Science.gov

Sample records for 12-month prevalence rates

  1. Elevated 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence and Comorbidity Rates of Mood, Anxiety, and Alcohol Use Disorders in Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lianzheng; Jiang, Chao; Na, Jun; Li, Ning; Diao, Wenli; Gu, Yuan; Zhao, Li; Zou, Yan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Li; Mu, Huijuan; Liu, Yunyong; Yu, Liya; Yang, Xiaoli; Pan, Guowei

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess whether Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) had a significantly elevated prevalence of psychiatric disorders compared to urban males in China. Methods 807 MSM were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in urban area of northeast China. Psychiatric disorders were assessed employing the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Version 1.0) according to the criteria of the DSM-III-R. Results Chinese MSM had a significantly elevated standardized prevalence ratios (SPR) for lifetime prevalence of any disorder (SPR = 2.8; 95%CI: 2.5–3.2), mood disorder (SPR = 3.0; 95%CI: 2.3–3.7), anxiety disorder (SPR = 5.5; 95% CI: 4.6–6.5), alcohol use disorder (SPR = 2.4, 95%CI: 2.0–2.8), and combination of disorders (SPR = 4.2; 95%CI: 3.4–5.1). Conclusions Chinese MSM had significantly elevated prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders. RDS is a suitable sampling method for psychiatric epidemiological survey in MSM population. PMID:23637731

  2. Surviving social assistance: 12-month prevalence of depression in sole-support parents receiving social assistance

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, C; Browne, G; Roberts, J; Ewart, B; Schuster, M; Underwood, J; Flynn-Kingston, S; Rennick, K; Bell, B; Gafni, A; Watt, S; Ashford, Y; Jamieson, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally recognized that poverty and depression can coexist among single parents receiving social assistance, there is insufficient research on this topic. The goals of this study therefore were to investigate the prevalence, correlates and health care expenditures associated with depression among sole-support parents receiving social assistance. METHODS: Sole-support parents who had applied for social assistance in 2 regions of southwestern Ontario were included in the study. Depression was diagnosed with the 1994 University of Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview short forms. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence rate of depressive disorder among the parents interviewed was 45.4% (345/760). A total of 247 (32.5%) had major depressive disorder alone, 19 (2.5%) had dysthymia, and 79 (10.4%) had both major depressive disorder and dysthymia ("double depression"). Those with major depressive disorder, particularly double depression, had significantly higher rates of coexisting psychiatric disorder than those without depressive disorders. Parents with depression reported higher rates of developmental delay and behaviour problems in their children than parents without depression. Expenditures for health care services were higher for parents with depression and for their children than for parents without depressive disorder and their children. INTERPRETATION: Single parents receiving social assistance have high rates of depression. Such parents with depression also have higher rates of other psychiatric disorders and higher expenditures for health care services, and their children have higher rates of developmental delay and behaviour problems. PMID:9559013

  3. PREVALENCE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN A 12-MONTH LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN DAIRY CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected regularly from 30 calves from birth until 12 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. Samples were collected weekly the first 8 weeks after calves were born, biweekly for calves 3 to 5 months of age, an...

  4. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  5. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  6. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Cibella, Fabio; Le-Houezec, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy) that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old) making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours) were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice) to more advanced devices (MODs) was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month) as well as a trend in decreasing the e-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month). Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates. PMID:25811767

  7. Slow rates of habituation predict greater zBMI gains over 12 months in lean children

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Slow rates of habituation are related to greater energy intake, and cross-sectionally to body weight. The present study is designed to assess whether slow rates of habituation are prospectively related to zBMI change over a 12 month period in 66 lean 8–12 year-old children, and whether the rate of habituation is a stable behavioral phenotype. Results showed slower rates of habituation predicted greater zBMI change, controlling for child sex, age, initial zBMI, dietary awareness and minority status. In addition, the rate of habituation was stable over the year of observation. These data suggest that slow rates of habituation may be a risk factor for weight gain and the development of obesity. Future research is needed to understand the mechanism for this effect, and assess whether the habituation phenotype interacts with other behavioral phenotypes, such as food reinforcement, to influence increases in zBMI. PMID:21741020

  8. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  9. Prevalence, incidence and course of lower extremity injuries in runners during a 12-month follow-up period.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, D; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; van Middelkoop, M; Verhagen, A P

    2014-12-01

    To describe the incidence, 12-month prevalence, and course of lower extremity injuries that occurred during and after the Amgen Singelloop Breda in 2009. The design was based on a prospective cohort study with a population-based setting. In total, 3605 registered runners received a web-based baseline questionnaire of which 713 participants completed and returned it. Information about previous injuries, training programs, and demographic data were gathered at baseline. Site and intensity of running injuries and occurrence of new injuries were obtained from five post-race questionnaires. The main outcome measurement was lower extremity injury. The incidence of running injuries during the Amgen Singelloop Breda itself was 7.8%; most of these injuries occurred in the calf muscle, thigh, and knee joint. Three-month incidence of injuries during follow-up varied between 13.5% and 16.3%. During the 12-month follow-up period, 277 new running injuries were reported. Runners who ran more than 10 km are more susceptible to injury in comparison with runners who ran short distances (10 km or less). In total, 69.1% of running injuries resolves within 10 days. Running injuries are very common among recreational runners. Injuries mostly occur in the knee, thigh, and calf muscle. PMID:23957385

  10. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Provide nationally representative data on the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among African American and Caribbean black adolescents in the United States. Method Data on nonfatal suicidal behavior among 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 years are from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent, a nationally representative household survey of adults with an attached adolescent sample conducted between February 2001 and June 2003. Results Nationwide black adolescents reported having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5% for suicidal ideation and 2.7% for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt was 3.2% and 1.4%, respectively. Among all respondents, 4% of black American adolescents and 7% of female subjects were projected to attempt suicide by age 17 years. African American adolescents were approximately five times more likely than Caribbean black adolescents to attempt suicide. Almost half of the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent respondents who reported a suicide attempt had never met criteria for any of the DSM-IV disorders by the time of their attempts. Conclusions Clinicians should be trained to screen for suicidal behavior, even among those without DSM-IV disorders, when treating black adolescents, particularly female subjects. In addition, preventive efforts should consider ethnic differences in suicide risk and targeting nonclinical settings. PMID:19182692

  11. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 12 months; Growth milestones for children - 12 months; Childhood growth milestones - 12 months ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS A 12-month-old child is expected to: Be 3 times ...

  12. Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Louis A; Trainor, Laurel J; Santesso, Diane L

    2003-06-01

    We examined the development of infants' regional electrocortical (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life. Separate groups of infants were seen at 3 (n=33), 6 (n=42), 9 (n=52), and 12 (n=40) months of age at which time regional EEG and ECG responses were continuously recorded during a baseline condition and during the presentation of three orchestral pieces that were known to vary in affective valence and intensity (happy, sad, fear). Overall, there were two important findings. First, we found that although the overall amount of EEG 4-8 Hz power increased between 3 and 12 months, the distribution of EEG power changed across age, with the younger infants (3- and 6-month-olds) showing no difference between frontal and parietal regions, but the older infants (9- and 12-month-olds) showing relatively more activation at frontal than at parietal sites. This development likely reflects the maturation of frontal lobe function. Second, we found that the presentation of affective music significantly increased brain activity at 3 months of age, had seemingly little effect at 6 and 9 months, and significantly attenuated brain activity at 12 months. Findings suggest that there is a clear developmental change in the effect of music on brain activity in the first year, with music having a "calming" influence on infants by the end of the first year of life. PMID:12812802

  13. Recovery 3 and 12 months after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Maurice; Peters, Madelon L.; Schepers, Jan; Maas, Jacques W.M.; Tournois, Fleur; van Suijlekom, Hans A.; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is 1 important aspect of surgical recovery. To improve perioperative care and postoperative recovery knowledge on predictors of impaired recovery is essential. The aim of this study is to assess predictors and epidemiological data of CPSP, physical functioning (SF-36PF, 0–100), and global surgical recovery (global surgical recovery index, 0–100%) 3 and 12 months after hysterectomy for benign indication. A prospective multicenter cohort study was performed. Sociodemographic, somatic, and psychosocial data were assessed in the week before surgery, postoperatively up to day 4, and at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Generalized linear model (CPSP) and linear-mixed model analyses (SF-36PF and global surgical recovery index) were used. Baseline data of 468 patients were collected, 412 (88%) patients provided data for 3-month evaluation and 376 (80%) patients for 12-month evaluation. After 3 and 12 months, prevalence of CPSP (numeric rating scale ≥ 4, scale 0–10) was 10.2% and 9.0%, respectively, SF-36PF means (SD) were 83.5 (20.0) and 85.9 (20.2), global surgical recovery index 88.1% (15.6) and 93.3% (13.4). Neuropathic pain was reported by 20 (5.0%) patients at 3 months and 14 (3.9%) patients at 12 months. Preoperative pain, surgery-related worries, acute postsurgical pain on day 4, and surgery-related infection were significant predictors of CPSP. Baseline level, participating center, general psychological robustness, indication, acute postsurgical pain, and surgery-related infection were significant predictors of SF-36PF. Predictors of global surgical recovery were baseline expectations, surgery-related worries, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, type of anesthesia, acute postsurgical pain, and surgery-related infection. Several predictors were identified for CPSP, physical functioning, and global surgical recovery. Some of the identified factors are modifiable and optimization of patients’ preoperative

  14. The Moderating Effect of Age on the 12-Month Prevalence of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Adults with a Lifetime History of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simning, Adam; Conwell, Yeates; Mohile, Supriya G.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine how age may modulate the association of a history of cancer with a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. Design Population-based, cross-sectional surveys. Setting The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) occurred in the United States and were conducted in 2001-2003. Participants CPES included 16,423 adult participants, of whom 702 reported a cancer history. Measurements The Composite International Diagnostic Interview evaluated the presence of a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. Results Among those with a cancer history, older adults (≥ 60 years old) were less likely than younger adults (18-59 years old) to have a 12-month history of an anxiety or depressive disorder. Compared to their peers without cancer, younger adults with a cancer history had more anxiety (23.8% vs. 13.9%) and depressive (16.0% vs. 9.5%) disorders, whereas older adults with a cancer history had lower levels of anxiety (3.7% vs. 6.3%) and depressive (1.9% vs. 3.9%) disorders. In multivariable modeling, there was a statistically significant interaction between age group and cancer history, with the risk for anxiety and depressive disorders elevated in the younger age group with a cancer history (OR=5.84 and OR=6.13, respectively), but decreased in the older age group with a cancer history (OR=0.55 and OR=0.45). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there is considerable age-dependent variation with regard to anxiety and depressive disorders in adults with a cancer history. Investigation of the mechanisms contributing to this apparent age differential in risk could have important mental illness treatment implications in this population. PMID:24080385

  15. Changes over 12 months in eye glances during secondary task engagement among novice drivers.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G; Ehsani, Johnathon; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    During their first year of driving, crash rates among novice drivers are very high but decline rapidly. However, it is not clear what skills or knowledge they are acquiring in this period. Secondary task engagement while driving is a contributing factor to many traffic collisions and some of the elevated crash risk among novices could be explained by greater prevalence or longer periods of eyes off the road while engaging in these non-driving tasks. The current study looked at the eye glances of novice teen drivers engaging in secondary tasks on a test track at 0 and 12 months of licensure and compared their performance with their parents. Novices improved from 0 to 12 months on their longest single glance off the forward roadway and total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, but parents remained stable. Compared with their parents, the longest single glance off the forward roadway was longer for novices at 0 months, but by 12 months there was no difference between the groups. However, for total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, novices performed the same as their parents at 0 months and actually had shorter times at 12 months. These findings could reflect the combined development of driving skills over 12 months and the relative experience that modern teenagers have with portable electronic devices. The results suggest that novice drivers are particularly poor at engaging with secondary tasks while driving. PMID:27177392

  16. Language Development: 8 to 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Print Share Language Development: 8 to 12 Months Page Content Article Body Toward the end of ... notice the coos, gurgles, and screeches of earlier months now giving way to recognizable syllables, such as “ ...

  17. [Prevalence of experience of physical and psychological violence in the general population in the past 12 months. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Lange, Cornelia; Starker, Anne; von der Lippe, Elena; Hölling, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of violence may have considerable psychosocial and health implications. A violence screening tool was implemented in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) to depict the perpetrators' and victims' point of view. The study participants were between 18 and 64 years old (n = 5939). The aim of this article is to assess the percentage of people who experienced physical and psychological violence in the last 12 months or who suffered negative effects on their quality of life as a consequence or who were perpetrators of multiple acts of violence. The characteristics of victims, offenders, and their conflict partners are described. Furthermore, specific constellations of violence experience with regard to health-related quality of life are described. Finally, the association between being a victim of violence and different factors is estimated. In total, 2.7% of women and 4.3% of men reported multiple experiences of physical violence in the last 12 months or having their lives negatively impacted as a consequence of violence. Experience of psychological violence was reported by 18.9% of women and 15.4% of men. Women are more likely than men to be both perpetrator and victim within the family. Men are more likely than women to be both the perpetrator and victim outside of the family environment. Regardless of whether they are the victim or perpetrator of violence, the psychological well-being is significantly worse than those of people who did not experience violence. Experience of violence in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of becoming victim or perpetrator of violence later on in life. The findings presented here describe the psychological and physical experience of violence as one part of violence committed in the whole population. Some prevention advice is also presented. PMID:26525854

  18. Breastfeeding beyond 12 months. An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Piovanetti, Y

    2001-02-01

    A decade ago, child psychiatrist Coello-Novello, in her term as Surgeon General of the United States, said, "It's the lucky baby, I feel, who continues to nurse until he's two." The accumulated evidence supports her statement. The understanding of the benefits of breastfeeding beyond 12 months should support the cultural change in which eventually prolonged breastfeeding becomes normal. PMID:11236726

  19. Reduced Cognitive Function Predicts Functional Decline in Patients with Heart Failure over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown. Aims This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population. Methods 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Activities of Daily Living Scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody, including total, instrumental, and basic ADLs. Results HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADLs, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADLs from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p < .05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (β = .15, p = .049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p < .05 for all). Conclusion The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

  20. BRAVISSIMO: 12-month results from a large scale prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Callaert, J; Maene, L; Beelen, R; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Schroë, H; Lauwers, G; Lansink, W; Vanslembroeck, K; D'archambeau, O; Hendriks, J; Lauwers, P; Vermassen, F; Randon, C; Van Herzeele, I; De Ryck, F; De Letter, J; Lanckneus, M; Van Betsbrugge, M; Thomas, B; Deleersnijder, R; Vandekerkhof, J; Baeyens, I; Berghmans, T; Buttiens, J; Van Den Brande, P; Debing, E; Rabbia, C; Ruffino, A; Tealdi, D; Nano, G; Stegher, S; Gasparini, D; Piccoli, G; Coppi, G; Silingardi, R; Cataldi, V; Paroni, G; Palazzo, V; Stella, A; Gargiulo, M; Muccini, N; Nessi, F; Ferrero, E; Pratesi, C; Fargion, A; Chiesa, R; Marone, E; Bertoglio, L; Cremonesi, A; Dozza, L; Galzerano, G; De Donato, G; Setacci, C

    2013-04-01

    The BRAVISSIMO study is a prospective, non-randomized, multi-center, multi-national, monitored trial, conducted at 12 hospitals in Belgium and 11 hospitals in Italy. This manuscript reports the findings up to the 12-month follow-up time point for both the TASC A&B cohort and the TASC C&D cohort. The primary endpoint of the study is primary patency at 12 months, defined as a target lesion without a hemodynamically significant stenosis on Duplex ultrasound (>50%, systolic velocity ratio no greater than 2.0) and without target lesion revascularization (TLR) within 12 months. Between July 2009 and September 2010, 190 patients with TASC A or TASC B aortoiliac lesions and 135 patients with TASC C or TASC D aortoiliac lesions were included. The demographic data were comparable for the TASC A/B cohort and the TASC C/D cohort. The number of claudicants was significantly higher in the TASC A/B cohort, The TASC C/D cohort contains more CLI patients. The primary patency rate for the total patient population was 93.1%. The primary patency rates at 12 months for the TASC A, B, C and D lesions were 94.0%, 96.5%, 91.3% and 90.2% respectively. No statistical significant difference was shown when comparing these groups. Our findings confirm that endovascular therapy, and more specifically primary stenting, is the preferred treatment for patients with TASC A, B, C and D aortoiliac lesions. We notice similar endovascular results compared to surgery, however without the invasive character of surgery. PMID:23558659

  1. Birth prevalence rates of skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Roth, M P; Alembik, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias which can be diagnosed in the perinatal period or during pregnancy. Using a population-based register of congenital anomalies, a prevalence rate of 3.22 0/000 was observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.64 0/000, 1/15,000 births), thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis (0.28 0/000). The mutation rate for achondroplasia was higher in our material than in the other studies: 3.3 x 10(-5) per gamete per generation. Our study demonstrates that prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible in some skeletal dysplasias. PMID:2785882

  2. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  3. Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... baby visits during this period, once at 9 months and again at 12 months . If you have ...

  4. Course and Determinants of Anosognosia in Alzheimer's Disease: A 12-Month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Reñé-Ramírez, Ramón; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi; Conde-Sala, Josep Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with greater cognitive impairment and more behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study examines the incidence, persistence, and remission rates of anosognosia over a 12-month period, as well as the related risk factors. This was an observational 12-month prospective study. The longitudinal sample comprised 177 patients with mild or moderate AD, and their respective caregivers. Anosognosia was assessed using the Anosognosia Questionnaire in Dementia, and we also evaluated cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), functional disability (Disability Assessment in Dementia), and the presence of BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the variables associated with the incidence, persistence and remission of anosognosia. The prevalence of anosognosia was 39.5% (95% CI = 32.1-47.1) at baseline. At 12 months, incidence was 38.3% (95% CI = 28.6-48.0), persistence was 80.0% (95% CI = 69.9-90.1) and remission was 20.0% (95% CI = 9.9-30.1). The regression model identified lower age, more education, and the presence of delusions as variables associated with incidence, and more education, lower instrumental DAD score, and disinhibition as variables associated with persistence. No variables were associated with remission (n = 14). The presence of anosognosia in AD patients is high. Education and certain neuropsychiatric symptoms may explain a greater and earlier incidence of anosognosia. However, anosognosia also increases with greater cognitive impairment and disease severity. PMID:26890611

  5. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at 3 months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at 3 months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing. PMID:23216358

  6. Early response to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids as a predictor of 12-month treatment responder status and COPD exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Calverley, Peter M; Postma, Dirkje S; Anzueto, Antonio R; Make, Barry J; Eriksson, Göran; Peterson, Stefan; Jenkins, Christine R

    2016-01-01

    Background Early treatment response markers, for example, improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, may help clinicians to better manage patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the prevalence of clinically important improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ scores after 2-month budesonide/formoterol or formoterol treatment and whether such improvements predict subsequent improvements and exacerbation rates. Methods This post hoc analysis is based on data from three double-blind, randomized studies in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD receiving twice-daily budesonide/formoterol or formoterol alone for 6 or 12 months. Prebronchodilator FEV1 and SGRQ total score were measured before treatment and at 2 and 12 months; COPD exacerbation rates were measured during months 2–12. Responders were defined by ≥100 mL improvement in prebronchodilator FEV1 and ≥4-point decrease in SGRQ total score. Results Overall, 2,331 and 1,799 patients were included in the 0–2- and 0–12-month responder analyses, respectively, and 2,360 patients in the 2–12-month exacerbation rate analysis. At 2 months, 35.1% of patients were FEV1 responders and 44.3% were SGRQ responders. The probability of response was significantly greater with budesonide/formoterol than with formoterol or placebo for both parameters. Two-month responders had a greater chance of 12-month response than 2-month nonresponders for both FEV1 (odds ratio, 5.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.14–7.50) and SGRQ (odds ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.83–5.31). Two-month response in FEV1 (P<0.001), but not SGRQ (P=0.11), was associated with greater reductions in exacerbation risk. Conclusion Early FEV1 and SGRQ treatment responses relate to their changes at 12 months. FEV1 response, but not SGRQ response, at 2 months predicts the risk of a future COPD exacerbation in some, but not all patients. This is

  7. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  8. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Maria; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Liguori, Giorgio; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Capasso, Lorenzo; D'Amario, Claudio; Boccia, Stefania; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. Design Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. Data Sources Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. Methods Adults (30–75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. Main Outcome Measures Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. Data Synthesis We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. Results Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35–8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). Conclusions Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate

  9. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... Much Should My Baby Eat? By about 8 months old, most babies are pros at handling the ...

  10. Effects of Miniscalpel-Needle Release on Chronic Neck Pain: A Retrospective Analysis with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic neck pain is a highly prevalent condition, and is often treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Limited clinical studies with short-term follow-up have shown promising efficacy of acupuncture as well as miniscalpel-needle (MSN) release. In this retrospective study, we examined whether MSN release could produce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic neck pain. Methods We retrieved the medical records of all patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain at this institution during a period from May 2012 to December 2013. Only cases with the following information at prior to, and 1, 6, and 12 months after the treatment, were included in the analysis: neck disability index (NDI), numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), and active cervical range of motion (CROM). The primary analysis of interest is comparison of the 12-month measures with the baseline. Patients who took analgesic drugs or massage within 2 weeks prior to assessment were excluded from the analysis. For MSN release, tender points were identified manually by an experienced physician, and did not necessarily follow the traditional acupuncture system. MSN was inserted vertically (parallel to the spine) until breaking through resistance and patient reporting of distention, soreness or heaviness. The depth of the needling ranged from 10 to 50 mm. The release was carried out by moving the MSN up and down 3–5 times without rotation. Results A total of 559 cases (patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain) were screened. The number of cases with complete information (NDI, NPRS, and CROM at baseline, 1, 6 and 12 months after last treatment) was 180. After excluding the cases with analgesic treatment or massage within 2 weeks of assessment (n = 53), a total of 127 cases were included in data analysis. The number of MSN release session was 7 (range: 4–11). At 12 months after the treatment, both NPRS and NDI were significantly lower

  11. Safety for Your Child: 6 to 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Safety for Your Child: 6 to 12 Months Page Content Article Body ​ Did you know that ... may climb before walking, or walk with support months before you expect. Your child will grasp at ...

  12. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  13. 12-Month-Olds Produce Others' Intended but Unfulfilled Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Following Meltzoff's (1995) behavioral reenactment paradigm, this study investigated the ability of 12-month-olds (N = 44) to reproduce a model's attempted-but-failed actions on objects. Testing was conducted using a novel set of objects designed to enable young infants to readily identify the potential outcome of the model's actions. Infants who…

  14. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  15. Walking and Eating Behavior of Toddlers at 12 Months Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Naoko; Akimoto, Yuko; Hirose, Toshiya; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko; Minami, Tetsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Locomotive and eating behavior of 52 toddlers was observed at 12 months old in a nursery school and investigated in relation to the acquisition of independent walking. The toddlers who acquired walking ate more by themselves using the hands than the toddlers who did not start walking. This suggested that acquisition of walking was associated with…

  16. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05) and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001). Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05), simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001) and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05) were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05) and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001) were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  17. Self-help smoking cessation and maintenance programs: a comparative study with 12-month follow-up by the American Lung Association.

    PubMed

    Davis, A L; Faust, R; Ordentlich, M

    1984-11-01

    One thousand two hundred thirty seven smokers responding to lung association announcements in five geographic areas were randomly assigned to one of four groups and mailed American Lung Association materials: 1) leaflets (L); 2) leaflets plus maintenance manual (L + M); 3) cessation manual (C); and 4) cessation and maintenance manuals (C + M). Five telephone interviews over one year achieved a 95 per cent follow-up completion rate. Nonrespondents as well as exclusive cigar and pipe users were classified as smokers. Twenty per cent quit initially, with 5 per cent continually abstinent in (C + M) at 12 months vs 2 per cent in (L) (p less than .05). Nonsmoking prevalence rates (no tobacco smoking in the past month), on the other hand, gradually increased after six months; at 12 months those with the maintenance component, (L + M) and (C + M), had higher rates (18 per cent) than (L) (12 per cent) or (C) (15 per cent). Leaflets and manual alone were least cost effective. Rising nonsmoking prevalence rates observed in all groups suggest that successful attempts to quit increased over time and that a contributing factor might have been the follow-up method. Although achieving lower quit rates than methods requiring attendance at a course, the self-help intervention has the advantages of greater availability, flexibility, and in some instances lower cost. PMID:6437257

  18. The birth prevalence rates for the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Orioli, I M; Castilla, E E; Barbosa-Neto, J G

    1986-08-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias that can be recognised in the perinatal period. Using the data base of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), for the years 1978 to 1983, on 349 470 births (live and stillbirths), a crude prevalence rate of 2.3/10 000 was observed. However, several indications of under-registration suggest that the real value is about twice that observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia, with a prevalence rate between 0.5 and 1.5/10 000 births, the thanatophoric dysplasia/achondrogenesis group (0.2 and 0.5/10 000 births), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.4/10 000 births). The mutation rate for autosomal dominant achondroplasia was estimated at between 1.72 and 5.57 X 10(-5) per gamete per generation. PMID:3746832

  19. Metacognitive functioning predicts positive and negative symptoms over 12 months in first episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew I; Macbeth, Angus; Schwannauer, Matthias; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are a major source of impairment and distress but both pharmacological and psychological treatment options provide only modest benefit. Developing more effective psychological treatments for negative symptoms will require a more sophisticated understanding of the psychological processes that are implicated in their development and maintenance. We extended previous work by demonstrating that metacognitive functioning is related to negative symptom expression across the first 12 months of first episode psychosis (FEP). Previous studies in this area have either been cross-sectional or have used much older participants with long-standing symptoms. In this study, forty-five FEP participants were assessed three times over 12 months and provided data on PANSS rated symptoms, premorbid adjustment, metacognitive functioning, and DUP. Step-wise linear regression showed that adding metacognition scores to known predictors of negative symptoms (baseline symptom severity, gender, DUP, and premorbid academic and social adjustment) accounted for 62% of the variance in PANSS negative symptom scores at six months and 38% at 12 months. The same predictors also explained 47% of the variance in positive symptoms at both six and 12 months. However, exploration of the simple correlations between PANSS symptom scores and metacognition suggests a stronger univariate relationship between metacognition and negative symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that problems with mental state processing may be important determinants of negative symptom expression from the very early stages of psychosis. These results provide further evidence that metacognitive functioning is a potentially relevant target for psychological interventions. PMID:24725651

  20. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  1. Clinical performance of Class II adhesive restorations in pulpectomized primary molars: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    Zulfikaroglu, Burcu Togay; Atac, Atila Stephan; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to present the 12-month results of a prospective, randomized study evaluating the clinical and radiographic success rates of Class II adhesive restorations in pulpectomized primary molars. A total of 75 restorations were placed over root canal-treated primary molars, filled with a calcium hydroxide paste. The restorative systems tested were: (1) group 1: amalgam (negative control); (2) group 2: a hybrid resin composite (TPH, Dentsply) with prior acid conditioning and bonding with an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Prime&Bond NT, Dentsply); (3) group 3: a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract, Dentsply) bonded with Prime&Bond NT; (4) group 4: Dyract with prior nonrinse conditioner (NRC) treatment and bonding with Prime&Bond NT; and (5) group 5: a polyacid-modified resin composite (F2000) in conjunction with a self-etch adhesive (Prompt-L-Pop, 3M/ESPE). The restorations were evaluated clinically using the modified USPHS/Ryge criteria at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months. Radiographic evaluations were made in accordance with predetermined criteria. During the evaluation period, 12 teeth (group1=4, group2=1, group3=4, group4=3, and group5=2) were extracted due to radiographic evidence of failure. There was no difference between groups regarding the clinical evaluation criteria (P>.05) except marginal discoloration at 9 and 12 months (P<.05). The overall success rate at 12 months was 81% (group 1=73%, group 2=93%, group 3=73%, group 4=80%, and group 5=87%). Teeth restored with the resin composite+total-etch/bonding (group 2), followed by those with F2000+self-etch adhesive (group 5) exhibited the highest clinical and radiographic success rates. Radiographic failures observed beneath failed restorations were strongly suggestive of coronal microleakage. PMID:18505646

  2. Implementing personalized medicine with asymmetric information on prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Juárez-Castelló, Carmelo A; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Although personalized medicine is becoming the new paradigm to manage some diseases, the economics of personalized medicine have only focused on assessing the efficiency of specific treatments, lacking a theoretical framework analyzing the interactions between pharmaceutical firms and healthcare systems leading to the implementation of personalized treatments. We model the interaction between the hospitals and the manufacturer of a new treatment as an adverse selection problem where the firm does not have perfect information on the prevalence across hospitals of the genetic characteristics of the patients making them eligible to receive a new treatment. As a result of the model, hospitals with high prevalence rates benefit from the information asymmetry only when the standard treatment is inefficient when applied to the patients eligible to receive the new treatment. Otherwise, information asymmetry has no value. Personalized medicine may be fully or partially implemented depending on the proportion of high prevalence hospitals. PMID:27539222

  3. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    PubMed

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest. PMID:25879476

  4. Stress fracture injury in female endurance athletes in the United Kingdom: A 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, R L; Brooke-Wavell, K; Summers, G D; Cameron, N; Peirce, N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of stress fracture (SF) incidence are limited in number and geographical location; this study determined the incidence of SF injury in female endurance athletes based in the United Kingdom. A total of 70 athletes aged between 18 and 45 years were recruited and prospectively monitored for 12 months. Questionnaires at baseline and 12 months assessed SF, menstrual and training history, eating psychopathology, and compulsive exercise. Peak lower leg muscle strength was assessed in both legs using an isometric muscle rig. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, spine, hip, and radius was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Among the 61 athletes who completed the 12-month monitoring, two sustained a SF diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, giving an incidence rate (95% confidence intervals) of 3.3 (0.8, 13.1) % of the study population sustaining a SF over 12 months. The SF cases were 800 m runners aged 19 and 22 years, training on average 14.2 h a week, eumenorrheic with no history of menstrual dysfunction. Case 1 had a higher than average energy intake and low eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise scores, while the reverse was true in case 2. BMD in both cases was similar to mean values in the non-SF group. The incidence of SF in our female endurance athlete population based in the United Kingdom was 3.3%, which is lower than previously reported. Further work is needed to confirm the current incidence of SF and evaluate the associated risk factors. PMID:25892560

  5. Paliperidone Palmitate and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Schizophrenia: A 12-Month Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gianluca; Pessina, Enrico; Martini, Azzurra; Di Salvo, Gabriele; Maina, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Oral and long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics are known to be associated with a high risk of metabolic adverse effects. Together with other drug treatments, poor lifestyle choices, and genetic liability, they contribute to development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which occurs in nearly one third of patients with schizophrenia.The primary objective of this multicenter prospective observational study was to explore the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 60 real-world patients treated with paliperidone palmitate (PP) over a period of 12 months. The secondary objectives were to assess other tolerability aspects and the efficacy of PP on schizophrenic symptoms.The proportion of patients with MetS at baseline (33%) did not significantly change neither at 6 (39.0%) nor at 12 months (29.5%) of PP treatment. The same applies to each individual component of MetS. We found a slight but statistically significant increase in body mass index (26.3 ± 6.0 vs 27.1 ± 4.6, P = 0.031) and of waist circumference (98.2 ± 17.9 vs 100.3 ± 15.9, P = 0.021) from baseline to end point. Weight gain was detected in approximately 15% of patients.At least 1 mild or moderate adverse event was found in 71.3%, 88.0%, and 52.1% of patients, respectively, at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A significant improvement in schizophrenic symptoms emerged by means of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and subscale scores.Together with previous literature findings, our results seem to indicate that PP could be a valid therapeutic option for patients with a severe disorder and with a high metabolic risk profile. PMID:27043122

  6. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure of surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for ferric sulfate (FS), electrosurgery (ES) and laser pulpotomy in human primary molars. Materials and methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 30 primary molars indicated for pulpotomy in children aged 4 to 10 years were treated using either a FS (10 teeth), ES technique (10 teeth) and laser (10 teeth). Following the pulpotomy, the teeth were evaluated for clinical and radiographic success at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on the basis of the presence of pain, sinus, mobility, internal and external resorption, periapical radiolucency, calcification in the canal and bone loss. Statistical analysis: The data were assessed with Chi-square test. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, both clinical and radiographic success rates were 100% in the laser group but only 80% in both ES and FS groups. There was statistically significant difference between the success rates of three groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Laser pulpotomy showed better clinical as well as radiographical results than ES and FS pulpotomy. Laser pulpotomy was also found superior in terms of operating time, patient cooperation, ease of use and pain. Although results of the study showed the failure rates for electrosurgical pulpotomy to be equal to those for FS pulpotomy, electrosurgical pulpotomy being a nonpharmacological technique considered more favorable. Further studies using larger sample size and longer evaluation periods are suggested. How to cite this article: Gupta G, Rana V, Srivastava N, Chandna P. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):18-21. PMID:26124576

  7. Prevalence of Rate-Dependent Behaviors in Cardiac Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. Martin; Bahar, Sonya; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    1999-04-01

    We explore the rate-dependent dynamic response of periodically paced bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) cardiac muscle. Alternans (2:2 behavior) occur in 35% of animals and 2:1<-->1:1 bistability in 74% of animals. In addition, we observe 2:2<-->2:1 bistablility. We discuss the implications of these results for two map-based models of cardiac dynamics. The high prevalence of bistability suggests that this dynamical behavior must be accounted for in the design of closed-loop feedback protocols to stabilize cardiac dynamics.

  8. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alterman, Toni; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Methods Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002–2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Results Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Conclusions Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Clinical significance Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace. PMID:24907896

  9. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to total breastfeeding durations of 12 months or less by parous women

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Susan J; Wilson, Louise F; Nagle, Christina M; Green, Adele C; Olsen, Catherine M; Bain, Christopher J; Pandeya, Nirmala; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and number of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to parous women having breastfed for total durations of ≤12 months. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of breast cancers (the only cancer site with convincing evidence of causal association) associated with women breastfeeding for ≤12 months in total, using standard formulae incorporating breastfeeding prevalence data, relative risks associated with breastfeeding and cancer incidence. We also estimated the proportion change in disease incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that might have occurred under two hypothetical scenarios of women breastfeeding for longer durations. Results An estimated 235 (1.7%) breast cancer cases that occurred in Australian in 2010 could be attributed to women breastfeeding for total durations of ≤12 months. Assuming a hypothetical increase in breastfeeding, we estimated that the number of breast cancers prevented would range from 36 to 51 (prevented fraction = 0.3% to 0.4%). Conclusions More than 200 breast cancers were attributable to women breastfeeding for total durations of ≤12 months. Implications Policies to increase breastfeeding duration may help prevent breast cancers in the future. PMID:26437725

  10. The Tasmanian Insulin-treated Diabetes Register. Inception and progress in the first 12 months.

    PubMed

    King, H; Senator, G; Zimmet, P; Harris, A

    1986-04-14

    A Statewide register of insulin-treated diabetic patients has been established in Tasmania. The register is the first of its kind in Australasia. Insulin treatment was chosen as the criterion for admission to the register because it was a suitably "hard" end-point, and because the completeness of the register could be validated easily by insulin prescription statistics. Both subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (who happened to be treated with insulin as of the prevalence date, May l, 1984) are eligible for registration in the prevalent population. Furthermore, no age restrictions have been placed upon entry. It is to be hoped that this all-inclusive policy will assist in the development of an epidemiological definition of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Access to cases has been by hospital records, general practitioners, lay bodies and general publicity. Of over 600 diabetic subjects who were contacted during the first 12 months of the study (approximately one-half of the estimated prevalent population), only three declined to join the register. Once fully established and validated, the register will be used to test aetiological hypotheses in addition to providing descriptive cross-sectional information about diabetes in Tasmania. It is intended that a longitudinal study of insulin-treated diabetes will follow once the cross-sectional information is complete. PMID:3959970

  11. IMPACT OF A 12-MONTH EXPOSURE TO A DIURNAL PATTERN OF OZONE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION, ANTIOXIDANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats were exposed for 12 months, 13 hr/day, 7 days/week to 0.06 ppm O3; Monday through Friday, the animals received a 9 hr spike reaching a maximum concentration of 0.25 ppm. An increase in the rate of lung nitrogen washout was observed in the O3-exposed rats. Residual volume and...

  12. Services for adolescent psychiatric disorders: 12-month data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. Jane; He, Jian-ping; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C.; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2014-01-01

    Objective This report examined data on 12-month rates of service use for adolescent mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) is a national survey of DSM-IV mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and service use among U.S. adolescents. Results In the 12 months up to the interview, 45% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders received some form of professional help. Youth with mood disorders were most likely to receive services (60.1%), and those with anxiety disorders least likely (41.4%). Services were more likely to be provided in a school setting (23.6% of those with disorders) or by specialty mental health providers (22.8%) than by general medical practitioners (10.1%). Juvenile justice (4.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (5.3%), and human services (7.9%) also provided mental health care. Although pediatricians treated a higher proportion of youth with mood disorders than of those with behavior disorders, they were more likely to treat youth with behavior disorders because of the larger number of the latter (11.5% of 1,465 vs. 13.9% of 820). Black youth were significantly less likely than white youth to receive specialty mental health or pediatric services for mental disorders. Conclusions The 12-month findings from the NCS-A confirm those of earlier, smaller studies, that only a minority of youth with psychiatric disorders received recent treatment of any sort. Much of this treatment was provided in service settings in which few of the providers were likely to have specialist mental health training. PMID:24233052

  13. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  14. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified. PMID:25134026

  15. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Methods: Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao–Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. Results: In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45–64 years, 46%; 18–44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) for young adults aged 18–44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45–64 years and 65 years or older. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey. PMID:27347985

  16. Immediate loading of zygomatic implants using the intraoral welding technique: a 12-month case series.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Piattelli, Adriano; Malevez, Chantal

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the concept of intraoral welding as a suitable technique for fabricating a fixed restoration for the edentulous maxilla the day of surgery using standard and zygomatic implants. Ten consecutive patients (four men, six women; mean age, 62.3 ± 11.6 years) were involved in this study, each of whom had an edentulous atrophic maxilla and received two standard and two zygomatic implants. All implants were loaded immediately with a fixed prosthesis supported by an intraorally welded titanium framework. Definitive abutments were connected to the implants, and a titanium bar was welded to them using an intraoral welding unit. This framework was used to support the definitive prosthesis, which was fitted the day of implant placement. Patients were checked for swelling, pain, and framework stability at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. A total of 20 immediately loaded standard and 20 zygomatic implants were used. The cases included in this study achieved a 100% prosthetic success rate at the 12-month follow-up. No fracture or radiographically detectable alteration of the welded frameworks was noticed. It is possible to successfully rehabilitate the edentulous atrophic maxilla with a permanently fixed prosthesis supported by an intraorally welded titanium framework attached to standard and zygomatic implants the day of surgery. PMID:22754908

  17. A 12-month controlled trial of methadone medical maintenance integrated into an adaptive treatment model.

    PubMed

    King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S; Stoller, Kenneth B; Schwartz, Robert; Kolodner, Kenneth; Brooner, Robert K

    2006-12-01

    Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) reduces the reporting schedule for stable and well-functioning methadone maintenance patients to once a month, with counseling provided by medical staff. We report on the 12-month outcomes of 92 highly stable methadone maintenance patients randomly assigned to one of three study conditions: routine care, MMM at the methadone maintenance program, and MMM at a physician's office. Methadone medical maintenance patients received a 28-day supply of methadone, whereas routine care patients received five or six take-home methadone doses each week. All patients performed a medication recall once a month and submitted two urine samples each month. An adaptive stepped-care system of treatment intensification was used for patients who failed recall or who had drug-positive urine specimens. Seventy-seven patients completed the 12-month study period. Dropout was caused primarily by problems with handling methadone and disliking the recall frequency. There were low rates of drug use or failed medication recall. Treatment satisfaction was high in all groups, but the MMM patients initiated more new employment or family/social activities than did routine care patients over the study period. The stepped-care approach was well tolerated and matched patients to an appropriate step of service within a continuum of treatment intensity. PMID:17084792

  18. Advising-Attrition Effects-A 12 Month Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA.

    Is there an effective way to reduce freshman attrition at Duke University? If a group of freshman students preidentified as exit prone is provided with more advising time from a member of the ranked faculty, then the rate of attrition from this exit-prone group will be less than the attrition rate for the rest of the freshman cohort. Is there a…

  19. Bipolar disorder and comorbid alcoholism: prevalence rate and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A; Salloum, Ihsan M

    2006-12-01

    Classic Kraepelian observations and contemporary epidemiological studies have noted a high prevalence rate between bipolar disorder and alcoholism. The extent to which these two illnesses are comorbid (i.e., two distinct disease processes each with an independent course of illness), genetically linked, or different phenotypic expressions of bipolar illness itself continues to be investigated. It is increasingly clear that co-occurring alcohol abuse or dependence in bipolar disorder phenomenologically changes the illness presentation with higher rates of mixed or dysphoric mania, rapid cycling, increased symptom severity, and higher levels of novelty seeking, suicidality, aggressivity, and impulsivity. It is very encouraging that interest and efforts at evaluating pharmacotherapeutic compounds has substantially increased over the past few years in this difficult-to-treat patient population. This article will review the clinical studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of conventional mood stabilizers (lithium, carbamazepine, divalproex, and atypical antipsychotics) in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal and relapse prevention in patients with alcoholism and in the treatment of bipolar disorder with comorbid alcoholism. A number of add-on, adjunctive medications, such as naltrexone, acamprosate, topiramate, and the atypical antipsychotics quetiapine and clozapine, may be candidates for further testing. PMID:17156154

  20. Substance Use and Abuse in First-Episode Psychosis: Prevalence Before and After Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Suzanne; Rush, Brian R.; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Norman, Ross; Malla, Ashok; Roy, Paul; Zipursky, Robert B.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of substance abuse among first-episode psychosis (FEP) populations, few studies examine whether early intervention (EI) improves substance abuse. Objective: To examine the prevalence and pattern of substance use and abuse among an FEP sample over 12 months. Methods: All the participants were diagnosed with a first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The participants were followed prospectively. The prevalence rates of substance use and abuse from this sample were compared before and after 12 months of EI services and were compared with rates observed in a sample from the general population. Results: A total of 200 participants (80.0% males; mean age 24 years) entered the study: 183 participants completed all the assessments at baseline, 131 participants completed all the assessments at 12 months. At baseline, the findings showed similar prevalence rates between the FEP sample and the general sample for lifetime cannabis use (60% vs 55%, respectively) and hazardous alcohol use (26% vs 21%) but significantly different prevalence rates for lifetime hallucinogen (29% vs 15%; P < .001) and cocaine use (20% vs 14%; P < .001). At 12 months, the prevalence rates for drug abuse (P < .01), hazardous alcohol use (P < .01), and concurrent drug abuse and hazardous alcohol use (P < .05) were significantly lower than at baseline. Conclusion: Substance use and abuse decreased significantly after 12 months of EI services; EI services may be able to detect and to reduce substance use among FEP patients before it becomes a more serious disorder. PMID:17337748

  1. Effectiveness and Predictors of Continuation of Paliperidone Palmitate Long-Acting Injection Treatment: A 12-Month Naturalistic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Whale, Richard; Pereira, Marco; Cuthbert, Sharon; Fialho, Renata

    2015-10-01

    Antipsychotic long-acting injectable (LAI) medication has an important place as a treatment option in schizophrenia with evolving evidence to support clinical benefit over oral medication. Paliperidone palmitate is recently licensed as an LAI. We studied a naturalistic cohort of all identifiable patients who initiated paliperidone LAI in a specific United Kingdom region (Sussex) from first availability up to January 2013 (n = 179). Favorably, 60% of the cohort continued paliperidone LAI beyond 12 months from initiation. Schizophrenia diagnosis was significantly associated with 12-month continuation on univariate analysis (65% continuation rate at 12 months in this diagnostic subgroup). No baseline variables were identified as independently associated with 12-month continuation. However, fewer inpatient days after initiation (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.003-1.011; P = 0.002), dose adjustment up or down (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.26-9.51; P = 0.016), and a higher maintenance dose (OR, 8.31; 95% CI, 1.84-37.51; P = 0.006) during treatment course were all independently associated with continuation on multivariate analysis. Our findings support the importance of a collaborative approach with the LAI recipient in treatment decision making to enhance treatment effectiveness. PMID:26267419

  2. Patient-reported outcomes 3 months after spine surgery: is it an accurate predictor of 12-month outcome in real-world registry platforms?

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Asher, Anthony L; Godil, Saniya S; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT The health care landscape is rapidly shifting to incentivize quality of care rather than quantity of care. Quality and outcomes registry platforms lie at the center of all emerging evidence-driven reform models and will be used to inform decision makers in health care delivery. Obtaining real-world registry outcomes data from patients 12 months after spine surgery remains a challenge. The authors set out to determine whether 3-month patient-reported outcomes accurately predict 12-month outcomes and, hence, whether 3-month measurement systems suffice to identify effective versus noneffective spine care. METHODS All patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery for degenerative disease at a single medical institution over a 2-year period were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal registry. Patient-reported outcome instruments (numeric rating scale [NRS], Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], EQ-5D, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) were recorded prospectively at baseline and at 3 months and 12 months after surgery. Linear regression was performed to determine the independent association of 3- and 12-month outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine whether improvement in general health state (EQ-5D) and disability (ODI) at 3 months accurately predicted improvement and achievement of minimum clinical important difference (MCID) at 12 months. RESULTS A total of 593 patients undergoing elective lumbar surgery were included in the study. There was a significant correlation between 3-month and 12-month EQ-5D (r = 0.71; p < 0.0001) and ODI (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001); however, the authors observed a sizable discrepancy in achievement of a clinically significant improvement (MCID) threshold at 3 versus 12 months on an individual patient level. For postoperative disability (ODI), 11.5% of patients who achieved an MCID threshold at 3 months dropped below this threshold at 12 months; 10

  3. Associations of Religiousness with 12-Month Prevalence of Drug Use and Drug-Related Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Loren

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that religious affiliation, attendance at religious services, and religious importance would be negatively associated with substance use and sexual behavior related to substance use. An additional hypothesis was tested to determine if age-related differences in the magnitude of these…

  4. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.443-1 Returns for periods of less than 12 months. (a) Returns for...

  5. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    PubMed

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise. PMID:26298416

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Using Triangular Titanium Implants vs Nonsurgical Management for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Polly, David W.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Whang, Peter G.; Frank, Clay J.; Harvey, Charles F.; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John A.; Limoni, Robert P.; Sembrano, Jonathan N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a prevalent cause of chronic, unremitting lower back pain. OBJECTIVE: To concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 148 subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (n = 102) or nonsurgical management (n = 46). Pain, disability, and quality-of-life scores were collected at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Success rates were compared using Bayesian methods. Crossover from nonsurgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. RESULTS: Six-month success rates were higher in the surgical group (81.4% vs 26.1%; posterior probability of superiority > 0.9999). Clinically important (≥ 15 point) Oswestry Disability Index improvement at 6 months occurred in 73.3% of the SIJ fusion group vs 13.6% of the nonsurgical management group (P < .001). At 12 months, improvements in SIJ pain and Oswestry Disability Index were sustained in the surgical group. Subjects who crossed over had improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life similar to those in the original surgical group. Adverse events were slightly more common in the surgical group (1.3 vs 1.1 events per subject; P = .31). CONCLUSION: This Level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants was more effective than nonsurgical management at 1 year in relieving pain, improving function, and improving quality of life in patients with SIJ dysfunction caused by degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruptions. Pain, disability, and quality of life also improved after crossover from nonsurgical to surgical treatment. ABBREVIATIONS: EQ-5D, EuroQoL-5D INSITE, Investigation of Sacroiliac Fusion Treatment MCS, mental component summary NSM, nonsurgical management ODI, Oswestry Disability Index PCS, physical component summary RFA, radiofrequency ablation SF

  7. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders in 12-Month-Old High-Risk Siblings by Parental Report

    PubMed Central

    Macari, Suzanne; Chen, Grace; Campbell, Daniel; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether parental report of social-communicative and repetitive behaviors at 12 months can be helpful in identifying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in younger siblings of children with ASD [high-risk (HR)-siblings]. Parents of HR-siblings and infants without a family history of ASD completed the First Year Inventory at 12 months. Developmental outcomes were based on 24- or 36-month assessments. HR-siblings later diagnosed with ASD showed greater impairments in social communication than those with other developmental outcomes based on parental and clinician ratings. Parental report of decline in play and communication and impaired vocal imitation correctly classified a majority of ASD cases with high specificity. These preliminary findings have important implications for the development of early screening instruments for ASD in HR-siblings. PMID:25149178

  8. Screening for autism spectrum disorders in 12-month-old high-risk siblings by parental report.

    PubMed

    Rowberry, Justin; Macari, Suzanne; Chen, Grace; Campbell, Daniel; Leventhal, John M; Weitzman, Carol; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether parental report of social-communicative and repetitive behaviors at 12 months can be helpful in identifying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in younger siblings of children with ASD [high-risk (HR)-siblings]. Parents of HR-siblings and infants without a family history of ASD completed the First Year Inventory at 12 months. Developmental outcomes were based on 24- or 36-month assessments. HR-siblings later diagnosed with ASD showed greater impairments in social communication than those with other developmental outcomes based on parental and clinician ratings. Parental report of decline in play and communication and impaired vocal imitation correctly classified a majority of ASD cases with high specificity. These preliminary findings have important implications for the development of early screening instruments for ASD in HR-siblings. PMID:25149178

  9. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother

  10. The origins of 12-month attachment: a microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1 s time base; mother and infant facial-visual "engagement" variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual's own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual's behavior that were correlated with the partner's previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers

  11. National Prevalence Rates of Bully Victimization among Students with Disabilities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Lund, Emily M.; Zhou, Qiong; Kwok, Oi-man; Benz, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence rates of bully victimization and risk for repeated victimization among students with disabilities using the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 longitudinal datasets. Results revealed that a prevalence rate ranging from 24.5% in elementary school to…

  12. Percentage of People Who Used the Oral Care System in the Last 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Months Percentage of People who Used the Oral Care System in the Last 12 Months Oral diseases, ... Group Percentage of People Who Use the Oral Care System by Age Group uv9w-t62r Download these ...

  13. Immediate loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla: 12-month results from a multicenter clinical study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Samarani, Rawad; Guazzi, Paolo; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate survival and peri-implant bone levels of single, immediately loaded post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla 12 months after implant placement. Thirty-six consecutive patients from 3 study centers were included in the study. The concerned sites were upper premolars, canines, and incisors. For each patient the following data were recorded: reason for tooth extraction, bone quality, implant size, and final insertion torque. Implants were placed using a flapless technique and immediately loaded with a nonoccluding temporary restoration. Final restorations were provided 4 months later. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically after 6 and 12 months. The average final insertion torque was 70.55 Ncm. One implant inserted in D3 quality bone with a 35-Ncm seating torque was lost. All other implants had a final insertion torque ranging between 50 and 80 Ncm. The average peri-implant bone loss was 0.437 and 0.507 mm at 6 and 12 months, respectively. All the sites maintained excellent papillae and peri-implant soft-tissue conditions. The resulting 1-year success rate was 97.2%. Immediate nonfunctional loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla is a predictable treatment. And it seems that achieving high insertion torques by placing self-tapping/self-condensing implants in an underprepared osteotomy is favorable. PMID:21905885

  14. Percutaneous Stabilization System Osseofix® for Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures - Clinical and Radiological Results after 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Ender, Stephan Albrecht; Wetterau, Elmar; Ender, Michaela; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Merk, Harry Rudolf; Kayser, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Study Design A prospective consecutive cohort study (follow-up study). Objective Our study investigated whether implantation of an expandable titanium mesh cage (Osseofix®) is a successful and safe minimally invasive therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). Our experiences, clinical and radiological findings after 12 months follow-up are presented. Kypho- and vertebroplasty are well-established minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. The main complications associated with both procedures are uncontrolled bone cement leakage. Therefore a suitable alternative has been investigated. Methods During June 2010 to May 2011 24 patients were included with 32 osteoporotic VCF (T6 to L4). All of them were stabilized with the Osseofix® system. Preinterventionally we performed X-ray, MRI, and bone density measurements (DXA). Clinical and radiological results were evaluated preop., postop. and after 12 months postop. based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), X-ray (Beck Index, Cobb-angle) and CT. Results There was a significant improvement in the mean ODI (70,6% to 30,1%) as well as a significant reduction in pain intensity (VAS) (7,7 to 1,4) after 12 month. The mean kyphotic angle according to Cobb showed significant improvements (11,7° to 10,4°) after 12 months. Postinterventional imaging showed only one case of loss of height in a stabilized vertebral body (3.1%). We saw no changes in posterior vertebral wall or adjacent fractures. Except for one pronounced postoperative hematoma we saw no surgical complications including no cement leakage. Conclusions Stabilization of symptomatic osteoporotic VCF with Osseofix® system is a safe and effective procedure, even in fractures with posterior wall involvement. The clinical mid-term results are good at a very low complication rate. The Osseofix® system is an interesting alternative to the established procedures of cement augmentation

  15. Associations between national gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates within Europe.

    PubMed

    Planzer, Simon; Gray, Heather M; Shaffer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers and other interested stakeholders currently are seeking information about the comparative effectiveness of different regulatory approaches to minimising gambling-related harm. This study responds to this research gap by exploring associations between gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates. We gathered information about gambling policies for thirty European jurisdictions and past-year prevalence rates for disordered gambling for twelve of these jurisdictions. We present policy trends and prevalence rates and then describe the level of association between policy and prevalence. We observe one statistically significant association between policy and prevalence: rates of sub-clinical (i.e., Level 2) disordered gambling were higher within environments that mandated less strict regulation of advertising for online gambling. Finally, we discuss the implications of our research in the context of the current process regarding the pan-European regulation of gambling. Our findings do not offer evidence for certain assumptions made in the past by the European judiciary. PMID:24370209

  16. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted. PMID:25974364

  17. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  18. Temporal dynamics of arousal and attention in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wass, S V; Clackson, K; de Barbaro, K

    2016-07-01

    Research from the animal literature suggests that dynamic, ongoing changes in arousal lead to dynamic changes in an individual's state of anticipatory readiness, influencing how individuals distribute their attention to the environment. However, multiple peripheral indices exist for studying arousal in humans, each showing change on different temporal scales, challenging whether arousal is best characterized as a unitary or a heterogeneous construct. Here, in 53 typical 12-month-olds, we recorded heart rate (HR), head movement patterns, electrodermal activity (EDA), and attention (indexed via look duration) during the presentation of 20 min of mixed animations and TV clips. We also examined triggers for high arousal episodes. Using cross-correlations and auto-correlations, we found that HR and head movement show strong covariance on a sub-minute scale, with changes in head movement consistently preceding changes in HR. EDA showed significant covariance with both, but on much larger time-scales. HR and head movement showed consistent relationships with look duration, but the relationship is temporally specific: relations are observed between head movement, HR and look duration at 30 s time-lag, but not at larger time intervals. No comparable relationships were found for EDA. Changes in head movement and HR occurred before changes in look duration, but not for EDA. Our results suggest that consistent patterns of covariation between heart rate, head movement and EDA can be identified, albeit on different time-scales, and that associations with look duration are present for head movement and heart rate, but not for EDA. Our results suggests that there is a single construct of arousal that can identified across multiple measures, and that phasic changes in arousal precede phasic changes in look duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 623-639, 2016. PMID:26999073

  19. Prevalence Rates of Work Organization Characteristics Among Workers in the U.S.: Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Alterman, Toni; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance is needed to capture work organization characteristics and to identify their trends. Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to calculate prevalence rates for four work organization characteristics (long work hours, non-standard work arrangements, temporary positions, and alternative shifts) overall, and by demographic characteristics, and industry and occupation of current/recent employment. Results Data were available for 27,157 adults, of which 65% were current/recent workers. Among adults who worked in the past 12 months, 18.7% worked 48 hr or more per week, 7.2% worked 60 hr or more per week, 18.7% had non-standard work arrangements, 7.2% were in temporary positions, and 28.7% worked an alternative shift. Conclusions Prevalence rates of work organization characteristics are provided. These national estimates can be used to help occupational health professionals and employers to identify emerging occupational safety and health risks, allow researchers to examine associations with health, and use the data for benchmarking. PMID:22911666

  20. HIV Prevalence Rates among Injection Drug Users in 96 Large US Metropolitan Areas, 1992–2002

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Spencer; Cleland, Charles M.; Cooper, Hannah; Brady, Joanne E.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2008-01-01

    This research presents estimates of HIV prevalence rates among injection drug users (IDUs) in large US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during 1992–2002. Trend data on HIV prevalence rates in geographic areas over time are important for research on determinants of changes in HIV among IDUs. Such data also provide a foundation for the design and implementation of structural interventions for preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs. Our estimates of HIV prevalence rates among IDUs in 96 US MSAs during 1992–2002 are derived from four independent sets of data: (1) research-based HIV prevalence rate estimates; (2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing data (CDC CTS); (3) data on the number of people living with AIDS compiled by the CDC (PLWAs); and (4) estimates of HIV prevalence in the US. From these, we calculated two independent sets of estimates: (1) calculating CTS-based Method (CBM) using regression adjustments to CDC CTS; and (2) calculating the PLWA-based Method (PBM) by taking the ratio of the number of injectors living with HIV to the numbers of injectors living in the MSA. We take the mean of CBM and PBM to calculate over all HIV prevalence rates for 1992–2002. We evaluated trends in IDU HIV prevalence rates by calculating estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) for each MSA. During 1992–2002, HIV prevalence rates declined in 85 (88.5%) of the 96 MSAs, with EAPCs ranging from −12.9% to −2.1% (mean EAPC = −6.5%; p < 0.01). Across the 96 MSAs, collectively, the annual mean HIV prevalence rate declined from 11.2% in 1992 to 6.2 in 2002 (EAPC, −6.4%; p < 0.01). Similarly, the median HIV prevalence rate declined from 8.1% to 4.4% (EAPC, −6.5%; p < 0.01). The maximum HIV prevalence rate across the 11 years declined from 43.5% to 22.8% (EAPC, −6.7%; p < 0.01). Declining HIV prevalence rates may reflect high continuing mortality among infected IDUs, as well as primary HIV

  1. A Comparison of the Batterer Intervention and Prevention Program With Alternative Court Dispositions on 12-Month Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Wareham, Jennifer; Bartula, Aaron; Canas, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Studies of batterer intervention and prevention programs (BIPPs) offer mixed results regarding their effect on recidivism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of BIPP for cases assigned to a misdemeanor family court. This study focused on determining whether BIPP cases, compared with alternative sanctions, had significantly lower recidivism rates 12 months after program involvement. Findings indicated that BIPP was more effective than jail or regular dismissal in reducing the likelihood of future arrests, but not plea deferred adjudication and conditional dismissal. Results argue toward the efficacy of some form of treatment versus simply receiving jail time. PMID:26683096

  2. Prevalence Rates of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a School Sample of Venezuelan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.; Montiel-Barbero, Isabel; Polanczyk, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    A total of 1,535 4-12 year-old children were screened with the Conners' rating scales, followed by diagnostic confirmation by the diagnostic interview schedule for children-IV-parent version. The prevalence of ADHD was estimated to be 10.03%, and only 3.9% of children had received medication for the treatment of ADHD symptoms. Prevalence rates and…

  3. Effect of 12-month rehabilitation with low loading program on chronic respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Dobashi, Kunio; Uga, Daisuke; Kato, Daigo; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Fueki, Makoto; Makino, Sohei

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 12-month rehabilitation with low loading program on chronic respiratory disease. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients with chronic respiratory disease participated in this study, in which the effect of long-term rehabilitation for 12 months was assessed. Nine patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, two had asthma, and one had interstitial pneumonia. In all patients, symptoms, lower-extremity strength, walking distance, activities of daily living, and quality of life were investigated to examine the effect of respiratory rehabilitation. [Results] After 12 months, the isometric knee extension strength and weight-bearing index both showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggested that improvement in lower-limb muscle strength can be achieved through long-term intervention, and indicated the validity of repetitive standing and walking exercises. PMID:27134407

  4. Significantly Higher Prevalence Rate of Asthma and Bipolar Disorder Co-Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Wang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma and bipolar disorder (BD) are 2 distinct diseases that share similar pathophysiology. This study aimed to determine their relationship thorough a meta-analysis of articles on their comorbidity rate. The aim of the study is to examine the overall prevalence rate of BD in asthmatic patients and of asthma in BD patients compared to healthy controls. Electronic research of PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. Articles discussing the prevalence rate of BD in patients with/without asthma and the prevalence rate of asthma in those with/without BD, as well as clinical trials in humans and case-controlled trials or cohort studies, were all included. Case reports or series and nonclinical trials were excluded. Through a random-effects model, a meta-analysis of the results of 4 studies comparing the prevalence rate of BD in patients with/without asthma, and in 6 studies comparing the prevalence rate of asthma in subjects with/without BD were performed. There were significantly higher prevalence rates of BD in asthmatic patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001) and of asthma in BD patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Only the patient's mean age significantly modulated the odds ratio of the prevalence rate of asthma in BD patients (slope = 0.015, P < 0.001). Only 10 studies were included and most were cross-sectional studies. The possible confounding effect of medication on BD or asthma onset was not investigated. Any possible etiology of the comorbidity was also not determined. This meta-analysis highlights the importance of the significantly high comorbid rate of BD and asthma, and the positive association with age. Special attention must be given to the comorbidity of asthma and BD, especially in older patients. PMID:27043688

  5. Long-Term Patterns of Online Evidence Retrieval Use in General Practice: A 12-Month Study

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Kidd, Michael R; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Provision of online evidence at the point of care is one strategy that could provide clinicians with easy access to up-to-date evidence in clinical settings in order to support evidence-based decision making. Objective The aim was to determine long-term use of an online evidence system in routine clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. 59 clinicians who had a computer with Internet access in their consulting room participated in a 12-month trial of Quick Clinical, an online evidence system specifically designed around the needs of general practitioners (GPs). Patterns of use were determined by examination of computer logs and survey analysis. Results On average, 9.9 searches were conducted by each GP in the first 2 months of the study. After this, usage dropped to 4.4 searches per GP in the third month and then levelled off to between 0.4 and 2.6 searches per GP per month. The majority of searches (79.2%, 2013/2543) were conducted during practice hours (between 9 am and 5 pm) and on weekdays (90.7%, 2315/2543). The most frequent searches related to diagnosis (33.6%, 821/2291) and treatment (34.5%, 844/2291). Conclusion GPs will use an online evidence retrieval system in routine practice; however, usage rates drop significantly after initial introduction of the system. Long-term studies are required to determine the extent to which GPs will integrate the use of such technologies into their everyday clinical practice and how this will affect the satisfaction and health outcomes of their patients. PMID:18353750

  6. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dias E Dias de Macedo, Liliane; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly. PMID:26316730

  7. Three-dimensional analysis of cranial growth from 6 to 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Marcotty, P; Böhm, H; Linz, C; Kochel, J; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, A; Schweitzer, T

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to generate three-dimensional data of the physiological growth of the infant's cranium in the significant growth phase from 6 to 12 months of age. In a longitudinal observational study non-invasive 3D data using an optical surface scanner were generated of the entire head of 52 Caucasian infants (27 females and 25 males) between the ages of 6 (T1) and 12 (T2) months. The circumference of the head increased by 6.51 per cent (from 43.50 to 46.33cm). Analysis of width and length showed that the head grows 2.84 per cent more in length, resulting in a decrease in the cranial index of 2.52 per cent (from 83.87 to 81.76 per cent). The highest increment observed was in the total volume of the cranium, with an increase of 18.76 per cent (from 1229.01 to 1459.57cm(3)). Comparison of the left and right sides of the head by measuring the diagonal symmetry difference showed a difference of only 0.37cm. Overall, the symmetry-related parameters showed an almost symmetric development of the cranium in infants. The findings should provide valuable information on physiological growth and development of the infant's cranium. Therefore the high growth rate of the cranium in the first year of life suggests that this period is a critical period in which the disruption of developmental processes may have long-lasting effects on the morphology of the cranium with a prognostically unfavourable effect of the further growth of the viscerocranium. PMID:25257925

  8. The Effects of Irlen Colored Lenses on Students' Specific Reading Skills and Their Perception of Ability: A 12-Month Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gregory L. W.; Conway, Robert N. F.

    1990-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of the use of nonoptical tinted (Irlen) lenses with 44 children (ages 9-16) with reading disabilities. Evaluation after 6 and 12 months indicated a significant improvement in attitude to school and to basic academic skills. Reading comprehension and accuracy, but not rate, were also significantly improved.…

  9. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  10. 78 FR 40104 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Northeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...We, NMFS, announce a 12-month finding on two petitions to list the northeastern Pacific (NEP) population of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We have completed a status review of the NEP white shark population in response to these petitions using the best available scientific and commercial data. Based on this review, we......

  11. Speech Production in 12-Month-Old Children with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare speech production at 12 months of age for children with hearing loss (HL) who were identified and received intervention before 6 months of age with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: The speech production of 10 children with NH was compared with that of 10 children with HL whose…

  12. Will Any Doll Do? 12-Month-Olds' Reasoning about Goal Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaepen, Elizabet; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Infants as young as 5 months of age view familiar actions such as reaching as goal-directed (Woodward, 1998), but how do they construe the goal of an actor's reach? Six experiments investigated whether 12-month-old infants represent reaching actions as directed to a particular individual object, to a narrowly defined object category (e.g., an…

  13. Infants Show a Facilitation Effect for Native Language Phonetic Perception between 6 and 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Stevens, Erica; Hayashi, Akiko; Deguchi, Toshisada; Kiritani, Shigeru; Iverson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of developmental change in phonetic perception are critical to theory development. Many previous studies document a decline in nonnative phonetic perception between 6 and 12 months of age. However, much less experimental attention has been paid to developmental change in native-language phonetic perception over the same time period. We…

  14. Biological Motion Displays Elicit Social Behavior in 12-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jennifer M. D.; Johnson, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that biological motion perception is developmentally integrated with important social cognitive abilities, 12-month-olds (N = 36) were shown a display of a human point-light figure turning to observe a target. Infants spontaneously and reliably followed the figure's "gaze" despite the absence of familiar and socially…

  15. Case Study Analyses of Play Behaviors of 12-Month-Old Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Case study research methodology was used to describe the play behaviors of three infants at 12 months of age, who were later diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Data included standardized test scores, and analyses of video footage of semi-structured play sessions from infants identified as high risk for autism, because of having a sibling…

  16. The Flexibility of 12-Month-Olds' Preferences for Phonologically Appropriate Object Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather K.; Graham, Susan A.; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound--object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to…

  17. 5 CFR 550.705 - Criteria for meeting the requirement for 12 months of continuous employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of continuous employment is met if, on the date of separation, an employee has held one or more... 12 months of continuous employment. 550.705 Section 550.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.705...

  18. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  19. Intention to Leave, Anticipated Reasons for Leaving, and 12-Month Turnover of Child Care Center Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Elizabeth E.; Guzell, Jacqueline R.

    1997-01-01

    Job turnover among a sample of child care workers was examined in relation to demographic, work-related, and nonwork-related factors. Findings indicated that the perceived choice of other jobs and job tenure both have an impact on intention to leave, as well as on actual 12-month turnover. (Author)

  20. Understanding the Abstract Role of Speech in Communication at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Adult humans recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, demonstrating an ability to separate communicative function from linguistic content. We examined whether 12-month-old infants understand that speech can communicate before they understand the meanings of specific words. Specifically, we test the…

  1. Evidence for a Unitary Goal Concept in 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coenen, Lot

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether infants can transfer their goal attribution between situations that contain different types of information about the goal. We found that 12-month-olds who had attributed a goal based on the causal efficacy of a means-end action generated expectations about the actor's action in another scenario in which the actor could…

  2. Atypical Object Exploration at 12 Months of Age Is Associated with Autism in a Prospective Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Macari, Suzanne; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Thompson, Meagan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined object exploration behavior in 66 12-month-old infants, of whom nine were subsequently diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Previous investigations differ on when the repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism are first present in early development. A task was developed that afforded specific opportunities…

  3. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of Short Fiber-Reinforced Composite Resin in Posterior Teeth: 12-Months Report

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, S; Tanner, J; Vallittu, PK; Lassila, L

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary clinical trial evaluated 12 month clinical performance of novel filling composite resin system which combines short fiber-reinforced composite resin and conventional particulate filler composite resin in high stress bearing applications. A total of 37 class I and II restorations (compound and complex type) were placed in 6 premolars and 31 molars. The restorations were reviewed clinically at 6 months (baseline) and 12 months using modified USPHS codes change criteria for marginal adaptation, post-operative sensitivity, pulpal pain and secondary caries criteria. Photographs and x-rays were obtained for restorative analysis. Results of 12 months evaluation showed 5 restorations having little marginal leakage (B score) and 1 patient had minor pulpal symptom and post-operative sensitivity (B score). No secondary caries or bulk fracture was detected. The majority of restorations exhibited A scores of the evaluated criteria. After 12 months, restorations combining base of short fiber reinforced composite resin as substructure and surface layer of hybrid composite resin displayed promising performance in high load bearing areas. PMID:22408696

  4. 12-Month-Olds' Phonotactic Knowledge Guides Their Word-Object Mappings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether 12-month-olds will accept words that differ phonologically and phonetically from their native language as object labels in an associative learning task. Sixty infants were presented with sets of English word-object (N = 30), Japanese word-object (N = 15), or Czech word-object (N = 15) pairings until they habituated.…

  5. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  6. Class Matters: 12-Month-Olds' Word-Object Associations Privilege Content over Function Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental step in learning words is the development of an association between a sound pattern and an element in the environment. Here we explore the nature of this associative ability in 12-month-olds, examining whether it is constrained to privilege particular word forms over others. Forty-eight infants were presented with sets of novel…

  7. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  8. Reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction after 12-month follow-up in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Ali; Khaledi, Arsalan; Hasanzadeh, Katayoun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect echocardiographic abnormality in the beginning and after 12-month follow-up in the hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 60 hemodialysis patients older than 18 years and the dialysis duration longer than three months were enrolled. At the beginning of the study, echocardiography was done and after 12 months was repeated in all of the patients by the same cardiologist. At the end of the study, data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19). Results: From the total of cases 37 were male and 23 female. At the beginning of the study, mitral regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation and aortic insufficiency were found in 54, 47 and 11 patients respectively. After 12 months left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased significantly, however there was no significant difference between other echocardiographic findings at the beginning and after 12 months. Conclusion: Decrease in LVEF over time in hemodialysis patients may be due to negative effect of uremia on cardiac function, so it seems that periodical cardiac evaluation of these patients is essential and beneficial. PMID:27069961

  9. Skeletal findings in the first 12 months following initiation of glucocorticoid therapy for pediatric nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Phan, V; Blydt-Hansen, T; Feber, J; Alos, N; Arora, S; Atkinson, S; Bell, L; Clarson, C; Couch, R; Cummings, EA; Filler, G; Grant, RM; Grimmer, J; Hebert, D; Lentle, B; Ma, J; Matzinger, M; Midgley, J; Pinsk, M; Rodd, C; Shenouda, N; Stein, R; Stephure, D; Taback, S; Williams, K; Rauch, F; Siminoski, K; Ward, LM

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vertebral fracture (VF) incidence following glucocorticoid (GC) initiation has not been previously reported in pediatric nephrotic syndrome. Methods VF were assessed on radiographs (Genant method); lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Sixty-five children were followed to 12 months post-GC initiation (median age: 5.4 years, range 2.3 to 17.9). Three of 54 children with radiographs (6%, 95% CI 2 to 15%) had incident VF at 1 year. The mean LS BMD Z-score was below the healthy average at baseline (mean ± SD −0.5 ± 1.1 p=0.001) and at 3 months (−0.6 ± 1.1 p<0.001), but not at 6 months (−0.3 ± 1.3, p=0.066) or 12 months (−0.3 ± 1.2, p=0.066). Mixed effect modeling showed a significant increase in LS BMD Z-scores between 3 and 12 months (0.22 SD, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.36, p=0.003). A sub-group (N=16; 25%) had LS BMD Z-scores that were ≤ −1.0 at 12 months. In these children, each additional 1000 mg/m2 of GC received in the first 3 months was associated with a decrease in LS BMD Z-score by 0.39 at 12 months (95% CI, −0.71 to −0.07; p=0.017). Conclusions The incidence of VF at 1 year was low and LS BMD Z-scores improved by 12 months in the majority. Twenty-five percent of children had LS BMD Z-scores ≤ −1.0 at 12 months. In these children, LS BMD Z-scores were inversely associated with early GC exposure, despite similar GC exposure compared to the rest of the cohort. PMID:23948876

  10. Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses for amputees: Limb compensation in a 12-month ovine model.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Trevor J; Beck, J Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2011-10-13

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials, the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous osseointegrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There was no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, the data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  11. Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses for Amputees: Limb Compensation in a 12-Month Ovine model

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Trevor J.; Beck, J. Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D.; Bachus, Kent N.

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials; the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous integrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There were no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, there data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  12. Spatial Habitat Features Derived from Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Are Associated with Molecular Subtype and 12-Month Survival Status in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonsang; Narang, Shivali; Martinez, Juan; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumors is Glioblastoma multiforme. Despite the multimodality treatment such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide: TMZ), the median survival rate of glioblastoma patient is less than 15 months. In this study, we investigated the association between measures of spatial diversity derived from spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data with molecular status as well as 12-month survival in glioblastoma. We obtained 27 measures of spatial proximity (diversity) via spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI data. These measures were used to predict 12-month survival status (≤12 or >12 months) in 74 glioblastoma patients. Kaplan-Meier with receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to assess the relationship between derived spatial features and 12-month survival status as well as molecular subtype status in patients with glioblastoma. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that 14 spatial features were capable of stratifying overall survival in a statistically significant manner. For prediction of 12-month survival status based on these diversity indices, sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 and 0.64, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the accuracy were 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. For prediction of molecular subtype status, proneural subtype shows highest accuracy of 0.93 among all molecular subtypes based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. We find that measures of spatial diversity from point pattern analysis of intensity habitats from T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images are associated with both tumor subtype status and 12-month survival status and may therefore be useful indicators of patient prognosis, in addition to providing potential guidance for molecularly-targeted therapies in

  13. Gastrointestinal tract development in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves from 1 to 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K J; Hoskin, S O; Jopson, N B; Mackintosh, C G; Hofstra, G; Thompson, B R; Stevens, D R

    2013-11-01

    This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same

  14. Do prostatic biopsies 12 months or more after external irradiation for adenocarcinoma, stage III, predict long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.D.; Kline, R.W.

    1983-03-01

    Serial biopsies of the prostate after high dose external irradiation for adenocarcinoma show a gradual disappearance of the neoplastic cells. With such treatment, results of the biopsies do not have any short term prognostic significance. However, positive biopsies 12 months or more after treatment are reputed to be an unfavorable sign for long-term survival. From August, 1970 through February, 1974, 45 consecutive patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent external irradiation with 2 MV X rays or cobalt-60 teletherapy. The center of the prostate received a total dose of 70 Gy in 30-37 fractions in 43 to 56 days. With a median follow-up of 8 years, the actuarial survival rates, uncorrected for death from intercurrent disease, are 69% at 5 years and 49% at 10 years. Biopsies of the prostate 12 months or more after treatment were available from 31 patients; 19 had one or more positive biopsies. Prostatic biopsies obtained 24 months or more after treatment were available from 21 patients: 10 had positive and 11 had negative biopsies; the survival curves are identical for those with and without residual cancer cells. Following adequate irradiation of patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate, the results of biopsies obtained one or two years after treatment do not predict long-term survival.

  15. The association between self-reported racial discrimination and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders among Asian Americans nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael; Chen, Juan; Yip, Tiffany; Takeuchi, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Growing research finds that reports of discrimination are associated with mental health. However, many US studies are focused on regional samples and do not control for important confounders such as other stressors and health conditions. The present study examines the association between self-reported racial discrimination and DSM-IV defined mental disorders among Asian respondents to the 2002–2003 US National Latino and Asian American Study (n=2,047). Logistic regression analyses indicated that self-reported racial discrimination was associated with greater odds of having any DSM-IV disorder, depressive disorder, or anxiety disorder within the past 12 months -- controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, acculturative stress, family cohesion, poverty, self-rated health, chronic physical conditions, and social desirability. Further, multinomial logistic regression found that individuals who reported discrimination were at a twofold greater risk of having one disorder within the past 12 months, and a threefold greater risk of having two or more disorders. Thus, self-reported discrimination was associated with increased risk of mental disorders among Asian Americans across the United States and this relationship was not explained by social desirability, physical health, other stressors, and sociodemographic factors. Should these associations ultimately be shown enduring and causal, they suggest that policies designed to reduce discrimination may help improve mental health. PMID:17374553

  16. Language Differences at 12 Months in Infants Who Develop Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lazenby, DeWayne C; Sideridis, Georgios D; Huntington, Noelle; Prante, Matthew; Dale, Philip S; Curtin, Suzanne; Henkel, Lisa; Iverson, Jana M; Carver, Leslie; Dobkins, Karen; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Tagavi, Daina; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about early language development in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed prospective data from 346 infants, some of whom were at high risk for developing ASD, to determine if language differences could be detected at 12 months of age in the infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Analyses revealed lower receptive and expressive language scores in infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Controlling for overall ability to understand and produce single words, a Rasch analysis indicated that infants who later developed ASD had a higher degree of statistically unexpected word understanding and production. At 12 months of age, quantitative and qualitative language patterns distinguished infants who later developed ASD from those who did not. PMID:26476738

  17. The flexibility of 12-month-olds' preferences for phonologically appropriate object labels.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Heather K; Graham, Susan A; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound-object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to sets of Czech words with onsets that are illegal in English (e.g., ptak), consonantal sounds (e.g., /l/), or novel functionlike words (e.g., iv). When infants were provided with a training phase that highlighted the purpose of the task, they associated the phonotactically illegal Czech words, but not the consonantal sounds or novel functionlike words, with objects. Thus, English-learning 12-month-old infants' flexibility in associating various sound forms with novel objects is limited to labels that share the structural shape of well-formed nounlike words. PMID:23815699

  18. Randomized clinical trial of four adhesion strategies in cervical lesions: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Eloisa Andrade; Tay, Lidia Yileng; Kose, Carlos; Mena-Serrano, Alexandra; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6- and 12-month clinical performance of four adhesion strategies from the same manufacturer (Kerr) in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) using two evaluation criteria. Thirty-five patients, with at least four NCCLs each, participated in this study. After samplesize calculation, 180 restorations were assigned to one of the following groups: OFL (Optibond FL), OSP (Optibond Solo Plus), XTR (Optibond XTR), and AIO (Optibond All-In-One). The composite resin Filtek Supreme Ultra (3M ESPE) was placed incrementally. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months, and after 12 months, using both the FDI and the USPHS-modified criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with Friedman repeated measures, ANOVA by rank, and the McNemar test for significance in each pair (α=0.05). Six restorations (2 for OFL, 1 for OSP, 2 for XTR, and 1 for AIO) were lost at 12 months (P>0.05 for both evaluation criteria). Marginal staining was observed in seven restorations using the FDI criteria (P>0.05) and three restorations using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). Eight restorations (2 for OSP, 3 for XTR, and 3 for AIO) were classified as Bravo for marginal adaptation using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). However, 62 restorations (14 for OFL, 12 for OSP, 15 for XTR, and 21 for AIO) were classified as Bravo using the FDI criteria (P>0.05). The four adhesion strategies showed similar clinical retention at 6 and 12 months. The FDI evaluation criteria tend to be more sensitive than the USPHS-modified criteria. PMID:25625130

  19. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  20. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  1. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  2. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.443-1 Section 1.443-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... period ($18,836×1/12) 1,570 Example 3. The Y Corporation makes a re- turn for the six-month period...

  3. 77 FR 60509 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding for the Lemmon Fleabane...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list as an endangered or threatened species Erigeron lemmonii (Lemmon fleabane). After a review of the best available scientific information we find that listing the Lemmon fleabane as an endangered or threatened species is no longer warranted, and therefore we are removing this species from the......

  4. 6 Minute Walk Test in Duchenne MD Patients with Different Mutations: 12 Month Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S.; Sormani, Maria Pia; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Fanelli, Lavinia; Berardinelli, Angela; Torrente, Yvan; D'Amico, Adele; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; D'Ambrosio, Paola; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Bonfiglio, Serena; Scalise, Roberta; De Sanctis, Roberto; Rolle, Enrica; Bianco, Flaviana; Van der Haawue, Marlene; Magri, Francesca; Palermo, Concetta; Rossi, Francesca; Donati, Maria Alice; Alfonsi, Chiara; Sacchini, Michele; Arnoldi, Maria Teresa; Baranello, Giovanni; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Previtali, Stefano C.; Napolitano, Sara; Bruno, Claudio; Politano, Luisa; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bertini, Enrico; Morandi, Lucia; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Goemans, Nathalie; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) over a 12 month period. Methods The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations) and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons. Results At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13). The 12 month changes ranged between −325 and 175 (mean −10.8 meters, SD 69.2). Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients. PMID:24421885

  5. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Kirk, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG) studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2). 35 (38%) patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8%) patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 22.5 (11.3–37.0). Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician's recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD) percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32). Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low. PMID:27445563

  6. Positive aspects of caregiving as a moderator of treatment outcome over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Hilgeman, Michelle M; Allen, Rebecca S; DeCoster, Jamie; Burgio, Louis D

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the influence of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) as a moderator of treatment outcome across 12 months in 1 of the original sites of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health I project. They used multilevel random coefficients regression analysis to predict time-varying PAC, depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden in Alzheimer's caregivers (N = 243; mean age = 60.89, SD = 14.19). They found that time-varying PAC was predicted by time-varying daily care burden. They also found significant effects of time-varying PAC for depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden. Notably, a PAC x Phase x Treatment effect was found for daily care burden, such that individuals who endorsed less PAC benefited most from the intervention across 12 months. The tendency to positively appraise the caregiving experience (i.e., PAC) in response to chronic stressors such as Alzheimer's caregiving may affect individuals' responsiveness to, and benefit from, interventions, whereas only daily care burden affected the tendency to find enjoyment in caregiving across 12 months. Future intervention research should assess individual PAC in order to better tailor interventions to caregiving needs. PMID:17563191

  7. Coping Skills Training for Parents of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah S.; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lindemann, Evie

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is recognized that caring for a child with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is stressful for parents, few interventions have been developed and tested for this population. Objectives To compare a group educational intervention for parents of children with T1D to a coping skills training intervention. Method Parents of children with T1D were randomized to the group educational (n = 106) or coping skills training (n = 75) conditions. Parents completed measures of family conflict, responsibility for treatment, coping, and quality of life at baseline and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Clinical data (i.e., HbA1c) were collected from children’s medical records pre- and postintervention. Results There were no significant treatment effects 12 months postintervention, but parents in both groups reported improved coping (p < .001), less responsibility for treatment management (p < .001), and improved quality of life (p = .005). While children’s metabolic control worsened over time, mean values at 12 months were still within the recommended levels in this well-controlled sample (HbA1c < 8%). Discussion Group-based interventions for parents of children with T1D may lessen the impact of treatment management, improving coping and quality of life. PMID:21522034

  8. Depression 12-months after coronary artery bypass graft is predicted by cortisol slope over the day.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lydia; Kidd, Tara; Ronaldson, Amy; Leigh, Elizabeth; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Alterations in the diurnal profile of cortisol have been associated with depressed mood in patients with coronary heart disease. The relationship between cortisol output and depressed mood has not been investigated prospectively in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients before. We aimed to study the relationship between cortisol measured pre- and post-operatively and depression symptoms measured 12 months after CABG surgery. We analysed data from 171 patients awaiting first-time, elective CABG surgery from the pre-assessment clinic at St. George's Hospital, London. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression symptoms and saliva samples were collected to measure diurnal cortisol. Baseline assessments of depression and cortisol were obtained an average 29days before surgery, short-term follow-up of cortisol occurred 60days after surgery and long-term follow-up of depression was assessed 378days after surgery. Baseline cortisol slope was not associated with depression at 12-month follow-up. However, a steeper cortisol slope measured 60days after surgery predicted reduced odds of depression (BDI≥10) 12 months after surgery (odds ratio 0.661, 95% confidence interval 0.437-0.998, p=0.049) after controlling for covariates. These findings suggest interventions aimed at improving adaptation in the early recovery period may have long-term benefits in this patient group. PMID:27281345

  9. Efficacy and safety of low-dose clopidogrel after 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy for patients having drug-eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiao-Dong; Long, Ming; Li, Cui-Ling; Hu, Cheng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Background To prevent stent thrombosis (ST) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DESs) in patients with coronary heart disease, 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is recommended. However, the optimal long-term antiplatelet regimen is not clear for the patients who have completed the 12-month DAPT. Methods We reviewed the data of 755 consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) three years ago and completed 12-month DAPT. They were divided into three groups according to the antiplatelet medication they had used for two years after 12-month DAPT [low-dose clopidogrel (Talcom®, 25mg/d), clopidogrel (Plavix®, 75mg/d) and aspirin (100 mg/d)]. The efficacy (a composite incidence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization) and safety (incidences of bleeding, gastrointestinal trouble and drug discontinuation) were compared among the three groups. Results The rates of multi-vessel lesions, prior MI, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in the clopidogrel (75 mg/day) group than in the other two groups (P>0.05 for both comparisons). There was no significant difference in the overall composite incidence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization in the three groups at three years after PCI. The rates of bleeding (especially minor bleeding), gastrointestinal trouble, drug discontinuation and any blood transfusion were markedly lower in the low-dose clopidogrel (25 mg/d) group than in the other two treatment groups (P<0.05). Conclusions The 25-mg maintenance dose of clopidogrel after 12-month DAPT may be more preferable to Chinese patients who have undergone DES implantation, because of its lower cost but no less efficacy and safety. PMID:24822103

  10. Increased periosteal circumference remains present 12 months after an exercise intervention in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    We previously reported that calcium intake enhanced the leg bone response to physical activity of preschool children in a 12-month randomized trial of calcium supplementation and physical activity. To determine whether the intervention-induced changes in leg bone mineral content and size were maintained through the subsequent 12-month follow-up period, total body bone measurements by DXA and 20% distal tibia pQCT bone measurements were obtained at 24 months (12 months post-intervention). Children also were measured for height and weight, and accelerometer readings were obtained in a subset of children at 18 and 24 months (6 and 12 months post-intervention). Regression analyses were performed controlling for covariates and indicated that increases from 12 to 24 months were greater in the gross motor (GM) activity group (bone loading, large muscle exercises) vs. fine motor (FM) activity group (arts and crafts program) for arm bone area (BA) (P <0.01), total body (P=0.04) and arm (P <0.01) bone mineral content (BMC). There were no differences in BA or BMC changes from 12 to 24 months by calcium supplementation. Differences in tibia periosteal circumference by pQCT persisted at 24 months (GM 51.4 +/- 0.4 mm vs. FM 50.2 +/- 0.4 mm, P=0.03) with a trend for greater endosteal circumferences in the children in the GM vs. FM groups at both 12 and 24 months (both, P=0.08). There were no significant differences in cortical area or thickness by activity or supplement group at 24 months. Children in the GM group had greater accelerometer counts/day (P=0.04) and more time in vigorous activity (P=0.05) at 18 months compared to FM group. No differences in accelerometer readings were noted at 24 months. In conclusion, we found higher activity levels in children randomized to gross motor vs. fine motor activities 6 months after the intervention program ceased. Whether the greater periosteal circumference that was observed 12 months post-intervention was a persistent biological bone

  11. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  12. Prevalence Rate and Associated Factors of Sarcopenic Obesity in Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byungkwan; Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Joongyub; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rates and to explore associated factors of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in 2,221 Koreans over 60 yr-of age from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009). Participants were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight was used to define sarcopenia and waist circumference was used to define obesity. We estimated the prevalence rates of SO according to age-groups, sex and region. In addition, each group was compared by demographic characteristics, metabolic status, nutrition, and physical activity. The prevalence rates of SO were 6.1% (95% confidential interval [CI] = 6.1-6.2) for men and 7.3% (95% CI = 7.3-7.3) for women, respectively. SO was positively associated with no current working and the number of combined medical conditions. High serum insulin level was positively associated with SO, whereas vitamin D was negatively associated with SO in both men and women. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of SO are 6.1% in men and 7.3% in women. SO is associated with insulin resistance, inappropriate nutrition, and low physical activity. PMID:22787369

  13. Perceived Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB were…

  14. Impact of a 12-month exposure to a diurnal pattern of ozone on pulmonary function, antioxidant biochemistry and immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Stevens, M.A.; Hatch, G.E.; Jaskot, R.H.; Selgrade, M.J.K.

    1988-05-01

    Rats were exposed for 12 months, 13 hr/day, 7 days/week to 0.06 ppm O/sub 3/; Monday through Friday, the animals received a 9-hr spike reaching a maximum concentration of 0.25 ppm. An increase in the rate of lung nitrogen washout was observed in the O/sub 3/-exposed rats. Residual volume and total lung capacity were reduced. Glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities were increased but pulmonary superoxide dismutase was unchanged. Alpha tocopherol levels were decreased in lung lavage supernatant and unchanged in lavaged cells, however, ascorbic acid and lavage fluid protein was increased. Immunological changes were not observed. Thus, chronic exposure to O/sub 3/ caused (1) functional lung changes indicative of a stiffer lung; (2) biochemical changes suggestive of increased antioxidant metabolism; and (3) no observable immunological changes.

  15. 12 month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Dewar, Deborah L; Schumacher, Tracy L; Finn, Tara; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2014-02-01

    Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages on dietary intake and food behaviors. Diet was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Individual foods were categorized into nutrient-dense or energy-dense, nutrient-poor food groups and the percentage contribution to total energy intake calculated. Participants were aged 13.2±0.5years (n=330). There were no statistically significant group-by-time effects for dietary intake or food related behaviors, with 12-month trends suggesting more intervention group girls had improved water intakes (59% consuming⩽three glasses per day to 54% at 12 months vs. 50% to 61% in controls, p=0.052), with a greater proportion consuming < one sweetened beverage per day (24-41% vs. 34-37% in controls, p=0.057). Further research including more intensive nutrition intervention strategies are required to evaluate whether dietary intake in adolescent girls attending schools in low SES communities can be optimized. PMID:24239513

  16. Estimating the Prevalence and Awareness Rates of Hypertension in Africa: A Systematic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Davies; Basquill, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of hypertension is high in Africa, and due to rapid population growth and ageing, the exact burden on the continent is still far from being known. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and awareness rates of hypertension in Africa based on the cut off “≥140/90 mm Hg”. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health. Search date was set from January 1980 to December 2013. We included population-based studies on hypertension, conducted among people aged ≥15 years and providing numerical estimates on the prevalence of hypertension in Africa. Overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in mixed, rural and urban settings in Africa were estimated from reported crude prevalence rates. A meta-regression epidemiological modelling, using United Nations population demographics for the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2030, was applied to determine the prevalence rates and number of cases of hypertension in Africa separately for these four years. Results Our search returned 7680 publications, 92 of which met the selection criteria. The overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in Africa was 19.7% in 1990, 27.4% in 2000 and 30.8% in 2010, each with a pooled awareness rate (expressed as percentage of hypertensive cases) of 16.9%, 29.2% and 33.7%, respectively. From the modelling, over 54.6 million cases of hypertension were estimated in 1990, 92.3 million cases in 2000, 130.2 million cases in 2010, and a projected increase to 216.8 million cases of hypertension by 2030; each with an age-adjusted prevalence of 19.1% (13.9, 25.5), 24.3% (23.3, 31.6), 25.9% (23.5, 34.0), and 25.3% (24.3, 39.7), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest the prevalence of hypertension is increasing in Africa, and many hypertensive individuals are not aware of their condition. We hope this research will prompt appropriate policy response towards improving the awareness, control and overall management of hypertension in Africa. PMID:25090232

  17. Community participation of patients 12 months post-stroke in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Aimee; Musenge, Eustasius

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQL) is the main goal of rehabilitation. The ability of the stroke-patient to participate in various situations signifies successful rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to establish the extent of community participation and the barriers and facilitators to the participation for stroke patients after their discharge. Method This study formed part of a larger study focusing on the impact of caregiver education on stroke survivors and their careers. This was a longitudinal study comprising 200 patients with first-time ischaemic stroke. Although the patients were followed up at home at 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-stroke, this paper focuses on the 12-months follow-up participation results. Patient functional ability was measured by using the Barthel Index (BI) and the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), whereas participation was measured by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) checklist. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results Patients experienced severe to complete difficulty when undertaking single and multiple tasks without help 12-months post-discharge. They struggled with the preparation of meals, household work and interpersonal interactions, and they had difficulties with community life and partaking in recreation and leisure activities. Immediate family and societal attitudes were viewed as facilitators to community participation whereas friends, transportation services and social security services were viewed as barriers to community participation. Conclusion The patient-ability to socialise and participate in community issues is currently poor. The identified barriers to community participation need to be addressed in order to improve patient-participation in the community post-stroke.

  18. Risks and Benefits of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Beyond 12 Months After Coronary Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Dadjou, Yahya; Safavi, Salar; Kojuri, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) after coronary stenting remains poorly define. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of longer than 24 months DAT in patients who received drug-eluting and bare-metal stents. A total of 1010 individuals who underwent elective, urgent or emergency coronary angioplasty with intended stent implantation at reference or specialized cardiac hospitals were randomized to receive long-term and short-term DAT to determine the benefits and adverse effects of long-term DAT. Total of 508 patients were randomized to long-term and 502 patients to <1 year DAT, and all of them were followed for more than 36 months for major adverse cardiac and cerebvascular events and bleeding major adverse cardiac and cerebvascular events (MACCE) Mean age of the 1010 patients (364 women and 646 men) was 60 years. Stent reocclusion occurred in 15 patients. Mean Syntax score was 23.00 ± 5.08 for whole samples, 25.00 ± 5.27 in 28 patients with MACCE and 23 ± 5.00 in 982 patients without MACCE (P = 0.057). According to all specified bleeding definitions, clopidogrel therapy for >12 months was not associated with a greater risk of hemorrhage. A regimen of >12 months of clopidogrel therapy in patients who had received drug-eluting or bare-metal stents did not differ significantly from a regimen of <12 months on clopidogrel with regard to MACCE. Long-term DAT might not significantly affect the reduction in the risk of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and not associated with minor or major bleeding events. PMID:27258494

  19. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  20. Gender and relational differences in sensitivity to internal and external cues at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Watson, John S; Futo, Judit; Fonagy, Peter; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences favoring women in relation to awareness of the subjective (internal) world are well demonstrated but their origins are poorly understood. We trained 173 12-month-olds to visually fixate a video image in response to an internal cue (opening own mouth), external cue (seeing a face open its mouth), or both cues. Female infants showed significantly greater sensitivity than males to the internal cues suggesting that prioritization of internally accessible experience is already evident at one year of age. PMID:21500960

  1. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    PubMed

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed. PMID:24881195

  2. The management of lichen sclerosus in a genitourinary medicine setting: a 12-month retrospective case-notes review.

    PubMed

    Challenor, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    A retrospective case-notes review was undertaken of all women with lichen sclerosus seen during a 12-month period to review their characteristics and care. A total of 273 case-notes were reviewed. The mean age was 61 years (range, 14-94), and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.4 years (range, 1-50). The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years (range, 7-92). Sixty-two (23%) had at least one other autoimmune condition. Autoimmune conditions were seven times more frequent overall compared with United Kingdom prevalences. On-going symptoms were reported as none/minimal in 196 (72%), moderate in 65 (24%) and severe in 12 (4%). A total of 233 women (85%) had on-going treatment with clobetasol propionate (Dermovate) ointment with a mode of eight applications per month (range, 0-30). Forty-three women (16%) reported sexual dysfunction and 13 (5%) had needed at least one surgical procedure to restore sexual function. Eighty-six (32%) had undergone at least one biopsy. Nine squamous cell cancers (3%) had been diagnosed in six women (2%). These patients were managed in line with all current guidance. It is surprising that there is still no evidence to direct long-term management. PMID:24902846

  3. Prevalence of Psychiatric Illnesses among Ethnic Minority Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-nan; Chan, Domin; Laderman, Mara

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among a national representative sample of older Latinos, Asians, African-Americans, and Afro-Caribbean to non-Latino Whites. DESIGN Cross-sectional study conducted in 2001 through 2004. SETTING Urban and rural households in the contiguous United States. PARTICIPANTS A total of 4,245 community-dwelling residents aged 50 and older living in non-institutional settings. Data are from the NIMH Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. METHODS The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed lifetime and 12-month psychiatric disorders. Interviewers matched the cultural background and language preference of participants. Bayesian estimates compared psychiatric disorder prevalence rates among ethnic/racial groups. RESULTS After gender adjustments, older non-Latino Whites had higher lifetime rates of any depressive disorder than African-Americans but were no different than older Latinos. Older Asians and Afro-Caribbean had significantly lower lifetime rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders than non-Latino Whites. Immigrant Asians had higher lifetime rates of GAD than the U.S.-born Asians and immigrant Latinos had higher lifetime rates of dysthymia and GAD than U. S.-born Latinos. U.S. born Latinos had higher lifetime rates of substance abuse, especially alcohol abuse, than immigrant Latinos. There were no significant differences in the rates of 12-month psychiatric disorders between non-Latino whites and ethnic/racial minorities, except that older African-Americans had higher 12-month rates of any substance use disorder compared to non-Latino Whites. CONCLUSION Prevalence rates vary considerably by ethnicity and race as well as by nativity for older minorities, suggesting different patterns of illness and risk. PMID:20374401

  4. Spoken Language Benefits of Extending Cochlear Implant Candidacy Below 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that cochlear implantation surgery before 12 months of age yields better spoken language results than surgery between 12–18 months of age. Study Design Language testing administered to children at 4.5 years of age (± 2 months). Setting Schools, speech-language therapy offices, and cochlear implant (CI) centers in the US and Canada. Participants 69 children who received a cochlear implant between ages 6–18 months of age. All children were learning to communicate via listening and spoken language in English-speaking families. Main Outcome Measure Standard scores on receptive vocabulary, expressive and receptive language (includes grammar). Results Children with CI surgery at 6–11 months (N=27) achieved higher scores on all measures as compared to those with surgery at 12–18 months (N=42). Regression analysis revealed a linear relationship between age of implantation and language outcomes throughout the 6–18 month surgery-age range. Conclusion For children in intervention programs emphasizing listening and spoken language, cochlear implantation before 12 months of age appears to provide a significant advantage for spoken language achievement observed at 4.5 years of age. PMID:23478647

  5. Acoustic changes in student actors' voices after 12 months of training.

    PubMed

    Walzak, Peta; McCabe, Patricia; Madill, Cate; Sheard, Christine

    2008-05-01

    This study was to evaluate acoustic changes in student actors' voices after 12 months of actor training. The design used was a longitudinal study. Eighteen students enrolled in an Australian tertiary 3-year acting program (nine male and nine female) were assessed at the beginning of their acting course and again 12 months later using a questionnaire, interview, maximum phonation time (MPT), reading, spontaneous speaking, sustained phonation tasks, and a pitch range task. Samples were analyzed for MPT, fundamental frequency across tasks, pitch range for speaking and reading, singing pitch range, noise-to-harmonic ratio, shimmer, and jitter. After training, measures of shimmer significantly increased for both male and female participants. Female participants' pitch range significantly increased after training, with a significantly lower mean frequency for their lowest pitch. The finding of limited or negative changes for some measures indicate that further investigation is required into the long-term effects of actor voice training and which parameters of voicing are most targeted and valued in training. Particular investigation into the relationship between training targets and outcomes could more reliably inform acting programs about changes in teaching methodologies. Further research into the relationship between specific training techniques, physiological changes, and vocal changes may also provide information on implementing more evidence-based training methods. PMID:17512170

  6. Prevalence and Incidence Rates of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Mejia-Arango, Silvia; Gutierrez, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) in the Mexican population. Methods The MHAS study is a prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico with 7,000 elders that represent 8 million subjects nationally. Using measurements of cognition and activities of daily living of dementia cases and CIND were identified at baseline and follow up. Overall incidence rates and specific rates for sex, age and education were calculated. Results Prevalence was 6.1% and 28.7% for dementia and CIND, respectively. Incidence rates were 27.3 per 1,000 person-years for dementia and 223 per 1,000 persons-year for CIND. Rates of dementia and CIND increased with advancing age and decreased with higher educational level; sex had a differential effect depending on the age strata. Hypertension, diabetes and depression were risk factors for dementia but not for CIND. Discussion These data provide estimates of prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment in the Mexican population for projection of future burden. PMID:21948770

  7. Community-based research on the benign prostatic hyperplasia prevalence rate in Korean rural area

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Hyeok Jun; Kim, Shin Ah; Nam, Ji Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the prevalence rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among Korean males in a rural area through a cross-sectional, community-based epidemiologic survey and analyzed the correlation with epidemiologic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 779 males who lived in Yangpyeong County participated in a prostate examination campaign. Targeting these men, we collected the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), medical history, demographic information, serum prostate-specific antigen, and prostate volume as measured by transrectal ultrasonography. The data for 599 participants were analyzed, excluding 180 men who had a possibility of prostate cancer. BPH was defined as an IPSS of 8 points or higher and a prostate volume of 25 mL or more. Results The prevalence rate of BPH was 20.0%. The prevalence rate increased with age. There were 2 subjects (4.4%) in the age group of 40-49 years, 18 subjects (10.9%) in the age group of 50-59 years, 44 subjects (22%) in the age group of 60-69 years, and 56 subjects (26.6%) in the age group of over 70 years; this increase with age was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the BPH group, the average IPSS was 14.67±5.95, the average prostate volume was 37.04±11.71 g, and the average prostate-specific antigen value was 1.56±0.88 ng/mL. In the analysis of correlations between the epidemiologic factors and the risk of BPH, smoking was the only statistically significant factor. Conclusions The total prevalence rate of BPH in this study was 20.0%, which was a little lower than the rate reported in other cities or rural areas. PMID:25598939

  8. The Epidemiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prevalence and Incident Rates.

    PubMed

    Egan, Kathryn Brigham

    2016-08-01

    This article assesses the reported prevalence and incidence rates for benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) by age, symptom severity, and race/ethnicity. BPH/LUTS prevalence and incidence rates increase with increasing age and vary by symptom severity. The BPH/LUTS relationship is complex due to several factors. This contributes to the range of reported estimates and difficulties in drawing epidemiologic comparisons. Cultural, psychosocial, economic, and/or disease awareness and diagnosis factors may influence medical care access, symptom reporting and help-seeking behaviors among men with BPH/LUTS. However, these factors and their epidemiologic association with BPH/LUTS have not been thoroughly investigated. PMID:27476122

  9. Depression and anxiety in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Leydon, Geraldine; Birch, Brian; Prescott, Philip; Lai, Lily; Eardley, Susan; Lewith, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with prostate cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 4494 patients with prostate cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of clinical depression and anxiety in patients with prostate cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 27 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 4494 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 17.27% (95% CI 15.06% to 19.72%), 14.70% (95% CI 11.92% to 17.99%) and 18.44% (95% CI 15.18% to 22.22%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 27.04% (95% CI 24.26% to 30.01%), 15.09% (95% CI 12.15% to 18.60%) and 18.49% (95% CI 13.81% to 24.31%), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in men with prostate cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is relatively high. In light of the growing emphasis placed on cancer survivorship, we consider that further research within this area is warranted to ensure that psychological distress in patients with prostate cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:24625637

  10. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  11. Environmental and genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Suaini, Noor H A; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ellis, Justine A; Peters, Rachel L; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Matheson, Melanie C; Wake, Melissa; Panjari, Mary; Tan, Hern-Tze Tina; Martin, Pamela E; Pezic, Angela; Lowe, Adrian J; Martino, David; Gurrin, Lyle C; Vuillermin, Peter J; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between genetic and environmental exposure and vitamin D status at age one, stratified by ethnicity. This study included 563 12-month-old infants in the HealthNuts population-based study. DNA from participants' blood samples was genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY MALDI-TOF system on 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes. Using logistic regression, we examined associations between environmental exposure and SNPs in vitamin D pathway and filaggrin genes and vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). VDI, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3(25(OH)D3) level ≤50nmol/L, was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Infants were stratified by ethnicity determined by parent's country of birth. Infants formula fed at 12 months were associated with reduced odds of VDI compared to infants with no current formula use at 12 months. This association differed by ethnicity (Pinteraction=0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of VDI was 0.29 for Caucasian infants (95% CI, 0.18-0.47) and 0.04 for Asian infants (95% CI, 0.006-0.23). Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding were associated with increased odds of infants being VDI (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.11-5.18 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.20-5.24 respectively). Presence of a minor allele for any GC SNP (rs17467825, rs1155563, rs2282679, rs3755967, rs4588, rs7041) was associated with increased odds of VDI. Caucasian infants homozygous (AA) for rs4588 had an OR of 2.49 of being associated with VDI (95% CI, 1.19-5.18). In a country without routine infant vitamin D supplementation or food chain fortification, formula use is strongly associated with a reduced risk of VDI regardless of ethnicity. There was borderline significance for an association between filaggrin mutations and VDI. However, polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway related genes were associated with increased likelihood of being VDI in infancy. PMID:25174667

  12. Subacute Pain as a Predictor of Long-Term Pain Following Orthopedic Surgery: An Australian Prospective 12 Month Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Veal, Felicity C; Bereznicki, Luke R E; Thompson, Angus J; Peterson, Gregory M; Orlikowski, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document the level of pain and functionality in the 12 months following orthopedic surgery and identify if high pain levels following discharge were associated with pain persisting at 12 months.An observational prospective cohort study was undertaken, following 87 patients (mean age 62.4 years [18-92]; 47.1% male) who required orthopedic surgery at the Royal Hobart Hospital, Australia. Following an initial survey, patients were telephoned at 10 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after discharge.Postdischarge pain levels were high with 97.4% of patients suffering pain at 10 days, 81.2% at 6 weeks and 79.5% at 3 months. Pain affected the ability to undertake activities of daily living (ADLs) for 32.7% and 20.0% of patients at 10 days and 6 weeks, respectively. Twelve months after discharge, 65.5% of patients reported pain persisting at the surgical site, with 29.9% of all patients suffering moderate-severe incidental pain; and nearly one quarter of patients reported pain affected their sleep or ADLs. Average pain levels rated as moderate-severe at 10 days (P = 0.01) and 6 weeks (P = 0.02) and pain of neuropathic origin at 3 months (30.2% vs 10.3% P = 0.03) and 12 months (30.4% vs 4.9% P = 0.01) were associated with persistent pain at 12 months.Pain in the period following discharge from hospital is significant and undermanaged. Previous studies has shown that that acute pain, particularly in the first 48 hours following surgery is a predictor for long-term pain after surgery. This study adds to the current literature by showing that pain in the subacute period, following discharge from hospital is also associated with the pain persisting at 12 months. These findings have important implications for improving quality of life as well as potentially preventing persistent pain with increased follow-up and more intensive management of post-discharge pain. PMID:26356717

  13. Infant neurological examination from 3 to 12 months: predictive value of the single items.

    PubMed

    Pizzardi, A; Romeo, D M M; Cioni, M; Romeo, M G; Guzzetta, A

    2008-12-01

    The prognostic value of the single items of a standardised neurological examination, the Hammersmith Infant Neurologic Examination (HINE), was explored longitudinally in 658 infants at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-term age. ROC curves were built based on the presence/absence of cerebral palsy at 2 years of age. Global HINE scores showed very high prediction (ROC curve areas above 0.9) at all ages. The items with the highest predictive value were always movement quality and quantity. In the first semester, among the most predictive items were those assessing tone, while beyond that time they were reflexes and reactions. Our results show that the high predictive value of the HINE across the first year of life is granted by the successful combination of different groups of items for each age-period. This should be recognised in clinical practice when assessing the significance of individual neurological profiles. PMID:19568999

  14. Pointing as Epistemic Request: 12-month-olds Point to Receive New Information

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Ágnes M.; Tauzin, Tibor; Téglás, Ernő; Gergely, György; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Infants start pointing systematically to objects or events around their first birthday. It has been proposed that infants point to an event in order to share their appreciation of it with others. In the current study, we tested another hypothesis, according to which infants' pointing could also serve as an epistemic request directed to the adult. Thus, infants' motivation for pointing could include the expectation that adults would provide new information about the referent. In two experiments, an adult reacted to 12-month-olds’ pointing gestures by exhibiting 'informing' or 'sharing' behavior. In response, infants pointed more frequently across trials in the informing than in the sharing condition. This suggests that the feedback that contained new information matched infants' expectations more than mere attention sharing. Such a result is consistent with the idea that not just the comprehension but also the production of early communicative signals is tuned to assist infants' learning from others. PMID:26568703

  15. Agricultural accidents: A study of 132 patients seen at addenbrooke's hospital, Cambridge, in 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D. K. C.

    1969-01-01

    In a 12-month study 132 patients injured in agricultural accidents were treated at the Accident Service of Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Agricultural machinery and implements were concerned in 50% of the accidents and animals in 10%. The state of immunity against tetanus of these patients was found to be extremely low, only 9% being fully immunized, and 56% having never received a course of prophylactic adsorbed tetanus toxoid. While prevention is obviously the only real solution to accidents of any nature, legislation is not enough to achieve this, and the final responsibility lies with the farmworker to ensure that all safety precautions are followed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5388731

  16. Repetitive Behavior in 12-Month-Olds Later Classified With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Reznick, J. Steven; Botteron, Kelly N.; Estes, Annette M.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Meadows, Adriane J.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective As compared to the utility of early emerging social communicative risk markers for predicting a later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), less is known about the relevance of early patterns of restricted and repetitive behaviors. We examined patterns of stereotyped motor mannerisms and repetitive manipulation of objects in 12-month-olds at high and low risk for developing ASD, all of whom were assessed for ASD at 24 months. Method Observational coding of repetitive object manipulation and stereotyped motor behaviors in digital recordings of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales was conducted using the Repetitive and Stereotyped Movement Scales for three groups of 12-month-olds: 1) low-risk infants (LR, n = 53); 2) high-familial-risk infants who did not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24-months (HR-negative, n = 75); and 3) high-familial-risk infants who met diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24 months (HR-ASD, n = 30). Results The HR-ASD group showed significantly more stereotyped motor mannerisms than both the HR-negative group (p = .025) and the LR group (p = .001). The HR-ASD and HR-negative groups demonstrated statistically equivalent repetitive object manipulation scores (p = .431), and both groups showed significantly more repetitive object manipulation than the LR group (p’s < 0.040). Combining the motor and object stereotypy scores into an RSMS composite yielded a disorder-continuum effect such that each group was significantly different from one another (LR < HR-negative < HR-ASD). Conclusion These results suggest that targeted assessment of repetitive behavior during infancy may augment early identification efforts. PMID:25440311

  17. Plasma CRP Levels in Premenopausal Women with Major Depression: A 12-Month Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ∼30–50% and ∼70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression. PMID:19408214

  18. Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Zizzari, Philippe; Hage, Mirella; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Adam, Clovis; Viengchareun, Say; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Geoffroy, Valérie; Lombès, Marc; Tolle, Virginie; Guillou, Anne; Karhu, Auli; Kappeler, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model. PMID:27621108

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of BASICS for Heavy Drinking Mandated and Volunteer Undergraduates: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy drinking volunteers up to one year post-intervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; Mage = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. At 4 weeks post-intervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer) BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months post-intervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared to controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to one year post-intervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. PMID:25844834

  20. A new tetravalent canine leptospirosis vaccine provides at least 12 months immunity against infection.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, H L B M; van der Veen, M; Sutton, D; Molkenboer, M J C H

    2014-03-15

    A key success factor in the vaccination of dogs against leptospirosis is long term protection against establishment of the renal carrier state, in order to protect other dogs, as well as humans, against this re-emerging zoonotic disease. In this paper, we describe the ability of a new European tetravalent vaccine containing antigen from Leptospira interrogans (sensu lato) serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa and Australis to control infection and renal excretion in dogs at 12 months after vaccination. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of all four vaccine components, four separate challenge studies were performed. For each study two groups of dogs were used (a group receiving the leptospirosis vaccine and a control group). Twelve months after the second vaccination all dogs in the vaccine and control groups were challenged, both intraperitoneally and conjunctivally, using a pathogenic challenge strain from one of four serogroups. Parameters recorded post-challenge were: clinical signs of disease, change in body temperature, total leucocyte count, thrombocyte count, presence of challenge organisms in blood, urine and kidney tissue, and evidence of interstitial nephritis at necropsy four weeks after challenge. The vaccine was able to either prevent or significantly reduce infection following challenge with the strains of all four serogroups. The vaccine was also able to prevent or significantly reduce renal infection following Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae challenge, and there was a trend of reduction of renal infection with Australis (serovar Bratislava). In the case of the Grippotyphosa study, challenge led to no detectable renal infection in any dog of the control group. In conclusion, in this study significant protective immunity was achieved in dogs 12 months after a basic vaccination schedule of two doses against strains of serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa and Australis. PMID:24054091

  1. The effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Sławomir; Szkodziak, Piotr; Czuczwar, Piotr; Woźniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Maciej; Milart, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study The purpose of the study was to monitor the effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up. Material and methods Fifty six patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids qualified for surgical treatment were included in the prospective observational study. All patients received preoperative oral UPA treatment for 3 months (1 × 5 mg). Patients that refused surgical treatment after UPA therapy were followed-up for the next 9 months. The volume of the intramural fibroid was estimated by TV-US using and integrated VOCAL 3D imaging program at baseline, after 3 months of UPA treatment and further at 3-months intervals. Results Before UPA mean dominant fibroid volume was estimated to be 216.0 cm3 (38.4-768.2 cm3) and decreased to 117.6 cm3 (12.6-668.0 cm3) after 3 months of UPA therapy. Mean percentage volume reduction was 45.6%. Mean hemoglobin level increased from an initial 10.1 g/dL (6.8-12.9 g/dL) to 12.6 g/dL (10.1-14.8) after 3 months of UPA therapy. At 12 months after initiating UPA treatment mean dominant fibroid volume decreased by 43.9%. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. Conclusions Three month UPA therapy decreases fibroid volume and improves hemoglobin level before planned surgical treatment. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. PMID:26327823

  2. Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assessment of 12-month safety of ospemifene 60 mg/day for treatment of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Methods In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, women 40–80 years with VVA and an intact uterus were randomized 6 : 1 to ospemifene 60 mg/day or placebo. The primary objective was 12-month safety, particularly endometrial; 12-week efficacy was assessed. Safety assessments included endometrial histology and thickness, and breast and gynecological examinations. Efficacy evaluations included changes from baseline to week 12 in percentage of superficial and parabasal cells and vaginal pH. Results Of 426 randomized subjects, 81.9% (n = 349) completed the study with adverse events the most common reason for discontinuation (ospemifene 9.5%; placebo 3.9%). Most (88%) treatment-emergent adverse events with ospemifene were considered mild or moderate. Three cases (1.0%) of active proliferation were observed in the ospemifene group. For one, active proliferation was seen at end of study week 52, and diagnosed as simple hyperplasia without atypia on follow-up biopsy 3 months after the last dose. This subsequently resolved with progestogen treatment and dilatation and curettage. In six subjects (five ospemifene (1.4%), one placebo (1.6%)) endometrial polyps were found (histopathology); however, only one (ospemifene) was confirmed as a true polyp during additional expert review. Endometrial histology showed no evidence of carcinoma. Statistically significant improvements were seen for all primary and secondary efficacy measures and were sustained through week 52 with ospemifene vs. placebo. Conclusions The findings of this 52-week study confirm the tolerance and efficacy of oral ospemifene previously reported in short- and long-term studies. PMID:23984673

  3. Prevalence and Predictive Value of Dyspnea Ratings in Hospitalized Patients: Pilot Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jennifer P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea (breathing discomfort) can be as powerfully aversive as pain, yet is not routinely assessed and documented in the clinical environment. Routine identification and documentation of dyspnea is the first step to improved symptom management and it may also identify patients at risk of negative clinical outcomes. Objective To estimate the prevalence of dyspnea and of dyspnea-associated risk among hospitalized patients. Design Two pilot prospective cohort studies. Setting Single academic medical center. Patients Consecutive patients admitted to four inpatient units: cardiology, hematology/oncology, medicine, and bariatric surgery. Measurements In Study 1, nurses documented current and recent patient-reported dyspnea at the time of the Initial Patient Assessment in 581 inpatients. In Study 2, nurses documented current dyspnea at least once every nursing shift in 367 patients. We describe the prevalence of burdensome dyspnea, and compare it to pain. We also compared dyspnea ratings with a composite of adverse outcomes: 1) receipt of care from the hospital’s rapid response system, 2) transfer to the intensive care unit, or 3) death in hospital. We defined burdensome dyspnea as a rating of 4 or more on a 10-point scale. Results Prevalence of burdensome current dyspnea upon admission (Study 1) was 13% (77 of 581, 95% CI 11%-16%). Prevalence of burdensome dyspnea at some time during the hospitalization (Study 2) was 16% (57 of 367, 95% CI 12%-20%). Dyspnea was associated with higher odds of a negative outcome. Conclusions In two pilot studies, we identified a significant symptom burden of dyspnea in hospitalized patients. Patients reporting dyspnea may benefit from a more careful focus on symptom management and may represent a population at greater risk for negative outcomes. PMID:27070144

  4. Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors☆

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo de Castro; Kahn, Tulio

    2013-01-01

    Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries. PMID:24027422

  5. Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joseph; Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo de Castro; Kahn, Tulio

    2013-09-01

    Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries. PMID:24027422

  6. Rates of Prevalent HIV Infection, Prevalent Diagnoses, and New Diagnoses Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in US States, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Counties, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) increasingly represent the majority of people living with and acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Local and federal surveillance programs estimate the number of persons living with an HIV diagnosis, persons living with HIV infection, and new diagnoses. Given the absence of population-based estimates of the number of MSM for US states, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), or counties, it is not possible to accurately estimate rates using these indicators at these levels, inhibiting the ability to understand HIV burden and to direct prevention efforts. Objective To synthesize recently published estimates of MSM population size with publicly available HIV surveillance data, in order to estimate the prevalence of HIV diagnosis and infection and the rate of new diagnoses, at the national, state, MSA, and county levels. Methods The number of MSM living with HIV infection in 2012 (prevalence), living with an HIV diagnosis in 2012 (diagnosed prevalence), and newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2013 (new diagnosis), at state, MSA, and county levels, were obtained from publicly available data from AIDSVu.org and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The estimated number of MSM living in every US county was calculated using recently published methodology that utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and American Community Survey. Estimated county-level MSM counts were aggregated to form MSA- and state-level totals. From this, we estimated HIV prevalence, diagnosed prevalence, and new diagnosis rates. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among MSM in the United States in 2012 was 15.0% (666,900/4,452,772), the diagnosed HIV prevalence in 2012 was 11.1% (493,453/4,452,772), and the new diagnosis rate for 2013 was 0.7 per 100 MSM. For diagnosed prevalence at the state level, 6 states had both <15,000 cases and diagnosed prevalence rates of ≥15

  7. International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A D; Hecht, C A; Hook, E B

    1999-05-01

    Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant). We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to under-ascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than +/-25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations. PMID:10353785

  8. Personal stigma in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a systematic review of prevalence rates, correlates, impact and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Gerlinger, Gabriel; Hauser, Marta; De Hert, Marc; Lacluyse, Kathleen; Wampers, Martien; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-01-01

    A systematic electronic PubMed, Medline and Web of Science database search was conducted regarding the prevalence, correlates, and effects of personal stigma (i.e., perceived and experienced stigmatization and self-stigma) in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Of 54 studies (n=5,871), published from 1994 to 2011, 23 (42.6%) reported on prevalence rates, and 44 (81.5%) reported on correlates and/or consequences of perceived or experienced stigmatization or self-stigma. Only two specific personal stigma intervention studies were found. On average, 64.5% (range: 45.0–80.0%) of patients perceived stigma, 55.9% (range: 22.5–96.0%) actually experienced stigma, and 49.2% (range: 27.9–77.0%) reported alienation (shame) as the most common aspect of self-stigma. While socio-demographic variables were only marginally associated with stigma, psychosocial variables, especially lower quality of life, showed overall significant correlations, and illness-related factors showed heterogeneous associations, except for social anxiety that was unequivocally associated with personal stigma. The prevalence and impact of personal stigma on individual outcomes among schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients are well characterized, yet measures and methods differ significantly. By contrast, research regarding the evolution of personal stigma through the illness course and, particularly, specific intervention studies, which should be conducted utilizing standardized methods and outcomes, are sorely lacking. PMID:23737425

  9. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mahabob, M. Nazargi; Anbuselvan, G. J.; Kumar, B. Senthil; Raja, S.; Kothari, Sucitha

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%). Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding. PMID:23066293

  10. The prevalence of sarcosporidiosis in Australian meat animals.

    PubMed

    Munday, B L

    1975-10-01

    The prevalence of Sarcocystis infectious in Tasmanian sheep, cattle and pigs was assessed during February 1974. Serological results indicated that over 90% of sheep and cattle were infected. Macroscopic sarcocysts were found in 0.6% of lambs, 8.8% of 2- to 6-tooth (1 to 4 years old) sheep and 66% of full-mouth (4 years and older) sheep. The minimum prevalence in pigs, as determined by microscopic examination of muscle tissues, was 1.4% for animals less than 12 months old and 16.7% for animals older than 12 months. Abattoir figures, supplied by the Australian Department of Agriculture, showed that in 1972/73 the condemnation rate of sheep for sarcosporidiosis was 6 times greater in Tasmania than in New South Wales, Victoria or South Australia. The percentage of condemned carcases was lowest in Western Australia and Queensland. PMID:812465

  11. Low-dose budesonide for maintenance of clinical remission in collagenous colitis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, 12-month trial

    PubMed Central

    Münch, Andreas; Bohr, Johan; Miehlke, Stephan; Benoni, Cecilia; Olesen, Martin; Öst, Åke; Strandberg, Lars; Hellström, Per M; Hertervig, Erik; Armerding, Peter; Stehlik, Jiri; Lindberg, Greger; Björk, Jan; Lapidus, Annika; Löfberg, Robert; Bonderup, Ole; Avnström, Sören; Rössle, Martin; Dilger, Karin; Mueller, Ralph; Greinwald, Roland; Tysk, Curt; Ström, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective This 1-year study aimed to assess low-dose budesonide therapy for maintenance of clinical remission in patients with collagenous colitis. Design A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study beginning with an 8-week open-label induction phase in which patients with histologically confirmed active collagenous colitis received budesonide (Budenofalk, 9 mg/day initially, tapered to 4.5 mg/day), after which 92 patients in clinical remission were randomised to budesonide (mean dose 4.5 mg/day; Budenofalk 3 mg capsules, two or one capsule on alternate days) or placebo in a 12-month double-blind phase with 6 months treatment-free follow-up. Primary endpoint was clinical remission throughout the double-blind phase. Results Clinical remission during open-label treatment was achieved by 84.5% (93/110 patients). The median time to remission was 10.5 days (95% CI (9.0 to 14.0 days)). The maintenance of clinical remission at 1 year was achieved by 61.4% (27/44 patients) in the budesonide group versus 16.7% (8/48 patients) receiving placebo (treatment difference 44.5% in favour of budesonide; 95% CI (26.9% to 62.7%), p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was maintained during the 12-month double-blind phase in budesonide-treated patients. During treatment-free follow-up, 82.1% (23/28 patients) formerly receiving budesonide relapsed after study drug discontinuation. Low-dose budesonide over 1 year resulted in few suspected adverse drug reactions (7/44 patients), all non-serious. Conclusions Budesonide at a mean dose of 4.5 mg/day maintained clinical remission for at least 1 year in the majority of patients with collagenous colitis and preserved health-related quality of life without safety concerns. Treatment extension with low-dose budesonide beyond 1 year may be beneficial given the high relapse rate after budesonide discontinuation. Trial registration numbers http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01278082) and http

  12. Computing the prevalence rate of at-risk individuals for suicide within the Army.

    PubMed

    Bah, Abdoulaye; Wilson, Ché; Fatkin, Linda; Atkisson, Curtis; Brent, Edward; Horton, Denise

    2011-07-01

    This article introduces a new theoretical concept for risk assessment using social indicators and suicide acceptability variables to determine the prevalence rate of suicidal ideation and behavior within a group. Our approach focuses on the interplay of individual, social, and structural levels as possible dimensions of risk assessment for suicidal behavior. The results from our analysis within an Army community supported our theoretical framework by producing a four-factor solution, which were then incorporated into a Life Preservation Index. Structural equation modeling was used to test our theoretical model. The Life Preservation Index can be utilized as a complimentary tool for suicide risk assessment. PMID:22128713

  13. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  14. Determinants of return to work 12 months after total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Leichtenberg, C S; Tilbury, C; Kuijer, Ppfm; Verdegaal, Shm; Wolterbeek, R; Nelissen, Rghh; Frings-Dresen, Mhw; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2016-07-01

    Introduction A substantial number of patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) do not or only partially return to work. This study aimed to identify differences in determinants of return to work in THA and TKA. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of working patients aged <65 years undergoing THA or TKA for osteoarthritis. The primary outcome was full versus partial or no return to work 12 months postoperatively. Factors analysed included preoperative sociodemographic and work characteristics, alongside the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Oxford Hip and Knee Scores. Results Of 67 THA and 56 TKA patients, 9 (13%) and 10 (19%), respectively, returned partially and 5 (7%) and 6 (11%), respectively, did not return to work 1 year postoperatively. Preoperative factors associated with partial or no return to work in THA patients were self-employment, absence from work and a better HOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscale score, whereas only work absence was relevant in TKA patients. Type of surgery modified the impact of ADL scores on return to work. Conclusions In both THA and TKA, absence from work affected return to work, whereas self-employment and better preoperative ADL subscale scores were also associated in THA patients. The impact of ADL scores on return to work was modified by type of surgery. These results suggest that strategies aiming to influence modifiable factors should consider THA and TKA separately. PMID:27138849

  15. Kinematic Measurement of 12-week Head Control Correlates with 12-month Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Jessica P; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Moreau, Noelle; Hope, Kathryn; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Brown, Truman; Mulvihill, Denise; Jenkins, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background Although new interventions treating neonatal brain injury show great promise, our current ability to predict clinical functional outcomes is poor. Quantitative biomarkers of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome are critically needed to gauge treatment efficacy. Kinematic measures derived from commonly used developmental tasks may serve as early objective markers of future motor outcomes. Aim To develop reliable kinematic markers of head control at 12 weeks corrected gestational age (CGA) from two motor tasks: head lifting in prone and pull-to-sit Study design and subjects Prospective observational study of 22 preterm infants born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation Outcome measures Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley) motor scores Results Intrarater and interrater reliability of prone head lift angles and pull-to-sit head angles were excellent. Prone head lift angles at 12 weeks CGA correlated with white matter NAA/Cho, concurrent Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) scores, and 12-month Bayley motor scores. Head angles during pull-to-sit at 12-weeks CGA correlated with TIMP scores. Conclusions Poor ability to lift the head in prone and an inability to align the head with the trunk during the pull-to-sit task were associated with poorer future motor outcome scores. Kinematic measurements of head control in early infancy may serve as reliable objective quantitative markers of future motor impairment and neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25621433

  16. Infant feeding in the first year. 2: feeding practices from 6-12 months of life.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rosan

    2009-01-01

    The mainstay of nutrition in infants below six months of age is breast and/or formula milk. Infants aged between six and 12 months require additional sources of nutrition and numerous oral and developmental milestones have to be achieved to support normal development of feeding skills. Requirements increase during this period for protein, vitamin D, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, zinc, iron and magnesium. This increased demand is met through weaning foods and breast-feeding, and, if breast milk is not available, through a suitable milk formula. The choice of milk formula above the age of six months is very much dependent on the individual infant and the stage of weaning. One of the principal factors in choosing a suitable formula at this age is the depleting iron stores. Infant formulae suitable from birth along with age-appropriate weaning foods will provide adequate iron for the majority of infants. However, iron-fortified formula may be useful to reduce iron deficiency in some vulnerable infants. Weaning should be commenced by six months of age, but not earlier than 17 weeks. Delaying wheat, egg, soy, fish and dairy beyond six months of age does not prevent the development of allergies and these foods contribute significantly to nutrients required for growth and development. It is important that parents receive evidence-based guidance on what constitutes optimal nutrition during this period of increased requirements and rapid development. PMID:19517945

  17. Unexpected Arrest-Related Deaths in America: 12 Months of Open Source Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jeffrey D.; Heegaard, William G.; Dawes, Donald M.; Natarajan, Sridhar; Reardon, Robert F.; Miner, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD) has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology. Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied. Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%); empty-hand techniques (69%); intermediate weapons such as TASER® device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%); and deadly force (12%). Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%), within the first hour (53%) and 1–48 hours (35%). Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons. Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings. PMID:19561821

  18. Social looking, social referencing and humor perception in 6- and-12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Pettinato, Christine A; Woodard, Kelly C; Malzac, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤8-months) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does not require mobility, we found that when parents provided unsolicited affective cues during an ambiguous-absurd (i.e., humorous) event, 6-month-olds employ one component of social referencing, social looking Additionally, 6-month-olds who did not laugh at the event were significantly more likely to look toward parents than their counterparts who found the event funny. Sequential analyses revealed that, following a reference to a smiling parent, 6-month olds were more likely to smile at the parent, but by 12 months were more likely to smile at the event suggesting that older infants are influenced by parental affect in humorous situations. The developmental implications of these findings are discussed, as well as the usefulness of studying humor for understanding important developmental phenomena. PMID:25061893

  19. [Effect of breast feeding and psychosocial variables upon psychomotor development of 12-month-old infants].

    PubMed

    De Andraca, I; Salas, M I; López, C; Cayazzo, M S; Icaza, G

    1999-09-01

    This study evaluates the participation of psychosocial variables in the relation between breast feeding (BF) and psychomotor development (PMD) in dyads with different BF duration. We assessed 138 mother-infant dyads, divided in two groups: 86 received BF as unique source of milk feeding for at least 6 months (prolonged BF group) and 52 were weaned before 45 days of age (early weaning group). General information about pregnancy, delivery and feeding was collected in a non experimental prospective design. At 6-7 months of age a milk feeding situation was observed at home, and mother-infant interactional patterns were recorded through a specially designed scale. At 12 months of age the PMD was assessed (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Infant temperament, home stimulation, mother depression and family stress were also measured. Similar family characteristics were observed in both study groups. Early bonding and first feeding experiences were different, both reported as better in the prolonged BF group. Moreover, dyads of this group showed a higher variety and quality of mother-infant interactional patterns during feeding, with a higher synchrony and reciprocity in the relationship. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were similar in both groups. Explicatory variables for MDI and PDI are different in both study groups. Dyads who attained prolonged BF conform from a psychosocial perspective--a different group than the early weaned. PMID:10667261

  20. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Boye, Joyce Irene

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  1. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  2. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting for Palliation of Patients with Malignant Colonic Obstruction: Effectiveness and Efficacy on 255 Patients with 12-Month's Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Meisner, Søren; González-Huix, Ferran; Vandervoort, Jo G.; Repici, Alessandro; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Grund, Karl E.; Goldberg, Paul; Registry Group, The WallFlex Colonic

    2012-01-01

    Background. Self-expanding metal stents can alleviate malignant colonic obstruction in incurable patients and avoid palliative stoma surgery. Objective. Evaluate stent effectiveness and safety on palliation of patients with malignant colorectal strictures. Design. Two prospective, one Spanish and one global, multicenter studies. Settings. 39 centers (22 academic, 17 community hospitals) from 13 countries. Patients. A total of 257 patients were enrolled, and 255 patients were treated with a WallFlex uncovered enteral colonic stent. Follow-up was up to 12 months or until death or retreatment. Interventions(s). Self-expanding metal stent placement. Main Outcome Measures. Procedural success, clinical success, and safety. Results. Procedural success was 98.4% (251). Clinical success rates were 87.8% at 30 days, 89.7% at 3 months, 92.8% at 6 months, and 96% at 12 months. Overall perforation rate was 5.1%. Overall migration rate was 5.5%. Overall death rate during follow-up was 48.6% (124), with 67.7% of deaths related to the patient's colorectal cancer, unrelated in 32.3%. Only 2 deaths were related to the stent or procedure. Limitations. No control group. Conclusions. The primary palliative option for patients with malignant colonic obstruction should be self-expanding metal stent placement due to high rates of technical success and efficacy in symptom palliation and few complications. PMID:22761609

  3. Validity of 12-Month Falls Recall in Community-Dwelling Older Women Participating in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kerrie M.; Stuart, Amanda L.; Scott, David; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Nicholson, Geoff C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare 12-month falls recall with falls reported prospectively on daily falls calendars in a clinical trial of women aged ≥70 years. Methods. 2,096 community-dwelling women at high risk of falls and/or fracture completed a daily falls calendar and standardised interviews when falls were recorded, for 12 months. Data were compared to a 12-month falls recall question that categorised falls status as “no falls,” “a few times,” “several,” and “regular” falls. Results. 898 (43%) participants reported a fall on daily falls calendars of whom 692 (77%) recalled fall(s) at 12 months. Participants who did not recall a fall were older (median 79.3 years versus 77.8 years, P = 0.028). Smaller proportions of fallers who sustained an injury or accessed health care failed to recall a fall (all P < 0.04). Among participants who recalled “no fall,” 85% reported zero falls on daily calendars. Few women selected falls categories of “several times” or “regular” (4.1% and 0.4%, resp.) and the sensitivity of these categories was low (30% to 33%). Simply categorising participants into fallers or nonfallers had 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusion. For studies where intensive ascertainment of falls is not feasible, 12-month falls recall questions with fewer responses may be an acceptable alternative. PMID:26273292

  4. Changes in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in Turkey from 2003 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Sule; Akpolat, Tekin; Erdem, Yunus; Derici, Ulver; Arici, Mustafa; Sindel, Sukru; Karatan, Oktay; Turgan, Cetin; Hasanoglu, Enver; Caglar, Sali; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess the current epidemiology of hypertension, including its prevalence, the awareness of the condition and its treatment and control, in Turkey to evaluate changes in these factors over the last 10 years by comparing the results with the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) study data (2003), as well as to assess parameters affecting awareness and the control of hypertension. Methods: The PatenT 2 study was conducted on a representative sample of the Turkish adult population (n = 5437) in 2012. Specifically trained staff performed the data collection. Hypertension was defined as mean SBP or DBP at least 140/90 mmHg, previously diagnosed disease or the use of antihypertensive medication. Awareness and treatment were assessed by self-reporting, and control was defined as SBP/DBP less than 140/90 mmHg. Results: Although the prevalence of hypertension in the PatenT and PatenT 2 surveys was stable at approximately 30%, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates have improved in Turkey. Overall, 54.7% of hypertensive patients were aware of their diagnosis in 2012 compared with 40.7% in 2003. The hypertension treatment rate increased from 31.1% in 2003 to 47.4% in 2012, and the control rate in hypertensives increased from 8.1% in 2003 to 28.7% in 2012. The rate of hypertension control in treated patients improved between 2003 (20.7%) and 2012 (53.9%). Awareness of hypertension was positively associated with older age, being a woman, residing in an urban area, a history of parental hypertension, being a nonsmoker, admittance by a physician, presence of diabetes mellitus, and being obese or overweight; it was inversely associated with a higher amount of daily bread consumption. Factors associated with better control of hypertension were younger age, female sex, residing in an urban area, and higher education level in Turkey. Conclusion: Although some progress has been made in

  5. The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System: A 12 months Test of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ``Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System'' (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three month is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological ``mechanical'' filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A simple data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  6. A 12-month prospective study of the relationship between stress fractures and bone turnover in athletes.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K L; Malcolm, S A; Brukner, P D; Green, R M; Hopper, J L; Wark, J D; Ebeling, P R

    1998-07-01

    Bone remodeling may be involved in the pathogenesis of stress fractures in athletes. We conducted a 12-month prospective study to evaluate bone turnover in 46 female and 49 male track and field athletes aged 17-26 years (mean age 20.3; SD 2.0) 20 of whom developed a stress fracture. Baseline levels of bone turnover were evaluated in all athletes and monthly bone turnover levels were evaluated in a subset consisting of the 20 athletes who sustained a stress fracture and a matched comparison group who did not sustain a stress fracture. Bone formation was assessed using serum osteocalcin (OC) measured by human immunoradiometric assay and bone resorption by urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links (Pyr and D-Pyr); high performance liquid chromatography and N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen (NTx) using ELISA assay. Athletes who developed stress fractures had similar baseline levels of bone turnover compared with their nonstress fracture counterparts (P > 0.10). Results of serial measurements showed no differences in average levels of Pyr, D-Pyr, or OC in those who developed stress fractures (P = 0.10) compared with the control group. In the athletes with stress fractures, there was also no difference in bone turnover levels prior to or following the onset of bony pain. Our results show that single and multiple measurements of bone turnover are not clinically useful in predicting the likelihood of stress fractures in athletes. Furthermore, there were no consistent temporal changes in bone turnover associated with stress fracture development. However, our results do not negate the possible pathogenetic role of local changes in bone remodeling at stress fracture sites, given the high biological variability of bone turnover markers and the fact that levels of bone turnover reflect the integration of all bone remodeling throughout the skeleton. PMID:9632851

  7. Should 12 months of training be required before diagnostic radiology residents take independent call? A survey of the Association of Program Directors in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Gunderman, Richard B; Delaney, Lisa R

    2007-09-01

    To assess program director's reactions to a Residency Review Committee rule change requiring diagnostic radiology residents to complete 12 months of training prior to taking independent call, 303 Association of Program Directors members were surveyed. A total of 147 members responded (48.5% response rate). Overall, 66.1% of respondents were opposed to the change, 21.1% were in favor of it, and 12.8% were neutral. Although this rule change has already been accepted by the residency review committee for implementation July 1, 2008, there has been much debate over this modification and the impact it will have on varying programs. PMID:17845962

  8. Silicon Matrix Calcium Phosphate as a Bone Substitute: Early Clinical and Radiological Results in a Prospective Study With 12-Month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pesántez, Carlos Fernando Arias; Oliveira, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Autograft has been the “gold standard” for orthopedic bone grafting applications, but with some clinical challenges. Here we present the rationale and clinical outcomes supporting the use of a bone substitute material that consists of a mixture of two calcium phosphates (HA and ß-TCP), which are integrated into a silicon xerogel matrix, promoting nanocrystalline apatite layers on the surface of the material following implantation into a physiological environment. Methods Twenty-four patients with a median age of 53.80 (36–81) years underwent lumbar spinal fusion for degenerative disease, selected by clinical presentation, X-rays, and MRI findings. Subjects were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The outcome assessment consisted of visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and radiological assessment analyzing the state of fusion on X-ray and CT evaluation by 3 independent radiologists. Results All patients completed 12-month follow-up. The mean VAS decreased from 9.3 (± 0.9) to 2.4 (± 1.6) and the mean ODI decreased from 55.0 (± 9.2) to 19.3 (± 11.4) at 12-month follow-up. Three months after surgery, 10 patients (41.67%) had solid fusion based on analysis of CT scans and dynamic radiographs. At 6 months postoperatively, the fusion rate had increased to 75% (18 patients). Twelve months after surgery, 95.83% of patients had solid fusion (23 patients). Conclusions The clinical results from this study of silicon matrix calcium phosphate are consistent with previous in vitro studies indicating that this material stimulates formation of a bioactive layer and provides an effective bone graft material for lumbar fusion applications. In comparison with previous studies involving rhBMP-2, silicon matrix calcium phosphate provided a lower fusion rate at 3- and 6-month follow-up points, but after 12 months, the fusion rate was similar, with no statistical differences and lower overall costs. No

  9. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  10. Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Franke, Andreas G; Bagusat, Christiana; Rust, Sebastian; Engel, Alice; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated drinks/energy drinks, caffeine tablets or Ginkgo biloba; (2) drugs being approved for the treatment of certain disorders and being misused for CE: drugs to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the stimulants methylphenidate (MPH, e.g. Ritalin(®)) or amphetamines (AMPH, e.g. Attentin(®) or Adderall(®)), to treat sleep disorders such as modafinil or to treat Alzheimer's disease such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; (3) illicit drugs such as illicit AMPH, e.g. "speed", ecstasy, methamphetamine (crystal meth) or others. Evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials shows that the abovementioned substances have limited pro-cognitive effects as demonstrated, e.g. regarding increased attention, increased cognitive speed or shortening of reaction times, but on the same time poses considerable safety risks on the consumers. Prevalence rates for the use of CE drugs among healthy subjects show a broad range from less than 1 % up to more than 20 %. The range in prevalence rates estimates results from several factors which are chosen differently in the available survey studies: type of subjects (students, pupils, special professions, etc.), degree of anonymity in the survey (online, face-to-face, etc.), definition of CE and substances used/misused for CE, which are assessed (OTC drugs, prescription, illicit drugs) as well as time periods of use (e.g. ever, during the past year/month/week, etc.). A clear and comprehensive picture of the drugs used for CE by healthy subjects and their adverse events and safety risks as well as comprehensive and comparable international data on the prevalence rates of

  11. Will the use of different prevalence rates influence the development of a primary prevention programme for low-back problems?

    PubMed

    Zinzen, E; Caboor, D; Verlinden, M; Cattrysse, E; Duquet, W; Van Roy, P; Clarys, J P

    2000-10-01

    To determine relations to low-back problems (LBP), different prevalence rates are used. The disadvantage of using different selection criteria is that studies are not comparable, except where they provide the same results. The present aim was to establish whether different prevalence selection criteria lead to different answers on a newly formed set of questionnaires. Since this set is new, reliability tests were performed (test-retest and calculations of Cronbach's Alpha, Cohen's Kappa and the intraclass correlation). Results of the questionnaire should form the cornerstones of a primary prevention programme. Altogether 1783 nurses in four Flemish (Belgian) hospitals were questioned. Information was gathered on work circumstances, education, general health, psychosocial factors, leisure activities, family situation and musculoskeletal problems. Four different datasets with variables related to lifetime prevalence LBP, annual prevalence LBP, point prevalence LBP and a set with all related variables were constructed. The variables demonstrating a relation with LBP differed slightly depending on the kind of prevalence used (lifetime, annual, point). A factor analysis on each set of prevalence related data failed due to the lack of homogeneity of the variables. Fear avoidance, coping aspects and musculoskeletal problems in other regions then the lower back were, in all circumstances, the most discriminating variables. Their discriminating power, however, differed depending on the kind of prevalence used. The differences were too small to influence the construction of the prevention programme. It is concluded that in developing a primary prevention programme any of the prevalence rates can be used. The combination of the three types of prevalence rates studied provides the most complete and reliable image. PMID:11083157

  12. Effects of 12-month valsartan therapy on glycation and oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Naoko; Hirose, Hiroshi; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Saito, Ikuo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Although it has been reported that angiotensin II receptor blockers inhibited the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in vitro and in vivo, whether they can do so clinically is not clear. We investigated the effects of 12-month valsartan therapy on various markers of inflammation, glycation, and oxidation in type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension. We started 40 mg/day valsartan treatment in 15 type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. In 6 patients, the dose of valsartan was increased to 80 mg/day after 6 months and maintained until 12 months. Metabolic parameters including BMI and serum high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as an inflammation marker, AGEs, paraoxonase activity, platelet-activating factor (PAF)- acetylhydrolase activity, and urine 8-isoprostane levels were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Urine microalbumin level and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) were also measured. Even after valsartan therapy, the blood pressure levels of the patients were not decreased significantly. Serum AGEs and urine 8-isoprostane levels decreased at both 6 and 12 months (P < 0.05 for both), although other metabolic and oxidative markers were unchanged. Though urine microalbumin levels tended to be decreased after 6 and 12 months of valsartan treatment, the changes were not significant. Mean IMT at 12 months was not changed from the baseline value. In conclusion, the findings suggest that treatment with valsartan, even at a low dose, may ameliorate some glycation and oxidative stress markers independently of an effect on blood pressure in hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:19075484

  13. Comparison of measures of comorbidity for predicting disability 12-months post-injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that impact on disability is necessary to inform trauma care and enable adequate risk adjustment for benchmarking and monitoring. A key consideration is how to adjust for pre-existing conditions when assessing injury outcomes, and whether the inclusion of comorbidity is needed in addition to adjustment for age. This study compared different approaches to modelling the impact of comorbidity, collected as part of the routine hospital episode data, on disability outcomes following orthopaedic injury. Methods 12-month Glasgow Outcome Scale – Extended (GOS-E) outcomes for 13,519 survivors to discharge were drawn from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry, a prospective cohort study of admitted orthopaedic injury patients. ICD-10-AM comorbidity codes were mapped to four comorbidity indices. Cases with a GOS-E score of 7–8 were considered “recovered”. A split dataset approach was used with cases randomly assigned to development or test datasets. Logistic regression models were fitted with “recovery” as the outcome and the performance of the models based on each comorbidity index (adjusted for injury and age) measured using calibration (Hosmer-Lemshow (H-L) statistics and calibration curves) and discrimination (Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC)) statistics. Results All comorbidity indices improved model fit over models with age and injuries sustained alone. None of the models demonstrated acceptable model calibration (H-L statistic p < 0.05 for all models). There was little difference between the discrimination of the indices for predicting recovery: Charlson Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71); number of ICD-10 chapters represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.72); number of six frequent chronic conditions represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.71); and the Functional Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.69, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71). Conclusions The presence of ICD-10 recorded comorbid

  14. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia: comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set.

    PubMed Central

    Hautvast, J. L.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J. J.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L. A.; van Staveren, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting). A total of 518 infants who were attending mother-and-child health clinics were included. Age, weight and length were recorded. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated in two ways: by applying the NCHS growth reference and by using the WHO breastfed data set. Anthropometric Z-scores calculated using the breastfed data set were lower during the first 6-7 months of life compared with those calculated by applying the NCHS growth reference. This resulted in a higher proportion of children aged 0-6 months being classified as stunted and underweight using the breastfed data set versus the NCHS growth reference. After the age of 7 months, similar prevalences of stunting or underweight were observed. Relatively few infants were classified as wasted. In order to adequately assess the prevalence of stunting and underweight in breastfed infants, it is recommended that a new growth reference be developed, as has been initiated by WHO. PMID:10885182

  15. Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality

  16. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes. PMID:25574886

  17. Prevalence Rates of Uterine Cervical Carcinoma in situ for Women Using the Diaphragm or Contraceptive Oral Steroids*

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, Myron R.; Koss, Leopold G.; Flehinger, Betty J.; Kelisky, Richard P.; Dubrow, Hilliard

    1969-01-01

    Study of the prevalence rates of uterine cervical carcinoma in situ among women attending centres of Planned Parenthood of New York City, Inc., showed a small but statistically significant difference between the population choosing and using the diaphragm and the population choosing and using oral steroids for contraception. This can be attributed either to a decreased prevalence rate for women using the diaphragm or to an increased rate for women using oral steroids. The reason for the difference is not apparent from these data. PMID:5792609

  18. Changes in mental and physical well-being among problematic alcohol and drug users in 12-month Internet-based intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Berman, Anne H; Wennberg, Peter; Sinadinovic, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    Twelve-month well-being outcomes were investigated for 835 participants in 1 of 2 randomized controlled trials offering online assessment and brief intervention for either problematic alcohol (n = 633) or drug use (n = 202). The well-being of participants who had reduced their substance use to a less problematic level (regardless of intervention) over 12 months was compared with that of participants who had maintained or increased their use. At a 12-month follow-up, the 227 alcohol trial participants with reduced use showed better well-being in comparison to the 406 with stable or increased use, in physical health and sleep quality, as well as general well-being, ability to concentrate, lower stress, better social life satisfaction and sense of control, and a lower rate of depressed mood. Among the 70 drug trial participants who had reduced their drug use over 12 months, 80% had ceased all drug use, and at follow-up they had fewer alcohol-related problems than the stable group. No differences in well-being between these groups were identified. Self-reported access to additional treatment modalities beyond the trial interventions (e.g., speaking to someone about problematic use and accessing additional Internet-based interventions) was higher among participants in both cohorts with reduced substance use in comparison to those with stable/increased use. Drug users who reduced their use accessed prescribed medication to a larger extent than those whose use remained stable or increased. Points to consider when conducting future research on well-being and problematic substance use are discussed. PMID:25664387

  19. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The petitioners provided three listing options for consideration by the Service: Listing the black- footed albatross throughout its range; listing the......

  20. The Role of Intersensory Redundancy in the Emergence of Social Referencing in 5 1/2-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant-Molina, Mariana; Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    2012-01-01

    Early evidence of social referencing was examined in 5 1/2-month-old infants. Infants were habituated to 2 films of moving toys, one toy eliciting a woman's positive emotional expression and the other eliciting a negative expression under conditions of bimodal (audiovisual) or unimodal visual (silent) speech. It was predicted that intersensory…

  1. 76 FR 9991 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Hermes copper butterflies in the Federal Register (71 FR 44980 and 71 FR 44966, respectively). The... FR 44980). On March 17, 2009, Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) and David Hogan filed a complaint... butterfly as endangered may be warranted (75 FR 17062). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on...

  2. 76 FR 37706 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... publish these 12-month findings in the Federal Register. Previous Federal Actions On July 1, 1975 (40 FR... Service for listing as an endangered species under the Act in 1976 (June 16, 1976, 41 FR 24524). However... Wildlife Service 1988). Ozark chinquapin became a category 2 candidate on December 15, 1980 (45 FR...

  3. 75 FR 13909 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings for Petitions to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... finding in the Federal Register (69 FR 21484) that these petitions taken collectively, as well as... finding, until July 30, 2004 (69 FR 41445). In accordance with section 4(b)(3)(A) of the Act, we completed... January 12, 2005, we announced our not-warranted 12-month finding in the Federal Register (70 FR 2243)....

  4. 78 FR 68659 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., 2008, we published a 12-month finding on the petition to list the Gunnison's prairie dog (73 FR 6660... published a 90-day finding in the Federal Register (71 FR 6241) determining that the petition did not... notice of review process (73 FR 75175, December 20, 2008; 74 FR 57804, November 9, 2009; 75 FR...

  5. 75 FR 30338 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition to List the White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... may be warranted. On November 9, 2004, we announced our 90-day finding (69 FR 64889) that the petition... Finding on a Petition to List the White-tailed Prairie Dog as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and... Wildlife Service announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the white-tailed prairie dog...

  6. 76 FR 46251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Redrock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Register on December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66866). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on the June 18... levels, on their own, do not affect aquatic invertebrates (Spindler 2010b, p. 1), and we do not expect... an important food source and foraging area for stream invertebrates (Wallace and Webster 1996, p....

  7. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). On December 9, 2008, we received a petition dated December 8, 2008, from... published in the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 42033). In that finding we determined that the... Pinus albicaulis (75 FR 42033), and received 20 letters from the public. This 12-month finding is...

  8. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months. PMID:24625341

  10. Social and Object Mastery Play in 12-Month Olds with Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers: Developmental Changes and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popper, Sally D.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of postpartum adjustment and infant development, this study examined whether securely attached 12-month-old infants show greater object mastery motivation and social-object mastery motivation than do insecurely attached infants. Object mastery relates to infants' goal-directed behavior that is oriented toward…

  11. 77 FR 59357 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Spring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Spring Mountains acastus checkerspot butterfly (Chlosyne acastus robusta) as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Spring Mountains acastus......

  12. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: A 12-month prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R.; Chiu, Bryan K.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W.; Handy, Todd C.; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12 months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants’ physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12 months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  13. Health-related quality of life and functional changes in DMD: A 12-month longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Sframeli, Maria; Mondello, Stefania; Mazzone, Elena; D'Amico, Adele; Berardinelli, Angela; La Rosa, Matteo; Bruno, Claudio; Distefano, Maria Grazia; Baranello, Giovanni; Barcellona, Costanza; Scutifero, Marianna; Marcato, Sonia; Palmieri, Arianna; Politano, Luisa; Morandi, Lucia; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Pane, Marika; Rodolico, Carmelo; Minetti, Carlo; Bertini, Enrico; Vita, Giuseppe; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) little has been reported on the association between clinical outcome measures and patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tools. Our study evaluated the relationship between 12 month changes on the Generic Core Scales (GCS), the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale and the Neuromuscular Module of the PedsQLTM with several outcome measures (6 minute walk test, North Star Ambulatory Assessment and timed items) in ambulatory DMD. Ninety-eight ambulatory DMD in a multicentric setting were included in the study. At baseline, the PedsQLTM inventories correlated with almost all the functional measures On the Child Self-Report there was a significant decrease between baseline and 12 months on the PedsQLTM GCS and its first domain, in parallel with the decrement in the functional outcome measures. Correlation between the 12 month changes on the PedsQLTM inventories and functional measures were almost all negligible. Similar results were obtained on the Parent Proxy-Report. In conclusion, PedsQLTM correlates with the level of impairment at baseline, but this does not hold true when 12 month changes are considered. Further studies comparing different tools are needed to better elucidate the complexity of the relationship between HRQOL and functional performances. PMID:26916554

  14. Infants' Vocal Engagement Oriented towards Mother versus Stranger at 3 Months and Avoidant Attachment Behavior at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that mother avoidance in infants at the age of 12 months can be predicted by the infants' differential vocal engagement to mother versus a female stranger at the age of 3 months. Differential engagement in favor of the mother was supposed to relate to low future avoidance. The vocal behavior of 26…

  15. Is Visual Reference Necessary? Contributions of Facial versus Vocal Cues in 12-Month-Olds' Social Referencing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Amrisha; Striano, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    To examine the influences of facial versus vocal cues on infants' behavior in a potentially threatening situation, 12-month-olds on a visual cliff received positive facial-only, vocal-only, or both facial and vocal cues from mothers. Infants' crossing times and looks to mother were assessed. Infants crossed the cliff faster with multimodal and…

  16. Child-Centered Behaviors of Caregivers with 12-Month-Old Infants: Associations with Passive Joint Engagement and Later Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Carol Hamer; Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates three aspects of social communication in 12-month-old infants and their caregivers: (a) caregiver conversational style, (b) caregiver gesture, and (c) infant engagement. Differences in caregiver behavior during passive joint engagement were associated with language outcomes. Although total mean duration of infant time in…

  17. 75 FR 78029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ..., 1995, we published a finding (60 FR 19567) that a previous petition, submitted by the Predator Project... scientific and commercial information indicating that listing may be warranted (68 FR 60112). On September 29... published a 12-month finding of ``not warranted'' for the wolverine in the contiguous United States (73...

  18. 75 FR 19592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Wyoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Wyoming pocket gopher (Thomomys clusius) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Wyoming pocket gopher as either......

  19. 75 FR 53615 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... warranted, and initiated a status review (74 FR 36152). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on the... species under the Act in the 1982 Candidate Notice of Review (47 FR 58454, December 30, 1982). Category 2... for possible addition to the ] Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (61 FR...

  20. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  1. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  2. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  3. 76 FR 9722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Solanum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... FR 63659) our finding that the petition to list A. eggersiana and S. conocarpum presented substantial... February 28, 2006. On March 7, 2006, we published our 12-month finding (71 FR 11367) that listing of A... Number The Service adopted guidelines on September 21, 1983 (48 FR 43098), to establish a rational...

  4. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W; Handy, Todd C; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants' physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  5. A 12-month, open-label, comparative study of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Victor; Cañas, Fernando; Tafalla, Monica

    2008-05-01

    This multicentre, observational, prospective, nonrandomized study compared the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia in a clinical setting. Patients admitted to an acute unit with schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV), who were prescribed quetiapine or risperidone (3 : 1 ratio) within the first week of treatment, according to the physician's usual practice, were recruited. In total, 492 patients (quetiapine: 367; risperidone: 125) were followed up at weeks 1 and 2, discharge and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Mean doses at 12 months were: quetiapine 718.5 mg/day and risperidone 7.0 mg/day. Efficacy measures (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness and Improvement) indicated similar results for both agents. No difference was found in rehospitalization rate with either drug. In terms of tolerability, orthostatic hypotension was more frequent with quetiapine, but extrapyramidal symptoms and male sexual dysfunction were more frequent with risperidone. In conclusion, quetiapine and risperidone had comparable effectiveness, but there were differences between treatments in their side effect profile. PMID:18408528

  6. The relationship of arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence rate of skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Tondel, M; Rahman, M; Magnuson, A; Chowdhury, I A; Faruquee, M H; Ahmad, S A

    1999-01-01

    To determine the relationship of arsenic-associated skin lesions and degree of arsenic exposure, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangladesh, where a large part of the population is exposed through drinking water. Four villages in Bangladesh were identified as mainly dependent on wells contaminated with arsenic. We interviewed and examined 1,481 subjects [Greater/equal to] 30 years of age in these villages. A total of 430 subjects had skin lesions (keratosis, hyperpigmentation, or hypopigmentation). Individual exposure assessment could only be estimated by present levels and in terms of a dose index, i.e., arsenic levels divided by individual body weight. Arsenic water concentrations ranged from 10 to 2,040 microg/L, and the crude overall prevalence rate for skin lesions was 29/100. After age adjustment to the world population the prevalence rate was 30. 1/100 and 26.5/100 for males and females, respectively. There was a significant trend for the prevalence rate both in relation to exposure levels and to dose index (p < 0.05), regardless of sex. This study shows a higher prevalence rate of arsenic skin lesions in males than females, with clear dose-response relationship. The overall high prevalence rate in the studied villages is an alarming sign of arsenic exposure and requires an urgent remedy. PMID:10464073

  7. Mapping the serological prevalence rate of West Nile fever in equids, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bargaoui, R; Lecollinet, S; Lancelot, R

    2015-02-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral disease of wild birds transmitted by mosquitoes. Humans and equids can also be affected and suffer from meningoencephalitis. In Tunisia, two outbreaks of WNF occurred in humans in 1997 and 2003; sporadic cases were reported on several other years. Small-scale serological surveys revealed the presence of antibodies against WN virus (WNV) in equid sera. However, clinical cases were never reported in equids, although their population is abundant in Tunisia. This study was achieved to characterize the nationwide serological status of WNV in Tunisian equids. In total, 1189 sera were collected in 2009 during a cross-sectional survey. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies, using ELISA and microneutralization tests. The estimated overall seroprevalence rate was 28%, 95% confidence interval [22; 34]. The highest rates were observed (i) in the north-eastern governorates (Jendouba, 74%), (ii) on the eastern coast (Monastir, 64%) and (iii) in the lowlands of Chott El Jerid and Chott el Gharsa (Kebili, 58%; Tozeur, 52%). Environmental risk factors were assessed, including various indicators of wetlands, wild avifauna, night temperature and chlorophyllous activity (normalized difference vegetation index: NDVI). Multimodel inference showed that lower distance to ornithological sites and wetlands, lower night-time temperature, and higher NDVI in late spring and late fall were associated with higher serological prevalence rate. The model-predicted nationwide map of WNF seroprevalence rate in Tunisian equids highlighted different areas with high seroprevalence probability. These findings are discussed in the perspective of implementing a better WNF surveillance system in Tunisia. This system might rely on (i) a longitudinal survey of sentinel birds in high-risk areas and time periods for WNV transmission, (ii) investigations of bird die-offs and (iii) syndromic surveillance of equine meningoencephalitis. PMID:23906318

  8. Predicting the Onset of Anxiety Syndromes at 12 Months in Primary Care Attendees. The PredictA-Spain Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Luna, Juan de Dios; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Motrico, Emma; GildeGómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Torres-González, Francisco; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Bellón, Juan Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no risk algorithms for the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months in primary care. We aimed to develop and validate internally a risk algorithm to predict the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Methods A prospective cohort study with evaluations at baseline, 6 and 12 months. We measured 39 known risk factors and used multilevel logistic regression and inverse probability weighting to build the risk algorithm. Our main outcome was generalized anxiety, panic and other non-specific anxiety syndromes as measured by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, Patient Health Questionnaire (PRIME-MD-PHQ). We recruited 3,564 adult primary care attendees without anxiety syndromes from 174 family physicians and 32 health centers in 6 Spanish provinces. Results The cumulative 12-month incidence of anxiety syndromes was 12.2%. The predictA-Spain risk algorithm included the following predictors of anxiety syndromes: province; sex (female); younger age; taking medicines for anxiety, depression or stress; worse physical and mental quality of life (SF-12); dissatisfaction with paid and unpaid work; perception of financial strain; and the interactions sex*age, sex*perception of financial strain, and age*dissatisfaction with paid work. The C-index was 0.80 (95% confidence interval = 0.78–0.83) and the Hedges' g = 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.04–1.29). The Copas shrinkage factor was 0.98 and calibration plots showed an accurate goodness of fit. Conclusions The predictA-Spain risk algorithm is valid to predict anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Although external validation is required, the predictA-Spain is available for use as a predictive tool in the prevention of anxiety syndromes in primary care. PMID:25184313

  9. High Incidence of Vertebral Fractures in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 12 Months After the Initiation of Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alos, Nathalie; Grant, Ronald; Ramsay, Timothy; Halton, Jacqueline; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Abish, Sharon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Barr, Ronald; Cabral, David A.; Cairney, Elizabeth; Couch, Robert; Dix, David B.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Hay, John; Israels, Sara; Laverdière, Caroline; Lentle, Brian; Lewis, Victor; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Rodd, Celia; Shenouda, Nazih; Stein, Robert; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Wilson, Beverly; Williams, Kathryn; Rauch, Frank; Siminoski, Kerry; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis are a potential complication of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To date, the incidence of vertebral fractures during ALL treatment has not been reported. Patient and Methods We prospectively evaluated 155 children with ALL during the first 12 months of leukemia therapy. Lateral thoracolumbar spine radiographs were obtained at baseline and 12 months. Vertebral bodies were assessed for incident vertebral fractures using the Genant semi-quantitative method, and relevant clinical indices such as spine bone mineral density (BMD), back pain and the presence of vertebral fractures at baseline were analyzed for association with incident vertebral fractures. Results Of the 155 children, 25 (16%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 11% to 23%) had a total of 61 incident vertebral fractures, of which 32 (52%) were moderate or severe. Thirteen of the 25 children with incident vertebral fractures (52%) also had fractures at baseline. Vertebral fractures at baseline increased the odds of an incident fracture at 12 months by an odds ratio of 7.3 (95% CI 2.3 to 23.1, p = 0.001). In addition, for every one standard deviation reduction in spine BMD Z-score at baseline, there was 1.8-fold increased odds of incident vertebral fracture at 12 months (95% CI 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.006). Conclusion Children with ALL have a high incidence of vertebral fractures after 12 months of chemotherapy, and the presence of vertebral fractures and reductions in spine BMD Z-scores at baseline are highly associated clinical features. PMID:22734031

  10. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. PMID:25459795

  11. Should obesity be blamed for the high prevalence rates of hypertension in black South African women?

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Huisman, H W; Van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, R; Malan, L; Reimann, M; De Ridder, J H; van der Merwe, A; Schwarz, P E H; Malan, N T

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in South Africa, resulting in high stroke mortality rates. Since obesity is very common among South African women, it is likely that obesity contributes to the hypertension prevalence. The aims were to determine whether black African women have higher blood pressures (BPs) than Caucasian women, and whether obesity is related to their cardiovascular risk. African (N=102) and Caucasian (N=115) women, matched for age and body mass index, were included. Correlations between obesity (total body fat, abdominal obesity and peripheral fat) and cardiovascular risk markers (haemodynamic parameters, lipids, inflammatory markers, prothrombotic factors, adipokines, HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment insulin resistance)) were compared between the ethnic groups (adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and physical activity). Comparisons between low- and high-BP groups were also made for each ethnic group. Results showed that African women had higher BP (P<0.01) with increased peripheral vascular resistance. Surprisingly, African women showed significantly weaker correlations between obesity measures and cardiovascular risk markers when compared to Caucasian women (specifically systolic BP, arterial resistance, cardiac output, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin and resistin). Interestingly, the latter risk markers were also not significantly different between low- and high-BP African groups. African women, however, presented significant correlations of obesity with triglycerides, C-reactive protein and HOMA that were comparable to the Caucasian women. Although urban African women have higher BP than Caucasians, their obesity levels are weakly related to traditional cardiovascular risk factors compared to Caucasian women. The results, however, suggest a link with the development of insulin resistance. PMID:18432254

  12. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative in the past 12 months: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Lowford, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Eight years ago Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects launched in EU, Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Throughout its duration, NEESPI served and is serving as an umbrella for more than 155 individual international research projects. Currently, the total number of the ongoing NEESPI projects (as on January 2013) is 48 and has changed but slightly compared to its peak (87 in 2008). The past 12 months (from the previous EGU Assembly) were extremely productive in the NEESPI outreach. We organized three Open Science Sessions at the three major Geoscience Unions/Assembly Meetings (JpGU, AGU, and this EGU Session) and three International NEESPI Workshops. The programs of two of these Workshops (in Yoshkar Ola and Irkutsk, Russia) included Summer Schools for early career scientists. More than 150 peer-reviewed papers, books, and/or book chapters were published in 2012 or are in press (this list was still incomplete at the time of preparation of this abstract). In particular, a suite of 25 peer-reviewed NEESPI articles was published in the Forth Special NEESPI Issue of "Environmental Research Letters" (ERL) http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI3 (this is the third ERL Issue). In December 2012, the next Special ERL NEESPI Issue was launched http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI4. Northern Eurasia is a large study domain. Therefore, it was decided to describe the latest findings related to its environmental changes in several regional monographs in English. Three books on Environmental Changes in the NEESPI domain were published by the University of Helsinki (Groisman et al. 2012), "Akademperiodyka" (Groisman and Lyalko 2012), and Springer Publishing House (Groisman and Gutman 2013) being devoted to the high latitudes of Eurasia, to Eastern Europe, and to Siberia

  13. Virological Outcomes and Drug Resistance in Chinese Patients after 12 Months of 3TC-Based First-Line Antiretroviral Treatment, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Yong; He, Jianmei; Ling, Hua; Ding, Ping; Tong, Yi; Zou, Xiaobai; Zhou, Quanhua; Liao, Lingjie; Wang, Xia; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of virological failure and HIV drug resistance among Chinese patients one year after initiating lamivudine-based first-line antiretroviral treatment. Methods A prospective cohort study with follow-up at 12 months was conducted in four urban sentinel sites in China. Antiretroviral naive patients ≥18 years old were recruited. Blood samples were collected for testing CD4 cell count, viral load, and (for samples with HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/ml) genotyping of drug resistance. Results A total of 513 patients were enrolled in this cohort, of whom 448 (87.3%) were retained at 12 months. The median final CD4 cell count was 313 cells/mm3, which increased from 192 cells/mm3 at baseline (P<0.0001). Of the 448 remaining subjects, 394 (87.9%) had successful virological suppression (HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml). Among 54 samples with viral load ≥1000 copies/ml, 40 were successfully genotyped, and 11 were found with detectable HIV drug resistance mutations. Of these, the proportions of drug resistance to NNRTIs, NRTIs and PIs were 100%, 81.8% and 0%, respectively. Injecting drug use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19,0.84; P = 0.0154), CD4 count at baseline ≥350 cells/mm3 (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.14,0.72; P = 0.0056), and missed doses in the past month (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15,0.60; P = 0.0006) were significantly negatively associated with HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml. Conclusions Our study demonstrates effective virological and immunological outcomes at 12 months among these who initiated first-line ART treatment. However, patients infected through drug injection, who missed doses, or with higher CD4 count at baseline are at increased risk for poor virological response. PMID:24516631

  14. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004). 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321). Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006) over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions. PMID:20433700

  15. 39 CFR 3010.22 - Calculation of annual limitation when notices of rate adjustment are less than 12 months apart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Adjusted, Base Period 1982-84 = 100. The current Series ID for the index is “CUUR0000SA0.” (b) If a notice... = 100. The current Series ID for the index is “CUUR0000SA0.” (b) If a notice of a Type 1-A or Type...

  16. Association of programmatic factors with low contraceptive prevalence rates in a rural area of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was conducted to identify selected programmatic factors relating to low contraceptive-use in a low-performing rural sub-district in Sylhet division of Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 6983 currently-married women of reproductive age (MWRA) (15–49 years). To estimate the association between current contraceptive-use and other selected factors, multivariate analyse were performed, estimating the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR), including 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The use of health facility by the MWRA in the last three months, distance from the residence to the nearest health facility, and contact with field workers in the last six months was significantly associated with contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR). There were potential differences regarding CPR, sources of contraceptive supply and Family Welfare Assistant (FWA) visit between hard to reach and non-hard to reach unions of Nabiganj sub-district. Conclusion Strategies should be devised to increase the accessibility of MWRA to contraceptive methods by increased partnership with non-public sector and increased contacts with outreach workers through introducing community volunteers, and mobile phones help lines, by organizing frequent satellite clinics (SCs) and making community clinics (CCs) functional. Innovative strategies should be piloted for improving use of contraception in such hard to reach and low performing locality. PMID:23782912

  17. The developing cognitive substrate of sequential action control in 9- to 12-month-olds: evidence for concurrent activation models.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, S A; Paulus, M; Spapé, M; Biro, S; Hommel, B

    2015-05-01

    Nine-month-olds start to perform sequential actions. Yet, it remains largely unknown how they acquire and control such actions. We studied infants' sequential-action control by employing a novel gaze-contingent eye tracking paradigm. Infants experienced occulo-motor action sequences comprising two elementary actions. To contrast chaining, concurrent and integrated models of sequential-action control, we then selectively activated secondary actions to assess interactions with the primary actions. Behavioral and pupillometric results suggest 12-month-olds acquire sequential action without elaborate strategy through exploration. Furthermore, the inhibitory mechanisms ensuring ordered performance develop between 9 and 12 months of age, and are best captured by concurrent models. PMID:25704583

  18. Vaccination of ferrets with a recombinant G glycoprotein subunit vaccine provides protection against Nipah virus disease for over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the henipavirus genus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Since NiV was first identified in 1999, outbreaks have continued to occur in humans in Bangladesh and India on an almost annual basis with case fatality rates reported between 40% and 100%. Methods Ferrets were vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with the human use approved adjuvant, CpG, in a prime-boost regime. One half of the ferrets were exposed to NiV at 20 days post boost vaccination and the other at 434 days post vaccination. The presence of virus or viral genome was assessed in ferret fluids and tissues using real-time PCR, virus isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry; serology was also carried out. Non-immunised ferrets were also exposed to virus to confirm the pathogenicity of the inoculum. Results Ferrets exposed to Nipah virus 20 days post vaccination remained clinically healthy. Virus or viral genome was not detected in any tissues or fluids of the vaccinated ferrets; lesions and antigen were not identified on immunohistological examination of tissues; and there was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with failure of virus replication. Of the ferrets challenged 434 days post vaccination, all five remained well throughout the study period; viral genome – but not virus - was recovered from nasal secretions of one ferret given 20 μg HeVsG and bronchial lymph nodes of the other. There was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with lack of stimulation of a humoral memory response. Conclusions We have previously shown that ferrets vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with CpG adjuvant, which is currently in several human clinical trials, were protected from HeV disease. Here we show, under similar conditions of use, that the vaccine also provides protection against NiV-induced disease. Such protection persists for at least 12 months

  19. Course of Depressive Symptoms Following a Workplace Injury: A 12-Month Follow-Up Update.

    PubMed

    Carnide, Nancy; Franche, Renée-Louise; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Côté, Pierre; Breslin, F Curtis; Severin, Colette N; Bültmann, Ute; Krause, Niklas

    2016-06-01

    Introduction To estimate the prevalence, incidence and course of depressive symptoms, their relationship with return-to-work, and prevalence of depression diagnosis/treatment 12 months following a lost-time workplace musculoskeletal injury. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 332 workers' compensation claimants with a back or upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder completed interviews at 1, 6 and 12 months post-injury. Participants self-reported they had not received a depression diagnosis 1 year pre-injury. Cutoff of 16 on the CES-D defined a high level of depressive symptoms. Self-reported data on depression diagnosis and treatment and work status since injury were collected. Results Cumulative incidence of high depressive symptom levels over 12 months was 50.3 % (95 % CI 44.9-55.7 %). At 12 months, 24.7 % (95 % CI 20.1-29.3 %) of workers exhibited high levels. Over 12 months, 49.7 % (95 % CI 44.3-55.1 %) had low levels at all 3 interviews, 14.5 % (95 % CI 10.7-18.2 %) had persistently high levels, and 25.6 % (95 % CI 20.9-30.3 %) demonstrated improvements. Among workers with low baseline levels, incidence of high levels at 12 months was 6.0 % (95 % CI 2.7-9.3 %). For workers with high baseline levels, 36.1 % (95 % CI 27.9-44.3 %) exhibited persistent high symptoms at 6 and 12 months, while 38.4 % (95 % CI 30.1-46.6 %) experienced low levels at 6 and 12 months. Problematic RTW outcomes were common among workers with a poor depressive symptom course. Among workers with persistent high symptoms, 18.8 % (95 % CI 7.7-29.8 %) self-reported receiving a depression diagnosis by 12 months and 29.2 % (95 % CI 16.3-42.0 %) were receiving treatment at 12 months. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are common in the first year following a lost-time musculoskeletal injury and a poor depressive symptom course is associated with problematic RTW outcomes 12 months post-injury. While symptoms appear to improve over time, the first 6

  20. 76 FR 38503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list a distinct population segment (DPS) of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in its U.S. Northern Rocky Mountain range, including portions of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, as endangered or threatened and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of......

  1. 78 FR 33790 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (``Service''), announce 12-month findings on two petitions to remove the U.S. captive-bred and U.S. captive ``populations'' of three antelope species, the scimitar- horned oryx (Oryx dammah), dama gazelle (Gazella dama), and addax (Addax nasomaculatus), from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife as determined under the Endangered Species Act of......

  2. 75 FR 42040 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Amargosa toad (Anaxyrus nelsoni) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Amargosa toad is not warranted at this time.......

  3. Incident Vertebral Fractures among Children with Rheumatic Disorders 12 Months Post-Glucocorticoid Initiation: a National Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Celia; Lang, Bianca; Ramsay, Timothy; Alos, Nathalie; Huber, Adam M.; Cabral, David A.; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Roth, Johannes; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Dent, Peter B.; Ellsworth, Janet; Hay, John; Houghton, Kristin; Jurencak, Roman; Larché, Maggie; LeBlanc, Claire; Oen, Kiem; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Stein, Robert; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Shenouda, Nazih; Moher, David; Rauch, Frank; Siminoski, Kerry; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency of incident vertebral fractures (IVF) 12 months after glucocorticoid (GC) initiation in children with rheumatic diseases and to identify children at higher risk. Methods Children with rheumatic diseases initiating GC were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Annual spine radiographs were evaluated using the Genant semi-quantitative method. Spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured every 6 months. Clinical features, including cumulative GC dose, back pain, disease and physical activity, calcium and vitamin D intake, and spine aBMD Z-scores were analyzed for association with IVF. Results Seven (6%) of 118 children (95% Confidence Interval 2.9 to 11.7) had IVF. Their diagnoses were: juvenile dermatomyositis (n = 2), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 3), systemic vasculitis (n = 1) and mixed connective tissue disease (n = 1). One child was omitted from the analyses after 4 months because of osteoporosis treatment for symptomatic IVF. Children with IVF received on average 50% more GC than those without (p=0.030), had a greater increase in body mass index (BMI) at 6 months (p=0.010), and had greater decrements in spine aBMD Z-scores in the first 6 months (p=0.048). Four (67%) of 6 children with IVF and data to 12 months had spine aBMD Z-scores less than −2.0 at 12 months compared to 16% of children without IVF (p=0.011). Conclusions The incidence of VF 12 months following GC initiation was 6%; most children were asymptomatic. Children with IVF received more GC, had greater increases in BMI and greater declines in spine aBMD Z-scores in the first 6 months. PMID:22213727

  4. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N

    PubMed Central

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OH)D < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9–12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3–165.5). Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OH)D (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L) than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L), 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L) and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L). Five of six infants with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding. PMID:24662162

  5. 75 FR 22012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Susan's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Susan's purse-making caddisfly (Ochrotrichia susanae) as endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing Susan's purse-making caddisfly is not warranted at......

  6. The First Year Inventory: a longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-old to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Baranek, Grace T; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R

    2013-09-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the First Year Inventory when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool version and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at risk for autism spectrum disorder based on liberal cut points on the First Year Inventory, Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool, and/or Developmental Concerns Questionnaire were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder from the sample of 699. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cutoffs had autism spectrum disorder and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age 3. These results suggest that the First Year Inventory is a promising tool for identifying 12-month-old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:22781058

  7. Miniscalpel-Needle versus Steroid Injection for Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial with a 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain in adults. A novel alternative medical instrument, the miniscalpel-needle (MSN), which is based on an acupuncture needle, has been recently developed in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the MSN release treatment versus that of traditional steroid injection for plantar fasciitis. Patients with plantar fasciitis were randomly assigned to 2 groups and followed up for 12 months, with 29 receiving MSN treatment and 25 receiving steroid injection treatment. The results showed that visual analog scale scores for morning pain, active pain, and overall heel pain all were decreased significantly in the MSN group from 1 to 12 months after treatment. In contrast, treatment with steroid injection showed a significant effect only at the 1-month follow-up but not at 6 or 12 months after treatment. Moreover, the MSN group achieved more rapid and sustained improvements than the steroid group throughout the duration of this study. No severe side effects were observed with MSN treatment. Our data suggest that the MSN release treatment is safe and has a significant benefit for plantar fasciitis compared to steroid injection. PMID:25114704

  8. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. PMID:22937749

  9. The First Year Inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-olds to 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Brown, L. M.; Baranek, G. T.; Reznick, J. S.; Watson, L. R.; Crais, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the FYI when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale – Preschool version (SRS-P) and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at-risk for ASD based on liberal cut points on the FYI, SRS-P, and/or DCQ were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of ASD from the sample of 699. ROC analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cut-offs had ASD and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age three. These results suggest that the FYI is a promising tool for identifying 12-month old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of ASD. PMID:22781058

  10. Maternal prenatal felt security and infant health at birth interact to predict infant fussing and crying at 12 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Natsumi; Gagné, Faby M; Séguin, Louise; Kramer, Michael S; McNamara, Helen; Platt, Robert W; Goulet, Lise; Meaney, Michael J; Lydon, John E

    2015-08-01

    Infants born with medical problems are at risk for less optimal developmental outcomes. This may be, in part, because neonatal medical problems are associated with maternal distress, which may adversely impact infants. However, the reserve capacity model suggests that an individual's bank of psychosocial resources buffers the adverse effects of later-encountered stressors. This prospective longitudinal study examined whether preexisting maternal psychosocial resources, conceptualized as felt security in close relationships, moderate the association between neonatal medical problems and infant fussing and crying 12 months postpartum. Maternal felt security was measured by assessing its indicators in 5,092 pregnant women. At birth, infants were classified as healthy or having a medical problem. At 12 months, experience sampling was used to assess daily maternal reports of fussing and crying in 135 mothers of infants who were healthy or had medical problems at birth. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that attachment, relationship quality, self-esteem, and social support can be conceptualized as indicators of a single felt security factor. Multiple regression analyses revealed that prenatal maternal felt security interacts with infant health at birth to predict fussing and crying at 12 months. Among infants born with medical problems, higher felt security predicted decreased fussing and crying. Maternal felt security assessed before birth dampens the association between neonatal medical problems and subsequent infant behavior. This supports the hypothesis that psychosocial resources in reserve can be called upon in the face of a stressor to reduce its adverse effects on the self or others. PMID:25528180

  11. Effects of 12 Months Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sympathetic Activity Related Brainstem Function and Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Luke A; Fatouleh, Rania H; Lundblad, Linda C; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2016-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 OSA subjects before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We found that following 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment, resting MSNA levels were significantly reduced in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related brainstem activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons, and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MSNA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function. PMID:27013952

  12. Effects of 12 Months Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sympathetic Activity Related Brainstem Function and Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Luke A.; Fatouleh, Rania H.; Lundblad, Linda C.; McKenzie, David K.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 OSA subjects before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We found that following 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment, resting MSNA levels were significantly reduced in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related brainstem activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons, and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MSNA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function. PMID:27013952

  13. Construction Industry Apprentices' Substance Use: A Survey of Prevalence Rates, Reasons for Use, and Regional and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Corney, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence rates and reasons for substance use were studied in a sample of 172 male construction industry apprentices who had a mean age of 20 years. Results were compared with those of men in similar age groups in Victoria, and regional and age differences were explored. Findings indicate that more metropolitan apprentices had experimented with…

  14. How Variable Are Interstate Prevalence Rates of Learning Disabilities and Other Special Education Categories? A Longitudinal Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallahan, Daniel P.; Keller, Clayton E.; Martinez, Elizabeth A.; Byrd, E. Stephen; Gelman, Jennifer A.; Fan, Xitao

    2007-01-01

    This study compared interstate variability of prevalence rates for special education categories from 1984 to 1985 through 2001 to 2002, using the coefficient of variation (CV), which is designed to compare variances when the means of the groups compared are radically different. The category of learning disabilities, presumed by many to be the most…

  15. Infants' Attention to Patterned Stimuli: Developmental Change from 3 to 12 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courage, Mary L.; Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the development of look duration as a function of age and stimulus type, 14- to 52-week-old infants were shown static and dynamic versions of faces, Sesame Street material, and achromatic patterns for 20 s of accumulated looking. Heart rate was recorded during looking and parsed into stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and…

  16. Prevalence of respiratory diseases and their association with growth rate and space in randomly selected swine herds.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M R; Takov, R; Friendship, R M; Martin, S W; McMillan, I; Hacker, R R; Swaminathan, S

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence and extent of respiratory tract lesions were measured in 1425 pigs from 27 randomly selected herds in the summer of 1982 and winter of 1983. About 75% of pigs had lesions of enzootic pneumonia, approximately 60% had atrophic rhinitis and approximately 11% had pleuropneumonia and/or pleuritis. Individual pig growth rate was recorded on two of the farms, and it was found that the correlations between growth rate and severity of enzootic pneumonia lesions were positive on one farm and negative on the other. Negative correlations between severity of turbinate atrophy and growth rate existed in one of the two herds. Extent of pneumonia and severity of turbinate atrophy were poorly related in individual pigs but herd averages were moderately and positively correlated. Prevalence of diffuse pleuritis and of pleuropneumonia were positively related, as were the extent of pneumonia and prevalence of localized pleuritis. Prevalence of pleuropneumonia was strongly correlated with increased days-to-market. A method of estimating the average days-to-market using weekly herd data (inventory) was developed. PMID:3756676

  17. Differences in prevalence rates of PTSD in various European countries explained by war exposure, other trauma and cultural value orientation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Guided by previous explorations of historical and cultural influences on the occurrence of PTSD, the aim of the present study was to investigate the contributions of war victimisation (in particular, World War II) and other civil trauma on the prevalence of PTSD, as mediated by cultural value orientation. Secondary data analysis was performed for 12 European countries using data, including PTSD prevalence and number of war victims, crime victims, and natural disaster victims, from different sources. Ten single value orientations, as well as value aggregates for traditional and modern factors, were investigated. Results Whilst differences in PTSD prevalence were strongly associated with war victim rates, associations, albeit weaker, were also found between crime victims and PTSD. When cultural value orientations, such as stimulation and conformity as representatives of modern and traditional values, were included in the multivariate predictions of PTSD prevalence, an average of approximately 80% of PTSD variance could be explained by the model, independent of the type of trauma exposure. Conclusion The results suggest that the aftermath of war contributes to current PTSD prevalence, which may be explained by the high proportion of the older population who directly or indirectly experienced traumatic war experiences. Additional findings for other types of civil trauma point towards an interaction between value orientation and country-specific trauma rates. Particularly, being personally oriented towards stimulation appears to interact with differences in trauma prevalence. Thus, cultural value orientation might be viewed not only as an individual intrinsic process but also as a compensatory strategy after trauma exposure. PMID:24972489

  18. Factor Analysis of Changes in Hemoglobin A1c After 12 Months of Sitagliptin Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Shouhei; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Takai, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Masashi; Umezawa, Shinichi; Kubota, Akira; Maeda, Hajime; Kanamori, Akira; Miyakawa, Masaaki; Tanaka, Yasushi; Terauchi, Yasuo; Matsuba, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is an effective oral antidiabetic agent as both monotherapy and when combined with insulin. Data from three observational studies performed in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving sitagliptin therapy in the routine clinical setting were integrated to conduct factor analysis of the changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over 12 months. Methods Among patients with type 2 diabetes attending medical institutions affiliated with Kanagawa Physicians Association, those using sitagliptin were followed for 1 year. In the ASSET-K and ASSIST-K studies, patients were managed by diabetologists, while they were managed by non-diabetologists in the ATTEST-K study. Patients were not administered insulin in ASSET-K, whereas insulin was administered in ASSIST-K. HbA1c (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), blood glucose (fasting/postprandial), body weight, and renal function (serum creatinine and eGFR) were the efficacy endpoints. Factor analysis was performed by analysis of variance using the magnitude of the change in HbA1c, body weight, and eGFR after 12 months of sitagliptin therapy as response variables, and the study, sex, and age as explanatory variables. Results Of 1,327 patients registered in ASSET-K (diabetologists/without insulin), 1,167 patients in ASSIST-K (diabetologists/with insulin), and 530 patients in ATTEST-K (non-diabetologists), statistical analysis was carried out on 1,074, 854, and 411 patients, respectively. There were significant inter-study differences in patient characteristics (complications, duration of diabetes, and baseline HbA1c), the sitagliptin dose, and the use of other antidiabetic agents. HbA1c decreased significantly in all three studies. According to factor analysis, the magnitude of the change in HbA1c over 12 months showed significant inter-study differences and was also significantly influenced by the age

  19. Correlation of EEG, CT, and MRI Brain with Neurological Outcome at 12 Months in Term Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Annu; Matthai, John; Paul, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To correlate electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with neurological outcome at 12 months in term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between June 2010 and November 2011. Consecutive term neonates with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were the subjects. All babies were managed as per standard protocol. EEG was done as soon as the baby was stable and CT brain within 7 days. MRI was done at 3 months. Neurodevelpmental assessment was done at 12 months. Results: Of the 31 babies, four died and one was lost to follow-up. Neurodevelopmental at 12 months of age was normal in 15 babies. EEG was normal in six babies and all of them had a normal neurodevelopment. Thirteen of the 14 babies with burst suppression pattern were abnormal (P<0.001). CT brain was normal in 14 and all of them had normal neurodevelopment (P<0.001), while 11 of the 12 with cerebral edema had abnormal outcome (P<0.001). Of the 16 babies with normal MRI, 14 were normal, while all six babies with abnormal signals in the cortex and thalamus had abnormal outcome (P=0.002). Conclusions: A normal EEG and CT brain in a term newborn with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with good neurological outcome. Burst suppression pattern in EEG, bleeds, or hypodensities in the CT and involvement of basal ganglia/thalamus in the MRI are predictors of abnormal outcome. PMID:24251256

  20. The Influence of Back Pain and Urinary Incontinence on Daily Tasks of Mothers at 12 Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined back pain (BP) and/or urinary incontinence (UI) impact on the ability to perform daily tasks at 12 months after childbirth in healthy reproductive women who sought maternity care in community based family practice clinics. Methods This study is a secondary analysis from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported information on demographics, lifestyle, experiences with pregnancy and childbirth, occurrence of BP, UI and consequent impairment of daily tasks were collected by questionnaires administered before 25 weeks, at 34-36 weeks gestation and at 4 and 12 months postpartum. The occurrence and severity of BP and UI at one year after childbirth was assessed using descriptive and bivariate analyses. Logistic regression models examined the association between demographic and obstetrical variables and the severity of functional impairment due to UI and BP. Results From 1574 women with singleton pregnancies included in the study, 1212 (77%) experienced BP, 773 (49%) UI, and 620 (40%) both BP and UI. From the 821 women reporting impairment of daily tasks due to BP, 199 (24 %) were moderately and 90 (11%) severely affected with the remainder, 532 (64%) being mildly affected. From 267 women with functional impairment due to UI, 52 (19%) reported moderately to severe impairment in their ability to perform daily tasks. Obesity and parity were risk factors for impairment of daily functioning due to BP, whereas obesity and vaginal delivery increased the risk of moderate to severe impairment due to UI. Conclusions BP and UI are common occurrences 1 year after childbirth. Maternal performance of daily tasks and women’s health and quality of life are more often impaired due to BP than UI. Our study brings new evidence of the risk factors that predict severity and impact of these conditions on women functioning at 12 months postpartum. PMID:26083252

  1. Neuropsychological Performance of Youth with Secondary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 6- and 12-Months after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ornstein, Tisha J.; Sagar, Sanya; Schachar, Russell J.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Dennis, Maureen; Saunders, Ann E.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.; Max, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6–16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n = 177) and evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview scheduled on three occasions (within 2 weeks of TBI, i.e., baseline assessment for pre-injury status; 6-months and 12-months post-TBI). This permitted the determination of 6- and 12-month post-injury classifications of membership in three mutually exclusive groups (S-ADHD; pre-injury ADHD; TBI-only). Several executive control measures were administered. Unremitted S-ADHD was present in 17/141 (12%) children at the 6-month assessment, and in 14/125 (11%) children at 12-months post-injury. The study found that children with S-ADHD exhibited deficient working memory, attention, and psychomotor speed as compared to children with pre-injury ADHD. Furthermore, the children with S-ADHD and the children with TBI-only were impaired compared to the children with pre-injury ADHD with regard to planning. No group differences related to response inhibition emerged. Age, but not injury severity, gender, or adaptive functioning was related to executive function outcome. Neuropsychological sequelae distinguish among children who develop S-ADHD following TBI and those with TBI only. Moreover, there appears to be a different pattern of executive control performance in those who develop S-ADHD than in children with pre-injury ADHD suggesting that differences exist in the underlying neural mechanisms that define each disorder, underscoring the need to identify targeted treatment interventions. PMID:25489810

  2. Improving district facility readiness: a 12-month evaluation of a data-driven health systems strengthening intervention in rural Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Hari S.; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Finnegan, Karen; Uwingabiye, Alice; Shyaka, Edward; Niyonzima, Saleh; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Drobac, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background While health systems strengthening (HSS) interventions are recommended by global health policy experts to improve population health in resource-limited settings, few examples exist of evaluations of HSS interventions conducted at the district level. In 2009, a partnership between Partners In Health (PIH), a non-governmental organization, and the Rwandan Ministry of Health (RMOH) was provided funds to implement and evaluate a district-level HSS intervention in two rural districts of Rwanda. Design The partnership provided limited funds to 14 health centers for targeted systems support in 2010; six others received support prior to the intervention (reference). RMOH health systems norms were mapped across the WHO HSS framework, scored from 0 to 10 and incorporated into a rapid survey assessing 11 domains of facility readiness. Stakeholder meetings allowed partnership leaders to review results, set priorities, and allocate resources. Investments included salary support, infrastructure improvements, medical equipment, and social support for patients. We compared facility domain scores from the start of the intervention to 12 months and tested for correlation between change in score and change in funding allocation to assess equity in our approach. Results We found significant improvements among intervention facilities from baseline to 12 months across several domains [infrastructure (+4, p=0.0001), clinical services (+1.2, p=0.03), infection and sanitation control (+0.6, p=0.03), medical equipment (+1.0, p=0.02), information use (+2, p=0.002)]. Composite score across domains improved from 6.2 at baseline to 7.4 at 12 months (p=0.002). Across facilities, 50% had composite scores greater than the average score among reference facilities (7.4) at 12 months compared to none at baseline. Conclusions Rapid facility surveys, stakeholder engagement, and information feedback can be used for gap analysis and resource allocation. This approach can achieve effective use

  3. Root Coverage in Smokers with Acellular Dermal Matrix Graft and Enamel Matrix Derivative: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Priscila Paganini; Alves, Luciana Bastos; Souza, Sérgio Luís; Grisi, Márcio Fernando; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Taba, Mario; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether enamel matrix derivative (EMD) contributes to root coverage of gingival recessions performed with acellular dermal matrix graft (ADMG) in smokers during a 12-month follow-up. A sample of 19 smokers presenting bilateral Miller Class I or II gingival recessions were included. Selected sites randomly received both ADMG and EMD (test) or ADMG alone (control). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession height, keratinized tissue, and root coverage were evaluated. Mean gain in recession height (P < .05), sites with complete root coverage (P < .05), and percentage of root coverage (59.7% and 52.8%, respectively) favored the test group compared with the control group. PMID:27333010

  4. Peak Oxygen Uptake after Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 12-Month Maintenance Program versus Usual Care

    PubMed Central

    Madssen, Erik; Arbo, Ingerid; Granøien, Ingrid; Walderhaug, Liv; Moholdt, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise capacity improves after cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, but previous studies have demonstrated a decline in peak oxygen uptake after ending a formal rehabilitation program. There is a lack of knowledge on how long-term exercise adherence can be achieved in CAD patients. We therefore assessed if a 12-month maintenance program following cardiac rehabilitation would lead to increased adherence to exercise and increased exercise capacity compared to usual care. Materials and Methods Two-centre, open, parallel randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up comparing usual care to a maintenance program. The maintenance program consisted of one monthly supervised high intensity interval training session, a written exercise program and exercise diary, and a maximum exercise test every third month during follow-up. Forty-nine patients (15 women) on optimal medical treatment were included following discharge from cardiac rehabilitation. The primary endpoint was change in peak oxygen uptake at follow-up; secondary endpoints were physical activity level, quality of life and blood markers of cardiovascular risk. Results There was no change in peak oxygen uptake from baseline to follow-up in either group (intervention group 27.9 (±4.7) to 28.8 (±5.6) mL·kg (-1) min (−1), control group 32.0 (±6.2) to 32.8 (±5.8) mL·kg (−1) min (−1), with no between-group difference, p = 0.22). Quality of life and blood biomarkers remained essentially unchanged, and both self-reported and measured physical activity levels were similar between groups after 12 months. Conclusions A maintenance exercise program for 12 months did not improve adherence to exercise or peak oxygen uptake in CAD patients after discharge from cardiac rehabilitation compared to usual care. This suggests that infrequent supervised high intensity interval training sessions are

  5. Quality of life and cardiorespiratory function in chronic heart failure: effects of 12 months' aerobic training.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, T.; Myers, M. G.; Baigrie, R. S.; Mertens, D. J.; Sawyer, P.; Shephard, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term benefits and safety of aerobic training in patients with chronic heart failure. DESIGN: Non-randomised control trial with 52 weeks follow up. SETTING: Outpatient cardiac rehabilitation referral centre. PATIENTS: Patients with compensated chronic heart failure (mean (SD) age 62 (6) years, New York Heart Association stage III, initial resting ejection fraction 22 (7)%). Experimental group of 17 men, 4 women; control group 8 men, 1 woman. INTERVENTIONS: Experimental group: progressive, supervised aerobic walking programme for 52 weeks. Control group: standard medical treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six-minute walk distance, progressive cycle ergometer test to subjective exhaustion, disease-specific quality of life questionnaire, and standard gamble test, all measured at entry, 4, 8, 12, 16, 26, and 52 weeks. RESULTS: Control data showed no changes except a small trend to improved emotional function (P = 0.02 at 12 weeks only). Fifteen of the 21 patients completed all 52 weeks of aerobic training; two withdrew for non-cardiac reasons (16, 52 weeks). Three were withdrawn because of worsening cardiac failure unrelated to their exercise participation (4, 4, 8 weeks), and one had a non-fatal cardiac arrest while shopping (16 weeks). Gains of cardiorespiratory function plateaued at 16-26 weeks, with 10-15% improvement in six-minute walk, peak power output, and peak oxygen intake linked to gains in oxygen pulse and ventilatory threshold and reductions in resting heart rate. Marked improvements in quality of life followed a parallel course. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic training is safe and beneficial in compensated chronic heart failure. Gains in aerobic function and quality of life persisted over a programme lasting 52 weeks. PMID:8774326

  6. The precision of 12-month-old infants’ link between language and categorization predicts vocabulary size at 12 and 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Brock; Havy, Mélanie; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2015-01-01

    Infants’ initially broad links between language and object categories are increasingly tuned, becoming more precise by the end of their first year. In a longitudinal study, we asked whether individual differences in the precision of infants’ links at 12 months of age are related to vocabulary development. We found that, at 12 months, infants who had already established a precise link between labels and categories understood more words than those whose link was still broad. Six months later, this advantage held: At 18 months, infants who had demonstrated a precise link at 12 months knew and produced more words than did infants who had demonstrated a broad link at 12 months. We conclude that individual differences in the precision of 12-month-old infants’ links between language and categories provide a reliable window into their vocabulary development. We consider several causal explanations of this relation. PMID:26379614

  7. Prevalence Rates and Demographic Characteristics Associated with Depression in Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotlib, Ian H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined prevalence of depression in 360 women during pregnancy and after delivery. At both assessments, approximately 25 percent reported elevated levels of depressive symptomatology. Ten percent met diagnostic criteria for depression during pregnancy; 6.8 percent were depressed postpartum. One-half of postpartum depression cases were new onset.…

  8. Frequency, Predictors and Consequences of Crossing Over to Revascularization within 12 months of Randomization to Optimal Medical Therapy in the COURAGE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spertus, John A; Maron, David J; Cohen, David J; Kolm, Paul; Hartigan, Pam; Weintraub, William S.; Berman, Daniel S.; O'Rourke, Robert A.; Teo, Koon K; Shaw, Leslee J.; Sedlis, Steven; Knudtson, Merril; Aslan, Mihaela; Dada, Marcin; Boden, William E.; John Mancini, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In COURAGE, some stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) patients randomized to optimal medical therapy (OMT) crossed over to early revascularization. The predictors and outcomes of patients who crossed over from OMT to revascularization are unknown. Methods and Results We compared characteristics of OMT patients who did and did not undergo revascularization within 12 months and created a Cox regression model to identify predictors of early revascularization. Patients' health status was measured with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). To quantify the potential consequences of initiating OMT without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we compared the outcomes of crossover patients with a matched cohort randomized to immediate PCI. Among 1148 patients randomized to OMT, 185 (16.1%) underwent early revascularization. Patient characteristics independently associated with early revascularization were worse baseline SAQ scores and healthcare system. Among 156 OMT patients undergoing early revascularization matched to 156 patients randomized to PCI, rates of mortality (HR= 0.51 (0.13, 2.1) and nonfatal MI (HR=1.9 (0.75-4.6) were similar, as were 1-year SAQ scores. OMT patients, however, experienced worse health status over the initial year of treatment and more unstable angina admissions (HR=2.8 (1.1, 7.5)). Conclusion Among COURAGE patients assigned to OMT alone, patients' angina, dissatisfaction with their current treatment and, to a lesser extent, their health system were associated with early revascularization. Since early crossover was not associated with an increase in irreversible ischemic events, or impaired 12-month health status, these findings support an initial trial of OMT in SIHD with close follow-up of the most symptomatic patients. PMID:23838107

  9. Bombay blood group: Is prevalence decreasing with urbanization and the decreasing rate of consanguineous marriage

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Sujata; Kotasthane, Dhananjay S.; Chowdhury, Puskar S.; Sarkar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bombay blood group although rare is found to be more prevalent in the Western and Southern states of India, believed to be associated with consanguineous marriage. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the Bombay blood group (Oh) in the urban population of Puducherry. To find the effect of urbanization on consanguineous marriage and to establish whether consanguinity plays a part in the prevalence of Oh group. To compare Oh group prevalence with that of other neighboring states, where population is not predominantly urban. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, over a period of 6 years. Materials and Methods: All blood samples showing ‘O’ group were tested with anti-H lectin. Specialized tests like Adsorption Elution Technique, inhibition assay for determination of secretor status were performed on Oh positive cases. Any history of consanguineous marriage was recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: All variables were categorical variable and percentage and proportions were calculated manually. Results: Analysis of the results of 35,497 study subjects showed that the most common group was ‘O’ group constituting 14,164 (39.90%) of subjects. Only three “Oh” that is, Bombay phenotype (0.008%) were detected. Consanguinity was observed in two cases (66.66%). Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of Bombay blood group representing the urban population of Puducherry, to be high (0.008%) and associated with consanguineous marriage (66.66%). Thus, consanguinity is still an important risk factor present, even in an urban population in Southern India. PMID:26420929

  10. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users: 12-month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly; DeFulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Oral naltrexone could be a promising relapse-prevention pharmacotherapy for recently detoxified opioid-dependent patients; however, interventions are often needed to promote adherence with this treatment approach. We recently conducted a study to evaluate a 26-week employment-based reinforcement intervention of oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users (Dunn et al., 2013). Participants were randomly assigned into a contingency (n = 35) group required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain entry into a therapeutic workplace or a prescription (n = 32) group given a take-home supply of oral naltrexone and access to the workplace without observed ingestion. Monthly urine samples were collected and analyzed for evidence for naltrexone adherence, opioid use, and cocaine use. As previously reported, contingency participants provided significantly more naltrexone-positive urine samples than prescription participants during the 26-week intervention period. The goal of this current study is to report the 12-month outcomes, which occurred 6 months after the intervention ended. Results at the 12-month visit showed no between-groups differences in naltrexone-positive, opioid-negative, or cocaine-negative urine samples and no participant self-reported using naltrexone at the follow-up visit. These results show that even after a period of successfully reinforced oral naltrexone adherence, longer-term naltrexone use is unlikely to be maintained after reinforcement contingencies are discontinued. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134047

  11. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  12. Neuropsychological impact of Cg25 deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: preliminary results over 12 months.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Heather E; Mayberg, Helen S; Lozano, Andres M; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate preservation of cognitive function after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate (Cg25) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We have previously reported on the treatment methods, safety, and 6-month clinical outcome (Mayberg et al., Neuron. 2005;45:651-660). Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments tapping 4 domains of frontal lobe function, and general cognitive abilities, were completed before implantation and at 3, 6, and 12 months postonset of continuous DBS in 6 TRD patients. No adverse neuropsychological effects were noted following surgery, onset and maintenance of DBS with the exception of transient motor slowing noted at 3 and 6 months that improved to normative levels by 12 months. Several areas of cognition that were below average or impaired at baseline improved over follow-up, and these changes were not correlated with improvements in mood. Though the sample size is small, these results support cognitive safety of Cg25 DBS for TRD. PMID:18477883

  13. 12-Month Outcomes of Community Engagement Versus Technical Assistance to Implement Depression Collaborative Care: A Partnered, Cluster, Randomized, Comparative-Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Ong, Michael; Ettner, Susan L.; Jones, Felica; Gilmore, James; McCreary, Michael; Sherbourne, Cathy; Ngo, Victoria; Koegel, Paul; Tang, Lingqi; Dixon, Elizabeth; Miranda, Jeanne; Belin, Thomas R.; Wells, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression collaborative care implementation using community engagement and planning (CEP) across programs compared to technical assistance to individual programs (Resources for Services, RS) in minority communities improves 6-month client outcomes. However, 12-month outcomes are unknown. Objective To compare effects of CEP and RS collaborative care implementation interventions on depressed clients’ mental health-related quality of life (MHRQL) and services use at 12-months. Design Matched health and community programs (n=93) in two communities randomized to CEP or RS. Measurements Self-reported client MHRQL, and services use at baseline, 6, and 12-months. Setting Los Angeles. Patients Adults (n=1018) with depressive symptoms (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-8]≥10); 85% ethnic minority. Interventions CEP and RS to implement depression collaborative care. Measurements Primary outcome: Poor MHRQL (12-item Mental Composite Score [MCS-12]≤40) at baseline, 6, and 12-months; Secondary outcomes: 12-months services use. Results At 6-months, the finding that CEP outperformed RS to reduce poor MHRQL was significant, but sensitive to underlying statistical assumptions. Similarly, at 12-months, some analyses suggested that CEP was advantageous on MHRQL, while other analyses did not confirm a significant difference favoring CEP. The finding that CEP reduced behavioral health hospitalizations at 6-months was not clear at 12-months with findings sensitive to underlying statistical assumptions. Other services use was not significantly different between interventions at 12-months. Limitations Self-reported data. Findings are sensitive to modeling assumptions. Conclusions In contrast to 6-month results, our findings did not show consistent CEP effects on reducing the likelihood of poor client MHRQL and behavioral health hospitalizations at 12-months. Still given under-resourced communities’ needs, CEP's favorable profile, and the absence of evidence

  14. Prevalence and rates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L.; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first nine months postpartum. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization’s IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at four months postpartum and nine months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. Results More than 20% of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first nine months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first four months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. Conclusions The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  15. High prevalence, low awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension in Guinea: results from a population-based STEPS survey.

    PubMed

    Camara, A; Baldé, N M; Diakité, M; Sylla, D; Baldé, E H; Kengne, A P; Baldé, M D

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is a major and fast-growing public health problem in Africa. We determined the prevalence of hypertension and assessed the levels of awareness, treatment and control in Guinea. A cross-sectional study based on a stratified cluster random sampling was conducted. In all, 2491 adults (1351 women) aged 15-64 years were selected and screened during September-December 2009. Hypertension (systolic (and/or diastolic) blood pressure ⩾140 (90) mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications) and diabetes mellitus (fasting capillary glucose ⩾110  mg dl(-1) or use of antidiabetic medications) were determined. Logistic regressions were used to investigate the determinants of hypertension. The mean body mass index was 22.4  kg m(-2) (s.d.=4.5). The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was, respectively, 29.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 29.8-30.0) and 3.5% (95%CI 3.4-3.5). The prevalence of hypertension was 29.4% (29.3-29.5) in men and 30.4% (30.4-30.6) in women. The prevalence was 62.5% in the 44-64 years age group. Overall, 75.8% of hypertensive participants were undetected before the survey and 34.9% of those aware of their hypertensive status were receiving treatment, of whom 16.3% were at target control levels. Age, education, diabetes and obesity were the main factors associated with hypertension. There was a high prevalence of hypertension among the adults in Guinea, but with low awareness, treatment and control rates. Urgent response is needed in the form of integrated and comprehensive action targeting major non-communicable diseases in the country. PMID:26310186

  16. Rethinking mandatory HIV testing during pregnancy in areas with high HIV prevalence rates: ethical and policy issues.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051

  17. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  18. Gaze-cueing effect depends on facial expression of emotion in 9- to 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiecka, Alicja; Tomalski, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    Efficient processing of gaze direction and facial expression of emotion is crucial for early social and emotional development. Toward the end of the first year of life infants begin to pay more attention to negative expressions, but it remains unclear to what extent emotion expression is processed jointly with gaze direction at this age. This study sought to establish the interactions of gaze direction and emotion expression in visual orienting in 9- to 12-month-olds. In particular, we tested whether these interactions can be explained by the negativity bias hypothesis and the shared signal hypothesis. We measured saccadic latencies in response to peripheral targets in a gaze-cueing paradigm with happy, angry, and fearful female faces. In the Pilot Experiment three gaze directions were used (direct, congruent with target location, incongruent with target location). In the Main Experiment we sought to replicate the results of the Pilot experiment using a simpler design without the direct gaze condition. In both experiments we found a robust gaze-cueing effect for happy faces, i.e., facilitation of orienting toward the target in the gaze-cued location, compared with the gaze-incongruent location. We found more rapid orienting to targets cued by happy relative to angry and fearful faces. We did not find any gaze-cueing effect for angry or fearful faces. These results are not consistent with the shared signal hypothesis. While our results show differential processing of positive and negative emotions, they do not support a general negativity bias. On the contrary, they indicate that toward the age of 12 months infants show a positivity bias in gaze-cueing tasks. PMID:25713555

  19. Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K L; Malcolm, S A; Khan, K M; Thomas, S A; Reid, S J; Brukner, P D; Ebeling, P R; Wark, J D

    1997-05-01

    Strain magnitude may be more important than the number of loading cycles in controlling bone adaptation to loading. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 12 month longitudinal cohort study comparing bone mass and bone turnover in elite and subelite track and field athletes and less active controls. The cohort comprised 50 power athletes (sprinters, jumpers, hurdlers, multievent athletes; 23 women, 27 men), 61 endurance athletes (middle-distance runners, distance runners; 30 women, 31 men), and 55 nonathlete controls (28 women, 27 men) aged 17-26 years. Total bone mineral content (BMC), regional bone mineral density (BMD), and soft tissue composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover was assessed by serum osteocalcin (human immunoradiometric assay) indicative of bone formation, and urinary pyridinium crosslinks (high-performance liquid chromatography) indicative of bone resorption. Questionnaires quantified menstrual, dietary and physical activity characteristics. Baseline results showed that power athletes had higher regional BMD at lower limb, lumbar spine, and upper limb sites compared with controls (p < 0.05). Endurance athletes had higher BMD than controls in lower limb sites only (p < 0.05). Maximal differences in BMD between athletes and controls were noted at sites loaded by exercise. Male and female power athletes had greater bone density at the lumbar spine than endurance athletes. Over the 12 months, both athletes and controls showed modest but significant increases in total body BMC and femur BMD (p < 0.001). Changes in bone density were independent of exercise status except at the lumbar spine. At this site, power athletes gained significantly more bone density than the other groups. Levels of bone formation were not elevated in athletes and levels of bone turnover were not predictive of subsequent changes in bone mass. Our results provide further support for the concept that bone response to mechanical loading depends

  20. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  1. Plasticity after perceptual narrowing for voice perception: reinstating the ability to discriminate monkeys by their voices at 12 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, Rayna H.; Rendall, Drew; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating individuals by their voice is an important social skill for infants to acquire. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the ability to discriminate individuals by voice follows a pattern of perceptual narrowing (Friendly et al., 2013). Specifically, we found that the ability to discriminate between two foreign-species (rhesus monkey) voices decreased significantly between 6 and 12 months of age. Also during this period, there was a trend for the ability to discriminate human voices to increase. Here we investigate the extent to which plasticity remains at 12 months, after perceptual narrowing has occurred. We found that 12-month-olds who received 2 weeks of monkey-voice training were significantly better at discriminating between rhesus monkey voices than untrained 12-month-olds. Furthermore, discrimination was reinstated to a level slightly better than that of untrained 6-month-olds, suggesting that voice-processing abilities remain considerably plastic at the end of the first year. PMID:24130540

  2. [Estimates and trends of obesity prevalence through mortality rates associated of chronic diseases in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Villa, Antonio R; Escobedo, Michelle H; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    The pandemy of obesity is affecting more than 300 millions of adults in the world. The trend is increasing. Diabetes, coronary hearth disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and dyslipidemia are chronic diseases associated with obesity. The methodology of this paper is proposed as an alternative resource based in mortality data to quantify the magnitude of chronic diseases in developing countries. Deaths for Mexico registered in 2000, according to selected causes, were taken to derive indirectly the prevalence of obesity in years 2000, 2005, and 2010, both males and females > or = 35 years-old. In 2010, an estimation of 8 million of Mexican with obesity is made. This methodology is referred to be probed in the quantification and projection of chronic diseases. According with our estimation, we hope in Mexico at 2010 to have between 8 and 14 millions of people > or = 35 years-old with obesity. PMID:15641468

  3. Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Dialysis Patients Assessed by Novel Speckle Tracking Strain Rate Analysis: Prevalence and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, Mihály K.; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Gaasbeek, André; Bax, Jeroen J.; Groeneveld, Marc; Gabreels, Bas A.; Delgado, Victoria; Rabelink, Ton J.; Schalij, Martin J.; Jukema, J. Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Diastolic dysfunction is common among dialysis patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Novel echocardiographic speckle tracking strain analysis permits accurate assessment of left ventricular diastolic function, independent of loading conditions and taking all myocardial segments into account. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in chronic dialysis patients using this novel technique, and to identify its determinants among clinical and echocardiographic variables. Methods. Patients currently enrolled in the ICD2 study protocol were included for this analysis. Next to conventional echo measurements diastolic function was also assessed by global diastolic strain rate during isovolumic relaxation (SRIVR). Results. A total of 77 patients were included (age 67 ± 8 years, 74% male). When defined as E/SRIVR ≥236, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was higher compared to more conventional measurements (48% versus 39%). Left ventricular mass (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.04, P = 0.014) and pulse wave velocity (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.68, P = 0.01) were independent determinants of diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion. Diastolic dysfunction is highly prevalent among dialysis patients and might be underestimated using conventional measurements. Left ventricular mass and pulse wave velocity were the only determinants of diastolic dysfunction in these patients. PMID:22649726

  4. Prevalence, injury rate and, symptom frequency in generalized joint laxity and joint hypermobility syndrome in a "healthy" college population.

    PubMed

    Russek, Leslie N; Errico, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) are gaining increased attention as potential sources of pain and injury. The aims of this study were to evaluate prevalence of GJH and JHS and to determine whether musculoskeletal injuries and symptoms commonly attributed to GJH and JHS were more common within a "healthy" college student population. The study involved a convenience sample of 267 college and graduate students, aged 17-26. GJH was assessed using the Beighton score with a cutoff of 5/9, while JHS was assessed using the Brighton criteria. Injury history and symptoms were assessed by recall. Prevalence of GJH was 26.2 % overall (females 36.7 %, males 13.7 %). Prevalence of JHS was 19.5 % overall (females 24.5 %, males 13.7 %). Injury rates were not significantly different for individuals who had GJH vs. those who did not have GJH. Individuals with JHS were significantly more likely to have had sprains, back pain, and stress fractures. Symptoms were no different between those with GJH and those who did not have GJH. However, individuals with JHS were significantly more likely to report clumsiness, easy bruising, and balance problems than those who did not have JHS. GJH and JHS were relatively common in this healthy college student population; GJH was not associated with increased incidence of injury or symptoms commonly attributed to JHS, but JHS was associated with increased incidence of some injuries and symptoms. PMID:25930211

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Kidney Disease Among Hypertensive Cameroonians According to Three Common Estimators of the Glomerular Filtration Rate.

    PubMed

    Kaze, Francois Folefack; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Magatsing, Carine Tchendjou; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Yiagnigni, Euloge; Ngu, Kathleen Blackett

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for renal diseases, which, in turn, are precursors of hypertension. The authors assessed the prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among 336 hypertensive adult Cameroonians (mean age, 60.9±11.3 years; 63.4% women) at Yaoundé. Any participant with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) regardless of the equation used (Cockcroft-Gault [CG], Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD], and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]) and/or dipstick proteinuria was reviewed 3 months later. Participants presented a high prevalence of diabetes (18.5%), dyslipidemia (17.6%), gout/hyperuricemia (10.7%), overweight/obesity (68.8%), self-medication (37.5%), and alcohol consumption (33.3%). Hypertension was uncontrolled in 265 patients (78.9%). The prevalence of CKD was 49.7%, 50.0%, and 52.1% according to MDRD, CKD-EPI, and CG equations, respectively. Advanced age, adiposity, and severity of hypertension were determinants of CKD. Nearly half of the hypertensive patients had CKD regardless of the estimators used, predicted by well-known risk factors. PMID:26791352

  6. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, < 0.0001; EQ-5D: 0.17 ± 0.25 vs 0.23 ± 0.23, p = 0.04; SF-12 PCS: 8.6 ± 13.3 vs 13.0 ± 11.9, 0.001; and satisfaction: 76% vs 90%, p = 0.002). At 12 months after surgery, the patients with major complications had higher ODI scores than those without complications (29.1

  7. Concurrent Heroin Use and Correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clients: A 12-Month Follow-up Study in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Peizhen; Gong, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Weiming; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess concurrent heroin use and correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clients in Guangdong Province, China. Method: Demographic and drug use data were collected with a structured questionnaire, and MMT information was obtained from the MMT clinic registration system in Guangdong. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected status and urine morphine results were obtained from laboratory tests. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the factors associated with concurrent heroin use. Results: Among the 6848 participants, 75% continued using heroin more than once during the first 12 months after treatment initiation. Concurrent heroin use was associated with inharmonious family relationship (OR (odds ratio) = 1.49, 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.24–1.78), HIV positivity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.55), having multiple sex partners (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.69), having ever taken intravenous drugs (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.95), higher maintenance dose (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28) and poorer MMT attendance (OR<20% = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53; OR20%– = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14–1.54; OR50%– = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.44–2.00). Among those who used heroin concurrently, the same factors, and additionally being older (OR35– = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43; OR≥45 = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.30–2.05) and female (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), contribute to a greater frequency of heroin use. Conclusions: Concurrent heroin use was prevalent among MMT participants in Guangdong, underscoring the urgent needs for tailored interventions and health education programs for this population. PMID:27005649

  8. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the

  9. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Doroodgar, Abbas; Sadr, Fakhraddin; Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein; Sayyah, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of head louse infestation among elementary students, and examine the associated factors with infection in the city of Aran and Bidgol. Methods A total of 19 boys' and girls' primary schools were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. Overall, 3 590 students were examined for head lice infestation in urban areas of Aran and Bidgol during 2008. The diagnosis was based on live louse or nit on the scalp of students. The students were screened by standard questionnaire and demographic data in addition to related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results The mean age of students was (8.68±1.58) years ranging between 6-12 years. The total prevalence of head louse infestation was 0.47%. This rate was 0.42% and 0.05% in female and male, respectively. There was a significant association between pediculosis and sex, father's job, mother's education, access to bathroom in home, prior infection, drug use and nationality, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The results showed that pediculosis was not a major health priority among primary school in city of Aran and Bidgol. However, enhancing the knowledge of students about head lice infestation and the existence of health teachers in schools can play a significant role in disease control.

  10. The use of telehealth to assist remote hospital resuscitation and aeromedical retrieval tasking: a 12-month case review.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Kate; Elcock, Mark; Aitken, Peter; Furyk, Jeremy

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the use of telehealth for patients who had suffered a cardiac or respiratory arrest, and were medically coordinated from the Queensland coordination hub at Townsville. We conducted a review of all cardiac or respiratory arrest cases where teleheath had been used prior to aeromedical retrieval. The doctors involved in the cases completed an evaluation form about the use of telehealth during the resuscitation. During the 12-month study period 6460 patients were medically coordinated from Townsville. Telehealth was used 51 times, i.e. for 0.8% of all transfers. Of the 51 uses of telehealth, nine were for patients having a cardiac/respiratory arrest, i.e. 18% of telehealth use at Townsville was for patients undergoing resuscitation following cardiac or respiratory arrest. All eight medical coordinators and three of eight referring doctors responded to the survey. Most medical coordinators stated that telehealth assisted communication and aided assessment. Most medical coordinators and some referring doctors felt that it improved the quality of patient care. The free text comments on telehealth use for remote area resuscitation were generally very supportive. While the telehealth equipment was easy to use, minor audio problems reinforce the need for systems to be wholly reliable. A set of guidelines to aid future telehealth assisted resuscitation was produced. The present study suggests that telehealth use is beneficial during active resuscitation efforts. PMID:22302764

  11. The Primary Prevention of PTSD in Firefighters: Preliminary Results of an RCT with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Clare S.; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Kane, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To develop and evaluate an evidence-based and theory driven program for the primary prevention of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Design A pre-intervention / post-intervention / follow up control group design with clustered random allocation of participants to groups was used. The “control” group received “Training as Usual” (TAU). Method Participants were 45 career recruits within the recruit school at the Department of Fire and Emergency Services (DFES) in Western Australia. The intervention group received a four-hour resilience training intervention (Mental Agility and Psychological Strength training) as part of their recruit training school curriculum. Data was collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-months post intervention. Results We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in the primary prevention of mental health issues, nor did we find any significant impact of MAPS training on social support or coping strategies. A significant difference across conditions in trauma knowledge is indicative of some impact of the MAPS program. Conclusion While the key hypotheses were not supported, this study is the first randomised control trial investigating the primary prevention of PTSD. Practical barriers around the implementation of this program, including constraints within the recruit school, may inform the design and implementation of similar programs in the future. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12615001362583 PMID:27382968

  12. Clinical and physiological study of anal sphincter and ileal J pouch before preileostomy closure and 6 and 12 months after closure of loop ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Chaussade, S; Michopoulos, S; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Guerre, J; Couturier, D

    1991-02-01

    Spontaneous evolution of pouch and anal function, and absorption features has been assessed in 15 patients who underwent proctocolectomy with J ileal pouch anastomosis without conservation of a rectal muscular cuff. All the patients were studied before preileostomy closure and six and 12 months after the closure of the protection loop ileostomy. Stool frequency was identical at six and 12 months (mean +/- SEM: 5.0 +/- 0.4 and 5.3 +/- 0.5/day, respectively). Sixty-six percent of patients at six months and 40% of patients at 12 months need to defecate at least one time during night. Stool weight as well as steatorrhea decreased significantly six months after the closure of loop ileostomy (P less than 0.05). Mean resting anal pressure remained unchanged six and 12 months after closure of the loop ileostomy (41 +/- 6 and 45 +/- 5 cm H2O, respectively). Maximum squeeze anal pressures increased significantly at six (P less than 0.05) and 12 months (P less than 0.05). The rectoanal inhibitory reflex was always absent at the same period. The maximum pouch capacity increased significantly during the first six months (P less than 0.01) from 142 +/- 17 to 279 +/- 27 ml. The maximum infused volume during a saline continence test was not significantly different at six and 12 months; the percentage of evacuation of the reservoir and the volume at which the first ileal contraction appeared in the reservoir increased significantly (P less than 0.05) at six and 12 months. In conclusion, in patients with ileoanal anastomosis and pouch reservoir, the closure of the loop ileostomy is associated with spontaneous modifications of the anal and pouch parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1988259

  13. Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Prisoners in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; dos Santos, Maíra Mendes; Quintana, Maria Ines; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Blay, Sergio Luiz; Taborda, Jose Geraldo Vernet; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression), the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. Conclusions This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations. PMID:24551174

  14. External Beam Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer: Clinical Significance of Nadir Prostate-Specific Antigen Value Within 12 Months

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Onishi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Masahiko; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Araya, Masayuki; Mukumoto, Nobutaka M.S.; Mitsumori, Michihide; Teshima, Teruki

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer and investigate the clinical significance of nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value within 12 months (nPSA12) as an early estimate of clinical outcomes after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eighty-four patients with localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The total radiation doses ranged from 30 to 76 Gy (median, 66 Gy), and the median follow-up period for all 84 patients was 26.9 months (range, 2.7-77.3 months). Results: The 3-year actuarial overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and local control rates in all 84 patients after radiotherapy were 67%, 61%, and 93%, respectively. Although distant metastases and/or regional lymph node metastases developed in 34 patients (40%) after radiotherapy, local progression was observed in only 5 patients (6%). Of all 84 patients, the median nPSA12 in patients with clinical failure and in patients without clinical failure was 3.1 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. When dividing patients according to low (<0.5 ng/mL) and high ({>=}0.5 ng/mL) nPSA12 levels, the 3-year PFS rate in patients with low nPSA12 and in those with high nPSA12 was 96% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In univariate analysis, nPSA12 and pretreatment PSA value had a significant impact on PFS, and in multivariate analysis nPSA12 alone was an independent prognostic factor for PFS after radiotherapy. Conclusions: External beam radiotherapy had an excellent local control rate for clinically localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and nPSA12 was predictive of clinical outcomes after radiotherapy.

  15. Antidepressant treatment of premature ejaculation: discontinuation rates and prevalence of side effects for dapoxetine and paroxetine in a naturalistic setting.

    PubMed

    Jern, P; Johansson, A; Piha, J; Westberg, L; Santtila, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate prevalence of and reasons for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) discontinuation, and compare the two most common SSRIs used in premature ejaculation (PE) treatment, in naturalistic settings (that is, outside clinical trials). The sample consisted of 132 Finnish men with a mean age of 42.5 years (s.d. = 10.6) who had received medical treatment for lifelong PE. The men were enlisted for the study after identifying individuals from the third author's (a physician specializing in sexual medicine) patient registry. Participants responded to a secure, online questionnaire. PE treatment-related side effects of, and discontinuation rates for, different SSRIs were retrospectively self-reported. Treatment efficacy and happiness with treatment were retrospectively self-assessed. Discontinuation rates were uniformly high, ranging from 28.8 to 70.6% between different SSRIs. Dapoxetine was associated with the highest dropout rates (70.6%), and paroxetine the lowest, discontinuation rates. Limited efficacy and side effects were the most common reasons for discontinuation. Paroxetine was more effective and better tolerated than dapoxetine. A considerable number of patients chose to spontaneously discontinue treatment, especially so in the case of dapoxetine, corroborating recent studies conducted in naturalistic settings. Further research efforts are necessary to develop new and improve existing PE treatment alternatives. PMID:25410962

  16. Urolastic—A New Bulking Agent for the Treatment of Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: Outcome of 12 Months Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Zajda, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33–71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events. PMID:24454351

  17. Urolastic-a new bulking agent for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: outcome of 12 months follow up.

    PubMed

    Zajda, Janusz; Farag, Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33-71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events. PMID:24454351

  18. Clinical risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal Canadian women: a population-based prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, William D; Anderson, William A; Metge, Colleen J; Manness, Lori-Jean

    2007-04-01

    Clinical risk factor assessment can be used to enhance fracture risk estimation based upon bone densitometry alone. Population- and age-specific risk factor prevalence data are required for the construction of these risk models. Our objective was to derive population-based prevalence estimates of specific clinical risk factors for postmenopausal women resident in the Province of Manitoba, Canada. A random sample of 40,300 women age 50 or older identified from the provincial health plan was mailed a validated self-report risk factor survey. The response rate was 8747 (21.7%) with a final study population of 8027 women after exclusions. The individual prevalence for each clinical risk factor ranged from 5.8% for hyperthyroidism to 33.0% for a fall in the preceding 12 months. Most point prevalence estimates were similar to other large cohort studies, though the prevalences of inactivity and poor mobility were higher than expected while height at age 25 and the prevalence of any fracture after age 50 were lower than expected. Most of the respondents (86.9%) had at least one non-age clinical risk factor, 60.6% had two or more, and 33.5% had three or more. Age affected risk factor prevalence, and older age was associated with a higher rate of multiple risk factors. The availability of age-specific risk factor prevalence rates in this population may allow for more accurate fracture risk modeling. PMID:17182296

  19. Parent-assessed quality of life among adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment: a 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess parents' and caregivers' view of the first twelve months of adolescents' orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and to assess the evaluative properties of the Brazilian version of the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) in the orthodontic setting. Methods: Data from a sample of 96 parents and caregivers of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were collected by means of P-CPQ. Assessments were performed before banding and bracket bonding (T1) and 12 months after placement of fixed appliances (T2). Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the overall P-CPQ score and Bonferroni correction for P-CPQ subscales. The evaluative properties of the P-CPQ were assessed through responsiveness calculation and the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results: Among the 96 participants, 76 were mothers of patients, 16 were fathers, and four were other family members. Adolescents' mean age was 11.49 ± 0.50 years. Most families earned equal to or less than three times the Brazilian monthly minimum wage. There was significant improvement in the emotional and social well-being subscales (p < 0.001), which contributed to improve patient's overall quality of life (p< 0.001). Reductions in scores were associated with clinically meaningful moderate changes in the overall score as well as in the emotional and social well-being subscales. The MCID was 6.16 for the P-CPQ overall score. Conclusion: Parents and caregivers reported significant improvement in the quality of life of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. PMID:26560827

  20. Functional disability as an explanation of the associations between chronic physical conditions and 12-month major depressive episode

    PubMed Central

    Stegmann, Mariken E.; Ormel, Johan; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep-Maria; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Vilagut, Gemma; Alonso, Jordi; Burger, Huibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between physical conditions and mental health is poorly understood. Functional disability could explain the association of physical conditions with major depressive episode (MDE) as an intermediary factor. Methods Data was analyzed from a subsample (N=8,796) of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD), a cross-sectional general population survey. MDE during the last 12 months was assessed using a revision of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Lifetime chronic physical conditions were assessed by self-report. Functional disability was measured using a version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). The associations of physical conditions with MDE and explanation by functional disability were quantified using logistic regression. Results All physical conditions were significantly associated with MDE. The increases in risk of MDE ranged from 30% for allergy to amply 100% for arthritis and heart disease. When adjusted for physical comorbidity, associations decreased and were no longer statistically significant for allergy and diabetes. Functional disability explained between 17 and 64% of these associations, most substantially for stomach or duodenum ulcer, arthritis and heart disease. Limitations Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study the temporal relationship of the variables could not be assessed and the amount of explanation can not simply be interpreted as the amount of mediation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the association of chronic physical conditions with MDE is partly explained by functional disability. Such explanation is more pronounced for pain causing conditions and heart disease. Health professionals should be particularly aware of the increased risk of depressive disorder when patients experience disability from these conditions. PMID:19939461

  1. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  2. Lymphedema Prevalence and Treatment Benefits in Cancer: Impact of a Therapeutic Intervention on Health Outcomes and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, Kimberly M.; Hirsch, Alan T.; O′Brien, Patricia J.; Cheville, Andrea; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Rockson, Stanley G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer therapeutics; its prevalence, treatment outcomes, and costs have been poorly defined. The objective of this study was to examine lymphedema prevalence among cancer survivors and to characterize changes in clinical outcomes and costs associated with a defined therapeutic intervention (use of a pneumatic compression devices [PCD]) in a representative, privately insured population. Methods and Findings Retrospective analysis of de-identified health claims data from a large national insurer for calendar years 2007 through 2013. Patients were required to have 12 months of continuous insurance coverage prior to PCD receipt (baseline), as well as a 12-month follow-up period. Analyses were performed for individuals with cancer-related lymphedema (n = 1,065). Lymphedema prevalence was calculated: number of patients with a lymphedema claim in a calendar year divided by total number of enrollees. The impact of PCD use was evaluated by comparing rates of a pre-specified set of health outcomes and costs for the 12 months before and after, respectively, PCD receipt. Lymphedema prevalence among cancer survivors increased from 0.95% in 2007 to 1.24% in 2013. PCD use was associated with decreases in rates of hospitalizations (45% to 32%, p<0.0001), outpatient hospital visits (95% to 90%, p<0.0001), cellulitis diagnoses (28% to 22%, p = 0.003), and physical therapy use (50% to 41%, p<0.0001). The average baseline health care costs were high ($53,422) but decreased in the year after PCD acquisition (−$11,833, p<0.0001). Conclusions Lymphedema is a prevalent medical condition that is often a defining attribute of cancer survivorship. The problem is associated with high health care costs; Treatment (in this instance, use of PCD) is associated with significant decreases in adverse clinical outcomes and costs. PMID:25470383

  3. Mineral and vitamin D adequacy in infants fed human milk or formula between 6 and 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hillman, L S

    1990-08-01

    During the latter half of an infant's first year, adequate mineral and vitamin D intakes may be important not only for the prevention of rickets but also for the attainment of optimal adult peak bone mass. Ingestion of 400 IU vitamin D per day, either as a supplement or contained in formula or table milk, will result in normal serum concentrations of vitamin D,25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Human milk from a vitamin D-sufficient mother provides a marginal amount, less than 100 IU/L/day of total vitamin D activity from the vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Infants exclusively fed human milk of vitamin D-deficient mothers, who do not receive additional vitamin D or adequate exposure to sunlight, are at significant risk for vitamin D-deficiency rickets. The low concentration of phosphorus in human milk is adequate for most term infants but probably compounds any vitamin D deficiency. Intake of phosphorus from formula or table milk is more than adequate, and the addition of baby foods increases this mineral's intake to generous levels. Calcium is well absorbed and adequate in human milk if vitamin D is sufficient, but concern exists about calcium intake from infant formulas for this older group. My colleagues and I have conducted studies of bone mineral content and mineral homeostasis in term infants fed human milk (300 mg/L calcium), standard cow milk formula (440/mg/L calcium), or a soybean formula (600 mg/L calcium); our findings suggest that all three types of feedings provided comparable bone mineralization and normal indicators of mineral homeostasis. Mean calcium retentions at 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months in all three groups were between 138 and 205 mg/day, substantially more than the 130 mg/day estimated to be needed from body composition data. Estimates for phosphorus were similarly generous. The questions of whether higher calcium intakes will result in further increases in bone mineral content and of the effect of beikost on calcium

  4. Early colonization of the oral cavity in 6- and 12-month-old infants by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Merglova, Vlasta; Polenik, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens occurs earlier than previously thought. This study aimed to identify the presence and quantity of representative cariogenic and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavities of 6- and 12-month olds and to evaluate the influence of C-section delivery on early Streptococcus mutans (Sm) colonization of the oral cavity. The research cohort was composed of 59 infants (35 infants were delivered vaginally and 24 via C-section) and their mothers. At 6 months of age, the infants were examined, and unstimulated saliva samples were collected. Variables concerning mothers were DMF index and salivary levels of Sm. Repeated saliva samples were taken 6 months later. The representative cariogenic and periodontal microorganisms were identified, and their quantities were measured using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The relationships between the presence of detected microbes, the mode of delivery, and maternal variables were evaluated using paired t tests, chi-squared test, and ANOVAs. High rates of cariogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), were found in both infant cohorts. An analysis of the differences between delivery methods revealed that the group of 6-month-old vaginally delivered infants had a significantly higher amount of Sm. We conclude that the cariogenic bacteria, Aa and Fn, are present in edentulous infants. This presence increases in the months following the eruption of the deciduous teeth. Results did not confirm the influence of C-section delivery on the early Sm colonization of the oral cavity. PMID:26914065

  5. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  6. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. PMID:24870960

  7. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors. PMID:18087898

  8. Antimicrobial resistance status and prevalence rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers isolated from a mixed human population

    PubMed Central

    Afunwa, Ruth A.; Odimegwu, Damian C.; Iroha, Romanus I.; Esimone, Charles O.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the increasing epidemiological and therapeutic challenges associated with infections due to ESBL producers, ESBL prevalence rate among some bacteria isolates from healthy and non-healthy human population in a metropolitan Nigerian setting was evaluated. A total of one hundred and forty-five (145) bacteria strains were isolated from a total of four hundred and sixty (460) samples collected from urine, wound, throat and anal swabs of 220 healthy volunteers in the community and from 240 patients in 2 secondary and 2 tertiary hospitals (altogether, 4) in Enugu metropolis. The presumptive confirmatory test used for ESBL detection was the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) method. Conjugation and plasmid curing studies were also done for resistance factor determination. Of the 145 isolates, 20 were ESBL producers with 35% of these ESBL producers being of community origin and 65% from hospitals. This translates to 4.8% and 9% incidences (comparably higher than established prevalence of 4.4% and 7.5 respectively) for community and hospital infections respectively. The ESBL isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Augmentin® (Amoxicilin and clavulanic acid combination). Conjugation studies for Resistance plasmid transfer showed non-transference of resistance determinants between the ESBL transconjugants and recipient strains. Correspondingly, the plasmid curing studies revealed that the acridine orange could not effect a cure on the isolates as they still retained high resistance to the antibiotics after the treatment. This study confirms the growing incidences/pool of ESBL strains in Nigeria and call for widespread and continuous monitoring towards an effective management of the potential therapeutic hurdle posed by this trend. PMID:21619555

  9. Face-Scanning Behavior to Silently-Talking Faces in 12-Month-Old Infants: The Impact of Pre-Exposed Auditory Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Claudia; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Dupierrix, Eve; Loevenbruck, Helene; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    The present eye-tracking study aimed to investigate the impact of auditory speech information on 12-month-olds' gaze behavior to silently-talking faces. We examined German infants' face-scanning behavior to side-by-side presentation of a bilingual speaker's face silently speaking German utterances on one side and French on the other…

  10. Temperament and Behaviour of Infants Aged 4-12 Months on Admission to a Private Mother-Baby Unit and at 1- and 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Feekery, Colin

    2004-01-01

    While infant behaviour is influenced by maternal care, infant crying and dysregulated sleep can reciprocally affect maternal mood. The temperament and behaviour of two 4-12-months-old infant cohorts admitted with their mothers to a residential parenting program were examined using behaviour charts and the Short Infant Temperament Questionnaire…

  11. Effectiveness of a 12-month randomized clinical trial to increase physical activity in multiethnic postpartum women: Results from Hawaii’s Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; White, Kami K.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Saiki, Kara; Brown, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few postpartum ethnic minority women perform leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The study tested the effectiveness of a 12-month tailored intervention to increase MVPA in women with infants 2–12 months old. Methods From 2008–2011, women (n=311) with infants (average age = 5.7 months) from Honolulu, Hawaii were randomly assigned to receive tailored telephone calls and access to a mom-centric website (n=154) or access to a standard PA website (n=157). MVPA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months using self-report and acclerometers. Results Controlling for covariates, the tailored condition significantly increased self-reported MVPA from an average of 44 to 246 minutes/week compared with 46 to 156 minutes/week for the standard condition (p=0.027). Mothers with ≥ 2 children had significantly greater increases in MVPA in response to the tailored intervention than those with one child (p=0.016). Accelerometer-measured MVPA significantly increased over time (p=0.0001), with no condition differences. There was evidence of reactivity to initially wearing accelerometers; the tailored intervention significantly increased MVPA among women with low baseline accelerometer MVPA minutes, but not among those with high minutes (pinteraction=0.053). Conclusion A tailored intervention effectively increased MVPA over 12 months in multiethnic women with infants, particularly those with more than one child. PMID:25285751

  12. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  13. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  14. Effect of Improving Dietary Quality on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A 12 Months Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kristina S.; Clifton, Peter M.; Lister, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    People with diabetes have accelerated arterial stiffening. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing fruit, vegetable and dairy intake for 12 months on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), and central blood pressure (cBP), compared to a usual diet control, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In a 12 months randomised controlled trial, cfPWV, AIx and cBP were measured every 3 months. The intervention group received dietary counselling to increase consumption of fruit (+1 serving/day; 150 g/day), vegetables (+2 servings/day; 150 g/day) and dairy (+1 serving/day; 200–250 g/day) at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. The control group continued on their usual diet. One hundred and nine participants were randomised and 92 (intervention n = 45; control n = 47) completed. At 3 months, fruit (184 g/day; p = 0.001) and dairy (83 g/day; p = 0.037) intake increased in the intervention group compared with the control group but this increase was not maintained at 12 months. After adjustment for baseline measurements there was no time by treatment effect for central systolic or diastolic BP, AIx or cfPWV. A time effect existed for AIx which modestly increased over time. Peripheral diastolic BP and central pulse pressure were improved in the intervention group compared with the control group at 12 months. In the cohort with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, improving dietary quality by increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy did not improve cBP, AIx or cfPWV, compared with a control group continuing on their usual diet, after 12 months. PMID:27338467

  15. Mother’s Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. Methods 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). Results We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. Conclusions This study suggests that mothers’ psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants’ follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected. PMID:27022953

  16. Twelve-month prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cilliçilli, Ali S; Telcioglu, Metin; Aşkin, Rüstem; Kaya, Nazmiye; Bodur, Said; Kucur, Rahim

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a household survey of 3,012 adults aged 18 and over in order to estimate the prevalence of DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in urban areas in Konya, Turkey. Trained psychiatry interns administered the 2.1 version of the OCD section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The 12-month period prevalence rate of OCD was 3.0%. The mean age of onset of OCD was 25.9 +/- 12.5 (range, 7 to 63) years. The prevalence rate of OCD was slightly higher among females (males 2.5%, females 3.3%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The relative risk for divorced, separated, or widowed subjects was approximately 4.2 times higher for OCD than others (2.7% v 10.5%). The 1-year prevalence of OCD inversely related to age group in male subjects, but increased with age in female subjects. The prevalence rate of OCD was not different by the level of education, except it was statistically higher among subjects who were literate but had no schooling, of which the causal relationship was high prevalence rate of OCD among female literate-but no schooling subjects. Subjects with few (one or two) and more siblings (seven or more) had a significantly higher prevalence rate of OCD than subjects with moderate numbers of siblings (three to six). No significant difference was found according to employment, fertility, birth order, and income of the subjects. About 30% of subjects with OCD had only obsessions, whereas 68.5% had both obsessions and compulsions. Only one subject (1.1%) with OCD met compulsion criteria without obsessions. The prevalence rate of OCD we found in Konya, Turkey was similar to the prevalence rates of most epidemiological studies. PMID:15332200

  17. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Roshani, Daem; Shakib, Pegah; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR) in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012) that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10). Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20%) with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%), respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%).0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family. PMID:25767526

  18. Youth with Disabilities in the Corrections System: Prevalence Rates and Identification Issues. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Cindy Wheeler; Griller-Clark, Heather M.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, reviews current data on disabilities requiring special education and related supports. Statistics on the prevalence of juvenile crime are followed by statistics on the prevalence of special education disabilities in the system, specifically specific…

  19. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young’s questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. Results: More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student’s mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. Conclusion: The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty’ students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH. PMID:27493592

  20. Reported Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence Rates in the Colombia Healthcare System from 2009 to 2012: Analysis by Regions Using Data of the Official Information Sources.

    PubMed

    Barengo, Noël C; Tamayo, Diana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the reported diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence rates of the 20-79-year-old population in Colombia from 2009 to 2012 reported by the healthcare system. Information on number of patients treated for DM was obtained by the Integral Information System of Social Protection (SISPRO), the registry of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, and the High Cost Account (CAC), an organization to trace high expenditure diseases. From both sources age-standardized reported DM prevalence rates per 100.000 inhabitants from 2009 to 2012 were calculated. Whereas the reported DM prevalence rates of SISPRO revealed an increase from 964/100.000 inhabitants (2009) to 1398/100.000 inhabitants in 2012 (mean annual increase 141/100.000; p value: 0.001), the respective rates in the CAC register were 1082/100.000 (2009) and 1593/100.000 in 2012 (mean annual increase 165/100.000; p value: 0.026). The number of provinces reporting not less than 19% of the highest national reported DM prevalence rates (1593/100.000) increased from two in 2009 to ten in 2012. Apparently, the registries and the information retrieving system have been improved during 2009 and 2012, resulting in a greater capacity to identify and report DM cases by the healthcare system. PMID:26494999

  1. Reported Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence Rates in the Colombia Healthcare System from 2009 to 2012: Analysis by Regions Using Data of the Official Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Barengo, Noël C.; Tamayo, Diana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the reported diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence rates of the 20–79-year-old population in Colombia from 2009 to 2012 reported by the healthcare system. Information on number of patients treated for DM was obtained by the Integral Information System of Social Protection (SISPRO), the registry of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, and the High Cost Account (CAC), an organization to trace high expenditure diseases. From both sources age-standardized reported DM prevalence rates per 100.000 inhabitants from 2009 to 2012 were calculated. Whereas the reported DM prevalence rates of SISPRO revealed an increase from 964/100.000 inhabitants (2009) to 1398/100.000 inhabitants in 2012 (mean annual increase 141/100.000; p value: 0.001), the respective rates in the CAC register were 1082/100.000 (2009) and 1593/100.000 in 2012 (mean annual increase 165/100.000; p value: 0.026). The number of provinces reporting not less than 19% of the highest national reported DM prevalence rates (1593/100.000) increased from two in 2009 to ten in 2012. Apparently, the registries and the information retrieving system have been improved during 2009 and 2012, resulting in a greater capacity to identify and report DM cases by the healthcare system. PMID:26494999

  2. Randomized controlled trial of a computer-tailored multiple health behaviour intervention in general practice: 12-month follow-up results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective strategies to address risk factors of non-communicable diseases are required to curtail the expanding costs of health care. This trial tested the effectiveness over one year of a minimal intervention targeting multiple health behaviours (diet, physical activity, alcohol and smoking) in a general practice setting, through the provision of personalised, computer-tailored feedback. Methods Patients who had attended a general practice in the previous 6 months were recruited from 21 general practitioners in Brisbane, Australia. Baseline data were collected using self-reports on adherence to ten health behaviours and summarised into a health score from 0 to 10. This randomised controlled trial used a 2×2 factorial design, with one arm randomising subjects to the intervention or control group. The other arm was either feedback at baseline (single contact) or an additional assessment with feedback at 3 months (dual contact). As such, 4 study groups created were, to which participants were randomised blindly: A. Intervention with single contact; B. Intervention with dual contact; C. Control with single contact and D. Control with dual contact. All participants were assessed again at 12 months. Results Of the 4676 participants randomised, 3065 completed questionnaires at 12 months. Both single and dual contact groups improved their 10 item health scores (+0.31 and +0.49 respectively) relative to control group outcomes (+0.02; p < 0.01). Improvement in adherence to guidelines for fish intake, type of milk consumed, vegetable and fruit intake, and alcohol intake were observed in single and dual contact intervention groups (p < 0.01). Both intervention groups showed greater improvement than controls for individual health behaviours, apart from red meat intake, smoking behaviour, physical activity and body weight. Interestingly, there was an improvement in reported non-smoking rates in both intervention and control groups (3% single contact; 4

  3. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Cibella, Fabio; Morjaria, Jaymin B.; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a ‘smoking’ experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are based on science. Methods ECLAT is a prospective 12-month randomized, controlled trial that evaluates smoking reduction/abstinence in 300 smokers not intending to quit experimenting two different nicotine strengths of a popular e-cigarette model (‘Categoria’; Arbi Group Srl, Italy) compared to its non-nicotine choice. GroupA (n = 100) received 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks; GroupB (n = 100), a 6-week 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges followed by a further 6-week 5.4 mg nicotine cartridges; GroupC (n = 100) received no-nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks. The study consisted of nine visits during which cig/day use and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels were measured. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. Results Declines in cig/day use and eCO levels were observed at each study visits in all three study groups (p<0.001 vs baseline), with no consistent differences among study groups. Smoking reduction was documented in 22.3% and 10.3% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. Complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was documented in 10.7% and 8.7% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. A substantial decrease in adverse events from baseline was observed and withdrawal symptoms were infrequently reported during the study. Participants’ perception and acceptance of the product under investigation was satisfactory. Conclusion In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption and

  4. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. PMID:27429050

  5. Improved asthma control in patients with severe, persistent allergic asthma after 12 months of nightly temperature-controlled laminar airflow: an observational study with retrospective comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Uwe; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Gerstlauer, Michael; Lehmann, Sylvia; Gappa, Monika; Brenneken, Amelie; Schulz, Christian; Ahrens, Peter; Schreiber, Jens; Wittmann, Michael; Hamelmann, Eckard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Continuous or episodic allergen exposure is a major risk factor of frequent symptoms and exacerbations for patients with allergic asthma. It has been shown that temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) significantly reduced allergen exposure and airway inflammation and improved quality of life of patients with poorly controlled allergic asthma. Objective The objective was to evaluate the effects of nighttime TLA when used during real-life conditions for 12 consecutive months in addition to the patients’ regular medication. Methods This multicenter, pre- and postretrospective observational study included patients with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthma who received add-on treatment with TLA for 12 consecutive months. Data on medication use, asthma control, asthma symptoms, lung function, use of hospital resources, and exacerbations were collected after 4 and 12 months and compared with corresponding data collected retrospectively from medical records during the year prior to inclusion in the study. Results Data from 30 patients (mean age 28; range 8–70) completing 4 months and 27 patients completing 12 months of TLA use are presented. The mean number of exacerbations was reduced from 3.6 to 1.3 (p<0.0001), and the ratio of asthma-related emergency room visits or hospitalizations diminished from 72.4 to 23.3% (p=0.001) or from 44.8 to 20.0% (p<0.05), respectively, after 12 months of TLA use. The Asthma Control Test index increased from 14.1 to 18.5 (p<0.0001). After 4 months of TLA use, clear improvements can be shown for most variables in line with the data collected after 12 months. Conclusions The addition of TLA to the patients’ regular medication significantly reduced exacerbations, asthma symptoms, and the utilization of hospital resources. The data support that TLA may be an important new non-pharmacological approach in the management of poorly controlled allergic asthma. PMID:26557252

  6. Impact of Pre-Stage II Hemodynamics and Pulmonary Artery Anatomy on 12-Month Outcome in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aiyagari, Ranjit; Rhodes, John F.; Shrader, Peter; Radtke, Wolfgang A.; Bandisode, Varsha M.; Bergersen, Lisa; Gillespie, Matthew J.; Gray, Robert G.; Guey, Lin T.; Hill, Kevin D.; Hirsch, Russel; Kim, Dennis W.; Lee, Kyong-Jin; Pelech, Andrew N.; Ringewald, Jeremy; Takao, Cheryl; Vincent, Julie A.; Ohye, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare interstage cardiac catheterization hemodynamic and angiographic findings between shunt types for Single Ventricle Reconstruction (SVR) trial. Background The SVR trial, which randomized subjects to modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) or right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS) for the Norwood procedure, demonstrated RVPAS was associated with smaller pulmonary artery diameter, but superior 12-month transplant-free survival. Methods We analyzed pre-stage II catheterization data for SVR trial subjects. Hemodynamic variables and shunt and pulmonary angiography were compared between shunt types; their association with 12-month transplant-free survival was also evaluated. Results Of 549 randomized subjects, 389 underwent pre-stage II catheterization. Smaller size, lower aortic and superior vena cava saturation, and higher ventricular end-diastolic pressure (EDP) were associated with worse 12-month transplant-free survival. MBTS subjects had lower coronary perfusion pressure (27mmHg vs. 32mmHg, P<0.001) and higher Qp:Qs ratio (1.1 vs. 1.0, P=0.009). Higher Qp:Qs ratio increased the risk of death or transplant only in the RVPAS group (P=0.01). MBTS subjects had fewer shunt (14% vs. 28%, P=0.004) and severe left pulmonary artery stenoses (0.7% vs. 9.2%, P=0.003), larger mid-main branch pulmonary artery diameters and higher Nakata index (164 vs. 134, P<0.001). Conclusions Compared with RVPAS subjects, MBTS subjects had more hemodynamic abnormalities related to shunt physiology, while RVPAS subjects had more shunt or pulmonary obstruction of a severe degree, and inferior pulmonary artery growth at pre-stage II catheterization. Lower BSA, higher ventricular EDP, and lower SVC saturation were associated with worse 12-month transplant-free survival. PMID:24332668

  7. Twelve Month Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K.; Haro Abad, Josep M.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Beautrais, Annette; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Tomov, Toma; Uda, Hidenori; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, clinicians and researchers lack a data-driven method to assess the risk of suicide attempts. This study reports the results of an analysis of a large cross-national epidemiological survey database that estimates the 12-month prevalence of suicidal behaviors, identifies risk factors for suicide attempts, and combines these factors to create a risk index for 12-month suicide attempts separately for developed and developing countries. Method Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (conducted 2001–2007) in which 108,705 adults from 21 countries were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The survey assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors across multiple domains including: socio-demographics, parent psychopathology, childhood adversities, DSM-IV disorders, and history of suicidal behavior. Results Twelve-month prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts are 2.0%, 0.6% and 0.3% respectively for developed countries and 2.1%, 0.7% and 0.4% for developing countries. Risk factors for suicidal behaviors in both developed and developing countries include: female sex, younger age, lower education and income, unmarried status, unemployment, parent psychopathology, childhood adversities, and presence of diverse 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Combining risk factors from multiple domains produced risk indices that accurately predicted 12-month suicide attempts in both developed and developing countries (AUC=.74–.80). Conclusion Suicidal behaviors occur at similar rates in both developed and developing countries. Risk indices assessing multiple domains can predict suicide attempts with fairly good accuracy and may be useful in aiding clinicians in the prediction of these behaviors. PMID:20816034

  8. U.S. Armed Forces air crew: incident illness and injury diagnosis during the 12 months prior to retirement, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Smallman, Darlene P; Hu, Zheng; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    U.S. Armed Services retirees are eligible for disability compensation for medical illness/injury incurred during their service. This analysis of recently retired U.S. active component air crew/aviation service members from all Services evaluated incident diagnoses among aviation retirees during the 12 months prior to retirement and assessed trends in first-time diagnoses by major diagnostic category and aviation component stratification. Most aviation retirees were in their 40s, Air Force, male, white, and senior officers and warrant officers. Among the study population, 14,191 (88%) of aviation retirees had at least one first-time diagnosis recorded during the 12 months prior to retirement. During 2003-2012, 63.8% of all diagnoses in aviation retirees during the 12 months prior to retirement were new. The highest proportions of new diagnoses were for "other disorders of the ear," "organic sleep disorders," and "general symptoms." Among the four subtypes of aviators, general air crew/air craft crew had the lowest proportion of new diagnoses (60.2%). PMID:24885877

  9. Clinical outcome and bone healing of implants placed with high insertion torque: 12-month results from a multicenter controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, T; Guazzi, P; Samarani, R; Grandi, G

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the clinical outcome and the crestal bone resorption of implants placed with high insertion torque (up to 80 N cm). 102 patients were treated with 156 tapered implants. 42 implants (control group) presented insertion torque between 30 and 45 N cm (mean=37.4 SD 8.2). 114 implants (experimental group) were placed with insertion torque between 50 and 80 N cm (mean=74.8 SD 7.9). All implants were early loaded after 2 months. Peri-implant marginal bone levels were assessed immediately after surgery, and at 6- and 12-month follow up examinations. At the 12-month follow up all implants were clinically stable. After 12 months, patients in the experimental group lost an average of 0.41 mm (CI 95% 0.522; 0.263) of crestal bone compared with 0.45 mm (CI 95% 0.561; 0.286) for those in the control group. There were no significant differences between the two groups. No direct or inverse relationship was observed between the insertion torque values and crestal bone resorption. The results show that the use of high insertion torque (up to 80 N cm) did not prevent osseointegration and did not increase bone resorption around tapered implants early loaded up to 1 year after implant placement. PMID:23159169

  10. A Randomized Trial of Computerized vs. In-person Brief Intervention for Illicit Drug Use in Primary Care: Outcomes through 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Gonzales, Arturo; Moseley, Ana; Peterson, Thomas R.; Ondersma, Steven J.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined outcomes through 12 months from a randomized trial comparing computerized brief intervention (CBI) vs. in-person brief intervention (IBI) delivered by behavioral health counselors for adult community health center patients with moderate-level drug misuse (N= 360). Data were collected at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, and included the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and laboratory analysis of hair samples. Repeated measures analyses examined differential change over time. There were no significant differences in drug-positive hair tests over time or by condition. Global ASSIST scores decreased in both conditions (p< .001), but there were no significant differences between conditions in overall change across 12 months of follow-up (p= .13). CBI produced greater overall reductions in alcohol (p= .04) and cocaine (p= .02) ASSIST scores than IBI, with initial differences dissipating over time. Computerized brief interventions present a viable alternative to traditional in-person brief interventions. PMID:25282578

  11. A Case Study Assessing the Auditory and Speech Development of Four Children Implanted with Cochlear Implants by the Chronological Age of 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with severe hearing loss most likely receive the greatest benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) when implanted at less than 2 years of age. Children with a hearing loss may also benefit greater from binaural sensory stimulation. Four children who received their first CI under 12 months of age were included in this study. Effects on auditory development were determined using the German LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, closed- and open-set monosyllabic word tests, aided free-field, the Mainzer and Göttinger speech discrimination tests, Monosyllabic-Trochee-Polysyllabic (MTP), and Listening Progress Profile (LiP). Speech production and grammar development were evaluated using a German language speech development test (SETK), reception of grammar test (TROG-D) and active vocabulary test (AWST-R). The data showed that children implanted under 12 months of age reached open-set monosyllabic word discrimination at an age of 24 months. LiP results improved over time, and children recognized 100% of words in the MTP test after 12 months. All children performed as well as or better than their hearing peers in speech production and grammar development. SETK showed that the speech development of these children was in general age appropriate. The data suggests that early hearing loss intervention benefits speech and language development and supports the trend towards early cochlear implantation. Furthermore, the data emphasizes the potential benefits associated with bilateral implantation. PMID:23509653

  12. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingjie; Naidu, Rajeev K.; Chu, Renyuan; Dai, Jinhui; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, resp.). SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms) following SMILE at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 3 months (p = 0.003) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms) than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months. PMID:26649190

  13. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingjie; Naidu, Rajeev K; Chu, Renyuan; Dai, Jinhui; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, resp.). SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms) following SMILE at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 3 months (p = 0.003) and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p < 0.001). SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms) than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months. PMID:26649190

  14. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. PMID:24004246

  15. A 12-month clinical evaluation of pit-and-fissure sealants placed with and without etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems in newly-erupted teeth

    PubMed Central

    NOGOURANI, Maryam Karami; JANGHORBANI, Mohsen; KHADEM, Parvin; JADIDI, Zahra; JALALI, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this one-year clinical study was to investigate the effect of two adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond, a two-step etch-and-rinse and Clearfil SE Bond, a two-step self-etch system) on pit-and-fissure sealant retention in newly-erupted teeth. This study compared the success of the sealants in mesial and distopalatal grooves with and without these two adhesive systems. Material and Methods In a clinical trial, 35 children aged 6-8 years undergoing sealant placement were recruited. This one-year clinical study scored 70 mesial and 70 distopalatal sealants of newly-erupted permanent maxillary first molar, with a split-mouth design. All children received sealant alone in one permanent maxillary molar tooth. Children were randomized into two groups. One group received Self-Etch (SE) bond plus sealant and the other group received Single Bond plus sealant in another permanent maxillary molar tooth. Clinical evaluation at 3, 6 and 12 months was performed and the retention was studied in terms of the success and failure. Results The success rate of sealant in the distopalatal groove, using SEB at 3, 6 and 12 months was 93.3% (95% CI: 68.0, 99.8), 73.3% (95% CI: 44.9, 92.2) and 66.7% (95% CI: 38.4, 88.2), respectively. It was greater than that of the distopalatal groove in SB group with a success rate of 62.5% (95% CI: 35.4, 84.8), 31.3% (95% CI: 11.8, 58.7) and 31.3% (95% CI: 11.8, 58.7), at the three evaluation periods. The success rate of sealant in the mesial groove using SEB was 86.6% (95% CI: 59.5, 98.3), 53.3% (95% CI: 26.6, 78.7) and 53.3% (95% CI: 26.6, 78.7), while this was 100% (95% CI: 79.4, 100.0), 81.3% (95% CI: 54.4, 96.0) and 81.3% (95% CI: 54.4, 96.0) using SB, at 3, 6 and 12-month evaluation periods. Conclusions These results support the use of these two bonding agents in pit-and-fissure sealants under both isolated and contaminated conditions. Further, SE bond seemed to be less sensitive to moisture contamination. PMID:22858703

  16. Substance Use and Other Mental Health Disorders Among Veterans Returning to the Inner City: Prevalence, Correlates, and Rates of Unmet Treatment Need

    PubMed Central

    Vazan, Peter; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of substance use and other mental health disorders of veterans (N = 269) who returned to predominantly low-income minority New York City neighborhoods between 2009 and 2012 are presented. Although prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and depression clustered around 20%, the estimated prevalence rates of alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and substance use disorder were 28%, 18%, and 32%, respectively. Only about 40% of veterans with any diagnosed disorder received some form of treatment. For alcohol use disorder, the estimate of unmet treatment need was 84%, which is particularly worrisome given that excessive alcohol use was the greatest substance use problem. PMID:23869460

  17. Change in sense of coherence (SOC) and symptoms of depression among old non-demented persons 12 months after hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Engedal, Knut; Selbaek, Geir

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether SOC of older adults (≥65 years) without cognitive impairment had changed 1-year after medical hospitalization (T2) and to examine what factors were associated with the change. At baseline (T1) and (T2), the 13-item version of the SOC scale assessed coping, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety. The cognitive state was assessed by means of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Physical health was measured with the Charlson Index and functional status with Lawton and Brody's scales for physical self-maintenance (PSMS) and the instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL). In all, 97 (51 men) persons with a mean age of 75.3 (SD 6.3) years and Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score of 28.0 (SD 1.6) participated. The SOC improved significantly from baseline to 1-year later (mean 76.5, SD 11.4 vs. mean 79.1, SD 9.1, p≤0.01). Improved SOC was associated with a low SOC at baseline and living without assistance during the study period. The prevalence of depression (HAD-D≥8) and the mean depression (HAD-D) score did not change between the first and second data collection (HAD-D≥8: 3.1% vs. 4.1% and HAD-D score: mean 1.8, SD 2.3 vs. mean 2.4, SD 2.4). However, an improved SOC and reduced anxiety symptoms at the second time point were associated with reduced HAD-D. The mean SOC improved 1-year after hospitalization. The symptoms of depression did not change, but reduction of symptoms of depression at the second time point was associated with improved SOC. PMID:23149225

  18. The efficacy of routine use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in occipitocervical and atlantoaxial fusions of the pediatric spine: a minimum of 12 months' follow-up with computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Christina; Hadley, Caroline; Monaco, Gina N; Sen, Anish; Brayton, Alison; Briceño, Valentina; Tran, Brandon H; Ryan, Sheila L; Luerssen, Thomas G; Fulkerson, Daniel; Jea, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study focusing on fusion rate was to determine the efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) use in posterior instrumented fusions of the craniocervical junction in the pediatric population. The authors previously reported the short-term (mean follow-up 11 months) safety and efficacy of rhBMP-2 use in the pediatric age group. The present study reports on their long-term results (minimum of 12 months' follow-up) and focuses on efficacy. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of 83 consecutive pediatric patients who had undergone posterior occipitocervical or atlantoaxial spine fusion at Texas Children's Hospital or Riley Children's Hospital during the period from October 2007 to October 2012. Forty-nine patients were excluded from further analysis because of death, loss to follow-up, or lack of CT evaluation of fusion at 12 or more months after surgery. Fusion was determined by postoperative CT scan at a minimum of 12 months after surgery. The fusion was graded and classified by a board-certified fellowship-trained pediatric neuroradiologist. Other factors, such as patient age, diagnosis, number of vertebral levels fused, use of allograft or autograft, dosage of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and use of postoperative orthosis, were recorded. RESULTS Thirty-four patients had a CT scan at least 12 months after surgery. The average age of the patients at surgery was 8 years, 1 month (range 10 months-17 years). The mean follow-up was 27.7 months (range 12-81 months). There were 37 fusion procedures in 34 patients. Solid fusion (CT Grade 4 or 4-) was achieved in 89.2% of attempts (33 of 37), while incomplete fusion or failure of fusion was seen in 10.8%. Based on logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between solid fusion and age, sex, BMP dose, type of graft material, use of postoperative orthosis, or number of levels fused. Three of 34 patients (8.8%) required revision

  19. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the South-East of Spain, One of the European Regions Most Affected by the Economic Crisis: The Cross-Sectional PEGASUS-Murcia Project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, Mª José; Salmerón, Diego; Vilagut, Gemma; Navarro, Carmen; Ruíz-Merino, Guadalupe; Escámez, Teresa; Júdez, Javier; Martínez, Salvador; Kessler, Ron C.; Alonso, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain). Methods and Findings The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate) were interviewed, 54.5% female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI) of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6–12.2), mood 6.6% (5.5–8.1), impulse 0.3% (0.1–1.2) and substance use 1.0% (0.4–2.4) disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3–18.1), mood 15.6% (13.5–18.1), impulse 2.4% (1.4–4.0) and substance use 8.3% (6.2–11.0) disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8–39.4), moderate 35.6% (24.0–49.1) and mild severity 35.2% (29.5–41.5). Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous

  20. The global prevalence of common mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 1980–2013

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Zachary; Marnane, Claire; Iranpour, Changiz; Chey, Tien; Jackson, John W; Patel, Vikram; Silove, Derrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the introduction of specified diagnostic criteria for mental disorders in the 1970s, there has been a rapid expansion in the number of large-scale mental health surveys providing population estimates of the combined prevalence of common mental disorders (most commonly involving mood, anxiety and substance use disorders). In this study we undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of this literature. Methods: We applied an optimized search strategy across the Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and PubMed databases, supplemented by hand searching to identify relevant surveys. We identified 174 surveys across 63 countries providing period prevalence estimates (155 surveys) and lifetime prevalence estimates (85 surveys). Random effects meta-analysis was undertaken on logit-transformed prevalence rates to calculate pooled prevalence estimates, stratified according to methodological and substantive groupings. Results: Pooling across all studies, approximately 1 in 5 respondents (17.6%, 95% confidence interval:16.3–18.9%) were identified as meeting criteria for a common mental disorder during the 12-months preceding assessment; 29.2% (25.9–32.6%) of respondents were identified as having experienced a common mental disorder at some time during their lifetimes. A consistent gender effect in the prevalence of common mental disorder was evident; women having higher rates of mood (7.3%:4.0%) and anxiety (8.7%:4.3%) disorders during the previous 12 months and men having higher rates of substance use disorders (2.0%:7.5%), with a similar pattern for lifetime prevalence. There was also evidence of consistent regional variation in the prevalence of common mental disorder. Countries within North and South East Asia in particular displayed consistently lower one-year and lifetime prevalence estimates than other regions. One-year prevalence rates were also low among Sub-Saharan-Africa, whereas English speaking counties returned the highest lifetime prevalence

  1. Prediction model for outcome after low-back surgery: individualized likelihood of complication, hospital readmission, return to work, and 12-month improvement in functional disability.

    PubMed

    McGirt, Matthew J; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Asher, Anthony L; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Lumbar spine surgery has been demonstrated to be efficacious for many degenerative spine conditions. However, there is wide variability in outcome after spine surgery at the individual patient level. All stakeholders in spine care will benefit from identification of the unique patient or disease subgroups that are least likely to benefit from surgery, are prone to costly complications, and have increased health care utilization. There remains a large demand for individual patient-level predictive analytics to guide decision support to optimize outcomes at the patient and population levels. METHODS One thousand eight hundred three consecutive patients undergoing spine surgery for various degenerative lumbar diagnoses were prospectively enrolled and followed for 1 year. A comprehensive patient interview and health assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after surgery. All predictive covariates were selected a priori. Eighty percent of the sample was randomly selected for model development, and 20% for model validation. Linear regression was performed with Bayesian model averaging to model 12-month ODI (Oswestry Disability Index). Logistic regression with Bayesian model averaging was used to model likelihood of complications, 30-day readmission, need for inpatient rehabilitation, and return to work. Goodness-of-fit was assessed via R(2) for 12-month ODI and via the c-statistic, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), for the categorical endpoints. Discrimination (predictive performance) was assessed, using R(2) for the ODI model and the c-statistic for the categorical endpoint models. Calibration was assessed using a plot of predicted versus observed values for the ODI model and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test for the categorical endpoint models. RESULTS On average, all patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were improved after surgery (ODI baseline vs 12 month: 50.4 vs 29.5%, p < 0.001). Complications occurred in 121 patients (6

  2. Uteroplacental insufficiency leads to hypertension, but not glucose intolerance or impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, in 12-month-old rats

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Melanie; Young, Margaret E; Jefferies, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Ward, Michelle M; Fletcher, Erica L; Wlodek, Mary E; Wadley, Glenn D

    2015-01-01

    Growth restriction impacts on offspring development and increases their risk of disease in adulthood which is exacerbated with “second hits.” The aim of this study was to investigate if blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis were altered in 12-month-old male and female offspring with prenatal or postnatal growth restriction. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation induced uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction in offspring (Restricted). A sham surgery was also performed during pregnancy (Control) and some litters from sham mothers had their litter size reduced (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Growth-restricted females only developed hypertension at 12 months, which was not observed in males. In Restricted females only homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was decreased, indicating enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in males. Plasma leptin was increased only in the Reduced males at 12 months compared to Control and Restricted males, which was not observed in females. Compared to Controls, leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin were unaltered in the Restricted males and females, suggesting that at 12 months of age the reduction in body weight in the Restricted offspring is not a consequence of circulating adipokines. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels were unaltered in 12-month-old male and female rats, which indicate improvements in lean muscle mass by 12 months of age. In summary, sex strongly impacts the cardiometabolic effects of growth restriction in 12-month-old rats and it is females who are at particular risk of developing long-term hypertension following growth restriction. PMID:26416974

  3. What barriers thwart postpartum women's Physical Activity goals during a 12-month intervention? A process evaluation of the Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Saiki, Kara; Steffen, Alana D.; Woekel, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 70% of new mothers do not meet national guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project (2008-2011) was designed to increase MVPA among women with infants 2-12 months old. Participants’ barriers to exercising and achievement of specific MVPA goals were discussed during telephone counseling calls over 12-months. Healthy, inactive women (n=115, mean age=31 ±5 years, infants’ mean age = 5.5 ± 3 months; 80% racial/ethnic minorities) received a total of 17 calls over 12 months, in three phases. During Phase 1 weekly calls were made for a month; in Phase 2 biweekly calls were made for two months, and in Phase 3 monthly calls were made for nine months. Across all Phases, the most frequent barriers to achieving MVPA goals were: time/too busy (25%), sick child (11%), and illness (10%). Goals for MVPA minutes per week were achieved or surpassed 40.6% of the time during weekly calls, 39.9% during biweekly calls and 42.0% during monthly calls. The least likely MVPA goals to be achieved (p < 0.04) were those which the woman encountered and for which she failed to overcome the barriers she had previously anticipated would impair her improvement of MVPA. This process evaluation demonstrated that telephone counseling somewhat facilitated the resolution of barriers and achievement of MVPA goals; thus, if clinical settings adopted such methods, chronic disease risks could be reduced in this vulnerable population of new mothers. PMID:25402618

  4. Uteroplacental insufficiency leads to hypertension, but not glucose intolerance or impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, in 12-month-old rats.

    PubMed

    Tran, Melanie; Young, Margaret E; Jefferies, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Ward, Michelle M; Fletcher, Erica L; Wlodek, Mary E; Wadley, Glenn D

    2015-09-01

    Growth restriction impacts on offspring development and increases their risk of disease in adulthood which is exacerbated with "second hits." The aim of this study was to investigate if blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis were altered in 12-month-old male and female offspring with prenatal or postnatal growth restriction. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation induced uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction in offspring (Restricted). A sham surgery was also performed during pregnancy (Control) and some litters from sham mothers had their litter size reduced (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Growth-restricted females only developed hypertension at 12 months, which was not observed in males. In Restricted females only homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was decreased, indicating enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in males. Plasma leptin was increased only in the Reduced males at 12 months compared to Control and Restricted males, which was not observed in females. Compared to Controls, leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin were unaltered in the Restricted males and females, suggesting that at 12 months of age the reduction in body weight in the Restricted offspring is not a consequence of circulating adipokines. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels were unaltered in 12-month-old male and female rats, which indicate improvements in lean muscle mass by 12 months of age. In summary, sex strongly impacts the cardiometabolic effects of growth restriction in 12-month-old rats and it is females who are at particular risk of developing long-term hypertension following growth restriction. PMID:26416974

  5. Progression of atherosclerosis in the Apo E-/- model: 12-month exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke combined with high-cholesterol/fat diet.

    PubMed

    von Holt, K; Lebrun, S; Stinn, W; Conroy, L; Wallerath, T; Schleef, R

    2009-07-01

    This study was performed to gain information about the influence of two cardiovascular risk factors, cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) and high-cholesterol/fat diet, on the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apo E-/-) mice. Eight to 12-week-old mice were whole-body exposed for up to 12 months (6h/day, 5 days/week) to diluted cigarette mainstream smoke at total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations of 100 or 200mg/m(3), or to filtered fresh air (sham) in combination with a normal chow diet or a high-cholesterol/fat diet. Cholesterol in the aortic arch was elevated in the high-cholesterol/fat diet groups exposed to 200 mg TPM/m(3) compared to sham at all time points. In the brachiocephalic artery (BA), absolute plaque size and fraction area of plaques was elevated over the 12-month time course in mice exposed to 200 mg TPM/m(3) compared to sham (both diets). Exposure to 100 and 200 mg TPM/m(3) altered the number of elastin-rich layers in the BA in mice fed a high-cholesterol/fat diet, indicating changes in plaque morphology at 6 and 9 months. This study shows for the first time the influence of two different risk factors, MS and high-cholesterol/fat diet, both alone and in combination over a period of 12 months, on the progression of atherosclerosis in Apo E-/- mice. Data suggest that long-term exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke accelerates the development of atherosclerosis in Apo E-/- mice, particularly in combination with a high-cholesterol/fat diet. PMID:19144336

  6. Association between Substance Use Disorder Status and Pain-Related Function Following 12 Months of Treatment in Primary Care Patients with Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Corson, Kathryn; Turk, Dennis C.; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine relationships between substance use disorder (SUD) history and 12-month outcomes among primary care patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Patients were enrolled in a randomized trial of collaborative care intervention (CCI) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) to improve pain-related physical and emotional function. At baseline, 72 of 362 patients (20.0%) had a history of SUD. Compared to CNCP patients without SUD, those with comorbid SUD had poorer pain-related function and were more likely to meet criteria for current major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (all p-values<0.05). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether SUD status was associated with clinically significant change over 12 months in pain-related function (30% reduction in Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire Score). The overall model was not significant in the CCI group. However, within the TAU group, participants with a SUD history were significantly less likely to show improvements in pain-related function (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.11–0.82). CNCP patients with comorbid SUD reported greater functional impairment at baseline. Patients with SUD who received usual care were 70% less likely to have clinically significant improvements in pain-related function 12 months post-baseline, and SUD status did not impede improvement for the CCI group. Perspective Chronic non-cancer pain patients with a history of a substance use disorder (SUD) report poorer pain-related functioning and are less likely to experience clinically significant improvements from usual pain treatment. Providers should assess for SUD status and provide more intensive interventions for these patients. PMID:20851057

  7. HIV Prevalence and Incidence among Sexually Active Females in Two Districts of South Africa to Determine Microbicide Trial Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Annaléne; Louw, Cheryl; Hellstrom, Elizabeth; Braunstein, Sarah L.; Treadwell, Ina; Marais, Melanie; de Villiers, Martie; Hugo, Jannie; Paschke, Inge; Andersen, Chrisna; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2011-01-01

    Background The suitability of populations of sexually active women in Madibeng (North-West Province) and Mbekweni (Western Cape), South Africa, for a Phase III vaginal microbicide trial was evaluated. Methods Sexually active women 18–35 years not known to be HIV-positive or pregnant were tested cross-sectionally to determine HIV and pregnancy prevalence (798 in Madibeng and 800 in Mbekweni). Out of these, 299 non-pregnant, HIV-negative women were subsequently enrolled at each clinical research center in a 12-month cohort study with quarterly study visits. Results HIV prevalence was 24% in Madibeng and 22% in Mbekweni. HIV incidence rates based on seroconversions over 12 months were 6.0/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 3.0, 9.0) in Madibeng and 4.5/100 PY (95% CI 1.8, 7.1) in Mbekweni and those estimated by cross-sectional BED testing were 7.1/100 PY (95% CI 2.8, 11.3) in Madibeng and 5.8/100 PY (95% CI 2.0, 9.6) in Mbekweni. The 12-month pregnancy incidence rates were 4.8/100 PY (95% CI 2.2, 7.5) in Madibeng and 7.0/100 PY (95% CI 3.7, 10.3) in Mbekweni; rates decreased over time in both districts. Genital symptoms were reported very frequently, with an incidence of 46.8/100 PY (95% CI 38.5, 55.2) in Madibeng and 21.5/100 PY (95% CI 15.8, 27.3) in Mbekweni. Almost all (>99%) participants said that they would be willing to participate in a microbicide trial. Conclusion These populations might be suitable for Phase III microbicide trials provided that HIV incidence rates over time remain sufficiently high to support endpoint-driven trials. PMID:21853020

  8. Histological Predictors of Maximum Failure Loads Differ Between the Healing ACL and ACL Grafts After 6 and 12 Months In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Fleming, Braden C.; Murray, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bioenhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair, where the suture repair is supplemented with a biological scaffold, is a promising novel technique to stimulate healing after ACL rupture. However, the histological properties of a successfully healing ACL and how they relate to the mechanical properties have not been fully described. Purpose: To determine which histological features best correlate with the mechanical properties of the healing ACL repairs and ACL grafts in a porcine model at 6 and 12 months after injury. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 48 Yucatan mini-pigs underwent ACL transection followed by: (1) conventional ACL reconstruction with bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) allograft, (2) bioenhanced ACL reconstruction with BPTB allograft using a bioactive scaffold, or (3) bioenhanced ACL repair using the same bioactive scaffold. After 6 and 12 months of healing, structural properties of the ACL or graft (yield and failure load, linear stiffness) were measured. Following mechanical testing, ACL specimens were histologically analyzed for cell and vascular density and qualitatively assessed using the advanced Ligament Maturity Index. Results: After 6 months of healing, the cellular organization subscore was most predictive of yield load (r 2 = 0.98), maximum load (r 2 = 0.89), and linear stiffness (r 2 = 0.95) of the healing ACL, while at 12 months, the collagen subscore (r 2 = 0.68) became the best predictor of maximum load. For ACL grafts, the reverse was true, with the collagen subscore predictive of yield and maximum loads at 6 months (r 2 = 0.55) and graft cellularity predictive of maximum load of the graft at 12 months (r 2 = 0.50). Conclusion: These findings suggest there may be key biological differences in development and maintenance of ACL tissue after repair or reconstruction, with early ligament function dependent on cellular population of the repair but early graft function dependent on the

  9. Sonidegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma: a comprehensive review of sonidegib and the BOLT trial with 12-month update.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon; Silapunt, Sirunya; Migden, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    The Hedgehog inhibitors are promising alternative for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma that are not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery. Sonidegib, also known as LDE225, is an orally available SMO antagonist that was recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. This article will provide an overview of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of sonidegib and in-depth analysis of the BOLT trial with additional data from the 12-month update. The present challenges associated with Hedgehog inhibitors will also be discussed. PMID:27189494

  10. Predictors of outcome after 6 and 12 months following anthroposophic therapy for adult outpatients with chronic disease: a secondary analysis from a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medicine is a physician-provided complementary therapy system involving counselling, artistic and physical therapies, and special medications. The purpose of this analysis was to identify predictors of symptom improvement in patients receiving anthroposophic treatment for chronic diseases. Methods 913 adult outpatients from Germany participated in a prospective cohort study. Patients were starting anthroposophic treatment for mental (30.4% of patients, n = 278/913), musculoskeletal (20.2%), neurological (7.6%), genitourinary (7.4%) or respiratory disorders (7.2%) or other chronic indications. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the improvement of Symptom Score (patients' assessment, 0: not present, 10: worst possible) after 6 and 12 months as dependent variables. 61 independent variables pertaining to socio-demographics, life style, disease status, co-morbidity, health status (SF-36), depression, and therapy factors were analysed. Results Compared to baseline, Symptom Score improved by average 2.53 points (95% confidence interval 2.39-2.68, p < 0.001) after six months and by 2.49 points (2.32-2.65, p < 0.001) after 12 months. The strongest predictor for improvement after six months was baseline Symptom Score, which alone accounted for 25% of the variance (total model 32%). Improvement after six months was also positively predicted by better physical function, better general health, shorter disease duration, higher education level, a diagnosis of respiratory disorders, and by a higher therapy goal documented by the physician at baseline; and negatively predicted by the number of physiotherapy sessions in the pre-study year and by a diagnosis of genitourinary disorders. Seven of these nine variables (not the two diagnoses) also predicted improvement after 12 months. When repeating the 0-6 month analysis on two random subsamples of the original sample, three variables (baseline Symptom Score, physical function

  11. Effect of recent spinal cord injury on wnt signaling antagonists (sclerostin and dkk-1) and their relationship with bone loss. A 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gifre, Laia; Vidal, Joan; Carrasco, Josep L; Filella, Xavier; Ruiz-Gaspà, Silvia; Muxi, Africa; Portell, Enric; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Nuria; Peris, Pilar

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with a marked increase in bone loss and bone remodeling, especially short-term after injury. The absence of mechanical load, mediated by osteocyte mechanosensory function, seems to be a causative factor related to bone loss in this condition. However, the pathogenesis and clinical management of this process remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the effect of recent SCI on the Wnt pathway antagonists, sclerostin and Dickkopf (Dkk-1), and their relationship with bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) evolution. Forty-two patients (aged 35 ± 14yrs) with a recent (<6months) complete SCI were prospectively included. Sclerostin and Dkk-1, bone turnover markers (bone formation: PINP, bone ALP; resorption: sCTx) and BMD (lumbar spine, proximal femur, total body and lower extremities [DXA]) were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. The results were compared with a healthy control group. 22/42 patients completed the 12-month follow-up. At baseline, SCI patients showed a marked increase in bone markers (PINP and sCTx), remaining significantly increased at up to 6 months of follow-up. Additionally, they presented significantly increased Dkk-1 values throughout the study, whereas sclerostin values did not significantly change. BMD markedly decreased at the proximal femur (-20.2 ± 5.4%, p < 0.01), total body (-5.7 ± 2.2%, p = 0.02) and lower extremities (-13.1 ± 4.5%, p = 0.01) at 12 months. Consequently, 59% of patients developed densitometric osteoporosis at 12 months. Patients with higher Dkk-1 values (>58 pmol/L) at baseline showed higher sublesional BMD loss. In conclusion, this study shows that short-term after SCI there is a marked increase in bone turnover and bone loss, the latter associated with an increase in Dkk-1 serum levels. The persistence of increased levels of this Wnt antagonist throughout the study and their relationship with the magnitude of

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Rated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complicated Grief in a Community-Based Sample of Homicidally Bereaved Individuals.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    People confronted with homicidal loss have to cope with separation distress, related to their loss, and traumatic distress, associated with the circumstances surrounding the death. These reactions are related to complicated grief (CG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The psychological effects for people who have lost someone through homicide, in terms of PTSD and CG, are largely unclear. This cross-sectional study (a) examined the prevalence of self-rated PTSD and self-rated CG in a community-based sample of 312 spouses, family members, and friends of homicide victims and (b) aimed to identify socio-demographic, loss-related, and perpetrator-related correlates of PTSD and CG. Participants were recruited via support organizations for homicidally bereaved individuals in the Netherlands (i.e., support group), and by casemanagers of a governmental organization, which offers practical, non-psychological, support to bereaved families (i.e., casemanager group). Prevalence of self-rated PTSD was 30.9% (support group) and 37.5% (casemanager group), prevalence of CG was 82.7% (support group) and 80.6% (casemanager group). PTSD and CG severity scores varied as a function of the relationship with the victim; parents were at greater risk to develop emotional problems, compared with other relatives of the victim. Time since loss was negatively associated with PTSD and CG scores. PMID:25389188

  13. Patient and program predictors of 12-month outcomes for homeless veterans following discharge from time-limited residential treatment.

    PubMed

    McGuire, James; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J

    2011-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs provides transitional residential treatment to homeless veterans through three types of programs: VA-staffed Domiciliary care, and two types of community-based treatment (one funded through locally managed contracts and the other through national grants). This study compared treatment process and outcomes in these three programs and also sought to identify differences in outcome between dually diagnosed veterans, veterans with substance abuse problems or psychiatric problems alone, and those with no psychiatric diagnoses. Altogether, 1,338 veterans admitted to the 3 types of program were recruited to participate in a prospective naturalistic study which evaluated housing, clinical and community adjustment outcomes during the year following discharge. Data on 1,003 veterans for whom psychiatric diagnostic, social climate and length of stay data were available were used to compare participants in the three program types at baseline. Regression models were used to compare outcomes across program and diagnostic types net of baseline differences between study participants, and of differences in social climate and length of stay. The overall follow-up rate across all time points was 72%. Significant differences across programs were observed on only 2 baseline measures as well as on several baseline values of the outcome measures, length of stay and a measure of social climate. Adjusting for veteran baseline differences alone there were no differences in outcomes by program after correction for multiple comparisons. Dually diagnosed veterans had poorer mental health and overall quality of life outcomes. Longer length of stay and more positive social climate were associated with superior outcomes on several measures. The adjusted mean estimate of the proportion of veterans housed at 12 months follow-up was 78%, similar to published outcomes for supported housing. Length of stay, rather than program funding configuration or

  14. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Young Injection Drug Users*

    PubMed Central

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary E.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Ouellet, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of individuals in treatment for substance use have found high rates of psychiatric disorders, however little is known about the mental health of drug users not in treatment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime and recent substance use and psychiatric disorders among young injection drug users (IDU) outside of a treatment setting. Methods Participants were recruited through outreach and respondent-driven sampling. Trained interviewers administered the Psychiatric Research Instrument for Substance and Mental Disorders. Interviews were conducted at two field stations operated by Community Outreach Intervention Projects in Chicago. Participants were 570 young adults (18-25 years) who injected drugs in the previous 30 days. Heroin was the primary drug used in this sample. Past 12-month and lifetime substance use disorders and primary and substance-induced mental disorders were based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Results Nearly all participants met the criteria for heroin dependence. Multiple substance use disorders were common; cannabis was the most common substance involved after heroin, followed by alcohol and cocaine. Major depression, alcohol dependence, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder were highly prevalent. Other psychiatric disorders were observed at levels consistent with other young adult samples. Conclusions Young IDU experience major depression, alcohol dependence, anti-social personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder at high rates, and multiple substance use disorders are common. Anxiety disorders in this population appear to be similar in prevalence to young adults in general. PMID:22226707

  15. Glucocorticoids increase impairments in learning and memory due to elevated amyloid precursor protein expression and neuronal apoptosis in 12-month old mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Zu; Li, Wei-Ping; Yao, Yu-You; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Yan-Yan; Wu, Guo-Cui; Gong, Hui-Ling

    2010-02-25

    Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder marked by a progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. Stress level glucocorticoids are correlated with dementia progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, twelve month old male mice were chronically treated for 21 days with stress-level dexamethasone (5mg/kg). We investigated the pathological consequences of dexamethasone administration on learning and memory impairments, amyloid precursor protein processing and neuronal cell apoptosis in 12-month old male mice. Our results indicate that dexamethasone can induce learning and memory impairments, neuronal cell apoptosis, and mRNA levels of the amyloid precursor protein, beta-secretase and caspase-3 are selectively increased after dexamethasone administration. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein, caspase-3 and cytochrome c in the cortex and CA1, CA3 regions of the hippocampus are significantly increased in 12-month old male mice. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment induced cortex and hippocampus neuron apoptosis as well as increasing the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These findings suggest that high levels of glucocorticoids, found in Alzheimer's disease, are not merely a consequence of the disease process but rather play a central role in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Stress management or pharmacological reduction of glucocorticoids warrant additional consideration of the regimen used in Alzheimer's disease therapies. PMID:19948164

  16. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25264190

  17. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M.; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology. PMID:26247960

  18. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Celia G; West, Annette L; Browning, Lucy M; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2015-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology. PMID:26247960

  19. A 12 Months Clinical and Radiographic Study to Assess the Efficacy of Open Flap Debridement and Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft in Management of Supracrestal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Chhina, Shivjot

    2015-01-01

    Background: An improvement in clinical parameters along with regeneration is the desired outcome of periodontal therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze and contrast the efficaciousness of combined open flap debridement (OFD) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SECTG) to OFD in the management of periodontal supracrestal defects. Materials and Methods: Totally, 20 paired sites exhibiting supracrestal defects were subjected to surgical treatment adopting the split mouth design. The defects were divided randomly for treatment with OFD and SECTG (test) or OFD alone (control). The clinical effectiveness of the two arms of treatment was evaluated at 6 months and 12 months post-operatively by assessing clinical and radiographic parameters. The measurements carried out included probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), gingival marginal level, radiographic bone level (BL). Results: The mean reduction in PPD at 0-12 months was 3.20 ± 0.82 mm and RAL gain of 3.10 ± 1.51 mm was observed, the OFD and SECTG (test) group; corresponding observations for OFD (control) were 2.10 ± 0.63 mm and 1.90 ± 0.57 mm. However, BL changes did not follow the pattern of clinical improvement on the radiographic assessment of either treatment group. Post-operative evaluation was made. Improvement in different clinical parameters was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Treatment of supracrestal defects with a combination of OFD and SECTG led to significantly better clinical results compared to OFD alone. PMID:26464551

  20. Facilitators and Barriers to Employment Among Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury Receiving 12 Months of Evidence-Based Supported Employment Services

    PubMed Central

    Njoh, Eni N.; Trainor, John K.; O’Connor, Danielle R.; Barnett, Scott D.; Ottomanelli, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Return to work is associated with positive rehabilitation outcomes for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, more research is needed on vocational support for persons with disabilities seeking employment. Objective: The association between facilitators and barriers of employment and employment outcome was examined among Veterans with SCI who participated in an evidence-based supported employment (EBSE) program. Methods: Using a mixed-methods, nested case-control design, data on facilitators and barriers to employment were extracted from qualitative interviews and quantitative measures administered in person to 34 Veterans with SCI who completed 12 months of an EBSE program. Participants who did (case) and did not (control) obtain competitive employment were matched on time since SCI. Facilitators and barriers to employment were compared between the groups. Results: Self-report measures administered at baseline were examined; there were no statistically significant factors that predicted employment outcomes after 12 months of EBSE program participation. Qualitative interview data revealed program-specific facilitators and Veteran characteristics that were associated with employment outcomes. Conclusions: Qualitative data illustrate how the integration of the vocational rehabilitation specialist on the medical team is helpful for addressing identified disability-specific barriers, including practical matters such as transportation and caregiving schedules, to facilitate employment outcomes. PMID:25762857

  1. Replantation of a maxillary second molar after removal of a third molar with a dentigerous cyst: Case report and 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, María A.; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the replantation of a maxillary second right molar, which had been removed for surgical reasons in order to remove a dentigerous cyst associated with the adjacent third molar, and the case’s 12-month follow-up. A 51-year-old man presented swelling in the right maxillary area. Radiographic examination showed a large radiolucency in close proximity to the third molar, suggesting a follicular cyst. The third molar was extracted and the cyst underwent curettage. The second molar had to be extracted to enable complete removal of the cyst and to achieve primary closure of the wound, which would have been impossible without repositioning the molar. With this objective, extraoral endodontic treatment was performed, the root-end was resected and prepared with ultrasonic retrotips, and root-end filling was accomplished with MTA before the molar was replanted. At the 12-month follow-up, the tooth showed no clinical signs or symptoms, probing depth was no greater than 3 mm and radiographic examination showed no evidence of root resorption or periapical lesion. Key words:Replantation, maxillary molar, follicular cyst, dentigerous cyst. PMID:24790721

  2. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF 6- AND 12-MONTH OLD INFANTS HAVING THE NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS FROM THE BIRTH: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vekovischeva O; Lyakso, E E

    2015-12-01

    Ethological approach was applied to compare a non-verbal behavior of the 6- and 12-month old infants having neurological diagnosis by the birth (P 91.8 according to ICD-10 scale; risk infants) with the behavior of their healthy (norm infants) peers. The double-blind controlled uninterrupted observation of 1- and 2-minute videos was done to estimate duration and sequence of behavioral elements manifested by infants in familiar home environment during everyday activity. We suggested that if the specific behavioral differences exist it would be considered as predictive markers of infant's development problems. Ethological analysis indicated that the main behavioral differences were related with infant's eye and hand activities. The risk infants of the both age distracted from an object in their hands "looking aside" more often than their healthy peers. The 12-month old risk infants displayed less communicative and explorative abilities than their norm peers. It was proposed that the short-term observations of nonverbal behavior would be useful like an addition to a diagnostic scale to estimate briefly an infant's cognitive condition. PMID:26987232

  3. Accurate age classification of 6 and 12 month-old infants based on resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, John R.; Kandala, Sridhar; Hoertel, Sarah; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Elison, Jed T.; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Feczko, Eric; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Nardos, Binyam; Power, Jonathan D.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Botteron, Kelly N.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Evans, Alan C.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Dager, Stephen R.; Paterson, Sarah; Schultz, Robert T.; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Das, Samir; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Constantino, John N.; Estes, Annette M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Piven, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Human large-scale functional brain networks are hypothesized to undergo significant changes over development. Little is known about these functional architectural changes, particularly during the second half of the first year of life. We used multivariate pattern classification of resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) data obtained in an on-going, multi-site, longitudinal study of brain and behavioral development to explore whether fcMRI data contained information sufficient to classify infant age. Analyses carefully account for the effects of fcMRI motion artifact. Support vector machines (SVMs) classified 6 versus 12 month-old infants (128 datasets) above chance based on fcMRI data alone. Results demonstrate significant changes in measures of brain functional organization that coincide with a special period of dramatic change in infant motor, cognitive, and social development. Explorations of the most different correlations used for SVM lead to two different interpretations about functional connections that support 6 versus 12-month age categorization. PMID:25704288

  4. Prevalence of low back pain in adolescent athletes - an epidemiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C P; Zwingenberger, S; Walther, A; Reuter, U; Kasten, P; Seifert, J; Günther, K-P; Stiehler, M

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common symptom in the populations of western countries, and adolescent athletes seem to be prone to LBP. The main objective of this study was to analyze the point (LBP within the last 48 h), 1-year (LBP within the last 12 months) and lifetime (LBP within the entire life) prevalence rates of LBP in adolescent athletes participating in various sports. We also assessed the characteristics of LBP and its association with potential risk factors. To this end, 272 competitive adolescent athletes involved in 31 different sports (158 males, 113 females, 15.4 ± 2.0 years, body mass index [BMI] 20.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 10-month prospective clinical trial that included a questionnaire and physical examination. We found a point prevalence of 14%, a 1-year prevalence of 57%, and a lifetime prevalence of 66% for LBP. The mean age of first appearance of LBP was 13.1 ± 2.0 years. The lifetime prevalence was significantly higher in volleyball than in biathletes (74.3 vs. 45.7%, p = 0.015). Our findings confirm that LBP is a common symptom in adolescent athletes; LBP prevalence correlates with sports participation and individual competitive level. Adolescent athletes with LBP should receive a thorough diagnostic work-up and adapt training and technique correspondingly when indicated. PMID:24424960

  5. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    prevalence, complete risk assessments, and impleme t timely preventive medicine and other preventive measures. The lower VBD prevalence rate in the canine samples from Fort Buchanan demonstrates the value of responsible pet ownership and importance of preventive medicine and public health. PMID:23817880

  6. Trends in Incidence Rates during 1999-2008 and Prevalence in 2008 of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in GERMANY – Model-Based National Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Wieland; Kapellen, Thomas Michael; Stange, Thoralf; Manuwald, Ulf; Salzsieder, Eckhard; Holl, Reinhard Walter; Schoffer, Olaf; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Giani, Guido; Ehehalt, Stefan; Neu, Andreas; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Aims To estimate the national incidence rate and trend of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in Germany from 1999 to 2008 and the national prevalence in 2008 in the age group 0–14 years. Methods Data were taken from a nationwide registry for incident cases of T1DM in the ages 0–4 years and 3 regional registries (North-Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Wuerttemberg and Saxony) for incident cases of T1DM in the ages 0–14 years covering 41% of the child population in Germany. The degree of ascertainment was ≥ 97% in all registries. Incident and prevalent cases were grouped by region, sex, age (0–4, 5–9, 10–14 years), and, for incident data, additionally by two 5-year periods (1999–2003, 2004–2008). Poisson regression models were fitted to the data to derive national estimates of incidence rate trends and prevalence in the age groups 5–9, 10–14 and 0–14 years. We used direct age-standardization. Results The estimated national incidence rate in 0-14-year-olds increased significantly by 18.1% (95%CI: 11.6–25.0%, p<0.001) from 1999–2003 to 2004–2008, independent of sex, corresponding to an average annual increase of 3.4% (95%-CI: 2.2–4.6%). The overall incidence rate was estimated at 22.9 per 100,000 person-years and we identified a within-country west-east-gradient previously unknown. The national prevalence in the ages 0–14 years on 31/12/2008 was estimated to be 148.1 per 100,000 persons. Conclusions The national incidence rate of childhood T1DM in Germany is higher than in many other countries around the world. Importantly, the estimated trend of the incidence rate confirms the international data of a global increase of T1DM incidences. PMID:26181330

  7. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs – which are often characterised as ‘female’) among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls. PMID:26290657

  8. The effects of different levels of calcium supplementation on the bone mineral status of postpartum lactating Chinese women: a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe-Qing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Wang, Ruo-Qin; Huang, Zhen-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Yi-Xiang

    2016-01-14

    Increasing dietary Ca intake may prevent the excessive mobilisation of bone mineral in nursing mothers. We aimed to investigate whether higher Ca intake could positively modulate the bone mineral changes in Chinese postpartum lactating women. The study was a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, parallel group trial conducted over 12 months. A total of 150 postpartum women were randomly selected to receive either 40 g of milk powder containing 300 mg of Ca and 5 μg of vitamin D (Low-Ca group) or same milk powder additionally fortified with 300 mg of Ca (Mid-Ca group) or 600 mg of Ca (High-Ca group). Bone mineral density (BMD) for the whole body, the lumbar spine, the total left hip and its sub-regions was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 102 subjects completed the whole trial. The duration of total lactating time was 7·9 (SD 2·8) months on average. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded the following mean percentage changes in BMD for the whole body, the lumbar spine and the total left hip, respectively: -0·93 (SD 1·97), 2·11 (SD 4·90) and -1·60 (SD 2·65)% for the Low-Ca group; -0·56 (SD 1·89), 2·21 (SD 3·77) and -1·43 (SD 2·30)% for the Mid-Ca group; and -0·44 (SD 1·67), 2·32 (SD 4·66) and -0·95 (SD 4·08)% for the High-Ca group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P: 0·5-0·9). The results of the complete case analysis were similar. In sum, we found no significant differences in the bone mineral changes from baseline to 12 months in postpartum lactating women consuming milk powder fortified with different levels of Ca. PMID:26522081

  9. The sustained effect (12 months) of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure for meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Blackie, Caroline A; Coleman, Christy A; Holland, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the sustained effect (up to 1 year) of a single, 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) treatment in improving meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. Methods The prospective, multicenter, open-label clinical trial included 200 subjects (400 eyes) who were randomized to a single VTP treatment (treatment group) or twice-daily, 3-month, conventional warm compress and eyelid hygiene therapy (control group). Control group subjects received crossover VTP treatment at 3 months (crossover group). Effectiveness measures of meibomian gland secretion (MGS) and dry eye symptoms were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Subjects with inadequate symptom relief could receive additional meibomian gland dysfunction therapy after 3 (treatment group) and 6 months (crossover group). Results At 3 months, the treatment group had greater mean improvement in MGS (P<0.0001) and dry eye symptoms (P=0.0068), compared to controls. At 12 months, 86% of the treatment group had received only one VTP treatment, and sustained a mean improvement in MGS from 6.4±3.7 (baseline) to 17.3±9.1 (P<0.0001) and dry eye symptoms from 44.1±20.4 to 21.6±21.3 (P<0.0001); 89% of the crossover group had received only one VTP treatment with sustained mean improvement in MGS from 6.3±3.6 to 18.4±11.1 (P<0.0001) and dry eye symptoms from 49.1±21.0 to 24.0±23.2 (P<0.0001). Greater mean improvement in MGS was associated with less severe baseline MGS (P=0.0017) and shorter duration of time between diagnosis and treatment (P=0.0378). Conclusion A single VTP treatment can deliver a sustained mean improvement in meibomian gland function and mean reduction in dry eye symptoms, over 12 months. A single VTP treatment provides significantly greater mean improvement in meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms as compared to a conventional, twice-daily, 3-month regimen. Early VTP intervention for

  10. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D

    2014-10-14

    Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P< 0·01) and not suppressed further by 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily. Compared with the placebo, supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 12 months had no significant effect (P>0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (P< 0·05) the bone mass of the total radius. Despite near maximal suppression of serum %ucOC, supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily (with Ca and vitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency. PMID:25181575

  11. Timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors among children aged 6 to 12 months in Northern Ethiopia: an institution-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life is critical for the wellbeing of the child. In the mean while, timely initiation and starting nutritionally-adequate, safe, age-appropriate complementary feeding at six months is recommended for the better health and development of infants. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, timely initiation of complementary feeding in Ethiopia at the 6th month was only 51%. The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors in Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 422 mothers of infants aged from six months to one year selected from six public health facilities. Sample size proportional to the patient flow rate of each institution was allocated and systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participant. An exit interview using structured questionnaire was conducted about their experience on complementary feeding and related experience. The questionnaire was pretested among 21 mothers. Data were entered with EPI info version 3.5.1 and cleaning and analysis was done by using SPSS version 16. Frequencies distribution, binary and multiple logistic regressions were done. OR and 95% confidence interval was computed. Result The prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding at sixth month was 62.8% (265/422, 95% C.I: 58.1, 67.31%). Educational level, occupation of mother, parity, having ANC follow up, and birth preparedness were found to be independent predictor of timely initiation of complementary feeding. Conclusions Almost two-third of mothers initiated complementary feeding at six month of child’ age as recommended. This was relatively higher prevalence than most developing countries. However, significant proportion of mothers still did not initiate complementary feeding timely. Mothers who are illiterate

  12. Flagellated Algae Protein Evolution Suggests the Prevalence of Lineage-Specific Rules Governing Evolutionary Rates of Eukaryotic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Yan; Liao, Ben-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the general rules governing the rate of protein evolution is fundamental to evolutionary biology. However, attempts to address this issue in yeasts and mammals have revealed considerable differences in the relative importance of determinants for protein evolutionary rates. This phenomenon was previously explained by the fact that yeasts and mammals are different in many cellular and genomic properties. Flagellated algae species have several cellular and genomic characteristics that are intermediate between yeasts and mammals. Using partial correlation analyses on the evolution of 6,921 orthologous proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, we examined factors influencing evolutionary rates of proteins in flagellated algae. Previous studies have shown that mRNA abundance and gene compactness are strong determinants for protein evolutionary rates in yeasts and mammals, respectively. We show that both factors also influence algae protein evolution with mRNA abundance having a larger impact than gene compactness on the rates of algae protein evolution. More importantly, among all the factors examined, coding sequence (CDS) length has the strongest (positive) correlation with protein evolutionary rates. This correlation between CDS length and the rates of protein evolution is not due to alignment-related issues or domain density. These results suggest no simple and universal rules governing protein evolutionary rates across different eukaryotic lineages. Instead, gene properties influence the rate of protein evolution in a lineage-specific manner. PMID:23563973

  13. Flagellated algae protein evolution suggests the prevalence of lineage-specific rules governing evolutionary rates of eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Yan; Liao, Ben-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the general rules governing the rate of protein evolution is fundamental to evolutionary biology. However, attempts to address this issue in yeasts and mammals have revealed considerable differences in the relative importance of determinants for protein evolutionary rates. This phenomenon was previously explained by the fact that yeasts and mammals are different in many cellular and genomic properties. Flagellated algae species have several cellular and genomic characteristics that are intermediate between yeasts and mammals. Using partial correlation analyses on the evolution of 6,921 orthologous proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, we examined factors influencing evolutionary rates of proteins in flagellated algae. Previous studies have shown that mRNA abundance and gene compactness are strong determinants for protein evolutionary rates in yeasts and mammals, respectively. We show that both factors also influence algae protein evolution with mRNA abundance having a larger impact than gene compactness on the rates of algae protein evolution. More importantly, among all the factors examined, coding sequence (CDS) length has the strongest (positive) correlation with protein evolutionary rates. This correlation between CDS length and the rates of protein evolution is not due to alignment-related issues or domain density. These results suggest no simple and universal rules governing protein evolutionary rates across different eukaryotic lineages. Instead, gene properties influence the rate of protein evolution in a lineage-specific manner. PMID:23563973

  14. The PPD-specific T-cell clonal response in UK and Malawian subjects following BCG vaccination: a new repertoire evolves over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Andrea R; Gorak-Stolinska, Patricia; Ben-Smith, Anne; Floyd, Sian; de Lara, Catherine M; Weir, Rosemary E; Lalor, Maeve K; Makamo, Kandakuone; Msiska, Glyn K; Crampin, Amelia C; Fine, Paul E M; Dockrell, Hazel M; Beverley, Peter C L

    2006-03-24

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette Guerin vaccination protects against pulmonary tuberculosis in the United Kingdom but not in Malawi. We investigated whether a difference in the clonal T-cell response to BCG vaccination might account for this. The results of clonal analysis were compared to those obtained by skin testing and in a whole blood interferon gamma assay. Pre-vaccination antigen specific T-cell clones were detected, but the majority of clones present 12 months after vaccination were not present earlier. The magnitude of the clonal response did not correlate well with results of the other assays. These data indicate that single assays may not be reliable and that a stable memory T-cell repertoire is slow to develop. PMID:16414159

  15. Integrating a Career Planning and Development Program into the Baccalaureate Nursing Curriculum. Part II. Outcomes for New Graduate Nurses 12 Months Post-Graduation.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Janice; Spalding, Karen; Navarro, Justine; Jancar, Sonya; Canizares, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    New graduate nurses' (NGNs) transition into the nursing workforce is characterized as stressful and challenging. Consequently, a high percentage of them leave their first place of employment or the profession entirely within one year of graduation. Nursing literature describes this complicated shift from student to registered nurse, however, limited attention has focused on strategies that could be implemented during students' academic programs to prepare them for this difficult transition period. Therefore, a longitudinal intervention study was conducted to examine the influence of a career planning and development (CPD) program on the development of career resilience in baccalaureate nursing students and at 12 months post-graduation (NGN). The findings support including structured and progressive curriculum-based CPD opportunities in academic programs, not only for the positive outcomes that accrue to students, but also because of the benefits they extend to NGNs as they make the transition to their first professional nursing role. PMID:26618574

  16. [Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates].

    PubMed

    Alves, Jair Rodrigues; Macedo, Heloísa Werneck; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz Carvalho; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from S o Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piau State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%), Endolimax nana (13.6%), Hymenolepis nana (9.4%), and hookworm (9.4%) were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years. PMID:12764483

  17. The prevalence and correlates of Intermittent Explosive Disorder in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Al-Diwan, Jawad K.; Al-Hasnawi, S. Mahdi; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Chatterji, Somnath; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is common, begins early in life, and is associated with considerable impairment in the U.S. The epidemiology of IED outside the U.S. is unknown. We examined the prevalence and correlates of IED in Iraq, where exposure to violence has been widespread during the last three decades. Method Data were drawn from a national survey of the Iraq population, the Iraq Mental Health Survey (IMHS), conducted in 2006–2007. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic interview was used to assess DSM-IV disorders, including IED. The response rate was 95.2%. Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of IED were 1.7% and 1.5%. Mean age of onset was 18.5. The mean number of lifetime attacks was 141.6 lifetime attacks, and IED-related injuries occurred 61 times per 100 lifetime cases. IED was significantly comorbid with mood and anxiety, but not substance, disorders. Conclusion Although the prevalence of IED is lower in Iraq than in the U.S., the disorder has an early age-of-onset, is highly persistent, and is associated with substantial comorbidity and functional impairment. Iraq lacks national policies or systematic programs to reduce aggression, highlighting the importance of implementing violence prevention programs to reduce the societal burden of violence in Iraq. PMID:22443168

  18. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  19. Acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders across US Latino subgroups in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S.; Duarte, C. S.; Aggarwal, N. K.; Sánchez-Lacay, J. A.; Blanco, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual-level measures of acculturation (e.g. age of immigration) have a complex relationship with psychiatric disorders. Fine-grained analyses that tap various acculturation dimensions and population subgroups are needed to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of action for the association between acculturation and mental health. Method Study participants were US Latinos (N = 6359) from Wave 2 of the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653). We used linear χ2 tests and logistic regression models to analyze the association between five acculturation dimensions and presence of 12-month DSM-IV mood/anxiety disorders across Latino subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, ‘Other Latinos’). Results Acculturation dimensions associated linearly with past-year presence of mood/anxiety disorders among Mexicans were: (1) younger age of immigration (linear χ12=11.04, p < 0.001), (2) longer time in the United States (linear χ12=10.52, p < 0.01), (3) greater English-language orientation (linear χ12=14.57, p < 0.001), (4) lower Latino composition of social network (linear χ12=15.03, p < 0.001), and (5) lower Latino ethnic identification (linear χ12=7.29, p < 0.01). However, the associations were less consistent among Cubans and Other Latinos, and no associations with acculturation were found among Puerto Ricans. Conclusions The relationship between different acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder varies across ethnic subgroups characterized by cultural and historical differences. The association between acculturation measures and disorder may depend on the extent to which they index protective or pathogenic adaptation pathways (e.g. loss of family support) across population subgroups preceding and/or following immigration. Future research should incorporate direct measures of maladaptive pathways and their relationship to various acculturation dimensions. PMID:27087570

  20. Predictive significance of the overvaluation of shape/weight in obese patients with binge eating disorder: findings from a randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Gueorguieva, R.; Wilson, G. T.; Masheb, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Undue influence of body shape or weight on self-evaluation – referred to as overvaluation – is considered a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined the concurrent and predictive significance of overvaluation of shape/weight in obese patients with BED participating in a randomized clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method A total of 90 participants were randomly assigned to 6-month group treatments of CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout- and post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups after completing treatments with reliably administered semi-structured interviews and established measures. Results Participants categorized with overvaluation (n=52, 58%) versus without overvaluation (n=38, 42%) did not differ significantly in demographic features (age, gender and ethnicity), psychiatric co-morbidity, body mass index or binge eating frequency. The overvaluation group had significantly greater levels of eating disorder psychopathology and poorer psychological functioning (higher depression and lower self-esteem) than the non-overvaluation group. Overvaluation of shape/weight significantly predicted non-remission from binge eating and higher frequency of binge eating at the 12-month follow-up, even after adjusting for group differences in depression and self-esteem levels. Conclusions Our findings suggest that overvaluation does not simply reflect concern commensurate with being obese or more frequent binge eating, but also is strongly associated with heightened eating-related psychopathology and psychological distress, and has negative prognostic significance for longer-term treatment outcomes. Overvaluation of shape/weight warrants consideration as a diagnostic specifier for BED as it provides important information about severity and treatment outcome. PMID:22967857

  1. Dynamic Model for Predicting Death Within 12 Months in Patients With Primary or Post–Polycythemia Vera/Essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Constantine S.; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge; Lynn, Alice; Pierce, Sherry; Zhou, Lingsha; Keating, Michael J.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Current prognostic tools in myelofibrosis (MF) fail to identify patients at the highest risk of death and are limited by their applicability only to the time of diagnosis. We aimed to define an accelerated phase (AP) in MF by characterizing disease features that can identify patients with median overall survival of ≤ 12 months at any time in the disease course. Patients and Methods Baseline characteristics of 370 consecutive patients with MF from a single center were analyzed to identify features associated with a median overall survival of ≤ 12 months. These putative AP features were then validated by following the course of chronic-phase patients (no AP features at baseline) until the development of one or more AP features and determining their subsequent survival. Results The following three characteristics were associated with poor survival at baseline and were selected as putative AP features: blasts in blood or bone marrow ≥ 10%, platelets less than 50 × 109/L, and chromosome 17 aberrations (median overall survival, 10, 12, and 5 months, respectively). In the validation phase, chronic-phase patients who developed AP features during follow-up were found to have short subsequent survival times (median overall survival, 12, 15, and 6 months, respectively). AP was a necessary step in the progression to blast phase, with leukemic transformation being exceedingly rare (3% risk at 10 years) in patients who remained persistently in chronic phase. Conclusion Blood or bone marrow blasts ≥ 10%, platelets less than 50 × 109/L, and chromosome 17 aberrations defined AP in patients with MF. Patients in AP should be candidates for intensive therapeutic interventions. PMID:19786661

  2. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples

    PubMed Central

    Stammel, Nadine; Abbing, Eva M.; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Objective The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Method Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample) compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample). Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety) compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. Conclusions The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data. PMID:25989951

  3. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Association with Physical Capacity, Disability, and Self-Rated Health among Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Beavers, Daniel P.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Anton, Stephen; Church, Timothy; Folta, Sara C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; King, Abby C.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Spring, Bonnie; Wang, Xuewen; Gill, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its association with physical capacity, disability, and self-rated health among older adults at high risk for mobility disability, including those with and without diabetes. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study. Participants 1,535 community-dwelling sedentary adults aged 70–89 years old at high risk for mobility disability [short physical performance battery (SPPB) score ≤ 9; mean (SD) = 7.4 (1.6)]. Measurements MetS was defined according to the 2009 multi-agency harmonized criteria; outcomes were physical capacity (400m walk time, grip strength, and SPPB score), disability (composite 19-item score), and self-rated health (5-point scale ranging from “excellent” to “poor”). Results The prevalence of MetS was 49.8% in the overall sample, and 83.2% and 38.1% among diabetics and non-diabetics, respectively. MetS was associated with greater grip strength [mean difference (kilograms) Δ = 1.2, p = .01] in the overall sample and among participants without diabetes, and with poorer self-rated health (Δ = 0.1, p < .001) in the overall sample only. No significant differences were found in the 400m walk time, SPPB score, and disability score between participants with and without MetS, in either the overall sample or diabetes subgroups. Conclusion Metabolic dysfunction is highly prevalent among older adults at risk for mobility disability, yet consistent associations were not observed between MetS and walking speed, lower extremity function, and self-reported disability after adjusting for known and potential confounders. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether MetS accelerates declines in functional status in high-risk older adults and to inform clinical and public health interventions aimed at preventing or delaying disability in this group. PMID:25645664

  4. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema among children in 2 Canadian cities: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Habbick, B F; Pizzichini, M M; Taylor, B; Rennie, D; Senthilselvan, A; Sears, M R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wide variations in the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema have been reported between regions within Canada and between different countries. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was developed to provide a standardized tool and methodology to ascertain the prevalence of asthma and allergies in different regions. Comparisons of prevalence rates across geographic regions and at different times may help to identify factors that contribute to the development of these conditions in individuals. METHODS: Two Canadian centres, Hamilton and Saskatoon, participated in the ISAAC. A standard questionnaire was distributed through schools and completed by 13- and 14-year-old children and by the parents of 6- and 7-year-old children. Prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for asthma, wheezing, rhinitis and eczema. RESULTS: The overall response rates were 75.1% among the children 6 and 7 years old and 68.6% among those 13 and 14 years old. Among the younger children, the lifetime prevalence of asthma was 17.2% in Hamilton and 11.2% in Saskatoon; the corresponding rates among the older children were 19.2% and 12.2% respectively. The prevalence of wheezing in the 12 months before the survey in the younger group was 20.1% in Hamilton and 14.1% in Saskatoon; in the older group it was 30.6% and 24.0% respectively. The prevalence of rhinitis in the 12 months before the survey was 28.6% in Hamilton and 22.6% in Saskatoon in the younger group and 45.8% and 33.8% respectively in the older group. The prevalence of eczema was slightly higher in Saskatoon in both age groups. INTERPRETATION: High prevalence rates of asthma, rhinitis and eczema exist among school children in Hamilton and Saskatoon, similar to rates in other Western countries. Further studies are required to determine the factors associated with the high rates in the 2 regions and possible reasons for the higher rates in Hamilton. PMID:10405666

  5. Achieving NHAS 90/90/80 Objectives by 2020: An Interactive Tool Modeling Local HIV Prevalence Projections

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott D.; Wortley, Pascale M.; Drenzek, Cherie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tools using local HIV data to help jurisdictions estimate future demand for medical and support services are needed. We present an interactive prevalence projection model using data obtainable from jurisdictional HIV surveillance and publically available data. Methods Using viral load data from Georgia’s enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System, state level death rates for people living with HIV and the general population, and published estimates for HIV transmission rates, we developed a model for projecting future HIV prevalence. Keeping death rates and HIV transmission rates for undiagnosed, in care/viral load >200, in care/viral load<200, and out of care (no viral load for 12 months) constant, we describe results from simulations with varying inputs projecting HIV incidence and prevalence from 2014 to 2024. Results In this model, maintaining Georgia’s 2014 rates for diagnosis, transitions in care, viral suppression (VS), and mortality by sub-group through 2020, resulted in 85% diagnosed, 59% in care, and 44% VS among diagnosed (85%/58%/44%) with a total of 67 815 PLWH, 33 953 in care, and more than 1000 new cases per year by 2020. Neither doubling the diagnosis rate nor tripling rates of re-engaging out of care PLWH into care alone were adequate to reach 90/90/80 by 2020. We demonstrate a multicomponent scenario that achieved NHAS goals and resulted in 63 989 PLWH, 57 546 in care, and continued annual prevalence increase through 2024. Conclusions Jurisdictions can use this HIV prevalence prediction tool, accessible at https://dph.georgia.gov/hiv-prevalence-projections to assess local capacity to meet future HIV care and social services needs. In this model, achieving 90/90/80 by 2020 in Georgia slowed but did not reverse increases in HIV prevalence, and the number of HIV-infected persons needing care and support services more than doubled. Improving the HIV care infrastructure is imperative. PMID:27459717

  6. Disease burden of congenital cytomegalovirus infection at school entry age: study design, participation rate and birth prevalence.

    PubMed

    Korndewal, M J; Vossen, A C T M; Cremer, J; VAN Binnendijk, R S; Kroes, A C M; VAN DER Sande, M A B; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M; DE Melker, H E

    2016-05-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) may lead to symptoms at birth and long-term consequences. We present a nationwide, retrospective cohort study on the outcome of cCMV up to age 6 years. For this study we identified cCMV, using polymerase chain reaction, by analysing dried blood spots, which are taken shortly after birth for neonatal screening. The group of children with cCMV were compared to a group of children who were cCMV negative at birth. Data were collected about their health and development up to age 6 years. Parents of 73 693 children were invited to participate, and 32 486 (44·1%) gave informed consent for testing of their child's dried blood spot for CMV. Of the 31 484 dried blood spots tested, 156 (0·5%) were positive for cCMV. Of these, four (2·6%) children had been diagnosed with cCMV prior to this study. This unique retrospective nationwide study permits the estimation of long-term sequelae of cCMV up to the age of 6 years. The birth prevalence of cCMV in this study was 0·5%, which is in line with prior estimates. Most (97·4%) children with cCMV had not been diagnosed earlier, indicating under-diagnosis of cCMV. PMID:26554756

  7. Prevalence and early attack rate of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India under domiciliary treatment with isoniazid plus PAS or isoniazid alone*

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, C. V.; Andrews, R. H.; Devadatta, S.; Fox, Wallace; Radhakrishna, S.; Somasundaram, P. R.; Velu, S.

    1961-01-01

    The authors present a report from the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, on the prevalence and attack rate of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India undergoing domiciliary chemotherapy either with isoniazid plus PAS or with one of three regimens of isoniazid alone. The report gives (a) the prevalence of tuberculosis among the contacts at the time of diagnosis of the disease in the patients and (b) the incidence of tuberculosis in the contacts during the first year of treatment of the patients. The contacts were divided into four series, corresponding to the four chemotherapeutic regimens of the patients. The prevalence of active tuberculosis was found to be particularly high among children under five years of age, being 12.0% as compared with 7.6% for all age-groups combined. The incidence of active tuberculosis during the year of treatment of the patients was also found to be highest in the under five years' age-group—a further indication that child contacts are especially vulnerable to infection. The incidence was considerably higher in the first quarter of the year than in the other quarters, and it was lowest in the last quarter. This finding, together with the fact that the attack rates in the four contact series were not related either to the duration of bacteriological positivity in the patients or to the period of excretion of isoniazid-resistant organisms by the patients, suggests that the major risk to contacts in the first year results from exposure to the patient before treatment rather than from exposure during treatment. These results thus confirm the findings in an earlier study by the Centre of the contacts of patients in a controlled comparison of chemotherapy with isoniazid plus PAS at home and in sanatorium. PMID:14038589

  8. Past 12-month and lifetime comorbidity and poly-drug use of ecstasy users among young adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Martins, Silvia S.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecstasy use is prevalent among young people and often co-occurs with other drug use, but little is known about the past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and specific additional drug abuse among young adult ecstasy users in the general population. To provide this information, we compared current ecstasy users to former users, other illicit drug users, and non-illicit drug users. Method Data were gathered in a face-to-face survey of the United States conducted in the 2001–2002 (NESARC). Participants were household and group quarters residents aged 18–29 years (n = 8666). We measured current ecstasy use defined as any use in the past year; former ecstasy use as use prior to the past year only; other lifetime drug use included any drug other than ecstasy; lifetime non-illicit drug use as no illicit drug use. Associations were determined for nine other classes of illicit drugs, eight personality disorders, and seven mood and anxiety disorders. Results Of current ecstasy users, 44% used >3 other classes of illicit drugs in the past year, compared to 1.6% of non-ecstasy drug users. Current ecstasy use was associated with current anxiety (OR = 3.7), specifically panic disorder (OR = 7.7) and specific phobia (OR = 4.1), also alcohol abuse (OR = 21.6) and dependence (OR = 4.1) and any personality disorder (OR = 5.1) compared to non-illicit drug users. Conclusions Results indicate important differences in comorbidities of current and former ecstasy users compared to other drug users and lifetime non-illicit drug users that may affect phenotype definitions and etiologic studies. Ecstasy use may represent a distinct population of drug users for which unique treatments may be necessary. PMID:18524499

  9. Prevalence of constipation in the German population – a representative survey (GECCO)

    PubMed Central

    Leinert, Johannes; Smid, Menno; Köhler, Thorsten; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Background Variable prevalence rates between 2.4 and 35% have been reported for chronic constipation across different countries worldwide, with a low 5% for Germany. Objectives and methods We conducted a computer-assisted telephone interview among 15,002 representative individuals in Germany, asking about health-related problems, including constipation. Those who acknowledged the presence of constipation symptoms during the preceding 12 months were questioned concerning constipation features and sociographic variables. Results Of 15,002 individuals interviewed, 2,239 (14.9%) acknowledged having experienced constipation during the last 12 months, 864 (5.8%) reported constipation during the last 4 weeks, and 380 (2.5%) had current constipation symptoms; 4.4% had taken medication because of their constipation, and 2.6% had consulted a doctor for constipation. In comparison to non-constipated volunteers, those constipated had a lower health quality of life and poorer health, and lower income and social status. Conclusion Up to 15% of the general (German) population report symptoms of constipation depending on the definition. This matches pooled constipation rates across 18 countries (14%). PMID:27403310

  10. Determining Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse Using Promotores: Low Income Immigrant Latinos Report High Rates of Abuse and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Homeier, Diana C.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2012-01-01

    Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, we recruited and trained promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, to interview a sample of Latino adults age 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of Latino elders experienced some form of abuse and/or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% indicated physical assault, 9% reported sexual abuse, 16.7% indicated financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with increased risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the U.S. was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elders, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment, or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community. PMID:22697790

  11. A Comparative Study of Iron Uptake Rates and Mechanisms amongst Marine and Fresh Water Cyanobacteria: Prevalence of Reductive Iron Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Hagar; Kranzler, Chana; Keren, Nir; Shaked, Yeala

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we address the question of iron bioavailability to cyanobacteria by measuring Fe uptake rates and probing for a reductive uptake pathway in diverse cyanobacterial species. We examined three Fe-substrates: dissolved inorganic iron (Fe') and the Fe-siderophores Ferrioxamine B (FOB) and FeAerobactin (FeAB). In order to compare across substrates and strains, we extracted uptake rate constants (kin = uptake rate/[Fe-substrate]). Fe' was the most bioavailable Fe form to cyanobacteria, with kin values higher than those of other substrates. When accounting for surface area (SA), all strains acquired Fe' at similar rates, as their kin/SA were similar. We also observed homogeneity in the uptake of FOB among strains, but with 10,000 times lower kin/SA values than Fe'. Uniformity in kin/SA suggests similarity in the mechanism of uptake and indeed, all strains were found to employ a reductive step in the uptake of Fe' and FOB. In contrast, different uptake pathways were found for FeAB along with variations in kin/SA. Our data supports the existence of a common reductive Fe uptake pathway amongst cyanobacteria, functioning alone or in addition to siderophore-mediated uptake. Cyanobacteria combining both uptake strategies benefit from increased flexibility in accessing different Fe-substrates. PMID:25768677

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Status in Pregnancy Determines the Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status 3-, 6- and 12 Months Postpartum. Results from a Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Frøyland, Livar; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Graff, Ingvild Eide

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential fatty acid status as well as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) declines during pregnancy and lactation. As a result, the DHA status may not be optimal for child development and may increase the risk for maternal postpartum depression. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the maternal fatty acid status from pregnancy to 12 months postpartum, and to study the impact of seafood consumption on the individual fatty acid status. Methods Blood samples and seafood consumption habits (gestation week 28, and three-, six- and 12 months postpartum) were collected in a longitudinal observational study of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 118). Multilevel linear modeling was used to assess both changes over time in the fatty acid status of red blood cells (RBC), and in the seafood consumption. Results Six fatty acids varied the most (>80%) across the four time points analyzed, including the derivative of the essential α-linoleic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), DHA; the essential linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6); and the LA derivative, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). Over all, a large variation in individuals’ DHA- and AA status was observed; however, over the 15-month study period only small inter-individual differences in the longitudinal trajectory of DHA- and AA abundance in the RBC were detected. The median intake of seafood was lower than recommended. Regardless, the total weekly frequency of seafood and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)/DHA-supplement intake predicted the maternal level of DHA (μg/g RBC). Conclusion The period of depletion of the maternal DHA status during pregnancy and lactation, seem to turn to repletion from about six months postpartum towards one year after childbirth, irrespective of RBC concentration of DHA during pregnancy. Seafood and EPA/DHA-supplement intake predicted the DHA levels over time. Trial Registration www.helseforskning.etikkom.no 2009/570/REC, project number: 083.09 PMID:26331947

  13. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the trivalent vaccine, Trimovax, indicated for prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella, in 12-month-old children in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Samoilovich, E O; Kapustik, L A; Feldman, E V; Yermolovich, M A; Svirchevskaya, A J; Zakharenko, D F; Fletcher, M A; Titov, L P

    2000-08-01

    In the Republic of Belarus, immunization of children against measles and mumps had been carried out using monovalent preparations according to the national schedule of measles vaccination at 12 months of age and mumps vaccination at 24 months of age. A rise of rubella incidence in the last few years (i.e., for the official registration period 1980 to 1998, there was an increase from 72.2 to 607.5 cases per 100,000 population) made it necessary to implement immunization against this infection, as well. Therefore, in 1996, combined vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella of 12-month-old children was carried out for the first time in a clinical trial that used the vaccine Trimovax [Aventis Pasteur (formerly, Pasteur Mérieux Connaught), Lyon, France]. The reactogenicity of the vaccine was investigated in 372 children. Post-vaccination reactions were noted in 5.6% of children; in 1.3% of children the reactions were classified as severe [i.e. associated with body (axillary) temperature > or = 38.6 degrees C]. For the evaluation of immunogenicity, sera from 324 children were obtained 2 to 2.5 months after inoculation, and serum antibody levels were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Among the vaccines, protective antibody titers (expressed in inverse of dilution units) were observed to measles (> or = 1:50) in 97.8%, to mumps (> or = 1:50) in 93.8%, and to rubella (> or = 1:100) in 96.0% of children. Antibodies to all three components of the vaccine were mainly present in intermediate (1:200-1:800) or high (> or = 1:1600) titers: to measles in 96.3%; to mumps in 75.8%; and to rubella in 73.5% of vaccines. The results of these trials are evidence of the good safety and immunogenicity of this MMR vaccine, which provides an alternative to the currently used measles and mumps monovaccines, with the additional benefit of providing immunity against rubella, as well. PMID:10965439

  14. Application of Balanced Scorecard in the Evaluation of a Complex Health System Intervention: 12 Months Post Intervention Findings from the BHOMA Intervention: A Cluster Randomised Trial in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. Methods The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. Results The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p = 0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p = 0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p = 0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. Conclusion This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful

  15. Good clean fun? A content analysis of profanity in video games and its prevalence across game systems and ratings.

    PubMed

    Ivory, James D; Williams, Dmitri; Martins, Nicole; Consalvo, Mia

    2009-08-01

    Although violent video game content and its effects have been examined extensively by empirical research, verbal aggression in the form of profanity has received less attention. Building on preliminary findings from previous studies, an extensive content analysis of profanity in video games was conducted using a sample of the 150 top-selling video games across all popular game platforms (including home consoles, portable consoles, and personal computers). The frequency of profanity, both in general and across three profanity categories, was measured and compared to games' ratings, sales, and platforms. Generally, profanity was found in about one in five games and appeared primarily in games rated for teenagers or above. Games containing profanity, however, tended to contain it frequently. Profanity was not found to be related to games' sales or platforms. PMID:19514818

  16. Recent availability of two novel, fixed formulations of antiretroviral nucleoside analogues: a 12-month prospective, open-label survey of their practical use and therapeutic perspectives in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Roberto; Calza, Leonardo

    2008-04-01

    The recent introduction of novel, fixed nucleoside-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) combinations (tenofovir-emtricitabine, and abacavir-lamivudine) expanded the spectrum of available formulations and concurrently increased patients' adherence levels. A prospective survey of the open-label use of these two fixed combinations was performed in 158 patients belonging to our single-center cohort of more than 1,000 HIV-infected subjects enrolled in the last 18 months, and followed for at least 12 months. During the last 18 months, 95 consecutive, evaluable patients (60.1%) received for the first time tenofovir-emtricitabine, or abacavir-lamivudine (63 patients, 39.9%), and were followed for at least 12 months with periodic clinical and laboratory examinations. Among the 53 evaluable patients who were naïve to all antiretrovirals, tenofovir-emtricitabine has been given to 42 subjects (79.2%), mostly associated with efavirenz (26 cases), or different boosted protease inhibitors (16 subjects), whereas abacavir-lamivudine was administered to 11 patients (in 10 cases of 11, together with boosted protease inhibitors). In the remaining 105 patients, tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine therapy represented a switch from a prior combination antiretroviral regimen, and was predominantly associated with boosted protease inhibitors (61 patients), versus efavirenz or nevirapine (26 cases), or other drug combinations containing protease inhibitors (the remaining 18 patients). Among the 105 pretreated patients, the prescription of tenofovir-emtricitabine (53 patients) was as frequent as that of abacavir-lamivudine (52 cases), and the therapeutic change was primarily prompted by toxicity or poor tolerability (59 patients), followed by therapeutic failure and viral resistance (46 cases as a whole), and always encompassed a regimen simplification also. Both fixed combinations were well tolerated, and an adherence rate more than 90% was estimated among evaluable

  17. The Majority of the Pre-Antiretroviral Population Who Were Lost to Follow-Up Stopped Their Care in Freetown, Sierra Leone: A 12-Month Prospective Cohort Study Starting with HIV Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J. Daniel; Schlough, Gabriel Warren; Conteh, Sulaiman; Barrie, M. Bailor; Kargbo, Brima; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of the pre-antiretroviral (pre-ART) population calls for more granular depictions of the cascade of HIV care. Methods We studied a prospective cohort of persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection from a single center in Freetown, Sierra Leone, over a 12-month period and then traced those persons who were lost to follow-up (LTFU) during pre-ART care (before ART initiation). ART eligibility was based on a CD4 cell count result of ≤ 350 mm/cells and/or WHO clinical stage 3 or 4. Persons who attended an appointment in the final three months were considered to be retained in care. Adherence to ART was measured using pharmacy refill dates. “Effective HIV care” was defined as completion of the cascade of care at 12-months regardless of whether patients are on ART. Tracing outcomes were obtained for those who were LTFU during pre-ART care. Results 408 persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection were screened, 338 were enrolled, and 255 persons were staged for ART. ART-ineligible persons had higher retention rates than ART-eligible persons (59.6% vs 41.8%, p = 0.03). 77 (22.8%) of 338 persons received effective HIV care. Most attrition (61.9%) occurred with persons during pre-ART care. 123 of 138 persons (89.1%) who were LTFU prior to ART initiation were found, and 91 of those 123 (74.0%) were alive. Of the 74 persons who were alive and described their engagement in care, 40 (54.1%) stopped care. Nearly half (42.5%) of those 40 stopped after assessment of ART-eligibility but before ART initiation. The main limitation of this study was the lack of tracing outcomes for those lost during ART care. Conclusions The majority of the pre-ART LTFU population stopped their care, particularly after ART-eligibility but before ART initiation. Interventions to hasten ART initiation and retain this at-risk group may have significant downstream impact on effective HIV care. PMID:26901765

  18. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Poor Functioning after Isolated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Wang, Jin; Temkin, Nancy R.; Dorsch, Andrea M.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Jaffe, Kenneth M.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of poor 3 and 12 month quality of life outcomes in a cohort of pediatric patients with isolated mild TBI. We conducted a prospective cohort study of children and adolescents <18 years of age treated for an isolated mild TBI, defined as “no radiographically apparent intracranial injury” or “an isolated skull fracture, and no other clinically significant non-brain injuries.” The main outcome measure was the change in quality of life from baseline at 3 and 12 months following injury, as measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life index (PedsQL). Poor functioning was defined as a decrease in total PedsQL score of >15 points between baseline and follow-up scores (at 3 and 12 months). Of the 329 patients who met inclusion criteria, 11.3% (95% CI 8.3–15.3%) at 3 months and 12.9% (95% CI 9.6–17.2%) at 12 months following injury had relatively poor functioning. Significant predictors of poor functioning included less parental education, Hispanic ethnicity (at 3 months following injury, but not at 12 months); low household income (at 3 and 12 months), and Medicaid insurance (at 12 months only). Children and adolescents sustaining a mild TBI who are socioeconomically disadvantaged may require additional intervention to mitigate the effects of mild TBI on their functioning. PMID:24294826

  19. Divergence between the high rate of p53 mutations in skin carcinomas and the low prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moch, C; Moysan, A; Lubin, R; Salmonière, P de La; Soufir, N; Galisson, F; Vilmer, C; Venutolo, E; Pelletier, F Le; Janin, A; Basset-Séguin, N

    2001-01-01

    Circulating anti-p53 antibodies have been described and used as tumoural markers in patients with various cancers and strongly correlate with the p53 mutated status of the tumours. No study has yet looked at the prevalence of such antibodies in skin carcinoma patients although these tumours have been shown to be frequently p53 mutated. Most skin carcinoma can be diagnosed by examination or biopsy, but aggressive, recurrent and/or non-surgical cases' follow up would be helped by a biological marker of residual disease. We performed a prospective study looking at the prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies using an ELISA technique in a series of 105 skin carcinoma patients in comparison with a sex- and age-matched control skin carcinoma-free group (n = 130). Additionally, p53 accumulation was studied by immunohistochemistry to confirm p53 protein altered expression in a sample of tumours. Anti-p53 antibodies were detected in 2.9% of the cases, with a higher prevalence in patients suffering from the more aggressive squamous cell type (SCC) of skin carcinoma (8%) than for the more common and slowly growing basal cell carcinoma type or BCC (1.5%). p53 protein stabilization could be confirmed in 80% of tumours studied by IHC. This low level of anti-p53 antibody detection contrasts with the high rate of p53 mutations reported in these tumours. This observation shows that the anti-p53 humoral response is a complex and tissue-specific mechanism. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747330

  20. The effect of mothers education program based on the precede model on the mean weight in children (6-12 months) at health centers in Shiraz, Fars Province

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, Seyed Mansour; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Karimi, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth retardation in children is a result of nutritional ignorance, inappropriate care, and inadequate monitoring of growth monitoring. This study was performed to assess the effect of mothers education program based on the precede model on the mean weight of children (6-12 months) at health centers in Shiraz, Fars Province. Methods: This quasi experimental study was conducted on 120 mothers (60 in the experimental and 60 in the control group) with single child and exclusively on breast feeding who were cared by health centers in Shiraz, Fars province. The data were gathered through a questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, the components of the precede model (knowledge, attitude, enabling as well as reinforcing factors, and maternal function) and child weight. Educational intervention was performed during 6 sessions each of which lasted for 55 to 60 minutes. The questionnaire was completed by the experiment a land control group before and 4 months after the training program. Results: The results showed that the educational intervention program in the experimental group caused significant increase in the means of knowledge (p<0.001) and attitude scores (p<0.001). This study showed that enabling and reinforcing factors (and training sessions), performance score of mothers as well as weight of children among experimental group were significantly higher than control group (p=0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study can be used as a guideline prevents growth retardation in health centers and other related organizations. PMID:25664296

  1. Retention of HIV-Infected Children in the First 12 Months of Anti-Retroviral Therapy and Predictors of Attrition in Resource Limited Settings: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christiana; McFarland, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Current UNAIDS goals aimed to end the AIDS epidemic set out to ensure that 90% of all people living with HIV know their status, 90% initiate and continue life-long anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and 90% achieve viral load suppression. In 2014 there were an estimated 2.6 million children under 15 years of age living with HIV, of which only one-third were receiving ART. Little literature exists describing retention of HIV-infected children in the first year on ART. We conducted a systematic search for English language publications reporting on retention of children with median age at ART initiation less than ten years in resource limited settings. The proportion of children retained in care on ART and predictors of attrition were identified. Twelve studies documented retention at one year ranging from 71–95% amongst 31877 African children. Among the 5558 children not retained, 4082 (73%) were reported as lost to follow up (LFU) and 1476 (27%) were confirmed to have died. No studies confirmed the outcomes of children LFU. Predictors of attrition included younger age, shorter duration of time on ART, and severe immunosuppression. In conclusion, significant attrition occurs in children in the first 12 months after ART initiation, the majority attributed to LFU, although true outcomes of children labeled as LFU are unknown. Focused efforts to ensure retention and minimize early mortality are needed as universal ART for children is scaled up. PMID:27280404

  2. Blood pressure, ventricular volume and number of cardiomyocyte nuclei in rats fed for 12 months on diets differing in fat composition.

    PubMed

    Aguila, M B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    2001-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP), body mass (BM), ventricular volume (V[vent]) and the number of ventricular cardiomyocyte nuclei (N[vcn]) were analysed in rats fed different dietary fats. A total of 20 Wistar male rats were studied from 21 days old to 12 months of age and divided in the groups: soybean oil (S), canola oil (CA), lard and egg yolk (LE) and canola oil+lard and egg yolk (CA+LE). The diets had the same basal diet that included cornstarch, casein, maize, egg white and mineral and vitamin mixtures. At the moment of the sacrifice, the LE group had the greatest BP and V[vent] which was significantly higher than the other groups, and the S group had the greatest BM. The myocardial structure was apparently normal in the S and CA groups while it showed areas of diffuse interstitial fibrosis and hypertrophied cardiomyocytes in the LE group, and intramyocardial coronaries with thick tunica media and little interstitial fibrosis in CA+LE group. The N[vcn] was significantly higher in the CA group and it was lower in the LE group. These results suggest that the different dietary fats affect the myocardial structure, and the canola oil diet reduces the cardiomyocyte loss in the old rats. PMID:11163625

  3. Asymmetrical motor behaviour as a window to early leg preference: a longitudinal study in infants 7-12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Atun-Einy, Osnat

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored leg preference in infancy during half-kneel pulling-to-stand (PTS) and asymmetrical four-point kneeling, which is part of the typical motor repertoire of infants. The special characteristics of the half-kneel PTS as a discrete task, performed in a bilateral context provide the opportunity to explore leg preference during an asymmetrical behaviour. Twenty-seven infants were observed in their homes, every 3 weeks between the ages of 7-12 months. Leg preference was determined by the "lead-out" limb used as the infants pulled to stand from the half-kneeling position (half-kneel PTS). As a complementary measure, the leading leg during asymmetrical four-point kneeling and crawling ("asymmetrical four-point patterns") was used in the 10 infants who developed these patterns. The infants studied showed a general preference for using a leading leg during half-kneel PTS, which was mostly consistent over the study period. A strong correlation was found between leg preferences during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns. The findings documented functional asymmetry in infant lower limbs during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns, highlighting the importance of the tasks used to define leg preference. PMID:26469885

  4. Dietary Intake and Anthropometric Status Differ for Anaemic and Non-anaemic Rural South African Infants Aged 6–12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Mieke

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine anthropometric measurements, sociodemographic data, and dietary intake of 238 anaemic and 241 non-anaemic rural South African infants aged 6–12 months. Logistic regression with anaemia as a dependent variable showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–3.52) for low birth-weight, 2.04 (CI 1.29–3.22) for maternal age 20 years or younger, 2.21 (CI 1.29–3.76) for consumption of tea, and 0.40 (CI 0.26–0.63) for formula feeding. The anaemic infants, aged 6−<9 months, had a lower average weight gain per month than the non-anaemic infants (727 g vs 772 g; p=0.040, analysis of variance). Logistic regression with underweight as a dependent variable showed an OR of 3.55 (CI 1.26–10.01) for anaemia, and with stunting as a dependent variable, the OR was 2.71 (CI 1.46–5.02). Low birth-weight, a young mother aged 20 years or younger, and consumption of tea were identified as risk factors for anaemia, while formula feeding was shown to have a protective effect. The anaemic infants were more likely to show growth faltering. PMID:18330061

  5. Immunogenicity of reduced dose priming schedules of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine followed by booster at 12 months in infants: open label randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Ameneh; McKenna, Jennifer; Campbell, Danielle; Attard-Montalto, Simon; Birks, Jacqueline; Voysey, Merryn; White, Catherine; Finn, Adam; Macloed, Emma; Faust, Saul N; Kent, Alison Louise; Heath, Paul T; Borrow, Ray; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the immunogenicity of a single dose infant priming schedule of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine is non-inferior to a two dose priming schedule when followed by a booster dose at age 12 months. Design Phase IV open label randomised controlled trial carried out from July 2010 until August 2013 Setting Four centres in the United Kingdom and one centre in Malta. Participants Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks followed up until age 24 months. Interventions In the priming phase of the trial 509 infants were randomised in a 10:10:7:4 ratio into four groups to receive either a single MenC-cross reacting material 197 (CRM) dose at 3 months; two doses of MenC-CRM at 3 and 4 months; a single MenC-polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) dose at 3 months; or no MenC doses, respectively. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC-TT vaccine was administered to all infants at 12 months of age. All infants also received the nationally routinely recommended vaccines. Blood samples were taken at age 5, 12, 13, and 24 months. Main outcome measure MenC serum bactericidal antibody assay with rabbit complement (rSBA) one month after the Hib-MenC-TT vaccine. Non-inferiority was met if the lower 95% confidence limit of the difference in the mean log10 MenC rSBA between the single dose MenC-CRM and the two dose MenC-CRM groups was >−0.35. Results The primary objective was met: after a Hib-MenC-TT booster dose at 12 months of age the MenC rSBA geometric mean titres induced in infants primed with a single MenC-CRM dose were not inferior to those induced in participants primed with two MenC-CRM doses in infancy (660 (95% confidence interval 498 to 876) v 295 (220 to 398)) with a corresponding difference in the mean log10 MenC rSBA of 0.35 (0.17 to 0.53) that showed superiority of the single over the two dose schedule). Exploration of differences between the priming schedules showed that one month after Hib-MenC-TT vaccination, MenC rSBA ≥1:8 was

  6. Coping and Parenting: Mediators of 12-Month Outcomes of a Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention with Families of Depressed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Fear, Jessica; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Keller, Gary; Rakow, Aaron; Garai, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized clinical trial with 111 families of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (86% mothers; 86% Caucasian), changes in adolescents’ (mean age 11 years; 42% female) coping and parents’ parenting skills were examined as mediators of the effects of a family group cognitive behavioral preventive intervention on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Changes in hypothesized mediators were assessed at 6-months and changes in adolescents’ symptoms were measured at 12-month follow-up. Significant differences favoring the family intervention as compared with a written information comparison condition were found for changes in composite measures of parent-adolescent reports of adolescents’ use of secondary control coping skills and direct observations of parents’ positive parenting skills. Changes in adolescents’ secondary control coping and positive parenting mediated the effects of the intervention on depressive, internalizing and externalizing symptoms accounting for approximately half of the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. Further, reciprocal relations between children’s internalizing symptoms and parenting were found from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Implications for the prevention of psychopathology in offspring of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:20873898

  7. One-year sustained glycaemic control and less hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes using basal plus meal-time insulin: the EDITION 1 12-month randomized trial, including 6-month extension

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, M C; Yki-Järvinen, H; Bolli, G B; Ziemen, M; Muehlen-Bartmer, I; Cissokho, S; Home, P D

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the maintenance of efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) versus glargine 100 U/ml (Gla-100) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using basal plus meal-time insulin for 12 months in the EDITION 1 trial. Methods EDITION 1 was a multicentre, randomized, open-label, two-arm, phase IIIa study. Participants completing the initial 6-month treatment period continued to receive Gla-300 or Gla-100, as previously randomized, once daily for a further 6-month open-label extension phase. Changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose concentrations, insulin dose, hypoglycaemic events and body weight were assessed. Results Of 807 participants enrolled in the initial phase, 89% (359/404) assigned to Gla-300 and 88% (355/403) assigned to Gla-100 completed 12 months. Glycaemic control was sustained in both groups (mean HbA1c: Gla-300, 7.24%; Gla-100, 7.42%), with more sustained HbA1c reduction for Gla-300 at 12 months: least squares mean difference Gla-300 vs Gla-100: HbA1c −0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.30 to −0.05]%. The mean daily basal insulin dose at 12 months was 1.03 U/kg for Gla-300 and 0.90 U/kg for Gla-100. Lower percentages of participants had ≥1 confirmed [≤3.9 mmol/l (≤70 mg/dl)] or severe hypoglycaemic event with Gla-300 than Gla-100 at any time of day [24 h; 86 vs 92%; relative risk 0.94 (95% CI 0.89–0.99)] and during the night [54 vs 65%; relative risk 0.84 (95% CI 0.75–0.94)], while the annualized rates of such hypoglycaemic events were similar. No between-treatment differences in adverse events were apparent. Conclusion During 12 months of treatment of T2DM requiring basal and meal-time insulin, glycaemic control was better sustained and fewer individuals reported hypoglycaemia with Gla-300 than with Gla-100. The mean basal insulin dose was higher with Gla-300 compared with Gla-100, but total numbers of hypoglycaemic events and overall tolerability did not differ between

  8. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors. PMID:26320916

  9. Rates and Determinants of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Zoe R.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Hawes, Stephen; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Stern, Michael E.; O’Reilly, Sandra; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Xi, Long Fu; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about rates and determinants of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, an infection that is etiologically linked with oropharyngeal cancers. Methods A cohort of male university students (18–24 years of age) was examined every 4 months (212 men; 704 visits). Oral specimens were collected via gargle/rinse and swabbing of the oropharynx. Genotyping for HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and 36 other alpha-genus types was performed by PCR-based assay. Data on potential determinants was gathered via clinical examination, in-person questionnaire, and biweekly online diary. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to measure associations with incident infection. Results Prevalence of oral HPV infection at enrollment was 7.5% and 12-month cumulative incidence was 12.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0, 21.3). Prevalence of oral HPV-16 was 2.8% and 12-month cumulative incidence was 0.8% (CI: 0.1, 5.7). 28.6% of prevalent and none of incident oral HPV infections were detected more than once. In a multivariate model, incident oral HPV infection was associated with recent frequency of performing oral sex (≥1 per week: HR=3.7; CI: 1.4, 9.8), recent anal sex with men (HR=42.9; CI: 8.8, 205.5), current infection with the same HPV type in the genitals (HR=6.2; CI: 2.4, 16.4) and hyponychium (HR=11.8, CI: 4.1; 34.2). Conclusions Although nearly 20% of sexually active male university students had evidence of oral HPV infection within 12 months, most infections were transient. HPV-16 was not common. Sexual contact and autoinoculation appeared to play independent roles in the transmission of alpha-genus HPV to the oral cavity of young men. PMID:23064535

  10. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-03-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension {le}1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Lower glomerular filtration rate is associated with higher systemic vascular resistance in patients without prevalent kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vääräniemi, Kati; Koskela, Jenni; Tahvanainen, Anna; Tikkakoski, Antti; Wilenius, Matias; Kähönen, Mika; Kööbi, Tiit; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2014-10-01

    The authors examined the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine-cystatin C equation, and hemodynamics in 556 normotensive or never-treated hypertensive patients without kidney disease (mean age, 46 years). Hemodynamic variables were recorded using pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography. The mean eGFR was 98 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (range, 64-145 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and one third of the patients had values below 92, while none had proteinuria. In linear regression analyses adjusted for differences in age, weight:height ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and sex, significant associations were found between lower eGFR and higher systolic (P=.001) and diastolic blood pressure (P<.001) and higher systemic vascular resistance (P=.001). There was no association between eGFR and cardiac output or extracellular volume. In the absence of clinical kidney disease, lower eGFR was associated with higher blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. Therefore, early impairment in kidney function may be involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. PMID:25228202

  12. Conditional Release of Forensic Psychiatric Patients Consistent with or Contrary to Behavioral Experts' Recommendations in the Netherlands: Prevalence Rates, Patient Characteristics and Recidivism After Discharge from Conditional Release.

    PubMed

    Nagtegaal, Maria H; Boonmann, Cyril

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined a group of 447 Dutch forensic psychiatric patients on conditional release (CR). After a brief overview of the Dutch CR system for forensic psychiatric patients is presented, two sets of factors were studied: factors associated with behavioral experts' recommendations on CR readiness (prevalence rates of recommendations in contrast to or consistent with the judge's decision on CR, written vs. oral recommendations and consensus among parties); and characteristics of forensic psychiatric patients on CR imposed consistent with or contrary to behavioral experts' recommendations (i.e., demographic variables, psychopathology, judicial background and outcomes of violent behavior). Patients on CR consistent with or contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations did not differ in demographic background variables and psychopathology. Patients on CR contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations, however, had more prior convictions, and their index offense more often included a sex offense and a property offense (with or without violence) as compared to patients on CR consistent with the behavioral experts' recommendations. In addition, decisions contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations were more often reached after a 3-month continuation adjournment and after an appeal. Also, patients on CR contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations were less often found to have been on trial leave before their CR. Finally, recidivism rates were found to be much higher for those on CR contrary to, as compared with those on CR consistent with the behavioral experts' recommendations. However, when corrected for other well-known static predictors of recidivism, this significant difference was no longer prevalent. The implications for evaluators' CR readiness reports and lessons that may be learned from the Dutch forensic psychiatric CR system are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27256002

  13. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status. PMID:25166945

  14. Controlling Your Utility Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucht, Ray; Dembowski, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    A cost-effective alternative to high utility bills for middle-sized and smaller utility users is the service of utility rate consultants. The consultants analyze utility invoices for the previous 12 months to locate available refunds or credits. (MLF)

  15. Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Combined Phaco-ExPress and Phacotrabeculectomy in Open Angle Glaucoma Treatment: 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Konopińska, Joanna; Deniziak, Marta; Saeed, Emil; Bartczak, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Renata; Mariak, Zofia; Rękas, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. To compare the efficacy and safety of phacotrabeculectomy (P-Trab) and phacoemulsification with the ExPress (P-ExPress) mini glaucoma shunt implantation. Study Plan. Prospective randomized study. Material and Methods. 85 eyes with cataract and unregulated open angle glaucoma. There were 46 eyes in the P-ExPress and 39 the P-Trab group. Intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma medications, qualified and complete surgical success (defined as IOP ≤ 18.0 mmHg), visual acuity (CDVA), the number of endothelial cells, and postoperative complications and additional procedures were assessed. Results. After 12 months of observation, the average IOP in the P-Express group went from 26.4 ± 9.3 down to 17.1 ± 5 mmHg (P < 0.05) and from 27.9 ± 12.9 down to 15.9 ± 2.7 mmHg in the P-Trab group (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the amount of medications used after surgery and CDVA were discovered between the groups. In the P-ExPress group, greater loss of endothelial cells was noted (CDloss%), compared to the P-Trab group. Conclusions. Both P-ExPress and P-Trab have comparable efficacy and similar early postoperative complication profile. The presence of additional implant (as is the case of the ExPress mini glaucoma shunt implantation) may cause progressive loss of endothelial cells. PMID:26137318

  16. Initial Weight Loss after Restrictive Bariatric Procedures May Predict Mid-Term Weight Maintenance: Results From a 12-Month Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, Marko; Kirigin, Lora; Mirošević, Gorana; Ljubičić, Neven; Nikolić, Borka Pezo; Bekavac-Bešlin, Miroslav; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bariatric procedures are effective options for weight loss (WL) in the morbidly obese. However, some patients fail to lose any weight after bariatric surgery, and mid-term weight maintenance is variable. The aim of this study was to investigate whether initial WL could predict mid-term weight maintenance. Methods: Eighty patients were enrolled, of whom 44 were treated with the BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB), 21 with laparoscopic adjustable gastric lap-banding (LAGB), and 15 with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Percentage of body WL and percentage of excess weight loss (EWL) were calculated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Successful WL was defined as EWL >20% for patients treated with BIB and >50% for patients treated with LAGB and SG. Results: Success in the 6th and 12th month was achieved in 80% and 58% of patients in the BIB group, 33% and 40% in the LAGB group, and 60% and 73% in the LSG group. In the BIB group, WL in the 1st month correlated positively with WL at the 6th and 12th month, and an initial WL >6.5% best predicted success (sensitivity 50%, specificity 80%). A similar association was observed in the LAGB group at the 6th and 12th month and an initial WL >9.4% best predicted success (sensitivity 90.0%, specificity 81.2%). In patients treated with LSG, WL in the 3rd month correlated positively with EWL at the 6th and 12th month, with a cutoff value of 17% (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 100%). Conclusions: WL in the 1st month in patients treated with BIB and LAGB and WL in the 3rd month in patients treated with LSG could be used as a prognostic factor to predict mid-term weight maintenance. PMID:26594600

  17. Mycobacterium ulcerans Ecological Dynamics and Its Association with Freshwater Ecosystems and Aquatic Communities: Results from a 12-Month Environmental Survey in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Roche, Benjamin; Kamgang, Roger; Ossomba, Joachim; Babonneau, Jérémie; Landier, Jordi; Fontanet, Arnaud; Flahault, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) is the agent responsible for Buruli Ulcer (BU), an emerging skin disease with dramatic socioeconomic and health outcomes, especially in rural settings. BU emergence and distribution is linked to aquatic ecosystems in tropical and subtropical countries, especially to swampy and flooded areas. Aquatic animal organisms are likely to play a role either as host reservoirs or vectors of the bacilli. However, information on MU ecological dynamics, both in space and time, is dramatically lacking. As a result, the ecology of the disease agent, and consequently its mode of transmission, remains largely unknown, which jeopardizes public health attempts for its control. The objective of this study was to gain insight on MU environmental distribution and colonization of aquatic organisms through time. Methodology/Principal Findings Longitudinal sampling of 32 communities of aquatic macro-invertebrates and vertebrates was conducted from different environments in two BU endemic regions in Cameroon during 12 months. As a result, 238,496 individuals were classified and MU presence was assessed by qPCR in 3,084 sample-pools containing these aquatic organisms. Our study showed a broad distribution of MU in all ecosystems and taxonomic groups, with important regional differences in its occurrence. Colonization dynamics fluctuated along the year, with the highest peaks in August and October. The large variations observed in the colonization dynamics of different taxonomic groups and aquatic ecosystems suggest that the trends shown here are the result of complex ecological processes that need further investigation. Conclusion/Perspectives This is the largest field study on MU ecology to date, providing the first detailed description of its spatio-temporal dynamics in different aquatic ecosystems within BU endemic regions. We argue that coupling this data with fine-scale epidemiological data through statistical and mathematical models will provide a

  18. Updates on the Epidemiology and Pattern of Traumatic Maxillofacial Injuries in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital: A 12-Month Prospective Cohort In-Hospital Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Adeola Adenike; Adeleye, Amos Olufemi; Aladelusi, Timothy Olukunle; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have been undertaken in Nigeria on maxillofacial trauma. However, only a few have considered both the skeletal and soft tissue injuries (in general) involving all the aspects of the maxillofacial region or considered other etiological sources of trauma apart from road traffic crashes. Fewer still have reviewed the outcome of management of facial injuries in our low-resource environment. This study sets out to examine the recent trends in both the clinical and epidemiological patterns of all facial injuries from all causes seen in a low-resource practice of a developing country. It also assessed the in-hospital treatment outcomes, and the levels of the patients' satisfaction with treatment received in this setting. Over a 12-month period, the clinical records of consecutive patients who were evaluated and treated for maxillofacial injuries in our unit were prospectively acquired, entered into predesigned forms and subsequently analyzed. There were 259 patients (79.5% males) during the study period. The mean age was 32.21( ± 16.588) years. Overall, motor bike crashes, 42.1%, were the commonest source of these traumas; and armed robbery was the commonest form (69.0%) of assault. Mandibular fractures were the commonest maxillofacial fractures (37.8%) whereas head injury had the highest frequency among the associated injuries (71.4%). Closed reduction and immobilization was deployed in 88.0% of those who had treatment and majority was satisfied with the esthetic outcome of the treatment received. Mean length of hospital stay was 12.6 ( ± 4.423) days. Maxillofacial trauma poses a significant socioeconomic burden on affected individuals in this study population. This is made worse by the presence of associated injuries in the other body systems. More local studies on the outcome of management of maxillofacial trauma will improve the available literature in this region. PMID:25709753

  19. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  20. Outcomes of a 12-Month Technology-Based Intervention to Promote Weight Loss in Adolescents at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Kevin; Norman, Gregory J.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Calfas, Karen J.; Raab, Fred; Gottschalk, Michael; Sallis, James F.; Godbole, Suni; Covin, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obese adolescents are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity interventions delivered through media, such as the web and text messages [short message service (SMS)] may be beneficial when targeting obese adolescents. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, Pace-Internet for Diabetes Prevention Intervention (PACEi-DP), compared three forms of an obesity intervention to usual care (UC): (a) website only (W); (b) website, monthly group sessions, and follow-up calls (WG); and (c) website and SMS (WSMS). Participants were overweight or obese adolescents at risk for T2DM (n = 101; age 12–16 years; mean body mass index (BMI) percentile = 97.6; 74.3% Hispanic). In addition to the website, WSMS participants received SMS supporting intervention goals and behavioral strategies and communicated via SMS with a case manager. WG participants had additional group activities related to weight loss and received follow-up calls from a health coach. UC participants were given printed materials and encouraged to attend three initial group sessions. Repeated measures mixed model regression analyses tested treatment effects for anthropometric, behavioral, and behavioral change strategy outcomes. Results: There were no treatment effects for BMI, adiposity, physical activity, or diet at 12 months. Treatment effects were observed for sedentary behavior, with the W arm having a greater decrease in sedentary behavior (4.9 to 2.8 h/day) than the UC arm (p =.006). Conclusion: Although not sufficient to produce weight loss, the combination of web intervention and group sessions with telephone follow-up yielded improvements in sedentary behavior and in the use of behavior change strategies expected to lead to behavior change. PMID:23759410

  1. Predictors of Change in Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Population in Hawaii at 6 and 12 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Joy C.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Liu, Min; Banna, Jinan C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting behaviors have been shown to co-exist, but it is unknown if decisional balance with regards to one health behavior may predict change in another behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between benefits (pros) and costs (cons) of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) and behavior over time, both within behaviors and transbehaviorally. This longitudinal study was conducted in multiethnic adults in Hawaii (n = 700; 63% female; mean age = 47 years; mean BMI = 25.9; mean education = 14.5 years, average household income = $45,000/year). Questionnaires assessed PA and FV pros/cons on a 5-point Likert Scale, PA (MET-min/wk), and FV intake (servings/day). Multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between pros/cons for PA and FV intake and behavior at 6- and 12-month follow-up. At baseline, average FV pros were 4.08 (.91), and average FV cons were 1.88 (.90). Average baseline PA pros were 4.07 (.89), and average PA cons were 1.71 (.77). Multiple regressions revealed that baseline FV pros and cons predicted FV intake, FV cons also predicted PA, and PA pros and cons were not predictive of PA or of FV intake. Study findings provide some support for decisional balance as a useful core construct used in leading theories of behavior change. Improving decisional balance for FV intake may have a beneficial effect on FV intake and potentially PA, indicating a potential gateway effect of decisional balance for FV intake on other behaviors.

  2. Effects of a 12-month moderate weight loss intervention on insulin sensitivity and inflammation status in nondiabetic overweight and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ho, T P; Zhao, X; Courville, A B; Linderman, J D; Smith, S; Sebring, N; Della Valle, D M; Fitzpatrick, B; Simchowitz, L; Celi, F S

    2015-04-01

    Weight loss intervention is the principal non-pharmacological method for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, little is known whether it influences insulin sensitivity directly or via its anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of changes in inflammation status and weight loss on insulin sensitivity in this population.Overweight and obese nondiabetic participants without co-morbidities underwent a one-year weight loss intervention focused on caloric restriction and behavioral support. Markers of inflammation, body composition, anthropometric para-meters, and insulin sensitivity were recorded at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and Minimal Model. Twenty-eight participants (F: 15, M: 13, age 39±5 years, BMI 33.2±4.6 kg/m(2)) completed the study, achieving 9.4±6.9% weight loss, which was predominantly fat mass (7.7±5.6 kg, p<0.0001). Dietary intervention resulted in significant decrease in leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, hs-CRP, and IL-6 (all p<0.02), and improvement in HOMA-IR and Insulin Sensitivity Index (SI) (both p<0.001). In response to weight loss IL-1β, IL-2, leptin, and resistin were significantly associated with insulin, sensitivity, whereas sICAM-1 had only marginal additive effect. Moderate weight loss in otherwise healthy overweight and obese individuals resulted in an improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the overall inflammation state; the latter played only a minimal independent role in modulating insulin sensitivity. PMID:24977656

  3. First report of asthma prevalence in Afghanistan using international standardized methods.

    PubMed

    Bemanin, M H; Fallahpour, M; Arshi, S; Nabavi, M; Yousofi, T; Shariatifar, A

    2015-03-01

    No data on the prevalence of asthma in Afghanistan have been published before. In a school-based survey in 2010-2011 the wheezing section of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was completed by a random sample of 1500 children aged 6-7 years and 1500 adolescents aged 13-14 years old. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 12.5% in 6-7-year-olds and 17.3% in 13-14-year-olds (P = 0.002). The prevalence of wheeze in the last 12 months was similar in children and adolescents (19.2% and 21.7% respectively). The prevalence of ever wheezing, night attacks, speech-limiting wheeze and exercise-induced wheeze was 23.1%, 4.8%, 12.2% and 9.6% respectively in children and 30.5%, 4.4%, 13.0% and 13.6% respectively in adolescents. These rates are higher than those in neighbouring countries. This first epidemiological survey of asthma in Afghanistan shows that asthma and wheezing are common in Kabul students. PMID:26074219

  4. Prevalence and determinants of workplace violence of health care workers in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Kung, Shou-Mei; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-01-01

    Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an important concern in occupational health. This study determined the prevalence of workplace violence and its risk factors for employees at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. A questionnaire developed by ILO/ICN/WHO/PSI was first translated and validated. It was then used to survey the prevalence of workplace violence in the last 12 months experienced by all nursing aides, nurses, and clerks at the hospital. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to discover the determinants of violence. A total of 222 out of 231 surveyed workers completed a valid questionnaire. The one-year prevalence rates of physical violence (PV), verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 35.1, 50.9, 15.8, 9.5, and 4.5%, respectively. The prevalence of PV at this hospital was higher than that reported by other countries for the health sector. A high anxiety level was associated with the occurrence of PV. These results need to be corroborated by future investigation. A training program may be required for high risk groups to reduce workplace violence. PMID:18408350

  5. Tic disorders: administrative prevalence and co-occurrence with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    Schlander, M; Schwarz, O; Rothenberger, A; Roessner, V

    2011-09-01

    Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7-12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13-18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care. PMID:20427154

  6. A meta-analysis of child physical abuse prevalence in China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kai; Finkelhor, David

    2015-05-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of child physical abuse in China, compared Chinese prevalence with international and Asian estimates, and ascertained whether some differences in sample characteristics and methodological factors (e.g., time prevalence, definitional or regional difference) help explain variations in Chinese rates. Based on a meta-analysis of 47 studies found in English- and Chinese-language peer-reviewed journals that involved general populations of students or residents reporting child physical abuse prior to age 18, the life time prevalence of any child physical abuse in China was estimated at 36.6% (95% CI: 30.4-42.7), which was significantly higher than either the international or the Asian estimate in Stoltenborgh et al.'s (2013) study. Chinese prevalence was estimated at 43.1% (95% CI: 36.6-52.5) for minor physical abuse, 26.6% (95% CI: 21.4-31.8) for severe physical abuse, and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0-10.5) for very severe physical abuse. Subgroup analysis found a significant difference between lifetime and 12-month or less prevalence only for minor physical abuse. The prevalence of any and minor child physical abuse in mainland China was significantly higher than that in non-mainland China. The mainland and non-mainland difference was significant even controlling for definitional and methodological factors as well as sample characteristics. The findings suggested the need to develop educational programs to promote non-violent parenting particularly in mainland China. PMID:25498804

  7. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in young dogs using a combination of two diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Alves, João; Santos, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, prevalence of the protozoan parasites from the genus Giardia spp, with zoonotic potential and worldwide dissemination, was accessed in young dogs, which are reported as having higher prevalence rates. With that purpose, 49 animals from the Grupo de Intervenção Cinotécnico of the Guarda Nacional Republicana (Portuguese Gendarmerie Canine Unit) were chosen. They were housed individually in areas with a high number of kennels (up to 100), with ages ragging from newborns to 10 years old. Dogs were divided in four groups, according their age: under 6 months (n = 16), 6-12 months (n = 6), 12-18 months (n = 13) and 18-24 months (n = 14), comprising 22 females and 27 males. Fecal samples were collected from every animal and all were submitted to two different diagnostic tests, a passive flotation technique with a ZnSO4 solution and a detection of fecal antigen using a commercially available ELISA test (Witness® Giardia - Zoetis). From the 49 samples, 5 (10.2%) were considered positive with ZnSO4 flotation technique and 6 (12.24%) with the Witness® Giardia test. When considering the combination of both tests, 5 animals (10.2%) were considered positive. Of these, 3 (60%) were from the group under 6 months old, 1 (20%) from the 6-12 months and 1 from the 18-24 (20%) months. Within each group, in the under 6 months group 18.75% (n = 16) were considered positive, 16.67% in the 6-12 month group (n = 6), 0% in the 12-18 month group (n=13) and 7.14% in 18-24 month group (n = 14). None of the animals had clinical signs and no significant differences were found when comparing prevalence according to age, breed or gender. A combination of fecal flotation and antigen ELISA tests have good sensitivity and are easy to perform in practice and, therefore, could be a good choice to perform a diagnostic and small animal veterinarians should have this possible diagnostic in mind when in the present of clinical signs, particularly in young dogs. PMID:27078649

  8. Soluble Aβ levels correlate with cognitive deficits in the 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Zhuo; Lei, Gesheng; Su, Changjun; Miao, Jianting; Li, Zhuyi

    2011-09-23

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) is believed to be central in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterized by cognitive deficits. However, it remains uncertain which form(s) of Aβ pathology is responsible for the cognitive deficits in AD. In the present study, the cognitive deficits and the profiles of Aβ pathology were characterized in the 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice, and their correlations were examined. Compared with non-transgenic littermates, the middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the water maze test and long-term contextual memory deficits in the step-down passive avoidance test. Among the middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were highly correlated with spatial learning deficits and long-term contextual memory deficits, as well as cortical and hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were strongly correlated with spatial memory deficits. By contrast, no significant correlations were observed between three measures of cognitive functions and amyloid plaque burden (total Aβ plaque load and fibrillar Aβ plaque load), total Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42), as well as insoluble Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels as independent factors for predicting the spatial learning deficits and the long-term contextual memory deficits, as well as hippocampal and cortical soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels as independent factors for predicting the spatial memory deficits in transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that cognitive deficits are highly related to the levels of soluble Aβ in middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, in which soluble Aβ levels are only a tiny fraction of the amount of total Aβ levels. Consequently, our findings provide further evidence that soluble Aβ might primarily contribute to cognitive deficits in AD, suggesting that reducing

  9. Social anxiety disorder in the Chinese military: prevalence, comorbidities, impairment, and treatment-seeking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Ruiguo; Chen, Yunchun; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong

    2014-12-30

    The objective of this work is To investigate the prevalence, comorbidities, impairment, and treatment-seeking of social anxiety disorder in the Chinese military personnel. Military personnel (n=11,527) were surveyed from May to August 2007 using a multistage whole cohort probability sampling method. A Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for assessment, and a military-related socio-demographic questionnaire was used to describe the prevalence distribution. A unified survey was performed to investigate 11 different social situations. The short-form health survey was used to assess role impairment. The 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder were 3.34% (95% CI: 3.25-3.42%) and 6.22% (95% CI: 6.11-6.32%), respectively. Social anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of depression, substance abuse, panic attacks/disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Childhood foster, female, stressful life events, younger age, and being divorced/widowed increase the incidence of social anxiety disorder. Treatment-seeking was relatively rare. Social anxiety disorder is a common disorder in military personnel in China, and it is a risk factor for subsequent depressive illness, substance abuse and other mental disorder. Early detection and treatment of social anxiety disorder are important because of the low rate of treatment-seeking. PMID:25262639

  10. Lifetime Prevalence Rates and Overlap of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Dating Abuse Perpetration and Victimization in a National Sample of Youth.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Espelage, Dorothy L; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Boyd, Danah

    2016-07-01

    National, epidemiological data that provide lifetime rates of psychological, physical, and sexual adolescent data abuse (ADA) perpetration and victimization within the same sample of youth are lacking. To address this gap, data from 1058 randomly selected U.S. youth, 14-21 years old, surveyed online in 2011 and/or 2012, were weighted to be nationally representative and analyzed. In addition to reporting prevalence rates, we also examined the overlap of the six types of ADA queried. Results suggested that ADA was commonly reported by both male and female youth. Half (51 %) of female youth and 43 % of male youth reported victimization of at least one of the three types of ADA. Half (50 %) of female youth and 35 % of male youth reported at least one type of ADA perpetration. More male youth reported sexual ADA perpetration than female youth. More female youth reported perpetration of psychological and physical ADA and more reported psychological victimization than male youth. Rates were similar across race and ethnicity, but increased with age. This increase may have been because older youth spent longer time in relationships than younger youth, or perhaps because older youth were developmentally more likely than younger youth to be in abusive relationships. Many youth reported being both perpetrators and victims and/or involved in multiple forms of ADA across their dating history. Together, these findings suggested that interventions should acknowledge that youth may play multiple roles in abusive dyads. Understanding the overlap among ADA within the same as well as across multiple relationships will be invaluable to future interventions aiming to disrupt and prevent ADA. PMID:27098763

  11. Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2007, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2006-07, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2008-159

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    This First Look report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2007 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2007-08 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2007, and 12-Month Enrollment covering academic year…

  12. Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in the United States: Fall 2009, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2008-09, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2009 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2009-10 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009, and 12-Month Enrollment covering academic year…

  13. Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in the United States: 2010-11, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2009-10, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2009-10. First Look. NCES 2011-250

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2010 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2010-11 academic year; Completions, covering the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010; and 12-Month Enrollment, covering 2009-10. This…

  14. Perceptions of Community HIV/ STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B.

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community’s HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/ STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women’s HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/ STI risk driven by structural factors. PMID:26320916

  15. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survey on Prevalence Rate among Male Subjects in Elementary School (7 to 9 Years Old) in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talaei, Ali; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Abdollahian, Ebrahim; Bordbar, Mohammad Reza Fayyazi; Salari, Elham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been a few studies on the prevalence of ADHD in Iran, assessment of its prevalence seems to have a great impact on the physicians approach toward its diagnosis and management. Method: This study listed all the schools in Mashhad and chose 12, including 24 classes and 714 students by stratified cluster sampling. A…

  16. Convergence of Prevalence Rates of Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Middle and Low Income Groups in Urban India: 10-Year Follow-Up of the Chennai Urban Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Manjula, Datta; Venkat Narayan, KM; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to look for temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in two residential colonies in Chennai. Methods Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) was carried out between 1996–1998 in Chennai in two residential colonies representing the middle income group (MIG) and lower income group (LIG), respectively. The MIG had twice the prevalence rate of diabetes as the LIG and higher prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. They were motivated to increase their physical activity, which led to the building of a park. The LIG was given standard lifestyle advice. Follow-up surveys of both colonies were performed after a period of 10 years. Results In the MIG, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 12.4 to 15.4% (24% increase), while in the LIG, it increased from 6.5 to 15.3% (135% increase, p < .001). In the LIG, the prevalence rates of central obesity (baseline vs follow-up, male: 30.8 vs 50.9%, p < .001; female: 16.9 vs 49.8%, p < .001), hypertension (8.4 vs 20.1%, p < .001), hypercholesterolemia (14.2 vs. 20.4%, p < .05), and hypertriglyceridemia (8.0 vs 23.5%, p < .001) significantly increased and became similar to that seen in the MIG. Conclusion There is a rapid reversal of socioeconomic gradient for diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in urban India with a convergence of prevalence rates among people in the MIG and LIG. This could have a serious economic impact on poor people in developing countries such as India. PMID:21880235

  17. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...]. PMID:27376318

  18. Diagnosed Prevalence and Health Care Expenditures of Mental Health Disorders among Dual Eligible Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Terry Y.; Parashuram, Shriram; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Wysocki, Andrea; Shippee, Nathan D.; Homyak, Patricia; Kane, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about mental health disorders (MHDs) and their associated health care expenditures for the dual eligible elders across long-term care (LTC) settings. We estimated the 12-month diagnosed prevalence of MHDs among dual eligible older adults in LTC and non-LTC settings and calculated the average incremental effect of MHDs on…

  19. Prevalence and Severity of College Student Bereavement Examined in a Randomly Selected Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.; Walker, Andrea C.; Baker, Ardith

    2010-01-01

    The authors used stratified random sampling to assess the prevalence and severity of bereavement in college undergraduates, providing an advance over findings that emerge from convenience sampling methods or from anecdotal observations. Prior research using convenience sampling indicated that 22% to 30% of college students are within 12 months of…

  20. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  1. PTSD Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Custody in Australia: Prevalence and Correlates.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Edward; Andersen, Kimina; Davidson, Fiona; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-12-01

    Mental disorder and trauma experiences are highly prevalent among individuals in custody; however, the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on functioning is rarely considered. Indigenous Australians are incarcerated at 13 times the rate of nonindigenous Australians and report high levels of trauma exposure and psychological distress. In analysis of the largest systematic study of mental disorder among indigenous Australians in custody (N = 396), we found that the 12-month prevalence of PTSD was high in both men (12.1%) and women (32.3%). Having PTSD was also associated with high rates of co-occurring mental disorders (anxiety 31.2%, depression 32.8%, psychosis 24.6%, and substance use, 75.4%), lifetime suicidal ideation (50.1%), and suicide attempts (34.4%). Individuals with PTSD, compared to those without, were more likely to experience other mental disorders, OR = 2.42, 95% CI [1.12, 5.80], p = .022; lifetime suicide thoughts, OR = 2.43, 95% CI [1.34, 4.39], p = .001, and attempts, OR = 2.56, 95% CI [1.33, 4.83], p = .002; and high rates of intoxication at the time of arrest. Despite this, most (58.9%) had not accessed any form of mental health care prior to incarceration. These findings highlight the need to identify and manage PTSD in community and custodial populations. PMID:26584243

  2. Prevalence and Immunization Status of Hepatitis B Virus in the HIV Cohort in Fife, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Hakeem, Lukman; Thomson, Grace; McCleary, Eleanor; Bhattacharyya, Diptendu; Banerjee, Indranil

    2010-01-01

    Background Routes of transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HIV infections are similar and there is a significant rate of co-infection in patients. A study was recently carried out in NHS Fife, Scotland from February 2007 - February 2008 to estimate the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection, occult HBV infection and immunisation status against HBV in a cohort of patients with HIV attending the departments of infectious diseases and genitourinary medicine. Methods Case notes were reviewed retrospectively (n = 70). Details on patient demographics, risk category, nadir/current CD4 count, HIV viral load and vaccination history were analysed. HBV markers (HBsAg/anti-HBs/anti-HBc/HBV DNA) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were tested prospectively if these tests had not been carried out in the previous 12 months. Results and Conclusion Prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection was 5.6% of which 2.8% of patients had occult infection and 22.9% had evidence of previous exposure. Although HBV is preventable by vaccination, only 24.2% of patients had been vaccinated against it. Improvements could therefore be made in the field of prevention with vaccination and monitoring the immune response in this cohort. Keywords Prevalence; Immunization status; Hepatitis B Virus; HIV PMID:22457699

  3. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Hooff, Miranda Van; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Davies, Christopher E.; Searle, Amelia K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Verhagen, Alan; Benassi, Helen; Hodson, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. Objective The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods, and identify specific occupational factors that influence mental health. This paper describes the design, sampling strategies, and methodology used in this study. Method At Phase 1, approximately half of all regular Navy, Army, and Air Force personnel (n=24,481) completed self-report questionnaires. At Phase 2, a stratified sub-sample (n=1,798) completed a structured diagnostic interview to detect mental disorder. Based on data from non-responders, data were weighted to represent the entire ADF population (n=50,049). Results One in five ADF members met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder (22%). The most common disorder category was anxiety disorders (14.8%), followed by affective (9.5%) and alcohol disorders (5.2%). At risk ADF sub-groups were Army personnel, and those in the lower ranks. Deployment status did not have an impact on mental disorder rates. Conclusion This study has important implications for mental health service delivery for Australian and international military personnel as well as contemporary veterans. PMID:25206944

  4. Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Honda, Rio; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko; Asada, Yousuke; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX) cefamezin (CEZ), gentamicin (GM) and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2%) had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002) and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005). Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%), followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%), blepharitis (50.0%), dacryoadenitis (45.5%), conjunctivitis (38.2%), infectious corneal ulcer (28.5%) and endophthalmitis (24.7%). LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%), and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin-resistant strains. Conclusion Attention should be paid to a possible future increase of strains with resistance to LVFX, as commonly prescribed ocular antibiotics bring emergence of resistant bacteria. Although no vancomycin-resistant strains were isolated this drug should be reserved as

  5. 39 CFR 3010.11 - Limit on size of rate increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in any 12-month period are limited. (b) Rates of general applicability are subject to an inflation-based limitation computed using CPI-U values as detailed in § 3010.12. (c) An exception to the inflation... authority is measured separately for each class of mail. (d) In any 12-month period the...

  6. 39 CFR 3010.11 - Limit on size of rate increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in any 12-month period are limited. (b) Rates of general applicability are subject to an inflation-based limitation computed using CPI-U values as detailed in § 3010.12. (c) An exception to the inflation... authority is measured separately for each class of mail. (d) In any 12-month period the...

  7. 39 CFR 3010.11 - Limit on size of rate increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in any 12-month period are limited. (b) Rates of general applicability are subject to an inflation-based limitation computed using CPI-U values as detailed in § 3010.12. (c) An exception to the inflation... authority is measured separately for each class of mail. (d) In any 12-month period the...

  8. 39 CFR 3010.11 - Limit on size of rate increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in any 12-month period are limited. (b) Rates of general applicability are subject to an inflation-based limitation computed using CPI-U values as detailed in § 3010.12. (c) An exception to the inflation... authority is measured separately for each class of mail. (d) In any 12-month period the...

  9. Prevalence of Enuresis and its Association with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among U.S. Children: Results from a Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreeram, Srirangam; He, Jiang-Ping; Kalaydjian, Amanda; Brothers, Shannon; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2009-01-01

    Data from a national health survey is used to describe the prevalence, demographic correlates, and commorbidities of enuresis in a sample of U.S. children. The 12-month prevalence of enuresis is 4.45 percent and boys have this condition significantly more than girls. A strong association between enuresis and attention deficit hyperactivity…

  10. Twelve-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and treatment-seeking among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Okuda, Mayumi; Hser, Yih-Ing; Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To compare the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in contrast to non–Hispanic whites; and further compare persistence and treatment-seeking rates for psychiatric disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and non-Hispanic whites, analyses from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 1 (n =43,093) were conducted for the subsample of 1,332 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (596 men and 736 women) and 24,507 non-Hispanic whites (10,845 men and 13,662 women). The past 12-month prevalence for any psychiatric disorder was significantly lower in Asian American/Pacific Islander males and females than non-Hispanic white males and females. Asian American/Pacific Islander males were less likely than non-Hispanic white males to have any mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, whereas the prevalence of mood disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islander females did not differ from those of non-Hispanic white females. In some cases, such as drug use disorders, both male and female Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders were more likely to have more persistent disorders than non-Hispanic whites. Compared to non-Hispanic white females, Asian American/Pacific Islander females had lower rates of treatment-seeking for any mood/anxiety disorders. Although less prevalent than among non-Hispanic whites, psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. The lower treatment seeking rates for mood/anxiety disorders in Asian American/Pacific Islander females underscore the unmet needs for psychiatric service among this population. PMID:21238989

  11. Comparison of the health-related quality of life, CD4 count and viral load of AIDS patients and people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, Jude; Stewart, Aimee; Holzemer, William

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the level of CD4 count, viral load and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between treatment-naïve AIDS patients and a cohort of people living with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. This study is based on a secondary data analysis of the records of 642 people with HIV consisting of 311 treatment-naïve AIDS patients and 331 people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. The study findings are mostly presented in tables and analysed using the t-test to compare HRQOL scores, CD4 count and viral load in the two groups. The study generally noted poor financial capacity and low activity tolerance among the participants. Significant changes were noted in all the domains of HRQOL compared between the treatment-naïve patients and the 12 months treatment cohort. In the same manner, the median CD4 cell count and viral load differed significantly between both groups. The treatment-naïve and the 12 months treatment cohorts consistently reported much lower quality of life scores in the level of dependence domain which includes the measures of mobility, activity of daily living, dependence on medication and work capacity. There were little or no associations between the biomedical markers (CD4 count and viral load) and HRQOL indicators. However, the quality of life tended to increase with increase in the CD4 cell count. The poor to no association between the biomedical markers and HRQOL indicators show that these cannot be direct proxies of each other and that the CD4 cell count and viral load alone may be inadequate eligibility criteria for social support. PMID:23777555

  12. A 12 month review of a modified protocol using low dose Dabigatran Etexilate in postoperative thromboembolic prophylaxis in joint replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Venous Thrombo-embolic disease is currently a hot topic especially in the UK. 25,000 patients per year die of Pulmonary Emboli (PE) in the United Kingdom (UK). Hip and knee arthroplasty surgery is associated with an increased rate of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE). The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines introduced in January 2010 recommended use of subcutaneous heparin or an oral anticoagulant (Dabigatran or Rivaroxiban) for 10-14 days post knee and 28-35 days post hip arthroplasty. In our unit we were keen on the advantages of an oral anticoagulant post arthroplasty in terms of patient compliance, and avoiding the need for self administered injection in the community. Methods We analysed all the notes, blood results and imaging of patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty and present 1 year’s data using a regime of subcutaneous Dalteparin whilst an inpatient, followed by discharge on oral Dabigatran at a low dose (150 mg once daily). Results There were 337 patients over 1 year with hip and knee arthroplasty, with a 1.19% rate of DVT with no PEs and 1 death due to an unrelated cause. There was a transfusion rate of 11.57% with 1.19% patients taken back to theatre for evacuation of haematomas. There were no reported adverse effects of Dabigatran. Conclusion Our treatment protocol is a novel practical approach for VTE prophylaxis in hip and knee replacement patients. This approach shows promising data but no definitive evidence to warrant wide-spread use of this new regime. This data can act as a foundation for larger randomised clinical trials. PMID:22916689

  13. HIV Incidence Rates and Risk Factors for Urban Women in Zambia: Preparing for a Microbicide Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kapina, Muzala; Reid, Cheri; Roman, Karisse; Cyrus-Cameron, Elena; Kwiecien, Antonia; Weiss, Stephen; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A preparedness study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of sites and populations following the same study procedures intended for a larger scale microbicide efficacy trial. In the process the study evaluated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence, prevalence, and risk profiles for HIV-acquisition among young women in urban Zambia. Methods Women aged 16 to 49 years were screened for participation in the study that involved HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing and the assessment of sexual behavioral characteristics. Two hundred thirty-nine eligible women were enrolled and followed up for 12 months. Results Baseline HIV prevalence at screening was 38.7% (95% CI: 34.2%–43.3%). The highest age-specific prevalence of HIV was 54.1% (95% CI: 46.3%–61.8%) seen in women aged 26 to 34 years. HIV incidence was 2.6% per 100 woman years. Pregnancy rates were high at 17.4 per 100 woman years (95% CI: 12.2–24.1). Conclusion It was concluded that our general population sample, characterized by high HIV prevalence and ongoing incidence rates despite receiving regular risk reduction counseling and free condoms qualifies for future microbicide studies. A microbicide preparedness study conducted in Lusaka, Zambia found high HIV prevalence and appreciable HIV incidence in a population of women in an urban setting. PMID:19174729

  14. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  15. Identifying patients with chronic conditions in need of palliative care in the general population: development of the NECPAL tool and preliminary prevalence rates in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Martínez-Muñoz, Marisa; Blay, Carles; Amblàs, Jordi; Vila, Laura; Costa, Xavier; Villanueva, Alicia; Espaulella, Joan; Espinosa, Jose; Figuerola, Montserrat; Constante, Carles

    2013-09-01

    Palliative care (PC) has focused on patients with cancer within specialist services. However, around 75% of the population in middle-income and high-income countries die of one or more chronic advanced diseases. Early identification of such patients in need of PC becomes crucial. In this feature article we describe the initial steps of the NECPAL (Necesidades Paliativas [Palliative Needs]) Programme. The focus is on development of the NECPAL tool to identify patients in need of PC; preliminary results of the NECPAL prevalence study, which assessed prevalence of advanced chronically ill patients within the population and all socio-health settings of Osona; and initial implementation of the NECPAL Programme in the region. As first measures of the Programme, we present the NECPAL tool. The main differences from the British reference tools on which NECPAL is based are highlighted. The preliminary results of the prevalence study show that 1.45% of the total population and 7.71% of the population aged over 65 are 'surprise question' positive, while 1.33% and 7.00%, respectively, are NECPAL positive, and surprise question positive with at least one additional positive parameter. More than 50% suffer from geriatric pluri-pathology conditions or dementia. The pilot phase of the Programme consists of developing sectorised policies to improve PC in three districts of Catalonia. The first steps to design and implement a Programme to improve PC for patients with chronic conditions with a public health and population-based approach are to identify these patients and to assess their prevalence in the healthcare system. PMID:24644748

  16. Change in the Prevalence of HIV-1 and the Rate of Transmitted Drug-Resistant HIV-1 in Haiphong, Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung Viet; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Saina, Matilda Chelimo; Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Tran, Vuong Thi; Bi, Xiuqiong; Pham, Thuc Van; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported a significant decrease in HIV-1 prevalence, with no increase in drug-resistant HIV-1 among injecting drug users (IDU), female sex workers (FSW), and blood donors (BD), in Haiphong, Vietnam, from 2007 to 2009. In 2012, 388 IDU, 51 FSW, and 200 BD were recruited for further analysis. None had a history of antiretroviral treatment. From 2007 to 2012, HIV-1 prevalence was reduced from 35.9% to 18.6% (p<0.001), 23.1% to 9.8% (p<0.05), and 2.9% to 1% (p=0.29) in IDU, FSW, and BD, respectively. Of 79 anti-HIV-1 antibody-positive samples, 61 were successfully analyzed for the pol-reverse transcriptase (RT) region. All HIV-1 strains were CRF01_AE. Nonnucleoside RT inhibitor-resistant mutations, Y181C/I, were detected in three subjects; one had the nucleoside RT inhibitor-resistant mutations L74V and M184V and one had E138K. The prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 in Haiphong increased slightly from 1.8% in 2007 to 6.6% in 2012 (p=0.06). PMID:25970090

  17. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach

    PubMed Central

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Nor, Norashidah Mohamed; Abdullah, Nik Mustapha Raja; Adamu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002–2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally. PMID:26573032

  18. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally. PMID:26573032

  19. Randomized, Multicenter Trial on the Effect of Radiation Therapy on Plantar Fasciitis (Painful Heel Spur) Comparing a Standard Dose With a Very Low Dose: Mature Results After 12 Months' Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Niewald, Marcus; Micke, Oliver; Graeber, Stefan; Schaefer, Vera; Scheid, Christine; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for painful heel spur, comparing a standard dose with a very low dose. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive radiation therapy either with a total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy twice weekly (standard dose) or with a total dose of 0.6 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 0.1 Gy twice weekly (low dose). In all patients lateral opposing 4- to 6-MV photon beams were used. The results were measured using a visual analogue scale, the Calcaneodynia score, and the SF12 health survey. The fundamental phase of the study ended after 3 months, and the follow-up was continued up to 1 year. Patients with insufficient pain relief after 3 months were offered reirradiation with the standard dosage at any time afterward. Results: Of 66 patients, 4 were excluded because of withdrawal of consent or screening failures. After 3 months the results in the standard arm were highly significantly superior compared with those in the low-dose arm (visual analogue scale, P=.001; Calcaneodynia score, P=.027; SF12, P=.045). The accrual of patients was stopped at this point. Further evaluation after 12 months' follow-up showed the following results: (1) highly significant fewer patients were reirradiated in the standard arm compared with the low-dose arm (P<.001); (2) the results of patients in the low-dose arm who were reirradiated were identical to those in the standard arm not reirradiated (reirradiation as a salvage therapy if the lower dose was ineffective); (3) patients experiencing a favorable result after 3 months showed this even after 12 months, and some results even improved further between 3 and 12 months. Conclusions: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy with 6-Gy doses on painful heel spur even for a longer time period of at least 1 year.

  20. Prevalence, pattern, and factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders among pluckers in a tea plantation in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Vasanth, Deepthi; Ramesh, Naveen; Fathima, Farah Naaz; Fernandez, Ria; Jennifer, Steffi; Joseph, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Context: Musculoskeletal pain is common among tea leaf pluckers and is attributed to the load they carry, long working hours, the terrain, and insufficient job rotations. As a result of this, their health and work capacity are affected. Aims: To assess the prevalence, patterns, and factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) among pluckers in a tea plantation in Annamalai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study surveyed 195 pluckers selected by simple random sampling aged between 18 years and 60 years. Materials and Methods: The interview schedule had four parts––sociodemographic detail, Standard Nordic Scale, numeric and facial pain rating tool, and a tool to assess factors associated with WRMDs. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the last 12 months and the last 7 days was 83.6% and 78.5%, respectively. The most common site for last 1 year was shoulder (59%) and for last 7 days was the lower back (52.8%). Independent t-test revealed that the mean age of those with pain was 6.59 year more and mean years of employment was 1.38 years more among the workers with pain compared to workers without pain. Increasing morbidities among workers was also significantly associated with an increase in WRMDs on Chi-square test. Conclusions: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high among tea pluckers and the most common site during the last 12 months and the last 7 days was the shoulder and lower back respectively was mild in character. Increase in age and duration of employment was associated with WRMDs. PMID:26957816

  1. Nurse-Led, Telephone-Based, Secondary Preventive Follow-Up after Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Improves Blood Pressure and LDL Cholesterol: Results from the First 12 Months of the Randomized, Controlled NAILED Stroke Risk Factor Trial

    PubMed Central

    Irewall, Anna-Lotta; Ögren, Joachim; Bergström, Lisa; Laurell, Katarina; Söderström, Lars; Mooe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Enhanced secondary preventive follow-up after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is necessary for improved adherence to recommendations regarding blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. We investigated whether nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up was more efficient than usual care at improving BP and LDL-C levels at 12 months after hospital discharge. Methods We randomized 537 patients to either nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up (intervention) or usual care (control). BP and LDL-C measurements were performed at 1 month (baseline) and 12 months post-discharge. Intervention group patients who did not meet target values at baseline received additional follow-up, including titration of medication and lifestyle counselling, to reach treatment goals (BP < 140/90 mmHg, LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L). Results At 12 months, mean systolic BP, diastolic BP and LDL-C was 3.3 (95% CI 0.3 to 6.3) mmHg, 2.3 mmHg (95% CI 0.5 to 4.2) and 0.3 mmol/L (95% CI 0.1 to 0.4) lower in the intervention group compared to controls. Among participants with values above the treatment goal at baseline, the difference in systolic BP and LDL-C was more pronounced (8.0 mmHg, 95% CI 4.0 to 12.1, and 0.6 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9). A larger proportion of the intervention group reached the treatment goal for systolic BP (68.5 vs. 56.8%, p = 0.008) and LDL-C (69.7% vs. 50.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusions Nurse-led, telephone-based secondary preventive follow-up, including medication adjustment, was significantly more efficient than usual care at improving BP and LDL-C levels by 12 months post-discharge. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN23868518 PMID:26474055

  2. Prevalence, Trajectories, and Risk Factors for Depression among Caregivers of Young Children Involved in Child Maltreatment Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Cross, Theodore P.; Ringeisen, Heather; Christ, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines depression among caregivers of young children involved in investigations of child maltreatment, in terms of 12-month prevalence of depression across 5 to 6 years. Data were from the "National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being," a national probability study of 5,501 children investigated for maltreatment. The study…

  3. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: Prevalence and Pathotype Distribution in Children from Peruvian Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Gonzalo J; Vigo, Natalia I; Durand, David; Riveros, Maribel; Arango, Sara; Zambruni, Mara; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-09-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are common pathogens of childhood gastrointestinal infections worldwide. To date, research tracking DEC has mainly been completed in urban areas. This study aims to determine the prevalence and pathotype distribution of DEC strains in children from rural Peruvian communities and to establish their association with malnutrition. In this prospective cohort, 93 children aged 6-13 months from rural communities of Urubamba (Andes) and Moyobamba (jungle) were followed for 6 months. Diarrheal and control stool samples were analyzed using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction to identify the presence of virulence genes of DEC strains. The overall isolation rate of DEC was 43.0% (352/820). Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, 20.4%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 14.2%), and diffusely aggregative E. coli (DAEC, 11.0%) were the most prevalent pathotypes. EAEC was more frequently found in Moyobamba samples (P < 0.01). EPEC was the only strain significantly more frequent in diarrheal than asymptomatic control samples (P < 0.01). DEC strains were more prevalent among younger children (aged 6-12 months, P < 0.05). A decline in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) was observed in 75.7% of children overall. EAEC was more frequently isolated among children who had a greater HAZ decline (P < 0.05). In conclusion, DEC strains were frequently found in stool samples from children in rural communities of the highlands and jungle of Peru. In addition, children with a greater decline in their growth rate had higher EAEC isolation rates, highlighting the importance of this pathogen in child malnutrition. PMID:27382080

  4. Clinical outcomes in 995 unselected real-world patients treated with an ultrathin biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent: 12-month results from the FLEX Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Pedro A; Chandwani, Prakash; Saxena, Sudheer; Ramachandran, Padma Kumar; Abhyankar, Atul; Campos, Carlos M; Marchini, Julio Flavio; Galon, Micheli Zanotti; Verma, Puneet; Sandhu, Manjinder Singh; Parikh, Nikhil; Bhupali, Ashok; Jain, Sharad; Prajapati, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate, in the FLEX Registry, clinical outcomes of an ultrathin (60 µm) biodegradable polymer-coated Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Additionally, to determine the vascular response to the Supraflex SES through optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis. Setting Multicentre, single-arm, all-comers, observational registry of patients who were treated with the Supraflex SES, between July 2013 and May 2014, at nine different centres in India. Participants 995 patients (1242 lesions) who were treated with the Supraflex SES, between July 2013 and May 2014, at nine different centres in India. A total of 47 participants underwent OCT analysis at 6 months’ follow-up. Interventions Percutaneous coronary intervention with Supraflex SES, Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary endpoint—the rate of major adverse cardiac events (defined as a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularisation (TLR))—was analysed during 12 months. Results At 12 months, the primary endpoint occurred in 36 (3.7%) of 980 patients, consisting of 18 (1.8%) cardiac deaths, 16 (1.6%) MI, 7 (0.7%) TLR and 2 (0.2%) cases of non-target lesion target vessel revascularization. In a subset of 47 patients, 1227 cross-sections (9309 struts) were analysed at 6 months by OCT. Overall, a high percentage of struts was covered (98.1%), with a mean neointimal thickness of 0.13±0.06 µm. Conclusions The FLEX Registry evaluated clinical outcomes in real-world and more complex cohorts and thus provides evidence that the Supraflex SEX can be used safely and routinely in a broader percutaneous coronary intervention population. Also, the Supraflex SES showed high percentage of stent strut coverage and good stent apposition during OCT follow-up. PMID:26888727

  5. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at...

  6. Do bisexual girls report higher rates of substance use than heterosexual girls? A failure to replicate with incarcerated and detained youth

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Michael H.; Stein, L.A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that sexual minority females, particularly bisexuals, report greater rates of substance use than heterosexuals. However, to our knowledge, no study has compared alcohol/drug use between bisexual and heterosexual incarcerated or detained female youth. The current study pools data from three prior treatment studies with incarcerated or detained adolescent girls that self-identify as bisexual or heterosexual (N=86). Hierarchical regression models were conducted to determine whether 12-month prevalence of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, or other drug use differed between bisexual and heterosexual participants. In contrast to most prior work, no differences were observed. Findings are considered in light of the recruitment setting, which drew a sample with high levels of substance use prevalence. PMID:27087787

  7. Dynamic versus Adynamic Graciloplasty in Treatment of End-Stage Fecal Incontinence: Is the Implantation of the Pacemaker Really Necessary? 12-Month Follow-Up in a Clinical, Physiological, and Functional Study

    PubMed Central

    Walega, Piotr; Romaniszyn, Michal; Siarkiewicz, Benita; Zelazny, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to compare functional results of end-stage fecal incontinence treatment with dynamic graciloplasty and adynamic graciloplasty augmented with transanal conditioning of the transposed muscle. Methods. A total of 20 patients were qualified for graciloplasty procedure due to end-stage fecal incontinence. 7 patients underwent dynamic graciloplasty (DGP), whereas 13 patients were treated with adynamic graciloplasty, with transanal stimulation in the postoperative period (AGP). Clinical, functional, and quality of life assessments were performed 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedures. Results. There were no intraoperative or early postoperative complications. The detachment of gracilis muscle tendon was observed in one patient in DGP group and two in AGP group. There was a significant improvement of Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) scores in both groups 12 months after procedure. Anorectal manometry showed improvement regarding basal and squeeze pressures in both groups, with significantly better squeeze pressures in AGP group. Conclusions. The functional effects in the DGP and AGP groups were similar. Significantly lower price of the procedure and avoidance of implant-related complication risk suggest the attractiveness of the AGP method augmented by transanal stimulation. PMID:25861261

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-IV Mental Disorders in South Korean Adults: The Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Jee Eun; Chung, In-Won; Lee, Young Moon; Bae, Ahn; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Park, Jong-Ik; Son, Jungwoo; Chang, Sung Man; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Kim, Jin Sun; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in Korean adults. Methods Door to door household surveys were conducted with community residents aged 18-74 years from July 19, 2011, to November 16, 2011 (n=6,022, response rate 78.7%). The sample was drawn from 12 catchment areas using a multistage cluster method. Each subject was assessed using the Korean version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates were as follows: alcohol use disorders, 13.4% and 4.4%, respectively; nicotine use disorders, 7.2% and 4.0%, respectively; anxiety disorders, 8.7% and 6.8%, respectively; and mood disorders, 7.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The prevalence rates of all types of DSM-IV mental disorders were 27.6% and 16.0%, respectively. Being female; young; divorced, separated, or widowed; and in a low-income group were associated with mood and anxiety disorders after adjustment for various demographic variables, whereas being male and young were associated with alcohol use disorders. Higher income was not correlated with alcohol use disorder as it had been in the 2001 survey. Conclusion The rate of depressive disorders has increased since 2001 (the first national survey), whereas that of anxiety disorders has been relatively stable. The prevalence of nicotine and alcohol use disorders has decreased, and the male-to-female ratio of those with this diagnosis has also decreased. PMID:25866515

  9. Estimating trematode prevalence in snail hosts using a single-step duplex PCR: how badly does cercarial shedding underestimate infection rates?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trematode communities often consist of different species exploiting the same host population, with two or more trematodes sometimes co-occuring in the same host. A commonly used diagnostic method to detect larval trematode infections in snails has been based on cercarial shedding, though it is often criticized as inaccurate. In the present study we compare infection prevalences determined by cercarial emission with those determined, for the first time, by molecular methods, allowing us to quantify the underestimation of single and double infections based on cercarial emission. We thus developed a duplex PCR for two host-parasite systems, to specifically differentiate between single and double infections. The Ebro samples include two morphologically similar opecoelids, whereas the Otago samples include two morphologically different larval trematodes. Methods Snails were screened for infections by incubating them individually to induce cercarial emission, thus determining infection following the “classical” detection method. Snail tissue was then removed and fixed for the duplex PCR. After obtaining ITS rDNA sequences, four species-specific primers were designed for each snail-trematode system, and duplex PCR prevalence was determined for each sample. Results from both methods were statistically compared using the McNemar’s Chi-squared test and Cohen’s Kappa Statistic for agreement between outcomes. Results Overall infection prevalences determined by duplex PCR were consistently and substantially higher than those based on cercarial shedding: among Ebro samples, between 17.9% and 60.1% more snails were found infected using the molecular method, whereas in the Otago samples, the difference was between 9.9% and 20.6%. Kappa values generally indicated a fair to substantial agreement between both detection methods, showing a lower agreement for the Ebro samples. Conclusions We demonstrate that molecular detection of single and double infections by

  10. The Prevalence and Incidence of Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women in Primary Care Practices

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Therese; Fisher, Bonnie S; Regan, Saundra; Pabst, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Objective Identify the incidence and prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in women over 55 years of age in primary care offices. Design Telephone survey conducted between March and June 2003 by trained female interviewers who gathered self-report information about health and abuse. Patients A total of 3,636 women over 55 years of age had at least 1 visit in the past 12 months to primary care offices affiliated with an academic center in Southwestern Ohio were contacted by phone; 995 were deemed competent and completed the interview. Intervention/Instrument Thirty-eight page instrument that explored health, history of psychological (controlling behavior and threat of physical harm), physical, and sexual abuse since age 55 years. Interviews lasted 20 to 45 min. Main Results The mean age was 69 years (SD 8.35). Physical abuse in intimate relationships was reported by 1.52% since age 55 years (prevalence) and 0.41% in the past year (incidence). Prevalence and incidence rates for sexual abuse were 2.14% and 1.12%, threat of physical harm 2.63% and 1.62%, respectively. Less than half of the victims told someone else about the abuse. The mean number of health conditions was 3.84 for victims and 3.21 for nonvictims (P<.055) with significantly larger percentages of IPV victims reporting problems with chronic pain and depression. Conclusions Physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner does occur in women over 55 years, but rates are lower than those of younger women. Health care providers are reminded to think about IP