebrates (Spindler 2010b, p. 1), and we do not expect... an important food source and foraging area for stream invertebrates (Wallace and Webster 1996, p....

  1. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). On December 9, 2008, we received a petition dated December 8, 2008, from... published in the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 42033). In that finding we determined that the... Pinus albicaulis (75 FR 42033), and received 20 letters from the public. This 12-month finding is...

  2. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months. PMID:24625341

  4. Social and Object Mastery Play in 12-Month Olds with Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers: Developmental Changes and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popper, Sally D.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of postpartum adjustment and infant development, this study examined whether securely attached 12-month-old infants show greater object mastery motivation and social-object mastery motivation than do insecurely attached infants. Object mastery relates to infants' goal-directed behavior that is oriented toward…

  5. 77 FR 59357 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Spring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Spring Mountains acastus checkerspot butterfly (Chlosyne acastus robusta) as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Spring Mountains acastus......

  6. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: A 12-month prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R.; Chiu, Bryan K.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W.; Handy, Todd C.; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12 months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants’ physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12 months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  7. Health-related quality of life and functional changes in DMD: A 12-month longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Sframeli, Maria; Mondello, Stefania; Mazzone, Elena; D'Amico, Adele; Berardinelli, Angela; La Rosa, Matteo; Bruno, Claudio; Distefano, Maria Grazia; Baranello, Giovanni; Barcellona, Costanza; Scutifero, Marianna; Marcato, Sonia; Palmieri, Arianna; Politano, Luisa; Morandi, Lucia; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Pane, Marika; Rodolico, Carmelo; Minetti, Carlo; Bertini, Enrico; Vita, Giuseppe; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) little has been reported on the association between clinical outcome measures and patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tools. Our study evaluated the relationship between 12 month changes on the Generic Core Scales (GCS), the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale and the Neuromuscular Module of the PedsQLTM with several outcome measures (6 minute walk test, North Star Ambulatory Assessment and timed items) in ambulatory DMD. Ninety-eight ambulatory DMD in a multicentric setting were included in the study. At baseline, the PedsQLTM inventories correlated with almost all the functional measures On the Child Self-Report there was a significant decrease between baseline and 12 months on the PedsQLTM GCS and its first domain, in parallel with the decrement in the functional outcome measures. Correlation between the 12 month changes on the PedsQLTM inventories and functional measures were almost all negligible. Similar results were obtained on the Parent Proxy-Report. In conclusion, PedsQLTM correlates with the level of impairment at baseline, but this does not hold true when 12 month changes are considered. Further studies comparing different tools are needed to better elucidate the complexity of the relationship between HRQOL and functional performances. PMID:26916554

  8. Infants' Vocal Engagement Oriented towards Mother versus Stranger at 3 Months and Avoidant Attachment Behavior at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that mother avoidance in infants at the age of 12 months can be predicted by the infants' differential vocal engagement to mother versus a female stranger at the age of 3 months. Differential engagement in favor of the mother was supposed to relate to low future avoidance. The vocal behavior of 26…

  9. Is Visual Reference Necessary? Contributions of Facial versus Vocal Cues in 12-Month-Olds' Social Referencing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Amrisha; Striano, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    To examine the influences of facial versus vocal cues on infants' behavior in a potentially threatening situation, 12-month-olds on a visual cliff received positive facial-only, vocal-only, or both facial and vocal cues from mothers. Infants' crossing times and looks to mother were assessed. Infants crossed the cliff faster with multimodal and…

  10. Child-Centered Behaviors of Caregivers with 12-Month-Old Infants: Associations with Passive Joint Engagement and Later Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Carol Hamer; Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates three aspects of social communication in 12-month-old infants and their caregivers: (a) caregiver conversational style, (b) caregiver gesture, and (c) infant engagement. Differences in caregiver behavior during passive joint engagement were associated with language outcomes. Although total mean duration of infant time in…

  11. 75 FR 78029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ..., 1995, we published a finding (60 FR 19567) that a previous petition, submitted by the Predator Project... scientific and commercial information indicating that listing may be warranted (68 FR 60112). On September 29... published a 12-month finding of ``not warranted'' for the wolverine in the contiguous United States (73...

  12. 75 FR 19592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Wyoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Wyoming pocket gopher (Thomomys clusius) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Wyoming pocket gopher as either......

  13. 75 FR 53615 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... warranted, and initiated a status review (74 FR 36152). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on the... species under the Act in the 1982 Candidate Notice of Review (47 FR 58454, December 30, 1982). Category 2... for possible addition to the ] Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (61 FR...

  14. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  15. IMPACT OF A 12-MONTH EXPOSURE TO A DIURNAL PATTERN OF OZONE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION, ANTIOXIDANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats were exposed for 12 months, 13 hr/day, 7 days/week to 0.06 ppm O3; Monday through Friday, the animals received a 9 hr spike reaching a maximum concentration of 0.25 ppm. An increase in the rate of lung nitrogen washout was observed in the O3-exposed rats. Residual volume and...

  16. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  17. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  18. 76 FR 9722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Solanum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... FR 63659) our finding that the petition to list A. eggersiana and S. conocarpum presented substantial... February 28, 2006. On March 7, 2006, we published our 12-month finding (71 FR 11367) that listing of A... Number The Service adopted guidelines on September 21, 1983 (48 FR 43098), to establish a rational...

  19. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W; Handy, Todd C; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants' physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  20. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  1. Predicting the Onset of Anxiety Syndromes at 12 Months in Primary Care Attendees. The PredictA-Spain Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Luna, Juan de Dios; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Motrico, Emma; GildeGómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Torres-González, Francisco; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Bellón, Juan Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no risk algorithms for the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months in primary care. We aimed to develop and validate internally a risk algorithm to predict the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Methods A prospective cohort study with evaluations at baseline, 6 and 12 months. We measured 39 known risk factors and used multilevel logistic regression and inverse probability weighting to build the risk algorithm. Our main outcome was generalized anxiety, panic and other non-specific anxiety syndromes as measured by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, Patient Health Questionnaire (PRIME-MD-PHQ). We recruited 3,564 adult primary care attendees without anxiety syndromes from 174 family physicians and 32 health centers in 6 Spanish provinces. Results The cumulative 12-month incidence of anxiety syndromes was 12.2%. The predictA-Spain risk algorithm included the following predictors of anxiety syndromes: province; sex (female); younger age; taking medicines for anxiety, depression or stress; worse physical and mental quality of life (SF-12); dissatisfaction with paid and unpaid work; perception of financial strain; and the interactions sex*age, sex*perception of financial strain, and age*dissatisfaction with paid work. The C-index was 0.80 (95% confidence interval = 0.78–0.83) and the Hedges' g = 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.04–1.29). The Copas shrinkage factor was 0.98 and calibration plots showed an accurate goodness of fit. Conclusions The predictA-Spain risk algorithm is valid to predict anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Although external validation is required, the predictA-Spain is available for use as a predictive tool in the prevention of anxiety syndromes in primary care. PMID:25184313

  2. High Incidence of Vertebral Fractures in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 12 Months After the Initiation of Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alos, Nathalie; Grant, Ronald; Ramsay, Timothy; Halton, Jacqueline; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Abish, Sharon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Barr, Ronald; Cabral, David A.; Cairney, Elizabeth; Couch, Robert; Dix, David B.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Hay, John; Israels, Sara; Laverdière, Caroline; Lentle, Brian; Lewis, Victor; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Rodd, Celia; Shenouda, Nazih; Stein, Robert; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Wilson, Beverly; Williams, Kathryn; Rauch, Frank; Siminoski, Kerry; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis are a potential complication of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To date, the incidence of vertebral fractures during ALL treatment has not been reported. Patient and Methods We prospectively evaluated 155 children with ALL during the first 12 months of leukemia therapy. Lateral thoracolumbar spine radiographs were obtained at baseline and 12 months. Vertebral bodies were assessed for incident vertebral fractures using the Genant semi-quantitative method, and relevant clinical indices such as spine bone mineral density (BMD), back pain and the presence of vertebral fractures at baseline were analyzed for association with incident vertebral fractures. Results Of the 155 children, 25 (16%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 11% to 23%) had a total of 61 incident vertebral fractures, of which 32 (52%) were moderate or severe. Thirteen of the 25 children with incident vertebral fractures (52%) also had fractures at baseline. Vertebral fractures at baseline increased the odds of an incident fracture at 12 months by an odds ratio of 7.3 (95% CI 2.3 to 23.1, p = 0.001). In addition, for every one standard deviation reduction in spine BMD Z-score at baseline, there was 1.8-fold increased odds of incident vertebral fracture at 12 months (95% CI 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.006). Conclusion Children with ALL have a high incidence of vertebral fractures after 12 months of chemotherapy, and the presence of vertebral fractures and reductions in spine BMD Z-scores at baseline are highly associated clinical features. PMID:22734031

  3. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. PMID:25459795

  4. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative in the past 12 months: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Lowford, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Eight years ago Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects launched in EU, Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Throughout its duration, NEESPI served and is serving as an umbrella for more than 155 individual international research projects. Currently, the total number of the ongoing NEESPI projects (as on January 2013) is 48 and has changed but slightly compared to its peak (87 in 2008). The past 12 months (from the previous EGU Assembly) were extremely productive in the NEESPI outreach. We organized three Open Science Sessions at the three major Geoscience Unions/Assembly Meetings (JpGU, AGU, and this EGU Session) and three International NEESPI Workshops. The programs of two of these Workshops (in Yoshkar Ola and Irkutsk, Russia) included Summer Schools for early career scientists. More than 150 peer-reviewed papers, books, and/or book chapters were published in 2012 or are in press (this list was still incomplete at the time of preparation of this abstract). In particular, a suite of 25 peer-reviewed NEESPI articles was published in the Forth Special NEESPI Issue of "Environmental Research Letters" (ERL) http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI3 (this is the third ERL Issue). In December 2012, the next Special ERL NEESPI Issue was launched http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI4. Northern Eurasia is a large study domain. Therefore, it was decided to describe the latest findings related to its environmental changes in several regional monographs in English. Three books on Environmental Changes in the NEESPI domain were published by the University of Helsinki (Groisman et al. 2012), "Akademperiodyka" (Groisman and Lyalko 2012), and Springer Publishing House (Groisman and Gutman 2013) being devoted to the high latitudes of Eurasia, to Eastern Europe, and to Siberia

  5. Accurate age classification of 6 and 12 month-old infants based on resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, John R.; Kandala, Sridhar; Hoertel, Sarah; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Elison, Jed T.; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Feczko, Eric; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Nardos, Binyam; Power, Jonathan D.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Botteron, Kelly N.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Evans, Alan C.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Dager, Stephen R.; Paterson, Sarah; Schultz, Robert T.; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Das, Samir; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Constantino, John N.; Estes, Annette M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Piven, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Human large-scale functional brain networks are hypothesized to undergo significant changes over development. Little is known about these functional architectural changes, particularly during the second half of the first year of life. We used multivariate pattern classification of resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) data obtained in an on-going, multi-site, longitudinal study of brain and behavioral development to explore whether fcMRI data contained information sufficient to classify infant age. Analyses carefully account for the effects of fcMRI motion artifact. Support vector machines (SVMs) classified 6 versus 12 month-old infants (128 datasets) above chance based on fcMRI data alone. Results demonstrate significant changes in measures of brain functional organization that coincide with a special period of dramatic change in infant motor, cognitive, and social development. Explorations of the most different correlations used for SVM lead to two different interpretations about functional connections that support 6 versus 12-month age categorization. PMID:25704288

  6. Relapse After Methylprednisolone Oral Minipulse Therapy in Childhood Vitiligo: A 12-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral minipulse (OMP) therapy with methylprednisolone is presently one of the most common oral treatments used for progressive vitiligo in children. The treatment is usually given for a period of 6 months during which majority of patients are reported to go into remission. However, there are no follow-up studies to comment upon what happens to the disease after OMP therapy is withdrawn. Aim of the study: To document the incidence of relapse over a period of 1 year after OMP therapy is stopped in children with vitiligo. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 180 patients of childhood vitiligo (<15 years of age) who had been on OMP therapy with oral methylprednisolone for at least 6 months and who had achieved a complete remission of their disease during the treatment period. The enrolled patients were followed up for a period of 1 year and examined clinically for any sign of reactivation of their disease over either the old lesions or at any new area of the body. Results: Forty-two patients were lost and could not complete the follow-up period of 1 year. Out of the 138 patients available at the end of 1 year, relapse was observed in 48 patients (34.8%). Rest of 90 patients remained in remission over the follow-up period of 1 year. Relapse was more common in patients below 10 years of age (47.4%) as compared with older children (25.9%). Conclusion: Relapse after using methylprednisolone OMP therapy in children with vitiligo is quite common especially in younger age groups. Studies are needed to see whether these relapses could be avoided by giving the treatment for a period longer than 6 months. PMID:23716799

  7. Early response to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids as a predictor of 12-month treatment responder status and COPD exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Calverley, Peter M; Postma, Dirkje S; Anzueto, Antonio R; Make, Barry J; Eriksson, Göran; Peterson, Stefan; Jenkins, Christine R

    2016-01-01

    Background Early treatment response markers, for example, improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, may help clinicians to better manage patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the prevalence of clinically important improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ scores after 2-month budesonide/formoterol or formoterol treatment and whether such improvements predict subsequent improvements and exacerbation rates. Methods This post hoc analysis is based on data from three double-blind, randomized studies in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD receiving twice-daily budesonide/formoterol or formoterol alone for 6 or 12 months. Prebronchodilator FEV1 and SGRQ total score were measured before treatment and at 2 and 12 months; COPD exacerbation rates were measured during months 2–12. Responders were defined by ≥100 mL improvement in prebronchodilator FEV1 and ≥4-point decrease in SGRQ total score. Results Overall, 2,331 and 1,799 patients were included in the 0–2- and 0–12-month responder analyses, respectively, and 2,360 patients in the 2–12-month exacerbation rate analysis. At 2 months, 35.1% of patients were FEV1 responders and 44.3% were SGRQ responders. The probability of response was significantly greater with budesonide/formoterol than with formoterol or placebo for both parameters. Two-month responders had a greater chance of 12-month response than 2-month nonresponders for both FEV1 (odds ratio, 5.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.14–7.50) and SGRQ (odds ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.83–5.31). Two-month response in FEV1 (P<0.001), but not SGRQ (P=0.11), was associated with greater reductions in exacerbation risk. Conclusion Early FEV1 and SGRQ treatment responses relate to their changes at 12 months. FEV1 response, but not SGRQ response, at 2 months predicts the risk of a future COPD exacerbation in some, but not all patients. This is

  8. That's the Way the Money Goes. Further Education Funding in England in the Next 12 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravatt, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Expenditures on further education (FE) in England were examined as part of the Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR), which was a zero-based budgeting exercise performed by the Labour government for a 3-year period covering 1999-2002. The CSR increased total FE funding by 7% in 1999-2000. When the anticipated 5% increase in FE enrollments and…

  9. The developing cognitive substrate of sequential action control in 9- to 12-month-olds: evidence for concurrent activation models.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, S A; Paulus, M; Spapé, M; Biro, S; Hommel, B

    2015-05-01

    Nine-month-olds start to perform sequential actions. Yet, it remains largely unknown how they acquire and control such actions. We studied infants' sequential-action control by employing a novel gaze-contingent eye tracking paradigm. Infants experienced occulo-motor action sequences comprising two elementary actions. To contrast chaining, concurrent and integrated models of sequential-action control, we then selectively activated secondary actions to assess interactions with the primary actions. Behavioral and pupillometric results suggest 12-month-olds acquire sequential action without elaborate strategy through exploration. Furthermore, the inhibitory mechanisms ensuring ordered performance develop between 9 and 12 months of age, and are best captured by concurrent models. PMID:25704583

  10. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders in 12-Month-Old High-Risk Siblings by Parental Report

    PubMed Central

    Macari, Suzanne; Chen, Grace; Campbell, Daniel; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether parental report of social-communicative and repetitive behaviors at 12 months can be helpful in identifying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in younger siblings of children with ASD [high-risk (HR)-siblings]. Parents of HR-siblings and infants without a family history of ASD completed the First Year Inventory at 12 months. Developmental outcomes were based on 24- or 36-month assessments. HR-siblings later diagnosed with ASD showed greater impairments in social communication than those with other developmental outcomes based on parental and clinician ratings. Parental report of decline in play and communication and impaired vocal imitation correctly classified a majority of ASD cases with high specificity. These preliminary findings have important implications for the development of early screening instruments for ASD in HR-siblings. PMID:25149178

  11. Screening for autism spectrum disorders in 12-month-old high-risk siblings by parental report.

    PubMed

    Rowberry, Justin; Macari, Suzanne; Chen, Grace; Campbell, Daniel; Leventhal, John M; Weitzman, Carol; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether parental report of social-communicative and repetitive behaviors at 12 months can be helpful in identifying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in younger siblings of children with ASD [high-risk (HR)-siblings]. Parents of HR-siblings and infants without a family history of ASD completed the First Year Inventory at 12 months. Developmental outcomes were based on 24- or 36-month assessments. HR-siblings later diagnosed with ASD showed greater impairments in social communication than those with other developmental outcomes based on parental and clinician ratings. Parental report of decline in play and communication and impaired vocal imitation correctly classified a majority of ASD cases with high specificity. These preliminary findings have important implications for the development of early screening instruments for ASD in HR-siblings. PMID:25149178

  12. 76 FR 38503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list a distinct population segment (DPS) of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in its U.S. Northern Rocky Mountain range, including portions of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, as endangered or threatened and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of......

  13. 78 FR 33790 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (``Service''), announce 12-month findings on two petitions to remove the U.S. captive-bred and U.S. captive ``populations'' of three antelope species, the scimitar- horned oryx (Oryx dammah), dama gazelle (Gazella dama), and addax (Addax nasomaculatus), from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife as determined under the Endangered Species Act of......

  14. 75 FR 42040 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Amargosa toad (Anaxyrus nelsoni) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Amargosa toad is not warranted at this time.......

  15. Incident Vertebral Fractures among Children with Rheumatic Disorders 12 Months Post-Glucocorticoid Initiation: a National Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Celia; Lang, Bianca; Ramsay, Timothy; Alos, Nathalie; Huber, Adam M.; Cabral, David A.; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Roth, Johannes; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Dent, Peter B.; Ellsworth, Janet; Hay, John; Houghton, Kristin; Jurencak, Roman; Larché, Maggie; LeBlanc, Claire; Oen, Kiem; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Stein, Robert; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Shenouda, Nazih; Moher, David; Rauch, Frank; Siminoski, Kerry; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency of incident vertebral fractures (IVF) 12 months after glucocorticoid (GC) initiation in children with rheumatic diseases and to identify children at higher risk. Methods Children with rheumatic diseases initiating GC were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Annual spine radiographs were evaluated using the Genant semi-quantitative method. Spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured every 6 months. Clinical features, including cumulative GC dose, back pain, disease and physical activity, calcium and vitamin D intake, and spine aBMD Z-scores were analyzed for association with IVF. Results Seven (6%) of 118 children (95% Confidence Interval 2.9 to 11.7) had IVF. Their diagnoses were: juvenile dermatomyositis (n = 2), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 3), systemic vasculitis (n = 1) and mixed connective tissue disease (n = 1). One child was omitted from the analyses after 4 months because of osteoporosis treatment for symptomatic IVF. Children with IVF received on average 50% more GC than those without (p=0.030), had a greater increase in body mass index (BMI) at 6 months (p=0.010), and had greater decrements in spine aBMD Z-scores in the first 6 months (p=0.048). Four (67%) of 6 children with IVF and data to 12 months had spine aBMD Z-scores less than −2.0 at 12 months compared to 16% of children without IVF (p=0.011). Conclusions The incidence of VF 12 months following GC initiation was 6%; most children were asymptomatic. Children with IVF received more GC, had greater increases in BMI and greater declines in spine aBMD Z-scores in the first 6 months. PMID:22213727

  16. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N

    PubMed Central

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OH)D < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9–12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3–165.5). Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OH)D (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L) than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L), 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L) and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L). Five of six infants with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding. PMID:24662162

  17. 75 FR 22012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Susan's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Susan's purse-making caddisfly (Ochrotrichia susanae) as endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing Susan's purse-making caddisfly is not warranted at......

  18. Percutaneous Stabilization System Osseofix® for Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures - Clinical and Radiological Results after 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Ender, Stephan Albrecht; Wetterau, Elmar; Ender, Michaela; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Merk, Harry Rudolf; Kayser, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Study Design A prospective consecutive cohort study (follow-up study). Objective Our study investigated whether implantation of an expandable titanium mesh cage (Osseofix®) is a successful and safe minimally invasive therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). Our experiences, clinical and radiological findings after 12 months follow-up are presented. Kypho- and vertebroplasty are well-established minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. The main complications associated with both procedures are uncontrolled bone cement leakage. Therefore a suitable alternative has been investigated. Methods During June 2010 to May 2011 24 patients were included with 32 osteoporotic VCF (T6 to L4). All of them were stabilized with the Osseofix® system. Preinterventionally we performed X-ray, MRI, and bone density measurements (DXA). Clinical and radiological results were evaluated preop., postop. and after 12 months postop. based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), X-ray (Beck Index, Cobb-angle) and CT. Results There was a significant improvement in the mean ODI (70,6% to 30,1%) as well as a significant reduction in pain intensity (VAS) (7,7 to 1,4) after 12 month. The mean kyphotic angle according to Cobb showed significant improvements (11,7° to 10,4°) after 12 months. Postinterventional imaging showed only one case of loss of height in a stabilized vertebral body (3.1%). We saw no changes in posterior vertebral wall or adjacent fractures. Except for one pronounced postoperative hematoma we saw no surgical complications including no cement leakage. Conclusions Stabilization of symptomatic osteoporotic VCF with Osseofix® system is a safe and effective procedure, even in fractures with posterior wall involvement. The clinical mid-term results are good at a very low complication rate. The Osseofix® system is an interesting alternative to the established procedures of cement augmentation

  19. The First Year Inventory: a longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-old to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Baranek, Grace T; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R

    2013-09-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the First Year Inventory when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool version and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at risk for autism spectrum disorder based on liberal cut points on the First Year Inventory, Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool, and/or Developmental Concerns Questionnaire were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder from the sample of 699. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cutoffs had autism spectrum disorder and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age 3. These results suggest that the First Year Inventory is a promising tool for identifying 12-month-old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:22781058

  20. Miniscalpel-Needle versus Steroid Injection for Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial with a 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain in adults. A novel alternative medical instrument, the miniscalpel-needle (MSN), which is based on an acupuncture needle, has been recently developed in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the MSN release treatment versus that of traditional steroid injection for plantar fasciitis. Patients with plantar fasciitis were randomly assigned to 2 groups and followed up for 12 months, with 29 receiving MSN treatment and 25 receiving steroid injection treatment. The results showed that visual analog scale scores for morning pain, active pain, and overall heel pain all were decreased significantly in the MSN group from 1 to 12 months after treatment. In contrast, treatment with steroid injection showed a significant effect only at the 1-month follow-up but not at 6 or 12 months after treatment. Moreover, the MSN group achieved more rapid and sustained improvements than the steroid group throughout the duration of this study. No severe side effects were observed with MSN treatment. Our data suggest that the MSN release treatment is safe and has a significant benefit for plantar fasciitis compared to steroid injection. PMID:25114704

  1. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. PMID:22937749

  2. Immediate loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla: 12-month results from a multicenter clinical study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Samarani, Rawad; Guazzi, Paolo; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate survival and peri-implant bone levels of single, immediately loaded post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla 12 months after implant placement. Thirty-six consecutive patients from 3 study centers were included in the study. The concerned sites were upper premolars, canines, and incisors. For each patient the following data were recorded: reason for tooth extraction, bone quality, implant size, and final insertion torque. Implants were placed using a flapless technique and immediately loaded with a nonoccluding temporary restoration. Final restorations were provided 4 months later. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically after 6 and 12 months. The average final insertion torque was 70.55 Ncm. One implant inserted in D3 quality bone with a 35-Ncm seating torque was lost. All other implants had a final insertion torque ranging between 50 and 80 Ncm. The average peri-implant bone loss was 0.437 and 0.507 mm at 6 and 12 months, respectively. All the sites maintained excellent papillae and peri-implant soft-tissue conditions. The resulting 1-year success rate was 97.2%. Immediate nonfunctional loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla is a predictable treatment. And it seems that achieving high insertion torques by placing self-tapping/self-condensing implants in an underprepared osteotomy is favorable. PMID:21905885

  3. The First Year Inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-olds to 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Brown, L. M.; Baranek, G. T.; Reznick, J. S.; Watson, L. R.; Crais, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the FYI when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale – Preschool version (SRS-P) and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at-risk for ASD based on liberal cut points on the FYI, SRS-P, and/or DCQ were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of ASD from the sample of 699. ROC analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cut-offs had ASD and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age three. These results suggest that the FYI is a promising tool for identifying 12-month old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of ASD. PMID:22781058

  4. Maternal prenatal felt security and infant health at birth interact to predict infant fussing and crying at 12 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Natsumi; Gagné, Faby M; Séguin, Louise; Kramer, Michael S; McNamara, Helen; Platt, Robert W; Goulet, Lise; Meaney, Michael J; Lydon, John E

    2015-08-01

    Infants born with medical problems are at risk for less optimal developmental outcomes. This may be, in part, because neonatal medical problems are associated with maternal distress, which may adversely impact infants. However, the reserve capacity model suggests that an individual's bank of psychosocial resources buffers the adverse effects of later-encountered stressors. This prospective longitudinal study examined whether preexisting maternal psychosocial resources, conceptualized as felt security in close relationships, moderate the association between neonatal medical problems and infant fussing and crying 12 months postpartum. Maternal felt security was measured by assessing its indicators in 5,092 pregnant women. At birth, infants were classified as healthy or having a medical problem. At 12 months, experience sampling was used to assess daily maternal reports of fussing and crying in 135 mothers of infants who were healthy or had medical problems at birth. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that attachment, relationship quality, self-esteem, and social support can be conceptualized as indicators of a single felt security factor. Multiple regression analyses revealed that prenatal maternal felt security interacts with infant health at birth to predict fussing and crying at 12 months. Among infants born with medical problems, higher felt security predicted decreased fussing and crying. Maternal felt security assessed before birth dampens the association between neonatal medical problems and subsequent infant behavior. This supports the hypothesis that psychosocial resources in reserve can be called upon in the face of a stressor to reduce its adverse effects on the self or others. PMID:25528180

  5. Effects of 12 Months Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sympathetic Activity Related Brainstem Function and Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Luke A; Fatouleh, Rania H; Lundblad, Linda C; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2016-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 OSA subjects before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We found that following 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment, resting MSNA levels were significantly reduced in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related brainstem activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons, and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MSNA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function. PMID:27013952

  6. Effects of 12 Months Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sympathetic Activity Related Brainstem Function and Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Luke A.; Fatouleh, Rania H.; Lundblad, Linda C.; McKenzie, David K.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 OSA subjects before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We found that following 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment, resting MSNA levels were significantly reduced in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related brainstem activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons, and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MSNA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function. PMID:27013952

  7. Integrating a Career Planning and Development Program into the Baccalaureate Nursing Curriculum. Part II. Outcomes for New Graduate Nurses 12 Months Post-Graduation.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Janice; Spalding, Karen; Navarro, Justine; Jancar, Sonya; Canizares, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    New graduate nurses' (NGNs) transition into the nursing workforce is characterized as stressful and challenging. Consequently, a high percentage of them leave their first place of employment or the profession entirely within one year of graduation. Nursing literature describes this complicated shift from student to registered nurse, however, limited attention has focused on strategies that could be implemented during students' academic programs to prepare them for this difficult transition period. Therefore, a longitudinal intervention study was conducted to examine the influence of a career planning and development (CPD) program on the development of career resilience in baccalaureate nursing students and at 12 months post-graduation (NGN). The findings support including structured and progressive curriculum-based CPD opportunities in academic programs, not only for the positive outcomes that accrue to students, but also because of the benefits they extend to NGNs as they make the transition to their first professional nursing role. PMID:26618574

  8. Feeding the toddler: 12 months to 3 years--challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cowbrough, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The toddler stage from one to three years continues to be a period of rapid growth although not as rapid as in the first year. Energy needs are high as toddlers become more active, but stomachs are still small relative to nutrient needs so food provided for this age group needs to be nutrient dense. Toddlers are beginning to exert their independence in food choices and parents may be faced with a fussy eater who refuses food that they normally like and enjoy. Parents need to be encouraged to establish a routine of three meals and two snacks a day and not to allow the toddler to set the rules for eating. Making time to enjoy eating together as a family should be a priority to help toddlers establish good eating habits for the future. PMID:20518371

  9. Sequencing to Station in 12 Months (Targeting Orbital 5 Launch, March 30th)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David J.; Burton, Aaron Steven

    2015-01-01

    The Biomolecule Sequencer is a Commercial Off-The-Shelf device developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies and implements a method of DNA sequencing unlike any other current sequencers. The device measures changes in electrical current through a nanopore depending on the sequence of the DNA strand that is passing through it. Since the technology is built on nanometer-scale ion pores, the hardware itself is exceptionally small (3 x 1 x 58 inches), lightweight (less than 120 grams with USB cable), and powered only by a USB connection. The sequencing device is permanent, while the flow cells, to which the samples are added, are periodically replaced. The goal of our upcoming technology demonstration on ISS is to provide evidence that DNA sequencing in space is possible, which holds the exciting potential to enable the identification of microorganisms, monitor changes in microbes and humans in response to spaceflight, and possibly aid in the detection of DNA-based life elsewhere in the universe.

  10. [Postpartum ovarian physiology. Pituitary gonadotropins, estradiol and prolactin during 12 months of postpartum physiology].

    PubMed

    Hernández Horta, J L; Alonso Uriarte, Q; Cortés Gallegos, V

    1994-06-01

    In order to establish a relationship between hyperprolactinemia and FSH-LH associated to the ovarian physiology postpartum, a clinical/endocrinological follow-up was performed during a period of twelve months in a cohorte of seventeen women beginning pregnancy resolution. The study had two phases: Lactancy (LAC) and Post-lactancy (LAC) and Post-lactancy (POST-LAC). In both phases blood samples were obtained every week from the first one through the 52nd, to quantitate FSH, LH, prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E-2). PRL levels were significantly higher during LAC as compared to POST-LAC: an inverse relationship in E-2/PRL was seen through the study. No significant changes for LH and FSH were attained in both phases. Concentrations of these gonadotropins were at the physiological levels and no differences in either one of the two phases were shown when compared to a nonlactating subject. There was a negative association in prolactin levels and the weeks postpartum, and on the contrary, a positive one for E-2. Thus, ovarian follicular development apparently is independent to the gonadotropic-hypophysis stimulus. PMID:8056364

  11. Correlation of EEG, CT, and MRI Brain with Neurological Outcome at 12 Months in Term Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Annu; Matthai, John; Paul, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To correlate electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with neurological outcome at 12 months in term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between June 2010 and November 2011. Consecutive term neonates with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were the subjects. All babies were managed as per standard protocol. EEG was done as soon as the baby was stable and CT brain within 7 days. MRI was done at 3 months. Neurodevelpmental assessment was done at 12 months. Results: Of the 31 babies, four died and one was lost to follow-up. Neurodevelopmental at 12 months of age was normal in 15 babies. EEG was normal in six babies and all of them had a normal neurodevelopment. Thirteen of the 14 babies with burst suppression pattern were abnormal (P<0.001). CT brain was normal in 14 and all of them had normal neurodevelopment (P<0.001), while 11 of the 12 with cerebral edema had abnormal outcome (P<0.001). Of the 16 babies with normal MRI, 14 were normal, while all six babies with abnormal signals in the cortex and thalamus had abnormal outcome (P=0.002). Conclusions: A normal EEG and CT brain in a term newborn with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with good neurological outcome. Burst suppression pattern in EEG, bleeds, or hypodensities in the CT and involvement of basal ganglia/thalamus in the MRI are predictors of abnormal outcome. PMID:24251256

  12. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  13. The Influence of Back Pain and Urinary Incontinence on Daily Tasks of Mothers at 12 Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined back pain (BP) and/or urinary incontinence (UI) impact on the ability to perform daily tasks at 12 months after childbirth in healthy reproductive women who sought maternity care in community based family practice clinics. Methods This study is a secondary analysis from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported information on demographics, lifestyle, experiences with pregnancy and childbirth, occurrence of BP, UI and consequent impairment of daily tasks were collected by questionnaires administered before 25 weeks, at 34-36 weeks gestation and at 4 and 12 months postpartum. The occurrence and severity of BP and UI at one year after childbirth was assessed using descriptive and bivariate analyses. Logistic regression models examined the association between demographic and obstetrical variables and the severity of functional impairment due to UI and BP. Results From 1574 women with singleton pregnancies included in the study, 1212 (77%) experienced BP, 773 (49%) UI, and 620 (40%) both BP and UI. From the 821 women reporting impairment of daily tasks due to BP, 199 (24 %) were moderately and 90 (11%) severely affected with the remainder, 532 (64%) being mildly affected. From 267 women with functional impairment due to UI, 52 (19%) reported moderately to severe impairment in their ability to perform daily tasks. Obesity and parity were risk factors for impairment of daily functioning due to BP, whereas obesity and vaginal delivery increased the risk of moderate to severe impairment due to UI. Conclusions BP and UI are common occurrences 1 year after childbirth. Maternal performance of daily tasks and women’s health and quality of life are more often impaired due to BP than UI. Our study brings new evidence of the risk factors that predict severity and impact of these conditions on women functioning at 12 months postpartum. PMID:26083252

  14. Neuropsychological Performance of Youth with Secondary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 6- and 12-Months after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ornstein, Tisha J.; Sagar, Sanya; Schachar, Russell J.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Dennis, Maureen; Saunders, Ann E.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.; Max, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6–16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n = 177) and evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview scheduled on three occasions (within 2 weeks of TBI, i.e., baseline assessment for pre-injury status; 6-months and 12-months post-TBI). This permitted the determination of 6- and 12-month post-injury classifications of membership in three mutually exclusive groups (S-ADHD; pre-injury ADHD; TBI-only). Several executive control measures were administered. Unremitted S-ADHD was present in 17/141 (12%) children at the 6-month assessment, and in 14/125 (11%) children at 12-months post-injury. The study found that children with S-ADHD exhibited deficient working memory, attention, and psychomotor speed as compared to children with pre-injury ADHD. Furthermore, the children with S-ADHD and the children with TBI-only were impaired compared to the children with pre-injury ADHD with regard to planning. No group differences related to response inhibition emerged. Age, but not injury severity, gender, or adaptive functioning was related to executive function outcome. Neuropsychological sequelae distinguish among children who develop S-ADHD following TBI and those with TBI only. Moreover, there appears to be a different pattern of executive control performance in those who develop S-ADHD than in children with pre-injury ADHD suggesting that differences exist in the underlying neural mechanisms that define each disorder, underscoring the need to identify targeted treatment interventions. PMID:25489810

  15. Improving district facility readiness: a 12-month evaluation of a data-driven health systems strengthening intervention in rural Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Hari S.; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Finnegan, Karen; Uwingabiye, Alice; Shyaka, Edward; Niyonzima, Saleh; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Drobac, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background While health systems strengthening (HSS) interventions are recommended by global health policy experts to improve population health in resource-limited settings, few examples exist of evaluations of HSS interventions conducted at the district level. In 2009, a partnership between Partners In Health (PIH), a non-governmental organization, and the Rwandan Ministry of Health (RMOH) was provided funds to implement and evaluate a district-level HSS intervention in two rural districts of Rwanda. Design The partnership provided limited funds to 14 health centers for targeted systems support in 2010; six others received support prior to the intervention (reference). RMOH health systems norms were mapped across the WHO HSS framework, scored from 0 to 10 and incorporated into a rapid survey assessing 11 domains of facility readiness. Stakeholder meetings allowed partnership leaders to review results, set priorities, and allocate resources. Investments included salary support, infrastructure improvements, medical equipment, and social support for patients. We compared facility domain scores from the start of the intervention to 12 months and tested for correlation between change in score and change in funding allocation to assess equity in our approach. Results We found significant improvements among intervention facilities from baseline to 12 months across several domains [infrastructure (+4, p=0.0001), clinical services (+1.2, p=0.03), infection and sanitation control (+0.6, p=0.03), medical equipment (+1.0, p=0.02), information use (+2, p=0.002)]. Composite score across domains improved from 6.2 at baseline to 7.4 at 12 months (p=0.002). Across facilities, 50% had composite scores greater than the average score among reference facilities (7.4) at 12 months compared to none at baseline. Conclusions Rapid facility surveys, stakeholder engagement, and information feedback can be used for gap analysis and resource allocation. This approach can achieve effective use

  16. Root Coverage in Smokers with Acellular Dermal Matrix Graft and Enamel Matrix Derivative: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Priscila Paganini; Alves, Luciana Bastos; Souza, Sérgio Luís; Grisi, Márcio Fernando; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Taba, Mario; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether enamel matrix derivative (EMD) contributes to root coverage of gingival recessions performed with acellular dermal matrix graft (ADMG) in smokers during a 12-month follow-up. A sample of 19 smokers presenting bilateral Miller Class I or II gingival recessions were included. Selected sites randomly received both ADMG and EMD (test) or ADMG alone (control). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession height, keratinized tissue, and root coverage were evaluated. Mean gain in recession height (P < .05), sites with complete root coverage (P < .05), and percentage of root coverage (59.7% and 52.8%, respectively) favored the test group compared with the control group. PMID:27333010

  17. A Comparison of the Batterer Intervention and Prevention Program With Alternative Court Dispositions on 12-Month Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Wareham, Jennifer; Bartula, Aaron; Canas, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Studies of batterer intervention and prevention programs (BIPPs) offer mixed results regarding their effect on recidivism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of BIPP for cases assigned to a misdemeanor family court. This study focused on determining whether BIPP cases, compared with alternative sanctions, had significantly lower recidivism rates 12 months after program involvement. Findings indicated that BIPP was more effective than jail or regular dismissal in reducing the likelihood of future arrests, but not plea deferred adjudication and conditional dismissal. Results argue toward the efficacy of some form of treatment versus simply receiving jail time. PMID:26683096

  18. Peak Oxygen Uptake after Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 12-Month Maintenance Program versus Usual Care

    PubMed Central

    Madssen, Erik; Arbo, Ingerid; Granøien, Ingrid; Walderhaug, Liv; Moholdt, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise capacity improves after cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, but previous studies have demonstrated a decline in peak oxygen uptake after ending a formal rehabilitation program. There is a lack of knowledge on how long-term exercise adherence can be achieved in CAD patients. We therefore assessed if a 12-month maintenance program following cardiac rehabilitation would lead to increased adherence to exercise and increased exercise capacity compared to usual care. Materials and Methods Two-centre, open, parallel randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up comparing usual care to a maintenance program. The maintenance program consisted of one monthly supervised high intensity interval training session, a written exercise program and exercise diary, and a maximum exercise test every third month during follow-up. Forty-nine patients (15 women) on optimal medical treatment were included following discharge from cardiac rehabilitation. The primary endpoint was change in peak oxygen uptake at follow-up; secondary endpoints were physical activity level, quality of life and blood markers of cardiovascular risk. Results There was no change in peak oxygen uptake from baseline to follow-up in either group (intervention group 27.9 (±4.7) to 28.8 (±5.6) mL·kg (-1) min (−1), control group 32.0 (±6.2) to 32.8 (±5.8) mL·kg (−1) min (−1), with no between-group difference, p = 0.22). Quality of life and blood biomarkers remained essentially unchanged, and both self-reported and measured physical activity levels were similar between groups after 12 months. Conclusions A maintenance exercise program for 12 months did not improve adherence to exercise or peak oxygen uptake in CAD patients after discharge from cardiac rehabilitation compared to usual care. This suggests that infrequent supervised high intensity interval training sessions are

  19. The precision of 12-month-old infants’ link between language and categorization predicts vocabulary size at 12 and 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Brock; Havy, Mélanie; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2015-01-01

    Infants’ initially broad links between language and object categories are increasingly tuned, becoming more precise by the end of their first year. In a longitudinal study, we asked whether individual differences in the precision of infants’ links at 12 months of age are related to vocabulary development. We found that, at 12 months, infants who had already established a precise link between labels and categories understood more words than those whose link was still broad. Six months later, this advantage held: At 18 months, infants who had demonstrated a precise link at 12 months knew and produced more words than did infants who had demonstrated a broad link at 12 months. We conclude that individual differences in the precision of 12-month-old infants’ links between language and categories provide a reliable window into their vocabulary development. We consider several causal explanations of this relation. PMID:26379614

  20. Do prostatic biopsies 12 months or more after external irradiation for adenocarcinoma, stage III, predict long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.D.; Kline, R.W.

    1983-03-01

    Serial biopsies of the prostate after high dose external irradiation for adenocarcinoma show a gradual disappearance of the neoplastic cells. With such treatment, results of the biopsies do not have any short term prognostic significance. However, positive biopsies 12 months or more after treatment are reputed to be an unfavorable sign for long-term survival. From August, 1970 through February, 1974, 45 consecutive patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent external irradiation with 2 MV X rays or cobalt-60 teletherapy. The center of the prostate received a total dose of 70 Gy in 30-37 fractions in 43 to 56 days. With a median follow-up of 8 years, the actuarial survival rates, uncorrected for death from intercurrent disease, are 69% at 5 years and 49% at 10 years. Biopsies of the prostate 12 months or more after treatment were available from 31 patients; 19 had one or more positive biopsies. Prostatic biopsies obtained 24 months or more after treatment were available from 21 patients: 10 had positive and 11 had negative biopsies; the survival curves are identical for those with and without residual cancer cells. Following adequate irradiation of patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate, the results of biopsies obtained one or two years after treatment do not predict long-term survival.

  1. Neuropsychological impact of Cg25 deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: preliminary results over 12 months.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Heather E; Mayberg, Helen S; Lozano, Andres M; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate preservation of cognitive function after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate (Cg25) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We have previously reported on the treatment methods, safety, and 6-month clinical outcome (Mayberg et al., Neuron. 2005;45:651-660). Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments tapping 4 domains of frontal lobe function, and general cognitive abilities, were completed before implantation and at 3, 6, and 12 months postonset of continuous DBS in 6 TRD patients. No adverse neuropsychological effects were noted following surgery, onset and maintenance of DBS with the exception of transient motor slowing noted at 3 and 6 months that improved to normative levels by 12 months. Several areas of cognition that were below average or impaired at baseline improved over follow-up, and these changes were not correlated with improvements in mood. Though the sample size is small, these results support cognitive safety of Cg25 DBS for TRD. PMID:18477883

  2. The association between self-reported racial discrimination and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders among Asian Americans nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael; Chen, Juan; Yip, Tiffany; Takeuchi, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Growing research finds that reports of discrimination are associated with mental health. However, many US studies are focused on regional samples and do not control for important confounders such as other stressors and health conditions. The present study examines the association between self-reported racial discrimination and DSM-IV defined mental disorders among Asian respondents to the 2002–2003 US National Latino and Asian American Study (n=2,047). Logistic regression analyses indicated that self-reported racial discrimination was associated with greater odds of having any DSM-IV disorder, depressive disorder, or anxiety disorder within the past 12 months -- controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, acculturative stress, family cohesion, poverty, self-rated health, chronic physical conditions, and social desirability. Further, multinomial logistic regression found that individuals who reported discrimination were at a twofold greater risk of having one disorder within the past 12 months, and a threefold greater risk of having two or more disorders. Thus, self-reported discrimination was associated with increased risk of mental disorders among Asian Americans across the United States and this relationship was not explained by social desirability, physical health, other stressors, and sociodemographic factors. Should these associations ultimately be shown enduring and causal, they suggest that policies designed to reduce discrimination may help improve mental health. PMID:17374553

  3. 12-Month Outcomes of Community Engagement Versus Technical Assistance to Implement Depression Collaborative Care: A Partnered, Cluster, Randomized, Comparative-Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Ong, Michael; Ettner, Susan L.; Jones, Felica; Gilmore, James; McCreary, Michael; Sherbourne, Cathy; Ngo, Victoria; Koegel, Paul; Tang, Lingqi; Dixon, Elizabeth; Miranda, Jeanne; Belin, Thomas R.; Wells, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression collaborative care implementation using community engagement and planning (CEP) across programs compared to technical assistance to individual programs (Resources for Services, RS) in minority communities improves 6-month client outcomes. However, 12-month outcomes are unknown. Objective To compare effects of CEP and RS collaborative care implementation interventions on depressed clients’ mental health-related quality of life (MHRQL) and services use at 12-months. Design Matched health and community programs (n=93) in two communities randomized to CEP or RS. Measurements Self-reported client MHRQL, and services use at baseline, 6, and 12-months. Setting Los Angeles. Patients Adults (n=1018) with depressive symptoms (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-8]≥10); 85% ethnic minority. Interventions CEP and RS to implement depression collaborative care. Measurements Primary outcome: Poor MHRQL (12-item Mental Composite Score [MCS-12]≤40) at baseline, 6, and 12-months; Secondary outcomes: 12-months services use. Results At 6-months, the finding that CEP outperformed RS to reduce poor MHRQL was significant, but sensitive to underlying statistical assumptions. Similarly, at 12-months, some analyses suggested that CEP was advantageous on MHRQL, while other analyses did not confirm a significant difference favoring CEP. The finding that CEP reduced behavioral health hospitalizations at 6-months was not clear at 12-months with findings sensitive to underlying statistical assumptions. Other services use was not significantly different between interventions at 12-months. Limitations Self-reported data. Findings are sensitive to modeling assumptions. Conclusions In contrast to 6-month results, our findings did not show consistent CEP effects on reducing the likelihood of poor client MHRQL and behavioral health hospitalizations at 12-months. Still given under-resourced communities’ needs, CEP's favorable profile, and the absence of evidence

  4. Docosahexaenoic Acid Status in Pregnancy Determines the Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status 3-, 6- and 12 Months Postpartum. Results from a Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Frøyland, Livar; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Graff, Ingvild Eide

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential fatty acid status as well as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) declines during pregnancy and lactation. As a result, the DHA status may not be optimal for child development and may increase the risk for maternal postpartum depression. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the maternal fatty acid status from pregnancy to 12 months postpartum, and to study the impact of seafood consumption on the individual fatty acid status. Methods Blood samples and seafood consumption habits (gestation week 28, and three-, six- and 12 months postpartum) were collected in a longitudinal observational study of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 118). Multilevel linear modeling was used to assess both changes over time in the fatty acid status of red blood cells (RBC), and in the seafood consumption. Results Six fatty acids varied the most (>80%) across the four time points analyzed, including the derivative of the essential α-linoleic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), DHA; the essential linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6); and the LA derivative, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). Over all, a large variation in individuals’ DHA- and AA status was observed; however, over the 15-month study period only small inter-individual differences in the longitudinal trajectory of DHA- and AA abundance in the RBC were detected. The median intake of seafood was lower than recommended. Regardless, the total weekly frequency of seafood and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)/DHA-supplement intake predicted the maternal level of DHA (μg/g RBC). Conclusion The period of depletion of the maternal DHA status during pregnancy and lactation, seem to turn to repletion from about six months postpartum towards one year after childbirth, irrespective of RBC concentration of DHA during pregnancy. Seafood and EPA/DHA-supplement intake predicted the DHA levels over time. Trial Registration www.helseforskning.etikkom.no 2009/570/REC, project number: 083.09 PMID:26331947

  5. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  6. Impact of a 12-month exposure to a diurnal pattern of ozone on pulmonary function, antioxidant biochemistry and immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Stevens, M.A.; Hatch, G.E.; Jaskot, R.H.; Selgrade, M.J.K.

    1988-05-01

    Rats were exposed for 12 months, 13 hr/day, 7 days/week to 0.06 ppm O/sub 3/; Monday through Friday, the animals received a 9-hr spike reaching a maximum concentration of 0.25 ppm. An increase in the rate of lung nitrogen washout was observed in the O/sub 3/-exposed rats. Residual volume and total lung capacity were reduced. Glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities were increased but pulmonary superoxide dismutase was unchanged. Alpha tocopherol levels were decreased in lung lavage supernatant and unchanged in lavaged cells, however, ascorbic acid and lavage fluid protein was increased. Immunological changes were not observed. Thus, chronic exposure to O/sub 3/ caused (1) functional lung changes indicative of a stiffer lung; (2) biochemical changes suggestive of increased antioxidant metabolism; and (3) no observable immunological changes.

  7. Gaze-cueing effect depends on facial expression of emotion in 9- to 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiecka, Alicja; Tomalski, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    Efficient processing of gaze direction and facial expression of emotion is crucial for early social and emotional development. Toward the end of the first year of life infants begin to pay more attention to negative expressions, but it remains unclear to what extent emotion expression is processed jointly with gaze direction at this age. This study sought to establish the interactions of gaze direction and emotion expression in visual orienting in 9- to 12-month-olds. In particular, we tested whether these interactions can be explained by the negativity bias hypothesis and the shared signal hypothesis. We measured saccadic latencies in response to peripheral targets in a gaze-cueing paradigm with happy, angry, and fearful female faces. In the Pilot Experiment three gaze directions were used (direct, congruent with target location, incongruent with target location). In the Main Experiment we sought to replicate the results of the Pilot experiment using a simpler design without the direct gaze condition. In both experiments we found a robust gaze-cueing effect for happy faces, i.e., facilitation of orienting toward the target in the gaze-cued location, compared with the gaze-incongruent location. We found more rapid orienting to targets cued by happy relative to angry and fearful faces. We did not find any gaze-cueing effect for angry or fearful faces. These results are not consistent with the shared signal hypothesis. While our results show differential processing of positive and negative emotions, they do not support a general negativity bias. On the contrary, they indicate that toward the age of 12 months infants show a positivity bias in gaze-cueing tasks. PMID:25713555

  8. Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K L; Malcolm, S A; Khan, K M; Thomas, S A; Reid, S J; Brukner, P D; Ebeling, P R; Wark, J D

    1997-05-01

    Strain magnitude may be more important than the number of loading cycles in controlling bone adaptation to loading. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 12 month longitudinal cohort study comparing bone mass and bone turnover in elite and subelite track and field athletes and less active controls. The cohort comprised 50 power athletes (sprinters, jumpers, hurdlers, multievent athletes; 23 women, 27 men), 61 endurance athletes (middle-distance runners, distance runners; 30 women, 31 men), and 55 nonathlete controls (28 women, 27 men) aged 17-26 years. Total bone mineral content (BMC), regional bone mineral density (BMD), and soft tissue composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover was assessed by serum osteocalcin (human immunoradiometric assay) indicative of bone formation, and urinary pyridinium crosslinks (high-performance liquid chromatography) indicative of bone resorption. Questionnaires quantified menstrual, dietary and physical activity characteristics. Baseline results showed that power athletes had higher regional BMD at lower limb, lumbar spine, and upper limb sites compared with controls (p < 0.05). Endurance athletes had higher BMD than controls in lower limb sites only (p < 0.05). Maximal differences in BMD between athletes and controls were noted at sites loaded by exercise. Male and female power athletes had greater bone density at the lumbar spine than endurance athletes. Over the 12 months, both athletes and controls showed modest but significant increases in total body BMC and femur BMD (p < 0.001). Changes in bone density were independent of exercise status except at the lumbar spine. At this site, power athletes gained significantly more bone density than the other groups. Levels of bone formation were not elevated in athletes and levels of bone turnover were not predictive of subsequent changes in bone mass. Our results provide further support for the concept that bone response to mechanical loading depends

  9. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  10. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the trivalent vaccine, Trimovax, indicated for prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella, in 12-month-old children in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Samoilovich, E O; Kapustik, L A; Feldman, E V; Yermolovich, M A; Svirchevskaya, A J; Zakharenko, D F; Fletcher, M A; Titov, L P

    2000-08-01

    In the Republic of Belarus, immunization of children against measles and mumps had been carried out using monovalent preparations according to the national schedule of measles vaccination at 12 months of age and mumps vaccination at 24 months of age. A rise of rubella incidence in the last few years (i.e., for the official registration period 1980 to 1998, there was an increase from 72.2 to 607.5 cases per 100,000 population) made it necessary to implement immunization against this infection, as well. Therefore, in 1996, combined vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella of 12-month-old children was carried out for the first time in a clinical trial that used the vaccine Trimovax [Aventis Pasteur (formerly, Pasteur Mérieux Connaught), Lyon, France]. The reactogenicity of the vaccine was investigated in 372 children. Post-vaccination reactions were noted in 5.6% of children; in 1.3% of children the reactions were classified as severe [i.e. associated with body (axillary) temperature > or = 38.6 degrees C]. For the evaluation of immunogenicity, sera from 324 children were obtained 2 to 2.5 months after inoculation, and serum antibody levels were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Among the vaccines, protective antibody titers (expressed in inverse of dilution units) were observed to measles (> or = 1:50) in 97.8%, to mumps (> or = 1:50) in 93.8%, and to rubella (> or = 1:100) in 96.0% of children. Antibodies to all three components of the vaccine were mainly present in intermediate (1:200-1:800) or high (> or = 1:1600) titers: to measles in 96.3%; to mumps in 75.8%; and to rubella in 73.5% of vaccines. The results of these trials are evidence of the good safety and immunogenicity of this MMR vaccine, which provides an alternative to the currently used measles and mumps monovaccines, with the additional benefit of providing immunity against rubella, as well. PMID:10965439

  11. Asymmetrical motor behaviour as a window to early leg preference: a longitudinal study in infants 7-12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Atun-Einy, Osnat

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored leg preference in infancy during half-kneel pulling-to-stand (PTS) and asymmetrical four-point kneeling, which is part of the typical motor repertoire of infants. The special characteristics of the half-kneel PTS as a discrete task, performed in a bilateral context provide the opportunity to explore leg preference during an asymmetrical behaviour. Twenty-seven infants were observed in their homes, every 3 weeks between the ages of 7-12 months. Leg preference was determined by the "lead-out" limb used as the infants pulled to stand from the half-kneeling position (half-kneel PTS). As a complementary measure, the leading leg during asymmetrical four-point kneeling and crawling ("asymmetrical four-point patterns") was used in the 10 infants who developed these patterns. The infants studied showed a general preference for using a leading leg during half-kneel PTS, which was mostly consistent over the study period. A strong correlation was found between leg preferences during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns. The findings documented functional asymmetry in infant lower limbs during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns, highlighting the importance of the tasks used to define leg preference. PMID:26469885

  12. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, < 0.0001; EQ-5D: 0.17 ± 0.25 vs 0.23 ± 0.23, p = 0.04; SF-12 PCS: 8.6 ± 13.3 vs 13.0 ± 11.9, 0.001; and satisfaction: 76% vs 90%, p = 0.002). At 12 months after surgery, the patients with major complications had higher ODI scores than those without complications (29.1

  13. Low-dose budesonide for maintenance of clinical remission in collagenous colitis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, 12-month trial

    PubMed Central

    Münch, Andreas; Bohr, Johan; Miehlke, Stephan; Benoni, Cecilia; Olesen, Martin; Öst, Åke; Strandberg, Lars; Hellström, Per M; Hertervig, Erik; Armerding, Peter; Stehlik, Jiri; Lindberg, Greger; Björk, Jan; Lapidus, Annika; Löfberg, Robert; Bonderup, Ole; Avnström, Sören; Rössle, Martin; Dilger, Karin; Mueller, Ralph; Greinwald, Roland; Tysk, Curt; Ström, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective This 1-year study aimed to assess low-dose budesonide therapy for maintenance of clinical remission in patients with collagenous colitis. Design A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study beginning with an 8-week open-label induction phase in which patients with histologically confirmed active collagenous colitis received budesonide (Budenofalk, 9 mg/day initially, tapered to 4.5 mg/day), after which 92 patients in clinical remission were randomised to budesonide (mean dose 4.5 mg/day; Budenofalk 3 mg capsules, two or one capsule on alternate days) or placebo in a 12-month double-blind phase with 6 months treatment-free follow-up. Primary endpoint was clinical remission throughout the double-blind phase. Results Clinical remission during open-label treatment was achieved by 84.5% (93/110 patients). The median time to remission was 10.5 days (95% CI (9.0 to 14.0 days)). The maintenance of clinical remission at 1 year was achieved by 61.4% (27/44 patients) in the budesonide group versus 16.7% (8/48 patients) receiving placebo (treatment difference 44.5% in favour of budesonide; 95% CI (26.9% to 62.7%), p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was maintained during the 12-month double-blind phase in budesonide-treated patients. During treatment-free follow-up, 82.1% (23/28 patients) formerly receiving budesonide relapsed after study drug discontinuation. Low-dose budesonide over 1 year resulted in few suspected adverse drug reactions (7/44 patients), all non-serious. Conclusions Budesonide at a mean dose of 4.5 mg/day maintained clinical remission for at least 1 year in the majority of patients with collagenous colitis and preserved health-related quality of life without safety concerns. Treatment extension with low-dose budesonide beyond 1 year may be beneficial given the high relapse rate after budesonide discontinuation. Trial registration numbers http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01278082) and http

  14. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Provide nationally representative data on the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among African American and Caribbean black adolescents in the United States. Method Data on nonfatal suicidal behavior among 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 years are from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent, a nationally representative household survey of adults with an attached adolescent sample conducted between February 2001 and June 2003. Results Nationwide black adolescents reported having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5% for suicidal ideation and 2.7% for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt was 3.2% and 1.4%, respectively. Among all respondents, 4% of black American adolescents and 7% of female subjects were projected to attempt suicide by age 17 years. African American adolescents were approximately five times more likely than Caribbean black adolescents to attempt suicide. Almost half of the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent respondents who reported a suicide attempt had never met criteria for any of the DSM-IV disorders by the time of their attempts. Conclusions Clinicians should be trained to screen for suicidal behavior, even among those without DSM-IV disorders, when treating black adolescents, particularly female subjects. In addition, preventive efforts should consider ethnic differences in suicide risk and targeting nonclinical settings. PMID:19182692

  15. The Primary Prevention of PTSD in Firefighters: Preliminary Results of an RCT with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Clare S.; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Kane, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To develop and evaluate an evidence-based and theory driven program for the primary prevention of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Design A pre-intervention / post-intervention / follow up control group design with clustered random allocation of participants to groups was used. The “control” group received “Training as Usual” (TAU). Method Participants were 45 career recruits within the recruit school at the Department of Fire and Emergency Services (DFES) in Western Australia. The intervention group received a four-hour resilience training intervention (Mental Agility and Psychological Strength training) as part of their recruit training school curriculum. Data was collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-months post intervention. Results We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in the primary prevention of mental health issues, nor did we find any significant impact of MAPS training on social support or coping strategies. A significant difference across conditions in trauma knowledge is indicative of some impact of the MAPS program. Conclusion While the key hypotheses were not supported, this study is the first randomised control trial investigating the primary prevention of PTSD. Practical barriers around the implementation of this program, including constraints within the recruit school, may inform the design and implementation of similar programs in the future. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12615001362583 PMID:27382968

  16. Updates on the Epidemiology and Pattern of Traumatic Maxillofacial Injuries in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital: A 12-Month Prospective Cohort In-Hospital Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Adeola Adenike; Adeleye, Amos Olufemi; Aladelusi, Timothy Olukunle; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have been undertaken in Nigeria on maxillofacial trauma. However, only a few have considered both the skeletal and soft tissue injuries (in general) involving all the aspects of the maxillofacial region or considered other etiological sources of trauma apart from road traffic crashes. Fewer still have reviewed the outcome of management of facial injuries in our low-resource environment. This study sets out to examine the recent trends in both the clinical and epidemiological patterns of all facial injuries from all causes seen in a low-resource practice of a developing country. It also assessed the in-hospital treatment outcomes, and the levels of the patients' satisfaction with treatment received in this setting. Over a 12-month period, the clinical records of consecutive patients who were evaluated and treated for maxillofacial injuries in our unit were prospectively acquired, entered into predesigned forms and subsequently analyzed. There were 259 patients (79.5% males) during the study period. The mean age was 32.21( ± 16.588) years. Overall, motor bike crashes, 42.1%, were the commonest source of these traumas; and armed robbery was the commonest form (69.0%) of assault. Mandibular fractures were the commonest maxillofacial fractures (37.8%) whereas head injury had the highest frequency among the associated injuries (71.4%). Closed reduction and immobilization was deployed in 88.0% of those who had treatment and majority was satisfied with the esthetic outcome of the treatment received. Mean length of hospital stay was 12.6 ( ± 4.423) days. Maxillofacial trauma poses a significant socioeconomic burden on affected individuals in this study population. This is made worse by the presence of associated injuries in the other body systems. More local studies on the outcome of management of maxillofacial trauma will improve the available literature in this region. PMID:25709753

  17. Urolastic—A New Bulking Agent for the Treatment of Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: Outcome of 12 Months Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Zajda, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33–71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events. PMID:24454351

  18. Urolastic-a new bulking agent for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: outcome of 12 months follow up.

    PubMed

    Zajda, Janusz; Farag, Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33-71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events. PMID:24454351

  19. Parent-assessed quality of life among adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment: a 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess parents' and caregivers' view of the first twelve months of adolescents' orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and to assess the evaluative properties of the Brazilian version of the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) in the orthodontic setting. Methods: Data from a sample of 96 parents and caregivers of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were collected by means of P-CPQ. Assessments were performed before banding and bracket bonding (T1) and 12 months after placement of fixed appliances (T2). Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the overall P-CPQ score and Bonferroni correction for P-CPQ subscales. The evaluative properties of the P-CPQ were assessed through responsiveness calculation and the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results: Among the 96 participants, 76 were mothers of patients, 16 were fathers, and four were other family members. Adolescents' mean age was 11.49 ± 0.50 years. Most families earned equal to or less than three times the Brazilian monthly minimum wage. There was significant improvement in the emotional and social well-being subscales (p < 0.001), which contributed to improve patient's overall quality of life (p< 0.001). Reductions in scores were associated with clinically meaningful moderate changes in the overall score as well as in the emotional and social well-being subscales. The MCID was 6.16 for the P-CPQ overall score. Conclusion: Parents and caregivers reported significant improvement in the quality of life of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. PMID:26560827

  20. Functional disability as an explanation of the associations between chronic physical conditions and 12-month major depressive episode

    PubMed Central

    Stegmann, Mariken E.; Ormel, Johan; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep-Maria; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Vilagut, Gemma; Alonso, Jordi; Burger, Huibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between physical conditions and mental health is poorly understood. Functional disability could explain the association of physical conditions with major depressive episode (MDE) as an intermediary factor. Methods Data was analyzed from a subsample (N=8,796) of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD), a cross-sectional general population survey. MDE during the last 12 months was assessed using a revision of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Lifetime chronic physical conditions were assessed by self-report. Functional disability was measured using a version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). The associations of physical conditions with MDE and explanation by functional disability were quantified using logistic regression. Results All physical conditions were significantly associated with MDE. The increases in risk of MDE ranged from 30% for allergy to amply 100% for arthritis and heart disease. When adjusted for physical comorbidity, associations decreased and were no longer statistically significant for allergy and diabetes. Functional disability explained between 17 and 64% of these associations, most substantially for stomach or duodenum ulcer, arthritis and heart disease. Limitations Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study the temporal relationship of the variables could not be assessed and the amount of explanation can not simply be interpreted as the amount of mediation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the association of chronic physical conditions with MDE is partly explained by functional disability. Such explanation is more pronounced for pain causing conditions and heart disease. Health professionals should be particularly aware of the increased risk of depressive disorder when patients experience disability from these conditions. PMID:19939461

  1. Spatial Habitat Features Derived from Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Are Associated with Molecular Subtype and 12-Month Survival Status in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonsang; Narang, Shivali; Martinez, Juan; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumors is Glioblastoma multiforme. Despite the multimodality treatment such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide: TMZ), the median survival rate of glioblastoma patient is less than 15 months. In this study, we investigated the association between measures of spatial diversity derived from spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data with molecular status as well as 12-month survival in glioblastoma. We obtained 27 measures of spatial proximity (diversity) via spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI data. These measures were used to predict 12-month survival status (≤12 or >12 months) in 74 glioblastoma patients. Kaplan-Meier with receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to assess the relationship between derived spatial features and 12-month survival status as well as molecular subtype status in patients with glioblastoma. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that 14 spatial features were capable of stratifying overall survival in a statistically significant manner. For prediction of 12-month survival status based on these diversity indices, sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 and 0.64, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the accuracy were 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. For prediction of molecular subtype status, proneural subtype shows highest accuracy of 0.93 among all molecular subtypes based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. We find that measures of spatial diversity from point pattern analysis of intensity habitats from T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images are associated with both tumor subtype status and 12-month survival status and may therefore be useful indicators of patient prognosis, in addition to providing potential guidance for molecularly-targeted therapies in

  2. External Beam Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer: Clinical Significance of Nadir Prostate-Specific Antigen Value Within 12 Months

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Onishi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Masahiko; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Araya, Masayuki; Mukumoto, Nobutaka M.S.; Mitsumori, Michihide; Teshima, Teruki

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer and investigate the clinical significance of nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value within 12 months (nPSA12) as an early estimate of clinical outcomes after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eighty-four patients with localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The total radiation doses ranged from 30 to 76 Gy (median, 66 Gy), and the median follow-up period for all 84 patients was 26.9 months (range, 2.7-77.3 months). Results: The 3-year actuarial overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and local control rates in all 84 patients after radiotherapy were 67%, 61%, and 93%, respectively. Although distant metastases and/or regional lymph node metastases developed in 34 patients (40%) after radiotherapy, local progression was observed in only 5 patients (6%). Of all 84 patients, the median nPSA12 in patients with clinical failure and in patients without clinical failure was 3.1 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. When dividing patients according to low (<0.5 ng/mL) and high ({>=}0.5 ng/mL) nPSA12 levels, the 3-year PFS rate in patients with low nPSA12 and in those with high nPSA12 was 96% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In univariate analysis, nPSA12 and pretreatment PSA value had a significant impact on PFS, and in multivariate analysis nPSA12 alone was an independent prognostic factor for PFS after radiotherapy. Conclusions: External beam radiotherapy had an excellent local control rate for clinically localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and nPSA12 was predictive of clinical outcomes after radiotherapy.

  3. Randomized, Multicenter Trial on the Effect of Radiation Therapy on Plantar Fasciitis (Painful Heel Spur) Comparing a Standard Dose With a Very Low Dose: Mature Results After 12 Months' Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Niewald, Marcus; Micke, Oliver; Graeber, Stefan; Schaefer, Vera; Scheid, Christine; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for painful heel spur, comparing a standard dose with a very low dose. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive radiation therapy either with a total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy twice weekly (standard dose) or with a total dose of 0.6 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 0.1 Gy twice weekly (low dose). In all patients lateral opposing 4- to 6-MV photon beams were used. The results were measured using a visual analogue scale, the Calcaneodynia score, and the SF12 health survey. The fundamental phase of the study ended after 3 months, and the follow-up was continued up to 1 year. Patients with insufficient pain relief after 3 months were offered reirradiation with the standard dosage at any time afterward. Results: Of 66 patients, 4 were excluded because of withdrawal of consent or screening failures. After 3 months the results in the standard arm were highly significantly superior compared with those in the low-dose arm (visual analogue scale, P=.001; Calcaneodynia score, P=.027; SF12, P=.045). The accrual of patients was stopped at this point. Further evaluation after 12 months' follow-up showed the following results: (1) highly significant fewer patients were reirradiated in the standard arm compared with the low-dose arm (P<.001); (2) the results of patients in the low-dose arm who were reirradiated were identical to those in the standard arm not reirradiated (reirradiation as a salvage therapy if the lower dose was ineffective); (3) patients experiencing a favorable result after 3 months showed this even after 12 months, and some results even improved further between 3 and 12 months. Conclusions: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy with 6-Gy doses on painful heel spur even for a longer time period of at least 1 year.

  4. Mineral and vitamin D adequacy in infants fed human milk or formula between 6 and 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hillman, L S

    1990-08-01

    During the latter half of an infant's first year, adequate mineral and vitamin D intakes may be important not only for the prevention of rickets but also for the attainment of optimal adult peak bone mass. Ingestion of 400 IU vitamin D per day, either as a supplement or contained in formula or table milk, will result in normal serum concentrations of vitamin D,25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Human milk from a vitamin D-sufficient mother provides a marginal amount, less than 100 IU/L/day of total vitamin D activity from the vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Infants exclusively fed human milk of vitamin D-deficient mothers, who do not receive additional vitamin D or adequate exposure to sunlight, are at significant risk for vitamin D-deficiency rickets. The low concentration of phosphorus in human milk is adequate for most term infants but probably compounds any vitamin D deficiency. Intake of phosphorus from formula or table milk is more than adequate, and the addition of baby foods increases this mineral's intake to generous levels. Calcium is well absorbed and adequate in human milk if vitamin D is sufficient, but concern exists about calcium intake from infant formulas for this older group. My colleagues and I have conducted studies of bone mineral content and mineral homeostasis in term infants fed human milk (300 mg/L calcium), standard cow milk formula (440/mg/L calcium), or a soybean formula (600 mg/L calcium); our findings suggest that all three types of feedings provided comparable bone mineralization and normal indicators of mineral homeostasis. Mean calcium retentions at 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months in all three groups were between 138 and 205 mg/day, substantially more than the 130 mg/day estimated to be needed from body composition data. Estimates for phosphorus were similarly generous. The questions of whether higher calcium intakes will result in further increases in bone mineral content and of the effect of beikost on calcium

  5. Face-Scanning Behavior to Silently-Talking Faces in 12-Month-Old Infants: The Impact of Pre-Exposed Auditory Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Claudia; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Dupierrix, Eve; Loevenbruck, Helene; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    The present eye-tracking study aimed to investigate the impact of auditory speech information on 12-month-olds' gaze behavior to silently-talking faces. We examined German infants' face-scanning behavior to side-by-side presentation of a bilingual speaker's face silently speaking German utterances on one side and French on the other…

  6. The Effects of Irlen Colored Lenses on Students' Specific Reading Skills and Their Perception of Ability: A 12-Month Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gregory L. W.; Conway, Robert N. F.

    1990-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of the use of nonoptical tinted (Irlen) lenses with 44 children (ages 9-16) with reading disabilities. Evaluation after 6 and 12 months indicated a significant improvement in attitude to school and to basic academic skills. Reading comprehension and accuracy, but not rate, were also significantly improved.…

  7. Temperament and Behaviour of Infants Aged 4-12 Months on Admission to a Private Mother-Baby Unit and at 1- and 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Feekery, Colin

    2004-01-01

    While infant behaviour is influenced by maternal care, infant crying and dysregulated sleep can reciprocally affect maternal mood. The temperament and behaviour of two 4-12-months-old infant cohorts admitted with their mothers to a residential parenting program were examined using behaviour charts and the Short Infant Temperament Questionnaire…

  8. Effectiveness of a 12-month randomized clinical trial to increase physical activity in multiethnic postpartum women: Results from Hawaii’s Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; White, Kami K.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Saiki, Kara; Brown, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few postpartum ethnic minority women perform leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The study tested the effectiveness of a 12-month tailored intervention to increase MVPA in women with infants 2–12 months old. Methods From 2008–2011, women (n=311) with infants (average age = 5.7 months) from Honolulu, Hawaii were randomly assigned to receive tailored telephone calls and access to a mom-centric website (n=154) or access to a standard PA website (n=157). MVPA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months using self-report and acclerometers. Results Controlling for covariates, the tailored condition significantly increased self-reported MVPA from an average of 44 to 246 minutes/week compared with 46 to 156 minutes/week for the standard condition (p=0.027). Mothers with ≥ 2 children had significantly greater increases in MVPA in response to the tailored intervention than those with one child (p=0.016). Accelerometer-measured MVPA significantly increased over time (p=0.0001), with no condition differences. There was evidence of reactivity to initially wearing accelerometers; the tailored intervention significantly increased MVPA among women with low baseline accelerometer MVPA minutes, but not among those with high minutes (pinteraction=0.053). Conclusion A tailored intervention effectively increased MVPA over 12 months in multiethnic women with infants, particularly those with more than one child. PMID:25285751

  9. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  10. Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Louis A; Trainor, Laurel J; Santesso, Diane L

    2003-06-01

    We examined the development of infants' regional electrocortical (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life. Separate groups of infants were seen at 3 (n=33), 6 (n=42), 9 (n=52), and 12 (n=40) months of age at which time regional EEG and ECG responses were continuously recorded during a baseline condition and during the presentation of three orchestral pieces that were known to vary in affective valence and intensity (happy, sad, fear). Overall, there were two important findings. First, we found that although the overall amount of EEG 4-8 Hz power increased between 3 and 12 months, the distribution of EEG power changed across age, with the younger infants (3- and 6-month-olds) showing no difference between frontal and parietal regions, but the older infants (9- and 12-month-olds) showing relatively more activation at frontal than at parietal sites. This development likely reflects the maturation of frontal lobe function. Second, we found that the presentation of affective music significantly increased brain activity at 3 months of age, had seemingly little effect at 6 and 9 months, and significantly attenuated brain activity at 12 months. Findings suggest that there is a clear developmental change in the effect of music on brain activity in the first year, with music having a "calming" influence on infants by the end of the first year of life. PMID:12812802

  11. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  12. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  13. Effect of Improving Dietary Quality on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A 12 Months Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kristina S.; Clifton, Peter M.; Lister, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    People with diabetes have accelerated arterial stiffening. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing fruit, vegetable and dairy intake for 12 months on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), and central blood pressure (cBP), compared to a usual diet control, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In a 12 months randomised controlled trial, cfPWV, AIx and cBP were measured every 3 months. The intervention group received dietary counselling to increase consumption of fruit (+1 serving/day; 150 g/day), vegetables (+2 servings/day; 150 g/day) and dairy (+1 serving/day; 200–250 g/day) at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. The control group continued on their usual diet. One hundred and nine participants were randomised and 92 (intervention n = 45; control n = 47) completed. At 3 months, fruit (184 g/day; p = 0.001) and dairy (83 g/day; p = 0.037) intake increased in the intervention group compared with the control group but this increase was not maintained at 12 months. After adjustment for baseline measurements there was no time by treatment effect for central systolic or diastolic BP, AIx or cfPWV. A time effect existed for AIx which modestly increased over time. Peripheral diastolic BP and central pulse pressure were improved in the intervention group compared with the control group at 12 months. In the cohort with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, improving dietary quality by increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy did not improve cBP, AIx or cfPWV, compared with a control group continuing on their usual diet, after 12 months. PMID:27338467

  14. Efficacy and safety of low-dose clopidogrel after 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy for patients having drug-eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiao-Dong; Long, Ming; Li, Cui-Ling; Hu, Cheng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Background To prevent stent thrombosis (ST) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DESs) in patients with coronary heart disease, 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is recommended. However, the optimal long-term antiplatelet regimen is not clear for the patients who have completed the 12-month DAPT. Methods We reviewed the data of 755 consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) three years ago and completed 12-month DAPT. They were divided into three groups according to the antiplatelet medication they had used for two years after 12-month DAPT [low-dose clopidogrel (Talcom®, 25mg/d), clopidogrel (Plavix®, 75mg/d) and aspirin (100 mg/d)]. The efficacy (a composite incidence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization) and safety (incidences of bleeding, gastrointestinal trouble and drug discontinuation) were compared among the three groups. Results The rates of multi-vessel lesions, prior MI, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in the clopidogrel (75 mg/day) group than in the other two groups (P>0.05 for both comparisons). There was no significant difference in the overall composite incidence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization in the three groups at three years after PCI. The rates of bleeding (especially minor bleeding), gastrointestinal trouble, drug discontinuation and any blood transfusion were markedly lower in the low-dose clopidogrel (25 mg/d) group than in the other two treatment groups (P<0.05). Conclusions The 25-mg maintenance dose of clopidogrel after 12-month DAPT may be more preferable to Chinese patients who have undergone DES implantation, because of its lower cost but no less efficacy and safety. PMID:24822103

  15. Dynamic versus Adynamic Graciloplasty in Treatment of End-Stage Fecal Incontinence: Is the Implantation of the Pacemaker Really Necessary? 12-Month Follow-Up in a Clinical, Physiological, and Functional Study

    PubMed Central

    Walega, Piotr; Romaniszyn, Michal; Siarkiewicz, Benita; Zelazny, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to compare functional results of end-stage fecal incontinence treatment with dynamic graciloplasty and adynamic graciloplasty augmented with transanal conditioning of the transposed muscle. Methods. A total of 20 patients were qualified for graciloplasty procedure due to end-stage fecal incontinence. 7 patients underwent dynamic graciloplasty (DGP), whereas 13 patients were treated with adynamic graciloplasty, with transanal stimulation in the postoperative period (AGP). Clinical, functional, and quality of life assessments were performed 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedures. Results. There were no intraoperative or early postoperative complications. The detachment of gracilis muscle tendon was observed in one patient in DGP group and two in AGP group. There was a significant improvement of Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) scores in both groups 12 months after procedure. Anorectal manometry showed improvement regarding basal and squeeze pressures in both groups, with significantly better squeeze pressures in AGP group. Conclusions. The functional effects in the DGP and AGP groups were similar. Significantly lower price of the procedure and avoidance of implant-related complication risk suggest the attractiveness of the AGP method augmented by transanal stimulation. PMID:25861261

  16. Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Mother's Anxious Parenting as a Predictor of Anxiety Symptoms 12 Months Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapee, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental overprotection and modeling of fearful behaviors have been proposed to play a central role in the development of anxiety. Yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of these relationships and virtually none focusing on the adolescent period. The current study measured adolescent perceptions of maternal anxious parenting (a…

  17. 77 FR 25791 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Sonoran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Oregon, and Washington (43 FR 6230). On July 12, 1995, we published a final... listed as endangered and retain the threatened status for the other 5 States (60 FR 36000). On July 6... recovery (64 FR 36454). On February 16, 2006, we reopened the public comment period to consider...

  18. 39 CFR 3010.22 - Calculation of annual limitation when notices of rate adjustment are less than 12 months apart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Adjusted, Base Period 1982-84 = 100. The current Series ID for the index is “CUUR0000SA0.” (b) If a notice... = 100. The current Series ID for the index is “CUUR0000SA0.” (b) If a notice of a Type 1-A or Type...

  19. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. PMID:27429050

  20. Improved asthma control in patients with severe, persistent allergic asthma after 12 months of nightly temperature-controlled laminar airflow: an observational study with retrospective comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Uwe; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Gerstlauer, Michael; Lehmann, Sylvia; Gappa, Monika; Brenneken, Amelie; Schulz, Christian; Ahrens, Peter; Schreiber, Jens; Wittmann, Michael; Hamelmann, Eckard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Continuous or episodic allergen exposure is a major risk factor of frequent symptoms and exacerbations for patients with allergic asthma. It has been shown that temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) significantly reduced allergen exposure and airway inflammation and improved quality of life of patients with poorly controlled allergic asthma. Objective The objective was to evaluate the effects of nighttime TLA when used during real-life conditions for 12 consecutive months in addition to the patients’ regular medication. Methods This multicenter, pre- and postretrospective observational study included patients with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthma who received add-on treatment with TLA for 12 consecutive months. Data on medication use, asthma control, asthma symptoms, lung function, use of hospital resources, and exacerbations were collected after 4 and 12 months and compared with corresponding data collected retrospectively from medical records during the year prior to inclusion in the study. Results Data from 30 patients (mean age 28; range 8–70) completing 4 months and 27 patients completing 12 months of TLA use are presented. The mean number of exacerbations was reduced from 3.6 to 1.3 (p<0.0001), and the ratio of asthma-related emergency room visits or hospitalizations diminished from 72.4 to 23.3% (p=0.001) or from 44.8 to 20.0% (p<0.05), respectively, after 12 months of TLA use. The Asthma Control Test index increased from 14.1 to 18.5 (p<0.0001). After 4 months of TLA use, clear improvements can be shown for most variables in line with the data collected after 12 months. Conclusions The addition of TLA to the patients’ regular medication significantly reduced exacerbations, asthma symptoms, and the utilization of hospital resources. The data support that TLA may be an important new non-pharmacological approach in the management of poorly controlled allergic asthma. PMID:26557252

  1. Impact of Pre-Stage II Hemodynamics and Pulmonary Artery Anatomy on 12-Month Outcome in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aiyagari, Ranjit; Rhodes, John F.; Shrader, Peter; Radtke, Wolfgang A.; Bandisode, Varsha M.; Bergersen, Lisa; Gillespie, Matthew J.; Gray, Robert G.; Guey, Lin T.; Hill, Kevin D.; Hirsch, Russel; Kim, Dennis W.; Lee, Kyong-Jin; Pelech, Andrew N.; Ringewald, Jeremy; Takao, Cheryl; Vincent, Julie A.; Ohye, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare interstage cardiac catheterization hemodynamic and angiographic findings between shunt types for Single Ventricle Reconstruction (SVR) trial. Background The SVR trial, which randomized subjects to modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) or right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS) for the Norwood procedure, demonstrated RVPAS was associated with smaller pulmonary artery diameter, but superior 12-month transplant-free survival. Methods We analyzed pre-stage II catheterization data for SVR trial subjects. Hemodynamic variables and shunt and pulmonary angiography were compared between shunt types; their association with 12-month transplant-free survival was also evaluated. Results Of 549 randomized subjects, 389 underwent pre-stage II catheterization. Smaller size, lower aortic and superior vena cava saturation, and higher ventricular end-diastolic pressure (EDP) were associated with worse 12-month transplant-free survival. MBTS subjects had lower coronary perfusion pressure (27mmHg vs. 32mmHg, P<0.001) and higher Qp:Qs ratio (1.1 vs. 1.0, P=0.009). Higher Qp:Qs ratio increased the risk of death or transplant only in the RVPAS group (P=0.01). MBTS subjects had fewer shunt (14% vs. 28%, P=0.004) and severe left pulmonary artery stenoses (0.7% vs. 9.2%, P=0.003), larger mid-main branch pulmonary artery diameters and higher Nakata index (164 vs. 134, P<0.001). Conclusions Compared with RVPAS subjects, MBTS subjects had more hemodynamic abnormalities related to shunt physiology, while RVPAS subjects had more shunt or pulmonary obstruction of a severe degree, and inferior pulmonary artery growth at pre-stage II catheterization. Lower BSA, higher ventricular EDP, and lower SVC saturation were associated with worse 12-month transplant-free survival. PMID:24332668

  2. A 12-month clinical evaluation of pit-and-fissure sealants placed with and without etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems in newly-erupted teeth

    PubMed Central

    NOGOURANI, Maryam Karami; JANGHORBANI, Mohsen; KHADEM, Parvin; JADIDI, Zahra; JALALI, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this one-year clinical study was to investigate the effect of two adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond, a two-step etch-and-rinse and Clearfil SE Bond, a two-step self-etch system) on pit-and-fissure sealant retention in newly-erupted teeth. This study compared the success of the sealants in mesial and distopalatal grooves with and without these two adhesive systems. Material and Methods In a clinical trial, 35 children aged 6-8 years undergoing sealant placement were recruited. This one-year clinical study scored 70 mesial and 70 distopalatal sealants of newly-erupted permanent maxillary first molar, with a split-mouth design. All children received sealant alone in one permanent maxillary molar tooth. Children were randomized into two groups. One group received Self-Etch (SE) bond plus sealant and the other group received Single Bond plus sealant in another permanent maxillary molar tooth. Clinical evaluation at 3, 6 and 12 months was performed and the retention was studied in terms of the success and failure. Results The success rate of sealant in the distopalatal groove, using SEB at 3, 6 and 12 months was 93.3% (95% CI: 68.0, 99.8), 73.3% (95% CI: 44.9, 92.2) and 66.7% (95% CI: 38.4, 88.2), respectively. It was greater than that of the distopalatal groove in SB group with a success rate of 62.5% (95% CI: 35.4, 84.8), 31.3% (95% CI: 11.8, 58.7) and 31.3% (95% CI: 11.8, 58.7), at the three evaluation periods. The success rate of sealant in the mesial groove using SEB was 86.6% (95% CI: 59.5, 98.3), 53.3% (95% CI: 26.6, 78.7) and 53.3% (95% CI: 26.6, 78.7), while this was 100% (95% CI: 79.4, 100.0), 81.3% (95% CI: 54.4, 96.0) and 81.3% (95% CI: 54.4, 96.0) using SB, at 3, 6 and 12-month evaluation periods. Conclusions These results support the use of these two bonding agents in pit-and-fissure sealants under both isolated and contaminated conditions. Further, SE bond seemed to be less sensitive to moisture contamination. PMID:22858703

  3. U.S. Armed Forces air crew: incident illness and injury diagnosis during the 12 months prior to retirement, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Smallman, Darlene P; Hu, Zheng; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    U.S. Armed Services retirees are eligible for disability compensation for medical illness/injury incurred during their service. This analysis of recently retired U.S. active component air crew/aviation service members from all Services evaluated incident diagnoses among aviation retirees during the 12 months prior to retirement and assessed trends in first-time diagnoses by major diagnostic category and aviation component stratification. Most aviation retirees were in their 40s, Air Force, male, white, and senior officers and warrant officers. Among the study population, 14,191 (88%) of aviation retirees had at least one first-time diagnosis recorded during the 12 months prior to retirement. During 2003-2012, 63.8% of all diagnoses in aviation retirees during the 12 months prior to retirement were new. The highest proportions of new diagnoses were for "other disorders of the ear," "organic sleep disorders," and "general symptoms." Among the four subtypes of aviators, general air crew/air craft crew had the lowest proportion of new diagnoses (60.2%). PMID:24885877

  4. Clinical outcome and bone healing of implants placed with high insertion torque: 12-month results from a multicenter controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, T; Guazzi, P; Samarani, R; Grandi, G

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the clinical outcome and the crestal bone resorption of implants placed with high insertion torque (up to 80 N cm). 102 patients were treated with 156 tapered implants. 42 implants (control group) presented insertion torque between 30 and 45 N cm (mean=37.4 SD 8.2). 114 implants (experimental group) were placed with insertion torque between 50 and 80 N cm (mean=74.8 SD 7.9). All implants were early loaded after 2 months. Peri-implant marginal bone levels were assessed immediately after surgery, and at 6- and 12-month follow up examinations. At the 12-month follow up all implants were clinically stable. After 12 months, patients in the experimental group lost an average of 0.41 mm (CI 95% 0.522; 0.263) of crestal bone compared with 0.45 mm (CI 95% 0.561; 0.286) for those in the control group. There were no significant differences between the two groups. No direct or inverse relationship was observed between the insertion torque values and crestal bone resorption. The results show that the use of high insertion torque (up to 80 N cm) did not prevent osseointegration and did not increase bone resorption around tapered implants early loaded up to 1 year after implant placement. PMID:23159169

  5. A Randomized Trial of Computerized vs. In-person Brief Intervention for Illicit Drug Use in Primary Care: Outcomes through 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Gonzales, Arturo; Moseley, Ana; Peterson, Thomas R.; Ondersma, Steven J.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined outcomes through 12 months from a randomized trial comparing computerized brief intervention (CBI) vs. in-person brief intervention (IBI) delivered by behavioral health counselors for adult community health center patients with moderate-level drug misuse (N= 360). Data were collected at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, and included the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and laboratory analysis of hair samples. Repeated measures analyses examined differential change over time. There were no significant differences in drug-positive hair tests over time or by condition. Global ASSIST scores decreased in both conditions (p< .001), but there were no significant differences between conditions in overall change across 12 months of follow-up (p= .13). CBI produced greater overall reductions in alcohol (p= .04) and cocaine (p= .02) ASSIST scores than IBI, with initial differences dissipating over time. Computerized brief interventions present a viable alternative to traditional in-person brief interventions. PMID:25282578

  6. A Case Study Assessing the Auditory and Speech Development of Four Children Implanted with Cochlear Implants by the Chronological Age of 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with severe hearing loss most likely receive the greatest benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) when implanted at less than 2 years of age. Children with a hearing loss may also benefit greater from binaural sensory stimulation. Four children who received their first CI under 12 months of age were included in this study. Effects on auditory development were determined using the German LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, closed- and open-set monosyllabic word tests, aided free-field, the Mainzer and Göttinger speech discrimination tests, Monosyllabic-Trochee-Polysyllabic (MTP), and Listening Progress Profile (LiP). Speech production and grammar development were evaluated using a German language speech development test (SETK), reception of grammar test (TROG-D) and active vocabulary test (AWST-R). The data showed that children implanted under 12 months of age reached open-set monosyllabic word discrimination at an age of 24 months. LiP results improved over time, and children recognized 100% of words in the MTP test after 12 months. All children performed as well as or better than their hearing peers in speech production and grammar development. SETK showed that the speech development of these children was in general age appropriate. The data suggests that early hearing loss intervention benefits speech and language development and supports the trend towards early cochlear implantation. Furthermore, the data emphasizes the potential benefits associated with bilateral implantation. PMID:23509653

  7. 12 month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Dewar, Deborah L; Schumacher, Tracy L; Finn, Tara; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2014-02-01

    Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages on dietary intake and food behaviors. Diet was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Individual foods were categorized into nutrient-dense or energy-dense, nutrient-poor food groups and the percentage contribution to total energy intake calculated. Participants were aged 13.2±0.5years (n=330). There were no statistically significant group-by-time effects for dietary intake or food related behaviors, with 12-month trends suggesting more intervention group girls had improved water intakes (59% consuming⩽three glasses per day to 54% at 12 months vs. 50% to 61% in controls, p=0.052), with a greater proportion consuming < one sweetened beverage per day (24-41% vs. 34-37% in controls, p=0.057). Further research including more intensive nutrition intervention strategies are required to evaluate whether dietary intake in adolescent girls attending schools in low SES communities can be optimized. PMID:24239513

  8. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingjie; Naidu, Rajeev K.; Chu, Renyuan; Dai, Jinhui; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, resp.). SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms) following SMILE at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 3 months (p = 0.003) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms) than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months. PMID:26649190

  9. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingjie; Naidu, Rajeev K; Chu, Renyuan; Dai, Jinhui; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, resp.). SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms) following SMILE at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 3 months (p = 0.003) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms) than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months. PMID:26649190

  10. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. PMID:24004246

  11. The efficacy of routine use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in occipitocervical and atlantoaxial fusions of the pediatric spine: a minimum of 12 months' follow-up with computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Christina; Hadley, Caroline; Monaco, Gina N; Sen, Anish; Brayton, Alison; Briceño, Valentina; Tran, Brandon H; Ryan, Sheila L; Luerssen, Thomas G; Fulkerson, Daniel; Jea, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study focusing on fusion rate was to determine the efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) use in posterior instrumented fusions of the craniocervical junction in the pediatric population. The authors previously reported the short-term (mean follow-up 11 months) safety and efficacy of rhBMP-2 use in the pediatric age group. The present study reports on their long-term results (minimum of 12 months' follow-up) and focuses on efficacy. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of 83 consecutive pediatric patients who had undergone posterior occipitocervical or atlantoaxial spine fusion at Texas Children's Hospital or Riley Children's Hospital during the period from October 2007 to October 2012. Forty-nine patients were excluded from further analysis because of death, loss to follow-up, or lack of CT evaluation of fusion at 12 or more months after surgery. Fusion was determined by postoperative CT scan at a minimum of 12 months after surgery. The fusion was graded and classified by a board-certified fellowship-trained pediatric neuroradiologist. Other factors, such as patient age, diagnosis, number of vertebral levels fused, use of allograft or autograft, dosage of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and use of postoperative orthosis, were recorded. RESULTS Thirty-four patients had a CT scan at least 12 months after surgery. The average age of the patients at surgery was 8 years, 1 month (range 10 months-17 years). The mean follow-up was 27.7 months (range 12-81 months). There were 37 fusion procedures in 34 patients. Solid fusion (CT Grade 4 or 4-) was achieved in 89.2% of attempts (33 of 37), while incomplete fusion or failure of fusion was seen in 10.8%. Based on logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between solid fusion and age, sex, BMP dose, type of graft material, use of postoperative orthosis, or number of levels fused. Three of 34 patients (8.8%) required revision

  12. Changes in plasma gonadotropin concentrations and urethral closure pressure in the bitch during the 12 months following ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Pfeiffer, Esther; Piché, Claude A; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Roos, Malgorzata; Hubler, Madeleine; Arnold, Susi

    2004-11-01

    Urinary incontinence due to acquired urethral sphincter incompetence is a common side effect of spaying, for which the underlying cause remains unknown. Spaying not only results in a significant reduction in the urethral closure pressure within 1 year but also in an increase in the plasma gonadotropin concentrations. To investigate the possible link between the post-ovariectomy changes in plasma gonadotropins and in urethral closure pressure, gonadotropin and urodynamic measurements were performed in 10 Beagle bitches before and for a period of 1 year after spaying. Plasma gonadotropin concentrations rose quickly after ovariectomy and peak levels were seen within 3-5 weeks, followed by a sharp drop until week 10. A steady increase was observed subsequently until week 42, when a plateau was reached. One year after spaying, the mean FSH concentration was 75.3 +/- 32.1 ng/ml, a 17-fold increase, and the LH was 8.3 +/- 3.8 ng/ml, an eightfold increase over the pre-spaying values. Ten months after spaying, the mean urethral closure pressure (9.7 cm H2O) was significantly reduced when compared to the mean pre-operative value of 15.4 cm H2O. However, there was no clear relationship between the gonadotropin concentrations and the urethral closure pressure. From these results it seems unlikely that chronically elevated gonadotropins are the underlying cause for reduced urethral closure pressure after spaying resulting in urinary incontinence. PMID:15451248

  13. Suicide mortality and risk factors in the 12 months after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care in Korea: 1989-2006.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Choi, Jae Won; Kyoung Yi, Ki; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-07-30

    This study aimed to determine the suicide mortality within 1 year after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care and identify the risk factors for suicide completion during this period. A total of 8403 patients were admitted to general hospitals in Seoul, Korea, for psychiatric disorders from January 1989 to December 2006. The suicide mortality risk of these patients within 1 year of discharge was compared with that of gender- and age-matched subjects from the general population of Korea. The standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide in the year following discharge were 49.7 for males and 45.5 for females. Patients aged 15-24 years had the highest risk for suicide. Among the different diagnostic groups, patients with personality disorders, schizophrenia, or affective disorders had the highest risk for suicide completion. Suicidal ideation at admission and inpatient stay more than 1 month were also associated with increased risk of suicide. In Korean psychiatric patients, the SMR is much higher in young female patients, a high percentage of patients commit suicide by jumping, and there is a stronger association of long duration of hospitalization and suicide. These factors should be considered in the development and implementation of suicide prevention strategies for Korean psychiatric patients. PMID:23058096

  14. Prediction model for outcome after low-back surgery: individualized likelihood of complication, hospital readmission, return to work, and 12-month improvement in functional disability.

    PubMed

    McGirt, Matthew J; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Asher, Anthony L; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Lumbar spine surgery has been demonstrated to be efficacious for many degenerative spine conditions. However, there is wide variability in outcome after spine surgery at the individual patient level. All stakeholders in spine care will benefit from identification of the unique patient or disease subgroups that are least likely to benefit from surgery, are prone to costly complications, and have increased health care utilization. There remains a large demand for individual patient-level predictive analytics to guide decision support to optimize outcomes at the patient and population levels. METHODS One thousand eight hundred three consecutive patients undergoing spine surgery for various degenerative lumbar diagnoses were prospectively enrolled and followed for 1 year. A comprehensive patient interview and health assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after surgery. All predictive covariates were selected a priori. Eighty percent of the sample was randomly selected for model development, and 20% for model validation. Linear regression was performed with Bayesian model averaging to model 12-month ODI (Oswestry Disability Index). Logistic regression with Bayesian model averaging was used to model likelihood of complications, 30-day readmission, need for inpatient rehabilitation, and return to work. Goodness-of-fit was assessed via R(2) for 12-month ODI and via the c-statistic, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), for the categorical endpoints. Discrimination (predictive performance) was assessed, using R(2) for the ODI model and the c-statistic for the categorical endpoint models. Calibration was assessed using a plot of predicted versus observed values for the ODI model and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test for the categorical endpoint models. RESULTS On average, all patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were improved after surgery (ODI baseline vs 12 month: 50.4 vs 29.5%, p < 0.001). Complications occurred in 121 patients (6

  15. Change in sense of coherence (SOC) and symptoms of depression among old non-demented persons 12 months after hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Engedal, Knut; Selbaek, Geir

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether SOC of older adults (≥65 years) without cognitive impairment had changed 1-year after medical hospitalization (T2) and to examine what factors were associated with the change. At baseline (T1) and (T2), the 13-item version of the SOC scale assessed coping, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety. The cognitive state was assessed by means of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Physical health was measured with the Charlson Index and functional status with Lawton and Brody's scales for physical self-maintenance (PSMS) and the instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL). In all, 97 (51 men) persons with a mean age of 75.3 (SD 6.3) years and Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score of 28.0 (SD 1.6) participated. The SOC improved significantly from baseline to 1-year later (mean 76.5, SD 11.4 vs. mean 79.1, SD 9.1, p≤0.01). Improved SOC was associated with a low SOC at baseline and living without assistance during the study period. The prevalence of depression (HAD-D≥8) and the mean depression (HAD-D) score did not change between the first and second data collection (HAD-D≥8: 3.1% vs. 4.1% and HAD-D score: mean 1.8, SD 2.3 vs. mean 2.4, SD 2.4). However, an improved SOC and reduced anxiety symptoms at the second time point were associated with reduced HAD-D. The mean SOC improved 1-year after hospitalization. The symptoms of depression did not change, but reduction of symptoms of depression at the second time point was associated with improved SOC. PMID:23149225

  16. Uteroplacental insufficiency leads to hypertension, but not glucose intolerance or impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, in 12-month-old rats

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Melanie; Young, Margaret E; Jefferies, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Ward, Michelle M; Fletcher, Erica L; Wlodek, Mary E; Wadley, Glenn D

    2015-01-01

    Growth restriction impacts on offspring development and increases their risk of disease in adulthood which is exacerbated with “second hits.” The aim of this study was to investigate if blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis were altered in 12-month-old male and female offspring with prenatal or postnatal growth restriction. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation induced uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction in offspring (Restricted). A sham surgery was also performed during pregnancy (Control) and some litters from sham mothers had their litter size reduced (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Growth-restricted females only developed hypertension at 12 months, which was not observed in males. In Restricted females only homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was decreased, indicating enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in males. Plasma leptin was increased only in the Reduced males at 12 months compared to Control and Restricted males, which was not observed in females. Compared to Controls, leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin were unaltered in the Restricted males and females, suggesting that at 12 months of age the reduction in body weight in the Restricted offspring is not a consequence of circulating adipokines. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels were unaltered in 12-month-old male and female rats, which indicate improvements in lean muscle mass by 12 months of age. In summary, sex strongly impacts the cardiometabolic effects of growth restriction in 12-month-old rats and it is females who are at particular risk of developing long-term hypertension following growth restriction. PMID:26416974

  17. What barriers thwart postpartum women's Physical Activity goals during a 12-month intervention? A process evaluation of the Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Saiki, Kara; Steffen, Alana D.; Woekel, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 70% of new mothers do not meet national guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project (2008-2011) was designed to increase MVPA among women with infants 2-12 months old. Participants’ barriers to exercising and achievement of specific MVPA goals were discussed during telephone counseling calls over 12-months. Healthy, inactive women (n=115, mean age=31 ±5 years, infants’ mean age = 5.5 ± 3 months; 80% racial/ethnic minorities) received a total of 17 calls over 12 months, in three phases. During Phase 1 weekly calls were made for a month; in Phase 2 biweekly calls were made for two months, and in Phase 3 monthly calls were made for nine months. Across all Phases, the most frequent barriers to achieving MVPA goals were: time/too busy (25%), sick child (11%), and illness (10%). Goals for MVPA minutes per week were achieved or surpassed 40.6% of the time during weekly calls, 39.9% during biweekly calls and 42.0% during monthly calls. The least likely MVPA goals to be achieved (p < 0.04) were those which the woman encountered and for which she failed to overcome the barriers she had previously anticipated would impair her improvement of MVPA. This process evaluation demonstrated that telephone counseling somewhat facilitated the resolution of barriers and achievement of MVPA goals; thus, if clinical settings adopted such methods, chronic disease risks could be reduced in this vulnerable population of new mothers. PMID:25402618

  18. The Moderating Effect of Age on the 12-Month Prevalence of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Adults with a Lifetime History of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simning, Adam; Conwell, Yeates; Mohile, Supriya G.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine how age may modulate the association of a history of cancer with a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. Design Population-based, cross-sectional surveys. Setting The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) occurred in the United States and were conducted in 2001-2003. Participants CPES included 16,423 adult participants, of whom 702 reported a cancer history. Measurements The Composite International Diagnostic Interview evaluated the presence of a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. Results Among those with a cancer history, older adults (≥ 60 years old) were less likely than younger adults (18-59 years old) to have a 12-month history of an anxiety or depressive disorder. Compared to their peers without cancer, younger adults with a cancer history had more anxiety (23.8% vs. 13.9%) and depressive (16.0% vs. 9.5%) disorders, whereas older adults with a cancer history had lower levels of anxiety (3.7% vs. 6.3%) and depressive (1.9% vs. 3.9%) disorders. In multivariable modeling, there was a statistically significant interaction between age group and cancer history, with the risk for anxiety and depressive disorders elevated in the younger age group with a cancer history (OR=5.84 and OR=6.13, respectively), but decreased in the older age group with a cancer history (OR=0.55 and OR=0.45). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there is considerable age-dependent variation with regard to anxiety and depressive disorders in adults with a cancer history. Investigation of the mechanisms contributing to this apparent age differential in risk could have important mental illness treatment implications in this population. PMID:24080385

  19. Uteroplacental insufficiency leads to hypertension, but not glucose intolerance or impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, in 12-month-old rats.

    PubMed

    Tran, Melanie; Young, Margaret E; Jefferies, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Ward, Michelle M; Fletcher, Erica L; Wlodek, Mary E; Wadley, Glenn D

    2015-09-01

    Growth restriction impacts on offspring development and increases their risk of disease in adulthood which is exacerbated with "second hits." The aim of this study was to investigate if blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis were altered in 12-month-old male and female offspring with prenatal or postnatal growth restriction. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation induced uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction in offspring (Restricted). A sham surgery was also performed during pregnancy (Control) and some litters from sham mothers had their litter size reduced (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Growth-restricted females only developed hypertension at 12 months, which was not observed in males. In Restricted females only homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was decreased, indicating enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in males. Plasma leptin was increased only in the Reduced males at 12 months compared to Control and Restricted males, which was not observed in females. Compared to Controls, leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin were unaltered in the Restricted males and females, suggesting that at 12 months of age the reduction in body weight in the Restricted offspring is not a consequence of circulating adipokines. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels were unaltered in 12-month-old male and female rats, which indicate improvements in lean muscle mass by 12 months of age. In summary, sex strongly impacts the cardiometabolic effects of growth restriction in 12-month-old rats and it is females who are at particular risk of developing long-term hypertension following growth restriction. PMID:26416974

  20. Changes in mental and physical well-being among problematic alcohol and drug users in 12-month Internet-based intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Berman, Anne H; Wennberg, Peter; Sinadinovic, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    Twelve-month well-being outcomes were investigated for 835 participants in 1 of 2 randomized controlled trials offering online assessment and brief intervention for either problematic alcohol (n = 633) or drug use (n = 202). The well-being of participants who had reduced their substance use to a less problematic level (regardless of intervention) over 12 months was compared with that of participants who had maintained or increased their use. At a 12-month follow-up, the 227 alcohol trial participants with reduced use showed better well-being in comparison to the 406 with stable or increased use, in physical health and sleep quality, as well as general well-being, ability to concentrate, lower stress, better social life satisfaction and sense of control, and a lower rate of depressed mood. Among the 70 drug trial participants who had reduced their drug use over 12 months, 80% had ceased all drug use, and at follow-up they had fewer alcohol-related problems than the stable group. No differences in well-being between these groups were identified. Self-reported access to additional treatment modalities beyond the trial interventions (e.g., speaking to someone about problematic use and accessing additional Internet-based interventions) was higher among participants in both cohorts with reduced substance use in comparison to those with stable/increased use. Drug users who reduced their use accessed prescribed medication to a larger extent than those whose use remained stable or increased. Points to consider when conducting future research on well-being and problematic substance use are discussed. PMID:25664387

  1. Association between Substance Use Disorder Status and Pain-Related Function Following 12 Months of Treatment in Primary Care Patients with Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Corson, Kathryn; Turk, Dennis C.; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine relationships between substance use disorder (SUD) history and 12-month outcomes among primary care patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Patients were enrolled in a randomized trial of collaborative care intervention (CCI) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) to improve pain-related physical and emotional function. At baseline, 72 of 362 patients (20.0%) had a history of SUD. Compared to CNCP patients without SUD, those with comorbid SUD had poorer pain-related function and were more likely to meet criteria for current major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (all p-values<0.05). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether SUD status was associated with clinically significant change over 12 months in pain-related function (30% reduction in Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire Score). The overall model was not significant in the CCI group. However, within the TAU group, participants with a SUD history were significantly less likely to show improvements in pain-related function (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.11–0.82). CNCP patients with comorbid SUD reported greater functional impairment at baseline. Patients with SUD who received usual care were 70% less likely to have clinically significant improvements in pain-related function 12 months post-baseline, and SUD status did not impede improvement for the CCI group. Perspective Chronic non-cancer pain patients with a history of a substance use disorder (SUD) report poorer pain-related functioning and are less likely to experience clinically significant improvements from usual pain treatment. Providers should assess for SUD status and provide more intensive interventions for these patients. PMID:20851057

  2. Histological Predictors of Maximum Failure Loads Differ Between the Healing ACL and ACL Grafts After 6 and 12 Months In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Fleming, Braden C.; Murray, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bioenhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair, where the suture repair is supplemented with a biological scaffold, is a promising novel technique to stimulate healing after ACL rupture. However, the histological properties of a successfully healing ACL and how they relate to the mechanical properties have not been fully described. Purpose: To determine which histological features best correlate with the mechanical properties of the healing ACL repairs and ACL grafts in a porcine model at 6 and 12 months after injury. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 48 Yucatan mini-pigs underwent ACL transection followed by: (1) conventional ACL reconstruction with bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) allograft, (2) bioenhanced ACL reconstruction with BPTB allograft using a bioactive scaffold, or (3) bioenhanced ACL repair using the same bioactive scaffold. After 6 and 12 months of healing, structural properties of the ACL or graft (yield and failure load, linear stiffness) were measured. Following mechanical testing, ACL specimens were histologically analyzed for cell and vascular density and qualitatively assessed using the advanced Ligament Maturity Index. Results: After 6 months of healing, the cellular organization subscore was most predictive of yield load (r 2 = 0.98), maximum load (r 2 = 0.89), and linear stiffness (r 2 = 0.95) of the healing ACL, while at 12 months, the collagen subscore (r 2 = 0.68) became the best predictor of maximum load. For ACL grafts, the reverse was true, with the collagen subscore predictive of yield and maximum loads at 6 months (r 2 = 0.55) and graft cellularity predictive of maximum load of the graft at 12 months (r 2 = 0.50). Conclusion: These findings suggest there may be key biological differences in development and maintenance of ACL tissue after repair or reconstruction, with early ligament function dependent on cellular population of the repair but early graft function dependent on the

  3. Sonidegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma: a comprehensive review of sonidegib and the BOLT trial with 12-month update.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon; Silapunt, Sirunya; Migden, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    The Hedgehog inhibitors are promising alternative for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma that are not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery. Sonidegib, also known as LDE225, is an orally available SMO antagonist that was recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. This article will provide an overview of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of sonidegib and in-depth analysis of the BOLT trial with additional data from the 12-month update. The present challenges associated with Hedgehog inhibitors will also be discussed. PMID:27189494

  4. Predictors of outcome after 6 and 12 months following anthroposophic therapy for adult outpatients with chronic disease: a secondary analysis from a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medicine is a physician-provided complementary therapy system involving counselling, artistic and physical therapies, and special medications. The purpose of this analysis was to identify predictors of symptom improvement in patients receiving anthroposophic treatment for chronic diseases. Methods 913 adult outpatients from Germany participated in a prospective cohort study. Patients were starting anthroposophic treatment for mental (30.4% of patients, n = 278/913), musculoskeletal (20.2%), neurological (7.6%), genitourinary (7.4%) or respiratory disorders (7.2%) or other chronic indications. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the improvement of Symptom Score (patients' assessment, 0: not present, 10: worst possible) after 6 and 12 months as dependent variables. 61 independent variables pertaining to socio-demographics, life style, disease status, co-morbidity, health status (SF-36), depression, and therapy factors were analysed. Results Compared to baseline, Symptom Score improved by average 2.53 points (95% confidence interval 2.39-2.68, p < 0.001) after six months and by 2.49 points (2.32-2.65, p < 0.001) after 12 months. The strongest predictor for improvement after six months was baseline Symptom Score, which alone accounted for 25% of the variance (total model 32%). Improvement after six months was also positively predicted by better physical function, better general health, shorter disease duration, higher education level, a diagnosis of respiratory disorders, and by a higher therapy goal documented by the physician at baseline; and negatively predicted by the number of physiotherapy sessions in the pre-study year and by a diagnosis of genitourinary disorders. Seven of these nine variables (not the two diagnoses) also predicted improvement after 12 months. When repeating the 0-6 month analysis on two random subsamples of the original sample, three variables (baseline Symptom Score, physical function

  5. Effect of recent spinal cord injury on wnt signaling antagonists (sclerostin and dkk-1) and their relationship with bone loss. A 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gifre, Laia; Vidal, Joan; Carrasco, Josep L; Filella, Xavier; Ruiz-Gaspà, Silvia; Muxi, Africa; Portell, Enric; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Nuria; Peris, Pilar

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with a marked increase in bone loss and bone remodeling, especially short-term after injury. The absence of mechanical load, mediated by osteocyte mechanosensory function, seems to be a causative factor related to bone loss in this condition. However, the pathogenesis and clinical management of this process remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the effect of recent SCI on the Wnt pathway antagonists, sclerostin and Dickkopf (Dkk-1), and their relationship with bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) evolution. Forty-two patients (aged 35 ± 14yrs) with a recent (<6months) complete SCI were prospectively included. Sclerostin and Dkk-1, bone turnover markers (bone formation: PINP, bone ALP; resorption: sCTx) and BMD (lumbar spine, proximal femur, total body and lower extremities [DXA]) were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. The results were compared with a healthy control group. 22/42 patients completed the 12-month follow-up. At baseline, SCI patients showed a marked increase in bone markers (PINP and sCTx), remaining significantly increased at up to 6 months of follow-up. Additionally, they presented significantly increased Dkk-1 values throughout the study, whereas sclerostin values did not significantly change. BMD markedly decreased at the proximal femur (-20.2 ± 5.4%, p < 0.01), total body (-5.7 ± 2.2%, p = 0.02) and lower extremities (-13.1 ± 4.5%, p = 0.01) at 12 months. Consequently, 59% of patients developed densitometric osteoporosis at 12 months. Patients with higher Dkk-1 values (>58 pmol/L) at baseline showed higher sublesional BMD loss. In conclusion, this study shows that short-term after SCI there is a marked increase in bone turnover and bone loss, the latter associated with an increase in Dkk-1 serum levels. The persistence of increased levels of this Wnt antagonist throughout the study and their relationship with the magnitude of

  6. Should 12 months of training be required before diagnostic radiology residents take independent call? A survey of the Association of Program Directors in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Gunderman, Richard B; Delaney, Lisa R

    2007-09-01

    To assess program director's reactions to a Residency Review Committee rule change requiring diagnostic radiology residents to complete 12 months of training prior to taking independent call, 303 Association of Program Directors members were surveyed. A total of 147 members responded (48.5% response rate). Overall, 66.1% of respondents were opposed to the change, 21.1% were in favor of it, and 12.8% were neutral. Although this rule change has already been accepted by the residency review committee for implementation July 1, 2008, there has been much debate over this modification and the impact it will have on varying programs. PMID:17845962

  7. Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel in Advanced Parkinson'd Disease: Final 12-Month, Open-Label Results

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Hubert H; Standaert, David G; Hauser, Robert A; Lang, Anthony E; Fung, Victor SC; Klostermann, Fabian; Lew, Mark F; Odin, Per; Steiger, Malcolm; Yakupov, Eduard Z; Chouinard, Sylvain; Suchowersky, Oksana; Dubow, Jordan; Hall, Coleen M; Chatamra, Krai; Robieson, Weining Z; Benesh, Janet A; Espay, Alberto J

    2015-01-01

    Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25545465

  8. Glucocorticoids increase impairments in learning and memory due to elevated amyloid precursor protein expression and neuronal apoptosis in 12-month old mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Zu; Li, Wei-Ping; Yao, Yu-You; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Yan-Yan; Wu, Guo-Cui; Gong, Hui-Ling

    2010-02-25

    Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder marked by a progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. Stress level glucocorticoids are correlated with dementia progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, twelve month old male mice were chronically treated for 21 days with stress-level dexamethasone (5mg/kg). We investigated the pathological consequences of dexamethasone administration on learning and memory impairments, amyloid precursor protein processing and neuronal cell apoptosis in 12-month old male mice. Our results indicate that dexamethasone can induce learning and memory impairments, neuronal cell apoptosis, and mRNA levels of the amyloid precursor protein, beta-secretase and caspase-3 are selectively increased after dexamethasone administration. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein, caspase-3 and cytochrome c in the cortex and CA1, CA3 regions of the hippocampus are significantly increased in 12-month old male mice. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment induced cortex and hippocampus neuron apoptosis as well as increasing the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These findings suggest that high levels of glucocorticoids, found in Alzheimer's disease, are not merely a consequence of the disease process but rather play a central role in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Stress management or pharmacological reduction of glucocorticoids warrant additional consideration of the regimen used in Alzheimer's disease therapies. PMID:19948164

  9. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25264190

  10. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M.; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology. PMID:26247960

  11. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Celia G; West, Annette L; Browning, Lucy M; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2015-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology. PMID:26247960

  12. A 12 Months Clinical and Radiographic Study to Assess the Efficacy of Open Flap Debridement and Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft in Management of Supracrestal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Chhina, Shivjot

    2015-01-01

    Background: An improvement in clinical parameters along with regeneration is the desired outcome of periodontal therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze and contrast the efficaciousness of combined open flap debridement (OFD) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SECTG) to OFD in the management of periodontal supracrestal defects. Materials and Methods: Totally, 20 paired sites exhibiting supracrestal defects were subjected to surgical treatment adopting the split mouth design. The defects were divided randomly for treatment with OFD and SECTG (test) or OFD alone (control). The clinical effectiveness of the two arms of treatment was evaluated at 6 months and 12 months post-operatively by assessing clinical and radiographic parameters. The measurements carried out included probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), gingival marginal level, radiographic bone level (BL). Results: The mean reduction in PPD at 0-12 months was 3.20 ± 0.82 mm and RAL gain of 3.10 ± 1.51 mm was observed, the OFD and SECTG (test) group; corresponding observations for OFD (control) were 2.10 ± 0.63 mm and 1.90 ± 0.57 mm. However, BL changes did not follow the pattern of clinical improvement on the radiographic assessment of either treatment group. Post-operative evaluation was made. Improvement in different clinical parameters was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Treatment of supracrestal defects with a combination of OFD and SECTG led to significantly better clinical results compared to OFD alone. PMID:26464551

  13. Facilitators and Barriers to Employment Among Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury Receiving 12 Months of Evidence-Based Supported Employment Services

    PubMed Central

    Njoh, Eni N.; Trainor, John K.; O’Connor, Danielle R.; Barnett, Scott D.; Ottomanelli, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Return to work is associated with positive rehabilitation outcomes for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, more research is needed on vocational support for persons with disabilities seeking employment. Objective: The association between facilitators and barriers of employment and employment outcome was examined among Veterans with SCI who participated in an evidence-based supported employment (EBSE) program. Methods: Using a mixed-methods, nested case-control design, data on facilitators and barriers to employment were extracted from qualitative interviews and quantitative measures administered in person to 34 Veterans with SCI who completed 12 months of an EBSE program. Participants who did (case) and did not (control) obtain competitive employment were matched on time since SCI. Facilitators and barriers to employment were compared between the groups. Results: Self-report measures administered at baseline were examined; there were no statistically significant factors that predicted employment outcomes after 12 months of EBSE program participation. Qualitative interview data revealed program-specific facilitators and Veteran characteristics that were associated with employment outcomes. Conclusions: Qualitative data illustrate how the integration of the vocational rehabilitation specialist on the medical team is helpful for addressing identified disability-specific barriers, including practical matters such as transportation and caregiving schedules, to facilitate employment outcomes. PMID:25762857

  14. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004). 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321). Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006) over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions. PMID:20433700

  15. Replantation of a maxillary second molar after removal of a third molar with a dentigerous cyst: Case report and 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, María A.; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the replantation of a maxillary second right molar, which had been removed for surgical reasons in order to remove a dentigerous cyst associated with the adjacent third molar, and the case’s 12-month follow-up. A 51-year-old man presented swelling in the right maxillary area. Radiographic examination showed a large radiolucency in close proximity to the third molar, suggesting a follicular cyst. The third molar was extracted and the cyst underwent curettage. The second molar had to be extracted to enable complete removal of the cyst and to achieve primary closure of the wound, which would have been impossible without repositioning the molar. With this objective, extraoral endodontic treatment was performed, the root-end was resected and prepared with ultrasonic retrotips, and root-end filling was accomplished with MTA before the molar was replanted. At the 12-month follow-up, the tooth showed no clinical signs or symptoms, probing depth was no greater than 3 mm and radiographic examination showed no evidence of root resorption or periapical lesion. Key words:Replantation, maxillary molar, follicular cyst, dentigerous cyst. PMID:24790721

  16. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF 6- AND 12-MONTH OLD INFANTS HAVING THE NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS FROM THE BIRTH: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vekovischeva O; Lyakso, E E

    2015-12-01

    Ethological approach was applied to compare a non-verbal behavior of the 6- and 12-month old infants having neurological diagnosis by the birth (P 91.8 according to ICD-10 scale; risk infants) with the behavior of their healthy (norm infants) peers. The double-blind controlled uninterrupted observation of 1- and 2-minute videos was done to estimate duration and sequence of behavioral elements manifested by infants in familiar home environment during everyday activity. We suggested that if the specific behavioral differences exist it would be considered as predictive markers of infant's development problems. Ethological analysis indicated that the main behavioral differences were related with infant's eye and hand activities. The risk infants of the both age distracted from an object in their hands "looking aside" more often than their healthy peers. The 12-month old risk infants displayed less communicative and explorative abilities than their norm peers. It was proposed that the short-term observations of nonverbal behavior would be useful like an addition to a diagnostic scale to estimate briefly an infant's cognitive condition. PMID:26987232

  17. Self-help smoking cessation and maintenance programs: a comparative study with 12-month follow-up by the American Lung Association.

    PubMed

    Davis, A L; Faust, R; Ordentlich, M

    1984-11-01

    One thousand two hundred thirty seven smokers responding to lung association announcements in five geographic areas were randomly assigned to one of four groups and mailed American Lung Association materials: 1) leaflets (L); 2) leaflets plus maintenance manual (L + M); 3) cessation manual (C); and 4) cessation and maintenance manuals (C + M). Five telephone interviews over one year achieved a 95 per cent follow-up completion rate. Nonrespondents as well as exclusive cigar and pipe users were classified as smokers. Twenty per cent quit initially, with 5 per cent continually abstinent in (C + M) at 12 months vs 2 per cent in (L) (p less than .05). Nonsmoking prevalence rates (no tobacco smoking in the past month), on the other hand, gradually increased after six months; at 12 months those with the maintenance component, (L + M) and (C + M), had higher rates (18 per cent) than (L) (12 per cent) or (C) (15 per cent). Leaflets and manual alone were least cost effective. Rising nonsmoking prevalence rates observed in all groups suggest that successful attempts to quit increased over time and that a contributing factor might have been the follow-up method. Although achieving lower quit rates than methods requiring attendance at a course, the self-help intervention has the advantages of greater availability, flexibility, and in some instances lower cost. PMID:6437257

  18. A 12-month, open-label, comparative study of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Victor; Cañas, Fernando; Tafalla, Monica

    2008-05-01

    This multicentre, observational, prospective, nonrandomized study compared the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia in a clinical setting. Patients admitted to an acute unit with schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV), who were prescribed quetiapine or risperidone (3 : 1 ratio) within the first week of treatment, according to the physician's usual practice, were recruited. In total, 492 patients (quetiapine: 367; risperidone: 125) were followed up at weeks 1 and 2, discharge and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Mean doses at 12 months were: quetiapine 718.5 mg/day and risperidone 7.0 mg/day. Efficacy measures (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness and Improvement) indicated similar results for both agents. No difference was found in rehospitalization rate with either drug. In terms of tolerability, orthostatic hypotension was more frequent with quetiapine, but extrapyramidal symptoms and male sexual dysfunction were more frequent with risperidone. In conclusion, quetiapine and risperidone had comparable effectiveness, but there were differences between treatments in their side effect profile. PMID:18408528

  19. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting for Palliation of Patients with Malignant Colonic Obstruction: Effectiveness and Efficacy on 255 Patients with 12-Month's Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Meisner, Søren; González-Huix, Ferran; Vandervoort, Jo G.; Repici, Alessandro; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Grund, Karl E.; Goldberg, Paul; Registry Group, The WallFlex Colonic

    2012-01-01

    Background. Self-expanding metal stents can alleviate malignant colonic obstruction in incurable patients and avoid palliative stoma surgery. Objective. Evaluate stent effectiveness and safety on palliation of patients with malignant colorectal strictures. Design. Two prospective, one Spanish and one global, multicenter studies. Settings. 39 centers (22 academic, 17 community hospitals) from 13 countries. Patients. A total of 257 patients were enrolled, and 255 patients were treated with a WallFlex uncovered enteral colonic stent. Follow-up was up to 12 months or until death or retreatment. Interventions(s). Self-expanding metal stent placement. Main Outcome Measures. Procedural success, clinical success, and safety. Results. Procedural success was 98.4% (251). Clinical success rates were 87.8% at 30 days, 89.7% at 3 months, 92.8% at 6 months, and 96% at 12 months. Overall perforation rate was 5.1%. Overall migration rate was 5.5%. Overall death rate during follow-up was 48.6% (124), with 67.7% of deaths related to the patient's colorectal cancer, unrelated in 32.3%. Only 2 deaths were related to the stent or procedure. Limitations. No control group. Conclusions. The primary palliative option for patients with malignant colonic obstruction should be self-expanding metal stent placement due to high rates of technical success and efficacy in symptom palliation and few complications. PMID:22761609

  20. Factor Analysis of Changes in Hemoglobin A1c After 12 Months of Sitagliptin Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Shouhei; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Takai, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Masashi; Umezawa, Shinichi; Kubota, Akira; Maeda, Hajime; Kanamori, Akira; Miyakawa, Masaaki; Tanaka, Yasushi; Terauchi, Yasuo; Matsuba, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is an effective oral antidiabetic agent as both monotherapy and when combined with insulin. Data from three observational studies performed in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving sitagliptin therapy in the routine clinical setting were integrated to conduct factor analysis of the changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over 12 months. Methods Among patients with type 2 diabetes attending medical institutions affiliated with Kanagawa Physicians Association, those using sitagliptin were followed for 1 year. In the ASSET-K and ASSIST-K studies, patients were managed by diabetologists, while they were managed by non-diabetologists in the ATTEST-K study. Patients were not administered insulin in ASSET-K, whereas insulin was administered in ASSIST-K. HbA1c (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), blood glucose (fasting/postprandial), body weight, and renal function (serum creatinine and eGFR) were the efficacy endpoints. Factor analysis was performed by analysis of variance using the magnitude of the change in HbA1c, body weight, and eGFR after 12 months of sitagliptin therapy as response variables, and the study, sex, and age as explanatory variables. Results Of 1,327 patients registered in ASSET-K (diabetologists/without insulin), 1,167 patients in ASSIST-K (diabetologists/with insulin), and 530 patients in ATTEST-K (non-diabetologists), statistical analysis was carried out on 1,074, 854, and 411 patients, respectively. There were significant inter-study differences in patient characteristics (complications, duration of diabetes, and baseline HbA1c), the sitagliptin dose, and the use of other antidiabetic agents. HbA1c decreased significantly in all three studies. According to factor analysis, the magnitude of the change in HbA1c over 12 months showed significant inter-study differences and was also significantly influenced by the age

  1. The effects of different levels of calcium supplementation on the bone mineral status of postpartum lactating Chinese women: a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe-Qing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Wang, Ruo-Qin; Huang, Zhen-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Yi-Xiang

    2016-01-14

    Increasing dietary Ca intake may prevent the excessive mobilisation of bone mineral in nursing mothers. We aimed to investigate whether higher Ca intake could positively modulate the bone mineral changes in Chinese postpartum lactating women. The study was a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, parallel group trial conducted over 12 months. A total of 150 postpartum women were randomly selected to receive either 40 g of milk powder containing 300 mg of Ca and 5 μg of vitamin D (Low-Ca group) or same milk powder additionally fortified with 300 mg of Ca (Mid-Ca group) or 600 mg of Ca (High-Ca group). Bone mineral density (BMD) for the whole body, the lumbar spine, the total left hip and its sub-regions was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 102 subjects completed the whole trial. The duration of total lactating time was 7·9 (SD 2·8) months on average. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded the following mean percentage changes in BMD for the whole body, the lumbar spine and the total left hip, respectively: -0·93 (SD 1·97), 2·11 (SD 4·90) and -1·60 (SD 2·65)% for the Low-Ca group; -0·56 (SD 1·89), 2·21 (SD 3·77) and -1·43 (SD 2·30)% for the Mid-Ca group; and -0·44 (SD 1·67), 2·32 (SD 4·66) and -0·95 (SD 4·08)% for the High-Ca group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P: 0·5-0·9). The results of the complete case analysis were similar. In sum, we found no significant differences in the bone mineral changes from baseline to 12 months in postpartum lactating women consuming milk powder fortified with different levels of Ca. PMID:26522081

  2. The sustained effect (12 months) of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure for meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Blackie, Caroline A; Coleman, Christy A; Holland, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the sustained effect (up to 1 year) of a single, 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) treatment in improving meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. Methods The prospective, multicenter, open-label clinical trial included 200 subjects (400 eyes) who were randomized to a single VTP treatment (treatment group) or twice-daily, 3-month, conventional warm compress and eyelid hygiene therapy (control group). Control group subjects received crossover VTP treatment at 3 months (crossover group). Effectiveness measures of meibomian gland secretion (MGS) and dry eye symptoms were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Subjects with inadequate symptom relief could receive additional meibomian gland dysfunction therapy after 3 (treatment group) and 6 months (crossover group). Results At 3 months, the treatment group had greater mean improvement in MGS (P<0.0001) and dry eye symptoms (P=0.0068), compared to controls. At 12 months, 86% of the treatment group had received only one VTP treatment, and sustained a mean improvement in MGS from 6.4±3.7 (baseline) to 17.3±9.1 (P<0.0001) and dry eye symptoms from 44.1±20.4 to 21.6±21.3 (P<0.0001); 89% of the crossover group had received only one VTP treatment with sustained mean improvement in MGS from 6.3±3.6 to 18.4±11.1 (P<0.0001) and dry eye symptoms from 49.1±21.0 to 24.0±23.2 (P<0.0001). Greater mean improvement in MGS was associated with less severe baseline MGS (P=0.0017) and shorter duration of time between diagnosis and treatment (P=0.0378). Conclusion A single VTP treatment can deliver a sustained mean improvement in meibomian gland function and mean reduction in dry eye symptoms, over 12 months. A single VTP treatment provides significantly greater mean improvement in meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms as compared to a conventional, twice-daily, 3-month regimen. Early VTP intervention for

  3. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D

    2014-10-14

    Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P< 0·01) and not suppressed further by 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily. Compared with the placebo, supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 12 months had no significant effect (P>0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (P< 0·05) the bone mass of the total radius. Despite near maximal suppression of serum %ucOC, supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily (with Ca and vitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency. PMID:25181575

  4. Virological Outcomes and Drug Resistance in Chinese Patients after 12 Months of 3TC-Based First-Line Antiretroviral Treatment, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Yong; He, Jianmei; Ling, Hua; Ding, Ping; Tong, Yi; Zou, Xiaobai; Zhou, Quanhua; Liao, Lingjie; Wang, Xia; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of virological failure and HIV drug resistance among Chinese patients one year after initiating lamivudine-based first-line antiretroviral treatment. Methods A prospective cohort study with follow-up at 12 months was conducted in four urban sentinel sites in China. Antiretroviral naive patients ≥18 years old were recruited. Blood samples were collected for testing CD4 cell count, viral load, and (for samples with HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/ml) genotyping of drug resistance. Results A total of 513 patients were enrolled in this cohort, of whom 448 (87.3%) were retained at 12 months. The median final CD4 cell count was 313 cells/mm3, which increased from 192 cells/mm3 at baseline (P<0.0001). Of the 448 remaining subjects, 394 (87.9%) had successful virological suppression (HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml). Among 54 samples with viral load ≥1000 copies/ml, 40 were successfully genotyped, and 11 were found with detectable HIV drug resistance mutations. Of these, the proportions of drug resistance to NNRTIs, NRTIs and PIs were 100%, 81.8% and 0%, respectively. Injecting drug use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19,0.84; P = 0.0154), CD4 count at baseline ≥350 cells/mm3 (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.14,0.72; P = 0.0056), and missed doses in the past month (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15,0.60; P = 0.0006) were significantly negatively associated with HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml. Conclusions Our study demonstrates effective virological and immunological outcomes at 12 months among these who initiated first-line ART treatment. However, patients infected through drug injection, who missed doses, or with higher CD4 count at baseline are at increased risk for poor virological response. PMID:24516631

  5. The 'Walking for Wellbeing in the West' randomised controlled trial of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation with 12 month follow-up: rationale and study design

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Claire F; Baker, Graham; Wright, Annemarie; Nimmo, Myra A; Ward Thompson, Catharine; Lowry, Ruth; Millington, Catherine; Shaw, Rebecca; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Ogilvie, David; Inchley, Joanna; Foster, Charlie E; Mutrie, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    Background Scotland has a policy aimed at increasing physical activity levels in the population, but evidence on how to achieve this is still developing. Studies that focus on encouraging real world participants to start physical activity in their settings are needed. The Walking for Well-being in the West study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation. The study was multi-disciplinary and based in the community. Walking for Well-being in the West investigated whether Scottish men and women, who were not achieving the current physical activity recommendation, increased and maintained walking behaviour over a 12 month period. This paper outlines the rationale and design of this innovative and pragmatic study. Methods Participants were randomised into two groups: Group 1: Intervention (pedometer-based walking programme combined with a series of physical activity consultations); Group 2: Waiting list control for 12 weeks (followed by minimal pedometer-based intervention). Physical activity (primary outcome) was measured using pedometer step counts (7 day) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). Psychological processes were measured using questionnaires relating to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change, mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and quality of life (Euroqol EQ-5D instrument). Physiological measures included anthropometric and metabolic outcomes. Environmental influences were assessed subjectively (Neighbourhood Quality of Life Survey) and objectively (neighbourhood audit tool and GIS mapping). The qualitative evaluation employed observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. A supplementary study undertook an economic evaluation. Discussion Data analysis is on-going. Walking for Well-being in the West will demonstrate if a pedometer based walking programme, in combination with physical activity consultation

  6. The PPD-specific T-cell clonal response in UK and Malawian subjects following BCG vaccination: a new repertoire evolves over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Andrea R; Gorak-Stolinska, Patricia; Ben-Smith, Anne; Floyd, Sian; de Lara, Catherine M; Weir, Rosemary E; Lalor, Maeve K; Makamo, Kandakuone; Msiska, Glyn K; Crampin, Amelia C; Fine, Paul E M; Dockrell, Hazel M; Beverley, Peter C L

    2006-03-24

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette Guerin vaccination protects against pulmonary tuberculosis in the United Kingdom but not in Malawi. We investigated whether a difference in the clonal T-cell response to BCG vaccination might account for this. The results of clonal analysis were compared to those obtained by skin testing and in a whole blood interferon gamma assay. Pre-vaccination antigen specific T-cell clones were detected, but the majority of clones present 12 months after vaccination were not present earlier. The magnitude of the clonal response did not correlate well with results of the other assays. These data indicate that single assays may not be reliable and that a stable memory T-cell repertoire is slow to develop. PMID:16414159

  7. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  8. Acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders across US Latino subgroups in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S.; Duarte, C. S.; Aggarwal, N. K.; Sánchez-Lacay, J. A.; Blanco, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual-level measures of acculturation (e.g. age of immigration) have a complex relationship with psychiatric disorders. Fine-grained analyses that tap various acculturation dimensions and population subgroups are needed to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of action for the association between acculturation and mental health. Method Study participants were US Latinos (N = 6359) from Wave 2 of the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653). We used linear χ2 tests and logistic regression models to analyze the association between five acculturation dimensions and presence of 12-month DSM-IV mood/anxiety disorders across Latino subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, ‘Other Latinos’). Results Acculturation dimensions associated linearly with past-year presence of mood/anxiety disorders among Mexicans were: (1) younger age of immigration (linear χ12=11.04, p < 0.001), (2) longer time in the United States (linear χ12=10.52, p < 0.01), (3) greater English-language orientation (linear χ12=14.57, p < 0.001), (4) lower Latino composition of social network (linear χ12=15.03, p < 0.001), and (5) lower Latino ethnic identification (linear χ12=7.29, p < 0.01). However, the associations were less consistent among Cubans and Other Latinos, and no associations with acculturation were found among Puerto Ricans. Conclusions The relationship between different acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder varies across ethnic subgroups characterized by cultural and historical differences. The association between acculturation measures and disorder may depend on the extent to which they index protective or pathogenic adaptation pathways (e.g. loss of family support) across population subgroups preceding and/or following immigration. Future research should incorporate direct measures of maladaptive pathways and their relationship to various acculturation dimensions. PMID:27087570

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Using Triangular Titanium Implants vs Nonsurgical Management for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Polly, David W.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Whang, Peter G.; Frank, Clay J.; Harvey, Charles F.; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John A.; Limoni, Robert P.; Sembrano, Jonathan N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a prevalent cause of chronic, unremitting lower back pain. OBJECTIVE: To concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 148 subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (n = 102) or nonsurgical management (n = 46). Pain, disability, and quality-of-life scores were collected at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Success rates were compared using Bayesian methods. Crossover from nonsurgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. RESULTS: Six-month success rates were higher in the surgical group (81.4% vs 26.1%; posterior probability of superiority > 0.9999). Clinically important (≥ 15 point) Oswestry Disability Index improvement at 6 months occurred in 73.3% of the SIJ fusion group vs 13.6% of the nonsurgical management group (P < .001). At 12 months, improvements in SIJ pain and Oswestry Disability Index were sustained in the surgical group. Subjects who crossed over had improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life similar to those in the original surgical group. Adverse events were slightly more common in the surgical group (1.3 vs 1.1 events per subject; P = .31). CONCLUSION: This Level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants was more effective than nonsurgical management at 1 year in relieving pain, improving function, and improving quality of life in patients with SIJ dysfunction caused by degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruptions. Pain, disability, and quality of life also improved after crossover from nonsurgical to surgical treatment. ABBREVIATIONS: EQ-5D, EuroQoL-5D INSITE, Investigation of Sacroiliac Fusion Treatment MCS, mental component summary NSM, nonsurgical management ODI, Oswestry Disability Index PCS, physical component summary RFA, radiofrequency ablation SF

  10. Predictive significance of the overvaluation of shape/weight in obese patients with binge eating disorder: findings from a randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Gueorguieva, R.; Wilson, G. T.; Masheb, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Undue influence of body shape or weight on self-evaluation – referred to as overvaluation – is considered a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined the concurrent and predictive significance of overvaluation of shape/weight in obese patients with BED participating in a randomized clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method A total of 90 participants were randomly assigned to 6-month group treatments of CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout- and post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups after completing treatments with reliably administered semi-structured interviews and established measures. Results Participants categorized with overvaluation (n=52, 58%) versus without overvaluation (n=38, 42%) did not differ significantly in demographic features (age, gender and ethnicity), psychiatric co-morbidity, body mass index or binge eating frequency. The overvaluation group had significantly greater levels of eating disorder psychopathology and poorer psychological functioning (higher depression and lower self-esteem) than the non-overvaluation group. Overvaluation of shape/weight significantly predicted non-remission from binge eating and higher frequency of binge eating at the 12-month follow-up, even after adjusting for group differences in depression and self-esteem levels. Conclusions Our findings suggest that overvaluation does not simply reflect concern commensurate with being obese or more frequent binge eating, but also is strongly associated with heightened eating-related psychopathology and psychological distress, and has negative prognostic significance for longer-term treatment outcomes. Overvaluation of shape/weight warrants consideration as a diagnostic specifier for BED as it provides important information about severity and treatment outcome. PMID:22967857

  11. Frequency, Predictors and Consequences of Crossing Over to Revascularization within 12 months of Randomization to Optimal Medical Therapy in the COURAGE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spertus, John A; Maron, David J; Cohen, David J; Kolm, Paul; Hartigan, Pam; Weintraub, William S.; Berman, Daniel S.; O'Rourke, Robert A.; Teo, Koon K; Shaw, Leslee J.; Sedlis, Steven; Knudtson, Merril; Aslan, Mihaela; Dada, Marcin; Boden, William E.; John Mancini, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In COURAGE, some stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) patients randomized to optimal medical therapy (OMT) crossed over to early revascularization. The predictors and outcomes of patients who crossed over from OMT to revascularization are unknown. Methods and Results We compared characteristics of OMT patients who did and did not undergo revascularization within 12 months and created a Cox regression model to identify predictors of early revascularization. Patients' health status was measured with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). To quantify the potential consequences of initiating OMT without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we compared the outcomes of crossover patients with a matched cohort randomized to immediate PCI. Among 1148 patients randomized to OMT, 185 (16.1%) underwent early revascularization. Patient characteristics independently associated with early revascularization were worse baseline SAQ scores and healthcare system. Among 156 OMT patients undergoing early revascularization matched to 156 patients randomized to PCI, rates of mortality (HR= 0.51 (0.13, 2.1) and nonfatal MI (HR=1.9 (0.75-4.6) were similar, as were 1-year SAQ scores. OMT patients, however, experienced worse health status over the initial year of treatment and more unstable angina admissions (HR=2.8 (1.1, 7.5)). Conclusion Among COURAGE patients assigned to OMT alone, patients' angina, dissatisfaction with their current treatment and, to a lesser extent, their health system were associated with early revascularization. Since early crossover was not associated with an increase in irreversible ischemic events, or impaired 12-month health status, these findings support an initial trial of OMT in SIHD with close follow-up of the most symptomatic patients. PMID:23838107

  12. Dynamic Model for Predicting Death Within 12 Months in Patients With Primary or Post–Polycythemia Vera/Essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Constantine S.; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge; Lynn, Alice; Pierce, Sherry; Zhou, Lingsha; Keating, Michael J.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Current prognostic tools in myelofibrosis (MF) fail to identify patients at the highest risk of death and are limited by their applicability only to the time of diagnosis. We aimed to define an accelerated phase (AP) in MF by characterizing disease features that can identify patients with median overall survival of ≤ 12 months at any time in the disease course. Patients and Methods Baseline characteristics of 370 consecutive patients with MF from a single center were analyzed to identify features associated with a median overall survival of ≤ 12 months. These putative AP features were then validated by following the course of chronic-phase patients (no AP features at baseline) until the development of one or more AP features and determining their subsequent survival. Results The following three characteristics were associated with poor survival at baseline and were selected as putative AP features: blasts in blood or bone marrow ≥ 10%, platelets less than 50 × 109/L, and chromosome 17 aberrations (median overall survival, 10, 12, and 5 months, respectively). In the validation phase, chronic-phase patients who developed AP features during follow-up were found to have short subsequent survival times (median overall survival, 12, 15, and 6 months, respectively). AP was a necessary step in the progression to blast phase, with leukemic transformation being exceedingly rare (3% risk at 10 years) in patients who remained persistently in chronic phase. Conclusion Blood or bone marrow blasts ≥ 10%, platelets less than 50 × 109/L, and chromosome 17 aberrations defined AP in patients with MF. Patients in AP should be candidates for intensive therapeutic interventions. PMID:19786661

  13. Recent availability of two novel, fixed formulations of antiretroviral nucleoside analogues: a 12-month prospective, open-label survey of their practical use and therapeutic perspectives in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Roberto; Calza, Leonardo

    2008-04-01

    The recent introduction of novel, fixed nucleoside-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) combinations (tenofovir-emtricitabine, and abacavir-lamivudine) expanded the spectrum of available formulations and concurrently increased patients' adherence levels. A prospective survey of the open-label use of these two fixed combinations was performed in 158 patients belonging to our single-center cohort of more than 1,000 HIV-infected subjects enrolled in the last 18 months, and followed for at least 12 months. During the last 18 months, 95 consecutive, evaluable patients (60.1%) received for the first time tenofovir-emtricitabine, or abacavir-lamivudine (63 patients, 39.9%), and were followed for at least 12 months with periodic clinical and laboratory examinations. Among the 53 evaluable patients who were naïve to all antiretrovirals, tenofovir-emtricitabine has been given to 42 subjects (79.2%), mostly associated with efavirenz (26 cases), or different boosted protease inhibitors (16 subjects), whereas abacavir-lamivudine was administered to 11 patients (in 10 cases of 11, together with boosted protease inhibitors). In the remaining 105 patients, tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine therapy represented a switch from a prior combination antiretroviral regimen, and was predominantly associated with boosted protease inhibitors (61 patients), versus efavirenz or nevirapine (26 cases), or other drug combinations containing protease inhibitors (the remaining 18 patients). Among the 105 pretreated patients, the prescription of tenofovir-emtricitabine (53 patients) was as frequent as that of abacavir-lamivudine (52 cases), and the therapeutic change was primarily prompted by toxicity or poor tolerability (59 patients), followed by therapeutic failure and viral resistance (46 cases as a whole), and always encompassed a regimen simplification also. Both fixed combinations were well tolerated, and an adherence rate more than 90% was estimated among evaluable

  14. The Majority of the Pre-Antiretroviral Population Who Were Lost to Follow-Up Stopped Their Care in Freetown, Sierra Leone: A 12-Month Prospective Cohort Study Starting with HIV Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J. Daniel; Schlough, Gabriel Warren; Conteh, Sulaiman; Barrie, M. Bailor; Kargbo, Brima; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of the pre-antiretroviral (pre-ART) population calls for more granular depictions of the cascade of HIV care. Methods We studied a prospective cohort of persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection from a single center in Freetown, Sierra Leone, over a 12-month period and then traced those persons who were lost to follow-up (LTFU) during pre-ART care (before ART initiation). ART eligibility was based on a CD4 cell count result of ≤ 350 mm/cells and/or WHO clinical stage 3 or 4. Persons who attended an appointment in the final three months were considered to be retained in care. Adherence to ART was measured using pharmacy refill dates. “Effective HIV care” was defined as completion of the cascade of care at 12-months regardless of whether patients are on ART. Tracing outcomes were obtained for those who were LTFU during pre-ART care. Results 408 persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection were screened, 338 were enrolled, and 255 persons were staged for ART. ART-ineligible persons had higher retention rates than ART-eligible persons (59.6% vs 41.8%, p = 0.03). 77 (22.8%) of 338 persons received effective HIV care. Most attrition (61.9%) occurred with persons during pre-ART care. 123 of 138 persons (89.1%) who were LTFU prior to ART initiation were found, and 91 of those 123 (74.0%) were alive. Of the 74 persons who were alive and described their engagement in care, 40 (54.1%) stopped care. Nearly half (42.5%) of those 40 stopped after assessment of ART-eligibility but before ART initiation. The main limitation of this study was the lack of tracing outcomes for those lost during ART care. Conclusions The majority of the pre-ART LTFU population stopped their care, particularly after ART-eligibility but before ART initiation. Interventions to hasten ART initiation and retain this at-risk group may have significant downstream impact on effective HIV care. PMID:26901765

  15. Application of Balanced Scorecard in the Evaluation of a Complex Health System Intervention: 12 Months Post Intervention Findings from the BHOMA Intervention: A Cluster Randomised Trial in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. Methods The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. Results The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p = 0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p = 0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p = 0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. Conclusion This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful

  16. One-year sustained glycaemic control and less hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes using basal plus meal-time insulin: the EDITION 1 12-month randomized trial, including 6-month extension

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, M C; Yki-Järvinen, H; Bolli, G B; Ziemen, M; Muehlen-Bartmer, I; Cissokho, S; Home, P D

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the maintenance of efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) versus glargine 100 U/ml (Gla-100) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using basal plus meal-time insulin for 12 months in the EDITION 1 trial. Methods EDITION 1 was a multicentre, randomized, open-label, two-arm, phase IIIa study. Participants completing the initial 6-month treatment period continued to receive Gla-300 or Gla-100, as previously randomized, once daily for a further 6-month open-label extension phase. Changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose concentrations, insulin dose, hypoglycaemic events and body weight were assessed. Results Of 807 participants enrolled in the initial phase, 89% (359/404) assigned to Gla-300 and 88% (355/403) assigned to Gla-100 completed 12 months. Glycaemic control was sustained in both groups (mean HbA1c: Gla-300, 7.24%; Gla-100, 7.42%), with more sustained HbA1c reduction for Gla-300 at 12 months: least squares mean difference Gla-300 vs Gla-100: HbA1c −0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.30 to −0.05]%. The mean daily basal insulin dose at 12 months was 1.03 U/kg for Gla-300 and 0.90 U/kg for Gla-100. Lower percentages of participants had ≥1 confirmed [≤3.9 mmol/l (≤70 mg/dl)] or severe hypoglycaemic event with Gla-300 than Gla-100 at any time of day [24 h; 86 vs 92%; relative risk 0.94 (95% CI 0.89–0.99)] and during the night [54 vs 65%; relative risk 0.84 (95% CI 0.75–0.94)], while the annualized rates of such hypoglycaemic events were similar. No between-treatment differences in adverse events were apparent. Conclusion During 12 months of treatment of T2DM requiring basal and meal-time insulin, glycaemic control was better sustained and fewer individuals reported hypoglycaemia with Gla-300 than with Gla-100. The mean basal insulin dose was higher with Gla-300 compared with Gla-100, but total numbers of hypoglycaemic events and overall tolerability did not differ between

  17. The effect of mothers education program based on the precede model on the mean weight in children (6-12 months) at health centers in Shiraz, Fars Province

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, Seyed Mansour; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Karimi, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth retardation in children is a result of nutritional ignorance, inappropriate care, and inadequate monitoring of growth monitoring. This study was performed to assess the effect of mothers education program based on the precede model on the mean weight of children (6-12 months) at health centers in Shiraz, Fars Province. Methods: This quasi experimental study was conducted on 120 mothers (60 in the experimental and 60 in the control group) with single child and exclusively on breast feeding who were cared by health centers in Shiraz, Fars province. The data were gathered through a questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, the components of the precede model (knowledge, attitude, enabling as well as reinforcing factors, and maternal function) and child weight. Educational intervention was performed during 6 sessions each of which lasted for 55 to 60 minutes. The questionnaire was completed by the experiment a land control group before and 4 months after the training program. Results: The results showed that the educational intervention program in the experimental group caused significant increase in the means of knowledge (p<0.001) and attitude scores (p<0.001). This study showed that enabling and reinforcing factors (and training sessions), performance score of mothers as well as weight of children among experimental group were significantly higher than control group (p=0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study can be used as a guideline prevents growth retardation in health centers and other related organizations. PMID:25664296

  18. Retention of HIV-Infected Children in the First 12 Months of Anti-Retroviral Therapy and Predictors of Attrition in Resource Limited Settings: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christiana; McFarland, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Current UNAIDS goals aimed to end the AIDS epidemic set out to ensure that 90% of all people living with HIV know their status, 90% initiate and continue life-long anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and 90% achieve viral load suppression. In 2014 there were an estimated 2.6 million children under 15 years of age living with HIV, of which only one-third were receiving ART. Little literature exists describing retention of HIV-infected children in the first year on ART. We conducted a systematic search for English language publications reporting on retention of children with median age at ART initiation less than ten years in resource limited settings. The proportion of children retained in care on ART and predictors of attrition were identified. Twelve studies documented retention at one year ranging from 71–95% amongst 31877 African children. Among the 5558 children not retained, 4082 (73%) were reported as lost to follow up (LFU) and 1476 (27%) were confirmed to have died. No studies confirmed the outcomes of children LFU. Predictors of attrition included younger age, shorter duration of time on ART, and severe immunosuppression. In conclusion, significant attrition occurs in children in the first 12 months after ART initiation, the majority attributed to LFU, although true outcomes of children labeled as LFU are unknown. Focused efforts to ensure retention and minimize early mortality are needed as universal ART for children is scaled up. PMID:27280404

  19. Blood pressure, ventricular volume and number of cardiomyocyte nuclei in rats fed for 12 months on diets differing in fat composition.

    PubMed

    Aguila, M B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    2001-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP), body mass (BM), ventricular volume (V[vent]) and the number of ventricular cardiomyocyte nuclei (N[vcn]) were analysed in rats fed different dietary fats. A total of 20 Wistar male rats were studied from 21 days old to 12 months of age and divided in the groups: soybean oil (S), canola oil (CA), lard and egg yolk (LE) and canola oil+lard and egg yolk (CA+LE). The diets had the same basal diet that included cornstarch, casein, maize, egg white and mineral and vitamin mixtures. At the moment of the sacrifice, the LE group had the greatest BP and V[vent] which was significantly higher than the other groups, and the S group had the greatest BM. The myocardial structure was apparently normal in the S and CA groups while it showed areas of diffuse interstitial fibrosis and hypertrophied cardiomyocytes in the LE group, and intramyocardial coronaries with thick tunica media and little interstitial fibrosis in CA+LE group. The N[vcn] was significantly higher in the CA group and it was lower in the LE group. These results suggest that the different dietary fats affect the myocardial structure, and the canola oil diet reduces the cardiomyocyte loss in the old rats. PMID:11163625

  20. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia: comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set.

    PubMed Central

    Hautvast, J. L.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J. J.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L. A.; van Staveren, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting). A total of 518 infants who were attending mother-and-child health clinics were included. Age, weight and length were recorded. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated in two ways: by applying the NCHS growth reference and by using the WHO breastfed data set. Anthropometric Z-scores calculated using the breastfed data set were lower during the first 6-7 months of life compared with those calculated by applying the NCHS growth reference. This resulted in a higher proportion of children aged 0-6 months being classified as stunted and underweight using the breastfed data set versus the NCHS growth reference. After the age of 7 months, similar prevalences of stunting or underweight were observed. Relatively few infants were classified as wasted. In order to adequately assess the prevalence of stunting and underweight in breastfed infants, it is recommended that a new growth reference be developed, as has been initiated by WHO. PMID:10885182

  1. Dietary Intake and Anthropometric Status Differ for Anaemic and Non-anaemic Rural South African Infants Aged 6–12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Mieke

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine anthropometric measurements, sociodemographic data, and dietary intake of 238 anaemic and 241 non-anaemic rural South African infants aged 6–12 months. Logistic regression with anaemia as a dependent variable showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–3.52) for low birth-weight, 2.04 (CI 1.29–3.22) for maternal age 20 years or younger, 2.21 (CI 1.29–3.76) for consumption of tea, and 0.40 (CI 0.26–0.63) for formula feeding. The anaemic infants, aged 6−<9 months, had a lower average weight gain per month than the non-anaemic infants (727 g vs 772 g; p=0.040, analysis of variance). Logistic regression with underweight as a dependent variable showed an OR of 3.55 (CI 1.26–10.01) for anaemia, and with stunting as a dependent variable, the OR was 2.71 (CI 1.46–5.02). Low birth-weight, a young mother aged 20 years or younger, and consumption of tea were identified as risk factors for anaemia, while formula feeding was shown to have a protective effect. The anaemic infants were more likely to show growth faltering. PMID:18330061

  2. Immunogenicity of reduced dose priming schedules of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine followed by booster at 12 months in infants: open label randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Ameneh; McKenna, Jennifer; Campbell, Danielle; Attard-Montalto, Simon; Birks, Jacqueline; Voysey, Merryn; White, Catherine; Finn, Adam; Macloed, Emma; Faust, Saul N; Kent, Alison Louise; Heath, Paul T; Borrow, Ray; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the immunogenicity of a single dose infant priming schedule of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine is non-inferior to a two dose priming schedule when followed by a booster dose at age 12 months. Design Phase IV open label randomised controlled trial carried out from July 2010 until August 2013 Setting Four centres in the United Kingdom and one centre in Malta. Participants Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks followed up until age 24 months. Interventions In the priming phase of the trial 509 infants were randomised in a 10:10:7:4 ratio into four groups to receive either a single MenC-cross reacting material 197 (CRM) dose at 3 months; two doses of MenC-CRM at 3 and 4 months; a single MenC-polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) dose at 3 months; or no MenC doses, respectively. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC-TT vaccine was administered to all infants at 12 months of age. All infants also received the nationally routinely recommended vaccines. Blood samples were taken at age 5, 12, 13, and 24 months. Main outcome measure MenC serum bactericidal antibody assay with rabbit complement (rSBA) one month after the Hib-MenC-TT vaccine. Non-inferiority was met if the lower 95% confidence limit of the difference in the mean log10 MenC rSBA between the single dose MenC-CRM and the two dose MenC-CRM groups was >−0.35. Results The primary objective was met: after a Hib-MenC-TT booster dose at 12 months of age the MenC rSBA geometric mean titres induced in infants primed with a single MenC-CRM dose were not inferior to those induced in participants primed with two MenC-CRM doses in infancy (660 (95% confidence interval 498 to 876) v 295 (220 to 398)) with a corresponding difference in the mean log10 MenC rSBA of 0.35 (0.17 to 0.53) that showed superiority of the single over the two dose schedule). Exploration of differences between the priming schedules showed that one month after Hib-MenC-TT vaccination, MenC rSBA ≥1:8 was

  3. Coping and Parenting: Mediators of 12-Month Outcomes of a Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention with Families of Depressed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Fear, Jessica; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Keller, Gary; Rakow, Aaron; Garai, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized clinical trial with 111 families of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (86% mothers; 86% Caucasian), changes in adolescents’ (mean age 11 years; 42% female) coping and parents’ parenting skills were examined as mediators of the effects of a family group cognitive behavioral preventive intervention on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Changes in hypothesized mediators were assessed at 6-months and changes in adolescents’ symptoms were measured at 12-month follow-up. Significant differences favoring the family intervention as compared with a written information comparison condition were found for changes in composite measures of parent-adolescent reports of adolescents’ use of secondary control coping skills and direct observations of parents’ positive parenting skills. Changes in adolescents’ secondary control coping and positive parenting mediated the effects of the intervention on depressive, internalizing and externalizing symptoms accounting for approximately half of the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. Further, reciprocal relations between children’s internalizing symptoms and parenting were found from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Implications for the prevention of psychopathology in offspring of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:20873898

  4. Concurrent Heroin Use and Correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clients: A 12-Month Follow-up Study in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Peizhen; Gong, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Weiming; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess concurrent heroin use and correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clients in Guangdong Province, China. Method: Demographic and drug use data were collected with a structured questionnaire, and MMT information was obtained from the MMT clinic registration system in Guangdong. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected status and urine morphine results were obtained from laboratory tests. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the factors associated with concurrent heroin use. Results: Among the 6848 participants, 75% continued using heroin more than once during the first 12 months after treatment initiation. Concurrent heroin use was associated with inharmonious family relationship (OR (odds ratio) = 1.49, 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.24–1.78), HIV positivity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.55), having multiple sex partners (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.69), having ever taken intravenous drugs (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.95), higher maintenance dose (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28) and poorer MMT attendance (OR<20% = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53; OR20%– = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14–1.54; OR50%– = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.44–2.00). Among those who used heroin concurrently, the same factors, and additionally being older (OR35– = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43; OR≥45 = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.30–2.05) and female (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), contribute to a greater frequency of heroin use. Conclusions: Concurrent heroin use was prevalent among MMT participants in Guangdong, underscoring the urgent needs for tailored interventions and health education programs for this population. PMID:27005649

  5. Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Combined Phaco-ExPress and Phacotrabeculectomy in Open Angle Glaucoma Treatment: 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Konopińska, Joanna; Deniziak, Marta; Saeed, Emil; Bartczak, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Renata; Mariak, Zofia; Rękas, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. To compare the efficacy and safety of phacotrabeculectomy (P-Trab) and phacoemulsification with the ExPress (P-ExPress) mini glaucoma shunt implantation. Study Plan. Prospective randomized study. Material and Methods. 85 eyes with cataract and unregulated open angle glaucoma. There were 46 eyes in the P-ExPress and 39 the P-Trab group. Intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma medications, qualified and complete surgical success (defined as IOP ≤ 18.0 mmHg), visual acuity (CDVA), the number of endothelial cells, and postoperative complications and additional procedures were assessed. Results. After 12 months of observation, the average IOP in the P-Express group went from 26.4 ± 9.3 down to 17.1 ± 5 mmHg (P < 0.05) and from 27.9 ± 12.9 down to 15.9 ± 2.7 mmHg in the P-Trab group (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the amount of medications used after surgery and CDVA were discovered between the groups. In the P-ExPress group, greater loss of endothelial cells was noted (CDloss%), compared to the P-Trab group. Conclusions. Both P-ExPress and P-Trab have comparable efficacy and similar early postoperative complication profile. The presence of additional implant (as is the case of the ExPress mini glaucoma shunt implantation) may cause progressive loss of endothelial cells. PMID:26137318

  6. Initial Weight Loss after Restrictive Bariatric Procedures May Predict Mid-Term Weight Maintenance: Results From a 12-Month Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, Marko; Kirigin, Lora; Mirošević, Gorana; Ljubičić, Neven; Nikolić, Borka Pezo; Bekavac-Bešlin, Miroslav; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bariatric procedures are effective options for weight loss (WL) in the morbidly obese. However, some patients fail to lose any weight after bariatric surgery, and mid-term weight maintenance is variable. The aim of this study was to investigate whether initial WL could predict mid-term weight maintenance. Methods: Eighty patients were enrolled, of whom 44 were treated with the BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB), 21 with laparoscopic adjustable gastric lap-banding (LAGB), and 15 with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Percentage of body WL and percentage of excess weight loss (EWL) were calculated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Successful WL was defined as EWL >20% for patients treated with BIB and >50% for patients treated with LAGB and SG. Results: Success in the 6th and 12th month was achieved in 80% and 58% of patients in the BIB group, 33% and 40% in the LAGB group, and 60% and 73% in the LSG group. In the BIB group, WL in the 1st month correlated positively with WL at the 6th and 12th month, and an initial WL >6.5% best predicted success (sensitivity 50%, specificity 80%). A similar association was observed in the LAGB group at the 6th and 12th month and an initial WL >9.4% best predicted success (sensitivity 90.0%, specificity 81.2%). In patients treated with LSG, WL in the 3rd month correlated positively with EWL at the 6th and 12th month, with a cutoff value of 17% (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 100%). Conclusions: WL in the 1st month in patients treated with BIB and LAGB and WL in the 3rd month in patients treated with LSG could be used as a prognostic factor to predict mid-term weight maintenance. PMID:26594600

  7. Mycobacterium ulcerans Ecological Dynamics and Its Association with Freshwater Ecosystems and Aquatic Communities: Results from a 12-Month Environmental Survey in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Roche, Benjamin; Kamgang, Roger; Ossomba, Joachim; Babonneau, Jérémie; Landier, Jordi; Fontanet, Arnaud; Flahault, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) is the agent responsible for Buruli Ulcer (BU), an emerging skin disease with dramatic socioeconomic and health outcomes, especially in rural settings. BU emergence and distribution is linked to aquatic ecosystems in tropical and subtropical countries, especially to swampy and flooded areas. Aquatic animal organisms are likely to play a role either as host reservoirs or vectors of the bacilli. However, information on MU ecological dynamics, both in space and time, is dramatically lacking. As a result, the ecology of the disease agent, and consequently its mode of transmission, remains largely unknown, which jeopardizes public health attempts for its control. The objective of this study was to gain insight on MU environmental distribution and colonization of aquatic organisms through time. Methodology/Principal Findings Longitudinal sampling of 32 communities of aquatic macro-invertebrates and vertebrates was conducted from different environments in two BU endemic regions in Cameroon during 12 months. As a result, 238,496 individuals were classified and MU presence was assessed by qPCR in 3,084 sample-pools containing these aquatic organisms. Our study showed a broad distribution of MU in all ecosystems and taxonomic groups, with important regional differences in its occurrence. Colonization dynamics fluctuated along the year, with the highest peaks in August and October. The large variations observed in the colonization dynamics of different taxonomic groups and aquatic ecosystems suggest that the trends shown here are the result of complex ecological processes that need further investigation. Conclusion/Perspectives This is the largest field study on MU ecology to date, providing the first detailed description of its spatio-temporal dynamics in different aquatic ecosystems within BU endemic regions. We argue that coupling this data with fine-scale epidemiological data through statistical and mathematical models will provide a

  8. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  9. Outcomes of a 12-Month Technology-Based Intervention to Promote Weight Loss in Adolescents at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Kevin; Norman, Gregory J.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Calfas, Karen J.; Raab, Fred; Gottschalk, Michael; Sallis, James F.; Godbole, Suni; Covin, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obese adolescents are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity interventions delivered through media, such as the web and text messages [short message service (SMS)] may be beneficial when targeting obese adolescents. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, Pace-Internet for Diabetes Prevention Intervention (PACEi-DP), compared three forms of an obesity intervention to usual care (UC): (a) website only (W); (b) website, monthly group sessions, and follow-up calls (WG); and (c) website and SMS (WSMS). Participants were overweight or obese adolescents at risk for T2DM (n = 101; age 12–16 years; mean body mass index (BMI) percentile = 97.6; 74.3% Hispanic). In addition to the website, WSMS participants received SMS supporting intervention goals and behavioral strategies and communicated via SMS with a case manager. WG participants had additional group activities related to weight loss and received follow-up calls from a health coach. UC participants were given printed materials and encouraged to attend three initial group sessions. Repeated measures mixed model regression analyses tested treatment effects for anthropometric, behavioral, and behavioral change strategy outcomes. Results: There were no treatment effects for BMI, adiposity, physical activity, or diet at 12 months. Treatment effects were observed for sedentary behavior, with the W arm having a greater decrease in sedentary behavior (4.9 to 2.8 h/day) than the UC arm (p =.006). Conclusion: Although not sufficient to produce weight loss, the combination of web intervention and group sessions with telephone follow-up yielded improvements in sedentary behavior and in the use of behavior change strategies expected to lead to behavior change. PMID:23759410

  10. Predictors of Change in Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Population in Hawaii at 6 and 12 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Joy C.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Liu, Min; Banna, Jinan C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting behaviors have been shown to co-exist, but it is unknown if decisional balance with regards to one health behavior may predict change in another behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between benefits (pros) and costs (cons) of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) and behavior over time, both within behaviors and transbehaviorally. This longitudinal study was conducted in multiethnic adults in Hawaii (n = 700; 63% female; mean age = 47 years; mean BMI = 25.9; mean education = 14.5 years, average household income = $45,000/year). Questionnaires assessed PA and FV pros/cons on a 5-point Likert Scale, PA (MET-min/wk), and FV intake (servings/day). Multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between pros/cons for PA and FV intake and behavior at 6- and 12-month follow-up. At baseline, average FV pros were 4.08 (.91), and average FV cons were 1.88 (.90). Average baseline PA pros were 4.07 (.89), and average PA cons were 1.71 (.77). Multiple regressions revealed that baseline FV pros and cons predicted FV intake, FV cons also predicted PA, and PA pros and cons were not predictive of PA or of FV intake. Study findings provide some support for decisional balance as a useful core construct used in leading theories of behavior change. Improving decisional balance for FV intake may have a beneficial effect on FV intake and potentially PA, indicating a potential gateway effect of decisional balance for FV intake on other behaviors.

  11. Effects of a 12-month moderate weight loss intervention on insulin sensitivity and inflammation status in nondiabetic overweight and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ho, T P; Zhao, X; Courville, A B; Linderman, J D; Smith, S; Sebring, N; Della Valle, D M; Fitzpatrick, B; Simchowitz, L; Celi, F S

    2015-04-01

    Weight loss intervention is the principal non-pharmacological method for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, little is known whether it influences insulin sensitivity directly or via its anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of changes in inflammation status and weight loss on insulin sensitivity in this population.Overweight and obese nondiabetic participants without co-morbidities underwent a one-year weight loss intervention focused on caloric restriction and behavioral support. Markers of inflammation, body composition, anthropometric para-meters, and insulin sensitivity were recorded at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and Minimal Model. Twenty-eight participants (F: 15, M: 13, age 39±5 years, BMI 33.2±4.6 kg/m(2)) completed the study, achieving 9.4±6.9% weight loss, which was predominantly fat mass (7.7±5.6 kg, p<0.0001). Dietary intervention resulted in significant decrease in leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, hs-CRP, and IL-6 (all p<0.02), and improvement in HOMA-IR and Insulin Sensitivity Index (SI) (both p<0.001). In response to weight loss IL-1β, IL-2, leptin, and resistin were significantly associated with insulin, sensitivity, whereas sICAM-1 had only marginal additive effect. Moderate weight loss in otherwise healthy overweight and obese individuals resulted in an improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the overall inflammation state; the latter played only a minimal independent role in modulating insulin sensitivity. PMID:24977656

  12. Early colonization of the oral cavity in 6- and 12-month-old infants by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Merglova, Vlasta; Polenik, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens occurs earlier than previously thought. This study aimed to identify the presence and quantity of representative cariogenic and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavities of 6- and 12-month olds and to evaluate the influence of C-section delivery on early Streptococcus mutans (Sm) colonization of the oral cavity. The research cohort was composed of 59 infants (35 infants were delivered vaginally and 24 via C-section) and their mothers. At 6 months of age, the infants were examined, and unstimulated saliva samples were collected. Variables concerning mothers were DMF index and salivary levels of Sm. Repeated saliva samples were taken 6 months later. The representative cariogenic and periodontal microorganisms were identified, and their quantities were measured using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The relationships between the presence of detected microbes, the mode of delivery, and maternal variables were evaluated using paired t tests, chi-squared test, and ANOVAs. High rates of cariogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), were found in both infant cohorts. An analysis of the differences between delivery methods revealed that the group of 6-month-old vaginally delivered infants had a significantly higher amount of Sm. We conclude that the cariogenic bacteria, Aa and Fn, are present in edentulous infants. This presence increases in the months following the eruption of the deciduous teeth. Results did not confirm the influence of C-section delivery on the early Sm colonization of the oral cavity. PMID:26914065

  13. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS): Rationale and design of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with 12 month follow up of self- versus clinician-administered CBT for moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Keefer, Laurie; Jaccard, James; Firth, Rebecca; Brenner, Darren; Bratten, Jason; Dunlap, Laura J.; Byroads, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, oftentimes disabling, gastrointestinal disorder whose full range of symptoms has no satisfactory medical or dietary treatment. One of the few empirically validated treatments includes a specific psychological therapy called cognitive behavior therapy which, if available, is typically administered over several months by trained practitioners in tertiary care settings. There is an urgent need to develop more efficient versions of CBT that require minimal professional assistance but retain the efficacy profile of clinic based CBT. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether a self-administered version of CBT is, at least as efficacious as standard CBT and more efficacious than an attention control in reducing core GI symptoms of IBS and its burden (e.g. distress, quality of life impairment, etc) in moderately to severely affected IBS patients. Additional goals are to assess, at quarterly intervals, the durability of treatment response over a 12 month period; to identify clinically useful patient characteristics associated with outcome as a way of gaining an understanding of subgroups of participants for whom CBT is most beneficial; to identify theory-based change mechanisms (active ingredients) that explain how and why CBT works; and evaluate the economic costs and benefits of CBT. Between August 2010 when IBSOS began recruiting subjects and February 2012, the IBSOS randomized 171 of 480 patients. Findings have the potential to improve the health of IBS patients, reduce its social and economic costs, conserve scarce health care resources, and inform evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:22846389

  14. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses from a 4-month intradose escalation and its subsequent 12-month dose titration studies for a human monoclonal anti-FGF23 antibody (KRN23) in adults with X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Peyret, Thomas; Gosselin, Nathalie H; Marier, J F; Imel, Erik A; Carpenter, Thomas O

    2016-04-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is an inherited metabolic bone disease with abnormally elevated serum FGF23 resulting in low renal maximum threshold for phosphate reabsorption, low serum phosphate (Pi) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with subsequent development of short stature and skeletal deformities. KRN23 is a novel human anti-FGF23 antibody for the treatment of XLH. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) models of KRN23 were assessed following subcutaneous dosing every 28 days over an initial 4-month dose escalation (0.05-0.6 mg/kg) and a subsequent 12-month titration period (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) in XLH adults. The PK of KRN23 was described by a 1-compartmental model with first-order absorption and elimination at doses ≥0.1 mg/kg. The elimination half-life was 17.8 days. Covariates did not affect KRN23 PK. Mean peak serum Pi was attained 7-10 days after dosing and progressively increased following each of the initial 4 doses with comparable peak values attained following the sixth through tenth doses with a slight decrease thereafter. A PK-PD model with a maximum effect (Emax ) and a time-varying effective concentration to reach 50% of Emax (EC50,t ) described data adequately. Typical Emax was 1.5 mg/dL. Typical EC50,t was 1780 ng/mL and 5999 ng/mL after first and last dose, respectively. PMID:26247790

  15. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS): rationale and design of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with 12 month follow up of self- versus clinician-administered CBT for moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Jeffrey M; Keefer, Laurie; Jaccard, James; Firth, Rebecca; Brenner, Darren; Bratten, Jason; Dunlap, Laura J; Ma, Changxing; Byroads, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, oftentimes disabling, gastrointestinal disorder whose full range of symptoms has no satisfactory medical or dietary treatment. One of the few empirically validated treatments includes a specific psychological therapy called cognitive behavior therapy which, if available, is typically administered over several months by trained practitioners in tertiary care settings. There is an urgent need to develop more efficient versions of CBT that require minimal professional assistance but retain the efficacy profile of clinic based CBT. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether a self-administered version of CBT is, at least as efficacious as standard CBT and more efficacious than an attention control in reducing core GI symptoms of IBS and its burden (e.g. distress, quality of life impairment, etc.) in moderately to severely affected IBS patients. Additional goals are to assess, at quarterly intervals, the durability of treatment response over a 12 month period; to identify clinically useful patient characteristics associated with outcome as a way of gaining an understanding of subgroups of participants for whom CBT is most beneficial; to identify theory-based change mechanisms (active ingredients) that explain how and why CBT works; and evaluate the economic costs and benefits of CBT. Between August 2010 when IBSOS began recruiting subjects and February 2012, the IBSOS randomized 171 of 480 patients. Findings have the potential to improve the health of IBS patients, reduce its social and economic costs, conserve scarce health care resources, and inform evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:22846389

  16. Randomized controlled trial of a computer-tailored multiple health behaviour intervention in general practice: 12-month follow-up results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective strategies to address risk factors of non-communicable diseases are required to curtail the expanding costs of health care. This trial tested the effectiveness over one year of a minimal intervention targeting multiple health behaviours (diet, physical activity, alcohol and smoking) in a general practice setting, through the provision of personalised, computer-tailored feedback. Methods Patients who had attended a general practice in the previous 6 months were recruited from 21 general practitioners in Brisbane, Australia. Baseline data were collected using self-reports on adherence to ten health behaviours and summarised into a health score from 0 to 10. This randomised controlled trial used a 2×2 factorial design, with one arm randomising subjects to the intervention or control group. The other arm was either feedback at baseline (single contact) or an additional assessment with feedback at 3 months (dual contact). As such, 4 study groups created were, to which participants were randomised blindly: A. Intervention with single contact; B. Intervention with dual contact; C. Control with single contact and D. Control with dual contact. All participants were assessed again at 12 months. Results Of the 4676 participants randomised, 3065 completed questionnaires at 12 months. Both single and dual contact groups improved their 10 item health scores (+0.31 and +0.49 respectively) relative to control group outcomes (+0.02; p < 0.01). Improvement in adherence to guidelines for fish intake, type of milk consumed, vegetable and fruit intake, and alcohol intake were observed in single and dual contact intervention groups (p < 0.01). Both intervention groups showed greater improvement than controls for individual health behaviours, apart from red meat intake, smoking behaviour, physical activity and body weight. Interestingly, there was an improvement in reported non-smoking rates in both intervention and control groups (3% single contact; 4

  17. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Cibella, Fabio; Morjaria, Jaymin B.; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a ‘smoking’ experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are based on science. Methods ECLAT is a prospective 12-month randomized, controlled trial that evaluates smoking reduction/abstinence in 300 smokers not intending to quit experimenting two different nicotine strengths of a popular e-cigarette model (‘Categoria’; Arbi Group Srl, Italy) compared to its non-nicotine choice. GroupA (n = 100) received 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks; GroupB (n = 100), a 6-week 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges followed by a further 6-week 5.4 mg nicotine cartridges; GroupC (n = 100) received no-nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks. The study consisted of nine visits during which cig/day use and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels were measured. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. Results Declines in cig/day use and eCO levels were observed at each study visits in all three study groups (p<0.001 vs baseline), with no consistent differences among study groups. Smoking reduction was documented in 22.3% and 10.3% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. Complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was documented in 10.7% and 8.7% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. A substantial decrease in adverse events from baseline was observed and withdrawal symptoms were infrequently reported during the study. Participants’ perception and acceptance of the product under investigation was satisfactory. Conclusion In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption and

  18. Soluble Aβ levels correlate with cognitive deficits in the 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Zhuo; Lei, Gesheng; Su, Changjun; Miao, Jianting; Li, Zhuyi

    2011-09-23

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) is believed to be central in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterized by cognitive deficits. However, it remains uncertain which form(s) of Aβ pathology is responsible for the cognitive deficits in AD. In the present study, the cognitive deficits and the profiles of Aβ pathology were characterized in the 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice, and their correlations were examined. Compared with non-transgenic littermates, the middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the water maze test and long-term contextual memory deficits in the step-down passive avoidance test. Among the middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were highly correlated with spatial learning deficits and long-term contextual memory deficits, as well as cortical and hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were strongly correlated with spatial memory deficits. By contrast, no significant correlations were observed between three measures of cognitive functions and amyloid plaque burden (total Aβ plaque load and fibrillar Aβ plaque load), total Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42), as well as insoluble Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels as independent factors for predicting the spatial learning deficits and the long-term contextual memory deficits, as well as hippocampal and cortical soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels as independent factors for predicting the spatial memory deficits in transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that cognitive deficits are highly related to the levels of soluble Aβ in middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, in which soluble Aβ levels are only a tiny fraction of the amount of total Aβ levels. Consequently, our findings provide further evidence that soluble Aβ might primarily contribute to cognitive deficits in AD, suggesting that reducing

  19. Comparison of the health-related quality of life, CD4 count and viral load of AIDS patients and people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, Jude; Stewart, Aimee; Holzemer, William

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the level of CD4 count, viral load and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between treatment-naïve AIDS patients and a cohort of people living with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. This study is based on a secondary data analysis of the records of 642 people with HIV consisting of 311 treatment-naïve AIDS patients and 331 people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. The study findings are mostly presented in tables and analysed using the t-test to compare HRQOL scores, CD4 count and viral load in the two groups. The study generally noted poor financial capacity and low activity tolerance among the participants. Significant changes were noted in all the domains of HRQOL compared between the treatment-naïve patients and the 12 months treatment cohort. In the same manner, the median CD4 cell count and viral load differed significantly between both groups. The treatment-naïve and the 12 months treatment cohorts consistently reported much lower quality of life scores in the level of dependence domain which includes the measures of mobility, activity of daily living, dependence on medication and work capacity. There were little or no associations between the biomedical markers (CD4 count and viral load) and HRQOL indicators. However, the quality of life tended to increase with increase in the CD4 cell count. The poor to no association between the biomedical markers and HRQOL indicators show that these cannot be direct proxies of each other and that the CD4 cell count and viral load alone may be inadequate eligibility criteria for social support. PMID:23777555

  20. 17 CFR 210.3-06 - Financial statements covering a period of nine to twelve months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a period of nine to twelve months. 210.3-06 Section 210.3-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-06 Financial statements covering a period of nine... statements covering a period of nine to 12 months shall satisfy a filing requirement of financial...

  1. 17 CFR 210.3-06 - Financial statements covering a period of nine to twelve months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a period of nine to twelve months. 210.3-06 Section 210.3-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-06 Financial statements covering a period of nine... statements covering a period of nine to 12 months shall satisfy a filing requirement of financial...

  2. Protocol for a multicentre, parallel-arm, 12-month, randomised, controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery versus conservative care for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FASHIoN)

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, D R; Dickenson, E J; Wall, P D H; Donovan, J L; Foster, N E; Hutchinson, C E; Parsons, N; Petrou, S; Realpe, A; Achten, J; Achana, F; Adams, A; Costa, M L; Griffin, J; Hobson, R; Smith, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is a recognised cause of young adult hip pain. There has been a large increase in the number of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for FAI; however, a recent Cochrane review highlighted that there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating treatment effectiveness. We aim to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic surgery versus best conservative care for patients with FAI syndrome. Methods We will conduct a multicentre, pragmatic, assessor-blinded, two parallel arm, RCT comparing arthroscopic surgery to physiotherapy-led best conservative care. 24 hospitals treating NHS patients will recruit 344 patients over a 26-month recruitment period. Symptomatic adults with radiographic signs of FAI morphology who are considered suitable for arthroscopic surgery by their surgeon will be eligible. Patients will be excluded if they have radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis, previous significant hip pathology or previous shape changing surgery. Participants will be allocated in a ratio of 1:1 to receive arthroscopic surgery or conservative care. Recruitment will be monitored and supported by qualitative intervention to optimise informed consent and recruitment. The primary outcome will be pain and function assessed by the international hip outcome tool 33 (iHOT-33) measured 1-year following randomisation. Secondary outcomes include general health (short form 12), quality of life (EQ5D-5L) and patient satisfaction. The primary analysis will compare change in pain and function (iHOT-33) at 12 months between the treatment groups, on an intention-to-treat basis, presented as the mean difference between the trial groups with 95% CIs. The study is funded by the Health Technology Assessment Programme (13/103/02). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is granted by the Edgbaston Research Ethics committee (14/WM/0124). The results will be disseminated through open access peer

  3. Nurse-Led, Telephone-Based, Secondary Preventive Follow-Up after Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Improves Blood Pressure and LDL Cholesterol: Results from the First 12 Months of the Randomized, Controlled NAILED Stroke Risk Factor Trial

    PubMed Central

    Irewall, Anna-Lotta; Ögren, Joachim; Bergström, Lisa; Laurell, Katarina; Söderström, Lars; Mooe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Enhanced secondary preventive follow-up after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is necessary for improved adherence to recommendations regarding blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. We investigated whether nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up was more efficient than usual care at improving BP and LDL-C levels at 12 months after hospital discharge. Methods We randomized 537 patients to either nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up (intervention) or usual care (control). BP and LDL-C measurements were performed at 1 month (baseline) and 12 months post-discharge. Intervention group patients who did not meet target values at baseline received additional follow-up, including titration of medication and lifestyle counselling, to reach treatment goals (BP < 140/90 mmHg, LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L). Results At 12 months, mean systolic BP, diastolic BP and LDL-C was 3.3 (95% CI 0.3 to 6.3) mmHg, 2.3 mmHg (95% CI 0.5 to 4.2) and 0.3 mmol/L (95% CI 0.1 to 0.4) lower in the intervention group compared to controls. Among participants with values above the treatment goal at baseline, the difference in systolic BP and LDL-C was more pronounced (8.0 mmHg, 95% CI 4.0 to 12.1, and 0.6 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9). A larger proportion of the intervention group reached the treatment goal for systolic BP (68.5 vs. 56.8%, p = 0.008) and LDL-C (69.7% vs. 50.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusions Nurse-led, telephone-based secondary preventive follow-up, including medication adjustment, was significantly more efficient than usual care at improving BP and LDL-C levels by 12 months post-discharge. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN23868518 PMID:26474055

  4. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  5. Efficacy of baby-CIMT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on infants below age 12 months, with clinical signs of unilateral CP

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with unilateral brain lesions are at high risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Given the great plasticity of the young brain, possible interventions for infants at risk of unilateral CP deserve exploration. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is known to be effective for older children with unilateral CP but is not systematically used for infants. The development of CIMT for infants (baby-CIMT) is described here, as is the methodology of an RCT comparing the effects on manual ability development of baby-CIMT versus baby-massage. The main hypothesis is that infants receiving baby-CIMT will develop manual ability in the involved hand faster than will infants receiving baby-massage in the first year of life. Method and design The study will be a randomised, controlled, prospective parallel-group trial. Invited infants will be to be randomised to either the baby-CIMT or the baby-massage group if they: 1) are at risk of developing unilateral CP due to a known neonatal event affecting the brain or 2) have been referred to Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital due to asymmetric hand function. The inclusion criteria are age 3–8 months and established asymmetric hand use. Infants in both groups will receive two 6-weeks training periods separated by a 6-week pause, for 12 weeks in total of treatment. The primary outcome measure will be the new Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) for evaluating manual ability. In addition, the Parenting Sense of Competence scale and Alberta Infant Motor Scale will be used. Clinical neuroimaging will be utilized to characterise the brain lesion type. To compare outcomes between treatment groups generalised linear models will be used. Discussion The model of early intensive intervention for hand function, baby-CIMT evaluated by the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) will have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of how early intervention of upper limb function in infants at risk of

  6. Pattern of Skin Diseases at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: A 12 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ukonu, B. A.; Eze, E. U

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. Results: A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi’s sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. Conclusion: The current pattern of

  7. Planning by 12-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willatts, Peter; Rosie, Karen

    In an investigation of 1-year-olds' ability to plan a sequence of steps, 20 infants were administered a compound means-ends problem. In a planning condition, a barrier was placed in front of a cloth at the far end of which was placed one end of a long string. A toy was fastened to the other end of the string and was placed on a table at some…

  8. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  9. [Prevalence of experience of physical and psychological violence in the general population in the past 12 months. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Lange, Cornelia; Starker, Anne; von der Lippe, Elena; Hölling, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of violence may have considerable psychosocial and health implications. A violence screening tool was implemented in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) to depict the perpetrators' and victims' point of view. The study participants were between 18 and 64 years old (n = 5939). The aim of this article is to assess the percentage of people who experienced physical and psychological violence in the last 12 months or who suffered negative effects on their quality of life as a consequence or who were perpetrators of multiple acts of violence. The characteristics of victims, offenders, and their conflict partners are described. Furthermore, specific constellations of violence experience with regard to health-related quality of life are described. Finally, the association between being a victim of violence and different factors is estimated. In total, 2.7% of women and 4.3% of men reported multiple experiences of physical violence in the last 12 months or having their lives negatively impacted as a consequence of violence. Experience of psychological violence was reported by 18.9% of women and 15.4% of men. Women are more likely than men to be both perpetrator and victim within the family. Men are more likely than women to be both the perpetrator and victim outside of the family environment. Regardless of whether they are the victim or perpetrator of violence, the psychological well-being is significantly worse than those of people who did not experience violence. Experience of violence in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of becoming victim or perpetrator of violence later on in life. The findings presented here describe the psychological and physical experience of violence as one part of violence committed in the whole population. Some prevention advice is also presented. PMID:26525854

  10. Trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in relapsed ovarian cancer: outcomes in the partially platinum-sensitive (platinum-free interval 6–12 months) subpopulation of OVA-301 phase III randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, A.; Vergote, I.; Tjulandin, S.; Kong, B.; Roy, M.; Chan, S.; Filipczyk-Cisarz, E.; Hagberg, H.; Kaye, S. B.; Colombo, N.; Lebedinsky, C.; Parekh, T.; Gómez, J.; Park, Y. C.; Alfaro, V.; Monk, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: OVA-301 is a large randomized trial that showed superiority of trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) over PLD alone in relapsed ovarian cancer. The optimal management of patients with partially platinum-sensitive relapse [6–12 months platinum-free interval (PFI)] is unclear. Patients and methods: Within OVA-301, we therefore now report on the outcomes for the 214 cases in this subgroup. Results: Trabectedin/PLD resulted in a 35% risk reduction of disease progression (DP) or death [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45–0.92; P = 0.0152; median progression-free survival (PFS) 7.4 versus 5.5 months], and a significant 41% decrease in the risk of death (HR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43–0.82; P = 0.0015; median survival 23.0 versus 17.1 months). The safety of trabectedin/PLD in this subset mimicked that of the overall population. Similar proportions of patients received subsequent therapy in each arm (76% versus 77%), although patients in the trabectedin/PLD arm had a slightly lower proportion of further platinum (49% versus 55%). Importantly, patients in the trabectedin/PLD arm survived significantly longer after subsequent platinum (HR = 0.63; P = 0.0357; median 13.3 versus 9.8 months). Conclusion: This hypothesis-generating analysis demonstrates that superior benefits with trabectedin/PLD in terms of PFS and survival in the overall population appear particularly enhanced in patients with partially sensitive disease (PFI 6–12 months). PMID:20643862

  11. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  12. Medication possession ratio: implications of using fixed and variable observation periods in assessing adherence with disease-modifying drugs in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Chris M; Dickson, Michael; Phillips, Amy L; Meletiche, Dennis M

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare two methods of adherence calculation using administrative data for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are prescribed disease-modifying drugs. Methods Pharmacy-billed disease-modifying drug prescription claims were selected from the 2007–2008 LifeLink™ Health Plan Claims Database. The index date was the first disease-modifying drug prescription claim. Two cohorts were created: all patients with a disease-modifying drug claim in 2007 and a subset with continuous eligibility for 12 months post-index. Adherence was calculated across all disease-modifying drugs for 12 months post-index. Medication possession ratios (MPRs) with variable (start to end of therapy) and fixed (365 days) duration denominators were calculated. Variable MPR was calculated by summing days supply from the first to the last prescription (inclusive) divided by time between the last prescription date plus days supply and the first prescription date. Variable MPR was evaluated for all patients and the continuously eligible cohort. Fixed MPR used the same numerator but divided by 365 days of follow-up and evaluated only for the continuously eligible cohort. Results There were 3405 patients with MS and a disease-modifying drug claim in 2007 and 2145 in the continuously eligible cohort. Means for variable MPR ranged from 87.5% ± 16.6% for the continuously eligible cohort to 90.5% ± 16.0% for the 2007 cohort. The comparable value for fixed MPR was 78.0% ± 28.2% for the continuously eligible cohort. Fixed MPR gave a consistently lower rate of adherence than variable MPR at an 80% adherence threshold. Conclusion Different adherence measures can yield different outcomes, especially when using different eligibility criteria. These results demonstrate the importance of full disclosure of methods used for calculations and specification of the study population. PMID:23807840

  13. Field trial of a vaccine against New World cutaneous leishmaniasis in an at-risk child population: safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy during the first 12 months of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Armijos, R X; Weigel, M M; Aviles, H; Maldonado, R; Racines, J

    1998-05-01

    The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Ecuadorian children was assessed in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study. Vaccine group subjects received 2 intradermal doses of a whole, killed promastigote vaccine cocktail plus bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) adjuvant. Control subjects got 2 doses of BCG only. The subjects who received both vaccination doses, 438 in the vaccine group (79.3%) and 406 in the control group (83.4%), were followed for 12 months. No serious adverse side effects were identified in either group. Significantly more vaccine group subjects than controls converted to a positive Montenegro skin test (85.1% vs. 20.1%; chi2 = 279; P < .001). The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was significantly reduced in the vaccine compared with the control group (2.1% vs. 7.6%; chi2 = 8.95; P < .003). The protective efficacy of the vaccine was 72.9% (95% confidence interval = 36.1%-88.5%). PMID:9593024

  14. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  15. Past 12-month and lifetime comorbidity and poly-drug use of ecstasy users among young adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Martins, Silvia S.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecstasy use is prevalent among young people and often co-occurs with other drug use, but little is known about the past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and specific additional drug abuse among young adult ecstasy users in the general population. To provide this information, we compared current ecstasy users to former users, other illicit drug users, and non-illicit drug users. Method Data were gathered in a face-to-face survey of the United States conducted in the 2001–2002 (NESARC). Participants were household and group quarters residents aged 18–29 years (n = 8666). We measured current ecstasy use defined as any use in the past year; former ecstasy use as use prior to the past year only; other lifetime drug use included any drug other than ecstasy; lifetime non-illicit drug use as no illicit drug use. Associations were determined for nine other classes of illicit drugs, eight personality disorders, and seven mood and anxiety disorders. Results Of current ecstasy users, 44% used >3 other classes of illicit drugs in the past year, compared to 1.6% of non-ecstasy drug users. Current ecstasy use was associated with current anxiety (OR = 3.7), specifically panic disorder (OR = 7.7) and specific phobia (OR = 4.1), also alcohol abuse (OR = 21.6) and dependence (OR = 4.1) and any personality disorder (OR = 5.1) compared to non-illicit drug users. Conclusions Results indicate important differences in comorbidities of current and former ecstasy users compared to other drug users and lifetime non-illicit drug users that may affect phenotype definitions and etiologic studies. Ecstasy use may represent a distinct population of drug users for which unique treatments may be necessary. PMID:18524499

  16. QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged 18-64 Years Who Had Visited or Talked to a Health Care Professional in the Past 12 Months,† by Race/Ethnicity§ - National Health Interview Survey, 2010 and 2015¶.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2015, there was an increase in the percentage of non-Hispanic white adults (82.5% to 84.0%) and non-Hispanic black adults (80.5% to 83.5%) aged 18-64 years who had seen or talked to a health care professional in the past 12 months. In 2010, non-Hispanic white adults aged 18-64 years were the most likely to have seen or talked to a health professional in the past 12 months, but there was no significant difference between non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults in 2015. In both 2010 and 2015, Hispanic adults aged 18-64 years were the least likely to have seen or talked to a health care professional in the past 12 months. PMID:27466941

  17. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  18. Feasibility, acceptability and outcomes at a 12-month follow-up of a novel community-based intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk: mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Ryan, Vicky; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and design Lifestyle interventions can prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In a mixed methods pilot study, we aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and outcomes at a 12-month follow-up of a behavioural intervention for adults at risk of T2D. Participants Adults aged 45–65 years with a Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) ≥11. Setting The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority that ranks in the 10 most socioeconomically deprived in England. Intervention A 10-week supported programme to promote increased physical activity (PA), healthy eating and weight loss was delivered by fitness trainers as twice-weekly group PA or cookery sessions, each followed by behavioural counselling with support to 12 months. Outcome measures We assessed feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, and change in behavioural and health-related outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Results From 367 registers of interest, 218 participants were recruited to the programme with baseline mean (SD): age 53.6 (6) years, FINDRISC 13.9 (3.1), body mass index 33.5 (5.9) kg/m2, waist circumference 108.1 (13.7) cm, PA levels (self-report): daily total 49.1 (5.9) metabolic-equivalent (MET) h/day. Follow-up at 12 months was completed by 134 (61%) participants, with an estimated mean (95% CI) change from baseline in weight −5.7 (−7.8 to −2.8); −2.8 (−3.8 to −1.9) kg, waist circumference −7.2 (−9.2 to −5.2); −6.0 (−7.1 to −5.0) cm, and PA level 7.9 (5.8 to 10.1); 6.7 (5.2 to 8.2) MET h/day equivalent, for men and women, respectively (from covariance pattern mixed models). Participants reported an enjoyable, sociable and supportive intervention experience. Conclusions Participants’ views indicated a high level of intervention acceptability. High retention and positive outcomes at 12 months provide encouraging indications of the feasibility and potential effectiveness

  19. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  20. Postsecondary Institutions and Cost of Attendance in 2014-15; Degrees and Other Awards Conferred, 2013-14; and 12-Month Enrollment, 2013-14. First Look (Preliminary Data). NCES 2015-097

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott A.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Mann, Farrah B.

    2015-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the preliminary data of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2014 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2014-15 academic year; Completions, covering the period July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014; and 12-Month…

  1. Postsecondary Institutions and Cost of Attendance in 2014-15; Degrees and Other Awards Conferred, 2013-14; and 12-Month Enrollment, 2013-14. First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2015-097rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott A.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Mann, Farrah B.

    2015-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the provisional data of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2014 data collection, which included three survey components: (1) Institutional Characteristics for the 2014-15 academic year; (2) Completions, covering the period July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014; and (3)…

  2. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  3. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  4. Safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion in women with persistent post-partum posterior pelvic girdle pain: 12-month outcomes from a prospective, multi-center trial.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Robyn; Cher, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum posterior pelvic girdle pain (PPGP) affects nearly 20 % of women who experience back pain in the peripartum period. The sacroiliac joint is a source of this pain in 75 % of women with persistent PPGP. A subset of women will fail to obtain acceptable pain relief from the current array of non-surgical treatment options. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac (SI) joint fusion in women with chronic SI joint dysfunction whose pain began in the peri-partum period whose symptoms were recalcitrant to non-surgical management. A sub-group analysis of subjects with sacroiliac joint disruption and/or degenerative sacroiliitis enrolled in a prospective, multi-center trial of SI joint fusion was performed. Subjects with PPGP were identified and compared with women without PPGP and with men. Of 172 enrolled subjects, 52 were male, 100 were females without PPGP and 20 females had PPGP. PPGP subjects were significantly younger (43.3 years, vs. 52.8 for females without PPGP and 50.5 for men, p = 0.002). There were no differences in any other demographic or baseline clinical measure. Women with PPGP experienced a significant improvement in pain (-51 mm on VAS), function (-20.6 pts on ODI) and quality of life (SF-36 PCS +10.4, MCS +7.2, EQ-5D +0.31) at 12 months after surgery. These improvements were characteristic of the overall study results; no difference was detected between sub-groups. The sacroiliac joint can be a source of pain in women with persistent PPGP and should be investigated as a pain generator. In this study, women with carefully diagnosed chronic SI joint pain from PPGP recalcitrant to conservative therapies experienced clinically beneficially improvements in pain, disability and quality of life after minimally invasive SI joint fusion using a series of triangular porous plasma spray coated implants. PMID:26543705

  5. Part 1. Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, Jacob D; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Gigliotti, Andrew; Miller, Rodney A; Seilkop, Steve; Mauderly, Joe L; Seagrave, JeanClare; Chow, Judith; Zielinska, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to diesel exhaust (DE*) from 2007-compliant engines. The preliminary hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions ". . . will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used . . . although some biological effects may occur." This hypothesis is being tested at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) by exposing rats by chronic inhalation as a carcinogenicity bioassay, measuring indicators of pulmonary toxicity in rats after 1, 3, 12, and 24-30 months of exposure (final time point depends on the survival of animals), and measuring similar indicators of pulmonary toxicity in mice after 1 and 3 months of exposure. This report provides results of exposures through 3 months in rats and mice. Emissions from a 2007-compliant, 500-horsepower-class engine and aftertreatment system operated on a variable-duty cycle were used to generate the animal inhalation test atmospheres. Four treatment groups were exposed to one of three concentrations (dilutions) of exhaust combined with crankcase emissions, or to clean air as a negative control. Dilutions of exhaust were set to yield average integrated concentrations of 4.2, 0.8, and 0.1 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exposure atmospheres were analyzed by daily measurements of key components and periodic detailed physical-chemical characterizations. Exposures were conducted 16 hr/dy (overnight), 5 dy/wk. Rats were evaluated for hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung cell proliferation, and histopathology after 1 month of exposure, and the same

  6. Recidivism among Arkansas Boot Camp Graduates after 12 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toombs, Nancy J.; Benda, Brent B.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    1997-01-01

    Examines recidivism among 792 graduates of Arkansas' only boot camp. Results indicate that the primary predictors of recidivism were the type of offenses (drugs vs. others), race, and infractions while in boot camp. However, none of the predictors accounted for more than minor proportions of the variance in recidivism. (RJM)

  7. The Secret of Play: Birth to 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ann Pleshette

    2009-01-01

    This article is an excerpt from "The Secret of Play: How to Raise Smart, Healthy, Caring Kids From Birth to Age 12" (2008, DK Publishing) by parenting expert Ann Pleshette Murphy. The author draws on child development research to help parents understand how play helps children learn at each stage of development and offers practical suggestions for…

  8. Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... learn to associate them with mom, dad, and bottle. Your baby will begin to use gestures like ... for exploration. Your baby may enjoy playing with egg cartons, blocks, balls, stacking toys, and push-pull ...

  9. Advising-Attrition Effects-A 12 Month Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA.

    Is there an effective way to reduce freshman attrition at Duke University? If a group of freshman students preidentified as exit prone is provided with more advising time from a member of the ranked faculty, then the rate of attrition from this exit-prone group will be less than the attrition rate for the rest of the freshman cohort. Is there a…

  10. Emotional and Social Development: 8 to 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... just another fascinating object. Perhaps, she thought, the reflection was another baby, or maybe it was a ... out of the mirror, playing peekaboo with the reflections. Or make faces and verbally label the emotions ...

  11. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    PubMed

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest. PMID:25879476

  12. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  13. Senses and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... and far and even focus on quickly moving objects. Your baby's motor skills are now working together ... books , especially familiar images. Your baby may love objects with parts or pieces that move, and will ...

  14. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    PubMed

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  15. Nonlinear acoustics: Periodic waveguide, finite-amplitude propagation in a medium having a distribution of relaxation processes, and production of an isolated negative pulse in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, David T.

    1993-08-01

    Research on nonlinear acoustics has been performed during the 12-month period ending 30 September 1993. The following projects were completed: (1) propagation in a periodic waveguide, (2) finite-amplitude propagation in a medium having a distribution of relaxation processes, and (3) production of an isolated negative pulse in water. Public communication of the research was accomplished through three theses, four oral papers, one journal article published, four journal articles submitted, and one paper in a symposium proceedings.

  16. The epidemiology of kuru in the period 1987 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    Kuru is an encephalopathy or neuro-degenerative disease found only in the Okapa District of the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. It is always fatal, with a subacute course, on average, of about 12 months from onset to death. In the 9-year period 1987 to 1995 there were 66 deaths from kuru, 17 males and 49 females. The number of deaths per year ranged from 3 to 12. All deaths occurred south of a line drawn through the centre of the kuru region perpendicular to the axis of social change. The mean age at death was 49 years, with a gradual increase in this age with time. The last patient aged in their 20s died in 1987 and the last in their 30s died in 1991. The period shows a waning epidemic, with dramatically fewer deaths than in the early years of epidemiological surveillance 30 years before. Nevertheless, the clinical features and duration of the disease were unchanged. Transmission of kuru stopped by 1960 and patients seen in the period 1987-1995 showed long incubation periods, which in 1995 would have been at least 35 years. The proportion of males was much higher than in the early years; because males were effectively exposed only in childhood their incubation periods were in many cases likely to be over 50 years. The work of the Kuru Surveillance Team in maintaining a rigorous surveillance of kuru epidemiology over this period is described. PMID:16465931

  17. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  18. Replantation of an avulsed tooth with an extended extra oral period.

    PubMed

    Kubasad, Girish; Ghivari, Sheetal; Garg, Khushboo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have reported a case of the replantation of a maxillary incisor with an extended extraoral period following a traumatic avulsion. After storage in normal saline, the root surface of the avulsed tooth was conditioned with citric acid and treated with a triple antibiotic solution. The tooth socket was filled with Emdogain before replantation. A 12 month, 18 month and a 5 year follow-up clinical examination revealed the patient to be asymptomatic, and the tooth was functional. The recall radiograph showed no evidence of renewed periradicular breakdown and apical root resorption. PMID:23649072

  19. Gastrointestinal events and association with initiation of treatment for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Ankita; Siris, Ethel S; Tang, Jackson; Sajjan, Shiva; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2015-01-01

    Background Preexisting gastrointestinal (GI) events may deter the use of pharmacologic treatment in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis (OP). The objective of this study was to examine the association between preexisting GI events and OP pharmacotherapy initiation among women diagnosed with OP. Methods The study utilized claims data from a large US managed care database to identify women aged ≥55 years with a diagnosis code for OP (index date) during 2002–2009. Patients with a claim for pharmacologic OP treatment in the 12-month pre-index period (baseline) were excluded. OP treatment initiation in the post-index period was defined as a claim for bisphosphonates (alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid), calcitonin, raloxifene, or teriparatide. During the post-index period (up to 12 months), GI events were identified before treatment initiation. A time-dependent Cox regression model was used to investigate the likelihood of initiating any OP treatment. Among patients initiating OP treatment, a discrete choice model was utilized to assess the relationship between post-index GI events and likelihood of initiating with a bisphosphonate versus a non-bisphosphonate. Results In total, 65,344 patients (mean age 66 years) were included; 23.7% had a GI event post diagnosis and before treatment initiation. Post-index GI events were associated with a 75% lower likelihood of any treatment initiation (hazard ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval 0.24–0.26). Among treated patients (n=23,311), those with post-index GI events were 39% less likely to receive a bisphosphonate versus a non-bisphosphonate (odds ratio 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.54–0.68). Conclusion GI events after OP diagnosis were associated with a decreased likelihood of OP treatment initiation and an increased likelihood of treatment initiation with a non-bisphosphonate versus a bisphosphonate. PMID:26648746

  20. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  1. Pattern of Change of Depressive Disorder over a One-Year Period among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Mechakra-Tahiri, Djemaa-Samia; Dubé, Micheline; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Préville, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal; Brassard, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe changes in depression and its correlates, in community-dwelling elderly, over a 12-month period. Data come from a longitudinal ESA Study (Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés) of elderly persons (n = 2752). Depression was measured using the DSM-IV criteria. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess relations, over time, between participant's characteristics and depression. Among the 164 (5.9%) subjects, who were depressed at baseline, 19.5% were continuously ill cases and 80.4% had recovered, 12 months later. In polytomous regression, factors increasing the probability of the three depression states (persistence, recovery, and incidence) were daily hassles, stress intensity, and fair/poor self-rated mental health. Depression in old age is dynamic. Available prognostic factors can be taken into account to help direct treatment to elderly at highest risk of a poor prognosis. PMID:23606954

  2. Pattern of Change of Depressive Disorder over a One-Year Period among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Québec.

    PubMed

    Mechakra-Tahiri, Djemaa-Samia; Dubé, Micheline; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Préville, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal; Brassard, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe changes in depression and its correlates, in community-dwelling elderly, over a 12-month period. Data come from a longitudinal ESA Study (Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés) of elderly persons (n = 2752). Depression was measured using the DSM-IV criteria. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess relations, over time, between participant's characteristics and depression. Among the 164 (5.9%) subjects, who were depressed at baseline, 19.5% were continuously ill cases and 80.4% had recovered, 12 months later. In polytomous regression, factors increasing the probability of the three depression states (persistence, recovery, and incidence) were daily hassles, stress intensity, and fair/poor self-rated mental health. Depression in old age is dynamic. Available prognostic factors can be taken into account to help direct treatment to elderly at highest risk of a poor prognosis. PMID:23606954

  3. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  4. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  5. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  6. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  7. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  8. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  9. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  10. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be due to this condition include: Kidney stones (a side effect of acetazolamide) Irregular heartbeat during ... 2016:chap 99. Read More Breathing difficulty Carbohydrates Kidney stones Potassium test Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Weakness Update Date ...

  11. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  12. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  13. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by abnormal conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Unless one of these potentially serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a ...

  14. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  15. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  16. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  17. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  18. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe antidepressant (AD) use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis. Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1) 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2) 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment). Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses), epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8%) discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made. Conclusion Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. PMID:26766910

  19. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Rojith Karanode; Chandran, Suresh Rama; Thirumalnesan, Geetha; Doraisamy, Nedumaran

    2011-07-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly. PMID:21966655

  20. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  1. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  2. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  3. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  4. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  5. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  6. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  7. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  8. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  9. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  10. Periodic leg movements in prepubertal children with sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Sandra; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-11-01

    This study's aims were to determine: (1) prevalence of periodic leg movements (PLMs) in walking prepubertal children consulting a sleep clinic for any sleep disorder; (2) associations between PLMs and other sleep and medical disorders; and (3) the response of other sleep disorders to treatment with the dopamine agonist pramipexol. Clinical evaluation and polysomnography were carried out for a period of 12 months on 252 consecutively seen, prepubertal children with sleep disorders (156 males, 96 females; aged 15mo to 11y, mean 7y 1mo, SD3y 10mo). Sleep disorders unrelated to PLMs were treated, and six children received pramipexol for PLMs. Follow-up included clinical evaluation and polysomnography. Twenty-three per cent of children were diagnosed with PLMs on the basis of polysomnography. The presence of PLMs had usually been unrecognized clinically. The only clinical symptom that could be related to periodic limb movement disorder was a report of leg pains at morning awakening. Only two of 58 children had PLMs without other clinical or polysomnographic findings. Comorbidity seen with PLMs included neuropsychiatric syndromes (n=20), isolated sleep disordered breathing (SDB; n=29), and several other comorbid conditions (n=7). Seven of 11 children seen with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder also had PLMs. Surgery for SDB was associated with subsequent cessation of PLMs in 15 of 29 children. Five out of six children with PLMs who received pramipexol were able to tolerate the drug and experienced a complete disappearance of their PLMs. Presence of chronic fatigue, sleepiness, disrupted nocturnal sleep, and difficulties in falling asleep should lead to a systematic search for PLMs that is independent of associated syndromes. Isolated treatment of SDB might help eliminate some, but not all, PLMs. PMID:15540638

  11. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  12. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  13. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  14. The Efficiency of Reproduction Health Education Given to Adolescents during the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Topatan, Serap; Demirci, Nurdan

    2015-10-01

    Our research, partly experimental and partly prospective, was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of reproductive health education given to adolescents during the postpartum period. The study comprised with 120 adolescents aged 15 to 19 (60 experimental group, 60 control group). Follow-up was conducted every 3 months for a total of 12 months, and the study concluded with 55 individuals from the experimental group and 46 individuals from the control group having participated fully, for the full 12 months. At the end of the research, it was found that the reproductive health knowledge of the experimental (103.10 ± 11.43) and control (99.15 ± 9.53) groups were similar before education. A statistically significant difference was also found between the total points for the scale determining the reproductive health of the experimental and control groups before and after education (P < .001). The socio-demographic variables affecting the total points for the scale determining the reproductive health-protective behavior of women were evaluated by multiple regression analysis; the most effective variables were found to be age and educational status. A statistically significant difference was also found between the total points for the family planning behavior scale of the experimental and control groups before and after education (P < .001). From this, it was understood that reproductive health education given during the postpartum and follow-up periods has a positive effect on adolescents' developing reproductive health behaviors and on creating knowledge and awareness related to family planning behavior. But there needs to be follow-up and supporting specific for adolescents in the current health system. PMID:26173382

  15. Are symptom features of depression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period distinct? Results from a nationally representative sample using Item Response Theory (IRT)

    PubMed Central

    Hoertel, Nicolas; López, Saioa; Peyre, Hugo; Wall, Melanie M.; González-Pinto, Ana; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether there are systematic differences in depression symptom expression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside these periods (i.e., outside the peripartum period) remains debated. The aim of this study was to use methods based on item response theory (IRT) to examine, after equating for depression severity, differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) in women of childbearing age (i.e., aged 18-50) during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. Method We conducted these analyses using a large, nationally representative sample of women of childbearing age from the USA (n = 11,256) who participated in the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Results The overall 12-month prevalence of all depressive criteria (except for worthlessness/guilt) was significantly lower in pregnant women than in women of childbearing age outside the peripartum period, whereas the prevalence of all symptoms (except for “psychomotor symptoms”) were not significantly different between the postpartum and the non-peripartum group. There were no clinically significant differences in the endorsement rates of symptoms of MDE by pregnancy status when equating for levels of depression severity. Conclusions This study suggests that the clinical presentation of depressive symptoms in women of childbearing age does not differ during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. These findings do not provide psychometric support for the inclusion of the peripartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5. PMID:25424539

  16. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  17. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Landskron, Kai

    2009-02-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol-gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g-1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  18. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  19. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  20. Periodate oxidation of dextrans

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodskaya, O.A.; Poletaeva, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors estimate the degree of oxidation of the thiol group in dextran with various mol. wt. and make an attempt at a kinetic description of the main parameters of the process. Polyglucin was used. The results are shown of experiments done on the estimation of the amount of products formed in the process of oxidation of polyglucin in which the reaction stopped as a result of complete exhaustion of one of the original reagents. To estimate the reactivity of the thiol group toward oxidation, the authors studied the interaction of potassium periodate with alpha-D-glucose, isolated by the monomer unit of dextran.

  1. Are Mantle Plumes Periodic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Prokoph, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, researchers have uncovered evidence that several kinds of geological and biological events seem to show regular cycles of similar lengths. For example, Rohde and Muller [2005] looked at the record of diversity of marine organisms over the past 540 million years and found evidence for two cycles in the data—a roughly 62-million-year cycle and a longer cycle of about 140 million years. This was followed by reports of an approximately 56-million-year cycle in long-term stratigraphic sequences in sedimentary basins [Meyers and Peters, 2011] and a 59-million-year period in the marine strontium-isotope record [Melott et al., 2012]. A similar period may even exist in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 542 million years of the Phanerozoic [Franks et al., 2012]. A cycle of about 140 million years was reported by Veizer et al. [2000] and Mayhew et al. [2008] in long-term fluctuations in global climate.

  2. Prophylaxis with diphenylhydantoin and phenobarbital in alumina-gel monkey model. II. Fourth-month follow-up period: seizure, EEG, blood and behavioral data.

    PubMed

    Lockard, J S; DuCharme, L L; Congdon, W C; Franklin, S C

    1976-03-01

    This study, a 4-month follow-up period of a 12-month treatment study by the present authors, was concerned with the permanent effects of treatment with diphenylhydantoin and phenobarbital in the alumina-gel monkey model. Whereas the 8 drug animals during withdrawal increased their seizure frequency, duration, and severity, those 4 animals having received 120 mg/kg/day DPH in weeks 6-12 had one-half the number of seizures of the 4 placebo monkeys in the follow-up period. The other 4 drug animals who had continued to receive 60 mg/kg/day DPH during those weeks had two to four times the number of seizures of the placebo group during posttreatment. (All drug monkeys received 80 mg/kg/day of DPH from weeks 13-52 and 6 mg/kg/day of phenobarbital throughout the 12-month treatment period). The results reaffirm the problems of drug withdrawal and the importance of altering seizure mechanisms with sufficiently high doses of efficacious anticonvulsants rather than merely treating epileptic manifestations at lower doses. PMID:817892

  3. European drought climatologies for the period 1950 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Naumann, Gustavo; Vogt, Jürgen V.; Barbosa, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    In the context of global climate change, characterized in particular by rising temperatures and more extreme weather events, drought is one of the most relevant natural disasters that has hit Europe frequently in the last decades. This paper presents climatologies of a set of drought indicators and derived drought characteristics at European scale for the period 1950-2012. Following the definitions in Spinoni et al. (2013), we computed drought frequency, duration, severity, and maximum intensity on a grid with spatial resolution of 0.25°x0.25°. Calculations have been based on three well-known drought indicators calculated for time scales of 3 and 12 months: the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Indicators have been calculated on a monthly basis for the period 1951-2012, using statistical distributions fitted to a 30-year baseline period (1971-2000). Input data stem from the E-OBS (version 9.0) European grids (0.25°x0.25°) provided by the Royal Meteorological Service of The Netherlands (KNMI). Monthly precipitation data served as input for all indicators, while mean monthly temperature data were used to calculate Thornthwaite's potential evapotranspiration necessary to calculate SPEI and RDI. On the basis of these indicators, we then quantified, on a monthly basis, the total European area under meteorological drought conditions from 1950 to 2012 and their intensity. We further sub-divided Europe into 14 regions according to geographical borders and climatic features and for each of them we computed linear trends of different drought characteristics (i.e. frequency, duration, severity, and intensity) for the entire period, and for the sub-periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. Results show that the Mediterranean, the Balkans, and Eastern Europe are characterized by increasing drought frequency, duration, severity, and maximum intensity, while Russia and

  4. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  5. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  6. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial of effectiveness of Naikan therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia over a one-year follow-up period

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hong; LI, Chenhu; ZHAO, Liyu; ZHAN, Guilai

    2015-01-01

    Background Current treatments for schizophrenia are often only partially effective. Aims Assess the possible benefit of using adjunctive Naikan therapy, a cognitive approach based on self-reflection that originated in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods After resolution of acute psychotic symptoms, 235 psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia who had a middle school education or higher were randomly assigned to a control group (n=112) that received routine medication and inpatient rehabilitative treatment or an intervention group (n=123) that also received adjunctive Naikan therapy for 2 hours daily, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The patients were then discharged and followed up for 12 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP), and Insight and Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ) were used to assess patients at enrollment, after the 1-month intervention, and after the 12-month follow-up. Evaluators were blind to the group assignment of patients. Results Only 13 (10.6%) of the intervention group participants relapsed over the 12-month follow-up, but 23 (20.5%) control group participants relapsed (X2=4.50, p=0.034). Using a modified intention-to-treat analysis and a repeated measure analysis of variance, the PANSS, PSP, and ITAQ total scores all showed significantly greater improvement over the 12-month follow-up in the Naikan group than in the control group. The drop in mean chlorpromazine-equivalent dosage from enrollment to the end of follow-up was significantly different in the intervention group but not in the control group, though the change in dosage over time between groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions This study provides robust support for the effectiveness of Naikan therapy as an adjunctive treatment during the recovery period of schizophrenia. Compared to treatment as usually, adjunctive Naikan therapy can sustain the improvement in psychotic symptoms achieved during acute

  7. Period variations in SZ ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented of a detailed period study of the eclipsing binary system SZ Arietis, based on up-to-date collection of minima. A new period (P = 1.7175405 d) of the SZ Ari was found, and the period changes (with the new period) in different portions of the O-C diagram were estimated. The average period change (leaving out an unusual value) was estimated to be about 0.00006 d. The O-C diagram displayed a sinusoidal variation, indicating that the SZ Ari system may be a three-body system, having a period of nearly 66 years.

  8. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  9. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  10. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity - very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  11. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing this...). SUPPLEMENTARY HISTORY: On February 3, 2011, the Postal Service filed a request for temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement for various market dominant postal services,...

  12. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  13. Large minimal period orbits of periodic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Juan; Tarallo, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We prove the existence of periodic orbits with minimal period greater than any prescribed number for a natural Lagrangian autonomous system in several variables that is analytic and periodic in each variable and whose potential is nonconstant. Work supported by Acción Integrada Italia-España HI2000-0112, Azione Integrata Italia-Spagna IT-117, MCYT BFM2002-01308, Spain.

  14. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  15. Magnetospheric Periodicities at Saturn Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E.; Paranicas, C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.; Hamilton, D. C.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    For several years before equinox, the energetic charged and neutral particles in Saturn’s magnetosphere displayed strong periodicities near 10.8 hours, the same period observed in radio emissions and magnetic fields. These particle periodicities have now been observed at equinox in electrons, protons, oxygen ions, and neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms at all energies greater than ~3 keV, the lowest energies measured by the Magnetospheric IMaging Instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini spacecraft. The equinoctial electrons exhibit a very strong period at 10.72 hours, while the protons have essentially no periodicity at all. Water group ions display a notable period at 10.73 hours. Both the electrons and the ions have curious overtones in their spectral structure that may be related to solar wind modulation. The energetic neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms have strong periods of 10.79 hours at equinox. Within the uncertainties of the measurements, the ENA periods are slightly longer than the charged particle periods, although they cover a somewhat different time interval. For comparison, the Cassini magnetometer observed periodicities in Saturn’s magnetic field of 10.65 hours during the same equinoctial interval. These observations will be interpreted in terms of a wavy magnetodisk model.

  16. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  17. Facilitating Problem-Solving Performance among 9- and 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Michael E.; Keen, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of infants' actions was observed as they picked up and used food-laden spoons that varied in orientation. Two interventions were designed to facilitate efficient action beyond when infants were presented with one spoon in alternating orientations: one spoon was presented in the same orientation for several consecutive trials to help…

  18. Parent-infant vocalisations at 12 months predict psychopathology at 7 years.

    PubMed

    Allely, C S; Purves, D; McConnachie, A; Marwick, H; Johnson, P; Doolin, O; Puckering, C; Golding, J; Gillberg, C; Wilson, P

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant interactions when infants were one year old. Cases were infants who had been subsequently diagnosed aged seven years, with at least one psychiatric diagnostic categorisation using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, pervasive development disorder, and emotional disorders. Associations between infant and parent vocalisations and later psychiatric diagnoses were investigated. Low frequencies of maternal vocalisation predicted later development of infant psychopathology. A reduction of five vocalisations per minute predicted a 44% (95%CI: 11-94%; p-value=0.006) increase in the odds of an infant being a case. No association was observed between infant vocalisations and overall case status. In sum, altered vocalisation frequency in mother-infant interactions at one year is a potential risk marker for later diagnosis of a range of child psychopathologies. PMID:23291516

  19. Management of sublingual ulceration in a 12-month-old child.

    PubMed

    Bafna, Yash; Khandelwal, Vishal; Bafna, Madhulika; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

    2013-01-01

    The case of sublingual ulceration associated with erupted primary mandibular incisors in a 1-year-old child is presented. Sublingual ulceration is termed as Riga-Fede disease if the patient is less than 2 years old. Generally, the treatment methods for Riga-Fede's disease are discing and extraction of the traumatised teeth. Here, the child was treated with photo-polymerised composite resin coverage of the incisal edges of erupted mandibular incisors. The photo-polymerised resin coverage proved to help in the rapid healing of the ulcerations. PMID:23975923

  20. Parent-Infant Vocalisations at 12 Months Predict Psychopathology at 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…

  1. 77 FR 32909 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat; 12-Month...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... indicating the petitioned revision may be warranted (negative 90-day finding; 75 FR 41436, July 16, 2010). On... substantial scientific information indicating the requested revision may be warranted (76 FR 25660). ESA... of 1969, a precursor to the ESA (35 FR 8491). Leatherback sea turtles are the largest living...

  2. I See Your Point: Infants under 12 Months Understand that Pointing Is Communicative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krehm, Madelaine; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Do young infants understand that pointing gestures allow the pointer to change the information state of a recipient? We used a third-party experimental scenario to examine whether 9- and 11-month-olds understand that a pointer's pointing gesture can inform a recipient about a target object. When the pointer pointed to a target, infants…

  3. The prospective role of defeat and entrapment in depression and anxiety: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Alys Wyn; Wood, Alex M; Maltby, John; Taylor, Peter J; Tai, Sara

    2014-04-30

    The concepts of "defeat" (representing failed social struggle) and "entrapment" (representing an inability to escape from a situation) have emerged from the animal literature, providing insight into the health consequences of low social rank. Evolutionary models suggest that these constructs co-occur and can lead to the development of mental disorders, although there is limited empirical evidence supporting these predictions. Participants (N=172) were recruited from economically deprived areas in North England. Over half of participants (58%) met clinical cut-offs for depression and anxiety, therefore we conducted analyses to establish whether participant outcomes were dependent on baseline defeat and entrapment levels. Participants completed measures of defeat, entrapment, depression and anxiety at two time-points twelve months apart. Factor analysis demonstrated that defeat and entrapment were best defined as one factor, suggesting that the experiences co-occurred. Regression analyses demonstrated that changes in depression and anxiety between T1 and T2 were predicted from baseline levels of defeat and entrapment; however, changes in defeat and entrapment were also predicted from baseline depression and anxiety. There are implications for targeting perceptions of defeat and entrapment within psychological interventions for people experiencing anxiety and depression and screening individuals to identify those at risk of developing psychopathology. PMID:24529814

  4. 78 FR 46889 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Candidate Removal for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... drive off existing roads and trails they can crush plants, compact soils, and provide a means for... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AZ12 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... petition to list the plant Potentilla basaltica (Soldier Meadow cinquefoil) as an endangered or...

  5. The Sustained Effect of Emotional Signals on Neural Processing in 12-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventon, Jacqueline S.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Around the end of the first year of life, infants develop a social referencing ability -- using emotional information from others to guide their own behavior. Much research on social referencing has focused on changes in behavior in response to emotional information. The present study was an investigation of the changes in neural responses that…

  6. 78 FR 33300 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... the ESA. On March 7, 2011, we published a 90-day finding (76 FR 12308) stating the petitioned action...; 68 FR 15100; March 28, 2003) to determine their certainty of implementation and effectiveness for... (Carcharhinus leucas), estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) or alligators (Alligator...

  7. Quality of life and cardiorespiratory function in chronic heart failure: effects of 12 months' aerobic training.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, T.; Myers, M. G.; Baigrie, R. S.; Mertens, D. J.; Sawyer, P.; Shephard, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term benefits and safety of aerobic training in patients with chronic heart failure. DESIGN: Non-randomised control trial with 52 weeks follow up. SETTING: Outpatient cardiac rehabilitation referral centre. PATIENTS: Patients with compensated chronic heart failure (mean (SD) age 62 (6) years, New York Heart Association stage III, initial resting ejection fraction 22 (7)%). Experimental group of 17 men, 4 women; control group 8 men, 1 woman. INTERVENTIONS: Experimental group: progressive, supervised aerobic walking programme for 52 weeks. Control group: standard medical treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six-minute walk distance, progressive cycle ergometer test to subjective exhaustion, disease-specific quality of life questionnaire, and standard gamble test, all measured at entry, 4, 8, 12, 16, 26, and 52 weeks. RESULTS: Control data showed no changes except a small trend to improved emotional function (P = 0.02 at 12 weeks only). Fifteen of the 21 patients completed all 52 weeks of aerobic training; two withdrew for non-cardiac reasons (16, 52 weeks). Three were withdrawn because of worsening cardiac failure unrelated to their exercise participation (4, 4, 8 weeks), and one had a non-fatal cardiac arrest while shopping (16 weeks). Gains of cardiorespiratory function plateaued at 16-26 weeks, with 10-15% improvement in six-minute walk, peak power output, and peak oxygen intake linked to gains in oxygen pulse and ventilatory threshold and reductions in resting heart rate. Marked improvements in quality of life followed a parallel course. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic training is safe and beneficial in compensated chronic heart failure. Gains in aerobic function and quality of life persisted over a programme lasting 52 weeks. PMID:8774326

  8. Serum Cholinesterase Activities Distinguish between Stroke Patients and Controls and Predict 12-Month Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ben Assayag, Einor; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Ofek, Keren; Soreq, Lilach; Bova, Irena; Shopin, Ludmila; Berg, Ronan MG; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak; Bornstein, Natan M; Soreq, Hermona

    2010-01-01

    To date there is no diagnostic biomarker for mild stroke, although elevation of inflammatory biomarkers has been reported at early stages. Previous studies implicated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) involvement in stroke, and circulating AChE activity reflects inflammatory response, since acetylcholine suppresses inflammation. Therefore, carriers of polymorphisms that modify cholinergic activity should be particularly susceptible to inflammatory damage. Our study sought diagnostic values of AChE and Cholinergic Status (CS, the total capacity for acetylcholine hydrolysis) in suspected stroke patients. For this purpose, serum cholinesterase activities, butyrylcholinesterase-K genotype and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in 264 ischemic stroke patients and matched controls during the acute phase. AChE activities were lower (P < 0.001), and butyrylcholinesterase activities were higher in patients than in controls (P = 0.004). When normalized to sampling time from stroke occurrence, both cholinergic parameters were correlated with multiple inflammatory biomarkers, including fibrinogen, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (r = 0.713, r = 0.607; r = 0.421, r = 0.341; r = 0.276, r = 0.255; respectively; all P values < 0.001). Furthermore, very low AChE activities predicted subsequent nonsurvival (P = 0.036). Also, carriers of the unstable butyrylcholinesterase-K variant were more abundant among patients than controls, and showed reduced activity (P < 0.001). Importantly, a cholinergic score combining the two cholinesterase activities discriminated between 94.3% matched pairs of patients and controls, compared with only 75% for inflammatory measures. Our findings present the power of circulation cholinesterase measurements as useful early diagnostic tools for the occurrence of stroke. Importantly, these were considerably more distinctive than the inflammatory biomarkers, albeit closely associated with them, which may open new venues for stroke diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20464061

  9. Action Production Influences 12-Month-Old Infants' Attention to Others' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.; Gredeback, Gustaf; von Hofsten, Claes; Turek, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Recent work implicates a link between action control systems and action understanding. In this study, we investigated the role of the motor system in the development of visual anticipation of others' actions. Twelve-month-olds engaged in behavioral and observation tasks. "Containment activity", infants' spontaneous engagement in producing…

  10. Maternal Employment, Infant Child Care and Security of Attachment at Age 12 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, L. J.; Ungerer, J. A.

    This study examined the relationship between varying patterns of maternal employment, the use of child care, and the infant's establishment of a reciprocal, responsive relationship with the mother. Parental and non-parental caregivers were located within a family system to examine attachment theory within an ecological framework. The subjects were…

  11. Transposition/Fusion: A Clinician’s Dilemma and Challenge - 12 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dhaded, Sunil; Hegde, Prashant; Patil, Roopa; Dhaded, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Fusion or syndontia is a sequele of the union of two normal and separated tooth buds. Transposition refers to the interchange in the position of two permanent teeth within the same quadrant in the oral cavity. The simultaneous incidence of both these entities is a rare concurrence and warrants endodontic and surgical soft tissue correction. The following manuscript describes a case report of this rare combination and its multidisciplinary management for functional and esthetic correction PMID:26668493

  12. Language Differences at 12 Months in Infants Who Develop Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenby, DeWayne C.; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Huntington, Noelle; Prante, Matthew; Dale, Philip S.; Curtin, Suzanne; Henkel, Lisa; Iverson, Jana M.; Carver, Leslie; Dobkins, Karen; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Tagavi, Daina; Nelson, Charles A., III; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about early language development in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed prospective data from 346 infants, some of whom were at high risk for developing ASD, to determine if language differences could be detected at 12 months of age in the infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Analyses…

  13. Attention Demands Influence 10- and 12-Month-Old Infants' Perseverative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Hama; Forssman, Linda; Green, Dorota; Bohlin, Gunilla; von Hofsten, Claes

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attentional demand on infants' perseverative behavior in a noncommunicative looking version of an A-not-B task. The research aimed at clarifying age-related improvements in the attention process that presumably underlies the development of cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, forty 10-month-olds…

  14. 78 FR 65249 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... jurisdiction. On August 27, 2012, we published a 90-day finding in the Federal Register (77 FR 51767) that...; 68 FR 15100; March 28, 2003) to determine their certainty of implementation and effectiveness for... endangered species as ``any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant...

  15. 5 CFR 550.705 - Criteria for meeting the requirement for 12 months of continuous employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.705 Criteria... of continuous employment is met if, on the date of separation, an employee has held one or...

  16. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  17. Visual diagnosis: 12-month-old boy with persistent rash and lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Sears, William; Hodge, Bethany; Jones, Brooke; Thompson, Matthew; Vidwan, Navjyot

    2014-10-01

    Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is a self-limiting, papular or papulovesicular, symmetric, acral exanthem that typically presents subsequent to viral infection, bacterial infection, or immunization in a child 1 to 4 years old. The rash can persist for 2 to 10 weeks. Recent infection with Epstein-Barr virus is the most common serologic finding in patients who have developed GCS. The diagnosis is often made after the child has been unsuccessfully treated for a more common cause of an acral rash (eg, scabies). There are no pathognomonic laboratory or histopathologic findings. GCS, therefore, is still a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. The rash is self-limited, and treatment is usually not necessary. However, topical corticosteroids are anecdotally reported to reduce duration of rash. Oral antihistamines can be used to treat pruritus. Parents should be assured that resolution is almost always complete, scarring seldom occurs, and recurrence is rare. PMID:25274975

  18. Associations of Religiousness with 12-Month Prevalence of Drug Use and Drug-Related Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Loren

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that religious affiliation, attendance at religious services, and religious importance would be negatively associated with substance use and sexual behavior related to substance use. An additional hypothesis was tested to determine if age-related differences in the magnitude of these…

  19. 78 FR 48134 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... endangered under the ESA on 4 June 2013 (78 FR 33300). As part of the proposal we provided a 60-day public... FR 33300) in response to a petition submitted by WildEarth Guardians requesting we list six sawfish... for largetooth sawfish to codify the taxonomic reclassification of P. perotteti to P. pristis....

  20. Assessing Early Communication Skills at 12 Months: A Retrospective Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in…

  1. The NOνA experiment, the first 12 months of commissioning, operations and physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.

    2015-07-15

    The NOνA experiment is a long baseline neutrino experiment designed to make precision measurements of the oscillation probabilities for ν{sub µ} → ν{sub e} and ν{sub µ} → ν{sub µ} for both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. These measurements will provide new information on the neutrino mass hierarchy, improve our knowledge of whether θ{sub 23} is non-maximal and possibility provide information on the CP violating phase δ{sub CP} of the PMNS neutrino mixing matrix. We present the observations of the first neutrino event in the NOνA far and near detectors along with data obtained during the first year of detector commissioning and operations. We use the data to demonstrate the detector’s ability to identify electron and muon neutrino events and to reject cosmic ray induced backgrounds at a level of 4 × 10{sup 7}:1. New estimates for the signal and background sensitivities of the NOνA experiment during the first year of full detector running are presented.

  2. 76 FR 63419 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding, Proposed Listing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ..., pp. 1-19). On July 8, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 32510) our finding that the... 2004, p. 1132). Southern cattail may alter the wetland attributes, including geomorphology, fire...

  3. Infants' Attention to Patterned Stimuli: Developmental Change from 3 to 12 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courage, Mary L.; Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the development of look duration as a function of age and stimulus type, 14- to 52-week-old infants were shown static and dynamic versions of faces, Sesame Street material, and achromatic patterns for 20 s of accumulated looking. Heart rate was recorded during looking and parsed into stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and…

  4. Course of Depressive Symptoms Following a Workplace Injury: A 12-Month Follow-Up Update.

    PubMed

    Carnide, Nancy; Franche, Renée-Louise; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Côté, Pierre; Breslin, F Curtis; Severin, Colette N; Bültmann, Ute; Krause, Niklas

    2016-06-01

    Introduction To estimate the prevalence, incidence and course of depressive symptoms, their relationship with return-to-work, and prevalence of depression diagnosis/treatment 12 months following a lost-time workplace musculoskeletal injury. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 332 workers' compensation claimants with a back or upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder completed interviews at 1, 6 and 12 months post-injury. Participants self-reported they had not received a depression diagnosis 1 year pre-injury. Cutoff of 16 on the CES-D defined a high level of depressive symptoms. Self-reported data on depression diagnosis and treatment and work status since injury were collected. Results Cumulative incidence of high depressive symptom levels over 12 months was 50.3 % (95 % CI 44.9-55.7 %). At 12 months, 24.7 % (95 % CI 20.1-29.3 %) of workers exhibited high levels. Over 12 months, 49.7 % (95 % CI 44.3-55.1 %) had low levels at all 3 interviews, 14.5 % (95 % CI 10.7-18.2 %) had persistently high levels, and 25.6 % (95 % CI 20.9-30.3 %) demonstrated improvements. Among workers with low baseline levels, incidence of high levels at 12 months was 6.0 % (95 % CI 2.7-9.3 %). For workers with high baseline levels, 36.1 % (95 % CI 27.9-44.3 %) exhibited persistent high symptoms at 6 and 12 months, while 38.4 % (95 % CI 30.1-46.6 %) experienced low levels at 6 and 12 months. Problematic RTW outcomes were common among workers with a poor depressive symptom course. Among workers with persistent high symptoms, 18.8 % (95 % CI 7.7-29.8 %) self-reported receiving a depression diagnosis by 12 months and 29.2 % (95 % CI 16.3-42.0 %) were receiving treatment at 12 months. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are common in the first year following a lost-time musculoskeletal injury and a poor depressive symptom course is associated with problematic RTW outcomes 12 months post-injury. While symptoms appear to improve over time, the first 6 months appear to be important in establishing future symptom levels and may represent a window of opportunity for early screening. PMID:26324252

  5. Transposition/Fusion: A Clinician's Dilemma and Challenge - 12 Months Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dhaded, Sunil; Hegde, Prashant; Patil, Roopa; Dhaded, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Fusion or syndontia is a sequele of the union of two normal and separated tooth buds. Transposition refers to the interchange in the position of two permanent teeth within the same quadrant in the oral cavity. The simultaneous incidence of both these entities is a rare concurrence and warrants endodontic and surgical soft tissue correction. The following manuscript describes a case report of this rare combination and its multidisciplinary management for functional and esthetic correction. PMID:26668493

  6. 12-Month-Old Infants' Perception of Attention Direction in Static Video Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes; Dahlstrom, Emma; Fredriksson, Ylva

    2005-01-01

    Twelve-month-old infants' ability to perceive gaze direction in static video images was investigated. The images showed a woman who performed attention-directing actions by looking or pointing toward 1 of 4 objects positioned in front of her (2 on each side). When the model just pointed at the objects, she looked straight ahead, and when she just…

  7. Evaluation of an Innovative Post-Arrest Diversion Program: 12-Month Recidivism Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Wareham, Jennifer; Burgos, Catherimarty; Schmeidler, James; Hoge, Robert; Underwood, Lee

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of an evaluation study of a diversion program, operated by the Miami-Dade County Juvenile Assessment Center in Florida. The Post-Arrest Diversion (PAD) program represents an innovative approach to treatment and intervention within the juvenile justice system that utilizes standardized psychosocial risks and needs assessment…

  8. Spontaneous disinsertion of a multipiece foldable acrylic intraocular lens haptic 3 and 12 months after implantation.

    PubMed

    Por, Yong Ming; Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2004-05-01

    We report 2 cases of spontaneous postoperative haptic disinsertion with the Alcon AcrySof MA60BM posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL). A 14-year-old girl with a history of acute retinal necrosis and pars plana vitrectomy with lensectomy for retinal detachment repair had secondary implantation of a PC IOL in the ciliary sulcus. Three months later, the superior haptic disinserted from the optic and dislocated into the anterior chamber. In the second case, a 22-year-old man had lens aspiration and PC IOL implantation in the capsular bag. One year after surgery, the PC IOL had a similar problem, with the disinserted superior haptic remaining in the capsular bag while the optic and inferior haptic dislocated into the anterior chamber. In both patients, the PC IOLs were exchanged for rigid single-piece PC IOLs. The patients have had no further problems. PMID:15130659

  9. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  10. Effects of movement distance, duration, velocity, and type on action prediction in 12-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Daum, Moritz M; Gampe, Anja; Wronski, Caroline; Attig, Manja

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to test the influence of the spatial and temporal dynamics of observed manual actions on infants' action prediction. Twelve-month-old infants were presented with reach-and-transport actions performed by a human agent. Movement distance, duration, and - resulting from the two - movement velocity were systematically varied. Action prediction was measured via the latency of gaze arrival at target in relation to agent's hand. The results showed a general effect of all parameters on the infants' perception of goal-directed actions: Infants were more likely to predict the action goal the longer the movement distance was, the longer the movement duration was, and the slower the movement velocity was. In addition, they were more likely to predict the goal of a reaching than a transport action. The present findings extent previous findings by showing that infants are not only sensitive to differences in distances, durations, and velocities at early age but that these factors have a strong impact on the prediction of the goal of observed actions. PMID:27175908

  11. When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

  12. 75 FR 3711 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat; 12-month...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... critical habitat for elkhorn and staghorn corals (73 FR 72210). On January 6, 2009, we received a petition... corals may be warranted (74 FR 36995; July 27, 2009). In response to our 90-day finding we received... and elkhorn corals throughout their occupied U.S. ranges (73 FR 72210). Because these...

  13. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  14. 42 CFR 435.916 - Periodic redeterminations of Medicaid eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... circumstances that may change, at least every 12 months, however— (1) The agency may consider blindness as... beyond the definition of blindness contained in the plan; and (2) The agency may consider disability as... procedures designed to ensure that recipients make timely and accurate reports of any change in...

  15. Scaling limits of periodic monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explore the structure of singly periodic monopoles for different values of the size to period ratio. The transition between a chain of small monopoles and the approximately two dimensional chain of large monopoles takes us through a region with an unintuitive dependence on the periodic direction. The focus is mainly on the smooth SU(2) monopole of charge 2.

  16. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  17. Quasi-periodicity in relative quasi-periodic tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassò, Francesco; García-Naranjo, Luis C.; Giacobbe, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    At variance from the cases of relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits of dynamical systems with symmetry, the dynamics in relative quasi-periodic tori (namely, subsets of the phase space that project to an invariant torus of the reduced system on which the flow is quasi-periodic) is not yet completely understood. Even in the simplest situation of a free action of a compact and abelian connected group, the dynamics in a relative quasi-periodic torus is not necessarily quasi-periodic. It is known that quasi-periodicity of the unreduced dynamics is related to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, and sufficient conditions for it are virtually known only in a perturbation context. We provide a different, though equivalent, approach to this subject, based on the hypothesis of the existence of commuting, group-invariant lifts of a set of generators of the reduced torus. Under this hypothesis, which is shown to be equivalent to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, we give a complete description of the structure of the relative quasi-periodic torus, which is a principal torus bundle whose fibers are tori of a dimension which exceeds that of the reduced torus by at most the rank of the group. The construction can always be done in such a way that these tori have minimal dimension and carry ergodic flow.

  18. Current North American Indian Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Van Antwerp Holliday; And Others

    Approximately 150 newsletters, newspapers, and other periodicals are cited in this bibliography of current sources of information about or directed toward North American Indians. One-sentence descriptions of content, ordering information, and frequency of publication are provided. The majority of the periodicals cited emphasize current events of…

  19. 75 FR 39200 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Counsel, at stephen.sharfman@prc.gov or 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... rulemaking proceeding to consider a change in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic...

  20. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  1. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  2. Testing for periodicity of extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, David M.; Sepkoski, J. J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical techniques used by Raup and Sepkoski (1984 and 1986) to identify a 26-Myr periodicity in the biological extinction record for the past 250 Myr are reexamined, responding in detail to the criticisms of Stigler and Wagner (1987). It is argued that evaluation of a much larger set of extinction data using a time scale with 51 sampling intervals supports the finding of periodicity. In a reply by Sigler and Wagner, the preference for a 26-Myr period is attributed to a numerical quirk in the Harland et al. (1982) time scale, in which the subinterval boundaries are not linear interpolations between the stage boundaries but have 25-Myr periodicity. It is stressed that the results of the stringent statistical tests imposed do not disprove periodicity but rather indicate that the evidence and analyses presented so far are inadequate.

  3. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  4. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, M. J. S.

    1990-07-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  5. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  6. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  7. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  8. Periodical Vandalism: A Chronic Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Esther L.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the losses due to theft and mutilation in the periodicals collection at Brock University indicates that security needs to be tightened. Nine suggestions for improving security are offered, and six references are cited. (CHC)

  9. Declining levels of erythrocyte folate during the postpartum period among Hispanic women living on the Texas-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, K M; Redlinger, T E; Waller, D K

    2000-05-01

    Hispanic women have higher parity and shorter interbirth intervals than women of other ethnic groups. Thus, they are more likely to become pregnant relatively soon after giving birth, which may place these women at risk of low or deficient levels of specific nutrients. Folic acid is of particular concern because recent studies suggest that maternal use of folic acid supplements may be associated with better reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess folic acid levels in postpartum Hispanic women. Using a cross-sectional design, we measured erythrocyte folate values for 188 low-income Hispanic women 1-12 months postpartum who were receiving services at the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in El Paso, Texas. An interview was administered to collect information on diet, vitamin use, and method of infant feeding. Mean erythrocyte folate levels decreased from >1300 ng/ml during the first 4 months postpartum to a low of 1017 ng/ml by 12 months postpartum, for an overall decrease of approximately 23% (p = 0.004). Use of postpartum vitamin supplements was significantly associated with higher folate levels. However, only 35% of mothers used vitamins beyond 1 month postpartum. Study results suggest that these mothers may be at risk of developing low or deficient levels of folic acid during the postpartum period. Educational campaigns targeting these women as well as other groups of postpartum women should encourage them to comply with the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation that women of childbearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily. PMID:10868612

  10. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  11. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  12. On composites with periodic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemat-Nasser, S.; Iwakuma, T.; Hejazi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The overall moduli of a composite with an isotropic elastic matrix containing periodically distributed (anisotropic) inclusions or voids, can be expressed in terms of several infinite series which only depend on the geometry of the inclusions or voids, and hence can be computed once and for all for given geometries. For solids with periodic structures these infinite series play exactly the same role as does Eshelby's tensor for a single inclusion or void in an unbounded elastic medium. For spherical and circular-cylindrical geometries, the required infinite series are calculated and the results are tabulated. These are then used to estimate the overall elastic moduli when either the overall strains or the overall stresses are prescribed, obtaining the same results. These results are compared with other estimates and with experimental data. It is found that the model of composites with periodic structure yields estimates in excellent agreement with the experimental observations.

  13. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  14. Detection of latent sequence periodicities.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, E; Liuni, S; Frontali, C

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for the automatic detection of serial periodicities in a linear sequence. Its application to DNA subtelomeric sequences from two lower eukaryotes, P.falciparum and S.cerevisiae, reveals ordered patterns organised in hierarchical periodicities, not easily recognizable by other methods. The possible implications concerning the evolution of tandemly repetitive arrays are discussed in light of a model which involves, as successive steps, random repeat modification, the fusion of differently modified repeat versions into longer units, and the amplification of (and/or homogenization to) the more recent repeat units. PMID:2197595

  15. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  16. The Period of 2167 Erin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montigiana, N.; Benedetti, W.; Mannucci, M.; Riccetti, S.

    2008-09-01

    Analysis of data taken in March and April 2007 by groups from Osservatorio Astronomico Margherita Hack and the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire indicates a likely period of 5.7186 ± 0.0001 h for 2167 Erin. The amplitude of the lightcurve was 0.53 ± 0.02 mag.

  17. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  18. 78 FR 70904 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rulemaking... Counsel, at 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Petition...

  19. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...The Commission is establishing a docket to consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to a Postal Service rulemaking petition. Establishing this docket will allow the Commission to consider the Postal Service's proposal and comments from the...

  20. Periodicities of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-sky electron multiplier charge-coupled device airglow imager has been operative in Longyearbyen, Norway since October 2011. The imager captures 630.0 nm all-sky images with an exposure time of 4 s, which is about 10 times shorter than that achieved by conventional cooled CCD imagers. This allows us to visualize the structure of polar cap patches without blurring effects and better estimate their periodicities. We present, as one of the first results from the imager, an event of successive appearance of patches on the night of 21 December 2011. A time series of the optical intensity at zenith showed modulations having two distinguished periods, one at 40 min and the other at 5-12 min. One possible explanation is that such a coexistence of two different periodicities is a manifestation of simultaneous occurrence of patch generation processes on the 40 min periodicity was created by large-scale reconfiguration of the dayside convection pattern while the 5-12 min modulations were closely associated with mechanisms driven by pulsed reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. Such a combined effect of multiple patch generation processes may play a role in structuring patches; thus, it would be of particular importance for evaluating the space weather effects in the trans-ionospheric communications environment in the polar cap.

  1. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  2. 76 FR 30893 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in analytical principles. Proposal Three involves... proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ Proposal... of a Proceeding to Consider a Proposed Change in Analytic Principles (Proposal Three), May 18,...

  3. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  4. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  5. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  6. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  7. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  8. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  9. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  10. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  11. Noncoherent detection of periodic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The optimal Bayes detector for a general periodic waveform having uniform delay and additive white Gaussian noise is examined. It is shown that the detector is much more complex than that for the well known cases of pure sine waves (i.e. classical noncoherent detection) and narrowband signals. An interpretation of the optimal processing is presented, and several implementations are discussed. The results have application to the noncoherent detection of optical square waves.

  12. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  13. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  14. Risk factors during the prenatal period and the first year of life associated with overweight in 7-year-old low-income Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Rios-Castillo, Israel; Cerezo, Sheila; Corvalán, Camila; Martínez, Mario; Kain, Juliana

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify in low-income Chilean children with normal birthweight which factors occurring during the prenatal period and the first year are associated with overweight (OW)/obesity at 7 years. The sample included 652 7-year-olds from a larger cohort study. We collected anthropometric data at 0, 12 and 84 months, maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy characteristics, early feeding practices, number of siblings, birth order, breastfeeding, and timing of solid introduction information. We determined the residuals for z-scores for body mass index (BMI) (BAZ), weight/age and height/age0-12 months , run univariate analysis (X(2) or t-test) and multivariate logistic analyses (stepwise approach); P < 0.05 was considered significant. We evaluated the goodness of fit of the model using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and checked for overdispersion using the Pearson's X(2) . The odds of children being OW at 7 years increased if their mothers were OW before pregnancy, if born with a higher BAZ (increase of 18-74% per each additional unit of BAZ) and if their BAZ growth during the first year was higher (62-239% per each unit over the predicted BAZ increase). Higher birth order was protective (6-68% less risk for 2nd birth compared with 1st and 10-73% less for ≥3rd child). All other variables, including gender, were non-significant (P > 0.1). In low-income Chilean children with normal birth, four factors during the prenatal period and the first year were associated with OW at 7 years: pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI at birth, BMI gain between 0 and 12 months, and birth order. PMID:23241511

  15. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  16. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  17. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  18. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  19. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  20. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....